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Sample records for body mass indices

  1. Indications for primary cesarean delivery relative to body mass index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakita, Tetsuya; Reddy, Uma M.; Landy, Helain J.; Iqbal, Sara N.; Huang, Chun-Chih; Grantz, Katherine L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity is a known risk factor for cesarean delivery. Limited data are available regarding the reasons for the increased rate of primary cesarean in obese women. It is important to identify the factors leading to an increased risk of cesarean to identify opportunities to reduce the primary cesarean rate. Objective We evaluated indications for primary cesarean across body mass index kg/m2 classes to identify the factors contributing to the increase rate of cesarean among obese women. Study design In the Consortium of Safe Labor study between 2002 and 2008, we calculated indications for primary cesarean including failure to progress or cephalopelvic disproportion, non-reassuring fetal heart tracing, malpresentation, elective, hypertensive disease, multiple gestation, placenta previa or vasa previa, failed induction, human immunodeficiency virus or active herpes simplex virus, history of uterine scar, fetal indication, placental abruption, chorioamnionitis, macrosomia, and failed operative delivery. For women with primary cesarean for failure to progress or cephalopelvic disproportion, dilation at the last recorded cervical examination was evaluated. Women were categorized according to body mass index on admission: normal weight (18.5-24.9), overweight (25.0-29.9), obese class I (30.0-34.9), II (35.0-39.9), and III (≥40). Cochran-Armitage Trend Test and Chi-square tests were performed. Results Of 66,502 nulliparous and 76,961 multiparous women in the study population, 19,431 nulliparous (29.2%) and 7,329 multiparous women (9.5%) underwent primary cesarean. Regardless of parity, malpresentation, failure to progress or cephalopelvic disproportion, and non-reassuring fetal heart tracing were the common indications for primary cesarean. Regardless of parity, the rates of primary cesarean for failure to progress or cephalopelvic disproportion increased with increasing body mass index (normal weight, class I, II and III obesity in nulliparous: 33.2%, 41.6%, 46

  2. Agreement and association between different indicators of body image and body mass index in adolescents.

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    Santos, Carla Fernandez Dos; Castro, Inês Rugani Ribeiro de; Cardoso, Letícia de Oliveira; Tavares, Letícia Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the correlation among different indicators of body image; between each one of these and nutritional status; and the association of these indicators with the Body Mass Index (BMI) of adolescents. A random sample of 152 students from public and private schools in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, was studied. On four occasions, two silhouette scales and two questions regarding the opinion of the student about his/her body and weight were applied and weight and height were measured. The BMI was examined both as a continuous and as a categorical variable. The agreement between the variables was analyzed using the quadratic weighted Kappa statistics. The association between body image variables and BMI was examined by the comparison among median, mean, standard deviation and 95% confidence interval of BMI for each category of the body image variables. In general, the correlation among the body image variables ranged from reasonable to good; between these and the variable nutritional status, correlation ranged from regular to reasonable. Best results were observed among boys and students from private schools. All body image variables showed good discriminatory power for BMI, when it was analyzed as a continuous variable, even when controlling for potential confounders. The question about body seems to be better than that about weight to compose the questionnaire of a surveillance system for risk and protective factors for adolescent health.

  3. Prevalence of raised body mass indices and the association with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-06-11

    Jun 11, 2013 ... prevalence rate from age < 20 to the age group 50-59 year-olds. High BP prevalence rates remained high when overweight and hyperglycaemia prevalence rates decreased from the age of 60. Prevalence rate relationships between age, obesity, total high BP and hyperglycaemia for females are indicated ...

  4. Body mass index and skinfolds as indicators of obesity in schoolchildren aged 8 to 10 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Selvatici Borges Januário

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2008v10n3p266 The aim of this study was to compare the concordance of two obesity indicators, BMI and % body fat in boys and girls. Therefore, 100 girls and 100 boys, with ages ranging from 8 to 10 years, were submitted to anthropometric measurements for subsequent calculation of Body Mass Index (BMI and % body fat, both as obesity indicators. The variables were analyzed with relation to the reference criteria proposed by Williams et al and Cole et al. The results were then analyzed with the kappa index, elucidating that 79% of the boys and 85% of the girls were classified simultaneously by both procedures. The kappa index indicated a moderate agreement between the two obesity indicators for obese and non-obese classification. However, our data demonstrated that 21% of the boys and 15% of the girls showed normal weight according to BMI, but were classified as obese according to the % body fat. The results show that BMI, when compared with skinfolds, had moderate agreement in children from 8 to 10 years old for detecting obesity.

  5. Implications of the Revised Consensus Body Mass Indices for Asian Indians on Clinical Obstetric Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Aziz, Nuzhat; Kallur, Sailaja Devi; Nirmalan, Praveen Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: The body mass index (BMI) categories for Asian Indians has been revised based on consensus guidelines. The revised guidelines categorize overweight as a BMI of 23.0 – 24.9 and obesity as a BMI≥25.

  6. Role of lean body mass for estimation of glomerular filtration rate in patients with chronic kidney disease with various body mass indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmen, Sehmus; Kaplan, Mehmet Ali; Kaya, Halil; Akin, Davut; Danis, Ramazan; Kizilkan, Berfin; Yazanel, Orhan

    2009-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is the main tool used to diagnose, treat and follow up renal diseases. Age, gender, ethnicity and obesity all affect the relationship between serum creatinine, muscle mass/body weight and GFR. This study aimed to investigate the role of lean body mass for GFR estimation in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) with various body mass indices. In total, 110 Caucasian adult subjects with CKD referred for GFR measurement by (99m)Tc-DTPA renography were enrolled in the study. The patients were categorized according to body mass index values: 30 kg/m(2) (obese). Lean body mass (LBM) and fat mass were measured by leg-to-leg bioimpedance. Predictive factors were identified by linear regression analysis in each group. GFR measured by DTPA, creatinine clearance, Cockcroft and Gault, and Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (four-variable) equations was 37+/-27, 42+/-30, 42+/-27, and 49+/-35 ml/min/1.73 m(2), respectively. The predictive role of 1/SCr, age, serum albumin, amount of proteinuria, LBM and fat mass was investigated all groups. None of the factors was significant in underweight and healthy weight groups except for 1/serum creatinine (SCr). LBM/SCr was an independent predictive factor for both overweight and obese groups. 1/SCr accounted for 96.2% of the variability in measured GFR for underweight subjects but only 58.1% of the variability in GFR of obese subjects. The formulae derived from SCr should be used cautiously in overweight and obese subjects. LBM measured by bioimpedance was an independent predictive factor of GFR in obese/overweight subjects and added clinically important diagnostic value to 1/SCr. It needs to be investigated as a parameter in further studies attempting to develop formulae for estimating GFR in larger obese and overweight populations.

  7. Indications for primary cesarean delivery relative to body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakita, Tetsuya; Reddy, Uma M; Landy, Helain J; Iqbal, Sara N; Huang, Chun-Chih; Grantz, Katherine L

    2016-10-01

    Obesity is a known risk factor for cesarean delivery. Limited data are available regarding the reasons for the increased rate of primary cesarean in obese women. It is important to identify the factors leading to an increased risk of cesarean to identify opportunities to reduce the primary cesarean rate. We evaluated indications for primary cesarean across body mass index (kg/m(2)) classes to identify the factors contributing to the increased rate of cesarean among obese women. In the Consortium of Safe Labor study from 2002 through 2008, we calculated indications for primary cesarean including failure to progress or cephalopelvic disproportion, nonreassuring fetal heart tracing, malpresentation, elective, hypertensive disease, multiple gestation, placenta previa or vasa previa, failed induction, HIV or active herpes simplex virus, history of uterine scar, fetal indication, placental abruption, chorioamnionitis, macrosomia, and failed operative delivery. For women with primary cesarean for failure to progress or cephalopelvic disproportion, dilation at the last recorded cervical examination was evaluated. Women were categorized according to body mass index on admission: normal weight (18.5-24.9), overweight (25.0-29.9), and obese classes I (30.0-34.9), II (35.0-39.9), and III (≥40). Cochran-Armitage trend test and χ(2) tests were performed. Of 66,502 nulliparous and 76,961 multiparous women in the study population, 19,431 nulliparous (29.2%) and 7329 multiparous (9.5%) women underwent primary cesarean. Regardless of parity, malpresentation, failure to progress or cephalopelvic disproportion, and nonreassuring fetal heart tracing were the common indications for primary cesarean. Regardless of parity, the rates of primary cesarean for failure to progress or cephalopelvic disproportion increased with increasing body mass index (normal weight, overweight, and classes I, II, and III obesity in nulliparous women: 33.2%, 41.6%, 46.4%, 47.4%, and 48.9% [P cesarean for

  8. Body mass index and skinfolds as indicators of obesity in schoolchildren aged 8 to 10 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Buraneli Mantoan

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the concordance of two obesity indicators, BMI and % body fat in boys and girls. Therefore, 100 girls and 100 boys, with ages ranging from 8 to 10 years, were submitted to anthropometric measurements for subsequent calculation of Body Mass Index (BMI and % body fat, both as obesity indicators. The variables were analyzed with relation to the reference criteria proposed by Williams et al and Cole et al. The results were then analyzed with the kappa index, elucidating that 79% of the boys and 85% of the girls were classified simultaneously by both procedures. The kappa index indicated a moderate agreement between the two obesity indicators for obese and non-obese classification. However, our data demonstrated that 21% of the boys and 15% of the girls showed normal weight according to BMI, but were classified as obese according to the % body fat. The results show that BMI, when compared with skinfolds, had moderate agreement in children from 8 to 10 years old for detecting obesity. ResumoO objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a concordância entre dois indicadores de obesidade, IMC e percentual de gordura, em escolares de ambos os sexos. Para tanto, 100 meninas e 100 meninos de 8 a 10 anos, alunos do ensino fundamental do município de Londrina, foram submetidos a medidas antropométricas para subseqüente cálculo do Índice de Massa Corporal (IMC e percentual de gordura como indicadores de obesidade. As variáveis foram analisadas em relação aos critérios de referência apresentados por Williams et al e Cole et al. Os resultados foram analisados pelo índice Kappa, evidenciando que 79% dos meninos e 85% das meninas foram classificados simultaneamente pelos dois procedimentos. Uma concordância moderada entre os dois indicadores de obesidade na classificação para meninos e meninas foi evidenciada (kappa=0,43 e 0,50, respectivamente. Entretanto, os dados encontrados demonstraram que 21% dos meninos e 15% das

  9. Dietary intakes and body mass indices of non-pregnant, non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data were collected using various methods namely intervieweradministered socio-demographic questionnaire, 24hr dietary recall records, with data collected on one working and one non-working day within a week, and a 1-week food frequency questionnaire. Body mass index was derived from height and weight ...

  10. Beyond Body Mass Index: Using Anthropometric Measures and Body Composition Indicators to Assess Odds of an Endometriosis Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backonja, Uba; Hediger, Mary L; Chen, Zhen; Lauver, Diane R; Sun, Liping; Peterson, C Matthew; Buck Louis, Germaine M

    2017-09-01

    Body mass index (BMI) and endometriosis have been inversely associated. To address gaps in this research, we examined associations among body composition, endometriosis, and physical activity. Women from 14 clinical sites in the Salt Lake City, Utah and San Francisco, California areas and scheduled for laparoscopy/laparotomy were recruited during 2007-2009. Participants (N = 473) underwent standardized anthropometric assessments to estimate body composition before surgery. Using a cross-sectional design, odds of an endometriosis diagnosis (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]; 95% confidence interval [CI]) were calculated for anthropometric and body composition measures (weight in kg; height in cm; mid upper arm, waist, hip, and chest circumferences in cm; subscapular, suprailiac, and triceps skinfold thicknesses in mm; arm muscle and fat areas in cm 2 ; centripetal fat, chest-to-waist, chest-to-hip, waist-to-hip, and waist-to-height ratios; arm fat index; and BMI in kg/m 2 ). Physical activity (metabolic equivalent of task-minutes/week) and sedentariness (average minutes sitting on a weekday) were assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form. Measures were modeled continuously and in quartiles based on sample estimates. Adjusted models were controlled for age (years, continuous), site (Utah/California), smoking history (never, former, or current smoker), and income (below, within 180%, and above of the poverty line). Findings were standardized by dividing variables by their respective standard deviations. We used adjusted models to examine whether odds of an endometriosis diagnosis were moderated by physical activity or sedentariness. Inverse relationships were observed between endometriosis and standardized: weight (aOR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.57-0.88); subscapular skinfold thickness (aOR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.65-0.98); waist and hip circumferences (aOR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.64-0.98 and aOR = 0.76, 95% CI 0.61-0.94, respectively); total

  11. Body weight as an indicator of fat-free mass in active elderly women.

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    Sonati, Jaqueline G; Modeneze, Dênis M; Vilarta, Roberto; Maciel, Erika S; Boccaletto, Estela M A

    2011-04-01

    Fat-free mass (FFM) reduction and the tendency for a reduction in surrounding fatty issue and increase in the middle are a natural consequence of growing old and should be studied in order to gain a better understanding of the aging process. This study set out to find the FFM differences between active elderly women in two age groups (60-69 and 70-80 years) and to determine which of the anthropometric measurements, body weight (BW), abdominal circumference (AC), or body mass index (BMI) are the best predictors of FFM variation within the group. Eighty-one (n=81) active elderly women of the Third Age willingly signed up to participate in the research during the activities at the University of the Third Age (UTA) in Brazil. The research was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Medical Sciences of the State University of Campinas (UNICAMP). Body weight (BW), height (H) and the BMI were measured according to the international standards. The AC was measured in centimetres at the H of the navel and body composition was ascertained using bioimpedance analysis. The SAS program was used to perform the statistical analysis of independent samples and parametric data. The results showed FFM values with significant differences between the two groups, with the lowest values occurring among the women who were over 70 years of age. In the analysis, the Pearson's Correlation Coefficient for each measured independent variable was ascertained, with the BW measurement showing the highest ratio (0.900). The BW measurement was regarded as reliable, low-cost and easy to use for monitoring FFM in elderly women who engage in physical activities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Body mass in comparative primatology.

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    Smith, R J; Jungers, W L

    1997-06-01

    Data are presented on adult body mass for 230 of 249 primate species, based on a review of the literature and previously unpublished data. The issues involved in collecting data on adult body mass are discussed, including the definition of adults, the effects of habitat and pregnancy, the strategy for pooling data on single species from multiple studies, and use of an appropriate number of significant figures. An analysis of variability in body mass indicates that the coefficient of variation for body mass increases with increasing species mean mass. Evaluation of several previous body mass reviews reveals a number of shortcomings with data that have been used often in comparative studies.

  13. Body mass and risk of complications after hysterectomy on benign indications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Daugbjerg, Signe; Frederiksen, Birgitte Lidegaard

    2011-01-01

    referrals for benign indications in Denmark from 2004 to 2009. Logistic regression was used to investigate relationship between BMI and complications reported at surgery or during the first 30 days after surgery. RESULTS; Of the 20 353 women with complete data, 6.0% had a BMI ...BACKGROUND: This study examines BMI in relation to risk of complications after hysterectomy on benign indications, and explores whether any associations vary by route of surgery. METHODS: In this cohort study, we included data on health and lifestyle collected prospectively for all hysterectomy...... between 25 and 30 kg/m(2) (classified as overweight) and 17.5% with a BMI = 30 kg/m(2) (categorized as obese). The overall rate of complications was 17.6%, with bleeding being the most common specific complication (6.8%). After adjustment for age, ethnicity, education, indication for surgery, uterus...

  14. Body mass index and adiposity indicators associated with cardiovascular biomarkers in youth with type 1 diabetes followed prospectively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsky, L M; Gee, B; Liu, A; Nansel, T R

    2017-12-01

    The impact of excess weight on cardiovascular disease risk in type 1 diabetes patients is unclear. This study examined associations of BMI and body composition with cardiovascular risk factors in youth followed prospectively for 18 months. The sample includes youth with type 1 diabetes (N = 136, baseline age = 12.3 ± 2.5y, glycated hemoglobin = 8.1 ± 1.1%) participating in an 18-month behavioral nutrition intervention trial. BMI, body composition (by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C); triglycerides (TG), c-reactive protein (CRP), 8-iso-prostaglandin-F2alpha (8-iso-PGF2α), adiponectin and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP, respectively) were assessed at clinic visits every 6 months. Random effects regression models for repeated measures estimated associations of time-varying BMI and body composition with time-varying cardiovascular risk factors, adjusted for treatment assignment and covariates. There was no intervention effect on cardiovascular risk factors. Percent body fat was positively associated with TG, LDL-C, CRP, SBP and DBP, while trunk fat mass and trunk %fat were associated positively with TG, LDL-C, CRP, SBP and DBP, and inversely with HDL-C. Higher BMI was associated with greater TG, CRP, SBP and DBP and lower HDL-C. BMI and body composition indicators were unrelated to 8-iso-PGF2α and adiponectin. Excess adiposity is associated with increased cardiovascular risk factors in this sample of youth with type 1 diabetes. Non-significant associations with adiponectin and 8-iso-PGF2α suggest potential differences from the general population in the role of adiposity in cardiovascular health. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  15. Body mass index and blood cell indices in students of Para-medical Faculty, Babol University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahnaz Sadighian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Approximately one-third of the world's population suffers from anemia. Anemia in adults causes irritability, impaired mental focus, difficulty in daily activities, and sleep. Body mass index (BMI is an indicator of nutritional status in adults. The current study aimed to assess the body mass index and blood indices of students in local domain. Materials and methods:   This cross-sectional study was performed on the students of Babol University of Medical Sciences. BMI value was obtained based on weight and height for each case.  Cell blood count was also carried out for each participant. Hemoglobin of less than 12 g/dl and 13g/dl were considered as anemia in females and males, respectively. Results: Of 312 sample students, 212 cases were female and 100 were male. The average BMI and hemoglobin were 22.8 kg/m2 and 14 g/dl, respectively. Fifty-five (17.6% students were anemic. Also, the analysis of distribution of BMI measurement by gender showed that being underweight was more prevalent in females (9.4% in comparison with males (5%. The highest prevalence rate of anemia was observed in the cases that had BMI ≥ 25. Overall, not any significant statistical difference was observed between BMI and anemia. Conclusion: With regard to the results, overweight and obesity were associated with a lower probability of anemia in students. It was also revealed that anemia and emaciation, mainly observed in female students, should be considered as major issues for health care system. Thus, public health intervention was suggested to be performed so as to prevent combined micronutrient deficiencies and obesity. An investigation of the potential causes of this phenomenon was also recommended.

  16. Indicator for success of obesity reduction programs in adolescents: Body composition or body mass index? evaluating a school-based health promotion project after 12 weeks of intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Kalantari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity in adolescence is the strongest risk factor for obesity in adulthood. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a comprehensive lifestyle intervention on different anthropometric indices in 12–16-year-old boy adolescents after 12 Weeks of Intervention. Methods: A total of 96 male adolescents from two schools participated in this study. The schools were randomly assigned to intervention (53 students and control school (43 students. Height and weight of students were measured and their body mass index (BMI was calculated. Body fat percent (BF and body muscle percent (BM was assessed using a bioimpedance analyzer considering the age, gender, and height of students at baseline and after intervention. The obesity reduction intervention was implemented in the intervention school based on the Ottawa charter for health promotion. Results: Twelve weeks of intervention decreased BF percent in the intervention group in comparison with the control group (decreased by 1.81% in the intervention group and increased by 0.39% in the control group, P < 0.01. However, weight, BMI, and BM did not change significantly. Conclusions: The result of this study showed that a comprehensive lifestyle intervention decreased the body fat percent in obese adolescents, although these changes was not reflected in the BMI. It is possible that BMI is not a good indicator in assessment of the success of obesity management intervention.

  17. Indicator for Success of Obesity Reduction Programs in Adolescents: Body Composition or Body Mass Index? Evaluating a School-based Health Promotion Project after 12 Weeks of Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantari, Naser; Mohammadi, Nastaran Keshavarz; Rafieifar, Shahram; Eini-Zinab, Hassan; Aminifard, Atefeh; Malmir, Hanieh; Ashoori, Narjes; Abdi, Sheyda; Gholamalizadeh, Maryam; Doaei, Saeid

    2017-01-01

    Obesity in adolescence is the strongest risk factor for obesity in adulthood. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a comprehensive lifestyle intervention on different anthropometric indices in 12-16-year-old boy adolescents after 12 Weeks of Intervention. A total of 96 male adolescents from two schools participated in this study. The schools were randomly assigned to intervention (53 students) and control school (43 students). Height and weight of students were measured and their body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Body fat percent (BF) and body muscle percent (BM) was assessed using a bioimpedance analyzer considering the age, gender, and height of students at baseline and after intervention. The obesity reduction intervention was implemented in the intervention school based on the Ottawa charter for health promotion. Twelve weeks of intervention decreased BF percent in the intervention group in comparison with the control group (decreased by 1.81% in the intervention group and increased by 0.39% in the control group, P success of obesity management intervention.

  18. Rates of dinosaur body mass evolution indicate 170 million years of sustained ecological innovation on the avian stem lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Roger B J; Campione, Nicolás E; Carrano, Matthew T; Mannion, Philip D; Sullivan, Corwin; Upchurch, Paul; Evans, David C

    2014-05-01

    Large-scale adaptive radiations might explain the runaway success of a minority of extant vertebrate clades. This hypothesis predicts, among other things, rapid rates of morphological evolution during the early history of major groups, as lineages invade disparate ecological niches. However, few studies of adaptive radiation have included deep time data, so the links between extant diversity and major extinct radiations are unclear. The intensively studied Mesozoic dinosaur record provides a model system for such investigation, representing an ecologically diverse group that dominated terrestrial ecosystems for 170 million years. Furthermore, with 10,000 species, extant dinosaurs (birds) are the most speciose living tetrapod clade. We assembled composite trees of 614-622 Mesozoic dinosaurs/birds, and a comprehensive body mass dataset using the scaling relationship of limb bone robustness. Maximum-likelihood modelling and the node height test reveal rapid evolutionary rates and a predominance of rapid shifts among size classes in early (Triassic) dinosaurs. This indicates an early burst niche-filling pattern and contrasts with previous studies that favoured gradualistic rates. Subsequently, rates declined in most lineages, which rarely exploited new ecological niches. However, feathered maniraptoran dinosaurs (including Mesozoic birds) sustained rapid evolution from at least the Middle Jurassic, suggesting that these taxa evaded the effects of niche saturation. This indicates that a long evolutionary history of continuing ecological innovation paved the way for a second great radiation of dinosaurs, in birds. We therefore demonstrate links between the predominantly extinct deep time adaptive radiation of non-avian dinosaurs and the phenomenal diversification of birds, via continuing rapid rates of evolution along the phylogenetic stem lineage. This raises the possibility that the uneven distribution of biodiversity results not just from large-scale extrapolation of

  19. Rates of Dinosaur Body Mass Evolution Indicate 170 Million Years of Sustained Ecological Innovation on the Avian Stem Lineage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Roger B. J.; Campione, Nicolás E.; Carrano, Matthew T.; Mannion, Philip D.; Sullivan, Corwin; Upchurch, Paul; Evans, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale adaptive radiations might explain the runaway success of a minority of extant vertebrate clades. This hypothesis predicts, among other things, rapid rates of morphological evolution during the early history of major groups, as lineages invade disparate ecological niches. However, few studies of adaptive radiation have included deep time data, so the links between extant diversity and major extinct radiations are unclear. The intensively studied Mesozoic dinosaur record provides a model system for such investigation, representing an ecologically diverse group that dominated terrestrial ecosystems for 170 million years. Furthermore, with 10,000 species, extant dinosaurs (birds) are the most speciose living tetrapod clade. We assembled composite trees of 614–622 Mesozoic dinosaurs/birds, and a comprehensive body mass dataset using the scaling relationship of limb bone robustness. Maximum-likelihood modelling and the node height test reveal rapid evolutionary rates and a predominance of rapid shifts among size classes in early (Triassic) dinosaurs. This indicates an early burst niche-filling pattern and contrasts with previous studies that favoured gradualistic rates. Subsequently, rates declined in most lineages, which rarely exploited new ecological niches. However, feathered maniraptoran dinosaurs (including Mesozoic birds) sustained rapid evolution from at least the Middle Jurassic, suggesting that these taxa evaded the effects of niche saturation. This indicates that a long evolutionary history of continuing ecological innovation paved the way for a second great radiation of dinosaurs, in birds. We therefore demonstrate links between the predominantly extinct deep time adaptive radiation of non-avian dinosaurs and the phenomenal diversification of birds, via continuing rapid rates of evolution along the phylogenetic stem lineage. This raises the possibility that the uneven distribution of biodiversity results not just from large-scale extrapolation

  20. Body Mass Index Is Better than Other Anthropometric Indices for Identifying Dyslipidemia in Chinese Children with Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanna; Shao, Zixian; Jing, Jin; Ma, Jun; Chen, Yajun; Li, Xiuhong; Yang, Wenhan; Guo, Li; Jin, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) are used in screening and predicting obesity in adults. However, the best identifier of metabolic complications in children with obesity remains unclear. This study evaluated lipid profile distribution and investigated the best anthropometric parameter in association with lipid disorders in children with obesity. A total of 2243 school children aged 7-17 years were enrolled in Guangzhou, China, in 2014. The anthropometric indices and lipid profiles were measured. Dyslipidemia was defined according to the US Guidelines for Cardiovascular Health and Risk Reduction in Children and Adolescents. The association between anthropometry (BMI, WC, and WHR) and lipid profile values was examined using chi-square analysis and discriminant function analysis. Information about demography, physical activity, and dietary intake was provided by the participant children and their parents. Children aged 10-14 and 15-17 years old generally had higher triglyceride values but lower median concentration of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared with children aged 7-9 years old (all P children aged 10-14 years old. The combination of age groups, BMI, WC and WHR achieved 65.1% accuracy in determining dyslipidemic disorders. BMI correctly identified 77% of the total dyslipidemic disorders in obese children, which was higher than that by WHR (70.8%) (Pchildren differed between younger and older age groups, and the tendency of these lipid levels remarkably fluctuated during 10 to 14 years old. BMI had better practical utility in identifying dyslipidemia among school-aged children with obesity compared with other anthropometric measures.

  1. Body Mass Index Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Families ( We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Body Mass Index Table 1 for BMI greater than 35, go ... Health Information Email Alerts Jobs and Careers Site Index About NHLBI National Institute of Health Department of ...

  2. Calculate Your Body Mass Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can! ) Health Professional Resources Calculate Your Body Mass Index Body mass index (BMI) is a measure of body fat based ... Health Information Email Alerts Jobs and Careers Site Index About NHLBI National Institute of Health Department of ...

  3. Interactive role of physical activity and body mass indices levels on cognitive function and psychological well-being of the elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Shamsipour Dehkordi P; Mootabadi M

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims: The elderly tend to perform daily physical activity and exercise has reduced and this leads to an increase in obesity in this stratum of society. This study aimed to investigate interactive role of physical activity and body mass indices levels on cognitive function and psychological well-being of the elderly. Methods: The study is causal-comparative method. The subjects were 200 elderly women aged 60 years and above and the inclusion criteria were selected. The subjec...

  4. Comparison of foot-to-foot and hand-to-foot bioelectrical impedance methods in a population with a wide range of body mass indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Claudia; Ménard, Julie; Bourbonnais, Annie; Ardilouze, Jean-Luc; Baillargeon, Jean-Patrice; Carpentier, André C; Langlois, Marie-France

    2010-10-01

    Several techniques are currently used for measurement of body composition. Bioelectrical impedance assessment (BIA) is a simple, noninvasive method of assessing body composition. We aimed to compare multifrequency hand-to-foot (HF-BIA) and foot-to-foot (FF-BIA) bioelectrical impedance analysis techniques to assess fat-free mass (FFM) in a population with a wide range of body mass indices (BMI). This was a cross-sectional study of 198 adult subjects. Anthropometric and BIA measures (HF-BIA with Hydra ICF/ECF, Xitron Technologies and FF-BIA with Tanita, model TBF-300A) were recorded after a 12-h fast. Participants had a mean age of 42 years and BMI of 33.50.7 (range, 17.7-65.6) kg/m2. Mean FFM with HF-BIA (FFM BIA/HF) and FF-BIA (FFM BIA/FF) were 61.31.3 kg and 58.10.9 kg, respectively (P 42 kg/m2 (-8.0 kg; P=0.001). Pearson correlations between both methods were very high for FFM (r=0.92), fat mass (r=0.91), and % fat mass (r=0.85), all Pobese subjects.

  5. Body Mass Index and Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Kaae; Olsen, Tom Skyhøj

    2013-01-01

    Although obesity is associated with excess mortality and morbidity, mortality is lower in obese than in normal weight stroke patients (the obesity paradox). Studies now indicate that obesity is not associated with increased risk of recurrent stroke in the years after first stroke. We studied the ...... the association between body mass index (BMI) and stroke patient's risk of having a history of previous stroke (recurrent stroke)....

  6. Factors that Alter Body Fat, Body Mass, and Fat-Free Mass in Pediatric Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMura, Linda M.; Maziekas, Michael T.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effects of exercise programs on changes in body mass, fat-free mass, and body fat in obese children and adolescents. Research review indicated that exercise effectively helped reduce children's and adolescents' body composition variables. The most favorable body alterations occurred with low- intensity, long-duration exercise;…

  7. Indicators of clinical significance among women in the community with binge-eating disorder symptoms: Delineating the roles of binge frequency, body mass index, and overvaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchison, Deborah; Rieger, Elizabeth; Harrison, Carmel; Murray, Stuart B; Griffiths, Scott; Mond, Jonathan

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relative contributions of binge eating, body image disturbance, and body mass index (BMI) to distress and disability in binge-eating disorder (BED). A community sample of 174 women with BED-type symptomatology provided demographic, weight, and height information, and completed measures of overvaluation of weight/shape and binge eating, general psychological distress and impairment in role functioning. Correlation and regression analyses examined the associations between predictors (binge eating, overvaluation, BMI), and outcomes (distress, functional impairment). Binge eating and overvaluation were moderately to strongly correlated with distress and functional impairment, whereas BMI was not correlated with distress and only weakly correlated with functional impairment. Regression analysis indicated that both overvaluation and binge eating were strong and unique predictors of both distress and impairment, the contribution of overvaluation to variance in functional impairment being particularly strong, whereas BMI did not uniquely predict functional impairment or distress. The findings support the inclusion of overvaluation as a diagnostic criterion or specifier in BED and the need to focus on body image disturbance in treatment and public health efforts in order to reduce the individual and community health burden of this condition. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Risk Stratification of Body Mass Index

    OpenAIRE

    B L Preethi; G Jaisri

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Body Mass Index (BMI) is the simplest and commonly used method of measuring obesity in a general population. BMI has its limitations as it does not directly measure body fat, it is an indicator of heaviness rather than fatness, and cannot distinguish body fat from fat-free mass. Highly sensitive C reactive protein (hs CRP) has been found to be increased in subjects with central obesity and it may be useful in sub classifying BMI. Objective: To investigate the relationsh...

  9. Hormonal State Comparison (Progesterone, Estradiol, and Leptin) of Body Fat and Body Mass Indices in Mexican Women as a Risk Factor for Neonatal Physiologic Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Moreno, Magdalena; Galicia-Castillo, Oscar R; Aguilera-Reyes, Ulises; Varea-González, Carlos; Bernis-Carro, Cristina; García-López, Georgina I

    2015-06-01

    Describe the impact of teen pregnancy on later ovarian activity and metabolic hormones considering the concentration of current levels of ovarian steroids and leptin in a sample of Mexican females. Cross-sectional study in the maternity of the General Hospital of Atlacomulco and campus of the Autonomous University of the State of Mexico. 71 women between the ages of 18 and 24, and 160 neonates seen between March 2010 and June 2012. The measurements obtained included anthropometric body composition (bioelectrical impedance), serum hormone quantification of ovarian steroids and leptin (immunoassays), and the Apgar scores, height, and weight in neonates. Statistical analysis included ANOVA, Student, and chi-square for P weights (P = .001) and Apgar scores (P = .001) were lower in neonates of adolescent mothers than in neonates of adult mothers. There was no association between maternal age with the anthropometric variables studied. Early reproduction represents a metabolic stress condition that modifies the long term ovarian activity and metabolic hormones, and impacts the morbidity-mortality of the mother and offspring in a later vital life cycle stage. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessing cardiometabolic risk in middle-aged adults using body mass index and waist-height ratio: are two indices better than one? A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Seán R; Perry, Ivan J; Phillips, Catherine M

    2015-01-01

    A novel obesity classification method has been proposed using body mass index (BMI) and waist-height ratio (WHtR) together. However, the utility of this approach is unclear. In this study we compare the metabolic profiles in subjects defined as overweight or obese by both measures. We examine a range of metabolic syndrome features, pro-inflammatory cytokines, acute-phase response proteins, coagulation factors and white blood cell counts to determine whether a combination of both indices more accurately identifies individuals at increased obesity-related cardiometabolic risk. This was a cross-sectional study involving a random sample of 1856 men and women aged 46-73 years. Metabolic and anthropometric profiles were assessed. Linear and logistic regression analyses were used to compare lipid, lipoprotein, blood pressure, glycaemic and inflammatory biomarker levels between BMI and WHtR tertiles. Multinomial logistic regression was performed to determine cardiometabolic risk feature associations with BMI and WHtR groupings. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to evaluate index discriminatory ability. The combination of BMI and WHtR tertiles identified consistent metabolic variable differences relative to those characterised on the basis of one index. Similarly, odds ratios of having cardiometabolic risk features were noticeably increased in subjects classified as overweight or obese by both measures when compared to study participants categorised by either BMI or WHtR separately. Significant discriminatory improvement was observed for detecting individual cardiometabolic risk features and adverse biomarker levels. In a fully adjusted model, only individuals within the highest tertile for both indices displayed a significant and positive association with pre-diabetes, OR: 3.4 (95 % CI: 1.9, 6.0), P < 0.001. These data provide evidence that the use of BMI and WHtR together may improve body fat classification. Risk stratification using a

  11. Systematic review of physical activity and exercise interventions on body mass indices, subsequent physical activity and psychological symptoms in overweight and obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruotsalainen, Heidi; Kyngäs, Helvi; Tammelin, Tuija; Kääriäinen, Maria

    2015-11-01

    To examine the effects of physical activity and exercise interventions on body mass index, subsequent physical activity and psychological symptoms for overweight and obese adolescents (12-18 years). Overweight and obesity have increased among adolescents globally and physical activity has decreased. Healthcare systems face challenges promoting physical activity and in treating obesity. Promotion of physical activity must be effective and school nurses should be equipped with the information and resources required to implement counselling for overweight and obese adolescents. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials was conducted according to procedures by the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination and the Joanna Briggs Institute. Research studies published between 1950-2013 were identified from the following databases. CINAHL, MEDLINE (Ovid) and PsycINFO. Selected studies were reviewed for quality and a risk-of-bias assessment was conducted for the included studies. A narrative synthesis was used to report results, while a fixed-effect meta-analysis was used to analyse the interventions effects on physical activity and body mass index. Fourteen published studies were included to this review. Supervised exercise interventions most affected adolescents' body mass index. The interventions effect on adolescents' physical activity was small and heterogeneous. Two interventions positively affected psychological symptoms. Interventions were complex, with more than one component and the aspect that effectively promotes physical activity in obese adolescents was not clear. However, it seems that exercise interventions affect the body mass index of overweight or obese adolescents. Interventions that include a component for promoting physical activity with or without supervised exercise can affect subsequent physical activity and body mass index. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Total body irradiation: current indications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, P.; Danhier, S.; Dubray, B.; Cosset, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The choice of dose and fractionation for total body irradiation is made difficult by the large number of considerations to be taken into account. The outcome of bone marrow transplantation after total body irradiation can be understood in terms of tumor cell killing, engraftment, and normal tissue damage, each of these endpoints being influenced by irradiation-, disease-, transplant-, and patient- related factors. Interpretation of clinical data is further hampered by the overwhelming influence of logistic constraints, the small numbers of randomized studies, and the concomitant variations in total dose and fraction size or dose rate. So far, three cautious conclusions can be drawn in order to tentatively adapt the total body irradiation schedule to clinically-relevant situations. Firstly, the organs at risk for normal tissue damage (lung, liver, lens, kidney) are protected by delivering small doses per fraction at low dose rate. This suggests that, when toxicity is at stake (e.g. in children), fractionated irradiation should be preferred, provided that inter-fraction intervals are long enough. Secondly, fractionated irradiation should be avoided in case of T-cell depleted transplant, given the high risk of graft rejection in this setting. An alternative would be to increase total (or fractional) dose of fractionated total body irradiation, but this approach is likely to induce more normal tissue toxicity. Thirdly, clinical data have shown higher relapse rates in chronic myeloid leukemia after fractionated or low dose rate total body irradiation, suggesting that fractionated irradiation should not be recommended, unless total (or fractional) dose is increased. Total body irradiation-containing regimens, primarily cyclophosphamide / total body irradiation, are either equivalent to or better than the chemotherapy-only regimens, primarily busulfan / cyclophosphamide. Busulfan / cyclophosphamide certainly represents a reasonable alternative, especially in patients who

  13. Allometries of maximum growth rate versus body mass at maximum growth indicate that non-avian dinosaurs had growth rates typical of fast growing ectothermic sauropsids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Werner

    Full Text Available We tested if growth rates of recent taxa are unequivocally separated between endotherms and ectotherms, and compared these to dinosaurian growth rates. We therefore performed linear regression analyses on the log-transformed maximum growth rate against log-transformed body mass at maximum growth for extant altricial birds, precocial birds, eutherians, marsupials, reptiles, fishes and dinosaurs. Regression models of precocial birds (and fishes strongly differed from Case's study (1978, which is often used to compare dinosaurian growth rates to those of extant vertebrates. For all taxonomic groups, the slope of 0.75 expected from the Metabolic Theory of Ecology was statistically supported. To compare growth rates between taxonomic groups we therefore used regressions with this fixed slope and group-specific intercepts. On average, maximum growth rates of ectotherms were about 10 (reptiles to 20 (fishes times (in comparison to mammals or even 45 (reptiles to 100 (fishes times (in comparison to birds lower than in endotherms. While on average all taxa were clearly separated from each other, individual growth rates overlapped between several taxa and even between endotherms and ectotherms. Dinosaurs had growth rates intermediate between similar sized/scaled-up reptiles and mammals, but a much lower rate than scaled-up birds. All dinosaurian growth rates were within the range of extant reptiles and mammals, and were lower than those of birds. Under the assumption that growth rate and metabolic rate are indeed linked, our results suggest two alternative interpretations. Compared to other sauropsids, the growth rates of studied dinosaurs clearly indicate that they had an ectothermic rather than an endothermic metabolic rate. Compared to other vertebrate growth rates, the overall high variability in growth rates of extant groups and the high overlap between individual growth rates of endothermic and ectothermic extant species make it impossible to rule

  14. Allometries of maximum growth rate versus body mass at maximum growth indicate that non-avian dinosaurs had growth rates typical of fast growing ectothermic sauropsids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Jan; Griebeler, Eva Maria

    2014-01-01

    We tested if growth rates of recent taxa are unequivocally separated between endotherms and ectotherms, and compared these to dinosaurian growth rates. We therefore performed linear regression analyses on the log-transformed maximum growth rate against log-transformed body mass at maximum growth for extant altricial birds, precocial birds, eutherians, marsupials, reptiles, fishes and dinosaurs. Regression models of precocial birds (and fishes) strongly differed from Case's study (1978), which is often used to compare dinosaurian growth rates to those of extant vertebrates. For all taxonomic groups, the slope of 0.75 expected from the Metabolic Theory of Ecology was statistically supported. To compare growth rates between taxonomic groups we therefore used regressions with this fixed slope and group-specific intercepts. On average, maximum growth rates of ectotherms were about 10 (reptiles) to 20 (fishes) times (in comparison to mammals) or even 45 (reptiles) to 100 (fishes) times (in comparison to birds) lower than in endotherms. While on average all taxa were clearly separated from each other, individual growth rates overlapped between several taxa and even between endotherms and ectotherms. Dinosaurs had growth rates intermediate between similar sized/scaled-up reptiles and mammals, but a much lower rate than scaled-up birds. All dinosaurian growth rates were within the range of extant reptiles and mammals, and were lower than those of birds. Under the assumption that growth rate and metabolic rate are indeed linked, our results suggest two alternative interpretations. Compared to other sauropsids, the growth rates of studied dinosaurs clearly indicate that they had an ectothermic rather than an endothermic metabolic rate. Compared to other vertebrate growth rates, the overall high variability in growth rates of extant groups and the high overlap between individual growth rates of endothermic and ectothermic extant species make it impossible to rule out either of

  15. Hypocaloric diet supplemented with probiotic cheese improves body mass index and blood pressure indices of obese hypertensive patients - a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Gut lactobacilli can affect the metabolic functions of healthy humans. We tested whether a 1500 kcal/d diet supplemented with cheese containing the probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum TENSIA (Deutsche Sammlung für Mikroorganismen, DSM 21380) could reduce some symptoms of metabolic syndrome in Russian adults with obesity and hypertension. Methods In this 3-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel pilot study, 25 subjects ingested probiotic cheese and 15 ingested control cheese. Fifty grams of each cheese provided 175 kcal of energy. Blood pressure (BP), anthropometric characteristics, markers of liver and kidney function, metabolic indices (plasma glucose, lipids, and cholesterol), and urine polyamines were measured. Counts of fecal lactobacilli and L. plantarum TENSIA were evaluated using molecular methods. The data were analyzed by t-test for independent samples and Spearman’s partial correlation analysis. Results The probiotic L. plantarum TENSIA was present in variable amounts (529.6 ± 232.5 gene copies) in 16/25 (64%) study subjects. Body mass index (BMI) was significantly reduced (p = 0.031) in the probiotic cheese group versus the control cheese group. The changes in BMI were closely associated with the water content of the body (r = 0.570, p = 0.0007) when adjusted for sex and age. Higher values of intestinal lactobacilli after probiotic cheese consumption were associated with higher BMI (r = 0.383, p = 0.0305) and urinary putrescine content (r = 0.475, p = 0.006). In patients simultaneously treated with BP-lowering drugs, similar reductions of BP were observed in both groups. A positive association was detected between TENSIA colonization and the extent of change of morning diastolic BP (r = 0.617, p = 0.0248) and a trend toward lower values of morning systolic BP (r = −0.527, p = 0.0640) at the end of the study after adjusting for BMI, age, and sex. Conclusion In a pilot study of obese hypertensive patients, a hypocaloric

  16. Food frequency questionnaire as an indicator of the serum composition of essential n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in early pregnancy, according to body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepsch, J; Vaz, J S; Moreira, J D; Pinto, T J P; Soares-Mota, M; Kac, G

    2015-02-01

    We investigated whether food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) may be indicative of the serum composition of essential n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in early pregnancy and if correlations are affected by body mass index (BMI). The present study comprised a prospective cohort conducted in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The sample was composed of 248 women, aged 20-40 years, between 6 and the 13 weeks of gestation. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated FFQ. Fatty acid serum compositions were determined in fasting serum samples, employing a high-throughput robotic direct methylation coupled with fast gas-liquid chromatography. Spearman's correlation (r(s)) was used to assess the relationship between fatty acid intake and corresponding serum composition. Women were classified according to BMI (kg m(-2) ) as underweight/normal weight (BMI < 25 kg m(-2) ; n = 139) or excessive weight (BMI ≥ 25 kg m(-2) ; n = 109). In the total sample, dietary report was significantly correlated with the serum composition of total polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA; r(s) = 0.232, P < 0.001), linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n-6; r(s) = 0.271, P < 0.001), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3; r(s) = 0.263, P < 0.001) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3; r(s) = 0.209, P = 0.001). When analyses were stratified by BMI, significant correlations between FFQ and serum composition among underweight/normal weight women were observed for total PUFA (r(s) = 0.323, P < 0.001), LA (r(s) = 0.322, P < 0.001), EPA (r(s) = 0.352, P < 0.001) and DHA (r(s) = 0.176, P = 0.039). Among women of excessive weight, significant correlations were observed only for alpha linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n-3; r(s) = 0.199, P = 0.040) and DHA (r(s) = 0.236, P = 0.014). FFQ in early pregnancy may be used as a possible indicator of serum concentrations of fatty acids. Higher correlations were observed among underweight/normal weight women. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  17. Evaluating the validity of using unverified indices of body condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schamber, J.L.; Esler, Daniel; Flint, P.L.

    2009-01-01

    Condition indices are commonly used in an attempt to link body condition of birds to ecological variables of interest, including demographic attributes such as survival and reproduction. Most indices are based on body mass adjusted for structural body size, calculated as simple ratios or residuals from regressions. However, condition indices are often applied without confirming their predictive value (i.e., without being validated against measured values of fat and protein), which we term 'unverified' use. We evaluated the ability of a number of unverified indices frequently found in the literature to predict absolute and proportional levels of fat and protein across five species of waterfowl. Among indices we considered, those accounting for body size never predicted absolute protein more precisely than body mass, however, some indices improved predictability of fat, although the form of the best index varied by species. Further, the gain in precision by using a condition index to predict either absolute or percent fat was minimal (rise in r2???0.13), and in many cases model fit was actually reduced. Our data agrees with previous assertions that the assumption that indices provide more precise indicators of body condition than body mass alone is often invalid. We strongly discourage the use of unverified indices, because subjectively selecting indices likely does little to improve precision and might in fact decrease predictability relative to using body mass alone. ?? 2009 The Authors.

  18. Relative feather mass indices: are feather masses needed to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relative feather mass indices: are feather masses needed to estimate the percentage of new feather mass grown for moult regression models? ... As an alternative, it is here tested if feather mass indices may be sufficient replacements for species-specific feather masses. Thirty-five species of birds with known primary ...

  19. Know Your Body Mass Index (BMI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Special Section Know Your Body Mass Index (BMI) Past Issues / Winter 2007 Table of Contents For ... it pays to understand your body mass index (BMI), a measure of body fat based on height ...

  20. Elevated Serum Osmolality and Total Water Deficit Indicate Impaired Hydration Status in Residents of Long-Term Care Facilities Regardless of Low or High Body Mass Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Melissa Ventura; Simmons, Sandra F; Shotwell, Matthew S; Hudson, Abbie; Hollingsworth, Emily K; Long, Emily; Kuertz, Brittany; Silver, Heidi J

    2016-05-01

    Dehydration is typically associated with underweight and malnutrition in long-term care (LTC) settings. Evidence is lacking regarding the influence of the rising prevalence of overweight and obesity on risk factors, prevalence, and presentation of dehydration. The aim of this study was to objectively assess hydration status and the adequacy of total water intake, and determine relationships between hydration status, total water intake, and body mass index (BMI) in LTC residents. A cross-sectional analysis of baseline data was performed. Baseline data from 247 subjects recruited from eight community-based LTC facilities participating in two randomized trials comparing nutrient and cost-efficacy of between-meal snacks vs oral nutrition supplements (ONS). Hydration status was assessed by serum osmolality concentration and total water intakes were quantified by weighed food, beverage, water, and ONS intake. Simple and multiple linear regression methods were applied. Forty-nine (38.3%) subjects were dehydrated (>300 mOsm/kg) and another 39 (30.5%) had impending dehydration (295 to 300 mOsm/kg). The variance in serum osmolality was significantly accounted for by blood urea nitrogen level, mental status score, and having diabetes (R(2)=0.46; Pwater intake averaged 1,147.2±433.1 mL/day. Thus, 96% to 100% of subjects did not meet estimated requirements, with a deficit range of 700 to 1,800 mL/day. The variance in total water intake was significantly accounted for by type of liquid beverages (thin vs thick), type of ONS, total energy intake, total activities of daily living dependence, sex, and BMI (R(2)=0.56; Pwater intake is prevalent in LTC residents across all BMI categories. Type of liquid beverages, type of ONS, and type of between-meal snacks are factors that could be targeted for nutrition interventions designed to prevent or reverse dehydration. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Women Are Diagnosed with Type 2 Diabetes at Higher Body Mass Indices and Older Ages than Men: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Kyoung Kwon

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMany epidemiologic studies have shown that women with type 2 diabetes have an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease compared with men with diabetes. The aim of this study is to elucidate whether disparities of adiposity, age and insulin resistance (IR at the time of diabetes diagnosis exist between women and men in the adult Korean population.MethodsData from The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, performed in Korea from 2007 to 2010, were used. In the survey, anthropometric data and blood samples were obtained during a fasting state. IR and β-cell function were calculated using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR and HOMA-β, respectvely.ResultsThe mean age of diabetes diagnosis was 58.5 years in women and was 55.1 years in men (P=0.015. The mean body mass index (BMI of newly diagnosed diabetes subjects was 26.1 kg/m2 in women and 25.0 kg/m2 in men (P=0.001. The BMI was inversely related to age in both genders, and the higher BMI in women than men was consistent throughout all age groups divided by decade. The HOMA-IR in women with diabetes is higher than in men with diabetes (7.25±0.77 vs. 5.20±0.32; P=0.012.ConclusionKorean adult women are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes at higher BMI and older age than men and are more insulin-resistant at the time of diabetes diagnosis. This may help explain why women with diabetes have an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease after the diagnosis of diabetes, compared to men.

  2. Body image and anthropometric indicators in adolescents living with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Rodrigo Augustemak de Lima

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare body image and anthropometric indicators among adolescents living with HIV and healthy adolescents (control group. In addition, we verified the associations of anthropometric indicators, infection/treatment, sexual maturity, and sociodemographic characteristics with body image in adolescents living with HIV. One hundred and eleven adolescents aged 10 to 15 years were divided into those living with HIV (n = 57 and a control group (n = 54. Body image was investigated using an eight-point body silhouette scale. Body weight, height, circumferences, and skinfolds were measured. Body image dissatisfaction was found in 54.4% of the adolescents living with HIV, with 38.6% of them wishing to increase their body size. Conversely, body image dissatisfaction was due to the desire to reduce body size in the control group (40.7%. No difference between the HIV and control groups was found for the anthropometric indicators analyzed. Gender (β = -0.52, age (β = 0.18, body weight (β = 0.07, body mass index (β = -0.19, and upper arm muscle area (β = -0.08 explained 42% of the variation in the body image score of adolescents living with HIV. Thinness is the main reason for body image dissatisfaction in adolescents living with HIV. Almost half the body dissatisfaction of adolescents living with HIV was explained by demographic and anthropometric variables.

  3. Body Mass Influences Cortical Bone Mass Independent of Leptin Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Iwaniec, U.T.; Dube, M.G.; Boghossian, S.; Song, H.; Helferich, W.G.; Turner, R.T.; Kalra, S.P.

    2008-01-01

    Obesity in humans is associated with increased bone mass. Leptin, a hormone produced by fat cells, functions as a sentinel of energy balance, and may mediate the putative positive effects of body mass on bone. We performed studies in male C57Bl/6 wild type (WT) and leptin-deficient ob/ob mice to determine whether body mass gain induced by high fat intake increases bone mass and, if so, whether this requires central leptin signaling. The relationship between body mass and bone mass and archite...

  4. Whole body vibration improves body mass, flexibility and strength in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dependent variables included body mass, hamstring flexibility as measured by the sit-and-reach test, upper-body strength as measured by a grip strength dynamometer, abdominal and upper-body muscular endurance as measured by 1-minute timed sit-up and push-up tests, respectively. The standardised YMCA fitness ...

  5. Estimating body mass of fossil rodents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freudenthal, M.; Martín-Suárez, E.

    2013-01-01

    Reconstructing the body mass of a fossil animal is an essential step toward understanding its palaeoecological role. Length × width (L×W) of the first lower molar (m1) is frequently used as a proxy for body mass in fossil mammals. However, among rodents, Muroidea have no premolar and an elongated

  6. Maternal stress during pregnancy causes sex-specific alterations in offspring memory performance, social interactions, indices of anxiety, and body mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Kalynn M.; Pearson, Jennifer N.; Neeley, Eric W.; Berger, Ralph; Leonard, Sherry; Adams, Catherine E.; Stevens, Karen E.

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal stress (PS) impairs memory function; however, it is not clear whether PS-induced memory deficits are specific to spatial memory, or whether memory is more generally compromised by PS. Here we sought to distinguish between these possibilities by assessing spatial, recognition and contextual memory function in PS and nonstressed (NS) rodents. We also measured anxiety-related and social behaviors to determine whether our unpredictable PS paradigm generates a behavioral phenotype comparable to previous studies. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to daily random stress during the last gestational week and behavior tested in adulthood. In males but not females, PS decreased memory for novel objects and novel spatial locations, and facilitated memory for novel object/context pairings. In the elevated zero maze, PS increased anxiety-related behavior only in females. Social behaviors also varied with sex and PS condition. Females showed more anogenital sniffing regardless of stress condition. In contrast, prenatal stress eliminated a male-biased sex difference in nonspecific bodily sniffing by decreasing sniffing in males, and increasing sniffing in females. Finally, PS males but not females gained significantly more weight across adulthood than did NS controls. In summary, these data indicate that PS differentially impacts males and females resulting in sex-specific adult behavioral and bodily phenotypes. PMID:21334352

  7. VLCD compliance and lean body mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A; Quaade, F

    1989-01-01

    g of dietary fibre to VLCD. By the use of a VLCD which provides approximately 60 g of protein for women and approximately 70 g for men, the dietary regimen is safe and no excessive loss of lean body mass seems to occur during VLCD in obese patients. However, the changes in body composition that may...... occur after cycles of weight loss and regain have not been clarified. After weight cycles with weight losses obtained by conventional diets, obese women have lower lean body mass than obese non-dieting controls. Hence, more information about the changes in body composition during dieting on conventional...... diets and VLCD are needed....

  8. Body mass index and weight distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengelly, C D R; Morris, J

    2009-08-01

    It has been accepted for many years that being overweight or obese, as indicated by a body mass index (BMI) of 25 or over for the former and 30 or over for the latter, is associated with impairment of long term health and prognosis. The World Health Organisation (WHO) has indicated that, in Caucasians, waist measurements of 94 cm or more in men, and 80 cm or more in women have similar adverse effects on health, with increased risks at 102 cm or more in men and 88 cm in women. The role of waist-hip ratio (W/H) and whether it represents a better index than waist (W) measurement alone is being debated; many papers favour waist measurement alone. But two papers in 2005 discussing 27,098 subjects, 12,461 of whom had myocardial infarction and 14,637 controls, come down firmly in favour of W/H and were followed by a Lancet Editorial entitled 'Farewell to Body Mass Index?' Life assurance companies at medical examination usually request height and weight measurements (and therefore BMI). Most ask for waist measurements and a few hip measurements in addition (and therefore W/H). The authors have reviewed the data in 816 consecutive subjects for life assurance examination in whom BMIs, Ws and W/Hs were all recorded. In these the evidence supports the use of W as the best indicator of risk in men (634 cases), but not in the relatively small number of women (182 cases) in whom H appeared better. We believe that BMI, W and W/H should be recorded in every subject at life assurance examination so that the insurance companies in the long term will be able to reach valid conclusions about their individual and collective value.

  9. Relationship between body mass, lean mass, fat mass, and limb bone cross-sectional geometry: Implications for estimating body mass and physique from the skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeroy, Emma; Macintosh, Alison; Wells, Jonathan C K; Cole, Tim J; Stock, Jay T

    2018-01-18

    Estimating body mass from skeletal dimensions is widely practiced, but methods for estimating its components (lean and fat mass) are poorly developed. The ability to estimate these characteristics would offer new insights into the evolution of body composition and its variation relative to past and present health. This study investigates the potential of long bone cross-sectional properties as predictors of body, lean, and fat mass. Humerus, femur and tibia midshaft cross-sectional properties were measured by peripheral quantitative computed tomography in sample of young adult women (n = 105) characterized by a range of activity levels. Body composition was estimated from bioimpedance analysis. Lean mass correlated most strongly with both upper and lower limb bone properties (r values up to 0.74), while fat mass showed weak correlations (r ≤ 0.29). Estimation equations generated from tibial midshaft properties indicated that lean mass could be estimated relatively reliably, with some improvement using logged data and including bone length in the models (minimum standard error of estimate = 8.9%). Body mass prediction was less reliable and fat mass only poorly predicted (standard errors of estimate ≥11.9% and >33%, respectively). Lean mass can be predicted more reliably than body mass from limb bone cross-sectional properties. The results highlight the potential for studying evolutionary trends in lean mass from skeletal remains, and have implications for understanding the relationship between bone morphology and body mass or composition. © 2018 The Authors. American Journal of Physical Anthropology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. LEAN BODY MASS AS A PREDICTOR OF PERFORMANCE OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    siahkohian

    mass explain differences in muscular power, differs between female and male weightlifters, but the rate of decline in power ... (2005) indicated that independent of body mass and height differences, maximum strength is strongly related to weightlifting ..... measures on dimension of VO2max. International Journal of Fitness, ...

  11. Evaluating indices of body condition in two cricket species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Clint D; Tawes, Brittany R; Worthington, Amy M

    2014-01-01

    Body mass components (dry mass, lean dry mass, water mass, fat mass) in each sex correlate strongly with body mass and pronotum length in Gryllus texensis and Acheta domesticus. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression underestimates the scaling relationship between body mass and structural size (i.e., pronotum length) in both cricket species compared with standard major axis (SMA) regression. Standardized mass components correlate more strongly with scaled mass index () than with residual body mass (R i). R i represents the residuals from an OLS regression of log body mass against log pronotum length. Neither condition index predicts energy stores (i.e., fat content) in G. texensis. R i is not correlated with energy stores in A. domesticus whereas is negatively correlated. A comparison of condition index methods using published data showed that neither sex nor diet quality affected body condition at adulthood in G. texensis when using the scaled mass index. However, the residual index suggested that sex had a significant effect on body condition. Further, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) suggested that diet quality significantly affects body mass while statistically controlling for body size (i.e., body condition). We conclude that the statistical assumptions of condition index methods must be met prior to use and urge caution when using methods that are based on least squares in the y -plane (i.e., residual index ANCOVA). PMID:25512844

  12. Body mass index and breast cancer survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Qi; Burgess, Stephen; Turman, Constance

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is increasing evidence that elevated body mass index (BMI) is associated with reduced survival for women with breast cancer. However, the underlying reasons remain unclear. We conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis to investigate a possible causal role of BMI in survival f...

  13. Body mass index and poststroke mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Dehlendorff, Christian; Petersen, Hans Gregers

    2008-01-01

    Background: Obesity is an established cardiovascular risk factor. We studied the association between body mass index (BMI) and all-cause mortality after stroke. Methods: A registry started in 2001 with the aim to register all hospitalized stroke patients in Denmark now includes 21,884 patients...

  14. Body mass index in chronic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Heidi M.; Schou, Morten; Goetze, Jens P

    2013-01-01

    Low body mass index (BMI) is associated with a poor outcome in chronic heart failure (CHF). An inverse association between BMI and adiponectin and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) has been reported. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether novel markers...

  15. Association between Body Mass Index and Gastroesophageal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Gastroesophageal reflux disease [GERD] is a common disorder with very low rates in Africa and Asia, and high rates in North America and Europe. Several studies have demonstrated a positive link between body mass index [BMI] and reflux symptoms. The aim of this study was to establish the association ...

  16. Adjusting powerlifting performances for differences in body mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleather, Daniel John

    2006-05-01

    It has been established that, in the sports of Olympic weightlifting (OL) and powerlifting (PL), the relationship between lifting performance and body mass is not linear. This relationship has been frequently studied in OL, but the literature on PL is less extensive. In this study, PL performance and body mass, for both men and women, was examined by using data from the International Powerlifting Federation World Championships during 1995-2004. Nonlinear regression was used to apply 7 models (including allometric, polynomial, and power models) to the data. The results of this study indicate that the relationship between PL performance and body mass can be best modeled by the equation y = a - bx(-c), where y is the weight lifted (in kg) in the squat, bench press, or deadlift, x is the body mass of the lifter (in kg), and a, b, and c are constants. The constants a, b, and c are determined by the type of lift (squat, bench press, or deadlift) and the gender of the lifter and were obtained from the regression analysis. Inspection of the plots of raw residuals (actual performance minus predicted performance) vs. body mass revealed no body mass bias to this formula in contrast to research into other handicapping formulas. This study supports previous research that found a bias toward lifters in the intermediate weight categories in allometric fits to PL data.

  17. Religious Attendance and Body Mass: An Examination of Variations by Race and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbolt, Dawn; Vaghela, Preeti; Burdette, Amy M; Hill, Terrence D

    2017-08-30

    Studies of the association between religious attendance and body mass have yielded mixed results. In this paper, we consider intersectional variations by race and gender to advance our understanding of these inconsistencies. We use data from the 2006-2008 Health and Retirement Study to examine the association between religious attendance and three indicators of body mass: overall body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio (n = 11,457). For White women, attendance is either protective or unrelated to body mass. For Black women, attendance is consistently associated with increased body mass. We find that religious attendance is not associated with body mass among the men.

  18. Reconception and body-mass changes of energy supplemented frrst ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    on change in body mass during early lactation and on the calving rate of first-calf ..... Average maximum. Body mass (kg) at: loss in body mass. Average daily. Average change in (kg) from calving gain in body mass. Reproductive. Onset of. Conclusion of .... significant. No reason could be found for the five Sussex type cows.

  19. FOOD BEHAVIOR, BODY IMAGE AND ANTHROPOMETRIC INDICES OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Regina Pereira MONTEIRO

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The aim of this study was to assess food behavior, self-image perception and anthropometric indices of college students. This was a cross-sectional study with 54 students in a public university. The lifestyle and self-image perception was collected using a standardized questionnaire tested. Food behavior was evaluated through the Eating Attitudes Test. Body composition was assessed for Body Mass Index (BMI, circumferences, skinfold analysis and bioelectrical impedance (BIA. The statistics tests used were Chi-square and Pearson correlation (p< 0.05. The students had 19 to 27 years old, 96.3% were non-smokers, 46.3% drank alcoholic beverages and 37.0% practiced regular physical activity. Most of the students (75.5% were considered normal weight (BMI but the body fat percentage was found to be above average. Regarding self- image perception, 40.7% felt overweight. Observing food behavior results, 12.0% were at risk of developing eating disorders. Positive correlations were verifi ed between BMI with skinfold and skinfold with bioelectrical impedance. It was concluded that a considerable number of the college students assessed had a distorted self-image perception. Many of them had normal weight but with high body fat percentage. This study is relevant to investigate the risk of eating disorders and body image perception as part of the nutritional assessment.

  20. Body mass index in Serbian Roma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Andrew; Cvorović, Jelena; Strkalj, Goran

    2009-01-01

    Stature and body mass were measured in 346 individuals belonging to three Roma groups from metropolitan Belgrade western Serbia. As with the majority of Serbian Roma, the participants in this study have been historically disadvantaged and their situation was further aggravated during the recent political crises. Surprisingly, the body mass index (BMI) of Serbian Roma is relatively high compared with western Europeans and is inconsistent with the view that Serbian Roma are predisposed to high rates of chronic energy deficiency ( approximately 4%). While the majority of individual Roma display BMI values within the normal range (WHO, 1995), certain groups have a moderate to high proportion of individuals ( approximately 35%) who could be classified as overweight and some who approach at-risk levels for clinical obesity.

  1. Hypocaloric diet supplemented with probiotic cheese improves body mass index and blood pressure indices of obese hypertensive patients--a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafedtinov, Khaider K; Plotnikova, Oksana A; Alexeeva, Ravilay I; Sentsova, Tatjana B; Songisepp, Epp; Stsepetova, Jelena; Smidt, Imbi; Mikelsaar, Marika

    2013-10-12

    Gut lactobacilli can affect the metabolic functions of healthy humans. We tested whether a 1500 kcal/d diet supplemented with cheese containing the probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum TENSIA (Deutsche Sammlung für Mikroorganismen, DSM 21380) could reduce some symptoms of metabolic syndrome in Russian adults with obesity and hypertension. In this 3-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel pilot study, 25 subjects ingested probiotic cheese and 15 ingested control cheese. Fifty grams of each cheese provided 175 kcal of energy. Blood pressure (BP), anthropometric characteristics, markers of liver and kidney function, metabolic indices (plasma glucose, lipids, and cholesterol), and urine polyamines were measured. Counts of fecal lactobacilli and L. plantarum TENSIA were evaluated using molecular methods. The data were analyzed by t-test for independent samples and Spearman's partial correlation analysis. The probiotic L. plantarum TENSIA was present in variable amounts (529.6 ± 232.5 gene copies) in 16/25 (64%) study subjects. Body mass index (BMI) was significantly reduced (p = 0.031) in the probiotic cheese group versus the control cheese group. The changes in BMI were closely associated with the water content of the body (r = 0.570, p = 0.0007) when adjusted for sex and age. Higher values of intestinal lactobacilli after probiotic cheese consumption were associated with higher BMI (r = 0.383, p = 0.0305) and urinary putrescine content (r = 0.475, p = 0.006). In patients simultaneously treated with BP-lowering drugs, similar reductions of BP were observed in both groups. A positive association was detected between TENSIA colonization and the extent of change of morning diastolic BP (r = 0.617, p = 0.0248) and a trend toward lower values of morning systolic BP (r = -0.527, p = 0.0640) at the end of the study after adjusting for BMI, age, and sex. In a pilot study of obese hypertensive patients, a hypocaloric diet supplemented with a probiotic cheese

  2. Peak bone mineral density, lean body mass and fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, Annemieke M.; de Ridder, Maria A. J.; van der Sluis, Inge M.; van Slobbe, Ingrid; Krenning, Eric P.; Keizer-Schrama, Sabine M. P. F. de Muinck

    Background: During childhood and adolescence, bone mass and lean body mass (LBM) increase till a plateau is reached. In this longitudinal and cross-sectional study, the age of reaching the plateau was evaluated for lumbar spine and total body bone mass measurements and lean body mass. The

  3. Body Mass Index and spontaneous miscarriage.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Turner, Michael J

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: We compared the incidence of spontaneous miscarriage in women categorised as obese, based on a Body Mass Index (BMI) >29.9 kg\\/m(2), with women in other BMI categories. STUDY DESIGN: In a prospective observational study conducted in a university teaching hospital, women were enrolled at their convenience in the first trimester after a sonogram confirmed an ongoing singleton pregnancy with fetal heart activity present. Maternal height and weight were measured digitally and BMI calculated. Maternal body composition was measured by advanced bioelectrical impedance analysis. RESULTS: In 1200 women, the overall miscarriage rate was 2.8% (n=33). The mean gestational age at enrolment was 9.9 weeks. In the obese category (n=217), the miscarriage rate was 2.3% compared with 3.3% in the overweight category (n=329), and 2.3% in the normal BMI group (n=621). There was no difference in the mean body composition parameters, particularly fat mass parameters, between those women who miscarried and those who did not. CONCLUSIONS: In women with sonographic evidence of fetal heart activity in the first trimester, the rate of spontaneous miscarriage is low and is not increased in women with BMI>29.9 kg\\/m(2) compared to women in the normal BMI category.

  4. Body mass, spleen mass and level of thyroid hormones in juvenile hypothyroid rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roksandić Dragutin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effect of hypothyroidism on body mass and spleen mass of rats was examined during the prenatal and early juvenile periods. Hypothyroidism was induced by the application of propylthiouracil (PTU in drinking water to the mothers from the first day of gravidity and during lactation, and the offspring were sacrificed on the 14th and 21st days after birth. The body mass of the juvenile rats was measured just before they were sacrificed. The concentrations of triiodothyronine (T3 and thyroxine (T4 in blood serum were determined in control and treated juvenile rats. The results indicate that PTU leads to a reduction in T3 and T4 serum concentrations in treated juvenile rats. Treated juvenile rats had a bigger body mass and spleen mass in comparison with control animals. These data indicate that hypothyroidism induced in the prenatal and early juvenile period leads to an increase in the body mass and spleen mass and disrupts the normal development of the spleen in the course of the examined period. .

  5. Considering body mass differences, who are the world's strongest women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderburgh, P M; Dooman, C

    2000-01-01

    Allometric modeling (AM) has been used to determine the world's strongest body mass-adjusted man. Recently, however, AM was shown to demonstrate body mass bias in elite Olympic weightlifting performance. A second order polynomial (2OP) provided a better fit than AM with no body mass bias for men and women. The purpose of this study was to apply both AM and 2OP models to women's world powerlifting records (more a function of pure strength and less power than Olympic lifts) to determine the optimal model approach as well as the strongest body mass-adjusted woman in each event. Subjects were the 36 (9 per event) current women world record holders (as of Nov., 1997) for bench press (BP), deadlift (DL), squat (SQ), and total (TOT) lift (BP + DL + SQ) according to the International Powerlifting Federation (IPF). The 2OP model demonstrated the superior fit and no body mass bias as indicated by the coefficient of variation and residuals scatterplot inspection, respectively, for DL, SQ, and TOT. The AM for these three lifts, however, showed favorable bias toward the middle weight classes. The 2OP and AM yielded an essentially identical fit for BP. Although body mass-adjusted world records were dependent on the model used, Carrie Boudreau (U.S., 56-kg weight class), who received top scores in TOT and DL with both models, is arguably the world's strongest woman overall. Furthermore, although the 2OP model provides a better fit than AM for this elite population, a case can still be made for AM use, particularly in light of theoretical superiority.

  6. Correlação entre o índice de massa corporal e os indicadores antropométricos de distribuição de gordura corporal em adultos e idosos Correlation between body mass index and body fat distribution anthropometric indices in adults and the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Ramos Sampaio

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a correlação entre o índice de massa corporal e indicadores antropométricos de distribuição de gordura em adultos e idosos. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo transversal, constituído por 634 indivíduos (316 adultos e 318 idosos de ambos os sexos, atendidos nos ambulatórios do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal da Bahia (Salvador, BA. Mediram-se em cada indivíduo: peso, altura, pregas cutâneas triciptal e subescapular, circunferências de quadril e cintura, segundo técnicas propostas por Lohman, em 1988. Utilizou-se o teste de correlação de Pearson para avaliar a correlação entre o índice de massa corporal e os indicadores antropométricos de distribuição de gordura. RESULTADOS: As correlações entre o índice de massa corporal e a circunferência da cintura nos dois grupos etários do sexo masculino foram: de adultos (r = 0,93; pOBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional study investigates the correlation between the body mass index and the fat distribution anthropometric indices in adults and the elderly. METHODS: Upon ambulatory visits to the Medical School Hospital of the Federal University of Bahia (Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, 634 male and female patients (316 adults and 318 elderly subjects were measured individually, to determine weight, height, triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses, and waist and hip circumferences, according to Lohman's guidelines, 1988. Pearson's correlation test was used to get the correlation, in this sample, between body mass index and fat distribution anthropometric indices. RESULTS: The correlations between body mass index and waist in both age groups for male were: adults (r = 0.93; p<0.001 and elderly (r = 0.89; p<0.001. For the female groups, these correlations were: adults (r = 0.93; p<0.001 and elderly (r = 0.86; p<0.001. The correlation between body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio was smaller, but statistically significant, between these

  7. Human bipedalism and body-mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Su Do; Noh, Jae Dong; Minnhagen, Petter; Song, Mi-Young; Chon, Tae-Soo; Kim, Beom Jun

    2017-06-16

    Body-mass index, abbreviated as BMI and given by M/H 2 with the mass M and the height H, has been widely used as a useful proxy to measure a general health status of a human individual. We generalise BMI in the form of M/H p and pursue to answer the question of the value of p for populations of animal species including human. We compare values of p for several different datasets for human populations with the ones obtained for other animal populations of fish, whales, and land mammals. All animal populations but humans analyzed in our work are shown to have p ≈ 3 unanimously. In contrast, human populations are different: As young infants grow to become toddlers and keep growing, the sudden change of p is observed at about one year after birth. Infants younger than one year old exhibit significantly larger value of p than two, while children between one and five years old show p ≈ 2, sharply different from other animal species. The observation implies the importance of the upright posture of human individuals. We also propose a simple mechanical model for a human body and suggest that standing and walking upright should put a clear division between bipedal human (p ≈ 2) and other animals (p ≈ 3).

  8. Body Mass Index: A Scientific Evidence-Based Inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Djalma Rabelo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTVE: To objectively and critically assess body mass index and to propose alternatives for relating body weight and height that are evidence-based and that eliminate or reduce the limitations of the body mass index. METHODS: To analyze the relations involving weight and height, we used 2 databases as follows: 1 children and adolescents from Brazil, the United States, and Switzerland; and 2 538 university students. We performed mathematical simulations with height data ranging from 115 to 190 cm and weight data ranging from 25 to 105 kg. We selected 3 methods to analyze the relation of weight and height as follows: body mass index - weight (kg/height (m²; reciprocal of the ponderal index - height (cm/weight1/3 (kg; and ectomorphy. Using the normal range from 20 to 25 kg/m² for the body mass index in the reference height of 170 cm, we identified the corresponding ranges of 41 to 44 cm/kg1/3 for the reciprocal of the ponderal index, and of 1.45 to 3.60 for ectomorphy. RESULTS: The mathematical simulations showed a strong association among the 3 methods with an absolute concordance to a height of 170 cm, but with a tendency towards discrepancy in the normal ranges, which had already been observed for the heights of 165 and 175 cm. This made the direct convertibility between the indices unfeasible. The reciprocal of the ponderal index and ectomorphy with their cut points comprised a larger age range in children and adolescents and a wider and more central range in the university students, both for the reported (current and desired weights. CONCLUSION: The reciprocal of the ponderal index and ectomorphy are stronger and are more mathematically logical than body mass index; in addition, they may be applied with the same cut points for normal from the age of 5 ½ years on.

  9. Correlation between macrosomia body indices and maternal fasting blood glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y; Zhang, S; Song, W

    2014-05-01

    To explore the significance of neonatal body indices in identifying pathological macrosomia, we implemented a retrospective study of 254 neonates, including: 100 macrosomia of diabetic pregnancies, 77 macrosomia of healthy pregnancies and 77 normal neonates of healthy pregnancies, using their birth weight, body length, head circumference and chest circumference, to calculate neonatal body indices, multiple regression analysis of the correlation between newborn body indices and maternal fasting blood glucose. The Quetelet Index and Kaup Index of diabetic macrosomia is higher than that of non-diabetic macrosomia; HC:CC (ratio between head circumference and chest circumference) is reversed (p macrosomia.

  10. Anthropometric parameters: weight height, body mass index and mammary volume in relationship with the mammographic pattern; Parametros antropmetricos: peso, talla, indice de masa corporal y volumen mamario, en relacion con el patron mamografico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Candela, V.; Busto, C.; Avila, R.; Marrero, M. G.; Liminana, J. M.; Orengo, J. C. [Hospital Universitario Maternoinfantil de Canarias. Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    A prospective study to attempt to relate the anthropometric parameters of height, weight, body mass index as well as age with the mammographic patterns obtained for the patients and obtain an anthropometric profile was carried out. The study was performed in 1.000 women who underwent a mammography in cranial-caudal and medial lateral oblique projection of both breasts, independently of whether they were screened or diagnosed. Prior to the performance of the mammography, weight and height were obtained, and this was also performed by the same technicians, and the patient were asked their bra size to deduce breast volume. With the weight, the body mass index of Quetelet was calculated (weight [kg]/height''2 (ml)). After reading the mammography, the patient was assigned to one of the four mammographic patterns considered in the BIRADS (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System) established by the ACR (American College of Radiology): type I (fat). type II (disperse fibroglandular densities), type III (fibroglandular densities distributed heterogeneously), type 4 (dense). The results were introduced into a computer database and the SPSS 8.0 statistical program was applied, using the statistical model of multivariant logistic regression. In women under 40 years, with normal weight, the dense breast pattern accounted for 67.8% and as the body mass index (BMI) increased, this pattern decreased to 25.1%. The fat pattern is 20% and as the BMI increases, this increased to 80%. In 40-60 year old women with normal weight, the dense pattern accounts for 44% and decreases to 20.9% in the grades II, III and IV obese. The fat pattern is 11.1% and increases to 53.7% in the grade II, III and IV obese. In women over 60 with normal, the dense pattern accounts for 19.3% and and decreases to 13% in the grade III obese. The fat pattern is 5.3% and increases to 20.2% in the grade iii of obesity. As age increases, the probability of presenting a mammographic pattern with a fat

  11. High body mass index and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Marianne; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Smith, George Davey

    2016-01-01

    of follow-up (range 0-37), 8002 developed non-skin cancer, 3347 non-melanoma skin cancer, 1396 lung cancer, 637 other smoking related cancers, 1203 colon cancer, 159 kidney cancer, 1402 breast cancer, 1062 prostate cancer, and 2804 other cancers. Participants were genotyped for five genetic variants...... with a BMI ≥ 30 versus 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2). Corresponding risk of breast cancer was 20 % (0-44 %) higher in postmenopausal women. BMI was not associated with risk of colon, kidney, other smoking related cancers, prostate cancer, or other cancers. In genetic analyses, carrying 7-10 versus 0-4 BMI increasing......High body mass index (BMI) has been associated with increased risk of some cancer. Whether these reflect causal associations is unknown. We examined this issue. Using a Mendelian randomisation approach, we studied 108,812 individuals from the general population. During a median of 4.7 years...

  12. Compulsive buying: relationship with body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Randy A; Chang, Joy; Jewell, Bryan; Marion, Brandee E

    2013-01-01

    Compulsive buying has historically been associated with various self-regulatory disturbances, including eating pathology (e.g., binge eating). Therefore, a relationship between scores on a measure of compulsive buying, the Compulsive Buying Scale (CBS), and body mass index (BMI) in adulthood was hypothesized. Using a self-report survey methodology in a cross-sectional consecutive sample of convenience of 373 obstetrics/gynecology patients, correlations between CBS scores and BMI, both generally and with regard to race were examined. A modest general correlation between CBS scores and BMI (r = 0.17, P compulsive buying is associated with increasing BMI in adulthood, particularly among Caucasian women. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  13. Body mass index and breast cancer survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Qi; Burgess, Stephen; Turman, Constance

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is increasing evidence that elevated body mass index (BMI) is associated with reduced survival for women with breast cancer. However, the underlying reasons remain unclear. We conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis to investigate a possible causal role of BMI in survival...... from breast cancer. Methods: We used individual-level data from six large breast cancer case-cohorts including a total of 36 210 individuals (2475 events) of European ancestry. We created a BMI genetic risk score (GRS) based on genotypes at 94 known BMI-associated genetic variants. Association between...... the BMI genetic score and breast cancer survival was analysed by Cox regression for each study separately. Study-specific hazard ratios were pooled using fixed-effect meta-analysis. Results: BMI genetic score was found to be associated with reduced breast cancer-specific survival for estrogen receptor (ER...

  14. Impact of body mass on job quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hyun; Han, Euna

    2015-04-01

    The current study explores the association between body mass and job quality, a composite measurement of job characteristics, for adults. We use nationally representative data from the Korean Labor and Income Panel Study for the years 2005, 2007, and 2008 with 7282 person-year observations for men and 4611 for women. A Quality of Work Index (QWI) is calculated based on work content, job security, the possibilities for improvement, compensation, work conditions, and interpersonal relationships at work. The key independent variable is the body mass index (kg/m(2)) splined at 18.5, 25, and 30. For men, BMI is positively associated with the QWI only in the normal weight segment (+0.19 percentage points at the 10th, +0.28 at the 50th, +0.32 at the 75th, +0.34 at the 90th, and +0.48 at the 95th quantiles). A unit increase in the BMI for women is associated with a lower QWI at the lower quantiles in the normal weight segment (-0.28 at the 5th, -0.19 at the 10th, and -0.25 percentage points at the 25th quantiles) and at the upper quantiles in the overweight segment (-1.15 at the 90th and -1.66 percentage points at the 95th quantiles). The results imply a spill-over cost of overweight or obesity beyond its impact on health in terms of success in the labor market. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Body Image and its Relation with Body Mass Index among Indian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Vaishali R; Kulkarni, Aditi A

    2017-12-15

    To evaluate association of body mass index with perception and attitude towards bodyweight, shape and body image among adolescents. This cross-sectional study was done on 1811 adolescents. Attitude towards body image was assessed by using a self-administered Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire. Perceived body shape was measured using the Stunkard scale. Adolescents showed significant difference (P<0.005) in perceptions and behaviors related to appearance, fitness, health, body areas and weight across various body mass index and socioeconomic categories. Girls articulated significantly higher (P<0.005) body dissatisfaction than boys. Attitudes and perceptions towards body image differ with sex, body mass index and socioeconomic class.

  16. Body image in the mass media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Iris Bazán

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The concern about weight that characterizes most modern women stemmed from the medical research that showed the relationship between obesity and diseases such as hypertension or cardiovascular disease. As shown by the American filmmaker Michael Moore in his documentary film “Sicko” in 2007, large US health companies financially rewarded those with a thinner body and sanctioned overweight people because they had higher risks of disease and thus generate losses to their companies. From there, the emphasis on weight control and low-calorie dieting -and its association with health- reached unexpected limits. Mass Media had and have a leading role on this growing concern about weight. This article analyzes the effects of media on the aesthetic / healthy ideal, which contribute to the construction of a woman captured by endless demands. These social requirements are associated with perfection, the predominance of the aesthetic, healthy body and eternal youth, which would guarantee success. What relationship have television, women’s magazines, Internet, advertising and even children’s toys with the expansion of “the culture of light”, the ideal body and healthy behavior are some of the questions that will be addressed in this Article. To contribute to a better understanding of this phenomenon, we will make a bibliographic and Media exploration. Finally, as a possible solution to the problem, a strategy of state intervention on the current market model for promoting good use of information and prevention of Eating Disorders and other diseases related to poor diet is proposed. 

  17. Increased body mass of ducks wintering in California's Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleskes, Joseph P.; Yee, Julie L.; Yarris, Gregory S.; Loughman, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    Waterfowl managers lack the information needed to fully evaluate the biological effects of their habitat conservation programs. We studied body condition of dabbling ducks shot by hunters at public hunting areas throughout the Central Valley of California during 2006–2008 compared with condition of ducks from 1979 to 1993. These time periods coincide with habitat increases due to Central Valley Joint Venture conservation programs and changing agricultural practices; we modeled to ascertain whether body condition differed among waterfowl during these periods. Three dataset comparisons indicate that dabbling duck body mass was greater in 2006–2008 than earlier years and the increase was greater in the Sacramento Valley and Suisun Marsh than in the San Joaquin Valley, differed among species (mallard [Anas platyrhynchos], northern pintail [Anas acuta], America wigeon [Anas americana], green-winged teal [Anas crecca], and northern shoveler [Anas clypeata]), and was greater in ducks harvested late in the season. Change in body mass also varied by age–sex cohort and month for all 5 species and by September–January rainfall for all except green-winged teal. The random effect of year nested in period, and sometimes interacting with other factors, improved models in many cases. Results indicate that improved habitat conditions in the Central Valley have resulted in increased winter body mass of dabbling ducks, especially those that feed primarily on seeds, and this increase was greater in regions where area of post-harvest flooding of rice and other crops, and wetland area, has increased. Conservation programs that continue to promote post-harvest flooding and other agricultural practices that benefit wintering waterfowl and continue to restore and conserve wetlands would likely help maintain body condition of wintering dabbling ducks in the Central Valley of California.

  18. Body mass estimates of hominin fossils and the evolution of human body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Mark; Hatala, Kevin G; Jungers, William L; Richmond, Brian G

    2015-08-01

    Body size directly influences an animal's place in the natural world, including its energy requirements, home range size, relative brain size, locomotion, diet, life history, and behavior. Thus, an understanding of the biology of extinct organisms, including species in our own lineage, requires accurate estimates of body size. Since the last major review of hominin body size based on postcranial morphology over 20 years ago, new fossils have been discovered, species attributions have been clarified, and methods improved. Here, we present the most comprehensive and thoroughly vetted set of individual fossil hominin body mass predictions to date, and estimation equations based on a large (n = 220) sample of modern humans of known body masses. We also present species averages based exclusively on fossils with reliable taxonomic attributions, estimates of species averages by sex, and a metric for levels of sexual dimorphism. Finally, we identify individual traits that appear to be the most reliable for mass estimation for each fossil species, for use when only one measurement is available for a fossil. Our results show that many early hominins were generally smaller-bodied than previously thought, an outcome likely due to larger estimates in previous studies resulting from the use of large-bodied modern human reference samples. Current evidence indicates that modern human-like large size first appeared by at least 3-3.5 Ma in some Australopithecus afarensis individuals. Our results challenge an evolutionary model arguing that body size increased from Australopithecus to early Homo. Instead, we show that there is no reliable evidence that the body size of non-erectus early Homo differed from that of australopiths, and confirm that Homo erectus evolved larger average body size than earlier hominins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Body image, body mass index, and body composition in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streeter, Veronica M; Milhausen, Robin R; Buchholz, Andrea C

    2012-01-01

    Associations were examined between body image and body mass index (BMI) in comparison with body composition in healthy weight, overweight, and obese young adults. Weight and height were determined, and the percentage of fat mass (%FM) and percentage of fat-free mass (%FFM) were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in 75 male and 87 female young adults (21.1 ± 1.9 years; 25.2 ± 4.4 kg/m² [mean ± standard deviation]). Body image was measured using the three subscales Weight Esteem, Appearance Esteem, and External Attribution of the Body-Esteem Scale for Adolescents and Adults (BESAA). Body mass index and %FM were highly correlated (r for males = 0.74, r for females = 0.82; both pbody image, particularly Weight Esteem. After adjustment for physical activity, BMI and %FM (and %FFM, although in the opposite direction) were associated with each BESAA subscale: %FM, %FFM, and BMI explained 12% to 14% of the variance in Appearance Esteem for both sexes, 33% to 41% in Weight Esteem in women and 16% to 18% in men, and 8% to 10% in External Attribution in women (all pbody image decreases, particularly in women.

  20. The effects of quercetin supplementation on body composition, exercise performance and muscle damage indices in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Askari

    2013-01-01

    Results: Lean body mass, total body water, basal metabolic rate, and total energy expenditure increased significantly in the quercetin group after intervention. On the other hand, VO 2max increased in the "quercetin" and "quercetin + vitamin C" groups following the intervention, non-significantly. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that supplementation with quercetin in athletes may improve some indices of performance.

  1. Bioelectrical impedance and indicators of body fat and cardiovascular risk in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Forte Freitas Júnior

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2008v10n1p19 The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between bioelectric impedance and adiposity and elevated cardiovascular risk indicators, and its effectiveness for detecting appropriate nutritional status, according to the Body Mass Index. A Cross-sectional study. The sample included 900 subjects, both males and females, with ages ranging from 11 to 17 years. Nutritional status was determined according to both Body Mass Index and relative body fat, estimated by bioelectric impedance. For both sexes, bioelectric impedance was signifi cantly correlated (p< 0.05 with all adiposity and cardiovascular risk indicators. Furthermore, it exhibited high specifi city for indicating nutritional status. It can be concluded that bioelectric impedance is a useful tool for body composition assessment. It can also be concluded that in young populations, care musty be taken when choosing equations to estimate relative body fat.

  2. Obesity, Body Mass Index, and Homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omond, Kimberley J; Langlois, Neil E I; Byard, Roger W

    2017-07-01

    The body mass indexes (BMIs) of 100 randomly selected homicide cases from the files of Forensic Science SA were compared to the Australian and South Australian populations. There were 70 males and 30 females (M:F = 2.3:1; age range 18-84 years; mean 42.3 years). There was a substantially lower proportion of obese individuals in the homicide population compared to the general Australian and South Australian populations (19% [vs.] 27.9% and 30%, respectively). A second group of 144 randomly selected autopsy cases where the BMI was ≥40 kg/m 2 was analyzed. There were 77 males and 67 females (M:F = 1.2:1; age range 23-78 years; mean 46.7 years). The majority of deaths were natural (N = 108), with no homicides. A negative association between obesity and homicide has, therefore, been demonstrated. Reasons for the lower numbers of obese/morbidly obese individuals among homicide victims are unclear, but may include physical protection afforded by fat padding from sharp force injuries, and relative sociodemographic isolation. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  3. Body image perception in women: prevalence and association with anthropometric indicators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Pelegrini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2014v16n1p58 The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of body image perception and its association with anthropometric indicators (body mass index, waist circumference, waist-height ratio, and conicity index in women undergoing cervical cancer screening at an institution in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina. The study included 736 women (≥ 18 years. Anthropometric variables (weight, height, waist circumference were collected for the determination of body mass index, waist-height ratio, and conicity index. Body image perception was evaluated using a nine-body silhouette scale. The prevalence of body image dissatisfaction was 73% (dissatisfaction due to excess weight = 67.4%; dissatisfaction due to thinness = 5.6%. Overweight women (PR=1.34; 95%CI=1.23-2.49, p<0.001 and women with an inadequate conicity index (PR=1.12; 95%CI =1.02-1.24, p=0.016 presented a higher prevalence of body image dissatisfaction. The prevalence of body image dissatisfaction is high and the proportion of inadequate anthropometric indicators requires attention. Moreover, body dissatisfaction was more prevalent among overweight women and women with an inadequate conicity index. These results indicate the need for interventions and for the implementation of programs designed to control body weight and to reduce cardiovascular risk factors and body image dissatisfaction in women attending primary health care centers, such as cancer screening services.

  4. Elevated body mass index and fatty liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marović Dragana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Obesity and overweight, expressed by elevated Body Mass Index (BMI, result from excessive consumption of fatty food and carbohydrates above the body needs. The fat from the blood, through free fatty acids, is taken directly into the liver. Objective The aim of this study was to examine correlation among the accepted ultrasonography findings of the fatty liver and the normal ultrasonography findings and the elevated average level of BMI and those with normal BMI in examinees in one investigation. All was done aimed at proving that the BMI is one of the direct factors of the increased occurence of fatty liver. METHOD The method of the investigation consisted of anthropometric measuring of height and weight on the basis of which there were established BMI values. Consequently, the examinees were divided in two groups: one with normal BMI (under 24.9 kg/m2 and the other with increased BMI (over 25 kg/m2. Fatty liver was diagnosed when the liver of the examinees was observed by ultrasonography. Thus there were given subgroups of the examinees, one with the findings of fatty liver and the second with a normal finding, without changes. After that, the obtained results were statistically analysed. Results It was found that the average level of BMI in the examinees was by two units higher in the subgroup with ultrasonography findings of fatty liver than the average value of BMI in the subgroup with the normal ultrasonography findings of the liver. The difference was tested by the Student's t-test and a significant difference was found. The difference in frequencies of the appearance of the finding of fatty liver in the subgroups was tested by χ2-test. A statistically significant difference was found in frequencies of the appearance of fatty liver in the subgroup with the increased value of BMI. Conclusion The increased BMI, which is represented by overweight and obesity, is one of the direct risk factors which cause fatty liver, checked by

  5. Lean body mass as a determinant of thyroid size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesche, M. F.; Wiersinga, W. M.; Smits, N. J.

    1998-01-01

    Males have a larger thyroid gland than females, and this has been related to the difference in body weight. In view of the different body composition of men and women, we hypothesized that lean body mass is a better determinant of thyroid volume than body weight. A cross-sectional study in an area

  6. Body mass index, type 2 diabetes, and left ventricular function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musaeus, Katrine Dina; Pareek, Manan

    2018-01-01

    previous observations of body mass index as a significant predictor of incident diastolic dysfunction and increased left ventricular mass index among subjects without prevalent diabetes. We discuss potential explanations for the observed discrepancies and general difficulties associated with cardiovascular...

  7. An interrelation of physical working capacity and body component composition indicators of amateur athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoya Gorenko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: determine the features of the body component composition and the level of physical performance, as well as the structure of the correlation between these indicators in amateur athletes. Material & Methods: in conditions of the test with physical load with stepwise increasing power in the 71-st physically active person, the reaction of the cardio-respiratory system to physical activity. The body component composition was determined by the bioelectrical impedance method. Result: in amateur athletes, the relative VO2max and power ratings are positively correlated with the relative body water content and have a negative relationship with age, body weight, body mass index, fat content. Oxygen pulse with a high degree of probability positively correlated with body weight, body mass index, metabolic rate, fat-free mass, water content and predictable muscle mass in all body segments. Conclusion: Conducted studies indicate a sufficient level of aerobic capacity, overall performance, the efficiency of the cardiac cycle, the functioning of the О2-transport system and skeletal muscles ability to absorb oxygen from the amateur athletes, and excess fat tissue negatively affects physical performance, overall endurance and achieving high sports results in sports on the endurance.

  8. 64-slice coronary computed tomography angiography using low tube voltage of 80 kV in subjects with normal body mass indices: comparative study using 120 kV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Bo Ram; Yong, Hwan Seok; Kang, Eun-Young; Woo, Ok Hee; Choi, Eun Jung [Department of Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: yhwanseok@naver.com

    2012-12-15

    Background. The radiation dose of coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography (CCTA) is generally higher than that of CT scans of other parts of the body, and there is concern that the high radiation dose may result in increased cancer risk. Although various techniques have recently been introduced to lower the radiation dose of CCTA, there has been no direct comparison between protocols with 80 and 120 kV. Purpose. To assess the image quality and radiation dose of 80-kV electrocardiography (ECG)-gated CCTA in subjects with a normal body mass index (BMI), compared to 120-kV ECG-gated CCTA. Material and Methods. This retrospective study was approved by our local ethics board, and the requirement of written informed consent was waived. We analyzed the CCTA images of 100 subjects with BMIs <25 kg/m2. Fifty subjects underwent 120-kV CCTA, and the other 50 subjects underwent 80-kV CCTA. Two blinded observers independently evaluated the subjective image quality of the coronary arteries. The objective image quality (signal-to-noise ratio [SNR] and contrast-to-noise ratio [CNR]) and radiation dose were also measured in each group. Results. Although the objective image quality of the 80-kV protocol images was significantly poorer than that of 120-kV protocol images (mean SNR, 14.9 {+-} 4.7 vs. 19.8 {+-} 4.4, P < 0.0001; mean CNR, 15.2 {+-} 4.8 vs. 21.6 {+-} 4.7, P < 0.0001), there was no significant difference in the subjective image quality between the two groups (mean image score, 4.7 {+-} 1.1 vs. 4.5 {+-} 0.7 for radiologist 1, P 0.273; 5.0 {+-} 1.0 vs. 4.8 {+-} 1.0 for radiologist 2, P = 0.197). The radiation dose was reduced by 70% with the 80-kV protocol and by 88% with the 80-kV and ECG-based tube current modulation than with the 120-kV protocol (3.42 {+-} 1.16 and 2.9 {+-} 0.8 vs. 11.49 {+-} 3.62 mSv, P < 0.0001). Conclusion. The low tube voltage CCTA protocol using 80 kV allows significant reduction of the radiation dose without impairing the subjective image

  9. Body mass index of children aged 2 to 15 years in Enugu Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Body Mass Index (BMI) is a measure of adiposity and has been used in many countries for assessment of overweight and obesity. The prevalence of obesity in children is increasing and is recognized as risk indicator of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. The study aimed was to document the Body Mass ...

  10. Hyperbolic discounting, the sign effect, and the body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Shinsuke; Kang, Myong-Il; Ohtake, Fumio

    2010-03-01

    Analysis of a broad survey of Japanese adults confirms that time discounting relates to body weight, not only via impatience, but also via hyperbolic discounting, proxied by inclination toward procrastination, and the sign effect, where future negative payoffs are discounted at a lower rate than future positive payoffs. Body mass index is positively associated with survey responses indicative of impatience and hyperbolic discounting, and negatively associated with those indicative of the sign effect. A one-unit increase in the degree of procrastination is associated with a 2.81 percentage-point increase in the probability of being obese. Subjects exhibiting the sign effect show a 3.69 percentage-point lower probability of being obese and a 4.02 percentage-point higher probability of being underweight than those without the sign effect. These effects are substantial compared with the prevalence rates of the corresponding body mass status. Obesity and underweight thus result in part from the temporal decision biases. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Sitting-Height Index of Build, (Body Mass/(Sitting Height3, as an Improvement on the Body Mass Index for Children, Adolescents and Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Burton

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The body mass index (BMI is unsatisfactory in being affected by both relative leg length and height, and, for use with children and adolescents, therefore needs to be interpreted in relation to age. The sitting-height index of build (body mass/(sitting height3, is largely free of these disadvantages. Furthermore, because that index is independent of relative leg length, the latter can be treated as a separate indicator of nutritional history and health risks. Past studies on white children and adults have shown body mass to be approximately proportional to (sitting height3. Moreover, multiple regression of (body mass1/3 on sitting height and leg length, using year-by-year averages, has indicated that leg length is an insignificant predictor of body mass. The present study used data for individuals, namely 2–20 years old males and females, black as well as white. Regression analysis as above again showed leg length to be an insignificant predictor of body mass, but only above the age of about nine years. However, sitting height is still a stronger predictor of body mass than leg length at all ages. The advantages of the sitting-height index of build for use with young people are confirmed.

  12. Gender differences in the association between stop-signal reaction times, body mass indices and/or spontaneous food intake in pre-school children: an early model of compromised inhibitory control and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitan, R D; Rivera, J; Silveira, P P; Steiner, M; Gaudreau, H; Hamilton, J; Kennedy, J L; Davis, C; Dube, L; Fellows, L; Wazana, A; Matthews, S; Meaney, M J

    2015-04-01

    Poor inhibitory control is associated with overeating and/or obesity in school-age children, adolescents and adults. The current study examined whether an objective and reliable marker of response inhibition, the stop-signal reaction time (SSRT), is associated with body mass index (BMI) z-scores and/or food intake during a snack test in pre-school children. The current sample consisted of 193 pre-school children taking part in a longitudinal study of early brain development (Maternal Adversity, Vulnerability and Neurodevelopment (the MAVAN project)). Linear mixed-effect models were used to examine whether the SSRT measured at age 48 months associated with BMI z-scores and/or dietary intake during a laboratory-based snack test. After controlling for significant covariates including maternal BMI, there was a significant gender by SSRT interaction effect in predicting 48-month BMI z-scores. Post-hoc analysis revealed an association between longer SSRTs (poor response inhibition) and higher BMIs in girls but not boys. Across both girls and boys, longer SSRTs were associated with greater intake of carbohydrates and sugars during the snack test. The association between SSRT scores and BMI z-scores in girls was not statistically mediated by carbohydrate or sugar intake. At 48 months of age, slower response inhibition on the Stop-Signal Task associates with higher BMI z-scores in girls, and with higher intake of carbohydrates and sugars during a snack test across both genders. Ongoing follow-up of these children will help clarify the implications of these associations for longer term macronutrient intake, eating-related pathology and/or pathological weight gain over time.

  13. Maternal body mass index is a better indicator of large-for-gestational-age infants compared with a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test in early pregnancy: The JAGS trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwama, Noriyuki; Sugiyama, Takashi; Metoki, Hirohito; Kusaka, Hideto; Maki, Jota; Nishigori, Hidekazu; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Sagawa, Norimasa; Hiramatsu, Yuji; Toyoda, Nagayasu

    2017-10-01

    There is no previous study comparing the predictive ability of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) versus a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in early pregnancy for large-for-gestational-age (LGA) infants. This multi-institutional prospective cohort study included 966 pregnant Japanese women. A multiple logistic regression model was applied to compare the effect size of pre-pregnancy BMI, fasting plasma glucose (PG), and 1- and 2-h PG levels after a 75-g OGTT performed before 22weeks gestation for LGA. After these variables were included separately into the model as per continuous variables 1 standard deviation (SD) increase, they were included simultaneously. When pre-pregnancy BMI, fasting PG, and 1- and 2-h PG after a 75-g OGTT were separately included in the model, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for LGA per 1 SD increase in pre-pregnancy BMI, fasting, and 1- and 2-h PG were 1.55 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.26-1.91), 1.26 (95% CI: 1.03-1.54), 0.99 (95% CI: 0.78-1.25), and 1.17 (95% CI: 0.93-1.49), respectively. When these variables were included simultaneously, the adjusted ORs per 1 SD increase in pre-pregnancy BMI, fasting, and 1- and 2-h PG were 1.52 (95% CI: 1.23-1.88), 1.19 (95% CI: 0.96-1.46), 0.77 (95% CI: 0.57-1.03), and 1.30 (95% CI: 0.96-1.76), respectively. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI was more strongly associated with LGA compared with a 75-g OGTT in early pregnancy. Health-care providers should recognize that women with a higher pre-pregnancy BMI carry a higher risk for having LGA infants regardless of the results of a 75-g OGTT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Body Fat and Muscle Mass as Functions of Body Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, R. A.; Miller, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    Hydrostatic weighing and chemical dilution are well accepted methods for measuring body composition. Recently, Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) has become the preferred method. The two compartment algorithms used by these methods assume a fixed constant for lean body tissue. This constant has long been suspect of variations due to many…

  15. Evaluation of morphological indices and total body electrical conductivity to assess body composition in big brown bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, R.D.; O'Shea, T.J.; Wunder, B.A.

    2008-01-01

    Bat researchers have used both morphological indices and total body electric conductivity (TOBEC) as proxies for body condition in a variety of studies, but have typically not validated these indices against direct measurement of body composition. We quantified body composition (total carcass lipids) to determine if morphological indices were useful predictors of body condition in big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus). We also evaluated body composition indirectly by TOBEC using EM-SCAN?? technology. The most important predictors of body composition in multiple regression analysis were body mass-to-forearm ratio (partial r2 = 0.82, P < 0.001) followed by TOBEC measurement (partial r2 = 0.08, P < 0.001) and to a minor extent head length (partial r2 = 0.02, P < 0.05). Morphological condition indices alone may be adequate for some studies because of lower cost and effort. Marking bats with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags affected TOBEC measurements. ?? Museum and Institute of Zoology PAS.

  16. Scaling of human body mass with height: the body mass index revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, N J

    2010-03-03

    We adapt a biomechanical argument of Rashevsky, which places limits on the stress experienced by a torso supported by the legs, to deduce that body mass m of growing children should scale as the p th power of height h with 7/3 < p < 8/3. Further arguments based on stability and heat loss suggest that p should be close to 8/3. The arguments are extended to suggest that waist circumference w should scale as hq with q near the lower end of 2/3 < or = q < or = 1. Data from Hong Kong and British children are consistent with these hypotheses. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. African American College Women's Body Image: An Examination of Body Mass, African Self-Consciousness, and Skin Color Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, Jameca Woody; Neville, Helen A.

    2000-01-01

    Investigated the general and cultural factors associated with body image perceptions of African American female college students. Data from surveys of 124 women at a historically black college indicated that African self-consciousness, skin color satisfaction, and body mass index collectively accounted for significant variance in dimensions of…

  18. The "Body Mass Index" of Flexible Ureteroscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proietti, Silvia; Somani, Bhaskar; Sofer, Mario; Pietropaolo, Amelia; Rosso, Marco; Saitta, Giuseppe; Gaboardi, Franco; Traxer, Olivier; Giusti, Guido

    2017-10-01

    To assess the "body mass index" (BMI) (weight and length) of 12 flexible ureteroscopes (digital and fiber optic) along with the light cables and camera heads, to make the best use of our instruments. Twelve different brand-new flexible ureteroscopes from four different manufacturers, along with eight camera heads and three light cables were evaluated. Each ureteroscope, camera head, and light cable was weighted; the total length of each ureteroscope, shaft, handle, flexible end-tip, and cable were all measured. According to our measurements (in grams [g]), the lightest ureteroscope was the LithoVue (277.5 g), while the heaviest was the URF-V2 (942.5 g). The lightest fiber optic endoscope was the Viper (309 g), while the heaviest was the Cobra (351.5 g). Taking into account the entirety of the endoscopes, the lightest ureteroscope was the Lithovue and the heaviest was the Wolf Cobra with the Wolf camera "3 CHIP HD KAMERA KOPF ENDOCAM LOGIC HD" (1474 g). The longest ureteroscope was the URF-P6 (101.6 cm) and the shortest was the LithoVue (95.5 cm); whereas the Viper and Cobra had the longest shaft (69 cm) and URF-V had the shortest shaft (67.2 cm). The URF-V2 had the longest flexible end-tip (7.6 cm), while the LithoVue had the shortest end-tip (5.7 cm) in both directions (up/down), while the URF-V had the shortest upward deflection (3.7 cm). Newer more versatile digital endoscopes were lighter than their traditional fiber optic counterparts in their entirety, with disposable endoscope having a clear advantage over other reusable ureteroscopes. Knowing the "BMI" of our flexible ureteroscopes is an important information that every endourologist should always take into consideration.

  19. Scaling of adult regional body mass and body composition as a whole to height: Relevance to body shape and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuna, John M; Peterson, Courtney M; Thomas, Diana M; Heo, Moonseong; Hong, Sangmo; Choi, Woong; Heymsfield, Steven B

    2015-01-01

    Adult body mass (MB) empirically scales as height (Ht) squared (MB ∝ Ht(2) ), but does regional body mass and body composition as a whole also scale as Ht(2) ? This question is relevant to a wide range of biological topics, including interpretation of body mass index (BMI). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to quantify regional body mass [head (MH), trunk, arms, and legs] and whole-body composition [fat, lean soft tissue (LST), and bone mineral content (BMC)] in non-Hispanic (NH) white, NH black, Mexican American, and Korean adults participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; n = 17,126) and Korean NHANES (n = 8,942). Regression models were developed to establish Ht scaling powers for each measured component with adjustments for age and adiposity. Exploratory analyses revealed a consistent scaling pattern across men and women of the four population groups: regional mass powers, head (∼0.8-1) body composition, LST (∼2.0-2.3) body mass scaled uniformly across the eight sex and population groups as Ht(∼2) , tall and short subjects differed in body shape (e.g., MH/MB ∝ Ht(-∼1) ) and composition. Adult human body shape and relative composition are a function of body size as represented by stature, a finding that reveals a previously unrecognized phenotypic heterogeneity as defined by BMI. These observations provide new pathways for exploring mechanisms governing the interrelations between adult stature, body morphology, biomechanics, and metabolism. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Prognostic potential of body composition indices in detecting risk of musculoskeletal injury in army officer cadet profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havenetidis, Konstantinos; Paxinos, Thrasivoulos; Kardaris, Dionysios; Bissas, Athanassios

    2017-05-01

    High values in most of the body composition indices have been related to musculoskeletal injuries, but limited data exists on the accuracy of these diagnoses when detecting musculoskeletal injuries in military populations. The suitability of body fat percentage, body mass index, fat mass index and fat free mass index to identify injury risk was examined in a group of army officer recruits. All body composition diagnoses were measured in 268 male army officer recruits prior to the commencement of basic combat training. Musculoskeletal injury was identified using codes from the International Classification of Diseases. The area under the curve, in the receiver operating characteristic curve, was used to quantify the overall ability to discriminate between those who were injured and those who were not. The statistics indicated that all indices, apart from body mass index, had a significant possibility to detect musculoskeletal injury potential (p body fat percentage >22, for fat mass index >6.5 and for fat free mass index Body mass index values can not similarly detect the possibility of occurrence of musculoskeletal injuries in army officer recruits, just as other body composition diagnoses related to fat mass or/and free fat mass. However, the cut off-points related to the overall diagnostic performance of each body composition index should be used with caution and in accordance with the aims of each experimental setting.

  1. Relationship between blood pressure, body mass index and health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Globally, studies have shown that the trend of overweight and obesity has increased astronomically and there is a close link between body mass index and blood pressure. This study determined the link between the body mass index (BMI), blood pressure and health promoting practices of women in rural and ...

  2. An investigation into utilising gestational body mass index as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-10-14

    Oct 14, 2012 ... Keywords: maternal nutritional status, birth outcomes, gestational body mass index, maternal morbidities. An investigation into utilising gestational body mass index as a screening tool for adverse birth outcomes and maternal morbidities .... into Xhosa, the predominant spoken language in Khayelitsha).11.

  3. Relation between body mass index percentile and muscle strength ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relation between body mass index percentile and muscle strength and endurance. ... Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics ... They were divided into three groups according to their body mass index percentile where group (a) is equal to or more than 5% percentile yet less than 85% percentile, group (b) is equal to ...

  4. An investigation into utilising gestational body mass index as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-10-14

    Oct 14, 2012 ... 5Philani Child Health and Nutrition Centre, Khayelitsha. Correspondence to: Hilary Davies, e-mail: h.davies.12@ucl.ac.uk. Keywords: maternal nutritional status, birth outcomes, gestational body mass index, maternal morbidities. An investigation into utilising gestational body mass index as a screening tool ...

  5. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BODY MASS INDEX AND SUBJECTIVE WELL-BEING - THE MODERATING ROLE OF BODY DISSATISFACTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brdarić, Dragana; Jovanović, Veljko; Gavrilov Jerković, Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Excess bodyweight and obesity are widespread health problems throughout the world. In Serbia, over 50% of the adult population is overweight and the Province of Vojvodina is one of the regions with the highest percentage of obesity. The relationship between obesity and health complications has been consistently demonstrated. However, research on the relationship between obesity and subjective well-being has not provided clear results. Body dissatisfaction is considered to be an important factor for understanding this relationship. The main objective of this study was to investigate the moderating effect of body dissatisfaction in the relationship between body mass index and subjective well-being. The study sample included 731 respondents (72.6% women), with the mean age 28.93 years (SD = 8.47) from the Province of Vojvodina who had completed an online set of tests consisting of Body Shape Questionnaire, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21, Satisfaction with Life Scale, Scale of Positive and Negative Experience and a self-assessment of bodyweight and body height. The results indicate that the moderating effect of body dissatisfaction in the relationship between body mass index and indicators of subjective well-being is statistically significant in both sexes. Specifically, the women with higher body mass index values who expressed lower body dissatisfaction reported lower levels of emotional distress and higher levels of pleasant emotions than those with lower body mass index. On the other hand, the men with higher bodyweight preoccupation and low body mass index reported significantly higher levels of pleasant emotions than those with higher body mass index values. These results suggest the necessity of a more detailed study of this relationship on both clinical and general population samples from Serbia.

  6. Whole body vibration improves body mass, flexibility and strength in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to vibration. WBV intervention exploits the body's innate reflex response to disruptions in stability in order to stimulate and enhance muscle strength and performance. Practically, WBV training has the advantage of overcoming some of the cited obstacles to exercise because it decreases overall training time and takes place ...

  7. Relationship between body mass index, waist circumference, fat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of obesity based on the Body Mass Index (BMI), waist circumference, and fat mass and fat percentage and to examine the relationship between BMI, waist circumference, fat mass and fat percentage as the measurement of obesity among university students.

  8. Physical activity, body mass index and blood pressure in primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Working Group on high blood pressure in children and adolescents: Fourth report on the diagnosis, evaluation and treatment of high blood pressure in children and ad- olescents. Paediatrics 2004; 114: 555 – 566. 21. Owa JA, Adejuyigbe O. Fat mass, fat mass percentage, body mass index and upper mid arm circumference ...

  9. [Anthropometric indicators of obesity in the prediction of high body fat in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelegrini, Andreia; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Silva, João Marcos Ferreira de Lima; Grigollo, Leoberto; Petroski, Edio Luiz

    2015-01-01

    To determine the anthropometric indicators of obesity in the prediction of high body fat in adolescents from a Brazilian State. The study included 1,197 adolescents (15-17 years old). The following anthropometric measurements were collected: body mass (weight and height), waist circumference and skinfolds (triceps and medial calf). The anthropometric indicators analyzed were: body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and conicity index (C-Index). Body fat percentage, estimated by the Slaughter et al equation, was used as the reference method. Descriptive statistics, U Mann-Whitney test, and ROC curve were used for data analysis. Of the four anthropometric indicators studied, BMI, WHtR and WC had the largest areas under the ROC curve in relation to relative high body fat in both genders. The cutoffs for boys and girls, respectively, associated with high body fat were BMI 22.7 and 20.1 kg/m(2), WHtR 0.43 and 0.41, WC 75.7 and 67.7 cm and C-Index 1.12 and 1.06. Anthropometric indicators can be used in screening for identification of body fat in adolescents, because they are simple, have low cost and are non-invasive. Copyright © 2014 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of hibernation and reproductive status on body mass and condition of coastal brown bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilderbrand, G.V.; Schwartz, C. C.; Robbins, C.T.; Hanley, Thomas A.

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the effect of hibernation and reproductive status on changes in body mass and composition of adult female brown bears (Ursus arctos) on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. This information is fundamental to understanding nutritional ecology of wild brown bear populations. Six adult females handled in the fall and following spring (paired samples) lost 73 ± 22 kg (x̄ ± SD; 32 ± 10%) of fall body mass over 208 ± 19 days. Of this mass loss, 56 ± 22% (55 ± 22 kg) was lipid and 44 ± 22% (43 ± 21 kg) was lean body mass. Catabolism of lipid stores accounted for 88.4 ± 8.1% of the body energy used to meet maintenance demands. Overwinter differences in body composition of adult females assessed only once in either the fall (n = 21) or spring (n = 32) were similar to those of paired samples. Relative fatness of bears entering the den was positively related to the contribution of fat (%) to body mass (P hibernation. Thus, relative fatness at the onset of fasting influences the relative proportion of lipid stores and lean body mass catabolized to meet protein and energy demands during hibernation. In the spring, lone females had greater body and lean masses than females with cubs of the year or yearlings. Lipid content was greatest in lone females in the fall. Studies using body mass and composition as indices of population health should consider season or reproductive class.

  11. The Relationships among Body Image, Body Mass Index, Exercise, and Sexual Functioning in Heterosexual Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Angela D.; Byers, E. Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Problems related to negative body image are very common among young women. In this study, we examined the relationship between women's body image and their sexual functioning over and above the effects of physical exercise and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of 214 university women. Low situational body image dysphoria and low body…

  12. Effect of body mass index on serum leptin levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, R.F.; Hassan, M.; Nazar, H.S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Leptin is product of ob gene, an adipose tissue derived hormone that plays a key role in the regulation of body fat mass by regulating appetite and metabolism while balancing energy intake and energy expenditure. The objective of the study was to evaluate possible association between serum leptin levels and Body Mass Index (BMI) of gender in adult age group. Methods: Two-hundred-seventy subjects aged 20-50 years were randomly selected from general population of Abbottabad. The subjects were grouped on the basis on BMI (89 normal, 92 overweight, and 89 obese). After complete evaluation, demographic data was recorded and BMI. Non-fasting venous blood samples were drawn to measure serum leptin and serum glucose levels. The data were analysed using SPSS-15 calculating mean, percentage, independent t-test and chi-square test. Correlation and regression curve analysis were obtained, and p and r values were calculated. Results: Serum leptin levels and differences between genders were significant in all body mass indices. For normal BMI group the mean values for leptin were 2.6+-1.5 gamma g/ml in men, and 17.3+9-10.2 gamma g/ml for women. For Group-2 mean leptin levels in men were 9.9+-6.8 gamma g/ml and in women were 34.8+-13.6 gamma g/ml. For Group-3 BMI comprising obese subjects mean values for men were 21.3+-14.2 gamma g/ml and for women were 48.21+-21.2 gamma g/ml (p<0.001). Conclusion: A progressive increase in serum leptin concentration was observed with an increase in BMI. Significant difference between leptin concentrations in either gender was found in normal, overweight and obese subjects. (author)

  13. Body mass reconstruction on the basis of selected skeletal traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myszka, Anna; Piontek, Janusz; Vancata, Vaclav

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this paper is: to estimate the body mass of the skeletons with the mechanical method (femoral head body mass estimation method--FH) and non-mechanical method (stature/living bi-iliac breadth body mass estimation method--ST/LBIB); to compare the reliability and potential use of results obtained with both methods. The material (46 skeletons, 26 males, 20 females) used in the study came from the medieval burial ground in Cedynia, Poland. Body mass reconstruction according to non-mechanical method was made using equations proposed by Ruff et al. (2005). Body mass estimation based on the mechanical method was calculated using formulas proposed by Ruff et al. (1995). In the mechanical body mass reconstruction method, femoral superoinferior breadth was used. Reconstruction of body weight using the non-mechanical method was based on maximum pelvic breadth and reconstructed body height. The correlation between bi-iliac breadth and femoral head measurements and the correlation between femoral head and reconstructed body height were also calculated. The significance of differences between the body mass of male and female individuals was tested with the Mann-Whitney U-test. The significance of differences between body mass values obtained with the mechanical (FH) and the non-mechanical method (ST/ LBIB) was tested using Pearson's correlation. The same test was used for the calculation of the relationship between bi-iliac breadth and femoral head measurements and between femoral head and reconstructed body height. In contrast to females, in males there is no statistically significant correlation between body mass estimated with the mechanical method (FH) and the non-mechanical method (ST/LBIB). In both sexes there was not statistically significant correlation between bi-iliac breadth and femoral head measurements. Only in the females group the correlation between femoral head and reconstructed body height was statistically significant. It is worth to continue

  14. Added Mass of a Spherical Cap Body

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimčík, Miroslav; Punčochář, Miroslav; Růžička, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 118, OCT 18 (2014), s. 1-8 ISSN 0009-2509 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13018 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : spherical cap * added mass * single particle Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.337, year: 2014

  15. No Change of Body Mass, Fat Mass, and Skeletal Muscle Mass in Ultraendurance Swimmers after 12 Hours of Swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Kaul, Rene; Kohler, Gotz

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated whether ultraendurance swimmers suffer a change of body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, total body water, and specific gravity of urine during a 12-hr swim in 12 male Caucasian ultraswimmers. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance of urine samples before and after the race was performed to detect alanine, lactate, and…

  16. The plasma leptin concentration is closely associated with the body fat mass in nondiabetic uremic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Nielsen, P K; Olgaard, K

    1999-01-01

    filtration rate seemed to have a limited influence on the plasma leptin concentration in nondiabetic uremic subjects matched by body fat mass to controls. The plasma leptin concentration was closely associated with the body fat mass, and the leptin level might, therefore, be useful as an indicator of the fat......Plasma leptin is associated with the body mass index and, more precisely, with the body fat mass. Plasma leptin has been found to be elevated in uremic patients. This study aimed at investigating the plasma leptin concentration and associations between plasma leptin, body fat mass, and glomerular.......4 (3.1-59.5) ng/ml versus 5.4 (1.6-47.5) ng/ml (median and range in parentheses; p

  17. Body image in the mass media

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Iris Bazán; Rosinella Miño

    2015-01-01

    The concern about weight that characterizes most modern women stemmed from the medical research that showed the relationship between obesity and diseases such as hypertension or cardiovascular disease. As shown by the American filmmaker Michael Moore in his documentary film “Sicko” in 2007, large US health companies financially rewarded those with a thinner body and sanctioned overweight people because they had higher risks of disease and thus generate losses to their companies. From there, t...

  18. Analysis of Urine as Indicators of Specific Body Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Souradeep; Saha, Triya; Narendrakumar, Uttamchand

    2017-11-01

    Urinalysis can be defined as a procedure for examining various factors of urine, which include physical properties, particulate matter, cells, casts, crystals, organisms and solutes. Urinalysis is recommended to be a part of the initial examination of all patients as its cheap, feasible and gives productive results. This paper focuses on the analysis of urine collected at specific body conditions. Here we illustrate the urine profile of different persons having various body conditions, which include, having urinary tract infection, undergoing strenuous exercise, having back pain regularly, having very low urine output and a person who is on 24 hours of diet. Examination of urine collected from different persons having specific body conditions usually helps us in the diagnosis of various diseases, which it indicates.

  19. Whey protein supplementation during resistance training augments lean body mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volek, Jeff S; Volk, Brittanie M; Gómez, Ana L; Kunces, Laura J; Kupchak, Brian R; Freidenreich, Daniel J; Aristizabal, Juan C; Saenz, Catherine; Dunn-Lewis, Courtenay; Ballard, Kevin D; Quann, Erin E; Kawiecki, Diana L; Flanagan, Shawn D; Comstock, Brett A; Fragala, Maren S; Earp, Jacob E; Fernandez, Maria L; Bruno, Richard S; Ptolemy, Adam S; Kellogg, Mark D; Maresh, Carl M; Kraemer, William J

    2013-01-01

    Compared to soy, whey protein is higher in leucine, absorbed quicker and results in a more pronounced increase in muscle protein synthesis. To determine whether supplementation with whey promotes greater increases in muscle mass compared to soy or carbohydrate, we randomized non-resistance-trained men and women into groups who consumed daily isocaloric supplements containing carbohydrate (carb; n = 22), whey protein (whey; n = 19), or soy protein (soy; n = 22). All subjects completed a supervised, whole-body periodized resistance training program consisting of 96 workouts (~9 months). Body composition was determined at baseline and after 3, 6, and 9 months. Plasma amino acid responses to resistance exercise followed by supplement ingestion were determined at baseline and 9 months. Daily protein intake (including the supplement) for carb, whey, and soy was 1.1, 1.4, and 1.4 g·kg body mass⁻¹, respectively. Lean body mass gains were significantly (p mass decreased slightly but there were no differences between groups. Fasting concentrations of leucine were significantly elevated (20%) and postexercise plasma leucine increased more than 2-fold in whey. Fasting leucine concentrations were positively correlated with lean body mass responses. Despite consuming similar calories and protein during resistance training, daily supplementation with whey was more effective than soy protein or isocaloric carbohydrate control treatment conditions in promoting gains in lean body mass. These results highlight the importance of protein quality as an important determinant of lean body mass responses to resistance training.

  20. Increase of Total Body Water with Decrease of Body Mass while Running 100 km Nonstop--Formation of Edema?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Wirth, Andrea; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    We investigated whether ultraendurance runners in a 100-km run suffer a decrease of body mass and whether this loss consists of fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, or total body water. Male ultrarunners were measured pre- and postrace to determine body mass, fat mass, and skeletal muscle mass by using the anthropometric method. In addition,…

  1. Assessment of nutritional status in adult patients with cystic fibrosis: whole-body bioimpedance vs body mass index, skinfolds, and leg-to-leg bioimpedance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, F.M.; Roos, de N.M.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Berkhout, van F.T.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether body mass index (BMI) or body fat percentage estimated from BMI, skinfolds, or leg-to-leg bioimpedance are good indicators of nutritional status in adult patients with cystic fibrosis. Body fat percentage measured by whole-body bioimpedance was used as the reference

  2. Total body water and lean body mass estimated by ethanol dilution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeppky, J. A.; Myhre, L. G.; Venters, M. D.; Luft, U. C.

    1977-01-01

    A method for estimating total body water (TBW) using breath analyses of blood ethanol content is described. Regression analysis of ethanol concentration curves permits determination of a theoretical concentration that would have existed if complete equilibration had taken place immediately upon ingestion of the ethanol; the water fraction of normal blood may then be used to calculate TBW. The ethanol dilution method is applied to 35 subjects, and comparison with a tritium dilution method of determining TBW indicates that the correlation between the two procedures is highly significant. Lean body mass and fat fraction were determined by hydrostatic weighing, and these data also prove compatible with results obtained from the ethanol dilution method. In contrast to the radioactive tritium dilution method, the ethanol dilution method can be repeated daily with its applicability ranging from diseased individuals to individuals subjected to thermal stress, strenuous exercise, water immersion, or the weightless conditions of space flights.

  3. Association between body composition and body mass index in young Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Hiroyuki; Kitano, Takao; Kuchiki, Tsutomu; Okazaki, Hideki; Shibata, Shigeo

    2002-06-01

    The National Nutrition Survey of Japan indicated a trend toward a decreasing body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) among young Japanese women. Current studies suggest that not-high BMI often does not correlate with not-high body fat percentage. Recently, the classification of BMI in adult Asians was proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. The addition of an "at risk of overweight" category, BMI as 23.0-24.9, was intended to prevent chronic diseases. We investigated the association between body fat percentage (BF%) and BMI to evaluate the screening performance of BMI focused on individual preventive medicine. The subjects consisted of 605 female college students. The subjects' ages (y), heights (cm), body weights (kg), BMIs, and BF percents with underwater weighing expressed as the means +/- SD were 19.6 +/- 0.5, 158.7 +/- 5.6, 53.8 +/- 7.2, 21.3 +/- 2.4, and 24.9 +/- 4.9, respectively. We defined high BF% as +/- 85th percentile of BF% (29.8%). High-BF% individuals are often not classified into BMI > or = 23.0 because their BMI readings are very broad (18.4-31.7). In comparison to the screening performances (specificity and sensitivity), BMI > or = 23.0 (85.3% and 52.1%, respectively), rather than BMI > or = 25.0 (96.7% and 29.8%, respectively), is recommended for the mass evaluation of fatness. For this reason, the BMI "at risk of overweight" category is characterized as the threshold of increasing the appearance ratio of high-BF% individuals. In conclusion, the BMI > or = 25.0 kg/m2 category is determined as high BF%, regardless of body composition measurement for mass evaluation as a result of quite high specificity. Even so, body composition measurement is necessitated by the individual evaluation of fatness focused on preventive medicine because BMI performed a poor representation of body composition, especially BMI < 25.0 kg/m2 individuals.

  4. Histologically Measured Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy Correlates with Body Height as Strongly as with Body Mass Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard E. Tracy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac myocytes are presumed to enlarge with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH. This study correlates histologically measured myocytes with lean and fat body mass. Cases of LVH without coronary heart disease and normal controls came from forensic autopsies. The cross-sectional widths of myocytes in H&E-stained paraffin sections followed log normal distributions almost to perfection in all 104 specimens, with constant coefficient of variation across the full range of ventricular weight, as expected if myocytes of all sizes contribute proportionately to hypertrophy. Myocyte sizes increased with height. By regression analysis, height2.7 as a proxy for lean body mass and body mass index (BMI as a proxy for fat body mass, exerted equal effects in the multiple correlation with myocyte volume, and the equation rejected race and sex. In summary, myocyte sizes, as indexes of LVH, suggest that lean and fat body mass may contribute equally.

  5. Body adiposity index utilization in a Spanish Mediterranean population: comparison with the body mass index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel A López

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Body fat content and fat distribution or adiposity are indicators of health risk. Several techniques have been developed and used for assessing and/or determining body fat or adiposity. Recently, the Body Adiposity Index (BAI, which is based on the measurements of hip circumference and height, has been suggested as a new index of adiposity. The aim of the study was to compare BAI and BMI measurements in a Caucasian population from a European Mediterranean area and to assess the usefulness of the BAI in men and women separately. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in a Caucasian population. All participants in the study (1,726 women and 1,474 men, mean age 39.2 years, SD 10.8 were from Mallorca (Spain. Anthropometric data, including percentage of body fat mass obtained by Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis, were determined. Body Mass Index (BMI and BAI were calculated. BAI and BMI showed a good correlation (r = 0.64, p<0.001. A strong correlation was also found between BAI and the % fat determined using BIA (r = 0.74, p<0.001, which is even stronger than the one between BMI and % fat (r = 0.54, p<0.001. However, the ROC curve analysis showed a higher accuracy for BMI than for the BAI regarding the discriminatory capacity. CONCLUSION: The BAI could be a good tool to measure adiposity due, at least in part, to the advantages over other more complex mechanical or electrical systems. Probably, the most important advantage of BAI over BMI is that weight is not needed. However, in general it seems that the BAI does not overcome the limitations of BMI.

  6. Índice de massa corporal como indicativo da gordura corporal comparado às dobras cutâneas Índice de masa corporal como indicativo de la gordura corporal comparado a los pliegues cutáneos Body mass index as indicative of body fat compared to the skinfolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fátima Glaner

    2005-08-01

    coeficiente de contingencia y el índice kappa. RESULTADOS Y CONCLUSIÓN: Los datos indicaron que solamente el 48,98% de las chicas y el 57,32% de los chicos fueron clasificados concomitantemente por lo IMC y la sumatoria TR + PA. El índice kappa indico una franca concordancia entre las tres categorías de clasificación de la gordura corporal (por encima, por debajo, y dentro del padrón recomendado. De esta forma, se concluye que el IMC no presenta consistencia para clasificar chicas y chicos en cuanto a la gordura corporal.BACKGROUND: Body fat is associated with a high incidence of degenerative diseases. Therefore, estimating body fat with the smallest error as possible is primordial. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to verify if the body mass index (BMI presents consistence in relation to the sum of triceps and calf skinfold (TR + CA in order to classify girls and boys as above, below and within the recommended standard (reference criterion, considered as adequate for a good health condition. METHODS: The sample was composed by 694 girls and 716 boys with ages ranging from 10.50 to 17.49 years. The variables were measured and analyzed in relation to the reference criterion presented by the AAHPERD (1988. The data were analyzed by the contingency coefficient and kappa index. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The results indicated that only 48.98% of girls and 57.32% of boys were concomitantly classified by BMI and TR + CA. The kappa index indicated a very weak agreement between the three classification categories of body fat (above, below and within the recommended standard. In conclusion, the BMI does not present consistence in order to classify girls and boys in relation to body fat.

  7. Childhood body mass index and risk of adult pancreatic cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogueira, Leticia; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Gamborg, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Background: Excess weight in adulthood is one of the few modifiable risk factors for pancreatic cancer, and height has associations as well. This leads to question whether body weight and height in childhood are associated with adult pancreatic cancer. Objective: To examine if childhood body mass...

  8. Relationship Between Socioeconomic Status and Body Mass Index ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fola

    determine whether variations in the body mass index (BMI) of adult Nigerians is influenced by their SES. ... A pictorial self-rating. SES ladder of nine rungs was employed to assess the participants' SES and to test the validity of the questionnaire. A high correlation ® = 0.951, ..... impacts of socioeconomics and body image.

  9. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Associations between body mass index and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Associations between body mass index and serum levels of. C-reactive protein ... tissue9,10 and growing evidence that adipose tissue can induce chronic ... completed a household interview and laboratory and clinical examinations. Body measurements. Generally, height and weight were not obtained for subjects using a ...

  10. Childhood body mass index and multiple sclerosis risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munger, Kassandra L; Bentzen, Joan; Laursen, Bjarne

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity in late adolescence has been associated with an increased risk of multiple sclerosis (MS); however, it is not known if body size in childhood is associated with MS risk. METHODS: Using a prospective design we examined whether body mass index (BMI) at ages 7-13 years...

  11. Assessment of the physical activity, body mass index and energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Declining levels of physical activity at workplaces, during leisure time and when travelling, accompanied by increasing exposure to the mass media, are major determinants of the global obesity epidemic. This study aimed to assess physical activity, the body mass index (BMI) and energy intake of human ...

  12. Indice de masa corporal y percepción de la imagen corporal en una población adulta mexicana: la precisión del autorreporte Body mass index and body image perception in Mexican adult population: The accuracy of self-reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Osuna-Ramírez

    2006-04-01

    silhouettes ranked from 1 to 9. Participants also self-reported their current weight and height, unaware that direct measurements of weight and height were to follow. Four to eight months later participants were weighed and their heights were measured using standardized procedures. Spearman correlations were computed to analyze the correlation between self-reported and measured data. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to evaluate the magnitude of difference between measured and self-reported height, weight and body mass index (BMI (measured minus self-reported, by educational level and categories of age. Robust regression was used to evaluate the potential effect of specific individual characteristics on differences between measured and self-reported weight and height. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values for BMI. RESULTS: The study included 934 subjects, of which 62.6% were female. Females had a mean measured height of 1.55 m (SD 0.06 and weight of 65.4 kg (SD 10.9, while males had a mean height of 1.67 m (SD 0.06 and weight of 77.7 kg (SD 12.5. The mean BMI was 27.4 kg/m² (SD 4.3 (females: 27.2 kg/m² ±4.45; males: 27.8±3.87. The median of body image perception (BIP was 5 (25th percentile=4; 75th percentile=6. Correlations between measured and self-reported height, weight, and BMI for all subjects were 0.94, 0.96, and 0.90, respectively. The correlation between BMI and BIP was 0.64 (0.67 for females and 0.59 for males. Self-reported mean varied no more than 1.3 cm from measured height and no more than 3.17 kg from measured weight. Error estimations of height, weight, and BMI decreased with educational level. Sensitivity and specificity before adjusting self-reported BMI with overweight and obesity categories that were collapsed into one were 94.8 and 83.0%, respectively; for BIP, those values were 87.6 and 48.9%. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that self-reported BMI and BIP can be useful indicators of an

  13. Corporal surface as indicator of muscular mass in the adult of the masculine sex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Vieitez, Jorge Alberto

    2003-01-01

    With the objective of finding out the body surface area equation (BSA, m2) that is most suitable as indicator of musculature because of its higher correlation with the muscle mass (MM,kg), a correlation analysis was made between the MM and the BSA estimated by 11 weight and height-based formulae. Primary weight, height and MM data were obtained from these studies (N=41) in which MM was determined by cadaver dissection or by computerized axial tomography. A remarkable variability was observed in the BSA values estimated by 11 equations (F=59,7; p< 0,05). The correlation coefficients between the body surface estimated by different equations and the muscle mass were statistically significant and very similar. It was concluded that there is no BSA equation that is far better than the rest as muscle mass indicator. Mostellers equation is recommended due to its calculation simplicity

  14. Shoulder height, body mass and shape of proboscideans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asier Larramendi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades there has been a growing interest in proboscideans’ body size, given that mass is highly correlated with biological functions. Different allometric equations have been proposed in the recent decades to estimate their body masses, based on a large number of living examples. However, the results obtained by these formulae are not accurate because extinct animals often had different body proportions and some were outside the size range of extant samples. Here the body mass of a large number of extinct proboscideans has been calculated by the Graphic Double Integration volumetric method which is based on technical restorations from graphical reconstructions of fossils employing photos, measurements and comparative anatomy of extant forms. The method has been tested on extant elephants with highly accurate results. The reconstructions necessary to apply this method give important information such as body proportions. On the other hand, equations to calculate the skeletal shoulder height have been developed, with a large number of published shoulder heights being recalculated. From the shoulder heights, several equations were created to find out the body mass of a series of extant and extinct species. A few of the largest proboscideans, namely Mammut borsoni and Palaeoloxodon namadicus, were found out to have reached and surpassed the body size of the largest indricotheres. Bearing this in mind, the largest land mammal that ever existed seems to be within the order of Proboscidea, contrary to previous understanding.

  15. Effect of ‘Water Induced Thermogenesis’ on Body Weight, Body Mass Index and Body Composition of Overweight Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Vij, Vinu A.; Joshi, Anjali S.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Drinking lots of water is commonly suggested as a part of weight loss regimens. However, only few systematic studies have addressed this notion. In this study, the effect of drinking 1500 ml of water, over and above the daily water intake on body weight, body mass index (BMI) and body composition of overweight subjects was assessed.

  16. Biochemical and hematological indicators in model of total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubner, D; Gisone, P.; Perez, M.R.; Barboza, M.; Luchetta, P.; Longoni, H.; Sorrentino, M.; Robison, A.

    1998-01-01

    With the purpose of evaluating the applicability of several biological indicators in accidental overexposures a study was carried out in 20 patients undergoing therapeutical total body irradiation (TBI). The following parameters were evaluated: a) Oxidative stress indicators: erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity (CAT), lipo peroxyde levels (TBARS) and total plasma antioxidant activity (TAA). b) Haematological indicators: reticulocyte maturity index (RMI) and charges in lymphocyte subpopulations. Non significant changes in SOD and CAT activity were observed. Significant higher TBARS levels were found in patients with unfavorable post-BTM course without any significant correlation with TAA. RMI decreased early and dropped to zero in most of the patients and rose several days prior to reticulocyte, neutrophils and platelets counts. A significant decrease in absolute counts of all lymphocyte subpopulations was observed during TBI, particularly for B lymphocytes. A subpopulation of natural killer (NK) cells (CD16+/ CD 56 +) showed a relative higher radioresistance. Cytotoxic activity was significantly decreased after TBI. These data suggest that TBARS could provide an useful evolutive indicator in accidental over exposure d patients and RMI is an early indicator of bone marrow recovery after radioinduced aplasia. The implications of the different radiosensitivities within the NK subsets remains unanswered. (author) [es

  17. Body composition indices and predicted cardiovascular disease risk profile among urban dwellers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tin Tin; Amiri, Mohammadreza; Mohd Hairi, Farizah; Thangiah, Nithiah; Dahlui, Maznah; Majid, Hazreen Abdul

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to compare various body composition indices and their association with a predicted cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profile in an urban population in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in metropolitan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, in 2012. Households were selected using a simple random-sampling method, and adult members were invited for medical screening. The Framingham Risk Scoring algorithm was used to predict CVD risk, which was then analyzed in association with body composition measurements, including waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, waist-height ratio, body fat percentage, and body mass index. Altogether, 882 individuals were included in our analyses. Indices that included waist-related measurements had the strongest association with CVD risk in both genders. After adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic variables, waist-related measurements retained the strongest correlations with predicted CVD risk in males. However, body mass index, waist-height ratio, and waist circumference had the strongest correlation with CVD risk in females. The waist-related indicators of abdominal obesity are important components of CVD risk profiles. As waist-related parameters can quickly and easily be measured, they should be routinely obtained in primary care settings and population health screens in order to assess future CVD risk profiles and design appropriate interventions.

  18. Body Composition Indices and Predicted Cardiovascular Disease Risk Profile among Urban Dwellers in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tin Tin; Amiri, Mohammadreza; Mohd Hairi, Farizah; Thangiah, Nithiah; Dahlui, Maznah; Majid, Hazreen Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study aims to compare various body composition indices and their association with a predicted cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profile in an urban population in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in metropolitan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, in 2012. Households were selected using a simple random-sampling method, and adult members were invited for medical screening. The Framingham Risk Scoring algorithm was used to predict CVD risk, which was then analyzed in association with body composition measurements, including waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, waist-height ratio, body fat percentage, and body mass index. Results. Altogether, 882 individuals were included in our analyses. Indices that included waist-related measurements had the strongest association with CVD risk in both genders. After adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic variables, waist-related measurements retained the strongest correlations with predicted CVD risk in males. However, body mass index, waist-height ratio, and waist circumference had the strongest correlation with CVD risk in females. Conclusions. The waist-related indicators of abdominal obesity are important components of CVD risk profiles. As waist-related parameters can quickly and easily be measured, they should be routinely obtained in primary care settings and population health screens in order to assess future CVD risk profiles and design appropriate interventions. PMID:25710002

  19. Anthropometric dimensions of male powerlifters of varying body mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Justin W L; Hume, Patria A; Pearson, Simon N; Mellow, Peter

    2007-10-01

    In this study, we examined the anthropometric dimensions of powerlifters across various body mass (competitive bodyweight) categories. Fifty-four male Oceania competitive powerlifters (9 lightweight, 30 middleweight, and 15 heavyweight) were recruited from one international and two national powerlifting competitions held in New Zealand. Powerlifters were assessed for 37 anthropometric dimensions by ISAK (International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry) level II and III accredited anthropometrists. The powerlifters were highly mesomorphic and had large girths and bony breadths, both in absolute units and when expressed as Z(p)-scores compared through the Phantom (Ross & Wilson, 1974). These anthropometric characteristics were more pronounced in heavyweights, who were significantly heavier, had greater muscle and fat mass, were more endo-mesomorphic, and had larger girths and bony breadths than the lighter lifters. Although middleweight and heavyweight lifters typically had longer segment lengths than the lightweights, all three groups had similar Zp-scores for the segment lengths, indicating similar segment length proportions. While population comparisons would be required to identify any connection between specific anthropometric dimensions that confer a competitive advantage to the expression of maximal strength, anthropometric profiling may prove useful for talent identification and for the assessment of training progression in powerlifting.

  20. Association between Enuresis and Body Mass Index in Schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Boryri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAutomatic release of urine at any time of a day during sleep beyond the age of five years defined enuresis as a health disorders in children. The etiology of enuresis is still not clearly understood. Body Mass Index (BMI is an indicator to evaluate the growth trend of individuals in a population for any specific age group. Evaluation of obesity in children is important and provides an opportunity to identify the problem and prevent disease progression. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of enuresis and the association with BMI.Materials and MethodsThe study was a cross-sectional survey based on specific age group population to determine the prevalence of enuresis conducted on the schoolchildren in Zahedan, Iran during December 2015 and February 2016. A random, multistage sample of 2,000 students was taken from fifty schools in five districts of Zahedan city and filled out some easy questions such as age and gender along with measuring weight and height. Body Mass Index categorized after calculation accordance with the formulae of BMI= Height (kg / Weight (m 2. The classification of BMI was accordance with  percentiles  of  underweight in less than the 5th percentile, healthy level from the 5th to less than 85th percentile, overweight from the 85th to less than the 97th percentile and obese equal to or greater than the 97th percentile.ResultsThe prevalence of enuresis was 17.18% for boys and 11.82% for girls, and the overall prevalence was 140 in 1000. Enuresis and non- enuresis population were different in mean of BMI (15.51±3.92 versus 17.69±5.11, so that this differential were statistically significant (P

  1. EFFECTS OF BODY MASS-BASED SQUAT TRAINING IN ADOLESCENT BOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohei Takai

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of body mass-based squat training on body composition, muscular strength and motor fitness in adolescent boys. Ninety-four boys (13.7 ± 0.6 yrs, 1.60 ± 0.09 m, 50.2 ± 9.6 kg participated in this study and were randomly assigned to training (n = 36 or control (n = 58 groups. The training group completed body mass-based squat exercise training (100 reps/day, 45 sessions for 8 weeks. Body composition and muscle thickness at the thigh anterior were determined by a bioelectrical impedance analyzer and ultrasound apparatus, respectively. Maximal voluntary knee extension strength and sprint velocity were measured using static myometer and non-motorized treadmill, respectively. Jump height was calculated using flight time during jumping, which was measured by a matswitch system. The 8-wk body mass-based squat training significantly decreased percent body fat (4.2% and significantly increased the lean body mass (2.7%, muscle thickness (3.2% and strength of the knee extensors (16.0%, compared to control group. The vertical jump height was also significantly improved by 3.4% through the intervention. The current results indicate that body mass-based squat training for 8 weeks is a feasible and effective method for improving body composition and muscular strength of the knee extensors, and jump performance in adolescent boys.

  2. Body mass modulates huddling dynamics and body temperature profiles in rabbit pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Amando; Zepeda, José Alfredo; Reyes-Meza, Verónica; Féron, Christophe; Rödel, Heiko G; Hudson, Robyn

    2017-10-01

    Altricial mammals typically lack the physiological capacity to thermoregulate independently during the early postnatal period, and in litter-bearing species the young benefit strongly from huddling together with their litter siblings. Such litter huddles are highly dynamic systems, often characterized by competition for energetically favorable, central positions. In the present study, carried out in domestic rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus, we asked whether individual differences in body mass affect changes in body temperature during changes in the position within the huddle. We predicted that pups with relatively lower body mass should be more affected by such changes arising from huddle dynamics in comparison to heavier ones. Changes in pups' maximum body surface temperature (determined by infrared thermography) were significantly affected by changes in the number of their neighbors in the litter huddle, and indeed these temperature changes largely depended on the pups' body mass relative to their litter siblings. Lighter pups showed significant increases in their maximum body surface temperature when their number of huddling partners increased by one or two siblings whereas pups with intermediate or heavier body mass did not show such significant increases in maximum body temperature when experiencing such changes. A similar pattern was found with respect to average body surface temperature. This strong link between changes in the number of huddling partners and body surface temperature in lighter pups might, on the one hand, arise from a higher vulnerability of such pups due to their less favorable body surface area-to-volume ratio. On the other hand, as lighter pups generally had fewer neighbors than heavier ones and thus typically a comparatively smaller body surface in contact with siblings, they potentially had more to gain from increasing their number of neighbors. The present findings might help to understand how individual differences in body mass within a

  3. Can Handgrip Strength Improve Following Body Mass-Based Lower Body Exercise?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yaginuma

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Knee extension strength (KES improves following body mass-based lower body exercise training; however, it is unknown whether this type of exercise increases handgrip strength (HGS as a result of a cross-education effect in older individuals. Our aim was to investigate the effect of a body mass-based exercise intervention on HGS and KES in older adults. At baseline, 166 subjects started a 12-week intervention program, and 160 (108 women and 52 men subjects completed the study. A self-selected group of 37 older adults (21 women and 16 men served as a control group. HGS, KES, and ultrasound-derived anterior thigh muscle thickness (anterior thigh MT were measured at baseline and post-testing, and relative strength of the knee extensor (KES/anterior thigh MT was calculated. A linear regression model controlling for baseline values of body–mass index, % body fat, fat-free mass, HGS, chair stand time, anterior thigh MT, and KES/body mass ratio found a significant difference between control and training groups for KES post-testing values (p = 0.001 and anterior thigh MT post-testing values (p = 0.012, but not for HGS post-testing values (p = 0.287. Our results suggest that increases in lower body strength and muscle size following a 12-week lower body mass-based exercise intervention fail to translate into improvements in HGS.

  4. Association of Body Mass Index with Depression, Anxiety and Suicide-An Instrumental Variable Analysis of the HUNT Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Håkon Bjørngaard

    Full Text Available While high body mass index is associated with an increased risk of depression and anxiety, cumulative evidence indicates that it is a protective factor for suicide. The associations from conventional observational studies of body mass index with mental health outcomes are likely to be influenced by reverse causality or confounding by ill-health. In the present study, we investigated the associations between offspring body mass index and parental anxiety, depression and suicide in order to avoid problems with reverse causality and confounding by ill-health.We used data from 32,457 mother-offspring and 27,753 father-offspring pairs from the Norwegian HUNT-study. Anxiety and depression were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and suicide death from national registers. Associations between offspring and own body mass index and symptoms of anxiety and depression and suicide mortality were estimated using logistic and Cox regression. Causal effect estimates were estimated with a two sample instrument variable approach using offspring body mass index as an instrument for parental body mass index.Both own and offspring body mass index were positively associated with depression, while the results did not indicate any substantial association between body mass index and anxiety. Although precision was low, suicide mortality was inversely associated with own body mass index and the results from the analysis using offspring body mass index supported these results. Adjusted odds ratios per standard deviation body mass index from the instrumental variable analysis were 1.22 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.43 for depression, 1.10 (95% CI: 0.95, 1.27 for anxiety, and the instrumental variable estimated hazard ratios for suicide was 0.69 (95% CI: 0.30, 1.63.The present study's results indicate that suicide mortality is inversely associated with body mass index. We also found support for a positive association between body mass index and depression, but not

  5. Menstruation disorders in adolescents with eating disorders – target body mass index percentiles for their resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Beatriz; Brito, Sara; Paulos, Lígia; Moleiro, Pascoal

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To analyse the progression of body mass index in eating disorders and to determine the percentile for establishment and resolution of the disease. Methods: A retrospective descriptive cross-sectional study. Review of clinical files of adolescents with eating disorders. Results: Of the 62 female adolescents studied with eating disorders, 51 presented with eating disorder not otherwise specified, 10 anorexia nervosa, and 1 bulimia nervosa. Twenty-one of these adolescents had menstrual disorders; in that, 14 secondary amenorrhea and 7 menstrual irregularities (6 eating disorder not otherwise specified, and 1 bulimia nervosa). In average, in anorectic adolescents, the initial body mass index was in 75th percentile; secondary amenorrhea was established 1 month after onset of the disease; minimum weight was 76.6% of ideal body mass index (at 4th percentile) at 10.2 months of disease; and resolution of amenorrhea occurred at 24 months, with average weight recovery of 93.4% of the ideal. In eating disorder not otherwise specified with menstrual disorder (n=10), the mean initial body mass index was at 85th percentile; minimal weight was in average 97.7% of the ideal value (minimum body mass index was in 52nd percentile) at 14.9 months of disease; body mass index stabilization occured at 1.6 year of disease; and mean body mass index was in 73rd percentile. Considering eating disorder not otherwise specified with secondary amenorrhea (n=4); secondary amenorrhea occurred at 4 months, with resolution at 12 months of disease (mean 65th percentile body mass index). Conclusion: One-third of the eating disorder group had menstrual disorder – two-thirds presented with amenorrhea. This study indicated that for the resolution of their menstrual disturbance the body mass index percentiles to be achieved by female adolescents with eating disorders was 25–50 in anorexia nervosa, and 50–75, in eating disorder not otherwise specified. PMID:25003922

  6. Food cravings mediate the relationship between chronic stress and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ariana; Grilo, Carlos M; White, Marney A; Sinha, Rajita

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the relationships between chronic stress, food cravings, and body mass index. A community-based sample of adults (N = 619) completed a comprehensive assessment battery and heights and weights were measured. Chronic stress had a significant direct effect on food cravings, and food cravings had a significant direct effect on body mass index. The total effect of chronic stress on body mass index was significant. Food cravings partially mediated the relationship between chronic stress and body mass index. These findings are consistent with research that chronic stress may potentiate motivation for rewarding substances and behaviors and indicate that high food cravings may contribute to stress-related weight gain. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Association between body mass index and breast density using digital mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Young [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Dankook University Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hwa Sun [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Ansan University, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    It is well known that low body mass index and younger age are associated with high breast density. Mammographic dense breast has been reported both as a cause of false-negative findings on mammography and as an indicator of increased breast cancer risk. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between breast density and body mass index. Furthermore, we considered proper screening method of breast cancer in Korean women. The study was performed on 496 women who underwent health checkup in a university hospital. Age and body mass index were negatively associated with breast density respectively. In postmenopausal women, age and body mass index showed statistically significant association with breast density. Therefore, we should consider sensitive additional method for breast cancer screening especially in younger age and underweight women.

  8. Body mass index effects sperm quality: a retrospective study in Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    En-Yin Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Excess weight and obesity have become a serious problem in adult men of reproductive age throughout the world. The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess the relationships between body mass index and sperm quality in subfertile couples in a Chinese Han population. Sperm analyses were performed and demographic data collected from 2384 male partners in subfertile couples who visited a reproductive medical center for treatment and preconception counseling. The subjects were classified into four groups according to their body mass index: underweight, normal, overweight, and obese. Of these subjects, 918 (38.3% had a body mass index of >25.0 kg m−0 2 . No significant differences were found between the four groups with respect to age, occupation, level of education, smoking status, alcohol use, duration of sexual abstinence, or the collection time of year for sperm. The results clearly indicated lower sperm quality (total sperm count, sperm concentration, motile sperm, relative amounts of type A motility, and progressive motility sperm [A + B] in overweight and obese participants than in those with normal body mass index. Normal sperm morphology and sperm volume showed no clear difference between the four groups. This study indicates that body mass index has a negative effect on sperm quality in men of subfertile couples in a Northern Chinese population. Further study should be performed to investigate the relationship between body mass index and sperm quality in a larger population.

  9. Genetically Predicted Body Mass Index and Breast Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Yan; Warren Andersen, Shaneda; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Observational epidemiological studies have shown that high body mass index (BMI) is associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer in premenopausal women but an increased risk in postmenopausal women. It is unclear whether this association is mediated through shared genetic or enviro...... for this discrepancy may reveal insights into the complex relationship of genetic determinants of body weight in the etiology of breast cancer....

  10. Clusters of galaxies compared with N-body simulations: masses and mass segregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struble, M.F.; Bludman, S.A.

    1979-01-01

    With three virially stable N-body simulations of Wielen, it is shown that use of the expression for the total mass derived from averaged quantities (velocity dispersion and mean harmonic radius) yields an overestimate of the mass by as much as a factor of 2-3, and use of the heaviest mass sample gives an underestimate by a factor of 2-3. The estimate of the mass using mass weighted quantities (i.e., derived from the customary definition of kinetic and potential energies) yields a better value irrespectively of mass sample as applied to late time intervals of the models (>= three two-body relaxation times). The uncertainty is at most approximately 50%. This suggests that it is better to employ the mass weighted expression for the mass when determining cluster masses. The virial ratio, which is a ratio of the mass weighted/averaged expression for the potential energy, is found to vary between 1 and 2. It is concluded that ratios for observed clusters approximately 4-10 cannot be explained even by the imprecision of the expression for the mass using averaged quantities, and certainly implies the presence of unseen matter. Total masses via customary application of the virial theorem are calculated for 39 clusters, and total masses for 12 clusters are calculated by a variant of the usual application. The distribution of cluster masses is also presented and briefly discussed. Mass segregation in Wielen's models is studied in terms of the binding energy per unit mass of the 'heavy' sample compared with the 'light' sample. The general absence of mass segregation in relaxaed clusters and the large virial discrepancies are attributed to a population of many low-mass objects that may constitute the bulk mass of clusters of galaxies. (Auth.)

  11. Relationship between Body Image and Body Mass Index in College Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Julia A.; Christie, Catherine; Chally, Pamela

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: The authors examined cognitive and affective dimensions of body image of a randomized sample of 188 college men on the basis of body mass index (BMI). Methods: They conducted chi-square tests and ANOVAs to determine differences between 4 BMI groups (underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese) on demographics and…

  12. Effects of independently altering body weight and body mass on the metabolic cost of running

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, L.P.J.; Grabowski, A.; Kram, R.

    2011-01-01

    The metabolic cost of running is substantial, despite the savings from elastic energy storage and return. Previous studies suggest that generating vertical force to support body weight and horizontal forces to brake and propel body mass are the major determinants of the metabolic cost of running. In

  13. Waist circumference adjusted for body mass index and intra-abdominal fat mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berentzen, Tina Landsvig; Ängquist, Lars; Kotronen, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The association between waist circumference (WC) and mortality is particularly strong and direct when adjusted for body mass index (BMI). One conceivable explanation for this association is that WC adjusted for BMI is a better predictor of the presumably most harmful intra-abdominal fat mass (IAFM...

  14. An investigation into utilising gestational body mass index as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of the gestational body mass index (BMI) method to screen for adverse birth outcomes and maternal morbidities. Design: This was a substudy of a randomised controlled trial, the Philani Mentor Mothers' study. Setting and subjects: The Philani Mentor Mothers' ...

  15. Relationship Between Glycated Haemoglobin and Body Mass Index ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood pressure, Height, Weight were all measured and body mass index (BMI) calculated as weight (in kilograms) divided by height (in meters squared). Glycated haemoglobin was estimated using the ion exchange chromatography method. Result: A total of 100 healthy subjects, 50 males and 50 females, ages ranging ...

  16. Body Mass Index and Sexual Maturation in Adolescent Patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is associated with delayed sexual maturation. The Body Mass Index (BMI) or Quetelets Index is closely linked to events of puberty in normal children. We have so far, found no reports on studies on the relationship between BMI and puberty in patients with SCA. Objectives: To evaluate ...

  17. The relationship between basal blood pressure and body mass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In contrast to the situation in developed countries, very few studies have been done on blood pressure (BP) determinants among Nigerian adolescents. Aim: To evaluate the relationship between basal BP and body mass index (BMI) in a group of healthy Nigerian secondary school students. Methods: This was ...

  18. Effect of Body Mass Index on Postoperative Complications in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Body Mass Index (BMI) is considered as an important risk factor in cardiovascular surgery. We designed a historical cohort study for the evaluation of perioperative complications related to BMI in patients who underwent off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB). METHODS: We studied 1120 ...

  19. Depression and body mass index, a u-shaped association

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de L.M.; Straten, van A.; Herten, van M.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Cuijpers, P.

    2009-01-01

    Background Results of studies concerning the association between obesity and depression are conflicting. Some find a positive association, some a negative association and some find no association at all. Most studies, however, examine a linear association between Body Mass Index (BMI) and

  20. Association between birthweight and later body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelenkovic, Aline; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Sund, Reijo

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is evidence that birthweight is positively associated with body mass index (BMI) in later life, but it remains unclear whether this is explained by genetic factors or the intrauterine environment. We analysed the association between birthweight and BMI from infancy to adulthood ...

  1. Relationship Between Socioeconomic Status and Body Mass Index ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a long tradition of observational studies from developed societies linking overweight and obesity to low socioeconomic status (SES). The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between SES and obesity and determine whether variations in the body mass index (BMI) of adult Nigerians is influenced by their ...

  2. Eating behaviour, eating attitude and body mass index of dietetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-09-20

    Sep 20, 2013 ... matching career choice to prospective students.1 A preoccupation with food manifests itself ... relationship and stated that high-risk groups for the development of eating disorders include ..... Table IV: Comparison of body mass index, eating attitudes and eating behaviour of the first-year dietetic students ...

  3. Body Mass Index in Pregnancy Does Not Affect Peroxisome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Obesity in pregnancy can contribute to epigenetic changes. Aim: To assess whether body mass index (BMI) in pregnancy is associated with changes in the methylation of the peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor γ (PPAR) promoter region (−359 to − 260) in maternal and neonatal leukocytes. Subjects and ...

  4. Mass-imbalanced Three-Body Systems in Two Dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    F. Bellotti, F.; Frederico, T.; T. Yamashita, M.

    2013-01-01

    We consider three-body systems in two dimensions with zero-range interactions for general masses and interaction strengths. The momentum-space Schr\\"odinger equation is solved numerically and in the Born-Oppenheimer (BO) approximation. The BO expression is derived using separable potentials and y...

  5. Effects of adherence to antiretroviral therapy on body mass index ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study determined the effect of adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on body mass index (BMI) and immunological and virological parameters of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) attending University College Hospital, Ibadan. Methodology: Prospective cohort of consenting PLWHA ...

  6. Relation between body mass index percentile and muscle strength ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Noha Abdel Kader Abdel Kader Hasan

    2016-02-01

    Feb 1, 2016 ... a positive correlation between muscle strength and body mass index percentile while muscle endur- ance time had a negative correlation with it. Conclusion: The study shows that the BMI of children had a positive correlation with the muscle ... lar force in a specific movement pattern at definite velocity.

  7. Physical activity, body mass index and blood pressure in primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Lack of physical activity contributes to overweight and obesity. It is recommended that children accumulate at least one hour of moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity daily. Objective: The level of physical activity, body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure (BP) were evaluated in pupils attending private ...

  8. Relationship between uninvestigated dyspepsia and body mass index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among overweight and obese patients the prevalence of dyspepsia symptoms were 82.7% and 78%, respectively, compared with normal weight (90.7%). Conclusion: After the age of 50,the prevalence of dyspepsia symptoms and high body mass index were increased in females, but were decreased in males.No relation ...

  9. body mass index variations among adolescents from kano

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. Bodyweight and height measurements were carried out on 2, 100 healthy teenagers (1050 males and 1050 females) randomly selected in Kano metropolis. These measurements were used to calculate Body Mass Index (BMI) according to the formula weight (kg)/height2 (m). Mean BMI values increased with ...

  10. Body mass index trajectory classes and incident asthma in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rzehak, Peter; Wijga, Alet H; Keil, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The causal link between body mass index (BMI) or obesity and asthma in children is still being debated. Analyses of large longitudinal studies with a sufficient number of incident cases and in which the time-dependent processes of both excess weight and asthma development can be validly analyzed...

  11. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BODY MASS AND OF DIFFERENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They concluded that the greater the loss in body mass over this period, the lower the subsequent calving rate. The hypothesis, as formulated by t-amond. (1970), is supported by the findings of Ward (1968). Trail, Sacker & Fisher ( l97l ), Meaker ( 1975),. Steenkamp. van der Horst & Andrew (1975)and Buck,. Light, Rutherford ...

  12. An Age and Body Mass Handicap for the Marathon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderburgh, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    An age and body mass handicap has been previously developed and validated for the 5-kilometer (5K) run. The purpose of this study was to develop a similar handicap for the marathon but with a different age adjustment based on deviations from age group world best marathon times within each sex. The resulting handicap allowed finish time comparisons…

  13. Original Research Article Body Mass Index and Blood Pressure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    for all University students is also recommended. Keywords: Body mass index; Blood pressure; Obesity;. University students; Nigeria. Kenneth E Oghagbon1. Valentine U Odili2*. Eze K Nwangwa3. Kevin E Pender3. 1Department of. Chemical. Pathology, Faculty of Clinical. Medicine, College of Health. Sciences, Delta State ...

  14. Body Mass Index Of Nigerian Adolescent Urban Secondary School Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onyiriuka Alphonsus N.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Body mass index (BMI is an inexpensive and easy-to-perform method of screening for weight status, which may have detrimental health consequences. The aim of our study was to assess the pattern of BMI among Nigerian adolescent secondary school girls and determine the prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity among them.

  15. Body mass index, pain and function in individuals with knee ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Obesity is a risk factor for progression of knee osteoarthritis (OA), and high body mass index (BMI) may interfere with treatment effectiveness on pain and function in individuals with knee OA. This study investigated the effects of BMI on pain and function during a four‑week exercise programme in patients with ...

  16. The effects of phosphorus supplementation on body mass and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ever. since these two trials were conducted in different clima- tological periods, no plausible explanations can be suggested. The average body mass of heifers and cows in the respec- tive treatments, averaged over five years for each at four 3- month-intervals (September, December, March and June), is presented in ...

  17. Childhood social circumstances and body mass index in adult life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anne-Mette; Lund, Rikke; Kriegbaum, Margit

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether father's social class was associated with body mass index (BMI) at age 20 and 50 years in a cohort of men born in 1953 and to explore the role of birth weight, cognitive function (IQ), and educational status in these relationships....

  18. Exploring Categorical Body Mass Index Trajectories in Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Black, Geraldine; Boles, Shawn; Johnson-Shelton, Deb; Evers, Cody

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies of body mass index (BMI) change have focused on understanding growth trajectories from childhood to adolescence and adolescence to adulthood, but few have explored BMI trajectories solely in elementary (grades K-5) school children. This report complements these studies by exploring changes in obesity status using analytic…

  19. Pattern of body mass index (BMI) among adult hypertensive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recent times Asaba – the capital of Delta State, Nigeria – is witnessing a rapid growth in urbanization and fast food eateries. Several studies have shown that Blood Pressure (BP) is directly associated with Body Mass Index (BMI) in populations worldwide. However, some variations exist in the pattern of the association ...

  20. Body mass index, weight gain during pregnancy and obstetric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To find out the effects of pregnancy weight gain in different body mass index (BMI) groups on maternal and neonatal outcomes in women delivering singletons at term. Design: Retrospective analysis of clinical records of patients attending antenatal clinics and delivering in hospital from January 1st 1992 to ...

  1. Effects of Demographic Factors, Body Mass Index, Alcohol Drinking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    current work aimed to evaluate demographic factors in an IBS population in Iran using a case‑control design. Subjects and Methods. From, October 2010 to October 2011, we performed. Effects of Demographic Factors, Body Mass Index,. Alcohol Drinking and Smoking Habits on Irritable. Bowel Syndrome: A Case Control ...

  2. Nig. J. Physiol. Sci. The relationship between body mass index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    (Egwurugwu, 2008).Infertility is becoming an increasingly Public health problem. It tends to breed distrust, fear, anxiety, depression and low self esteem. Obesity is a well ... 2000); monitoring of oral contraceptive drugs. (Murayama et al, 2003) and wound healing ( Platt et al, 2003). Body mass index has been associated with.

  3. Assessment of Body Mass Index and Blood Pressure among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body Mass Index (BMI) has been described as a significant predictor of Blood Pressure (B.P) but few studies have demonstrated this association in our environment. The study aims to determine the pattern of relationship between BMI and blood pressure in our environment Two thousand and ninety six (2096) students in ...

  4. High Body Mass Index in Adolescent Girls Precedes Psoriasis Hospitalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bryld, L.E.; Sørensen, T.I.A.; Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    2010-01-01

    identified as having psoriasis, with at least one hospital admission. Multivariate analysis demonstrated an association between excess increase in body mass index and psoriasis in females only. Being overweight in adolescence was the main factor behind this observation. The female group showed a significant...

  5. Relationship Between Elderly Body Composition Indices and Static and Dynamic Balance in Relation to Their Rate of Falling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Azimzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate relationship between body composition indices with static and dynamic balance and rate of falling in active elderly people. Methods & Materials: This research was a correlation study. Active elderly women volunteered for participation in this research (n=45. Body composition indices (body fat mass, fat free mass, body mass index, waist to hip ratio measured with the body composition analyzer. Static and dynamic balance measured by Biodex, with postural stability and fall risk tests, respectively. Also, the rate of falling in the previous 1- year asked for subjects. Statically analyses performed with the Pearson correlation test, significant level was set at P≤0.05. SPSS software was used. Results: The results of this study showed all of body composition indices have significant correlation with static and dynamic balance and rate of falling (P≤0.05. Conclusion: The finding of this research showed that all of body composition indices have significant correlation with static and dynamic balance and rate of falling in active elderly people. Therefore, it seems physical activity through improvement of body composition indices in active elderly people, causes improvement of static and dynamic balance and lowering the rate of falling.

  6. Body mass index and lung cancer risk in never smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagohashi, K.; Satoh, H.; Kurishima, K.; Ishikawa, H.; Ohtsuka, M.

    2006-01-01

    Background. A relationship between body mass index (BMI) and lung cancer risk in never smokers has not been reported precisely. To evaluate the risk of lung cancer associated with BMI in never smokers, we conducted a case-control study. Methods. The relationship between BMI and the risk of lung cancer in never smokers was investigated in a study of 204 lung cancer cases and 398 controls admitted between 1987 and 2005. Controls were selected from hospitalized age-matched never-smoking patients with non-malignant respiratory disease. Results. When compared with BMI of the leanest group (BMI<20.8) in men, no inverse association between BMI and lung cancer was observed after the adjustment for age (the second BMI group: BMI≥ 20.8 to < 22.9; p=0.683, the third BMI group: BMI≥ 22.9 to < 24.9; p=0.745, and the highest BMI group: BMI≥ 25.0; p=0.327). Similarly, no association in women was found between BMI and lung cancer in these three BMI groups (the second group, p=0.639; the third group, p=0.667; the highest group, p=0.978) when compared with that of the leanest BMI group. Conclusions. Our present study indicated that the association between leanness and the risk of lung cancer might be influenced by other factors such as smoking. (author)

  7. Percent body fat is a better predictor of cardiovascular risk factors than body mass index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Qiang; Dong, Sheng-Yong; Sun, Xiao-Nan; Xie, Jing; Cui, Yi

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the predictive values of percent body fat (PBF) and body mass index (BMI) for cardiovascular risk factors, especially when PBF and BMI are conflicting. BMI was calculated by the standard formula and PBF was determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis. A total of 3859 ambulatory adult Han Chinese subjects (2173 males and 1686 females, age range: 18-85 years) without a history of cardiovascular diseases were recruited from February to September 2009. Based on BMI and PBF, they were classified into group 1 (normal BMI and PBF, N = 1961), group 2 (normal BMI, but abnormal PBF, N = 381), group 3 (abnormal BMI, but normal PBF, N = 681), and group 4 (abnormal BMI and PBF, N = 836). When age, gender, lifestyle, and family history of obesity were adjusted, PBF, but not BMI, was correlated with blood glucose and lipid levels. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for cardiovascular risk factors in groups 2 and 4 were 1.88 (1.45-2.45) and 2.06 (1.26-3.35) times those in group 1, respectively, but remained unchanged in group 3 (OR = 1.32, 95%CI = 0.92-1.89). Logistic regression models also demonstrated that PBF, rather than BMI, was independently associated with cardiovascular risk factors. In conclusion, PBF, and not BMI, is independently associated with cardiovascular risk factors, indicating that PBF is a better predictor

  8. Percent body fat is a better predictor of cardiovascular risk factors than body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zeng

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the predictive values of percent body fat (PBF and body mass index (BMI for cardiovascular risk factors, especially when PBF and BMI are conflicting. BMI was calculated by the standard formula and PBF was determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis. A total of 3859 ambulatory adult Han Chinese subjects (2173 males and 1686 females, age range: 18-85 years without a history of cardiovascular diseases were recruited from February to September 2009. Based on BMI and PBF, they were classified into group 1 (normal BMI and PBF, N = 1961, group 2 (normal BMI, but abnormal PBF, N = 381, group 3 (abnormal BMI, but normal PBF, N = 681, and group 4 (abnormal BMI and PBF, N = 836. When age, gender, lifestyle, and family history of obesity were adjusted, PBF, but not BMI, was correlated with blood glucose and lipid levels. The odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI for cardiovascular risk factors in groups 2 and 4 were 1.88 (1.45-2.45 and 2.06 (1.26-3.35 times those in group 1, respectively, but remained unchanged in group 3 (OR = 1.32, 95%CI = 0.92-1.89. Logistic regression models also demonstrated that PBF, rather than BMI, was independently associated with cardiovascular risk factors. In conclusion, PBF, and not BMI, is independently associated with cardiovascular risk factors, indicating that PBF is a better predictor.

  9. Percent body fat is a better predictor of cardiovascular risk factors than body mass index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Qiang; Dong, Sheng-Yong; Sun, Xiao-Nan; Xie, Jing; Cui, Yi [International Medical Center, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing (China)

    2012-04-20

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the predictive values of percent body fat (PBF) and body mass index (BMI) for cardiovascular risk factors, especially when PBF and BMI are conflicting. BMI was calculated by the standard formula and PBF was determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis. A total of 3859 ambulatory adult Han Chinese subjects (2173 males and 1686 females, age range: 18-85 years) without a history of cardiovascular diseases were recruited from February to September 2009. Based on BMI and PBF, they were classified into group 1 (normal BMI and PBF, N = 1961), group 2 (normal BMI, but abnormal PBF, N = 381), group 3 (abnormal BMI, but normal PBF, N = 681), and group 4 (abnormal BMI and PBF, N = 836). When age, gender, lifestyle, and family history of obesity were adjusted, PBF, but not BMI, was correlated with blood glucose and lipid levels. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for cardiovascular risk factors in groups 2 and 4 were 1.88 (1.45-2.45) and 2.06 (1.26-3.35) times those in group 1, respectively, but remained unchanged in group 3 (OR = 1.32, 95%CI = 0.92-1.89). Logistic regression models also demonstrated that PBF, rather than BMI, was independently associated with cardiovascular risk factors. In conclusion, PBF, and not BMI, is independently associated with cardiovascular risk factors, indicating that PBF is a better predictor.

  10. The role of physical activity, body mass index and maturity status in body-related perceptions and self-esteem of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altıntaş, A; Aşçı, F H; Kin-İşler, A; Güven-Karahan, B; Kelecek, S; Özkan, A; Yılmaz, A; Kara, F M

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence represents a transitional period which is marked by physical, social and psychological changes. Changes in body shape and physical activity especially alter and shape the psychological well-being of adolescents. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of physical activity level, body mass index and maturity status in body-related perception and self-esteem of 11-18 years old adolescents. A total of 1012 adolescents participated in this study. The "Social Physique Anxiety Scale", "Body Image Satisfaction Scale", "Physical Self-Perception Profile for Children" and "Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory" were administered. Physical activity level and body mass index were assessed using the "Physical Activity Questionnaire" and "Bioelectrical Impedance Analyzer", respectively. Regression analysis indicated that body mass index was the only predictor of perceived body attractiveness, social physique anxiety, body image satisfaction and self-esteem for female adolescents. For male adolescents, both physical activity and body mass index were correlated with perceived body attractiveness and social physique anxiety. Pubertal status were not correlated with self-esteem and body-related perceptions for both males and females adolescents. In summary, body mass index and physical activity plays an important role in body-related perceptions and self-esteem of adolescents.

  11. Body image dissatisfaction and anthropometric indicators in male children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, E P; Minatto, G; Berria, J; Silva, S F Dos S; Fidelix, Y L; Ribeiro, R R; Santos, K D; Petroski, E L

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between body image dissatisfaction and body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BF%) and to identify which of these anthropometric indicators are more strongly associated, and finally to estimate the prevalence of overweight and high body adiposity in male children and adolescents, according to maturational stages. Overall, 1499 students aged from 7 to 17 years from Cascavel, PR, Brazil, were evaluated. Body image was self-rated through the body silhouette scale. Body weight, height and triceps and subscapular skinfolds were measured and BMI and BF% were calculated. Sexual maturity was self-assessed by the development of pubic hair. Data analysis used the Fisher exact test, the χ(2)-test and multinomial logistic regression. Body image dissatisfaction because of excess weight was associated with BMI and BF%, whereas in prepubertal students, this association did not remain in the adjusted analysis. In pubescent students, both BMI (odds ratio (OR)=5.25, confidence interval (CI) 95%=3.06-9.01) and BF% (OR=2.42, CI 95%=1.60-3.66), and in post-pubescent students for BMI (OR=3.77, CI 95%=1.33-10.70), the association remained. Body image dissatisfaction because of thinness was associated only with BF% in pubescent (OR=0.50, CI 95%= 0.33-0.75) and post-pubescent students (OR=0.38, CI 95%= 0.16-0.94). Body image dissatisfaction was associated with BMI and BF%, especially in pubescent and post-pubescent students.

  12. Estimation of body mass index from the metrics of the first metatarsal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Tyler E.

    ideas of biomechanical bone remodeling; the elements of the skeleton that are under higher forces, including weight, will remodel to minimize stress. A commonly used metric for the mechanical method of body mass estimation is the diameter of the head of the femur. The foot experiences nearly the entire weight force of the individual at any point in the gait cycle and is subject to the biomechanical remodeling that this force would induce. Therefore, the application of the mechanical framework for body mass estimation could stand true for the elements of the foot. The morphometric and mechanical approaches have been validated against one another on a large, geographically disparate population (Auerbach and Ruff, 2004), but have yet to be validated on a sample of known body mass. DeGroote and Humphrey (2011) test the ability of the first metatarsal to estimate femoral head diameter, body mass, and femoral length. The estimated femoral head diameter from the first metatarsal is used to estimate body mass via the morphometric approach and the femoral length is used to estimate living stature. The authors find that body mass and stature estimation methods from more commonly used skeletal elements compared well with the methods developed from the first metatarsal. This study examines 388 `White' individuals from the William M. Bass donated skeletal collection to test the reliability of the body mass estimates from femoral head diameter and bi-iliac breadth, stature from maximum femoral length, and body mass and stature from the metrics of the first metatarsal. This sample included individuals from all four of the BMI classes. This study finds that all of the skeletal indicators compare well with one another; there is no statistical difference in the stature estimates from the first metatarsal and the maximum length of the femur, and there is no statistical between all three of the body mass estimation methods. When compared to the forensic estimates of stature neither of the

  13. A new body shape index predicts mortality hazard independently of body mass index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nir Y Krakauer

    Full Text Available Obesity, typically quantified in terms of Body Mass Index (BMI exceeding threshold values, is considered a leading cause of premature death worldwide. For given body size (BMI, it is recognized that risk is also affected by body shape, particularly as a marker of abdominal fat deposits. Waist circumference (WC is used as a risk indicator supplementary to BMI, but the high correlation of WC with BMI makes it hard to isolate the added value of WC.We considered a USA population sample of 14,105 non-pregnant adults (age ≥ 18 from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2004 with follow-up for mortality averaging 5 yr (828 deaths. We developed A Body Shape Index (ABSI based on WC adjusted for height and weight: ABSI ≡ WC/(BMI(2/3height(1/2. ABSI had little correlation with height, weight, or BMI. Death rates increased approximately exponentially with above average baseline ABSI (overall regression coefficient of +33% per standard deviation of ABSI [95% confidence interval: +20%-+48%, whereas elevated death rates were found for both high and low values of BMI and WC. 22% (8%-41% of the population mortality hazard was attributable to high ABSI, compared to 15% (3%-30% for BMI and 15% (4%-29% for WC. The association of death rate with ABSI held even when adjusted for other known risk factors including smoking, diabetes, blood pressure, and serum cholesterol. ABSI correlation with mortality hazard held across the range of age, sex, and BMI, and for both white and black ethnicities (but not for Mexican ethnicity, and was not weakened by excluding deaths from the first 3 yr of follow-up.Body shape, as measured by ABSI, appears to be a substantial risk factor for premature mortality in the general population derivable from basic clinical measurements. ABSI expresses the excess risk from high WC in a convenient form that is complementary to BMI and to other known risk factors.

  14. Indication of bioactive candidates among body volatiles of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gregarious adult locusts are believed to release many bioactive volatiles from their bodies for the mediation of their biological characteristics. The determination of these bioactive body volatiles can contribute to the development of new, environmentally benign methods of locust control. An important locust, Locusta ...

  15. Size matters: relationships between body size and body mass of common coastal, aquatic invertebrates in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Eklöf

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Organism biomass is one of the most important variables in ecological studies, making biomass estimations one of the most common laboratory tasks. Biomass of small macroinvertebrates is usually estimated as dry mass or ash-free dry mass (hereafter ‘DM’ vs. ‘AFDM’ per sample; a laborious and time consuming process, that often can be speeded up using easily measured and reliable proxy variables like body size or wet (fresh mass. Another common way of estimating AFDM (one of the most accurate but also time-consuming estimates of biologically active tissue mass is the use of AFDM/DM ratios as conversion factors. So far, however, these ratios typically ignore the possibility that the relative mass of biologically active vs. non-active support tissue (e.g., protective exoskeleton or shell—and therefore, also AFDM/DM ratios—may change with body size, as previously shown for taxa like spiders, vertebrates and trees. Methods We collected aquatic, epibenthic macroinvertebrates (>1 mm in 32 shallow bays along a 360 km stretch of the Swedish coast along the Baltic Sea; one of the largest brackish water bodies on Earth. We then estimated statistical relationships between the body size (length or height in mm, body dry mass and ash-free dry mass for 14 of the most common taxa; five gastropods, three bivalves, three crustaceans and three insect larvae. Finally, we statistically estimated the potential influence of body size on the AFDM/DM ratio per taxon. Results For most taxa, non-linear regression models describing the power relationship between body size and (i DM and (ii AFDM fit the data well (as indicated by low SE and high R2. Moreover, for more than half of the taxa studied (including the vast majority of the shelled molluscs, body size had a negative influence on organism AFDM/DM ratios. Discussion The good fit of the modelled power relationships suggests that the constants reported here can be used to quickly estimate

  16. Considering an affect regulation framework for examining the association between body dissatisfaction and positive body image in Black older adolescent females: does body mass index matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Jennifer B; Butler-Ajibade, Phoebe; Robinson, Seronda A

    2014-09-01

    The present study provided an initial evaluation of an affect regulation model describing the association between body dissatisfaction and two contemporary measures of positive body image among 247 Black college-bound older adolescent females. We further tested whether possessing a higher body mass index (BMI) would strengthen these associations. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate BMI. Respondents also completed a culturally-sensitive figure rating scale along with assessments of body appreciation and body image flexibility. Results indicated a robust positive association between the two measures of positive body image; BMI was the strongest predictor of both body appreciation and body image flexibility with body size discrepancy (current minus ideal) contributing incremental variance to both models tested. Implications for improving our understanding of the association between positive and negative body image and bolstering positive body image to promote health-protective behaviors among Black young women at this developmental juncture are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Weight-adjusted lean body mass and calf circumference are protective against obesity-associated insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamura, Toshinari; Kita, Yuki; Nakagen, Masatoshi; Sakurai, Masaru; Isobe, Yuki; Takeshita, Yumie; Kawai, Kohzo; Urabe, Takeshi; Kaneko, Shuichi

    2017-07-01

    To test the hypothesis that preserved muscle mass is protective against obesity-associated insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities, we analyzed the relationship of lean body mass and computed tomography-assessed sectional areas of specific skeletal muscles with insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities in a healthy cohort. A total of 195 subjects without diabetes who had completed a medical examination were included in this study. Various anthropometric indices such as circumferences of the arm, waist, hip, thigh, and calf were measured. Body composition (fat and lean body mass) was determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Sectional areas of specific skeletal muscles (iliopsoas, erector spinae, gluteus, femoris, and rectus abdominis muscles) were measured using computed tomography. Fat and lean body mass were significantly correlated with metabolic abnormalities and insulin resistance indices. When adjusted by weight, relationships of fat and lean body mass with metabolic parameters were mirror images of each other. The weight-adjusted lean body mass negatively correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressures; fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, alanine aminotransferase, and triglyceride, and insulin levels; and hepatic insulin resistance indices, and positively correlated with HDL-cholesterol levels and muscle insulin sensitivity indices. Compared with weight-adjusted lean body mass, weight-adjusted sectional areas of specific skeletal muscles showed similar, but not as strong, correlations with metabolic parameters. Among anthropometric measures, the calf circumference best reflected lean body mass, and weight-adjusted calf circumference negatively correlated with metabolic abnormalities and insulin resistance indices. Weight-adjusted lean body mass and skeletal muscle area are protective against weight-associated insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities. The calf circumference reflects lean body mass and may be useful as a protective

  18. Body mass index and blood pressure measurement during pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, Jennifer L

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: The accurate measurement of blood pressure requires the use of a large cuff in subjects with a high mid-arm circumference (MAC). This prospective study examined the need for a large cuff during pregnancy and its correlation with maternal obesity. METHODS: Maternal body mass index (BMI), fat mass, and MAC were measured. RESULTS: Of 179 women studied, 15.6% were obese. With a BMI of level 1 obesity, 44% needed a large cuff and with a BMI of level 2 obesity 100% needed a large cuff. CONCLUSION: All women booking for antenatal care should have their MAC measured to avoid the overdiagnosis of pregnancy hypertension.

  19. Body temperature stability achieved by the large body mass of sea turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Katsufumi

    2014-10-15

    To investigate the thermal characteristics of large reptiles living in water, temperature data were continuously recorded from 16 free-ranging loggerhead turtles, Caretta caretta, during internesting periods using data loggers. Core body temperatures were 0.7-1.7°C higher than ambient water temperatures and were kept relatively constant. Unsteady numerical simulations using a spherical thermodynamic model provided mechanistic explanations for these phenomena, and the body temperature responses to fluctuating water temperature can be simply explained by a large body mass with a constant thermal diffusivity and a heat production rate rather than physiological thermoregulation. By contrast, body temperatures increased 2.6-5.1°C in 107-152 min during their emergences to nest on land. The estimated heat production rates on land were 7.4-10.5 times the calculated values in the sea. The theoretical prediction that temperature difference between body and water temperatures would increase according to the body size was confirmed by empirical data recorded from several species of sea turtles. Comparing previously reported data, the internesting intervals of leatherback, green and loggerhead turtles were shorter when the body temperatures were higher. Sea turtles seem to benefit from a passive thermoregulatory strategy, which depends primarily on the physical attributes of their large body masses. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Body Condition Indices Predict Reproductive Success but Not Survival in a Sedentary, Tropical Bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milenkaya, Olga; Catlin, Daniel H; Legge, Sarah; Walters, Jeffrey R

    2015-01-01

    Body condition may predict individual fitness because those in better condition have more resources to allocate towards improving their fitness. However, the hypothesis that condition indices are meaningful proxies for fitness has been questioned. Here, we ask if intraspecific variation in condition indices predicts annual reproductive success and survival. We monitored a population of Neochmia phaeton (crimson finch), a sedentary, tropical passerine, for reproductive success and survival over four breeding seasons, and sampled them for commonly used condition indices: mass adjusted for body size, muscle and fat scores, packed cell volume, hemoglobin concentration, total plasma protein, and heterophil to lymphocyte ratio. Our study population is well suited for this research because individuals forage in common areas and do not hold territories such that variation in condition between individuals is not confounded by differences in habitat quality. Furthermore, we controlled for factors that are known to impact condition indices in our study population (e.g., breeding stage) such that we assessed individual condition relative to others in the same context. Condition indices that reflect energy reserves predicted both the probability of an individual fledging young and the number of young produced that survived to independence, but only during some years. Those that were relatively heavy for their body size produced about three times more independent young compared to light individuals. That energy reserves are a meaningful predictor of reproductive success in a sedentary passerine supports the idea that energy reserves are at least sometimes predictors of fitness. However, hematological indices failed to predict reproductive success and none of the indices predicted survival. Therefore, some but not all condition indices may be informative, but because we found that most indices did not predict any component of fitness, we question the ubiquitous interpretation of

  1. Body Condition Indices Predict Reproductive Success but Not Survival in a Sedentary, Tropical Bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Milenkaya

    Full Text Available Body condition may predict individual fitness because those in better condition have more resources to allocate towards improving their fitness. However, the hypothesis that condition indices are meaningful proxies for fitness has been questioned. Here, we ask if intraspecific variation in condition indices predicts annual reproductive success and survival. We monitored a population of Neochmia phaeton (crimson finch, a sedentary, tropical passerine, for reproductive success and survival over four breeding seasons, and sampled them for commonly used condition indices: mass adjusted for body size, muscle and fat scores, packed cell volume, hemoglobin concentration, total plasma protein, and heterophil to lymphocyte ratio. Our study population is well suited for this research because individuals forage in common areas and do not hold territories such that variation in condition between individuals is not confounded by differences in habitat quality. Furthermore, we controlled for factors that are known to impact condition indices in our study population (e.g., breeding stage such that we assessed individual condition relative to others in the same context. Condition indices that reflect energy reserves predicted both the probability of an individual fledging young and the number of young produced that survived to independence, but only during some years. Those that were relatively heavy for their body size produced about three times more independent young compared to light individuals. That energy reserves are a meaningful predictor of reproductive success in a sedentary passerine supports the idea that energy reserves are at least sometimes predictors of fitness. However, hematological indices failed to predict reproductive success and none of the indices predicted survival. Therefore, some but not all condition indices may be informative, but because we found that most indices did not predict any component of fitness, we question the ubiquitous

  2. Ramadan Fasting Decreases Body Fat but Not Protein Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrial Syam, Ari; Suryani Sobur, Cecep; Abdullah, Murdani; Makmun, Dadang

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have shown various results regarding the effects of Ramadan fasting on weight and body composition in healthy individuals. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Ramadan fasting on body composition in healthy Indonesian medical staff. In this study, we examined the influence of Ramadan fasting on body composition in healthy medical staff. The longitudinal study was performed during and after Ramadan fasting in 2013 (August to October). Fourty-three medical staff members (physicians, nurses and nutritionists) at the Internal Medicine Ward of the Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital were measured to compare their calorie intake, weight, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and body composition, including body fat, protein, minerals and water, on the first and 28(th) days of Ramadan and also 4-5 weeks after Ramadan fasting. Measurements were obtained for all 43 subjects on the 28(th) day of Ramadan, but they were obtained for only 25 subjects 4 - 5 weeks after Ramadan. By the 28(th) day of Ramadan, it was found that the body weight, BMI, body fat, water and mineral measures had decreased significantly (-0.874 ± 0.859 kg, P Ramadan, body weight and composition had returned to the same levels as on the first day of Ramadan. Ramadan fasting resulted in weight loss even it was only a temporary effect, as the weight was quickly regained within one month after fasting. The catabolism catabolic state, which is related to protein loss, was not triggered during Ramadan fasting. Further research is needed to evaluate the effects of weight loss during Ramadan fasting in healthy individuals.

  3. Biochemical, anthropometric and body composition indicators as predictors of hepatic steatosis in obese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Oliva Gobato

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of hepatic steatosis and to assess the performance of biochemical, anthropometric and body composition indicators for hepatic steatosis in obese teenagers.METHODS: Cross-sectional study including 79 adolecents aged from ten to 18 years old. Hepatic steatosis was diagnosed by abdominal ultrasound in case of moderate or intense hepatorenal contrast and/or a difference in the histogram ≥7 on the right kidney cortex. The insulin resistance was determined by the Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR index for values >3.16. Anthropometric and body composition indicators consisted of body mass index, body fat percentage, abdominal circumference and subcutaneous fat. Fasting glycemia and insulin, lipid profile and hepatic enzymes, such as aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase and alkaline phosphatase, were also evaluated. In order to assess the performance of these indicators in the diagnosis of hepatic steatosis in teenagers, a ROC curve analysis was applied.RESULTS: Hepatic steatosis was found in 20% of the patients and insulin resistance, in 29%. Gamma-glutamyltransferase and HOMA-IR were good indicators for predicting hepatic steatosis, with a cutoff of 1.06 times above the reference value for gamma-glutamyltransferase and 3.28 times for the HOMA-IR. The anthropometric indicators, the body fat percentage, the lipid profile, the glycemia and the aspartate aminotransferase did not present significant associations.CONCLUSIONS: Patients with high gamma-glutamyltransferase level and/or HOMA-IR should be submitted to abdominal ultrasound examination due to the increased chance of having hepatic steatosis.

  4. body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio among adults of obowo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uwaifoh

    2012-12-31

    Dec 31, 2012 ... This study investigates the nutritional health status of adults in Obowo L.G.A. Imo State, Nigeria, as indicated by ... consequence of the nutrition transition in developing countries is a rapid increase in obesity in an association with a ..... A genome-wide scan for body mass index among Nigerian families.

  5. No association between striatal dopamine transporter binding and body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van de Giessen, Elsmarieke; Hesse, Swen; Caan, Matthan W A

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine is one among several neurotransmitters that regulate food intake and overeating. Thus, it has been linked to the pathophysiology of obesity and high body mass index (BMI). Striatal dopamine D(2) receptor availability is lower in obesity and there are indications that striatal dopamine tr...

  6. Child and Adolescent Affective and Behavioral Distress and Elevated Adult Body Mass Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Heather H.; Eddy, J. Mark; Kjellstrand, Jean M.; Snodgrass, J. Josh; Martinez, Charles R., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity rates throughout the world have risen rapidly in recent decades, and are now a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Several studies indicate that behavioral and affective distress in childhood may be linked to elevated adult body mass index (BMI). The present study utilizes data from a 20-year longitudinal study to examine the…

  7. Body mass index (BMI) in patients attending the anaesthesia clinic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Body Mass Index (BMI) ranged between 16.3 kg/m2 and 44.4 kg/m2. The mean BMI was 26.16 kg/m2 with a standard deviation of 4.65. Overall, 43.2 patients had a normal BMI, 35.4% of patients were overweight, 20.3% of patients were obese and 1.2% were underweight. Amongst males, 62.2% had a normal BMI, ...

  8. Understanding psychological implications affecting children of differing Body Mass Index

    OpenAIRE

    Shearer, Clare Anne

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This thesis aims to further our understanding in relation to childhood obesity and associated psychological difficulties. Design: The systematic review aimed to investigate the relationship between childhood psychological functioning in overweight and obese children and parental mental health difficulties. The empirical study aimed to examine possible relationships between Body Mass Index (BMI), self-esteem, quality of life and resilience, in order to determine any ...

  9. Personality Traits and Body Mass Index in Asian Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Sutin, Angelina R.; Stephan, Yannick; Wang, Lei; Gao, Shoumin; Wang, Ping; Terracciano, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Research on personality and adiposity has focused primarily on Western samples; less is known about the personality correlates of BMI in Asian populations. We examined the association between personality and Body Mass Index (BMI) among community-dwelling Japanese adults (N=380), Chinese adolescents (N=5,882), and a meta-analysis inclusive of a published Korean sample (total N=10,304). In the new samples and meta-analysis, Extraversion and Agreeableness were associated with higher BMI among me...

  10. The association between body mass index and academic performance

    OpenAIRE

    Khaled A. Alswat; Abdullah D. Al-Shehri; Tariq A. Aljuaid; Bassam A. Alzaidi; Hassan D. Alasmari

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the relation between body mass index (BMI) and the academic performance of students from Taif city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) using the grade point average (GPA). Method: A cross-sectional study that includes students from intermediate and high schools located in Taif city, KSA between April 2014 and June 2015. Height and weight were measured and BMI calculated. Related risk factors including dietary habits, activity, parent’s education, sleeping pattern, and sm...

  11. The association between body mass index and academic performance

    OpenAIRE

    Alswat, Khaled A.; Al-shehri, Abdullah D.; Aljuaid, Tariq A.; Alzaidi, Bassam A.; Alasmari, Hassan D.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the relation between body mass index (BMI) and the academic performance of students from Taif city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) using the grade point average (GPA). Method: A cross-sectional study that includes students from intermediate and high schools located in Taif city, KSA between April 2014 and June 2015. Height and weight were measured and BMI calculated. Related risk factors including dietary habits, activity, parent?s education, sleeping pattern, and smokin...

  12. Classification of Body Fatness by Body Mass Index–for-Age Categories Among Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, David S.; Wang, Jack; Thornton, John C.; Mei, Zuguo; Sopher, Aviva B.; Pierson, Richard N.; Dietz, William H.; Horlick, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the ability of various body mass index (BMI)–for-age categories, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s 85th to 94th percentiles, to correctly classify the body fatness of children and adolescents. Design Cross-sectional. Setting The New York Obesity Research Center at St Luke’s–Roosevelt Hospital from 1995 to 2000. Participants Healthy 5- to 18-year-old children and adolescents (N=1196) were recruited in the New York City area through newspaper notices, announcements at schools and activity centers, and word of mouth. Main Outcome Measures Percent body fat as determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Body fatness cutoffs were chosen so that the number of children in each category (normal, moderate, and elevated fatness) would equal the number of children in the corresponding BMI-for-age category (<85th percentile, 85th–94th percentile, and ≥95th percentile, respectively). Results About 77% of the children who had a BMI for age at or above the 95th percentile had an elevated body fatness, but levels of body fatness among children who had a BMI for age between the 85th and 94th percentiles (n=200) were more variable; about one-half of these children had a moderate level of body fatness, but 30% had a normal body fatness and 20% had an elevated body fatness. The prevalence of normal levels of body fatness among these 200 children was highest among black children (50%) and among those within the 85th to 89th percentiles of BMI for age (40%). Conclusion Body mass index is an appropriate screening test to identify children who should have further evaluation and follow-up, but it is not diagnostic of level of adiposity. PMID:19736333

  13. Predicting chick body mass by artificial intelligence-based models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Ferreira Ponciano Ferraz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to develop, validate, and compare 190 artificial intelligence-based models for predicting the body mass of chicks from 2 to 21 days of age subjected to different duration and intensities of thermal challenge. The experiment was conducted inside four climate-controlled wind tunnels using 210 chicks. A database containing 840 datasets (from 2 to 21-day-old chicks - with the variables dry-bulb air temperature, duration of thermal stress (days, chick age (days, and the daily body mass of chicks - was used for network training, validation, and tests of models based on artificial neural networks (ANNs and neuro-fuzzy networks (NFNs. The ANNs were most accurate in predicting the body mass of chicks from 2 to 21 days of age after they were subjected to the input variables, and they showed an R² of 0.9993 and a standard error of 4.62 g. The ANNs enable the simulation of different scenarios, which can assist in managerial decision-making, and they can be embedded in the heating control systems.

  14. Patterns in body mass distributions: sifting among alternative hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, C R; Garmestani, A S; Havlicek, T D; Marquet, P A; Peterson, G D; Restrepo, C; Stow, C A; Weeks, B E

    2006-05-01

    Understanding how animals interact with their environment is critical for evaluating, mitigating and coping with anthropogenic alteration of Earth's biosphere. Researchers have attempted to understand some aspects of these interactions by examining patterns in animal body mass distributions. Energetic, phylogenetic, biogeographical, textural discontinuity and community interaction hypotheses have been advanced to explain observed patterns. Energetic and textural discontinuity hypotheses focus upon the allometry of resource use. The community interaction hypothesis contends that biotic interactions within assemblages of species are of primary importance. Biogeographical and phylogenetic hypotheses focus on the role of constraints on the organization of communities. This paper examines and organizes these various propositions about species body mass distributions and discusses the multiple competing hypotheses, how their predictions vary, and possible methods by which the hypotheses can be distinguished and tested. Each of the hypotheses is partial, and explains some elements of pattern in body mass distributions. The scale of appropriate application, relevance and interpretation varies among the hypotheses, and the mechanisms underlying observed patterns are likely to be multicausal and vary with scale.

  15. Activation of the central melanocortin system in rats persistently reduces body and fat mass independently of caloric reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Isabelle; Green, Sara M; Morgan, Drake; Carter, Christy S; Tümer, Nihal; Scarpace, Philip J

    2018-03-01

    Recent evidence indicate that melanotan II (MTII) reduces body mass independently of caloric reduction. Because MTII induces a transient hypophagia, caloric reduction is still considered a primary mechanism for MTII-mediated body mass loss. To examine the contribution of caloric reduction to long-term body mass loss in response to MTII, we centrally infused MTII or vehicle in ad libitum fed (MTII and Control) animals in comparison with a group of animals that were pair-fed (PF) to the MTII group. Food intake and body mass were recorded daily, and body composition was assessed biweekly. The present study demonstrates that central MTII-mediated body mass loss is only partially mediated by caloric restriction, and the long-term body mass loss is independent of the initial hypophagia. More importantly, central MTII administration induced a rapid but sustained fat mass loss, independently of caloric reduction. MTII-treated animals preserved their lean/fat mass ratio throughout the study, whereas PF animals underwent a transient reduction of lean/fat mass ratio that was only normalized when food intake returned to Control level. In summary, it can be concluded that activation of the central melanocortin system in rats persistently reduces body and fat mass independently of caloric reduction.

  16. Overweight and obesity in Slovak high school students and body composition indicators: a non-randomized cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Vadasova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical development can be considered as an indicator of the overall health status of the youth population. Currently, it appears that the increasing trend of the prevalence of obesity among children and youths has stopped in a number of countries worldwide. Studies point to the fact that adolescence is a critical period for the development of obesity. Body mass index (BMI seems to be an orientation parameter in the assessment of prevalence of obesity which is not sufficient for more accurate identification of at risk individuals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate association between BMI percentile zones as health-risk for being overweight and obese and body composition indicators in high-school students from the Prešov (Slovakia region. Methods A non-randomized cross-sectional study in high school students from the Prešov (Slovakia region was conducted. The research sample consisted of 1014 participants (boys n = 466, girls n = 549. Body composition was measured using direct segmental multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (DSM-BIA. To examine the association between obesity and selected body composition indicators, Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA and Eta2 were used. The relationship between selected body composition indicators and percentile BMI zones was determined using the Kendall tau correlation. Results In groups with different BMI percentile zones (normal weight, overweight, obese, ANOVA showed significant differences for girls and boys (p ˂.05 with high effect size (η2 ˂.26 in body weight, body fat mass index, body fat percentage, fat free mass index, fat-free mass percentage, visceral fat area, waist-to-hip ratio, waist circumference, protein mass and mineral mass. The highest degree of correlation among boys was between BMI values indicating overweight and obesity and fat free mass index and waist circumference, respectively (τ = .71, τ = .70, respectively. In girls, the highest

  17. Mass Measurement Using Energy Spectra in Three-body Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Agashe, Kaustubh; Kim, Doojin; Wardlow, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    In previous works we have demonstrated how the energy distribution of massless decay products in two body decays can be used to measure the mass of decaying particles. In this work we show how such results can be generalized to the case of multi-body decays. The key ideas that allow us to deal with multi-body final states are an extension of our previous results to the case of massive decay products and the factorization of the multi-body phase space. The mass measurement strategy that we propose is distinct from alternative methods because it does not require an accurate reconstruction of the entire event, as it does not involve, for instance, the missing transverse momentum, but rather requires measuring only the visible decay products of the decay of interest. To demonstrate the general strategy, we study a supersymmetric model wherein pair-produced gluinos each decay to a stable neutralino and a bottom quark-antiquark pair via an off-shell bottom squark. The combinatorial background stemming from the indi...

  18. How culture shapes the body: cultural consonance and body mass in urban Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, William W; Oths, Kathryn S; Balieiro, Mauro C; Ribeiro, Rosane P; Dos Santos, José Ernesto

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to develop a model of how culture shapes the body, based on two studies conducted in urban Brazil. Research was conducted in 1991 and 2001 in four socioeconomically distinct neighborhoods. First, cultural domain analyses were conducted with samples of key informants. The cultural domains investigated included lifestyle, social support, family life, national identity, and food. Cultural consensus analysis was used to confirm shared knowledge in each domain and to derive measures of cultural consonance. Cultural consonance assesses how closely an individual matches the cultural consensus model for each domain. Second, body composition, cultural consonance, and related variables were assessed in community surveys. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the association of cultural consonance and body composition, controlling for standard covariates and competing explanatory variables. In 1991, in a survey of 260 individuals, cultural consonance had a curvilinear association with the body mass index that differed for men and women, controlling for sociodemographic and dietary variables. In 2001, in a survey of 267 individuals, cultural consonance had a linear association with abdominal circumference that differed for men and women, controlling for sociodemographic and dietary variables. In general, as cultural consonance increases, body mass index and abdominal circumference decline, more strongly for women than men. As individuals, in their own beliefs and behaviors, more closely approximate shared cultural models in socially salient domains, body composition also more closely approximates the cultural prototype of the body. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Depression and body mass index, a u-shaped association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penninx Brenda WJH

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Results of studies concerning the association between obesity and depression are conflicting. Some find a positive association, some a negative association and some find no association at all. Most studies, however, examine a linear association between Body Mass Index (BMI and depression. The present study investigates if a nonlinear (U-shaped trend is preferable over a linear trend to describe the relationship between BMI and depression, which means that both underweight and obesity are associated with depression. Methods We investigated the existence of such a U-curve in a sample of 43,534 individuals, aged between 18–90 years, who participated in a cross-sectional study (Continuous Survey of Living Conditions of physical and mental health in the general population of the Netherlands. We calculated linear and nonlinear (quadratic ANOVA with polynomial contrast and curve fit regression statistics to investigate whether there was a U-shaped trend in the association between BMI and depression. Results We find a very significant U-shaped association between BMI categories (underweight, normal, overweight and obesity and depression (p ≤ 0.001. There is a trend indicating a significant difference in the association between males and females (p = 0.05. We find a very significant U-shaped (quadratic association between BMI (BMI2 and depression (p ≤ 0.001, continuous BMI is not linearly associated with depression (p = 0.514. Conclusion The results of this study give evidence for a significant U-shaped trend in the association between BMI and depression.

  20. For better or worse: relationship status and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averett, Susan L; Sikora, Asia; Argys, Laura M

    2008-12-01

    Recent increases in the incidence of obesity and declines in marriage have prompted policymakers to implement policies to mitigate these trends. This paper examines the link between these two outcomes. There are four hypotheses (selection, protection, social obligation and marriage market) that might explain the relationship between marital status transitions and changes in Body Mass Index (BMI). The selection hypothesis suggests that those with a lower BMI are more likely to be selected into marriage. The protection hypothesis states that married adults will have better physical health as a result of the increased social support and reduced incidence of risky behavior among married individuals. The social obligation hypothesis states that those in relationships may eat more regular meals and/or richer and denser foods due to social obligations which may arise because of marriage. Finally, the marriage market hypothesis indicates that when adults are no longer in the marriage market they may not maintain a healthy BMI because doing so is costly and they are in a stable union-or on the other hand, adults may enhance their prospects in the marriage market by losing weight. Taking advantage of longitudinal data and complete marriage histories in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, we estimate individual fixed effects models to examine associations between the change in log BMI and the incidence of overweight and obesity, and changes in relationship status controlling for the effects of aging and other respondent characteristics. We find no support for the marriage protection hypothesis. Rather we find evidence supporting the social obligation and marriage market hypotheses-BMI increases for both men and women during marriage and in the course of a cohabiting relationship. Separate analyses by race and ethnicity reveal substantial differences in the response of BMI to relationship status across these groups.

  1. Body mass index and its effect on serum cortisol level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeniyi, I A; Fasanmade, O A; Ogbera, A O; Ohwovoriole, A E

    2015-01-01

    Cortisol measurement is indicated in suspected over or under production of cortisol by the adrenal cortex. The finding of low cortisol can create concern and initiate further investigations for the exclusion of adrenal insufficiency. Cushing's syndrome is frequently included in the differential diagnosis of obesity. Some literature describes reduced serum cortisol levels in obesity, however, this is not a well-recognized phenomenon. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and serum cortisol levels. Seventy healthy participants agreed to take part in the study. The anthropometric measurements (weight, height, and waist and hip circumferences) were done. Exclusion criteria include those with a history of adrenal/pituitary disease or medications altering cortisol level. The basal cortisol (BC) sample was taken at 8 a.m. immediately before administration of an intravenous bolus injection of 250 μg adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). BMI categories were defined as normal and high if BMI was 18.5-24.99 kg/m² and ≥ 25 kg/m², respectively. Forty (57.1%) participants had normal BMI while 30 (42.9%) participants had BMI ≥ 25 kg/m² (P0 = 0.053). The mean BC level was lower in participants with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m² but not significant. There was a negative correlation between BMI and BC level ( r = -0.205, P = 0.88) while a positive correlation existed between stimulated cortisol level and BMI (r = 0.009, P = 0.944). Persons with BMI above 25 kg/m² had lower BC level though not statistically significant, the trend was noticed. Subjecting people whose BMI is above 25 kg/m² to further stimulation with ACTH because of low BC is not advised because their response to ACTH stimulation was similar to those who have normal BMI.

  2. The Impact of Body Mass Index on Pregnancy Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamideh Pakniat

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Pre-pregnancy obesity is considered as a significant predictor for neonatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. Several studies have indicated conflicting associations between body mass index (BMI and pregnancy outcomes. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of pre-pregnancy BMI on adverse pregnancy outcomes. Methods:Thiscohort study was conducted from 2010 to 2013 in Qazvin province, Iran. BMI was measured in a total of 1376 pregnant women before their 12th week of pregnancy. The subjects were followed-up until the termination of their pregnancy and childbirth. Data collection was performed through checklists prepared by the researchers, which consisted of three parts: demographic features, obstetric history, and subsequent pregnancy outcome. For data analysis, Chi-square, ANOVA and Mann-Whitney tests were performed, using SPSS version 16. In addition, adjusted odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI were measured. Results: The risk of preeclampsia (OR: 5.36, CI: 2.505-11.49, gestational diabetes mellitus (OR: 5.092, CI: 1.67-15.46, cesarean section (OR: 1.959, CI: 1.37-2.79, and large for gestational age (OR: 4.735, CI: 1.402-15.98 was higher in overweight (25≤BMI≤29.9 kg/m2 and obese groups (BMI>30 kg/m2, compared to women with below-normal and average weight. Conclusion: Pre-pregnancy obesity is strongly associated with certain pregnancy complications and perinatal conditions. Therefore, these complications implicate the need for pre-pregnancy counseling and weight loss in this group of women.

  3. Leptin and body mass index in polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Jalilian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a common endocrine disorder associated with obesity. Human and animal studies showed a direct relationship between leptin level and obesity, however, results from different studies were mixed. This study investigated the status of leptin level in PCOS and its relationship with body mass index (BMI in a group of Iranian women with PCOS. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 40 women with PCOS and 36 healthy women were assigned to experimental and control groups, respectively. Those in the PCOS group were not prescribed any medications for 3 months prior to the study. Fasting blood samples were then collected during the 2nd or 3rd day of menstruation for laboratory measurement of serum total leptin, blood glucose (fasting blood sugar, serum insulin, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone (LH. Results: Mean BMI of the PCOS and control groups were 26.62 ± 4.03 kg/m2 and 23.52 ± 2.52 kg/m2, respectively (P = 0.006. The mean total leptin in the PCO group was also 10.69 ± 5.37 ng/mL and 5.73 ± 2.36 ng/mL in the control group (P = 0.0001. A significant relationship was found between leptin level and BMI as well as LH level among women with PCOS (P 0.05. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated an increased leptin level among women with PCOS that positively associated with BMI and LH.

  4. Body mass index and the prevalence of hypertension and dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C D; Higgins, M; Donato, K A; Rohde, F C; Garrison, R; Obarzanek, E; Ernst, N D; Horan, M

    2000-12-01

    To describe and evaluate relationships between body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), and hypertension and dyslipidemia. A national survey of adults in the United States that included measurement of height, weight, blood pressure, and lipids (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III 1988-1994). Crude age-adjusted, age-specific means and proportions, and multivariate odds ratios that quantify the association between hypertension or dyslipidemia and BMI, controlling for race/ethnicity, education, and smoking habits are presented. More than one-half of the adult population is overweight (BMI of 25 to 29.9) or obese (BMI of > or =30). The prevalence of high blood pressure and mean levels of systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased as BMI increased at ages younger than 60 years. The prevalence of high blood cholesterol and mean levels of cholesterol were higher at BMI levels over 25 rather than below 25 but did not increase consistently with increasing BMI above 25. Rates of low HDL-C increased and mean levels of HDL-C decreased as levels of BMI increased. The associations of BMI with high blood pressure and abnormal lipids were statistically significant after controlling for age, race or ethnicity, education, and smoking; odds ratios were highest at ages 20 to 39 but most trends were apparent at older ages. Within BMI categories, hypertension was more prevalent and HDL-C levels were higher in black than white or Mexican American men and women. These data quantify the strong associations of BMI with hypertension and abnormal lipids. They are consistent with the national emphasis on prevention and control of overweight and obesity and indicate that blood pressure and cholesterol measurement and control are especially important for overweight and obese people.

  5. Relationship between some indicators of reproductive history, body fatness and the menopausal transition in Hungarian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsakai, Annamaria; Mascie-Taylor, Nicholas; Bodzsar, Eva B

    2015-10-22

    This paper analyzed the relationship between some indicators of reproductive history and body fatness in relation to the timing of the menopause transition in Hungarian women using survival analysis after controlling for birth cohort. Data on menstruation and reproductive history were collected during the personal interviews in a sample of 1932 women (aged 35+ years). Menarcheal age, the length of menstrual cycles and menstrual bleedings, regularity of menstrual cycles, number of gestations, lactation, the ever use of contraceptives, menopausal status and age at menopause were used as indicators of reproductive history. The body fat fraction was estimated by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Body fatness was also estimated by dividing women into obese and non-obese categories (considering body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio). Survival analyses were used to analyze the relationship between the indicators of reproductive history and body fatness during the menopausal transition. Only the menarcheal age among the investigated reproductive life characteristics showed secular changes in the studied decades in Hungary; the mean age at menarche decreased by approximately 2.5 months per decade from the 1920s until the 1970s. Ever use of hormonal contraceptives, a relatively long cycle length in the perimenopausal transition and higher parity were all related with lower risk of early menopause. Later menarcheal age, normal length of menstrual cycle or bleeding in the climacterium, irregular bleeding pattern and postmenopausal status were associated with a higher amount of body fatness, while never use of contraceptives, regular menstruation, postmenopausal status and relatively early menopause were associated with a higher risk of abdominal obesity. This report confirms that age of menarche is not significantly predictive of age at menopause but prior use of oral contraceptives, longer mean cycle length and smaller number of gestations all are. In addition, age of

  6. Body Image, Food Addiction, Depression, and Body Mass Index in University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şanlier, Nevin; Türközü, Duygu; Toka, Onur

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between body image, depression, food addiction and body mass index (BMI) and differences in these variables due to gender and field of education have not been studied extensively. This study was conducted on a total of 793 university students (20.19 ± 1.90 years). The Beck Depression Inventory, Yale Food Addiction, and Body Image Scale were used. It was determined that body image scores of females and individuals enrolled in health sciences programs were lower compared to those of males and those enrolled in the social sciences. There was a negative relationship between body image and depression and food addiction scores. There was a positive relationship between food addiction and depression scores, in addition to a positive relationship between food addiction and BMI.

  7. Serum Adiponectin and Leptin Concentrations in Relation to Body Fat Distribution, Hematological Indices and Lipid Profile in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lubkowska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relationship between serum adiponectin and leptin concentrations and body composition, hematological indices and lipid profile parameters in adults. The study involved 95 volunteers (BMI from 23.3 to 53 kg/m2. Anthropometric parameters were measured: body weight and height, waist and hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, body fat mass (BMF, subcutaneous and visceral fat mass (SFM, VFM, lean body mass (LBM, skeletal muscle mass (SMM. In serum we determined adiponectin and leptin concentrations, extracellular hemoglobin, total bilirubin, as well as lipid metabolism (TCh, HDL-Ch, LDL-Ch, TG. Mean adipokine levels were significantly higher in women (p ≤ 0.01, adiponectin significantly negatively correlated with body height and weight, systolic blood pressure and absolute LBM and SMM values. The same relation was observed for erythroid system indicators and lipid indicators. A positive correlation was exceptionally found between adiponectin and HDL-Ch. LEP negatively correlated with some percentage rates (%LBM, %SMM. Only in women, we observed a positive correlation between LEP and body weight, BMI and WHR. Studies on ADPN and the ADPN/LEP ratio as a valuable complementary diagnostic element in the prediction and prevention of cardiovascular diseases need to be continued.

  8. Six new loci associated with body mass index highlight a neuronal influence on body weight regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J. Willer (Cristen); E.K. Speliotes (Elizabeth); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); S. Li (Shengxu); C.M. Lindgren (Cecilia); I.M. Heid (Iris); S.I. Berndt (Sonja); A.L. Elliott (Amanda); A.U. Jackson (Anne); C. Lamina (Claudia); G. Lettre (Guillaume); N. Lim (Noha); H.N. Lyon (Helen); S.A. McCarroll (Steven); K. Papadakis (Konstantinos); L. Qi (Lu); J.C. Randall (Joshua); R.M. Roccasecca; S. Sanna (Serena); P. Scheet (Paul); M.N. Weedon (Michael); E. Wheeler (Eleanor); J.H. Zhao (Jing Hua); L.C. Jacobs (Leonie); I. Prokopenko (Inga); N. Soranzo (Nicole); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); N.J. Timpson (Nicholas); P. Almgren (Peter); A.J. Bennett (Amanda); R.N. Bergman (Richard); S. Bingham (Sheila); L.L. Bonnycastle (Lori); M.J. Brown (Morris); N.P. Burtt (Noël); P.S. Chines (Peter); L. Coin (Lachlan); F.S. Collins (Francis); J. Connell (John); C. Cooper (Charles); G.D. Smith; E.M. Dennison (Elaine); P. Deodhar (Parimal); M.R. Erdos (Michael); K. Estrada Gil (Karol); D.M. Evans (David); L. Gianniny (Lauren); C. Gieger (Christian); C.J. Gillson (Christopher); C. Guiducci (Candace); R. Hackett (Rachel); D. Hadley (David); A.S. Hall (Alistair); A.S. Havulinna (Aki); J. Hebebrand (Johannes); A. Hofman (Albert); B. Isomaa (Bo); T. Johnson (Toby); P. Jousilahti (Pekka); Z. Jovanovic (Zorica); K-T. Khaw (Kay-Tee); P. Kraft (Peter); M. Kuokkanen (Mikko); J. Kuusisto (Johanna); J. Laitinen (Jaana); E. Lakatta (Edward); J. Luan; R.N. Luben (Robert); M. Mangino (Massimo); W.L. McArdle (Wendy); T. Meitinger (Thomas); A. Mulas (Antonella); P. Munroe (Patricia); N. Narisu (Narisu); A.R. Ness (Andrew); K. Northstone (Kate); S. O'Rahilly (Stephen); C. Purmann (Carolin); M.G. Rees (Matthew); M. Ridderstråle (Martin); S.M. Ring (Susan); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); A. Ruokonen (Aimo); M.S. Sandhu (Manjinder); J. Saramies (Jouko); L.J. Scott (Laura); A. Scuteri (Angelo); K. Silander (Kaisa); M.A. Sims (Matthew); K. Song (Kijoung); J. Stephens (Jonathan); S. Stevens (Suzanne); H.M. Stringham (Heather); Y.C.L. Tung (Loraine); T.T. Valle (Timo); P. Tikka-Kleemola (Päivi); K.S. Vimaleswaran (Karani); P. Vollenweider (Peter); G. Waeber (Gérard); C. Wallace (Chris); R.M. Watanabe (Richard); D. Waterworth (Dawn); N. Watkins (Nicholas); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); E. Zeggini (Eleftheria); G. Zhai (Guangju); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); D. Altshuler (David); M. Caulfield (Mark); S.J. Chanock (Stephen); I.S. Farooqi (Sadaf); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); J.M. Guralnik (Jack); A.T. Hattersley (Andrew); F.B. Hu (Frank); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); M. Laakso (Markku); V. Mooser (Vincent); K.K. Ong (Ken); W.H. Ouwehand (Willem); V. Salomaa (Veikko); N.J. Samani (Nilesh); T.D. Spector (Timothy); T. Tuomi (Tiinamaija); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); M. Uda (Manuela); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); N.J. Wareham (Nick); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); L. Groop (Leif); R.B. Hayes (Richard); D. Hunter (David); K.L. Mohlke (Karen); L. Peltonen (Leena Johanna); D. Schlessinger (David); D.P. Strachan (David); H.E. Wichmann (Erich); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); M. Boehnke (Michael); I. Barroso (Inês); G.R. Abecasis (Gonçalo); J.N. Hirschhorn (Joel)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractCommon variants at only two loci, FTO and MC4R, have been reproducibly associated with body mass index (BMI) in humans. To identify additional loci, we conducted meta-analysis of 15 genome-wide association studies for BMI (n > 32,000) and followed up top signals in 14 additional cohorts

  9. A combination of body condition measurements is more informative than conventional condition indices: temporal variation in body condition and corticosterone in brown tree snakes (Boiga irregularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waye, Heather L; Mason, Robert T

    2008-02-01

    The body condition index is a common method for quantifying the energy reserves of individual animals. Because good body condition is necessary for reproduction in many species, body condition indices can indicate the potential reproductive output of a population. Body condition is related to glucocorticoid production, in that low body condition is correlated to high concentrations of corticosterone in reptiles. We compared the body condition index and plasma corticosterone levels of brown tree snakes on Guam in 2003 to those collected in 1992/1993 to determine whether that population still showed the chronic stress and poor condition apparent in the earlier study. We also examined the relationship between fat mass, body condition and plasma corticosterone concentrations as indicators of physiological condition of individuals in the population. Body condition was significantly higher in 2003 than in the earlier sample for mature male and female snakes, but not for juveniles. The significantly lower levels of corticosterone in all three groups in 2003 suggests that although juveniles did not have significantly improved energy stores they, along with the mature males and females, were no longer under chronic levels of stress. Although the wet season of 2002 was unusually rainy, low baseline levels of corticosterone measured in 2000 indicate that the improved body condition of snakes in 2003 is likely the result of long-term changes in prey populations rather than annual variation in response to environmental conditions.

  10. Human body mass estimation: a comparison of "morphometric" and "mechanical" methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Benjamin M; Ruff, Christopher B

    2004-12-01

    In the past, body mass was reconstructed from hominin skeletal remains using both "mechanical" methods which rely on the support of body mass by weight-bearing skeletal elements, and "morphometric" methods which reconstruct body mass through direct assessment of body size and shape. A previous comparison of two such techniques, using femoral head breadth (mechanical) and stature and bi-iliac breadth (morphometric), indicated a good general correspondence between them (Ruff et al. [1997] Nature 387:173-176). However, the two techniques were never systematically compared across a large group of modern humans of diverse body form. This study incorporates skeletal measures taken from 1,173 Holocene adult individuals, representing diverse geographic origins, body sizes, and body shapes. Femoral head breadth, bi-iliac breadth (after pelvic rearticulation), and long bone lengths were measured on each individual. Statures were estimated from long bone lengths using appropriate reference samples. Body masses were calculated using three available femoral head breadth (FH) formulae and the stature/bi-iliac breadth (STBIB) formula, and compared. All methods yielded similar results. Correlations between FH estimates and STBIB estimates are 0.74-0.81. Slight differences in results between the three FH estimates can be attributed to sampling differences in the original reference samples, and in particular, the body-size ranges included in those samples. There is no evidence for systematic differences in results due to differences in body proportions. Since the STBIB method was validated on other samples, and the FH methods produced similar estimates, this argues that either may be applied to skeletal remains with some confidence. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Body mass, energy intake, and water consumption of rats and humans during space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, C. E.; Miller, M. M.; Baer, L. A.; Moran, M. M.; Steele, M. K.; Stein, T. P.

    2002-01-01

    Alteration of metabolism has been suggested as a major limiting factor to long-term space flight. In humans and primates, a negative energy balance has been reported. The metabolic response of rats to space flight has been suggested to result in a negative energy balance. We hypothesized that rats flown in space would maintain energy balance as indicated by maintenance of caloric intake and body mass gain. Further, the metabolism of the rat would be similar to that of laboratory-reared animals. We studied the results from 15 space flights lasting 4 to 19 d. There was no difference in average body weight (206 +/- 13.9 versus 206 +/- 14.8 g), body weight gain (5.8 +/- 0.48 versus 5.9 +/- 0.56 g/d), caloric intake (309 +/- 21.0 versus 309 +/- 20.1 kcal/kg of body mass per day), or water intake (200 +/- 8.6 versus 199 +/- 9.3 mL/kg of body mass per day) between flight and ground control animals. Compared with standard laboratory animals of similar body mass, no differences were noted. The observations suggested that the negative balance observed in humans and non-human primates may be due to other factors in the space-flight environment.

  12. Avian pectoral muscle size rapidly tracks body mass changes during flight, fasting and fuelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, A; Kvist, A; Piersma, T; Dekinga, A; Dietz, M W

    2000-03-01

    We used ultrasonic imaging to monitor short-term changes in the pectoral muscle size of captive red knots Calidris canutus. Pectoral muscle thickness changed rapidly and consistently in parallel with body mass changes caused by flight, fasting and fuelling. Four knots flew repeatedly for 10 h periods in a wind tunnel. Over this period, pectoral muscle thickness decreased in parallel with the decrease in body mass. The change in pectoral muscle thickness during flight was indistinguishable from that during periods of natural and experimental fasting and fuelling. The body-mass-related variation in pectoral muscle thickness between and within individuals was not related to the amount of flight, indicating that changes in avian muscle do not require power-training as in mammals. Our study suggests that it is possible for birds to consume and replace their flight muscles on a time scale short enough to allow these muscles to be used as part of the energy supply for migratory flight. The adaptive significance of the changes in pectoral muscle mass cannot be explained by reproductive needs since our knots were in the early winter phase of their annual cycle. Instead, pectoral muscle mass changes may reflect (i) the breakdown of protein during heavy exercise and its subsequent restoration, (ii) the regulation of flight capacity to maintain optimal flight performance when body mass varies, or (iii) the need for a particular protein:fat ratio in winter survival stores.

  13. Body fat and blood rheology: Evaluation of the association between different adiposity indices and blood viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripolino, Cesare; Irace, Concetta; Carallo, Claudio; Scavelli, Faustina Barbara; Gnasso, Agostino

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, new measures of body adiposity have been introduced: lipid accumulation product (LAP), body adiposity index (BAI) and body shape index (ABSI). These indices have been demonstrated to better associate with cardiovascular disease than other measures of adiposity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate if LAP or BAI better associate with blood viscosity than other measures of adiposity (body mass index, BMI; waist circumference, WC; waist-to-hip ratio, W/HR; waist-to-height ratio, W/HtR). 344 subjects were recruited for the present investigation. Exclusion criteria were: diabetes, elevated triglycerides, smoking and drug use. Blood lipids and glucose were measured by routine methods. Blood and plasma viscosity were measured by a cone-plate viscometer. Adiposity measures were computed as previously described. In simple correlation analyses, blood viscosity (BV) correlated with BMI, BAI, and LAP in males and with LAP in females. Correlations between plasma viscosity and adiposity indices were weak and not statistically significant. Other variables significantly related with BV were: gender, HDL- and LDL-Cholesterol, and triglycerides (p index is strongly associated to blood viscosity. This result, along with previous evidence, identifies LAP index as a potential cardiovascular risk marker.

  14. Association between self-reported physical activity and indicators of body composition in Malaysian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tin Tin; Sim, Pei Ying; Nahar, Azmi Mohamed; Majid, Hazreen Abd; Murray, Liam J; Cantwell, Marie M; Al-Sadat, Nabilla; Jalaludin, Muhammad Yazid

    2014-10-01

    Obesity and lack of physical activity are fast becoming a concern among Malaysian adolescents. This study aims to assess physical activity levels among Malaysian adolescents and investigate the association between physical activity levels and body composition such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and percentage of body fat. 1361 school-going 13 year old multi-ethnic adolescents from population representative samples in Malaysia were involved in our study. Self-reported physical activity levels were assessed using the validated Malay version of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C). Height, weight, body fat composition and waist circumference (WC) were measured. Data collection period was from March to May 2012. 10.8% of the males and 7.4% of the females were obese according to the International Obesity Task Force standards. A majority of the adolescents (63.9%) were physically inactive. There is a weak but significant correlation between physical activity scores and the indicators of obesity. The adjusted coefficient for body fatness was relatively more closely correlated to physical activity scores followed by waist circumference and lastly BMI. This study demonstrates that high physical activity scores were associated with the decreased precursor risk factors of obesity. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Anthropometric Indices, Perceived Body Image and Risk of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A socio-demographic Questionnaire was administered on the subjects and question-items to elicit their perception of self body image. Appropriate anhtropometic measurements were carried out on them and they were also screened for possible presence of psychopathologies/psychological distress using General Health ...

  16. Measurement of body potassium with a whole-body counter: relationship between lean body mass and resting energy expenditure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, M.D.; Braun, J.S.; Vetter, R.J.; Marsh, H.M.

    1988-01-01

    We conducted studies to determine whether the Mayo whole-body counter could be used to measure body potassium, and thus lean body mass (LBM), and whether moderate obesity alters resting energy expenditure when corrected for LBM. Twenty-four nonobese and 18 moderately obese adults underwent body potassium (40K) counting, as well as tritiated water space measurement and indirect calorimetry. LBM values predicted from 40K counting and tritiated water space measurements were highly correlated (P = 0.001; r = 0.88). Resting energy expenditure was closely related to LBM (P less than 0.0001; r = 0.78): kcal/day = 622 kcal + (LBM.20.0 kcal/kg LBM). In this relationship, the obese subjects did not differ from nonobese subjects. In summary, the Mayo whole-body counter can accurately measure LBM, and moderate obesity has no detectable effect on corrected resting energy expenditure

  17. Body mass index contributes to sympathovagal imbalance in prehypertensives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pal Gopal

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study was conducted to assess the nature of sympathovagal imbalance (SVI in prehypertensives by short-term analysis of heart rate variability (HRV to understand the alteration in autonomic modulation and the contribution of BMI to SVI in the genesis of prehypertension. Methods Body mass index (BMI, basal heart rate (BHR, blood pressure (BP, rate pressure product (RPP and HRV indices such as total power (TP, low-frequency power (LF, normalized LF (LFnu, high-frequency power (HF, normalized HF (HFnu, LF-HF ratio, mean heart rate (mean RR, square root of the mean squared differences of successive normal to normal intervals (RMSSD, standard deviation of normal to normal RR interval (SDNN, the number of interval differences of successive NN intervals greater than 50 ms (NN50 and the proportion derived by dividing NN50 by the total number of NN intervals (pNN50 were assessed in three groups of subjects: normotensives having normal BMI (Group 1, prehypertensives having normal BMI (Group 2 and prehypertensives having higher BMI (Group 3. SVI was assessed from LF-HF ratio and correlated with BMI, BHR, BP and RPP in all the groups by Pearson correlation. The contribution of BMI to SVI was assessed by multiple regression analysis. Results LF and LFnu were significantly increased and HF and HFnu were significantly decreased in prehypertensive subjects in comparison to normotensive subjects and the magnitude of these changes was more prominent in subjects with higher BMI compared to that of normal BMI. LF-HF ratio, the sensitive indicator of sympathovagal balance had significant correlation with BMI (P = 0.000 and diastolic blood pressure (DBP (P = 0.002 in prehypertensives. BMI was found to be an independent contributing factor to SVI (P = 0.001 in prehypertensives. Conclusions It was concluded that autonomic imbalance in prehypertensives manifested in the form of increased sympathetic activity and vagal

  18. Personality traits and body mass index in a Korean population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unjin Shim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity is a serious problem worldwide related to cardiovascular and other diseases. Personality traits are associated with the abnormal body mass indices (BMIs indicative of overweight and obesity. However, the links between personality traits and BMI have been little studied in Korea. METHODS: We evaluated the association between personality traits and BMI in men and women using the rural Ansung and urban Ansan cohort from the Korean Genome Epidemiology Study, and the Kangbuk Samsung Hospital Cohort Study datasets. A shorter version of the original Revised Neuroticism-Extroversion-Openness Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R was used to measure the five-factor model of personality (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. RESULTS: Data from a total of 1,495 men (mean age 60.0 ± 9.8 years; mean BMI 24.3 ± 3.0 kg/m2 and 2,547 women (mean age 47.0 ± 15.5 years; mean BMI 22.8 ± 3.4 kg/m2 were included in the analysis. Compared with the normal weight groups, overweight and obese men scored higher on openness to experience and lower on conscientiousness. Overweight and obese women scored lower on neuroticism and openness to experience and higher on agreeableness. Extraversion was positively associated with BMI in men (β=0.032, P<0.05. BMI and waist circumference were significantly increased in individuals who were less dutiful. In women, neuroticism was inversely associated with BMI (β=-0.026, P<0.05. Openness to experience was negatively, and agreeableness was positively, associated with BMI (openness to experience: β=-0.072, agreeableness β=0.068 and waist circumference (openness to experience: β=-0.202, agreeableness: β=0.227 (P<0.05. CONCLUSION: Personality traits were associated with underweight, overweight, and obesity in men and women. Increased understanding of the underlying factors contributing to this association will aid in the prevention and treatment of

  19. Exploring the Relationship between Skeletal Mass and Total Body Mass in Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Silverstone, Elizabeth; Vincze, Orsolya; McCann, Ria; Jonsson, Carl H W; Palmer, Colin; Kaiser, Gary; Dyke, Gareth

    2015-01-01

    Total body mass (TBM) is known to be related to a number of different osteological features in vertebrates, including limb element measurements and total skeletal mass. The relationship between skeletal mass and TBM in birds has been suggested as a way of estimating the latter in cases where only the skeleton is known (e.g., fossils). This relationship has thus also been applied to other extinct vertebrates, including the non-avian pterosaurs, while other studies have used additional skeletal correlates found in modern birds to estimate TBM. However, most previous studies have used TBM compiled from the literature rather than from direct measurements, producing values from population averages rather than from individuals. Here, we report a new dataset of 487 extant birds encompassing 79 species that have skeletal mass and TBM recorded at the time of collection or preparation. We combine both historical and new data for analyses with phylogenetic control and find a similar and well-correlated relationship between skeletal mass and TBM. Thus, we confirm that TBM and skeletal mass are accurate proxies for estimating one another. We also look at other factors that may have an effect on avian body mass, including sex, ontogenetic stage, and flight mode. While data are well-correlated in all cases, phylogeny is a major control on TBM in birds strongly suggesting that this relationship is not appropriate for estimating the total mass of taxa outside of crown birds, Neornithes (e.g., non-avian dinosaurs, pterosaurs). Data also reveal large variability in both bird skeletal and TBM within single species; caution should thus be applied when using published mass to test direct correlations with skeletal mass and bone lengths.

  20. Indices of body fat distribution for assessment of lipodysthrophy in people living with HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segatto Aline Francielle

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic and morphological changes associated with excessive abdominal fat, after the introduction of Antiretroviral Therapy, increase the risk of cardiovascular disease in people living with HIV/AIDS(PLWHA. Accurate methods for body composition analysis are expensive and the use of anthropometric indices is an alternative. However the investigations about this subject in PLWHA are rare, making this research very important for clinical purpose and to advance scientific knowledge. The aim of this study is to correlate results of anthropometric indices of evaluation of body fat distribution with the results obtained by Dual-energy X-Ray Absorptiometry(DEXA, in people living with HIV/AIDS. Methods The sample was of 67 PLWHA(39 male and 28 female, aged 43.6+7.9 years. Body mass index, conicity index, waist/hip ratio, waist/height ratio and waist/thigh were calculated. Separated by sex, each index/ratio was plotted in a scatter chart with linear regression fit and their respective Pearson correlation coefficients. Analyses were performed using Prism statistical program and significance was set at 5%. Results The waist/height ratio presented the highest correlation coefficient, for both male (r=0.80, p Conclusion Anthropometric indices, especially waist/height ratio may be a good alternative way to be used for evaluating the distribution of fat in the abdominal region of adults living with HIV/ADIS.

  1. Innu food consumption patterns: traditional food and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atikessé, Laura; de Grosbois, Sylvie Boucher; St-Jean, Mélissa; Penashue, Basile Mashen; Benuen, Manipia

    2010-01-01

    Food consumption patterns of an Innu community were described and the benefits of traditional food (TF) were investigated in relation to body mass index (BMI). A cross-sectional study was conducted using food frequency and 24-hour recall questionnaires to evaluate consumption patterns (n=118) and to assess energy and nutrient intakes from TF and store-bought food (SBF) (n=161). Body mass index was calculated with a sub-sample of 45 participants. Mean yearly TF meal consumption was significantly related to age (p=0.05). Participants reporting high TF and low SBF consumption presented with a normal body weight (BMI=24.1) at the lower quartile and a slightly overweight status (BMI=25.8) at the median. Mean values for protein and carbohydrate intake were higher than the Dietary Reference Intakes, whereas dietary fibre intake was below these guidelines for both genders. Store-bought food provided higher levels of energy and nutrients, except for protein. Although Innu consume high amounts of TF and SBF, a lack of some essential nutrients was observed. Because TF intake was related to a tendency toward a lower BMI, a combined, targeted diet could be proposed. Health services could reinforce the importance of TF consumption and promote traditional dietary practices that offer advantages at many levels.

  2. Body fat percentage is better than indicators of weight status to identify children and adolescents with unfavorable lipid profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliosa, Polyana Romano; Zaniqueli, Divanei; Alvim, Rafael de Oliveira; Barbosa, Miriam Carmo Rodrigues; Mill, José Geraldo

    2018-01-05

    To assess whether the indicators of weight status body mass index and waist-to-height ratio are similar to body fat percentage to identify obese children and adolescents with unfavorable lipid profile. This was a cross-sectional study involving 840 children and adolescents (6-18 years). The same individuals were classified as non-obese (

    body fat percentage and indicators of weight status, body mass index, and waist-to-height ratio. Body fat percentage was obtained by multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance. Linear association between obesity and increased lipid fractions was tested by ANCOVA. Normal distribution curves of non-HDL cholesterol were designed for obese and non-obese. To provide the proportion of obese individuals with elevated non-HDL-c across all indicators, Z-score was calculated. Obese boys presented higher non-HDL cholesterol when compared with those non-obese, classified by body mass index (107±28 vs. 94±25mg/dL, p=0.001), waist-to-height ratio (115±29 vs. 94±25mg/dL, p<0.001) and body fat percentage (119±33 vs. 94±24mg/dL, p<0.001). Differently, obese girls presented with higher non-HDL cholesterol when compared with those non-obese only according to the body fat percentage classification (118±24 vs. 96±26mg/dL, p=0.001). A large shift to the right in the distribution curve of non-HDL cholesterol among obese girls compared with non-obese was observed only when body fat percentage was used to discriminate between obese and non-obese. Body fat percentage was better than the indicators of weight status to identify children and adolescents with unfavorable lipid profile, mainly among girls. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  3. Body mass and antler development patterns of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, L.C.; Carlson, E.; Schmitt, S.M.; Haufler, J.B.

    2003-01-01

    We documented mean and maximum body mass, mass accretion patterns and ander development patterns of Rocky Mountain elk in Michigan. Mean body mass of bulls averaged 9-11% heavier, and maximum body mass 23-27% heavier, in Michigan than in other Rocky Mountain elk populations. Mean live body mass of cows averaged 11% heavier in Michigan, but mean eviscerated body mass did not differ. Maximum body mass of cows was 10-24% heavier in Michigan. Body mass peaked at age 7.5 for bulls and 8.5 for cows, similar to other Rocky Mountain elk populations despite the greater body mass achieved in Michigan. Sexual dimorphism in bull and cow body mass increased until peak body mass was attained, whereupon bulls were ???38% heavier than cows. Antler development of bull elk peaked at age 10.5, comparable to other Rocky Mountain elk populations. Relations between antler development and body mass within age classes were highly variable, but generally weak. Greater body mass seen in Michigan, and the peaking of antler development well after body mass in bulls, suggested a phenotypic response to nutritional conditions that allow Rocky Mountain elk in Michigan to maximize the species growth potential.

  4. Body Mass Index and Body Composition with Deuterium in Costa Rican Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintana-Guzmán, E.; Salas-Chaves, M. D. P.

    2015-01-01

    Body Mass Index (BMI) has been adopted as international measure for measuring adiposity in children with the disadvantage that it varies with age, sex and sexual maturation with no differentiation between fat mass and mass free of grease. The analysis of body composition allow to know if the overweight is due to fatty tissue being the deuterium isotope dilution a validated reference method using Infrared Spectrometry Transformed of Fourier (FTIR). We studied a total 118 boys and girls from 6 to 9 years old getting the values of z score of BMI for age and percentage of fat mass by FTIR. The results obtained in this study demonstrated that Costa Rica does not escape to the global problem of childhood obesity founding by BMI 18.6% of overweight and 10% of obesity and by body composition 9% of overweight and 57% of obesity. Isotopic deuterium dilution method demonstrated in this study to be more suitable for the analysis of obesity and overweight in children since BMI presented false positive and false negative results giving less accurate information of adiposity of the subject. (author)

  5. Relationship between perceived body image and recorded body mass index among Kuwaiti female university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Yearul; Zafar, Tasleem A; Waslien, Carol

    2013-01-01

    The associations between body image and attitudes toward obesity and thinness and their associations with measured body mass index (BMI) among female students of Kuwait University (n = 137) was examined in 2008. The body image perceptions were assessed using nine female silhouettes figures. The difference between current perceived body image (PBI) and ideal body image (IBI) was used as a measure of body image dissatisfaction (BID). Students tended to have a bigger PBI and smaller IBI than would be expected from their BMI category, leading to high levels of BID in each BMI category. PBI, IBI, BID, RBI were highly correlated with each other, and BMI was significantly correlated with each of them. The coefficients of these associations were not significantly altered in multiple regression analysis by the addition of potential confounding variables, such as age, marital status, physical activity, dieting behavior, parental education, and family size. These results suggest that PBI and a desire to be thinner were strongly related to BID and that thinness is becoming more desired in Kuwaiti society than the plump body image of the past.

  6. Heritability variations of body linearity and obesity indicators during growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poveda, A; Jelenkovic, A; Salces, I; Ibañez, M E; Rebato, E

    2012-08-01

    Longitudinal as well as cross-sectional studies have shown variations with age in heritability estimates for body dimensions from infancy to adulthood, even though the patterns of variation are not completely clear. Further study on this subject is of great interest and may help obesity interventions for preventing or treating obesity in children. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to analyse the changes in the genetic and environmental architecture of 8 body linearity and obesity-related phenotypes during the growth process in a cross-sectional sample of 1018 nuclear families from the province of Biscay (Basque Country, Spain). The contribution of additive genetic effects to the variation of the analysed traits was estimated by a variance component analysis using the SOLAR program. Moderate to high heritability estimates were obtained for all 8 anthropometric phenotypes (38.23-65.98%). The heritability values show an increasing trend with age and in the course of the entire ontogenetic development two age periods were remarkable. At 7(+)-8(+) years of age a strong increase in heritability estimates was found for all the anthropometric phenotypes, except for the sum of skinfolds (SF6), reflecting the biological significance of genes during mid-childhood. During puberty, most of the obesity related phenotypes showed their highest heritability values while linear measurements and weight presented a decrease in the genetic contributions. In conclusion, this study confirms that additive genetic influences have a considerable effect on body linearity and obesity-related traits throughout the growth period and that mid-childhood and puberty are very sensitive periods in human life cycle. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Association between oral health and body cell mass in hospitalised elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solemdal, Kirsten; Sandvik, Leiv; Møinichen-Berstad, Christina; Skog, Karina; Willumsen, Tiril; Mowe, Morten

    2012-06-01

    To examine whether oral health in hospitalised elderly was associated with body cell mass (BCM) measured with Bioimpedance spectroscopy. Body cell mass is the tissue producing the metabolic work necessary for all body functions. BCM is mainly muscle tissue. Low BCM is associated with diseases, ageing and poor nutritional status. Reduced oral health is also associated with these parameters; thus, BCM and oral health may be related. Body cell mass was measured using Bioimpedance spectroscopy in 138 acutely hospitalised elderly ≥70 years. The number of own teeth, posterior occluding tooth pairs and decayed teeth were registered. Oral hygiene was registered with Mucosal-Plaque Score, an index based on assessment of plaque accumulation and mucosal/gingival inflammation. Mini Nutritional Assessment-Short Form, body mass index and handgrip strength were used as nutritional indicators. Comorbidity was assessed with Cumulative Index Rating Scale. Mean age was 83.2 ± 5.9 years, ranging from 70 to 101 years. Dentition status was significantly and positively associated with BCM. Reduced oral hygiene was significantly associated with low BCM. These findings remained significant after adjusting for confounders. These results show that compromised oral health was significantly associated with reduced BCM in hospitalised elderly. © 2011 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Total body irradiation: current indications; L`irradiation corporelle totale: les indications actuelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giraud, P.; Danhier, S.; Dubray, B.; Cosset, J.M. [Institut Curie, 75 - Paris (France)

    1998-05-01

    The choice of dose and fractionation for total body irradiation is made difficult by the large number of considerations to be taken into account. The outcome of bone marrow transplantation after total body irradiation can be understood in terms of tumor cell killing, engraftment, and normal tissue damage, each of these endpoints being influenced by irradiation-, disease-, transplant-, and patient- related factors. Interpretation of clinical data is further hampered by the overwhelming influence of logistic constraints, the small numbers of randomized studies, and the concomitant variations in total dose and fraction size or dose rate. So far, three cautious conclusions can be drawn in order to tentatively adapt the total body irradiation schedule to clinically-relevant situations. Firstly, the organs at risk for normal tissue damage (lung, liver, lens, kidney) are protected by delivering small doses per fraction at low dose rate. This suggests that, when toxicity is at stake (e.g. in children), fractionated irradiation should be preferred, provided that inter-fraction intervals are long enough. Secondly, fractionated irradiation should be avoided in case of T-cell depleted transplant, given the high risk of graft rejection in this setting. An alternative would be to increase total (or fractional) dose of fractionated total body irradiation, but this approach is likely to induce more normal tissue toxicity. Thirdly, clinical data have shown higher relapse rates in chronic myeloid leukemia after fractionated or low dose rate total body irradiation, suggesting that fractionated irradiation should not be recommended, unless total (or fractional) dose is increased. Total body irradiation-containing regimens, primarily cyclophosphamide / total body irradiation, are either equivalent to or better than the chemotherapy-only regimens, primarily busulfan / cyclophosphamide. Busulfan / cyclophosphamide certainly represents a reasonable alternative, especially in patients who

  9. Dietary egg-white protein increases body protein mass and reduces body fat mass through an acceleration of hepatic β-oxidation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Ryosuke; Shirouchi, Bungo; Umegatani, Minami; Fukuda, Meguri; Muto, Ayano; Masuda, Yasunobu; Kunou, Masaaki; Sato, Masao

    2017-09-01

    Egg-white protein (EWP) is known to reduce lymphatic TAG transport in rats. In this study, we investigated the effects of dietary EWP on body fat mass. Male rats, 4 weeks old, were fed diets containing either 20 % EWP or casein for 28 d. Carcass protein levels and gastrocnemius leg muscle weights in the EWP group were significantly higher than those in the casein group. In addition, carcass TAG levels and abdominal fat weights in the EWP group were significantly lower than those in the casein group; adipocyte size in abdominal fat in the EWP group was smaller than that in the casein group. To identify the involvement of dietary fat levels in the rats, one of two fat levels (5 or 10 %) was added to their diet along with the different protein sources (EWP and casein). Abdominal fat weight and serum and hepatic TAG levels were significantly lower in the EWP group than in the casein group. Moreover, significantly higher values of enzymatic activity related to β-oxidation in the liver were observed in the EWP group compared with the casein group. Finally, abdominal fat weight reduction in the EWP group with the 10 % fat diet was lower than that in the EWP group with the 5 % fat diet. In conclusion, our results indicate that, in addition to the inhibition of dietary TAG absorption reported previously, dietary EWP reduces body fat mass in rats through an increase of body protein mass and the acceleration of β-oxidation in the liver.

  10. Effect of body mass and clothing on carrion entomofauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuszewski, Szymon; Frątczak, Katarzyna; Konwerski, Szymon; Bajerlein, Daria; Szpila, Krzysztof; Jarmusz, Mateusz; Szafałowicz, Michał; Grzywacz, Andrzej; Mądra, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Carcass mass largely affects pattern and rate of carrion decomposition. Supposedly, it is similarly important for carrion entomofauna; however, most of its likely effects have not been tested experimentally. Here, simultaneous effects of carcass mass and clothing are analyzed. A factorial block experiment with four levels of carcass mass (small carcasses 5-15 kg, medium carcasses 15.1-30 kg, medium/large carcasses 35-50 kg, large carcasses 55-70 kg) and two levels of carcass clothing (clothed and unclothed) was made in a grassland habitat of Western Poland. Pig carcasses (N = 24) were grouped into spring, early summer, and late summer blocks. Insects were sampled manually and with pitfall traps. Results demonstrate that insect assemblages are more complex, abundant, and long-lasting on larger carcasses, whereas clothing is of minor importance in this respect. Only large or medium/large carcasses were colonized by all guilds of carrion insects, while small or medium carcasses revealed high underrepresentation of late-colonizing insects (e.g., Cleridae or Nitidulidae). This finding indicates that carcasses weighing about 23 kg-a standard in forensic decomposition studies-give an incomplete picture of carrion entomofauna. Residencies of all forensically relevant insects were distinctly prolonged on larger carcasses, indicating that cadaver mass is a factor of great importance in this respect. The pre-appearance interval of most taxa was found to be unrelated to mass or clothing of a carcass. Moreover, current results suggest that rate of larval development is higher on smaller carcasses. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that carcass mass is a factor of crucial importance for carrion entomofauna, whereas the importance of clothing is small.

  11. Correlation between Body Mass Index, Gender, and Skeletal Muscle Mass Cut off Point in Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richi Hendrik Wattimena

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the average skeletal muscle mass (SMM value in young adults as a reference population; to analyze the correlation of gender, and body mass index to the cut off point; and to determine skeletal muscle mass cut off points of population in Bandung, Indonesia. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 199 participants, 122 females and 77 males. The sampling technique used was the multistage random sampling. The participants were those who lived in four major regions in Bandung, Indonesia: Sukajadi, Cicadas, Buah Batu, and Cibaduyut. Results: The average appendicular skeletal mass index (ASMI in females and males based on body mass index (BMI were identified. The average ASMI values for normal BMI in females was 5.982±0.462 kg/m2 while the average ASMI values normal BMI for males was 7.581±0.744 kg/m2 Conclusions: A correlation between BMI and ASMI that was considered statistically significant was found in females (0.7712; p<0.05 and a very significant correlation was seen in males (0.870; p<0.05. The cut off points were defined by the normal BMI, which were 5.059 for females and 6.093 for males.

  12. Body Mass Index and Operating Times in Vascular Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Durup-Dickenson

    Full Text Available : Introduction: The influence of body mass index (BMI on operating times in central and peripheral vascular surgical procedures was investigated. Report: A national cohort of Danish patients who underwent a vascular procedure between 1983 and 2012 was used for analysis. Data were analysed with pairwise comparisons of BMI groups for operating times using the independent samples Kruskall–Wallis test. Discussion: A total of 3,255 carotid endarterectomies; 6,885 central vascular procedures; and 4,488 peripheral bypasses were included for the analysis. Median operating times for carotid endarterectomy and central vascular procedures were, respectively, 5 and 15 minutes longer in obese patients than in normal weight patients. This represents a 7% and 10% increase in median operating times, respectively. Linear and multi-adjusted linear regressions were conducted adjusting for confounders, showing a significant correlation between BMI and operating time. Obesity significantly increased the operating times in carotid endarterectomy and central vascular procedures. These may have ramifications for the individual operative stress but not necessarily on logistical operation planning. Keywords: Body mass index (BMI, Obesity, Operating time, Surgery, Vascular surgical procedures

  13. Store Impulse Marketing Strategies and Body Mass Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Rebecca; Hunter, Gerald; Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie; Dubowitz, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We quantified the use of placement and price reduction marketing strategies in different food retail outlets to identify associations between these strategies and the risk of overweight and obesity among customers. Methods. In 2011 we collected dietary and health information from 1372 residents in “food deserts” in Pittsburgh, PA. We audited neighborhood restaurants and food stores (n = 40) including 16 distant food venues at which residents reported shopping. We assessed end-aisle displays, special floor displays, cash register displays, and price reductions for sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs); foods high in saturated oils, fats, and added sugars; and nutritious foods such as fruits, vegetables, and products with at least 51% whole grains. Results. Supermarkets and superstores had the largest numbers of displays and price reductions for low-nutrient foods. Exposure to displays of SSBs and foods high in saturated oils, fats, and added sugars and price reduction of SSBs was associated with increased body mass index. Conclusions. In-store marketing strategies of low-nutrient foods appear to be risk factors for a higher body mass index among regular shoppers. Future research is needed to confirm the causal role of marketing strategies in obesity. PMID:25521881

  14. Height and Body Mass on the Mating Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Frederick

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available People with traits that are attractive on the mating market are better able to pursue their preferred mating strategy. Men who are relatively tall may be preferred by women because taller height is a cue to dominance, social status, access to resources, and heritable fitness, leading them to have more mating opportunities and sex partners. We examined height, education, age, ethnicity, and body mass index (BMI as predictors of sexual history among heterosexual men and women (N = 60,058. The linear and curvilinear associations between self-reported height and sex partner number were small for men when controlling for education, BMI, and ethnicity (linear β = .05; curvilinear β = −.03. The mean and median number of sex partners for men of different heights were: very short (9.4; 5, short (11.0; 7, average (11.7; 7, tall (12.0; 7, very tall (12.1; 7, and extremely tall (12.3; 7. Men who were “overweight” reported a higher mean and median number of sex partners than men with other body masses. The results for men suggested limited variation in reported sex partner number across most of the height continuum, but that very short men report fewer partners than other men.

  15. Influence of Body Mass Index on Hair Ethyl Glucuronide Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crunelle, Cleo L; Neels, Hugo; Maudens, Kristof; De Doncker, Mireille; Cappelle, Delphine; Matthys, Frieda; Dom, Geert; Fransen, Erik; Michielsen, Peter; De Keukeleire, Steven; Covaci, Adrian; Yegles, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Analysis of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) concentrations in hair is increasingly used to estimate the consumption of alcohol of the prior months. Linear correlations between the amount of alcohol consumed and the concentration of EtG in hair have been reported, and several variables that may influence this correlation have been investigated: e.g. cosmetic hair treatments, gender influences or hair color. Here, we investigate the influence of body mass index (BMI) on this correlation. A post hoc analysis on the influence of BMI on the relation between amounts of alcohol consumed and the measured EtG concentrations in hair in 199 participants. Our data show higher EtG concentrations in participants with high BMI (≥25) compared to participants with low BMI (hair EtG concentrations. Ethyl glucuronide concentrations in hair (hEtG) can be used to estimate the consumption of alcohol of the prior months. Body mass index (BMI) influences this relation and BMI should be taken into account when interpreting hEtG concentrations in participants with high BMI (≥25) compared to participants with low BMI (<25). © The Author 2016. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  16. Store Impulse Marketing Strategies and Body Mass Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Deborah A; Collins, Rebecca; Hunter, Gerald; Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie; Dubowitz, Tamara

    2015-07-01

    We quantified the use of placement and price reduction marketing strategies in different food retail outlets to identify associations between these strategies and the risk of overweight and obesity among customers. In 2011 we collected dietary and health information from 1372 residents in "food deserts" in Pittsburgh, PA. We audited neighborhood restaurants and food stores (n = 40) including 16 distant food venues at which residents reported shopping. We assessed end-aisle displays, special floor displays, cash register displays, and price reductions for sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs); foods high in saturated oils, fats, and added sugars; and nutritious foods such as fruits, vegetables, and products with at least 51% whole grains. Supermarkets and superstores had the largest numbers of displays and price reductions for low-nutrient foods. Exposure to displays of SSBs and foods high in saturated oils, fats, and added sugars and price reduction of SSBs was associated with increased body mass index. In-store marketing strategies of low-nutrient foods appear to be risk factors for a higher body mass index among regular shoppers. Future research is needed to confirm the causal role of marketing strategies in obesity.

  17. Associations between Body Composition Indices and Metabolic Disorders in Chinese Adults: A Cross-Sectional Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong; Dong, Sheng-Yong; Wang, Fei; Ma, Cong; Zhao, Xiao-Lan; Zeng, Qiang; Fei, Ao

    2018-02-20

    Obesity induces dyslipidemia, hypertension, glucose intolerance, and inflammatory state, which results in atherogenic processes, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. We usually use body composition indices, such as body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BFP), waist circumference-height ratio (WHtR), and waist-hip ratio (WHR) to reflect the obesity. The aim of this large population-based cross-sectional study was to investigate the associations between body composition indices and metabolic parameters in Chinese adults. A total of 12,018 Chinese adults were included. Body composition indices, such as BMI, BFP, WHtR, and WHR, and metabolic parameters, such as systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), fasting blood glucose (FBG), 2 h postprandial blood glucose (2h PBG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting insulin (FINS), insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and white blood cell count (WBC), were measured and analyzed. All analyses were stratified by gender. All body composition indices and metabolic parameters except 2h PBG differed significantly between males and females (all P composition indices and metabolic parameters in Chinese adults. Among the body composition indices, BMI predicted four of the five evaluated metabolic disorders in both gender groups.

  18. The Relationship between Physical Activity Level, Body Mass Index, and Body Fat Percentages in Urban and Rural Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Özlem

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the physical activity levels, physical activity types, Body Mass Index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BF%) values of elementary school students living in rural and urban. Body height (BH), body weight (BW), BF% and BMI data were measured. Physical activity questionnaire was conducted to determine the…

  19. Body mass change and ultraendurance performance: a decrease in body mass is associated with an increased running speed in male 100-km ultramarathoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüst, Christoph A; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Wirth, Andrea; Rosemann, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    We investigated, in 50 recreational male ultrarunners, the changes in body mass, selected hematological and urine parameters, and fluid intake during a 100-km ultramarathon. The athletes lost (mean and SD) 2.6 (1.8) % in body mass (p speed was significantly and negatively related to the change in body mass (p speed (r = 0.33, p = 0.0182) and the change in body mass (r = 0.44, p = 0.0014) and significantly and negatively to both postrace serum [Na⁺] (r = -0.42, p = 0.0022) and the change in serum [Na⁺] (r = -0.38, p = 0.0072). This field study showed that recreational, male, 100-km ultramarathoners dehydrated as evidenced by the decrease in >2 % body mass and the increase in urine-specific gravity. Race performance, however, was not impaired because of the loss in body mass. In contrast, faster athletes lost more body mass compared with slower athletes while also drinking more. The concept that a loss of >2% in body mass leads to dehydration and consequently impairs endurance performance must be questioned for ultraendurance athletes competing in the field. For practical applications, a loss in body mass during a 100-km ultramarathon was associated with a faster running speed.

  20. Weight and body mass index among female contraceptive clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Julia E; Lopez, Priscilla M; Simons, Hannah R

    2015-06-01

    As obesity may affect the efficacy of some contraceptives, we examined weight, body mass index (BMI) and prevalence of obesity among female contraceptive clients at 231 U.S. health centers. A secondary aim was to analyze differences in contraceptive method use by obesity status. Cross-sectional study using de-identified electronic health record data from family planning centers. We analyzed contraceptive visits made by 147,336 females aged 15-44 years in 2013. A total of 46.1% of clients had BMI ≥25. Mean body weight was 154.4 lb (S.D.=41.9); mean BMI was 26.1 (S.D.=6.6). A total of 40% had BMI ≥26, when levonorgestrel emergency contraception may become less effective. Obese clients had higher odds of using a tier 1 or tier 3 contraceptive method and had lower odds of using a tier 2 or hormonal method than non-obese clients. About half of contraceptive clients would be categorized as overweight or obese. Contraceptive method choices differed by obesity status. About half of contraceptive clients in this study population were overweight or obese. Contraceptive method choices differed by obesity status. All women - regardless of body size - should receive unbiased, evidence-based counseling on the full range of contraceptive options so that they can make informed choices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of aerobic and/or resistance training on body mass and fat mass in overweight or obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Leslie H; Slentz, Cris A; Bateman, Lori A; Shields, A Tamlyn; Piner, Lucy W; Bales, Connie W; Houmard, Joseph A; Kraus, William E

    2012-12-15

    Recent guidelines on exercise for weight loss and weight maintenance include resistance training as part of the exercise prescription. Yet few studies have compared the effects of similar amounts of aerobic and resistance training on body mass and fat mass in overweight adults. STRRIDE AT/RT, a randomized trial, compared aerobic training, resistance training, and a combination of the two to determine the optimal mode of exercise for obesity reduction. Participants were 119 sedentary, overweight or obese adults who were randomized to one of three 8-mo exercise protocols: 1) RT: resistance training, 2) AT: aerobic training, and 3) AT/RT: aerobic and resistance training (combination of AT and RT). Primary outcomes included total body mass, fat mass, and lean body mass. The AT and AT/RT groups reduced total body mass and fat mass more than RT (P body mass more than AT (P body mass reductions over AT alone. Balancing time commitments against health benefits, it appears that AT is the optimal mode of exercise for reducing fat mass and body mass, while a program including RT is needed for increasing lean mass in middle-aged, overweight/obese individuals.

  2. Newborn Body Indices in Housewives and Working Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alieh Torabizadeh

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to compare newborns anthropometric indices of housewives and employed women.Materials and Methods: This case control study compared newborns’ anthropometric indices (weight, length, head circumference and first minute APGAR between working women and housewives. Two hundred consecutive term pregnant women during active phase of labor without any pregnancy complications were evaluated. For each participant a questionnaire was filled by the researcher. Employed women according to their standing position during work time were divided into three groups: heavy, light and moderate jobs.   Results: The mean weight, length and head circumference of the newborns were higher in employed women (p=0.018, p<0.001, p=0.010, respectively. After eliminating effect of the interfering variables by using a general linear model, it was observed that the mother’s job has a direct influence on newborn's length and head circumference. But infant's weight was similar in two groups (p=0.340. The newborn's anthropometric indices and first minute APGAR had not significant difference in subgroups of job difficulty.Conclusion: Maternal job has a direct positive influence on newborn's length and head circumference. But infant's weight is not related to maternal job.

  3. Body Mass Index, perceived health, and hapiness: Their determinants and structural relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelisse-Vermaat, J.; Antonides, G.; van Ophem, J.A.C.; Maassen van den Brink, H.

    2006-01-01

    The structural relationships between body mass index, perceived health and happiness have been studied in a survey of 700 native Dutch citizens. We found an indirect effect of body mass index on happiness, via perceived health. Age had an inverted U-shaped relationship with body mass index, and both

  4. Body mass index, perceived health, and happiness: their determinants and structural relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelisse-Vermaat, J.R.; Antonides, G.; Ophem, van J.A.C.; Maassen van den Brink, H.

    2006-01-01

    The structural relationships between body mass index, perceived health and happiness have been studied in a survey of 700 native Dutch citizens. We found an indirect effect of body mass index on happiness, via perceived health. Age had an inverted U-shaped relationship with body mass index, and both

  5. Genome-wide association analysis identifies three new susceptibility loci for childhood body mass index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felix, Janine F.; Bradfield, Jonathan P.; Monnereau, Claire; van der Valk, Ralf J. P.; Stergiakouli, Evie; Chesi, Alessandra; Gaillard, Romy; Feenstra, Bjarke; Thiering, Elisabeth; Kreiner-Moller, Eskil; Mahajan, Anubha; Pitkanen, Niina; Joro, Raimo; Cavadino, Alana; Huikari, Ville; Franks, Steve; Groen-Blokhuis, Maria M.; Cousminer, Diana L.; Marsh, Julie A.; Lehtimaki, Terho; Curtin, John A.; Vioque, Jesus; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Myhre, Ronny; Price, Thomas S.; Vilor-Tejedor, Natalia; Yengo, Loic; Grarup, Niels; Ntalla, Ioanna; Ang, Wei; Atalay, Mustafa; Bisgaard, Hans; Blakemore, Alexandra I.; Bonnefond, Amelie; Carstensen, Lisbeth; Eriksson, Johan; Flexeder, Claudia; Franke, Lude; Geller, Frank; Geserick, Mandy; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Haworth, Claire M. A.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Hofman, Albert; Holm, Jens-Christian; Horikoshi, Momoko; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Huang, Jinyan; Kadarmideen, Haja N.; Kahonen, Mika; Kiess, Wieland; Lakka, Hanna-Maaria; Lakka, Timo A.; Lewin, Alexandra M.; Liang, Liming; Lyytikainen, Leo-Pekka; Ma, Baoshan; Magnus, Per; McCormack, Shana E.; McMahon, George; Mentch, Frank D.; Middeldorp, Christel M.; Murray, Clare S.; Pahkala, Katja; Pers, Tune H.; Pfaefle, Roland; Postma, Dirkje S.; Power, Christine; Simpson, Angela; Sengpiel, Verena; Tiesler, Carla M. T.; Torrent, Maties; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; van Meurs, Joyce B.; Vinding, Rebecca; Waage, Johannes; Wardle, Jane; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Zemel, Babette S.; Dedoussis, George V.; Pedersen, Oluf; Froguel, Philippe; Sunyer, Jordi; Plomin, Robert; Jacobsson, Bo; Hansen, Torben; Gonzalez, Juan R.; Custovic, Adnan; Raitakari, Olli T.; Pennell, Craig E.; Widen, Elisabeth; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Sebert, Sylvain; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Hypponen, Elina; McCarthy, Mark I.; Lindi, Virpi; Harri, Niinikoski; Koerner, Antje; Bonnelykke, Klaus; Heinrich, Joachim; Melbye, Mads; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Hakonarson, Hakon; Ring, Susan M.; Smith, George Davey; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Grant, Struan F. A.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.

    2016-01-01

    A large number of genetic loci are associated with adult body mass index. However, the genetics of childhood body mass index are largely unknown. We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of childhood body mass index, using sex-and age-adjusted standard deviation scores. We

  6. Genome-wide association analysis identifies three new susceptibility loci for childhood body mass index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. Felix (Janine); J.P. Bradfield (Jonathan); C. Monnereau; R.J.P. van der Valk (Ralf); E. Stergiakouli (Evie); A. Chesi (Alessandra); R. Gaillard (Romy); B. Feenstra (Bjarke); E. Thiering (Elisabeth); E. Kreiner-Møller (Eskil); A. Mahajan (Anubha); Niina Pitkänen; R. Joro (Raimo); A. Cavadino (Alana); V. Huikari (Ville); S. Franks (Steve); M. Groen-Blokhuis (Maria); D.L. Cousminer (Diana); J.A. Marsh (Julie); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); J.A. Curtin (John); J. Vioque (Jesus); T.S. Ahluwalia (Tarunveer Singh); R. Myhre (Ronny); T.S. Price (Thomas); Natalia Vilor-Tejedor; L. Yengo (Loic); N. Grarup (Niels); I. Ntalla (Ioanna); W.Q. Ang (Wei); M. Atalay (Mustafa); H. Bisgaard (Hans); A.I.F. Blakemore (Alexandra); A. Bonnefond (Amélie); L. Carstensen (Lisbeth); J.G. Eriksson (Johan G.); C. Flexeder (Claudia); L. Franke (Lude); F. Geller (Frank); M. Geserick (Mandy); A.L. Hartikainen; C.M.A. Haworth (Claire M.); J.N. Hirschhorn (Joel N.); A. Hofman (Albert); J.-C. Holm (Jens-Christian); M. Horikoshi (Momoko); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); J. Huang (Jian); H.N. Kadarmideen (Haja N.); M. Kähönen (Mika); W. Kiess (Wieland); T.A. Lakka (Timo); T.A. Lakka (Timo); A. Lewin (Alex); L. Liang (Liming); L.-P. Lyytikäinen (Leo-Pekka); B. Ma (Baoshan); P. Magnus (Per); S.E. McCormack (Shana E.); G. Mcmahon (George); F.D. Mentch (Frank); C.M. Middeldorp (Christel); C.S. Murray (Clare S.); K. Pahkala (Katja); T.H. Pers (Tune); R. Pfäffle (Roland); D.S. Postma (Dirkje); C. Power (Christine); A. Simpson (Angela); V. Sengpiel (Verena); C. Tiesler (Carla); M. Torrent (Maties); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); R. Vinding (Rebecca); J. Waage (Johannes); J. Wardle (Jane); E. Zeggini (Eleftheria); B.S. Zemel (Babette S.); G.V. Dedoussis (George); O. Pedersen (Oluf); P. Froguel (Philippe); J. Sunyer (Jordi); R. Plomin (Robert); B. Jacobsson (Bo); T. Hansen (Torben); J.R. Gonzalez (Juan R.); A. Custovic; O.T. Raitakari (Olli T.); C.E. Pennell (Craig); Elisabeth Widén; D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); G.H. Koppelman (Gerard); S. Sebert (Sylvain); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); E. Hypponen (Elina); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); V. Lindi (Virpi); N. Harri (Niinikoski); A. Körner (Antje); K. Bønnelykke (Klaus); J. Heinrich (Joachim); M. Melbye (Mads); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); H. Hakonarson (Hakon); S.M. Ring (Susan); G.D. Smith; T.I.A. Sørensen (Thorkild I.A.); N.J. Timpson (Nicholas); S.F.A. Grant (Struan); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); H.J. Kalkwarf (Heidi J.); J.M. Lappe (Joan M.); V. Gilsanz (Vicente); S.E. Oberfield (Sharon E.); J.A. Shepherd (John A.); A. Kelly (Andrea)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractA large number of genetic loci are associated with adult body mass index. However, the genetics of childhood body mass index are largely unknown.We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of childhood body mass index, using sex- and age-adjusted standard deviation

  7. Radon-222 as an indicator of continental air masses and air mass boundaries over ocean areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, R.E.; Bressan, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    Radon ( 222 Rn) has proven to be an excellent indicator of the continental nature of over-ocean air and air mass boundaries. Radon is almost exclusively of continental origin, and low-level real-time monitoring is possible with our improved radon measurement techniques. The transition from continental to maritime air in offshore and onshore winds is rather obvious and can easily be established near large islands or continents as an order-of-magnitude change in radon concentration from a few tens of picocuries per cubic meter or more to a few picocuries per cubic meter or less. Sharply changing radon concentrations are usually associated with frontal areas. Our data have offered insights into air movements, and hence transport of continental materials and pollutants over oceanic areas

  8. [Measurements of location of body fat distribution: an assessment of colinearity with body mass, adiposity and stature in female adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Patrícia Feliciano; Serrano, Hiara Miguel Stanciola; Carvalho, Gisele Queiroz; Ribeiro, Sônia Machado Rocha; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo Gouveia; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2015-01-01

    To verify the correlation between body fat location measurements with the body mass index (BMI), percentage of body fat (%BF) and stature, according to the nutritional status in female adolescents. A controlled cross sectional study was carried out with 113 adolescents (G1: 38 eutrophic, but with high body fat level, G2: 40 eutrophic and G3: 35 overweight) from public schools in Viçosa-MG, Brazil. The following measures have been assessed: weight, stature, waist circumference (WC), umbilical circumference (UC), hip circumference (HC), thigh circumference, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-stature ratio (WSR), waist-to-thigh ratio (WTR), conicity index (CI), sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), coronal diameter (CD), central skinfolds (CS) and peripheral (PS). The %BF was assessed by tetrapolar electric bioimpedance. The increase of central fat, represented by WC, UC, WSR, SAD, CD and CS, and the increase of peripheral fat indicated by HC and thigh were proportional to the increase of BMI and %BF. WC and especially the UC showed the strongest correlations with adiposity. Weak correlation between WHR, WTR, CI and CS/PS with adiposity were observed. The stature showed correlation with almost all the fat location measures, being regular or weak with waist. The results indicate colinearity between body mass and total adiposity with central and peripheral adipose tissue. We recommend the use of UC for assessing nutritional status of adolescents, because it showed the highest ability to predict adiposity in each group, and also presented regular or weak correlation with stature. Copyright © 2014 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Body mass and cardiovascular reactivity to racism in African American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Vernessa R; Hill, Oliver W

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of body mass on cardiovascular reactivity to racism in African American college students. Cardiac output, stroke volume, heart rate and blood pressure were measured as participants viewed a racially noxious scene on videotape. Body mass was measured using body mass index calculated using height and weight. We hypothesized that obese individuals would have greater cardiovascular reactivity to the scene than overweight individuals or individuals with normal weight. We also hypothesized that obese women would have the greatest cardiovascular reactivity to the scenes compared to overweight and normal weight women, and obese, overweight, and normal weight men. Lastly, we hypothesized that women would have greater cardiovascular reactivity than their male counterparts. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed that obese participants had significantly greater stroke volume and cardiac output than participants of normal weight, indicating that obese participants were less emotionally aroused by the stressor. There was also a significant interaction between sex and body mass for heart rate reactivity between the stressor and recovery periods. Obese women had the largest drop in heart rate, while obese men had the smallest drop from the stressor period to the recovery period. The findings revealed that obese participants were less aroused by the stressors and recovered from them more quickly than overweight participants and participants of normal weight. The frequent experiences of weight prejudices by the obese group may have desensitized them to other prejudices such as the racial intolerance shown in the stressor.

  10. Entering a new era of body indices: the feasibility of a body shape index and body roundness index to identify cardiovascular health status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn F H Maessen

    Full Text Available The Body Mass Index (BMI and Waist Circumference (WC are well-used anthropometric predictors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD, but their validity is regularly questioned. Recently, A Body Shape Index (ABSI and Body Roundness Index (BRI were introduced as alternative anthropometric indices that may better reflect health status.This study assessed the capacity of ABSI and BRI in identifying cardiovascular diseases and cardiovascular disease risk factors and determined whether they are superior to BMI and WC.4627 Participants (54±12 years of the Nijmegen Exercise Study completed an online questionnaire concerning CVD health status (defined as history of CVD or CVD risk factors and anthropometric characteristics. Quintiles of ABSI, BRI, BMI, and WC were used regarding CVD prevalence. Odds ratios (OR, adjusted for age, sex, and smoking, were calculated per anthropometric index.1332 participants (27.7% reported presence of CVD or CVD risk factors. The prevalence of CVD increased across quintiles for BMI, ABSI, BRI, and WC. Comparing the lowest with the highest quintile, adjusted OR (95% CI for CVD were significantly different for BRI 3.2 (1.4-7.2, BMI 2.4 (1.9-3.1, and WC 3.0 (1.6-5.6. The adjusted OR (95% CI for CVD risk factors was for BRI 2.5 (2.0-3.3, BMI 3.3 (1.6-6.8, and WC 2.0 (1.6-2.5. No association was observed for ABSI in both groups.BRI, BMI, and WC are able to determine CVD presence, while ABSI is not capable. Nevertheless, the capacity of BRI as a novel body index to identify CVD was not superior compared to established anthropometric indices like BMI and WC.

  11. Entering a New Era of Body Indices: The Feasibility of a Body Shape Index and Body Roundness Index to Identify Cardiovascular Health Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maessen, Martijn F. H.; Eijsvogels, Thijs M. H.; Verheggen, Rebecca J. H. M.; Hopman, Maria T. E.; Verbeek, André L. M.; de Vegt, Femmie

    2014-01-01

    Background The Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Circumference (WC) are well-used anthropometric predictors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD), but their validity is regularly questioned. Recently, A Body Shape Index (ABSI) and Body Roundness Index (BRI) were introduced as alternative anthropometric indices that may better reflect health status. Objective This study assessed the capacity of ABSI and BRI in identifying cardiovascular diseases and cardiovascular disease risk factors and determined whether they are superior to BMI and WC. Design and Methods 4627 Participants (54±12 years) of the Nijmegen Exercise Study completed an online questionnaire concerning CVD health status (defined as history of CVD or CVD risk factors) and anthropometric characteristics. Quintiles of ABSI, BRI, BMI, and WC were used regarding CVD prevalence. Odds ratios (OR), adjusted for age, sex, and smoking, were calculated per anthropometric index. Results 1332 participants (27.7%) reported presence of CVD or CVD risk factors. The prevalence of CVD increased across quintiles for BMI, ABSI, BRI, and WC. Comparing the lowest with the highest quintile, adjusted OR (95% CI) for CVD were significantly different for BRI 3.2 (1.4–7.2), BMI 2.4 (1.9–3.1), and WC 3.0 (1.6–5.6). The adjusted OR (95% CI) for CVD risk factors was for BRI 2.5 (2.0–3.3), BMI 3.3 (1.6–6.8), and WC 2.0 (1.6–2.5). No association was observed for ABSI in both groups. Conclusions BRI, BMI, and WC are able to determine CVD presence, while ABSI is not capable. Nevertheless, the capacity of BRI as a novel body index to identify CVD was not superior compared to established anthropometric indices like BMI and WC. PMID:25229394

  12. Low body mass index is an important risk factor for low bone mass and increased bone loss in early postmenopausal women. Early Postmenopausal Intervention Cohort (EPIC) study group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Cizza, G; Bjarnason, N H

    1999-01-01

    Thinness (low percentage of body fat, low body mass index [BMI], or low body weight) was evaluated as a risk factor for low bone mineral density (BMD) or increased bone loss in a randomized trial of alendronate for prevention of osteoporosis in recently postmenopausal women with normal bone mass (n...... (r = -0.12 to -0.15, p mass parameters and response to alendronate treatment, which...... indicated that risk of low bone mass and increased bone loss caused by thinness could be compensated by alendronate treatment. In conclusion, thinness is an important risk factor for low bone mass and increased bone loss in postmenopausal women. Because the response to alendronate treatment is independent...

  13. Insights into relationships between body mass, composition and bone: findings in elite rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hind, Karen; Gannon, Lisa; Brightmore, Amy; Beck, Belinda

    2015-01-01

    Recent reports indicate that bone strength is not proportional to body weight in obese populations. Elite rugby players have a similar body mass index (BMI) to obese individuals but differ markedly with low body fat, high lean mass, and frequent skeletal exposure to loading through weight-bearing exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine relationships between body weight, composition, and bone strength in male rugby players characterized by high BMI and high lean mass. Fifty-two elite male rugby players and 32 nonathletic, age-matched controls differing in BMI (30.2 ± 3.2 vs 24.1 ± 2.1 kg/m²; p = 0.02) received 1 total body and one total hip dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan. Hip structural analysis of the proximal femur was used to determine bone mineral density (BMD) and cross-sectional bone geometry. Multiple linear regression was computed to identify independent variables associated with total hip and femoral neck BMD and hip structural analysis-derived bone geometry parameters. Analysis of covariance was used to explore differences between groups. Further comparisons between groups were performed after normalizing parameters to body weight and to lean mass. There was a trend for a positive fat-bone relationship in rugby players, and a negative relationship in controls, although neither reached statistical significance. Correlations with lean mass were stronger for bone geometry (r(2): 0.408-0.520) than for BMD (r(2): 0.267-0.293). Relative to body weight, BMD was 6.7% lower in rugby players than controls (p Rugby players were heavier than controls, with greater lean mass and BMD (p rugby players (p rugby players was reduced in proportion to body weight and lean mass. However, their superior bone geometry suggests that overall bone strength may be adequate for loading demands. Fat-bone interactions in athletes engaged in high-impact sports require further exploration. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. A Triple Iron Triathlon Leads to a Decrease in Total Body Mass but Not to Dehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas; Oliver, Senn

    2010-01-01

    A loss in total body mass during an ultraendurance performance is usually attributed to dehydration. We identified the changes in total body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, and selected markers of hydration status in 31 male nonprofessional ultratriathletes participating in a Triple Iron triathlon involving 11.4 km swimming, 540 km cycling…

  15. Evaluation of Fruit Intake and its Relation to Body Mass Index of Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Ham, Eunah; Kim, Hyun-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Diets high in fruits and vegetables are recommended to maintain health. However, accurate fruit intake evaluation is hard and high sugar content in most of the fruits suggest possible negative relationships with health indices. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the fruit intake status of adolescents and to examine the relationship between fruit intake and body mass index (BMI). For this, 400 middle and high school students were surveyed for their fruit eating attitude, preferen...

  16. Body mass, fat-free body mass, and prognosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease from a random population sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, Jørgen; Prescott, Eva; Almdal, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Low body mass index (BMI) is a marker of poor prognosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the general population, the harmful effect of low BMI is due to the deleterious effects of a low fat-free mass index (FFMI; fat-free mass/weight(2)).......Low body mass index (BMI) is a marker of poor prognosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the general population, the harmful effect of low BMI is due to the deleterious effects of a low fat-free mass index (FFMI; fat-free mass/weight(2))....

  17. The relationship between body fat percentage and body mass index in overweight and obese individuals in an urban african setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukadas O. Akindele

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in both developed and developing countries is associated with musculoskeletal and other non-communicable diseases. To address this, an accurate measure of body adiposity, bearing in mind several shortcomings of body mass index (BMI, should be used. This study determined the relationship between BMI and body fat (BF% among adult Nigerians of different ethnic groups residing in an urban setting. Using multistage cluster sampling technique were recruited 1571 subjects (>18 years; male=51.2% in a cross-sectional study. Body adiposity indices were assessed using BMI and BF%. Using BF%, the result shows that a total number of 156 (9.9% had low BF% while 291 (18.5% had very high BF%, while the BMI classifications of body adiposity, 68 (4.3% were underweight while 271 (17.3% were obese. There was a strong and positive statistical relationship between BF% and BMI when both were paired without controlling for gender and age (r=0.81, P<0.01. The results show that there is a strong positive association between BMI and BF%, and age and sex are predictors of this association.

  18. Body indices and basic vital signs in Helicobacter pylori positive and negative persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopacova, Marcela; Bures, Jan; Koupil, Ilona; Rejchrt, Stanislav; Vorisek, Viktor; Seifert, Bohumil; Pozler, Oldrich; Zivny, Pavel; Douda, Tomas; Palicka, Vladimir; Holcik, Jan

    2007-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection may contribute to reduced stature, risk of hypertension or obesity. The aim was to evaluate body indices in Hp positive and negative persons. A total of 2436 subjects (4-100 years old) were tested for Hp status by 13 C-urea breath test. Data on height and weight were collected for 84%, and blood pressure for 80% of the study subjects. The prevalence of Hp infection was 41.6%. The odds ratio for a 10-year increase in age was 1.21 (95% CI 1.17-1.25, p-value <0.001). Statistically significant negative association of Hp positivity with body height was most pronounced in the younger age groups, while a positive association of Hp positivity with body mass index was only seen in those aged 15+ years. There was a negative effect of Hp positivity on systolic and diastolic blood pressure in subjects below 25 and a relatively strong positive effect on blood pressure in subjects over 65 years. Residual confounding by social characteristics as a possible explanation for the associations of Hp positivity with height and blood pressure cannot be excluded. Unmeasured factors related to social and family environment may cause the apparent association between Hp positivity and children's growth and blood pressure

  19. Relation between exercise, depression and body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vasconcelos-Raposo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between physical exercise, depression, and body mass index (BMI. The sample of the study consisted of 175 participants (43 male and 132 female with ages between the 18 and 27 years. The used instruments were: an adapted and validated Portuguese version of the Beck Depressive Inventory (BDI and an adaptation of the physical exercise scale developed by Prochaska, Sallis and Long (2001. The results suggested a negative correlation between the physical exercise and depression, with statistical significance. The group that does not reach the recommended level of physical exercise presents higher scores of depression in comparison with the group that reaches. This study corroborates previous studies that suggested positive effects of physical exercise on depression.

  20. Health Behaviour and Body Mass Index Among Problem Gamblers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst Algren, Maria; Ekholm, Ola; Davidsen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Problem gambling is a serious public health issue. The objective of this study was to investigate whether past year problem gamblers differed from non-problem gamblers with regard to health behaviour and body mass index (BMI) among Danes aged 16 years or older. Data were derived from the Danish...... Health and Morbidity Surveys in 2005 and 2010. Past year problem gambling was defined using the lie/bet questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between past year problem gambling and health behaviour and BMI. Problem gambling was associated with unhealthy...... behaviour and obesity. The odds of smoking was significantly higher among problem gamblers than among non-problem gamblers. Further, the odds of high-risk alcohol drinking and illicit drug use were significantly higher among problem gamblers. The prevalence of sedentary leisure activity, unhealthy diet...

  1. No association between body mass index and sperm DNA integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandel, I; Bungum, M; Richtoff, J

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is overweight associated with impaired sperm DNA integrity? SUMMARY ANSWER: High body mass index (BMI) is not associated with impaired sperm DNA integrity as assessed by the DNA Fragmentation Index (DFI). WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Previous studies, based on fewer subjects and including...... mainly subfertile men, have shown conflicting results regarding the influence of overweight and obesity on sperm DNA integrity. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: This cross-sectional study was based on semen samples from 1503 men from the general population. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: We...... available on BMI, DFI as measured by the sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA), standard semen characteristics, and potential confounders (age, abstinence time, smoking habits). The subjects were categorized according to BMI into four groups: underweight (

  2. Dapsone and body mass index in subjects with multibacillary leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Fernanda M L; Dias, Rosa M; Araujo, Eliete C; Brasil, Laélia M B F; Ferreira, Michelle V D; Vieira, Jose L F

    2014-04-01

    The physiological changes in obese subjects can modify the pharmacokinetic profiles of drugs influencing the therapeutic efficacy. In this study, the authors compare plasma dapsone trough levels of multibacillary leprosy subjects stratified by body mass index (BMI) to evaluate if obesity plays a significant role on drug levels. The relationship between drug levels and BMI was also determined. Dapsone was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography and BMI based on World Health Organization criteria. At steady state, the median plasma dapsone trough level was significantly lower in obesity class 2 group, when compared with other groups, but they were similar between normal weight and preobesity groups. A weak association between drug levels and BMI was observed. Obesity promotes a significant reduction in plasma dapsone trough levels of subjects with multibacillary leprosy with a weak association between drug levels and BMI.

  3. Body mass index and participation in organized mammographic screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellmann, Sophie Sell; Njor, Sisse Helle; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the leading cancer among women, and early diagnosis is essential for future prognosis. Evidence from mainly cross-sectional US studies with self-reported exposure and outcome found positive association of body mass index (BMI) with non-participation in mammographic...... with normal weight. This association was limited to postmenopausal women (Wald test p = 0.08), with enhanced non-participation in underweight (2.83: 1.52-5.27) and obese women of class II and III (1.84: 1.15-2.95; 2.47: 1.20-5.06) as compared to normal weight postmenopausal women. There was no effect...... modification by HT, previous screening participation, or morbidities, besides suggestive evidence of enhanced non-participation in diabetic overweight and obese women. CONCLUSIONS: Underweight and very obese postmenopausal women were significantly less likely to participate in mammographic screening than women...

  4. Evaluation of oral health related to body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benguigui, C; Bongard, V; Ruidavets, J-B; Sixou, M; Chamontin, B; Ferrières, J; Amar, J

    2012-11-01

    Poor oral health has previously been related to high body mass index (BMI). We aimed at exploring the link between BMI and several oral health markers, after adjustment for dietary patterns and plasma insulin, both of which could act as mediators.  Dental examination was performed in a sample of 186 French subjects aged 35-64 years and selected from the general population to assess number of missing teeth, periodontitis, clinical attachment loss (CAL), probing pocket depth (PD), gingival index (GI) and plaque index (PI). Data collection also included a food-frequency questionnaire. BMI (considered as outcome variable) was categorized into quartiles, and as BMIoral variables remained significant only for PD and PI. Plaque index, reflecting dental plaque, and PD, closely linked with periodontal inflammation and infection, are statistically associated with high BMI and obesity, independently of dietary patterns and insulin resistance. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Increases in body mass index following initiation of methadone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenn, Jennifer M; Laurent, Jennifer S; Sigmon, Stacey C

    2015-04-01

    Despite the clear efficacy of methadone for opioid dependence, one less desirable phenomenon associated with methadone may be weight gain. We examined changes in body mass index (BMI) among patients entering methadone treatment. A retrospective chart review was conducted for 96 patients enrolled in an outpatient methadone clinic for ≥ 6 months. The primary outcome of BMI was assessed at intake and a subsequent physical examination approximately 1.8 ± 0.95 years later. Demographic, drug use and treatment characteristics were also examined. There was a significant increase in BMI following intake (pmethadone treatment enrollment was associated with clinically significant weight gain, particularly among female patients. This study highlights the importance of efforts to help patients mitigate weight gain during treatment, particularly considering the significant health and economic consequences of obesity for individuals and society more generally. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Body Mass Index as a Predictor of Injuries in Athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoako, Adae O; Nassim, Ariel; Keller, Cory

    The quest to identify injury risk factors in sports has been an ongoing and well-researched field in the world of sports medicine. Knowing some of these factors helps keep sports participation safe. Both intrinsic and extrinsic factors have been studied. Body mass index (BMI) is widely known to contribute to several medical conditions. Its association with some sports injuries has been established but the information is vast, with few studies that are randomized controlled trials. It is important to analyze these studies and confirm whether BMI is a predictor of lower-extremity injuries. Such knowledge allows for better effective treatment and prevention strategies. This article will summarize current evidence of association between BMI and lower-extremity injuries in athletes and whether BMI is a predictor of lower-extremity injuries.

  7. Brief communication: Hair density and body mass in mammals and the evolution of human hairlessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandel, Aaron A

    2013-09-01

    Humans are unusual among mammals in appearing hairless. Several hypotheses propose explanations for this phenotype, but few data are available to test these hypotheses. To elucidate the evolutionary history of human "hairlessness," a comparative approach is needed. One previous study on primate hair density concluded that great apes have systematically less dense hair than smaller primates. While there is a negative correlation between body size and hair density, it remains unclear whether great apes have less dense hair than is expected for their body size. To revisit the scaling relationship between hair density and body size in mammals, I compiled data from the literature on 23 primates and 29 nonprimate mammals and conducted Phylogenetic Generalized Least Squares regressions. Among anthropoids, there is a significant negative correlation between hair density and body mass. Chimpanzees display the largest residuals, exhibiting less dense hair than is expected for their body size. There is a negative correlation between hair density and body mass among the broader mammalian sample, although the functional significance of this scaling relationship remains to be tested. Results indicate that all primates, and chimpanzees in particular, are relatively hairless compared to other mammals. This suggests that there may have been selective pressures acting on the ancestor of humans and chimpanzees that led to an initial reduction in hair density. To further understand the evolution of human hairlessness, a systematic study of hair density and physiology in a wide range of species is necessary. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Percentile reference values for anthropometric body composition indices in European children from the IDEFICS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, P; Kovacs, E; Moreno, L A; Veidebaum, T; Tornaritis, M; Kourides, Y; Siani, A; Lauria, F; Sioen, I; Claessens, M; Mårild, S; Lissner, L; Bammann, K; Intemann, T; Buck, C; Pigeot, I; Ahrens, W; Molnár, D

    2014-09-01

    To characterise the nutritional status in children with obesity or wasting conditions, European anthropometric reference values for body composition measures beyond the body mass index (BMI) are needed. Differentiated assessment of body composition in children has long been hampered by the lack of appropriate references. The aim of our study is to provide percentiles for body composition indices in normal weight European children, based on the IDEFICS cohort (Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health Effects in Children and infantS). Overall 18,745 2.0-10.9-year-old children from eight countries participated in the study. Children classified as overweight/obese or underweight according to IOTF (N=5915) were excluded from the analysis. Anthropometric measurements (BMI (N=12 830); triceps, subscapular, fat mass and fat mass index (N=11,845-11,901); biceps, suprailiac skinfolds, sum of skinfolds calculated from skinfold thicknesses (N=8129-8205), neck circumference (N=12,241); waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio (N=12,381)) were analysed stratified by sex and smoothed 1st, 3rd, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, 97th and 99th percentile curves were calculated using GAMLSS. Percentile values of the most important anthropometric measures related to the degree of adiposity are depicted for European girls and boys. Age- and sex-specific differences were investigated for all measures. As an example, the 50th and 99th percentile values of waist circumference ranged from 50.7-59.2 cm and from 51.3-58.7 cm in 4.5- to <5.0-year-old girls and boys, respectively, to 60.6-74.5 cm in girls and to 59.9-76.7 cm in boys at the age of 10.5-10.9 years. The presented percentile curves may aid a differentiated assessment of total and abdominal adiposity in European children.

  9. Body mass index and body composition among rescue firefighters personnel in Selangor, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Nor Atiqah; Sedek, Razalee; Teh, Arnida Hani

    2016-11-01

    Obesity is a major public health problem in general population and there is no exception for firefighters. This disorder is definitely a burden for firefighters as they needed to be physically fit in order to work in dangerous situation and extinguishing fires. The purposes of this study were to determine physical characteristics and body composition among Malaysian Firefighters (MF) and to explore their association. This cross-sectional study involved 330 rescue firefighters aged between 20-50 years old from nine different districts in Selangor conducted between August and November 2015. Anthropometric measurements included height, weight and waist circumference (WC). Body composition was measured using bioelectrical impedance. The mean height, weight, body mass index (BMI), WC and body fat percentage were 169.4±5.3 cm, 74.5±12.2 kg, 25.9±3.82 kg/m2, 90.7±48.3 cm and 25.8±6.2 % respectively. The results also showed that 0.6% of them were underweight, 41.5% were normal, 44.8% were overweight and 13% were obese. The percentage of 34.8% firefighters with WC values of more than 90 cm means that they were at greater risk to have cardiovascular and diabetes disease. Body composition analysis showed that 75.5% of the subjects have high body fat level, 19.7% subjects were in healthy range but only 4.8% were considered as lean subjects. BMI was highly correlated with weight (r=0.917, page, married, less educated and have longer duration of services. It can be concluded that more than half of the firefighter personnel were either overweight or obese and 35% of them were at greater risk of having non-communicable diseases. This study provides useful information and serves as a source of reference for planning health related program for MF personnel to prevent non-communicable disease among firefighters population.

  10. The effect of body mass index on perioperative thermoregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özer AB

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ayşe Belin Özer,1 Aysun Yildiz Altun,1 Ömer Lütfi Erhan,1 Tuba Çatak,2 Ümit Karatepe,1 İsmail Demirel,1 Gonca Çağlar Toprak3 1Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Firat University Medical School, Elaziğ, 2Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Clinic, Bingol State Hospital, Bingöl, 3Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Clinic, Elazig Training and Research Hospital, Elaziğ, Turkey Purpose: We evaluated the effects of body mass index (BMI on thermoregulation in obese patients scheduled to undergo laparoscopic abdominal surgery. Methods: Sixty patients scheduled to undergo laparoscopic abdominal surgery with no premedication were included in the study. The patients were classified into 4 groups according to BMI <24.9, 25–39.9, 40–49.9, and >50. Anesthesia was provided with routine techniques. Tympanic and peripheral temperatures were recorded every 5 minutes starting with the induction of anesthesia. The mean skin temperature (MST, mean body temperature (MBT, vasoconstriction time, and vasoconstriction threshold that triggers core warming were calculated with the following formulas: MST = 0.3 (Tchest + Tarm + 0.2 (Tthigh + Tcalf. MBT was calculated using the equation 0.64Tcore+0.36Tskin, and vasoconstriction was determined by calculating Tforearm-Tfinger. Results: There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of age, gender, duration of operation, and room temperature. Compared to those with BMI <24.9, the tympanic temperature was significantly higher in those with BMI =25–39.9 in the 10th, 15th, 20th, and 50th minutes. In addition, BMI =40–49.9 in the 5th, 10th, 15th, 20th, 25th, 30th, 40th, 45th, 50th, and 55th minutes and BMI >50 in the 5th, 10th, 15th, 20th, 25th, 30th, 50th, and 55th minutes were less than those with BMI <24.9 (P<0.05. There was no significant difference in terms of MST and MBT. Vasoconstriction occurred later, and that vasoconstriction threshold was

  11. Physical self-perceptions and self-esteem in relation to body mass status among female adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Dolenc, Petra

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the physical self-concept and self-esteem in adolescent girls aged between 13 and 18 years in relation to their body mass status. The Slovenian version of the Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ) was used to determine the multidimensional physical self-concept among participants. The results indicated that overweight girls reported greater body dissatisfaction in terms self-perceived body fat and physical appearance compared to normal-weight girls. Ove...

  12. The impact of body mass index on treatment outcomes for patients with low-intermediate risk prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamoah, Kosj; Zeigler-Johnson, Charnita M.; Jeffers, Abra; Malkowicz, Bruce; Spangler, Elaine; Park, Jong Y.; Whittemore, Alice; Rebbeck, Timothy R.

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between preoperative body mass index and need for adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) following radical prostatectomy. The goal of this study was to evaluate the utility of body mass index in predicting adverse clinical outcomes which require adjuvant RT among men with organ-confined prostate cancer (PCa). We used a prospective cohort of 1,170 low-intermediate PCa risk men who underwent radical prostatectomy and evaluated the effect of body mass index on adverse pathologic features and freedom from biochemical failure (FFbF). Clinical and pathologic variables were compared across the body mass index groups using an analysis of variance model for continuous variables or χ 2 for categorical variables. Factors related to adverse pathologic features were examined using logistic regression models. Time to biochemical recurrence was compared across the groups using a log-rank survivorship analysis. Multivariable analysis predicting biochemical recurrence was conducted with a Cox proportional hazards model. Patients with elevated body mass index (defined as body mass index ≥25 kg/m 2 ) had greater extraprostatic extension (p = 0.004), and positive surgical margins (p = 0.01). Elevated body mass index did not correlate with preoperative risk groupings (p = 0.94). However, when compared with non-obese patients (body mass index <30 kg/m 2 ), obese patients (body mass index ≥30 kg/m 2 ) were much more likely to have higher rate of adverse pathologic features (p = 0.006). In patients with low- and intermediate- risk disease, obesity was strongly associated with rate of pathologic upgrading of tumors (p = 0.01 and p = 0.02), respectively. After controlling for known preoperative risk factors, body mass index was independently associated with ≥2 adverse pathologic features (p = 0.002), an indicator for adjuvant RT as well as FFbF (p = 0.001). Body mass index of ≥30 kg/m 2 is independently associated with adverse pathologic features

  13. Association of childhood body mass index and change in body mass index with first adult ischemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjærde, Line K.; Gamborg, Michael; Ängquist, Lars

    2017-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: The incidence of ischemic stroke among young adults is rising and is potentially due to an increase in stroke risk factors occurring at younger ages, such as obesity. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether childhood body mass index (BMI) and change in BMI are associated with adult ischemic....... Participants were 307 677 individuals (8899 ischemic stroke cases) with measured weight and height at ages 7 to 13 years. The dates of the analysis were September 1, 2015, to May 27, 2016. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Childhood BMI, change in BMI, and birth weight. Ischemic stroke events were divided into early...... (55 years) or late (>55 years) age at diagnosis. RESULTS: The study cohort comprised 307 677 participants (approximately 49% female and 51% male). During the study period, 3529 women and 5370 men experienced an ischemic stroke. At all ages from 7 to 13 years, an above-average BMI z score...

  14. Impact of Body Mass Index on Complications and Survival after Surgery for Esophageal and Gastro-Esophageal-Junction Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruhlikava, Iryna; Kirkegård, Jakob; Mortensen, Frank Viborg

    2017-01-01

    patients included in the study. Body mass index was calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared. We grouped patients according to their body mass index, using the World Health Organization definition, as underweight (body mass index 

  15. Body Dissatisfaction among Adolescent Boys and Girls: The Effects of Body Mass, Peer Appearance Culture and Internalization of Appearance Ideals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Margaret; Nixon, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Body image dissatisfaction is a significant risk factor in the onset of eating pathology and depression. Therefore, understanding predictors of negative body image is an important focus of investigation. This research sought to examine the contributions of body mass, appearance conversations with friends, peer appearance criticism and…

  16. Age-related effects of body mass on fertility and litter size in roe deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flajšman, Katarina; Jerina, Klemen; Pokorny, Boštjan

    2017-01-01

    We analysed effects of females' body mass and age on reproductive capacity of European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in a large sample set of 1312 females (305 yearlings and 1007 adults), hunted throughout Slovenia, central Europe, in the period 2013-2015. Body mass positively affected probability of ovulation and potential litter size (number of corpora lutea), although its effect was more pronounced in yearlings than in adults. Between age groups, we found clear differences in responses of both reproductive parameters to body mass which influences primarily reproductive performance of younger, and in particular, lighter individuals: at the same body mass yearlings would at average have smaller litters than adults, and at lower body mass also young to middle-aged adults would have smaller litters than old ones. In addition, while yearlings have to reach a critical threshold body mass to attain reproductive maturity, adult females are fertile (produce ova) even at low body mass. However, at higher body mass also younger individuals shift their efforts into the reproduction, and after reaching an age-specific threshold the body mass does not have any further effects on the reproductive output of roe deer females. Increased reproductive capacity at more advanced age, combined with declining body mass suggests that old does allocate more of their resources in reproduction than in body condition.

  17. Body mass and fat mass in refractory asthma: an observational 1 year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bafadhel, Mona; Singapuri, Amisha; Terry, Sarah; Hargadon, Beverley; Monteiro, William; Green, Ruth H; Bradding, Peter H; Wardlaw, Andrew J; Pavord, Ian D; Brightling, Christopher E

    2010-01-01

    Background. Asthma and obesity are common; however the impact of obesity upon asthma remains uncertain. Objectives. To assess relationships between obesity and fat mass with airway inflammation, lung function, and disease control in patients with refractory asthma. Methods. 151 refractory asthma patients were characterised for measures of airway inflammation, lung function, Juniper asthma control questionnaire (JACQ), body mass index (BMI), and fat mass index (FMI) derived from dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Patients were reassessed over 12 months. Results. 74% of patients had an elevated BMI. BMI and FMI correlated (r = 0.9, P < .001). FMI and JACQ correlated in men (r = 0.3, P = .01). After 12 months 23% lost weight. Weight change over 12 months correlated with FEV(1) change (r = -0.3, P = .03), but not with change in JACQ or exacerbations. Conclusion. Increased fat mass is common in refractory asthma and is associated with asthma symptom control in men. Loss of weight is associated with improvement in lung function in refractory asthma.

  18. Body Mass and Fat Mass in Refractory Asthma: An Observational 1 Year Follow-Up Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Bafadhel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Asthma and obesity are common; however the impact of obesity upon asthma remains uncertain. Objectives. To assess relationships between obesity and fat mass with airway inflammation, lung function, and disease control in patients with refractory asthma. Methods. 151 refractory asthma patients were characterised for measures of airway inflammation, lung function, Juniper asthma control questionnaire (JACQ, body mass index (BMI, and fat mass index (FMI derived from dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Patients were reassessed over 12 months. Results. 74% of patients had an elevated BMI. BMI and FMI correlated (r=0.9, P<.001. FMI and JACQ correlated in men (r=0.3, P=.01. After 12 months 23% lost weight. Weight change over 12 months correlated with FEV1 change (r=−0.3, P=.03, but not with change in JACQ or exacerbations. Conclusion. Increased fat mass is common in refractory asthma and is associated with asthma symptom control in men. Loss of weight is associated with improvement in lung function in refractory asthma.

  19. Body mass index and the risk of Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, G; Jousilahti, P; Nissinen, A; Antikainen, R; Kivipelto, M; Tuomilehto, J

    2006-12-12

    To examine the association between body mass index (BMI) and the risk of Parkinson disease (PD). Study cohorts included 22,367 Finnish men and 23,439 women 25 to 59 years of age without a history of PD at baseline. Hazards ratios (HRs) of incident PD were estimated for different levels of BMI. During a mean follow-up period of 18.8 years, 272 men and 254 women developed incident PD. After adjustment for confounding factors (age, study years, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, education, leisure-time physical activity, smoking, and alcohol, coffee, and tea consumption), the HRs of PD at different levels of BMI ( or =30 kg/m(2)) were 1.00, 1.97 (95% CI: 1.21 to 3.22), 1.83 (95% CI: 1.12 to 2.99), 2.34 (95% CI: 1.45 to 3.78), and 2.44 (95% CI: 1.44 to 4.15) in men, and 1.00, 1.50 (95% CI: 0.95 to 2.37), 1.65 (95% CI: 1.05 to 2.59), 1.79 (95% CI: 1.15 to 2.80), and 1.77 (95% CI: 1.12 to 2.78) in women, and 1.00, 1.70 (95% CI: 1.23 to 2.37), 1.70 (95% CI: 1.23 to 2.37), 2.02 (95% CI: 1.46 to 2.79), and 2.03 (95% CI: 1.44 to 2.85) in men and women combined (adjusted also for sex). In both sexes combined, the multivariate-adjusted direct association between BMI and the risk of PD was present both in subjects aged 25 to 49 years and 50 to 59 years, in never smokers and smokers and in participants diagnosed PD before and after 65 years of age. Body mass index is associated with a risk of Parkinson disease. The effect is graded and independent of other risk factors.

  20. Body composition and reproductive function exert unique influences on indices of bone health in exercising women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinson, Rebecca J; Williams, Nancy I; Hill, Brenna R; De Souza, Mary Jane

    2013-09-01

    Reproductive function, metabolic hormones, and lean mass have been observed to influence bone metabolism and bone mass. It is unclear, however, if reproductive, metabolic and body composition factors play unique roles in the clinical measures of areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and bone geometry in exercising women. This study compares lumbar spine bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) and estimates of femoral neck cross-sectional moment of inertia (CSMI) and cross-sectional area (CSA) between exercising ovulatory (Ov) and amenorrheic (Amen) women. It also explores the respective roles of reproductive function, metabolic status, and body composition on aBMD, lumbar spine BMAD and femoral neck CSMI and CSA, which are surrogate measures of bone strength. Among exercising women aged 18-30 years, body composition, aBMD, and estimates of femoral neck CSMI and CSA were assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Lumbar spine BMAD was calculated from bone mineral content and area. Estrone-1-glucuronide (E1G) and pregnanediol glucuronide were measured in daily urine samples collected for one cycle or monitoring period. Fasting blood samples were collected for measurement of leptin and total triiodothyronine. Ov (n = 37) and Amen (n = 45) women aged 22.3 ± 0.5 years did not differ in body mass, body mass index, and lean mass; however, Ov women had significantly higher percent body fat than Amen women. Lumbar spine aBMD and BMAD were significantly lower in Amen women compared to Ov women (p bone mass at a site composed of primarily trabecular bone. However, lean mass is one of the most influential predictors of bone mass and bone geometry at weight-bearing sites, such as the hip. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Fe and Cu isotope mass balances in the human body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balter, V.; Albarede, F.; Jaouen, K.

    2011-12-01

    The ranges of the Fe and Cu isotope compositions in the human body are large, i.e. ~3% and ~2%, respectively. Both isotopic fractionations appear to be mainly controlled by redox conditions. The Fe and Cu isotope compositions of the tissues analyzed so far plot on a mixing hyperbolae between a reduced and an oxidized metals pools. The reduced metals pool is composed by erythrocytes, where Fe is bounded to hemoglobin as Fe(II) and Cu to superoxide-dismutase as Cu(I). The oxidized metals pool is composed by hepatocytes, where Fe and Cu are stored as Fe(III) ferritin and as Cu(II) ceruloplasmine, respectively. The position of each biological component in the δ56Fe-δ65Cu diagram therefore reflects the oxidation state of Fe and Cu of the predominant metal carrier protein and allows to quantify Fe and Cu fluxes between organs using mass balance calculations. For instance, serum and clot Fe and Cu isotope compositions show that current biological models of erythropoiesis violates mass conservation requirements, and suggest hidden Fe and Cu pathways during red blood cells synthesis. The results also show that a coupled Fe-Cu strong gender isotopic effect is observed in various organs. The isotopic difference between men and women is unlikely to be due to differential dietary uptake or endometrium loss, but rather reflects the effect of menstrual losses and a correlative solicitation of hepatic stores. We speculate that thorough studies of the metabolism of stable isotopes in normal conditions is a prerequisite for the understanding of the pathological dysregulations.

  2. Classification of Obesity Varies between Body Mass Index and Direct Measures of Body Fat in Boys and Girls of Asian and European Ancestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell-Nzunga, J.; Naylor, P. J.; Macdonald, H.; Rhodes, R. E.; Hofer, S. M.; McKay, H.

    2018-01-01

    Body mass index is a common proxy for proportion of body fat. However, body mass index may not classify youth similarly across ages and ethnicities. We used sex- and ethnic-specific receiver operating characteristic curves to determine how obesity classifications compared between body mass index and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry-based body fat…

  3. Winter body mass and over-ocean flocking as components of danger management by Pacific dunlins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ydenberg, Ronald C; Dekker, Dick; Kaiser, Gary; Shepherd, Philippa C F; Ogden, Lesley Evans; Rickards, Karen; Lank, David B

    2010-01-21

    We compared records of the body mass and roosting behavior of Pacific dunlins (Calidris alpina pacifica) wintering on the Fraser River estuary in southwest British Columbia between the 1970s and the 1990s. 'Over-ocean flocking' is a relatively safe but energetically-expensive alternative to roosting during the high tide period. Fat stores offer protection against starvation, but are a liability in escape performance, and increase flight costs. Peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) were scarce on the Fraser River estuary in the 1970s, but their numbers have since recovered, and they prey heavily on dunlins. The increase has altered the balance between predation and starvation risks for dunlins, and thus how dunlins regulate roosting behavior and body mass to manage the danger. We therefore predicted an increase in the frequency of over-ocean flocking as well as a decrease in the amount of fat carried by dunlins over these decades. Historical observations indicate that over-ocean flocking of dunlins was rare prior to the mid-1990s and became common thereafter. Residual body masses of dunlins were higher in the 1970s, with the greatest difference between the decades coinciding with peak peregrine abundance in October, and shrinking over the course of winter as falcon seasonal abundance declines. Whole-body fat content of dunlins was lower in the 1990s, and accounted for most of the change in body mass. Pacific dunlins appear to manage danger in a complex manner that involves adjustments both in fat reserves and roosting behavior. We discuss reasons why over-ocean flocking has apparently become more common on the Fraser estuary than at other dunlin wintering sites.

  4. Winter body mass and over-ocean flocking as components of danger management by Pacific dunlins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogden Lesley

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We compared records of the body mass and roosting behavior of Pacific dunlins (Calidris alpina pacifica wintering on the Fraser River estuary in southwest British Columbia between the 1970s and the 1990s. 'Over-ocean flocking' is a relatively safe but energetically-expensive alternative to roosting during the high tide period. Fat stores offer protection against starvation, but are a liability in escape performance, and increase flight costs. Peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus were scarce on the Fraser River estuary in the 1970s, but their numbers have since recovered, and they prey heavily on dunlins. The increase has altered the balance between predation and starvation risks for dunlins, and thus how dunlins regulate roosting behavior and body mass to manage the danger. We therefore predicted an increase in the frequency of over-ocean flocking as well as a decrease in the amount of fat carried by dunlins over these decades. Results Historical observations indicate that over-ocean flocking of dunlins was rare prior to the mid-1990s and became common thereafter. Residual body masses of dunlins were higher in the 1970s, with the greatest difference between the decades coinciding with peak peregrine abundance in October, and shrinking over the course of winter as falcon seasonal abundance declines. Whole-body fat content of dunlins was lower in the 1990s, and accounted for most of the change in body mass. Conclusions Pacific dunlins appear to manage danger in a complex manner that involves adjustments both in fat reserves and roosting behavior. We discuss reasons why over-ocean flocking has apparently become more common on the Fraser estuary than at other dunlin wintering sites.

  5. Changes of body mass and thermogenesis in Apodemus chevrieri during cold exposure and rewarming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Wan-long

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Environmental cues, such as temperature, play important roles in the regulation of physiology and behavior in small mammals. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that ambient temperature was a cue to induce adjustments in body mass and thermogenic capacity in Apodemus chevrieri. It showed that A. chevrieri increased resting metabolic rate (RMR, nonshivering thermogenesis (NST and energy intake and decreased body mass and body temperature when exposed to the cold while showed a significant increase in body mass and body temperature after rewarming. The decrease of body temperature can reduce the difference in temperature in environment, save energy consumption. The increase in body mass after rewarming was associated with the higher energy intake. Together, these data supported our hypothesis that ambient temperature was a cue to induce changes in body mass and metabolism in A. chevrieri.

  6. Maternal stress, physical activity, and body mass index during new mothers' first year postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, Marlo M; Young-Hyman, Deborah; Looney, Stephen W

    2010-09-01

    We evaluated associations of parenting stress, including depressive symptoms, with 51 first-time mothers' light and moderate physical activity and body mass index during the first year postpartum. The Parenting Stress Index and 24-hour physical activity recalls were completed during the first year postpartum (mean time elapsed since birth: 6 months). Direct relationships between identified variables were tested, and then hierarchical linear regression was used to assess hypothesized relationships among body mass index, physical activity, and parenting stress. Effects of parenting stress on the relationships between postpartum body mass index, light physical activity, and moderate physical activity were evaluated after controlling for factors known to be associated with overweight and low levels of physical activity in women. Mean postpartum body mass index = 27.4 kg/m² ± 7.7, range = 18-50 kg/m². Mean reported hours of light physical activity = 11.2 ± 3.0, and moderate physical activity = 4.5 ± 3.0 per day. Postpartum body mass index was not associated with parenting stress, but was positively related to higher pre-pregnancy body mass index (r = .89, p body mass index (β = .27, p body mass index (β = -.27, p body mass index (R² = .89, p body mass index (β = .99, p stress and depressive symptoms in addition to physical activity are needed to prevent development of overweight in new mothers.

  7. A novel method for estimating distributions of body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Marie; Liu, Patrick; Thomson, Blake; Murray, Christopher J L

    2016-01-01

    Understanding trends in the distribution of body mass index (BMI) is a critical aspect of monitoring the global overweight and obesity epidemic. Conventional population health metrics often only focus on estimating and reporting the mean BMI and the prevalence of overweight and obesity, which do not fully characterize the distribution of BMI. In this study, we propose a novel method which allows for the estimation of the entire distribution. The proposed method utilizes the optimization algorithm, L-BFGS-B, to derive the distribution of BMI from three commonly available population health statistics: mean BMI, prevalence of overweight, and prevalence of obesity. We conducted a series of simulations to examine the properties, accuracy, and robustness of the method. We then illustrated the practical application of the method by applying it to the 2011-2012 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Our method performed satisfactorily across various simulation scenarios yielding empirical (estimated) distributions which aligned closely with the true distributions. Application of the method to the NHANES data also showed a high level of consistency between the empirical and true distributions. In situations where there were considerable outliers, the method was less satisfactory at capturing the extreme values. Nevertheless, it remained accurate at estimating the central tendency and quintiles. The proposed method offers a tool that can efficiently estimate the entire distribution of BMI. The ability to track the distributions of BMI will improve our capacity to capture changes in the severity of overweight and obesity and enable us to better monitor the epidemic.

  8. Body mass index and risk of autoimmune diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harpsøe, Maria C; Basit, Saima; Andersson, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    .57) and type 1 diabetes mellitus (HR 2.67; 95% CI, 1.71 to 4.17). Risk of dermatitis herpetiformis increased by 14% (95% CI, 1% to 30%) per BMI unit. Conversely, risk of celiac disease and Raynaud's phenomenon decreased by 7% (95% CI, 1% to 13%) and 12% (95% CI, 4% to 19%) per BMI unit, respectively. Further......BACKGROUND: A possible aetiological link between obesity and certain autoimmune diseases (ADs) has been suggested. We investigated the associations between body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and 43 ADs. METHODS: 75,008 women participating in the Danish National Birth Cohort were followed during a median......-up, 2430 women (3.2%) developed a total of 2607 new-onset ADs. Risk of any autoimmune disease was increased in obese women (HR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.46) compared with normal weight women (18.5-≤25 kg/m2). Obese women (BMI≥30 kg/m2) were at increased risk of sarcoidosis (HR 3.59; 95% CI, 2.31 to 5...

  9. Effects of body mass index on sleep patterns during pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kennelly, M M

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to profile sleep patterns during pregnancy according to body mass index (BMI) and to correlate labour outcomes with both BMI and hours sleep. Data were collected from 200 postpartum women detailing sleep characteristics before and during pregnancy. A validated sleep questionnaire was employed, which comprised of questions about sleep apnoea, snoring, subjective sleep quality, sleep latency, sleep duration, habitual sleep efficiency, sleep disturbances, use of sleeping medication and daytime dysfunction. Descriptive analyses were used. With advancing gestation, the mean (SD) number of hours sleep per night declined: pre-pregnancy 8.1 (SD 1.4); 1st trimester 8.3 (SD 1.8); 2nd trimester 7.7 (SD 1.7) and 3rd trimester 6.7 (SD 2.2). In the 18.5-24.9 BMI group, there was a marked difference in hours sleep per night from pre-pregnancy to 1st (8.6 h, p = 0.007), 2nd (7.9 h, p = 0.023) and 3rd (6.4 h, p = 0.000) trimesters in primiparous women. In the 25-29.9 BMI group, there was a difference from pre-pregnancy to 3rd trimester (p = 0.000). These changes were not reflected in a clinically significant difference in birth weight or mode of delivery.

  10. Personality traits and body mass index: Modifiers and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutin, Angelina R; Terracciano, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    To identify how demographic factors (sex, age, ethnicity) modify the association between personality traits and body mass index (BMI) and to test the extent that diet and physical activity account for the personality-BMI relations. Cross-sectional study with a diverse sample (N = 5150, 50% female, 19% African American, 15% Hispanic). Participants completed a measure of the five major dimensions of personality and reported on their physical activity, diet and food intake behaviour, and height and weight. BMI and obesity (BMI ≥ 30). High Neuroticism was associated with higher BMI and risk for obesity, whereas Conscientiousness and, to a lesser extent, Extraversion and Openness were protective. These associations were generally stronger among women and older participants; there was less evidence for ethnicity as a moderator. Personality had similar relations with the behavioural factors, and physical activity, diet and regular meal rhythms accounted for approximately 50% of the association between Neuroticism and Conscientiousness and BMI. This study supports the links between personality traits and BMI and suggests that physical activity, more than diet, is a key factor in these associations.

  11. Body Mass Index Development and Asthma Throughout Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekström, Sandra; Magnusson, Jessica; Kull, Inger; Andersson, Niklas; Bottai, Matteo; Besharat Pour, Mohsen; Melén, Erik; Bergström, Anna

    2017-07-15

    Several studies have found an association between overweight and asthma, yet the temporal relationship between their onsets remains unclear. We investigated the development of body mass index (BMI) from birth to adolescence among 2,818 children with and without asthma from a Swedish birth cohort study, the BAMSE (a Swedish acronym for "children, allergy, milieu, Stockholm, epidemiology") Project, during 1994-2013. Measured weight and height were available at 13 time points throughout childhood. Asthma phenotypes (transient, persistent, and late-onset) were defined by timing of onset and remission. Quantile regression was used to analyze percentiles of BMI, and generalized estimating equations were used to analyze the association between asthma phenotypes and the risk of high BMI. Among females, BMI development differed between children with and without asthma, with the highest BMI being seen among females with persistent asthma. The difference existed throughout childhood but increased with age. For example, females with persistent asthma had 2.33 times' (95% confidence interval: 1.21, 4.49) greater odds of having a BMI above the 85th percentile at age ≥15 years than females without asthma. Among males, no clear associations between asthma and BMI were observed. In this study, persistent asthma was associated with high BMI throughout childhood among females, whereas no consistent association was observed among males. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

  12. Association between recovery from Bell's palsy and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S A; Shim, H S; Jung, J Y; Kim, H J; Kim, S H; Byun, J Y; Park, M S; Yeo, S G

    2017-06-01

    Although many factors have been found to be involved in recovery from Bell's palsy, no study has investigated the association between recovery from Bell's palsy and obesity. This study therefore evaluated the association between recovery from Bell's palsy and body mass index (BMI). Subjects were classified into five groups based on BMI (kg/m 2 ). Demographic and clinical characteristics were compared among these groups. Assessed factors included sex, age, time from paralysis to visiting a hospital, the presence of comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension, degree of initial facial nerve paralysis by House-Brackmann (H-B) grade and neurophysiological testing, and final recovery rate. Based on BMI, 37 subjects were classified as underweight, 169 as normal weight, 140 as overweight, 155 as obese and 42 as severely obese. Classification of the degree of initial facial nerve paralysis as moderate or severe, according to H-B grade and electroneurography, showed no difference in severity of initial facial paralysis among the five groups (P > 0.05). However, the final recovery rate was significantly higher in the normal weight than in the underweight or obese group (P < 0.05). Obesity or underweight had no effect on the severity of initial facial paralysis, but the final recovery rate was lower in the obese and underweight groups than in the normal group. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The association between body mass index and academic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled A. Alswat

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To examine the relation between body mass index (BMI and the academic performance of students from Taif city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA using the grade point average (GPA. Method: A cross-sectional study that includes students from intermediate and high schools located in Taif city, KSA between April 2014 and June 2015. Height and weight were measured and BMI calculated. Related risk factors including dietary habits, activity, parent’s education, sleeping pattern, and smoking were recorded. Result: A total of 14 schools included 424 students. 24.5% were either overweight or obese. The mean age was 15.44 year, 74.8% of the students were male, 53.8% were high school students, and 83.7% attended public schools. The mean overall GPA was 82.44% and the mean GPA for science subjects was 70.91%. No statically significant difference in the BMI was found between those who achieved >90% of the overall grade compared with those who achieved 90% overall grade are more likely to attend private school (p<0.05, live with their parents (p=0.013, having educated parents (p=0.037, getting optimal sleep (p<0.05, and they rarely eat their food outside their home (p<0.05. Conclusion: There was no correlation between the BMI and school performance, except in physics results where obese students perform worse than normal-weight students.

  14. Higher Body Mass Index Is Associated with Subjective Olfactory Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. M. Patel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Morbidly obese patients demonstrate altered olfactory acuity. There has been no study directly assessing Body Mass Index (BMI in patients with olfactory dysfunction. Our purpose was to compare BMI in a group of patients with subjective olfactory dysfunction to those without subjective olfactory complaints. Methods. Retrospective matched case-control study. Sixty patients who presented to a tertiary care otolaryngology center with subjective smell dysfunction over one year were identified. Neoplastic and obstructive etiologies were excluded. Demographics, BMI, and smoking status were reviewed. Sixty age, gender, and race matched control patients were selected for comparison. Chi-square testing was used. Results. 48 out of 60 patients (80% in the olfactory dysfunction group fell into the overweight or obese categories, compared to 36 out of 60 patients (60% in the control group. There was a statistically significant difference between the olfactory dysfunction and control groups for this stratified BMI (p= 0.0168.  Conclusion. This study suggests high BMI is associated with olfactory dysfunction. Prospective clinical research should examine this further to determine if increasing BMI may be a risk factor in olfactory loss and to elucidate what role olfactory loss may play in diet and feeding habits of obese patients.

  15. Early adolescent Body Mass Index and the constructed environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Randall M; Vaterlaus, J Mitchell

    2014-07-01

    Previous research has shown that macro-level environmental features such as access to walking trails and recreational facilities are correlated with adolescent weight. Additionally, a handful of studies have documented relationships between micro-level environmental features, such as the presence (or absence) of a television in the bedroom, and adolescent weight. In this exploratory study we focus exclusively on features of the micro-level environment by examining objects that are found within adolescent personal bedrooms in relation to the adolescent occupant's Body Mass Index score (BMI). Participants were 234 early adolescents (eighth graders and ninth graders) who lived with both biological parents and who had their own private bedroom. Discriminant analyses were used to identify the bedrooms belonging to adolescents with below and above average BMI using objects contained within the micro-level environment as discriminating variables. Bedrooms belonging to adolescents with above average BMI were more likely to contain objects associated with sedentary behavior (e.g., magazines, electronic games, dolls), whereas the bedrooms belonging to the average and below average BMI adolescents were more likely to contain objects that reflect past physical activity (e.g., trophies, souvenirs, pictures of places that they had visited). If causal connections between micro-environmental variables and adolescent BMI can be established in future longitudinal research, environmental manipulations may affect adolescent BMI. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Body mass index: comparison of emotion regulation and eating behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsti Shahsavari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is a common problem for public health around the world, which are associated with the risk of developing various diseases. In order to improve treatment   and appropriate intervention to combat this growing wave of obesity, identify significant factors in susceptibility to overweight and obesity is critical. Thus, the present research investigated the relationship between emotion regulation and eating behavior among women with high and normal body mass index. Materials and Methods: The present study was causal-comparative where the population included women referring to hospitals and clinics in districts 1 and 2 in Tehran as well as women with normal weight living in these two districts. Among them, 150 women (75 overweight and 75 normal weights were selected using convenience sampling.  They were asked to complete Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS and Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ. The data obtained were analyzed using independent t-test. Results: The results showed that non–acceptance of emotional responses, difficulties engaging in goal-directed behavior, impulse control difficulties, limited access to emotion regulation strategies, and total scores in emotion regulation, as well as emotional eating, and uncontrolled eating in obese individuals were significantly higher than those of normal weight. Conversely cognitive restraints in obese individuals were significantly less than those who had a normal weight. Conclusion: Difficulty in emotion regulation and eating behavior can play an important role in obesity are requiring more attention.

  17. Individual differences in fornix microstructure and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler-Baddeley, Claudia; Baddeley, Roland J; Jones, Derek K; Aggleton, John P; O'Sullivan, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity and associated health conditions is increasing in the developed world. Obesity is related to atrophy and dysfunction of the hippocampus and hippocampal lesions may lead to increased appetite and weight gain. The hippocampus is connected via the fornix tract to the hypothalamus, orbitofrontal cortex, and the nucleus accumbens, all key structures for homeostatic and reward related control of food intake. The present study employed diffusion MRI tractography to investigate the relationship between microstructural properties of the fornix and variation in Body Mass Index (BMI), within normal and overweight ranges, in a group of community-dwelling older adults (53-93 years old). Larger BMI was associated with larger axial and mean diffusivity in the fornix (r = 0.64 and r = 0.55 respectively), relationships that were most pronounced in overweight individuals. Moreover, controlling for age, education, cognitive performance, blood pressure and global brain volume increased these correlations. Similar associations were not found in the parahippocampal cingulum, a comparison temporal association pathway. Thus, microstructural changes in fornix white matter were observed in older adults with increasing BMI levels from within normal to overweight ranges, so are not exclusively related to obesity. We propose that hippocampal-hypothalamic-prefrontal interactions, mediated by the fornix, contribute to the healthy functioning of networks involved in food intake control. The fornix, in turn, may display alterations in microstructure that reflect weight gain.

  18. Relationship between bioelectrical impedance analysis and body mass index in adolescent urban Nigerians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwizu, S E; Njokanma, O F; Okoromah, C A; David, N A

    2011-01-01

    Body mass index is often used to assess adiposity but it does not differentiate between fat and non-fat components of body mass. However, body fat composition may be assessed using bioelectrical impedance analysis. The study aimed to relate body mass index to fat in the assessment of overweight and obesity among adolescent Nigerians. Adolescent pupils aged 10 years to 18 years from randomly selected secondary schools in Lagos, Nigeria were studied. Body mass index was calculated while percentage body fat was measured using Tanita body® fat scale model BF 681. Overweight and obesity were defined using age and sex specific criteria for body mass index and for body fat. There were 753 pupils {377(50.1%) males and 376(49.9%) females}. The overall mean values of body mass index for males and females were 18.1±2.72 and 18.9±3.41 (p obesity range had high body fat in comparison to 44.4% of males (p < 0.05). Body mass index is more related to body fat in adolescent females than in their male counterparts.

  19. PERCENT FAT MASS AND BODY MASS INDEX AS CARDIORESPIRATORY FITNESS PREDICTORS IN YOUNG ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Dewi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe present study aimed to analyze the association between body fatness measures, i.e. body mass index (BMI and percent fat mass (% FM with cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF in young adults. Seventy five undergraduate students aged 19-21 years were included in this cross sectional study. Body composition was assessed by tetra polar Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis method, and CRF was determined as VO2 max level by conducting Balke test and flexibility by sit-and-reach test. Regression tests were performed to assess the associations between the body fatness measures and CRF. The mean (SD % FM and BMI were 25.6 (8.3 % and 22.4 (4.2 kg/m2, respectively. Both BMI and % FM were inversely associated with VO2 max and flexibility. The associations of % FM with each CRF measure were stronger (% FM-VO2 max: R2=0.45, p<0.0001; % FM-flexibility: R2=0.16, p<0.0001 than those of BMI (BMI-VO2 max: R2= 0.12, p=0.002; BMI-flexibility: R2=0.07, p<0.0001. Including gender as a variable predictor greatly improved almost all associations. We suggest that %FM is a better predictor for VO2max than BMI. Further studies are needed to elucidate the relationships of body fatness measures adjusted for potential confounding factors with CRF measures other than VO2 max.Keywords: body mass index, cardiorespiratory fitness, percent fat massABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan hubungan antara persentase lemak tubuh (PLT dan indeks massa tubuh (IMT dengan kebugaran kardiorespiratorik (KKR pada dewasa muda. Penelitian menggunakan desain potong lintang dengan melibatkan 75 orang mahasiswa usia 19-21 tahun. PLT ditentukan dengan metode tetra polar Bioelectrical Impedance dan KKR ditentukan dengan VO2max berdasarkan uji Balke dan fleksibilitas dengan uji sit-and-reach. Hubungan antara PLT dan IMT dengan KKR dianalisis dengan uji regresi. Rata-rata (standar deviasi dari PLT dan IMT berturut-turut adalah 25,6 (8,3% dan 22,4 (4,2 kg/m2. Baik PLT maupun IMT berbanding

  20. Body image flexibility as a protective factor against disordered eating behavior for women with lower body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Mary L; Masuda, Akihiko; Latzman, Robert D

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine whether body dissatisfaction and body image flexibility would be uniquely and significantly associated with disordered eating behavior. In addition, the study examined if body mass index (BMI) moderated the relationships between each of the body image related variables and disordered eating. Two-hundred-fifty-eight female participants completed the web-based survey. Body dissatisfaction and body image flexibility were significantly related to disordered eating behavior, after controlling for ethnicity and BMI, and BMI moderated the relation between body image flexibility and disordered eating. Specifically, for those with low BMI, greater body image flexibility was associated with reduced disordered eating behavior. Body image flexibility was not associated with disordered eating behavior among those with average or high BMI. These results suggest that greater body image flexibility may serve as a protective factor against disordered eating behaviors for those with low BMI. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Relation of body mass index and body fat mass for Spanish university students, taking into account leisure-time physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-García, Javier; Castillo, Isabel; Pablos, Carlos; Queralt, Ana

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to analyze the relation of Body Mass Index with body fat mass while taking into account the amount of leisure-time physical activity for 299 male university students. Body fat mass was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis. An estimation of energy expenditure in leisure-time physical activity in metabolic equivalents (METs) was obtained so participants were divided into six activity groups by percentile: no physical activity by the first group and participants physically active were divided into five groups by percentiles: 90% group.

  2. Genome-wide association analysis identifies three new susceptibility loci for childhood body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felix, Janine F; Bradfield, Jonathan P; Monnereau, Claire

    2016-01-01

    .011, P-value=3.12 x 10(-10)) increase in childhood body mass index in a population of 1,955 children. This risk score explained 2% of the variance in childhood body mass index. This study highlights the shared genetic background between childhood and adult body mass index and adds three novel loci......A large number of genetic loci are associated with adult body mass index. However, the genetics of childhood body mass index are largely unknown. We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of childhood body mass index, using sex- and age-adjusted standard deviation scores. We...... included 35,668 children from 20 studies in the discovery phase and 11,873 children from 13 studies in the replication phase. In total, 15 loci reached genome-wide-significance (P-value

  3. Comparison of body mass index, waist circumference, and waist/hip ratio in predicting incident diabetes: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Gabriela; Duval, Sue; Jacobs, David R; Silventoinen, Karri

    2007-01-01

    Body mass index, waist circumference, and waist/hip ratio have been shown to be associated with type 2 diabetes. From the clinical perspective, central obesity (approximated by waist circumference or waist/hip ratio) is known to generate diabetogenic substances and should therefore be more informative than general obesity (body mass index). Because of their high correlation, from the statistical perspective, body mass index and waist circumference are unlikely to yield different answers. To compare associations of diabetes incidence with general and central obesity indicators, the authors conducted a meta-analysis based on published studies from 1966 to 2004 retrieved from a PubMed search. The analysis was performed with 32 studies out of 432 publications initially identified. Measures of association were transformed to log relative risks per standard deviation (pooled across all studies) increase in the obesity indicator and pooled using random effects models. The pooled relative risks for incident diabetes were 1.87 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.67, 2.10), 1.87 (95% CI: 1.58, 2.20), and 1.88 (95% CI: 1.61, 2.19) per standard deviation of body mass index, waist circumference, and waist/hip ratio, respectively, demonstrating that these three obesity indicators have similar associations with incident diabetes. Although the clinical perspective focusing on central obesity is appealing, further research is needed to determine the usefulness of waist circumference or waist/hip ratio over body mass index.

  4. Dimensions of socioeconomic position related to body mass index and obesity among Danish women and men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Margit Velsing; Fagt, Sisse; Stockmarr, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to examine the association between different dimensions of socioeconomic position, body mass index (BMI) and obesity in the Danish population. Possible interactions between the different dimensions and gender differences were also investigated. Methods...... adjustment for educational level. Conclusions: Education was the dimension most consistently associated with BMI and obesity, indicating the importance of cultural capital for weight status. The gender-specific pattern showed a stronger social gradient for women, and indicated that a high relative body...... weight was associated with less favourable social and material conditions for women, but not for men. A public health strategy to prevent and reduce obesity should be gender-specific, focus on groups with short education, and incorporate cultural norms....

  5. Six new loci associated with body mass index highlight a neuronal influence on body weight regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willer, Cristen J; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Loos, Ruth J F; Li, Shengxu; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Heid, Iris M; Berndt, Sonja I; Elliott, Amanda L; Jackson, Anne U; Lamina, Claudia; Lettre, Guillaume; Lim, Noha; Lyon, Helen N; McCarroll, Steven A; Papadakis, Konstantinos; Qi, Lu; Randall, Joshua C; Roccasecca, Rosa Maria; Sanna, Serena; Scheet, Paul; Weedon, Michael N; Wheeler, Eleanor; Zhao, Jing Hua; Jacobs, Leonie C; Prokopenko, Inga; Soranzo, Nicole; Tanaka, Toshiko; Timpson, Nicholas J; Almgren, Peter; Bennett, Amanda; Bergman, Richard N; Bingham, Sheila A; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Brown, Morris; Burtt, Noël P; Chines, Peter; Coin, Lachlan; Collins, Francis S; Connell, John M; Cooper, Cyrus; Smith, George Davey; Dennison, Elaine M; Deodhar, Parimal; Elliott, Paul; Erdos, Michael R; Estrada, Karol; Evans, David M; Gianniny, Lauren; Gieger, Christian; Gillson, Christopher J; Guiducci, Candace; Hackett, Rachel; Hadley, David; Hall, Alistair S; Havulinna, Aki S; Hebebrand, Johannes; Hofman, Albert; Isomaa, Bo; Jacobs, Kevin B; Johnson, Toby; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jovanovic, Zorica; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kraft, Peter; Kuokkanen, Mikko; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laitinen, Jaana; Lakatta, Edward G; Luan, Jian'an; Luben, Robert N; Mangino, Massimo; McArdle, Wendy L; Meitinger, Thomas; Mulas, Antonella; Munroe, Patricia B; Narisu, Narisu; Ness, Andrew R; Northstone, Kate; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Purmann, Carolin; Rees, Matthew G; Ridderstråle, Martin; Ring, Susan M; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Ruokonen, Aimo; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Saramies, Jouko; Scott, Laura J; Scuteri, Angelo; Silander, Kaisa; Sims, Matthew A; Song, Kijoung; Stephens, Jonathan; Stevens, Suzanne; Stringham, Heather M; Tung, Y C Loraine; Valle, Timo T; Van Duijn, Cornelia M; Vimaleswaran, Karani S; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Wallace, Chris; Watanabe, Richard M; Waterworth, Dawn M; Watkins, Nicholas; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Zhai, Guangju; Zillikens, M Carola; Altshuler, David; Caulfield, Mark J; Chanock, Stephen J; Farooqi, I Sadaf; Ferrucci, Luigi; Guralnik, Jack M; Hattersley, Andrew T; Hu, Frank B; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Laakso, Markku; Mooser, Vincent; Ong, Ken K; Ouwehand, Willem H; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J; Spector, Timothy D; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uda, Manuela; Uitterlinden, André G; Wareham, Nicholas J; Deloukas, Panagiotis; Frayling, Timothy M; Groop, Leif C; Hayes, Richard B; Hunter, David J; Mohlke, Karen L; Peltonen, Leena; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P; Wichmann, H-Erich; McCarthy, Mark I; Boehnke, Michael; Barroso, Inês; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; Hirschhorn, Joel N

    2009-01-01

    Common variants at only two loci, FTO and MC4R, have been reproducibly associated with body mass index (BMI) in humans. To identify additional loci, we conducted meta-analysis of 15 genome-wide association studies for BMI (n > 32,000) and followed up top signals in 14 additional cohorts (n > 59,000). We strongly confirm FTO and MC4R and identify six additional loci (P < 5 × 10−8): TMEM18, KCTD15, GNPDA2, SH2B1, MTCH2 and NEGR1 (where a 45-kb deletion polymorphism is a candidate causal variant). Several of the likely causal genes are highly expressed or known to act in the central nervous system (CNS), emphasizing, as in rare monogenic forms of obesity, the role of the CNS in predisposition to obesity. PMID:19079261

  6. Cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender persons affects total body weight, body fat and lean body mass: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaver, M; Dekker, M J H J; de Mutsert, R; Twisk, J W R; den Heijer, M

    2017-06-01

    Weight gain and body fat increase the risk of cardiometabolic disease. Cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender persons leads to changes in body weight and body composition, but it is unclear to what extent. We performed a meta-analysis to investigate the changes in body weight, body fat and lean body mass during cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender persons. We searched the PubMed database for eligible studies until November 2015. Ten studies reporting changes in body weight, body fat or lean mass in hormone naive transgender persons were included, examining 171 male-to-female and 354 female-to-male transgender people. Pooled effect estimates in the male-to-female group were +1.8 kg (95% CI: 0.2;3.4) for body weight, +3.0 kg (2.0;3.9) for body fat and -2.4 kg (-2.8; -2.1) for lean body mass. In the female-to-male group, body weight changed with +1.7 kg (0.7;2.7), body fat with -2.6 kg (-3.9; -1.4) and lean body mass with +3.9 kg (3.2;4.5). Cross-sex hormone therapy increases body weight in both sexes. In the male-to-female group, a gain in body fat and a decline in lean body mass are observed, while the opposite effects are seen in the female-to-male group. Possibly, these changes increase the risk of cardiometabolic disease in the male-to-female group. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Body Mass Index Genetic Risk Score and Endometrial Cancer Risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Prescott

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified common variants that predispose individuals to a higher body mass index (BMI, an independent risk factor for endometrial cancer. Composite genotype risk scores (GRS based on the joint effect of published BMI risk loci were used to explore whether endometrial cancer shares a genetic background with obesity. Genotype and risk factor data were available on 3,376 endometrial cancer case and 3,867 control participants of European ancestry from the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium GWAS. A BMI GRS was calculated by summing the number of BMI risk alleles at 97 independent loci. For exploratory analyses, additional GRSs were based on subsets of risk loci within putative etiologic BMI pathways. The BMI GRS was statistically significantly associated with endometrial cancer risk (P = 0.002. For every 10 BMI risk alleles a woman had a 13% increased endometrial cancer risk (95% CI: 4%, 22%. However, after adjusting for BMI, the BMI GRS was no longer associated with risk (per 10 BMI risk alleles OR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.91, 1.07; P = 0.78. Heterogeneity by BMI did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.06, and no effect modification was noted by age, GWAS Stage, study design or between studies (P≥0.58. In exploratory analyses, the GRS defined by variants at loci containing monogenic obesity syndrome genes was associated with reduced endometrial cancer risk independent of BMI (per BMI risk allele OR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.88, 0.96; P = 2.1 x 10-5. Possessing a large number of BMI risk alleles does not increase endometrial cancer risk above that conferred by excess body weight among women of European descent. Thus, the GRS based on all current established BMI loci does not provide added value independent of BMI. Future studies are required to validate the unexpected observed relation between monogenic obesity syndrome genetic variants and endometrial cancer risk.

  8. Longitudinal changes in body mass index of children affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, W; Yokomichi, H; Matsubara, H; Ishikuro, M; Kikuya, M; Isojima, T; Yokoya, S; Tanaka, T; Kato, N; Chida, S; Ono, A; Hosoya, M; Tanaka, S; Kuriyama, S; Kure, S; Yamagata, Z

    2017-04-01

    The evacuation and disruption in housing caused by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and following nuclear radiation may have influenced child health in many respects. However, studies regarding longitudinal childhood growth are limited. Therefore, in this study we aimed to explore the influence of the earthquake on longitudinal changes in body mass index in preschool children. Participants were children from nursery schools who cooperated with the study in the Iwate, Miyagi and Fukushima prefectures. The exposed group consisted of children who experienced the earthquake during their preschool-age period (4-5 years old). The historical control group included children who were born 2 years earlier than the exposed children in the same prefectures. Trajectories regarding body mass index and prevalence of overweight/obesity were compared between the two groups using multilevel analysis. Differences in the changes in BMI between before and after the earthquake, and proportion of overweight/obesity was compared between the two groups. We also conducted subgroup analysis by defining children with specific personal disaster experiences within the exposed group. A total of 9722 children were included in the study. Children in the exposed group had higher body mass indices and a higher proportion of overweight after the earthquake than the control group. These differences were more obvious when confined to exposed children with specific personal disaster experiences. Children's growth and development-related health issues such as increased BMI after natural disasters should evoke great attention.

  9. A weighty issue: explaining the association between body mass index and appearance-based social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titchener, Kristen; Wong, Quincy J J

    2015-01-01

    Research has indicated that individuals who are overweight or obese are more likely to experience mental health difficulties. One line of research has indicated that body mass index (BMI) is positively associated with appearance-based social anxiety, rather than social anxiety more generally. However, there is a lack of research that has attempted to explain this association. Thus, the current study recruited an undergraduate sample (N=90) and aimed (a) to replicate previous research by examining the associations between BMI, social anxiety, and appearance-based social anxiety and (b) to extend previous research by examining two potential mediators in the relationship between BMI and appearance-based social anxiety suggested in the literature (i.e., body image dissatisfaction and emotional eating). Analyses indicated that BMI was not associated with social anxiety but positively associated with appearance-based social anxiety. The association between BMI and appearance-based social anxiety was only mediated by body image dissatisfaction, and the model of these relationships emerged as the best fitting model relative to a plausible alternative model. The findings replicate and extend previous research on weight status and psychological factors and highlight the need for future longitudinal research on BMI, appearance-based social anxiety, and body image dissatisfaction so that interventions for obesity and weight loss maintenance programs can be ultimately enhanced. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Association of Body Mass Index and Body Mass Index Change with Mortality in Incident Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Xiong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Although high body mass index (BMI appears to confer a survival advantage in hemodialysis patients, the association of BMI with mortality in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD patients is uncertain. We enrolled incident CAPD patients and BMI was categorized according to World Health Organization classification for Asian population. BMI at baseline and one year after the initiation of peritoneal dialysis (PD treatment was assessed to calculate the BMI change (∆BMI. Patients were split into four categories according quartiles of ∆BMI. Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression proportional hazard analysis were performed to assess the association of BMI on outcomes. A total of 1263 CAPD patients were included, with a mean age of 47.8 ± 15.0 years, a mean BMI of 21.58 ± 3.13 kg/m2. During a median follow-up of 25.3 months, obesity was associated with increased risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD death (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR 2.01; 95% CI 1.14, 3.54, but not all-cause mortality. Additionally, patients with more BMI decline (>0.80% during the first year after CAPD initiation had an elevated risk for both all-cause (AHR: 2.21, 95% CI 1.23–3.95 and CVD mortality (AHR 2.31, 95% CI 1.11, 4.84, which was independent of baseline BMI values.

  11. Perceived body image and health-related indicators among elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheilla Tribess

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to identify the association of the perceived body image, nutritional status, physical activity level, health indicators of and socio-demographic characteristics of elderly women. This cross-sectional study was also characterized as descriptive and correlacional, with a sample of 265 randomly selected women aged from 60 to 96 years, proportionally stratified by groups from the Friend’s Association, Groups for sharing live experiences and Open University for the Elderly of Jequié/BA. A questionnaire was used in an individual interview to obtain information on the socio-demographic characteristics (age, marital and economical status, family organization and income, and educational level, health indicators (subjective perceived health and self-reported health problems, physical activity level (IPAQ long version adapted for seniors and perceived body image (PBI, a nine-silhouette scale. The measurements of body mass and stature allowed for computing body mass index (BMI, used as a parameter for nutritional status. Data analyses consisted of the descriptive and nonparametric statistics, as well as measures of association, using the level of significant at 5%. Among the elderly, 47.5% was aged 60 to 69 years and 48.3% was widow. They lived in homes with three generations (38.1% and had low level of education: incomplete elementary school (88.7%. The elderly women were on retirement plan (58.5%, had monthly income up to minimum wage (51.7% and belonged to socioeconomic class D (55.8%. As for the PBI, 54% of the women were dissatisfied, mainly for body mass excess (35.1%. PBI was associated to the nutritional status, i.e., an increase in the BMI category raised the proportion of dissatisfied seniors. However, PBI was not associated with socio-demographic characteristics, health indicator or physical activity level. Comparing satisfied and dissatisfied women, no differences were noted in physical activity level, age or stature

  12. Do early life factors influence body mass index in adolescents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Z. Goldani

    Full Text Available The association between early life factors and body mass index (BMI in adulthood has been demonstrated in developed countries. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of early life factors (birth weight, gestational age, maternal smoking, and social class on BMI in young adulthood with adjustment for adult socioeconomic position. A cohort study was carried out in 1978/79 with 6827 mother-child pairs from Ribeirão Preto city, located in the most developed economic area of the country. Biological, economic and social variables and newborn anthropometric measurements were obtained shortly after delivery. In 1996, 1189 males from this cohort, 34.3% of the original male population, were submitted to anthropometric measurements and were asked about their current schooling on the occasion of army recruitment. A multiple linear regression model was applied to determine variables associated with BMI. Mean BMI was 22.7 (95%CI = 22.5-23.0. After adjustment, BMI was 1.22 kg/m² higher among infants born with high birth weight (³4000 g, 1.21 kg/m² higher among individuals of low social class at birth and 0.69 kg/m² higher among individuals whose mothers smoked during pregnancy (P < 0.05. The association between social class at birth and BMI remained statistically significant (P < 0.05 even after adjustment for adult schooling. These findings suggest that early life social influences on BMI were more important and were not reversed by late socioeconomic position. Therefore, prevention of overweight and obesity should focus not only on changes in adult life styles but also on factors such as high birth weight.

  13. The association between body mass index and academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alswat, Khaled A; Al-Shehri, Abdullah D; Aljuaid, Tariq A; Alzaidi, Bassam A; Alasmari, Hassan D

    2017-02-01

    To examine the relation between body mass index (BMI) and the academic performance of students from Taif city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) using the grade point average (GPA). Method: A cross-sectional study that includes students from intermediate and high schools located in Taif city, KSA between April 2014 and June 2015. Height and weight were measured and BMI calculated. Related risk factors including dietary habits, activity, parent's education, sleeping pattern, and smoking were recorded.  Result: A total of 14 schools included 424 students. 24.5% were either overweight or obese. The mean age was 15.44 year, 74.8% of the students were male, 53.8% were high school students, and 83.7% attended public schools. The mean overall GPA was 82.44% and the mean GPA for science subjects was 70.91%. No statically significant difference in the BMI was found between those who achieved greater than 90% of the overall grade compared with those who achieved less than 90%. Post hoc 1-way-analysis of variance showed that obese students were performing worse in physics than normal weight peers (p=0.049). Students who achieved greater than 90% overall grade are more likely to attend private school (p less than 0.05), live with their parents (p=0.013), having educated parents (p=0.037), getting optimal sleep (p less than 0.05), and they rarely eat their food outside their home (p less than 0.05).  Conclusion: There was no correlation between the BMI and school performance, except in physics results where obese students perform worse than normal-weight students.

  14. The effects of maternal body mass index on pregnancy outcome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khashan, A S

    2012-01-31

    The increasing prevalence of obesity is presenting a critical challenge to healthcare services. We examined the effect of Body Mass Index in early pregnancy on adverse pregnancy outcome. We performed a population register-based cohort study using data from the North Western Perinatal survey (N = 99,403 babies born during 2004-2006), based at The University of Manchester, UK. The main outcome measures were Caesarean section delivery, preterm birth, neonatal death, stillbirth, Macrosomia, small for gestational age and large for gestational age. The risk of preterm birth was reduced by almost 10% in overweight (RR = 0.89, [95% CI: 0.83, 0.95]) and obese women (RR = 0.90, [95% CI: 0.84, 0.97]) and was increased in underweight women (RR = 1.33, [95% CI: 1.16, 1.53]). Overweight (RR = 1.17, [95% CI: 1.09, 1.25]), obese (RR = 1.35, [95% CI: 1.25, 1.45]) and morbidly obese (RR = 1.24, [95% CI: 1.02, 1.52]) women had an elevated risk of post-term birth compared to normal women. The risk of fetal macrosomia and operative delivery increased with BMI such that morbidly obese women were at greatest risk of both (RR of macrosomia = 4.78 [95% CI: 3.86, 5.92] and RR of Caesarean section = 1.66 [95% CI: 1.61, 1.71] and a RR of emergency Caesarean section = 1.59 [95% CI: 1.45, 1.75]). Excessive leanness and obesity are associated with different adverse pregnancy outcomes with major maternal and fetal complications. Overweight and obese women have a higher risk of macrosomia and Caesarean delivery and lower risk of preterm delivery. The mechanism underlying this association is unclear and is worthy of further investigation.

  15. Analysis of fall injuries by body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jun; Waclawczyk, Amanda; Hartfield, Doug; Yu, Shicheng; Kuang, Xiangyu; Zhang, Hongrui; Alamgir, Hasanat

    2014-05-01

    To examine the association of body mass index (BMI) and fall injuries. Data were derived from the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and included subjects aged 45 years and older from Texas. The outcome was self-reported falls that resulted in injury to the respondents. Analysis of fall injuries by BMI was conducted and standard errors, 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and coefficients of variation were reported. Complex sample multivariate Poisson regression was used to examine the association of BMI and fall injuries. A total of 18,077 subjects were surveyed in 2010, and 13,235 subjects were aged 45 years old and older. The mean BMI was higher (29.94 vs 28.32 kg/m(2)) among those who reported fall injuries compared with those who did not. The fall injuries reported by obese respondents (relative risk [RR] 1.67) were found to be significantly (P = 0.031) higher compared with normal-weight respondents in the multivariate regression. Other risk factors that had significant association with fall injuries (when adjusted for BMI) were activity limitations (RR 5.00, 95% CI 3.36-7.46) compared with no limitations, and not having formal employment (homemaker: RR 2.68, 95% CI 1.33-5.37; unable to work: RR 5.01, 95% CI 1.87-13.29; out of work and students: RR 3.21, 95% CI 1.41-7.29) compared with the employed population. There is a significant association between obesity and fall injuries in adults aged 45 years old and older in Texas. Interventions in fall prevention, although generally targeted at present to older adults, also should take into account the weight status of the subjects.

  16. Correlation of Gastrophageal Reflux Disease symptoms with Body Mass Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafar, S.; Haque, Israr U.; Tayyab, Ghias U.N.; Rehman, Ameed U.; Rehman, Adeel U.; Chaudhry, NusratU.

    2008-01-01

    Aim was to find a correlation between symptoms of gastrophageal refluxdisease (GERD) and body mass index (BMI). A total of 603 patients whopresented at Ghurki Trust Teaching Hospital and Surgimed Hospital Lahore withsymptoms of GERD, were included and interviewed according to a validated GERDquestionnaire. It included questions regarding GERD symptoms and theirseverity/frequency. Symptoms were defined: frequent if occurred daily;occasional if weekly and severe if they were sufficiently intense to changelife style. Height and weight were also recorded and their BMI calculated. Weused logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the associationbetween the presence of each specific GI symptom and BMI. The odds ratios(OR) for a given specific symptom and 95% confidence intervals (CI) werecomputed from the coefficients in logistic regression models. The prevalenceof obesity was 25.3%, while 38.1% were overweight. There was an increase inreporting of GI symptoms in obese individuals compared to those with normalBMI who were taken as reference group. Frequent nausea, vomiting, earlysatiety, epigastric pain, heart burn, regurgitation, postprandial fullnessand dysphagia were present in 10.4, 5.6, 8.9, 17.2, 10.2, 22.1, 23.5 and21.7%, respectively, of obese subjects compared to 7.9, 1.2, 6.5, 3.5, 4.4,17.1 and 16.6% of normal BMI subjects. BMI showed a positive relationshipwith frequent vomiting (P=0.02), epigastric pain (P=0.03), regurgitation offood (P=0.02) and postprandial fullness (0.01). The majority of GERD symptomshave a greater likelihood of occurring with increasing BMI. (author)

  17. Body mass index in adult congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brida, Margarita; Dimopoulos, Konstantinos; Kempny, Alexander; Liodakis, Emmanouil; Alonso-Gonzalez, Rafael; Swan, Lorna; Uebing, Anselm; Baumgartner, Helmut; Gatzoulis, Michael A; Diller, Gerhard-Paul

    2017-08-01

    Abnormal body mass index (BMI) is associated with higher mortality in various cardiovascular cohorts. The prognostic implications of BMI in adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD) are unknown. We aim to assess the distribution of BMI and its association with symptoms and survival in the ACHD population. We included 3069 ACHD patients (median age 32.6 years) under follow-up at our institution between 2001 and 2015. Patients were classified based on BMI as underweight (30), and symptoms, exercise capacity and mortality were assessed. Overall, 6.2% of patients were underweight, 51.1% had normal weight, 28.2% were overweight and 14.6% were obese. Higher BMI values were associated with lower all-cause and cardiac mortality on univariable Cox analysis, and this effect persisted after adjustment for age, defect complexity, cyanosis and objective exercise capacity. Higher BMI was especially associated with better prognosis in symptomatic ACHD patients (HR 0.94 (95% CI 0.90 to 0.98), p=0.002) and those with complex underlying cardiac defects (HR 0.96 (95% CI 0.91 to 0.997), p=0.048) In patients with a complex cardiac defect who had repeated weight measurements, weight loss was also associated with a worse survival (HR 1.82 (95% CI 1.02 to 3.24), p=0.04). ACHD patients with a higher BMI had a lower mortality. The association between BMI and mortality was especially pronounced in symptomatic patients with complex underlying cardiac defects, suggesting that cardiac cachexia may play a role. Indeed, weight loss in complex ACHD patients was linked to an even higher mortality. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Body Mass Index and Decline of Cognitive Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujin Kim

    Full Text Available The association between body mass index (BMI and cognitive function is a public health issue. This study investigated the relationship between obesity and cognitive impairment which was assessed by the Korean version of the Mini-mental state examination (K-MMSE among mid- and old-aged people in South Korea.A cohort of 5,125 adults, age 45 or older with normal cognitive function (K-MMSE≥24 at baseline (2006, was derived from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (KLoSA 2006~2012. The association between baseline BMI and risk of cognitive impairment was assessed using multiple logistic regression models. We also assessed baseline BMI and change of cognitive function over the 6-year follow-up using multiple linear regressions.During the follow-up, 358 cases of severe cognitive impairment were identified. Those with baseline BMI≥25 kg/m2 than normal-weight (18.5≤BMI<23 kg/m2 were marginally less likely to experience the development of severe cognitive impairment (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.52 to 1.03; Ptrend = 0.03. This relationship was stronger among female (aOR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.40 to 1.00; Ptrend = 0.01 and participants with low-normal K-MMSE score (MMSE: 24-26 at baseline (aOR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.35 to 0.98; Ptrend<0.01. In addition, a slower decline of cognitive function was observed in obese individuals than those with normal weight, especially among women and those with low-normal K-MMSE score at baseline.In this nationally representative study, we found that obesity was associated with lower risk of cognitive decline among mid- and old-age population.

  19. The Impact of Body Mass Index on Heterotopic Ossification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourad, Waleed Fouad; Packianathan, Satya; Shourbaji, Rania A.; Zhang Zhen; Graves, Mathew; Khan, Majid A.; Baird, Michael C.; Russell, George; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the impact of different body mass index (BMI) as a surrogate marker for heterotopic ossification (HO) in patients who underwent surgical repair (SR) for displaced acetabular fractures (DAF) followed by radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: This is a single-institution retrospective study of 395 patients. All patients underwent SR for DAF followed by RT ± indomethacin. All patients received postoperative RT, 7 Gy, within 72 h. The patients were separated into four groups based on their BMI: 30. The end point of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of RT ± indomethacin in preventing HO in patients with different BMI. Results: Analysis of BMI showed an increasing incidence of HO with increasing BMI: 30 (31%), 51 of 167. Chi-square and multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the correlation between odds of HO and BMI is significant, p < 0.0001. As the BMI increased, the risk of HO and Brooker Classes 3, 4 HO increased. The risk of developing HO is 1.0× (10%) more likely among those with higher BMI compared with those with lower BMI. For a one-unit increase in BMI the log odds of HO increases by 1.0, 95% CI (1.06–1.14). Chi-square test shows no significant difference among all other factors and HO (e.g., indomethacin, race, gender). Conclusions: Despite similar surgical treatment and prophylactic measures (RT ± indomethacin), the risk of HO appears to significantly increase in patients with higher BMI after DAF. Higher single-fraction doses or multiple fractions and/or combination therapy with nonsteroidal inflammatory drugs may be of greater benefit to these patients.

  20. Association between Body Mass Index and Mitral Valve Prolapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Mojaver Borabadi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Body mass index (BMI can affect cardiac morphology; however, the relationship between BMI and valvular heart diseases has not been thoroughly evaluated. This study aimed to determine the relationship between BMI and mitral valve prolapse (MVP as one of the most common valve diseases worldwide. It can help us to better understand pathophysiology of this common disease. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive study we enrolled 200 patients with isolated MVP. This patient was referred from 2014 to 2015 to our cardiology clinic in Mashhad, Iran, with chief complaint of chest pain, dyspnea, and palpitation. patients underwent transthoracic echocardiography. We document the patients’ height, weight, and demographics data. BMI distribution was categorized as higher and lower than 18.5 kg/m2. Chi- square and independent samples t-test were performed using SPSS version 19 to analyze the data. Results: The results showed that 92 (46% and 108 (54% of the samples were male and female, respectively, and their mean age was 24.29±3.75 years. Most of the patients(n=110 had low BMI (55% of the patients had BMI lower than 18.5 kg/m2. Left atrial and ventricular diameters had a significant relationship with BMI of all the underweight patients(n=110 (P=0.026 and 0.032, respectively. The main complaints were chest pain (n=55,50% and dyspnea (n=58,64.44% in the patients with low and normal BMI, respectively. Conclusion: Symptoms and echocardiographic features in MVP patients vary with BMI. While mitral valve annulus diameter was the same in both BMI groups, the results showed that left atrial and ventricular diameters in the underweight patients were less than those with normal BMI.

  1. Lifestyle factors and inflammation: associations by body mass index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth D Kantor

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammation, which is associated with obesity, may play a role in the etiology of several diseases. Thus, reducing inflammation may offer a disease-prevention strategy, particularly among the obese. Several modifiable factors have been associated with inflammation, including: dietary fiber intake, saturated fat intake, physical activity, smoking, alcohol, and use of certain supplements and medications (glucosamine, chondroitin, fish oil, vitamin E, statins and aspirin. To study whether these associations differ by body mass index (BMI, we used data on 9,895 adults included in the 1999-2004 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES. Survey-weighted linear regression was used to evaluate the associations between modifiable factors and serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP concentrations across the following groups: underweight/normal weight (BMI<25 kg/m(2, overweight (25-<30 kg/m(2 and obese (30+ kg/m(2. While several factors were significantly associated with decreased hsCRP among the normal weight or overweight groups (increased fiber intake, lower saturated fat intake, physical activity, not smoking, and use of chondroitin, fish oil and statins, only increasing dietary fiber intake and moderate alcohol consumption were associated with reduced hsCRP among the obese. Effect modification by BMI was statistically significant for the saturated fat-hsCRP and smoking-hsCRP associations. These results suggest that posited anti-inflammatory drugs and behaviors may be less strongly associated with inflammation among the obese than among lower weight persons.

  2. Body mass index and dynamic lung volumes in office workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasool, S.A.; Shirwany, A.K.

    2012-01-01

    To measure the association of body mass index (BMI) to lung volumes assessed by spirometer. Study Design: Cross-sectional analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, University of Health Sciences, Lahore, from February to August 2009. Methodology: Two hundred and twenty-five apparently healthy adult office workers of either gender aged > 20 years were recruited. Height and weight were measured and BMI was calculated as kg/m2. Subjects were categorized as normal (BMI=18.5 to 24.9 kg/m2); overweight (BMI=25 to 29.9 kg/m2); and obese Class 1 (BMI=30 to 34.9 kg/m2) on the basis of BMI. Lung volumes were measured by digital spirometer and were reported as percentage of predicted values for forced vital capacity (FVC%), forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1%) and ratio of FEV1 to FVC (FEV1:FVC). Groups were compared using t-test and ANOVA, correlation was assessed by Pearson's 'r'. Results: Significant differences in lung volumes were found in different BMI categories. Obese subjects had significantly lower FVC% (p < 0.0001), as well as significantly lower FEV1% (p = 0.003) as compared to normal subjects. There were significant linear relationships between obesity and PFTs. BMI had significant negative linear association with FVC% in overweight (r = -0.197) and obese (r = - 0.488); and with FEV1% in obese subjects (r = -0.510). Gender and age had no significant effect on mean values of PFTs. Conclusion: Obese individuals in this sample had significant decline in lung volumes. (author)

  3. Deviation from goal pace, body temperature and body mass loss as predictors of road race performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, William M; Hosokawa, Yuri; Belval, Luke N; Huggins, Robert A; Stearns, Rebecca L; Casa, Douglas J

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between pacing, gastrointestinal temperature (T GI ), and percent body mass loss (%BML) on relative race performance during a warm weather 11.3km road race. Observational study of a sample of active runners competing in the 2014 Falmouth Road Race. Participants ingested a T GI pill and donned a GPS enabled watch with heart rate monitoring capabilities prior to the start of the race. Percent off predicted pace (% OFF ) was calculated for seven segments of the race. Separate linear regression analyses were used to assess the relationship between pace, T ​GI , and %BML on relative race performance. One-way ANOVA was used to analyse post race T GI (≥40°C vs Body temperature (pre race T GI and post race T GI ) was not predictive of overall finish time (p>0.05). There was a trend in a slower pace (p=0.055) and greater % OFF (p=0.056) in runners finishing the race with a T GI >40°C. Overall, finish time was influenced by greater variations in pace during the first two miles of the race. In addition, runners who minimized fluid losses and had lower T GI were associated with meeting self-predicted goals. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Winter reduction in body mass in a very small, nonhibernating mammal: consequences for heat loss and metabolic rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jan R E; Rychlik, Leszek; Churchfield, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Low temperatures in northern winters are energetically challenging for mammals, and a special energetic burden is expected for diminutive species like shrews, which are among the smallest of mammals. Surprisingly, shrews shrink their body size in winter and reduce body and brain mass, an effect known as Dehnel's phenomenon, which is suggested to lower absolute energy intake requirements and thereby enhance survival when food availability is low. Yet reduced body size coupled with higher body-surface-to-mass ratio in these tiny mammals may result in thermoregulatory heat production at a given temperature constituting a larger proportion of the total energy expenditure. To evaluate energetic consequences of reduced body size in winter, we investigated common shrews Sorex araneus in northeastern Poland. Average body mass decreased by 19.0% from summer to winter, and mean skull depth decreased by 13.1%. There was no difference in Dehnel's phenomenon between years despite different weather conditions. The whole-animal thermal conductance (proportional to absolute heat loss) in shrews was 19% lower in winter than in summer; the difference between the two seasons remained significant after correcting for body mass and was caused by improved fur insulation in winter. Thermogenic capacity of shrews, although much enhanced in winter, did not reach its full potential of increase, and this corresponded with relatively mild subnivean temperatures. These findings indicate that, despite their small body size, shrews effectively decrease their costs of thermoregulation. The recorded decrease in body mass from summer to winter resulted in a reduction of overall resting metabolic rate (in thermoneutrality) by 18%. This, combined with the reduced heat loss, should translate to food requirements that are substantially lower than would be the case if shrews did not undergo seasonal decrease in body mass.

  5. [Overweight and obesity in young adults: relevance of job-related changes of exercise on fat, lean body and body mass in students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; Kohl, Matthias; Bebenek, Michael; von Stengel, Simon

    2015-03-01

    Early adulthood is related to changes in lifestyle that negatively affect body weight and health. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of exercise changes on the development of weight and body composition in college students.Sixty-one randomly selected dental (ZMS) and 53 sport students (SLS) were accompanied over 5 years. Body mass, fat and lean body mass (LBM) were determined via DXA-technique. Exercise and physical activity were assessed by questionnaires and interviews.All exercise indices significantly increased in the SLS and significantly decreased in the ZMS. Physical activity slightly increased in both groups. Both cohorts comparably gained body mass, however, the increase in the SLS group can be attributed to LBM-changes with minor changes of fat-mass (2.4 % ± 3.3 % vs. 0.1 ± 1.0 %) whereas ZMS gained fat and LBM in a proportion of 2:1.Maintenance/increase of exercise compensate the negative effects of lifestyle changes on body composition during young adulthood.

  6. Body mass index, waist circumference, body adiposity index, and risk for type 2 diabetes in two populations in Brazil: general and Amerindian.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Oliveira Alvim

    Full Text Available The use of the anthropometric indices of adiposity, especially body mass index and waist circumference in the prediction of diabetes mellitus has been widely explored. Recently, a new body composition index, the body adiposity index was proposed. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of body mass index, waist circumference, and body adiposity index in the risk assessment for type 2 diabetes mellitus.A total of 1,572 individuals from the general population of Vitoria City, Brazil and 620 Amerindians from the Aracruz Indian Reserve, Brazil were randomly selected. BMI, waist circumference, and BAI were determined according to a standard protocol. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was diagnosed by the presence of fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL or by the use of antidiabetic drugs.The area under the curve was similar for all anthropometric indices tested in the Amerindian population, but with very different sensitivities or specificities. In women from the general population, the area under the curve of waist circumference was significantly higher than that of the body adiposity index. Regarding risk assessment for type 2 diabetes mellitus, the body adiposity index was a better risk predictor than body mass index and waist circumference in the Amerindian population and was the index with highest odds ratio for type 2 diabetes mellitus in men from the general population, while in women from the general population waist circumference was the best risk predictor.Body adiposity index was the best risk predictor for type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Amerindian population and men from the general population. Our data suggest that the body adiposity index is a useful tool for the risk assessment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in admixture populations.

  7. [Predictive accuracy of body mass index in estimating body fatness measured by bioelectrical impedance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Fernando; Reyes, Eliana; Rimler, Olga; Rios, Francisca

    2004-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determinate the performance of body mass index (BMI) for the diagnosis of obesity and as a predictor of body fatness in adult Chilean subjects. We conducted a study in 433 women (18-73 years old; BMI: 19.7 to 69.7 kg/m2) and 264 men (18-83 y.; BMI: 19.1 to 54.8 kg/m2). Bioelectrical resistance was measured by impedance method and fat mass percent (FM%) was calculated by fatness-specific equations developed by Segal et al. Obesity was defined as a BMI of at least 30 kg/m2. Increased fatness was defined by the FM% cut-off points of at least 25% for men and at least 30% for women. Sixty-four percent of women and 23.6% of men with BMI below 30 kg/m2 had FM% higher than 30% and 25%, respectively. A value of BMI of 26 kg/m2 in women and 30 kg/m2 in men had the best agreement to the cut-off points of fatness according to sensitivity vs. specificity analysis The following equations were developed to predict individual fatness: women FM% = 0.96 x BMI + 0.154 x age + 1.44 (r2 = 0.75; standard error 3.8%); men FM% = 0.99 x BMI + 0.141 x age - 9.914 (r2 = 0.66; standard error 4.4%). Differences between measured and predicted FM% presented a wide variation, with a range of +/- 2 sd of 7.5% in women and 8.8% in men. The commonly used value of BMI 330 kg/m2 as a cut-off point for obesity does not have adequate sensitivity and specificity for the screening of increased fatness subjects, specially in women. In this study BMI shows a low reliability as a predictor of individual body fatness, particularly in men and in subjects with a BMI below 30 kg/m2.

  8. Prevalence, knowledge, attitudes and practices towards body art in university students: body art as an indicator of risk taking behaviours?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enza Sidoti

    2010-12-01

    having no consequences for infections and/or disease.

    Conclusions: Body art was associated with unhealthy ifestyles and may be considered an indicator of risk taking behaviours. Individuals had no accurate idea of the consequences for their health and body, apart from a generic risk of infections. Education is a necessary tool for the modification of lifestyles and as a form of prevention ensuring the correct understanding and assessment of the health risk involved.

  9. Application of body mass index adjusted for fat mass (BMIfat) obtained by bioelectrical impedance in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mialich, Mirele Savegnago; Martinez, Edson Zangiacomi; Jordão Junior, Alceu Afonso

    2014-08-01

    Body mass index (BMI) has been one of the methods most frequently used for diagnose obesity, but it isn't consider body composition. This study intends to apply one new adiposity index, the BMI adjusted for fat mass (BMIfat) developed by Mialich et al. (2011), in a adult Brazilian sample. A cross-sectional study with 501 individuals of both genders (366 women, 135 men) aged 17 to 38 years and mean age was 20.4 ± 2.8 years, mean weight 63.0 ± 13.5 kg, mean height 166.9 ± 9.0 cm, and BMI 22.4 ± 3.4 kg/m2. High and satisfactory R2 values were obtained, i.e., 91.1%, 91.9% and 88.8% for the sample as a whole and for men and women, respectively. Considering this BMIfat were developed new ranges, as follows: 1.35 to 1.65 (nutritional risk for malnutrition), > 1.65 and ≤2.0 (normal weight) and > 2.0 (obesity). The BMIfat had a more accurate capacity of detecting obese individuals (0.980. 0.993, 0.974) considering the sample as a whole and women and men, respectively, compared to the traditional BMI (0.932, 0.956, 0.95). Were also defined new cut-off points for the traditional BMI for the classification of obesity, i.e.: 25.24 kg/m2 and 28.38 kg/m2 for men and women, respectively. The BMIfat was applied for the present population and can be adopted in clinical practice. Further studies are needed to determine its application to different ethnic groups and to compare this index to others previously described in the scientific literature. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  10. Double standards in body evaluation? The influence of identification with body stimuli on ratings of attractiveness, body fat, and muscle mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voges, Mona M; Giabbiconi, Claire-Marie; Schöne, Benjamin; Waldorf, Manuel; Hartmann, Andrea S; Vocks, Silja

    2017-10-20

    Although it is well documented that women evaluate their own body differently from other bodies, it remains unclear whether this discrepancy is based on double standards because of identity or on objective differences between these bodies. The aim of this study was therefore to test whether women apply double standards depending on a body's identity when evaluating the same bodies presented with different faces. Average-weight women (N = 104) rated body attractiveness, body fat, and muscle mass of thin, average-weight, overweight, athletic, and hypermuscular bodies with either another female's face or their own face. With their own face, subjects rated overweight bodies as more unattractive, higher in body fat and lower in muscle mass than with another female's face. However, for non-overweight bodies, body ratings did not differ depending on body identity. Based on the self-deprecating double standards for overweight bodies, a body-related identity bias might be considered in theoretical models of body image. Level of evidence Level V, descriptive study.

  11. Asians are different from Caucasians and from each other in their body mass index/body fat per cent relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurenberg, P.; Deurenberg-Yap, M.; Guricci, S.

    2002-01-01

    The objective was to study the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and body fat per cent (BF%) in different population groups of Asians. The study design was a literature overview with special attention to recent Asian data. Specific information is provided on Indonesians (Malays and Chinese

  12. Female body dissatisfaction after exposure to overweight and thin media images : The role of body mass index and neuroticism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalley, Simon E.; Buunk, Abraham P.; Umit, Turul

    Exposure to thin media images is thought to play a significant role in the development of body image dissatisfaction (BID) amongst females. In this study we examined whether individual differences in body mass index (BMI) and neuroticism can make females more vulnerable to BID upon exposure to

  13. The paradox of low body mass index and high body fat percentage among Chinese, Malays and Indians in Singapore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurenberg-Yap, M.; Schmidt, G.; Staveren, van W.A.; Deurenberg, P.

    2000-01-01

    To study the relationship between body fat percentage and body mass index (BMI) in three different ethnic groups in Singapore (Chinese, Malays and Indians) in order to evaluate the validity of the BMI cut-off points for obesity. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SUBJECTS: Two-hundred and ninety-one

  14. Does body mass index increase the risk of low back pain in a population exposed to whole body vibration?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noorloos, Danielle; Tersteeg, Linda; Tiemessen, Ivo J. H.; Hulshof, Carel T. J.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether body mass index (BMI) influences the risk of low back pain (LBP) in a population exposed to whole body vibration (WBV). For this a self-administered questionnaire was sent to 467 participants, driving occupational vehicles. Vibration measurements were

  15. Critical Elements of a School Report to Parents on Body Mass Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Hannah R; Linchey, Jennifer K; Madsen, Kristine A

    2015-08-27

    School-based body mass index (BMI) screening and reporting could have a positive impact on student health, but best practices for writing a report are unknown. Building on previous qualitative work, 8 focus groups were conducted with a diverse group of California parents (n = 79) to elicit feedback on report content and design. Results indicate that parents want a visually appealing, picture-heavy report that clearly defines BMI, avoids stigmatizing language, and includes recommendations for appropriate actions whole families can take. Next steps involve using the final report in a statewide, randomized trial to determine the effectiveness of school-based BMI screening and reporting in reducing childhood obesity.

  16. The Combined Effect of Subjective Body Image and Body Mass Index (Distorted Body Weight Perception on Suicidal Ideation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeyong Shin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Mental health disorders and suicide are an important and growing public health concern in Korea. Evidence has shown that both globally and in Korea, obesity is associated with an increased risk of developing some psychiatric disorders. Therefore, we examined the association between distorted body weight perception (BWP and suicidal ideation. Methods: Data were obtained from the 2007-2012 Korea National Health and Nutritional Evaluation Survey (KNHANES, an annual cross-sectional nationwide survey that included 14 276 men and 19 428 women. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to investigate the associations between nine BWP categories, which combined body image (BI and body mass index (BMI categories, and suicidal ideation. Moreover, the fitness of our models was verified using the Akaike information criterion. Results: Consistent with previous studies, suicidal ideation was associated with marital status, household income, education level, and perceived health status in both genders. Only women were significantly more likely to have distorted BWP; there was no relationship among men. In category B1 (low BMI and normal BI, women (odds ratio [OR], 2.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.48 to 3.42 were more likely to express suicidal ideation than women in category B2 (normal BMI and normal BI were. Women in overweight BWP category C2 (normal BMI and fat BI also had an increased OR for suicidal ideation (OR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.48 to 3.42. Those in normal BWP categories were not likely to have suicidal ideation. Among women in the underweight BWP categories, only the OR for those in category A2 (normal BMI and thin BI was significant (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.59. Conclusions: Distorted BWP should be considered an important factor in the prevention of suicide and for the improvement of mental health among Korean adults, especially Korean women with distorted BWPs.

  17. Prognostic value of body mass index and waist circumference in patients with chronic heart failure (Spanish REDINSCOR Registry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Teresa; Ferrero-Gregori, Andreu; Roig, Eulalia; Vazquez, Rafael; Gonzalez-Juanatey, Jose R; Pascual-Figal, Domingo; Delgado, Juan; Alonso-Pulpon, Luis; Borras, Xavier; Mendez, Ana; Cinca, Juan

    2014-02-01

    To analyze the association between higher body mass index and waist circumference, and the prognostic values of both indicators in total and cardiac mortality in patients with chronic heart failure. The study included 2254 patients who were followed up for 4 years. Obesity was classified as a body mass index ≥30 and overweight as a body mass index of 25.0-29.9. Central obesity was defined as waist circumference ≥88 cm for women and ≥102cm for men. Independent predictors of total and cardiac mortality were assessed in a multivariate Cox model adjusted for confounding variables. Obesity was present in 35% of patients, overweight in 43%, and central obesity in 60%. Body mass index and waist circumference were independent predictors of lower total mortality: hazard ratio=0.84 (P120cm. Mortality was significantly lower in patients with a high body mass index and waist circumference. The results also showed that this protection was lost when these indicators over a certain limit. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. The usefulness of densitometry as a method of assessing the nutritional status of athletes. Comparison with body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infante, J R; Reyes, C; Ramos, M; Rayo, J I; Lorente, R; Serrano, J; Domínguez, M L; García, L; Durán, C; Sánchez, R

    2013-01-01

    The body mass index (BMI) is used to assess nutritional status. The result in athletes may be overestimated due to increase in muscle mass. To assess the usefulness of fat mass index (FMI) and lean mass index (LMI) determination as indicators of nutritional status and to compare the results with BMI. We studied 28 amateur rugby players, male. After being subjected to whole body densitometry by dual X-ray absorptiometry, we determined fat and lean body mass together with other parameters. FMI (fat in kg/height in meters(2)), LMI (lean in kg/height in meters(2)) and appendicular muscle mass index (AMMI, arms and legs musculature in kg/height in meters(2)) were calculated. Using BMI, 18 players were overweight and 4 obese type I. Considering FMI, 7 of them had normal values and high LMI and AMMI, one of them changed from overweight to obese and another one from obese to overweight. Of the 6 players with normal BMI, one of them showed fat excess and another one fat defect. The results changed the assessment of nutritional status in 39% of players. Although BMI is an appropriate parameter in general population for the assessment of nutritional status, in athletes should be taken into account fat and muscle body percentage and their corresponding indexes. The whole body densitometry appears to be a simple and reliable technique for this purpose. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  19. Intestinal Microbiota Is Influenced by Gender and Body Mass Index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Haro

    Full Text Available Intestinal microbiota changes are associated with the development of obesity. However, studies in humans have generated conflicting results due to high inter-individual heterogeneity in terms of diet, age, and hormonal factors, and the largely unexplored influence of gender. In this work, we aimed to identify differential gut microbiota signatures associated with obesity, as a function of gender and changes in body mass index (BMI. Differences in the bacterial community structure were analyzed by 16S sequencing in 39 men and 36 post-menopausal women, who had similar dietary background, matched by age and stratified according to the BMI. We observed that the abundance of the Bacteroides genus was lower in men than in women (P 33. In fact, the abundance of this genus decreased in men with an increase in BMI (P<0.001, Q<0.001. However, in women, it remained unchanged within the different ranges of BMI. We observed a higher presence of Veillonella (84.6% vs. 47.2%; X2 test P = 0.001, Q = 0.019 and Methanobrevibacter genera (84.6% vs. 47.2%; X2 test P = 0.002, Q = 0.026 in fecal samples in men compared to women. We also observed that the abundance of Bilophila was lower in men compared to women regardless of BMI (P = 0.002, Q = 0.041. Additionally, after correcting for age and sex, 66 bacterial taxa at the genus level were found to be associated with BMI and plasma lipids. Microbiota explained at P = 0.001, 31.17% variation in BMI, 29.04% in triglycerides, 33.70% in high-density lipoproteins, 46.86% in low-density lipoproteins, and 28.55% in total cholesterol. Our results suggest that gut microbiota may differ between men and women, and that these differences may be influenced by the grade of obesity. The divergence in gut microbiota observed between men and women might have a dominant role in the definition of gender differences in the prevalence of metabolic and intestinal inflammatory diseases.

  20. Neuropeptide Y knockout mice reveal a central role of NPY in the coordination of bone mass to body weight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A Baldock

    Full Text Available Changes in whole body energy levels are closely linked to alterations in body weight and bone mass. Here, we show that hypothalamic signals contribute to the regulation of bone mass in a manner consistent with the central perception of energy status. Mice lacking neuropeptide Y (NPY, a well-known orexigenic factor whose hypothalamic expression is increased in fasting, have significantly increased bone mass in association with enhanced osteoblast activity and elevated expression of bone osteogenic transcription factors, Runx2 and Osterix. In contrast, wild type and NPY knockout (NPY (-/- mice in which NPY is specifically over expressed in the hypothalamus (AAV-NPY+ show a significant reduction in bone mass despite developing an obese phenotype. The AAV-NPY+ induced loss of bone mass is consistent with models known to mimic the central effects of fasting, which also show increased hypothalamic NPY levels. Thus these data indicate that, in addition to well characterized responses to body mass, skeletal tissue also responds to the perception of nutritional status by the hypothalamus independently of body weight. In addition, the reduction in bone mass by AAV NPY+ administration does not completely correct the high bone mass phenotype of NPY (-/- mice, indicating the possibility that peripheral NPY may also be an important regulator of bone mass. Indeed, we demonstrate the expression of NPY specifically in osteoblasts. In conclusion, these data identifies NPY as a critical integrator of bone homeostatic signals; increasing bone mass during times of obesity when hypothalamic NPY expression levels are low and reducing bone formation to conserve energy under 'starving' conditions, when hypothalamic NPY expression levels are high.

  1. The role of pyridoxine as a countermeasure for in-flight loss of lean body mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Joyce A.

    1992-01-01

    Ground based and in flight research has shown that humans, under conditions of microgravity, sustain a loss of lean body tissue (protein) and changes in several biological processes including, reductions in red blood cell mass, and neurotransmitters. The maintenance of muscle mass, the major component of lean body mass, is required to meet the needs of space station EVAs. Central to the biosynthesis of amino acids, the building blocks of protein, is pyridoxine (vitamin B-6). Muscle mass integrity requires the availability of vitamin B-6 for protein metabolism and neurotransmitter synthesis. Furthermore, the formation of red blood cells require pyridoxine as a cofactor in the biosynthesis of hemoglobin, a protein that carries oxygen to tissues. In its active form, pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP), vitamin B-6 serves as a link between amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism through intermediates of glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. In addition to its role in energy metabolism, PLP is involved in the biosynthesis of hemoglobin and neurotransmitter which are necessary for neurological functions. Alterations in pyridoxine metabolism may affect countermeasures designed to overcome some of these biochemical changes. The focus of this research is to determine the effects of microgravity on the metabolic utilization of vitamin B-6, integrating nutrition as an integral component of the countermeasure (exercise) to maintain lean body mass and muscle strength. The objectives are: 1) to determine whether microgravity effects the metabolic utilization of pyridoxine and 2) to quantitate changes in B-6 vitamer distribution in tissue and excreta relative to loss of lean body tissue. The rationale for this study encompasses the unique challenge to control biochemical mechanisms effected during space travel and the significance of pyridoxine to maintain and counter muscle integrity for EVA activities. This experiment will begin to elucidate the importance of biochemical

  2. The relationship between body mass index and self-concept among adolescent black female university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodiba, P; Madu, S N; Ezeokana, J O; Nnedum, O A U

    2008-03-01

    The study investigated the relationship between body mass index and self-concept among adolescent black female university students. The study used a mixed research design (quantitative and qualitative methods). Media images of handsome faces and beautiful bodies are used to sell almost everything, from clothes and cosmetic to luncheon, meats, and so on. These images reinforce the western cultural stereotype that women should be thin and shapely to be attractive. Thus, as some girls go through puberty they may become dissatisfied with their weight, and to a lesser extent, with their shape, thus, developing low self-concept or imae of themselves. It is in this context that the study was conceptualised. First year female students from three different Schools and Faculties at the University of Limpopo, Turfloop Campus, South Africa, participated in the study. Using the availability and convenient sampling method, 75 students were selected for this study. For the quantitative aspect of the study, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Measure was used to measure self-esteem. For the qualitative part, a topic guide was used for the focus group discussions. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and the Pearson's Product Moment Correlation were used to analyse the quantitative data, while the phenomenological principle of open coding used for the thematic analysis. Results showed that there is a relationship between body mass and self-concept and that overweight participants tend to have a low self-esteem. Low self-esteem was perceived to be aggravated by a number of factors, like the attitude of the media and the society. Participants who are overweight also indicated that they are limited in certain activities of daily living (e.g., sports) as a result of their body mass. They expressed mixed feelings and frustration when it comes to such activities. The above results did not differ from those reported from western cultures. Support groups, life-skills programmes and psychotherapy should be

  3. Motor Proficiency and Body Mass Index of Preschool Children: In Relation to Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mülazimoglu-Balli, Özgür

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the correlation between motor proficiency and body mass index and to assess the socioeconomic status differences in motor proficiency and body mass index of preschool children. Sixty preschool children in the different socioeconomic status areas of central Denizli in Turkey participated in the study. The…

  4. Genome-wide association analysis identifies three new susceptibility loci for childhood body mass index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Janine F.; Bradfield, Jonathan P.; Monnereau, Claire; van der Valk, Ralf J.P.; Stergiakouli, Evie; Chesi, Alessandra; Gaillard, Romy; Feenstra, Bjarke; Thiering, Elisabeth; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Mahajan, Anubha; Pitkänen, Niina; Joro, Raimo; Cavadino, Alana; Huikari, Ville; Franks, Steve; Groen-Blokhuis, Maria M.; Cousminer, Diana L.; Marsh, Julie A.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Curtin, John A.; Vioque, Jesus; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Myhre, Ronny; Price, Thomas S.; Vilor-Tejedor, Natalia; Yengo, Loïc; Grarup, Niels; Ntalla, Ioanna; Ang, Wei; Atalay, Mustafa; Bisgaard, Hans; Blakemore, Alexandra I.; Bonnefond, Amelie; Carstensen, Lisbeth; Eriksson, Johan; Flexeder, Claudia; Franke, Lude; Geller, Frank; Geserick, Mandy; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Haworth, Claire M.A.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Hofman, Albert; Holm, Jens-Christian; Horikoshi, Momoko; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Huang, Jinyan; Kadarmideen, Haja N.; Kähönen, Mika; Kiess, Wieland; Lakka, Hanna-Maaria; Lakka, Timo A.; Lewin, Alexandra M.; Liang, Liming; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Ma, Baoshan; Magnus, Per; McCormack, Shana E.; McMahon, George; Mentch, Frank D.; Middeldorp, Christel M.; Murray, Clare S.; Pahkala, Katja; Pers, Tune H.; Pfäffle, Roland; Postma, Dirkje S.; Power, Christine; Simpson, Angela; Sengpiel, Verena; Tiesler, Carla M. T.; Torrent, Maties; Uitterlinden, André G.; van Meurs, Joyce B.; Vinding, Rebecca; Waage, Johannes; Wardle, Jane; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Zemel, Babette S.; Dedoussis, George V.; Pedersen, Oluf; Froguel, Philippe; Sunyer, Jordi; Plomin, Robert; Jacobsson, Bo; Hansen, Torben; Gonzalez, Juan R.; Custovic, Adnan; Raitakari, Olli T.; Pennell, Craig E.; Widén, Elisabeth; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Sebert, Sylvain; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Hyppönen, Elina; McCarthy, Mark I.; Lindi, Virpi; Harri, Niinikoski; Körner, Antje; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Heinrich, Joachim; Melbye, Mads; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Hakonarson, Hakon; Ring, Susan M.; Smith, George Davey; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Grant, Struan F.A.; Jaddoe, Vincent W.V.

    2016-01-01

    A large number of genetic loci are associated with adult body mass index. However, the genetics of childhood body mass index are largely unknown. We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of childhood body mass index, using sex- and age-adjusted standard deviation scores. We included 35 668 children from 20 studies in the discovery phase and 11 873 children from 13 studies in the replication phase. In total, 15 loci reached genome-wide significance (P-value childhood obesity. We identified three novel loci: rs13253111 near ELP3, rs8092503 near RAB27B and rs13387838 near ADAM23. Per additional risk allele, body mass index increased 0.04 Standard Deviation Score (SDS) [Standard Error (SE) 0.007], 0.05 SDS (SE 0.008) and 0.14 SDS (SE 0.025), for rs13253111, rs8092503 and rs13387838, respectively. A genetic risk score combining all 15 SNPs showed that each additional average risk allele was associated with a 0.073 SDS (SE 0.011, P-value = 3.12 × 10−10) increase in childhood body mass index in a population of 1955 children. This risk score explained 2% of the variance in childhood body mass index. This study highlights the shared genetic background between childhood and adult body mass index and adds three novel loci. These loci likely represent age-related differences in strength of the associations with body mass index. PMID:26604143

  5. Increased body mass index predicts severity of asthma symptoms but not objective asthma traits in a large sample of asthmatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bildstrup, Line; Backer, Vibeke; Thomsen, Simon Francis

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To examine the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and different indicators of asthma severity in a large community-based sample of Danish adolescents and adults. METHODS: A total of 1186 subjects, 14-44 years of age, who in a screening questionnaire had reported a history of airway s...

  6. Influence of body mass index on mindfulness awareness and coping methods for stress in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaymaz, Nazan; Düzçeker, Yasemin; Uzun, Mehmet Erdem; Aylanç, Hakan; Baştürk, Meryem; Yıldırım, Şule

    2016-10-12

    Psychological state may affect the body weight through the hypothalamus and vice versa. The goal of this study is to investigate whether body mass index affect mindfulness awareness (MA) levels and type of coping with stress. Healthy adolescents were included in the study. The mindfulness attention awareness scale (MAAS), indicating the ways of coping checklist inventory was performed and body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2) of adolescents were calculated. The influence of BMI on MA and ways of coping with stress was tested. According to BMI percentiles the study population was grouped as obese (including overweight), normal-weighted and underweight. A total of 270 adolescents (mean age: 13.63±2.07 years; 165 female/105 male) participated in the study. No significant correlation was found between BMI and MA scores (r=-0.085; p=0.161) and coping strategies were not different between the groups. When MA scores are compared with stress coping methods, it appeares that participants with high awareness levels chose positive coping styles. BMI is not effective on MA levels and choice of stress coping methods. But the higher MA levels are associated with positive coping styles.

  7. Relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI and dental maturation: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Erwansyah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Growth and development stage of patient is essential to be understood by orthodontist as it can be used as principle in determining initiation time of treatment. Bjork (2012 states that the right time to perform orthodontic therapy is when a person has entered the peak period of growth spurt. Entry time of this period can be determined by predicting maturation stage using dental maturation assessment. This parameter is considered mostly effective and accurate in determining development stage of a person. On the other hand, dental maturation generally vary although in same group of age. Body Mass Index (BMI is closely suspected to cause variation onset of dental maturation. The objective of this review is to determine the relationship between BMI with the dental maturation. Dental maturation can be estimated using Demirjian method through assessing panoramic radiographs. While BMI is a value level of adiposity in the body obtained by calculating body weight and height. BMI categories consist of underweight, normal, overweight, and obesity. Generaly, dental maturation of each person is different even within the same chronological age. Some studies showed that the greater the BMI, the more quickly the teeth undergo maturation. Conversely, the smaller the BMI, the more slowly the teeth undergo maturation. Acceleration of tooth maturation allegedly associated with increased secretion of free IGF-1, IGF-binding protein-1 and GH-binding protein (major circulating mediator of growth hormone. someone with a great BMI value has a decreased growth hormone levels. The decreased growth hormone secretion was significantly resulting in increased secretion of IGF-1, which plays a role in accelerating the growth process. The role of IGF-1 is what will indirectly affect facial growth including dental maturation. Conclusion: there is a relationship between body mass index and dental maturation. Increased BMI indicating accelerated of dental maturation while

  8. Physical condition of female students with different level of body mass deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Kolokoltsev

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : to study the features of morphofunctional and motor characteristics of female students with body mass deficiency and with normal body mass. Material : it was examined 17-21-year-old female students (n=1937. All students were in the main medical group according to the health condition and attended classes on discipline Physical culture. It was carried out the anthropometrical and physiometric examination of female students. Results : It was determined the low integrated criterion of physical fitness of female students with body mass deficiency. It was defined the dependence between the decrease in level of physical fitness and decrease in body mass of female students. It was determined reliable differences between the morphofunctional parameters and results of motor tests of female students with different body mass. Conclusions : The obtained data allow to correct educational process on physical training of students using integrative pedagogical methods and methods of training.

  9. The plasma leptin concentration is closely associated with the body fat mass in nondiabetic uremic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Nielsen, P K; Olgaard, K

    1999-01-01

    Plasma leptin is associated with the body mass index and, more precisely, with the body fat mass. Plasma leptin has been found to be elevated in uremic patients. This study aimed at investigating the plasma leptin concentration and associations between plasma leptin, body fat mass, and glomerular...... filtration rate in nondiabetic predialysis uremic patients and in nondiabetic patients on chronic hemodialysis. Plasma leptin, body fat mass, and creatinine clearance were measured in 22 predialysis uremic patients, 18 hemodialysis patients, and 24 healthy control subjects. The logarithmically transformed...... plasma leptin concentration was closely associated with the body fat mass in all groups (r = 0.93, r = 0.83, and r = 0.72, respectively; p

  10. Lean Body Mass as a Predictive Value of Hypertension in Young Adults, in Ankara, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    VAZIRI, Yashar; BULDUK, Sidika; SHADMAN, Zhaleh; BULDUK, Emre Ozgur; HEDAYATI, Mehdi; KOC, Haluk; ER, Fatmanur; ERDOGAN, Ceren Suveren

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to assess the predictive capacity of body composition estimated by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to identify abnormal blood pressure in physical education and sport teaching students in the city of Ankara. Methods: Data for this cross-sectional study were obtained in the city of Ankara in 2014. A total of 133 students aged 20–35 yr participated in this study. Anthropometric measurements were measured. Body composition was assessed by BIA. Physical activity level (PAL) and usual dietary intake were assessed. Pre-hypertension and hypertension were defined, respectively, as BP ≥120 and/or 80, and ≥140 and /or 90 mmHg. Results: More overweight students showed abnormal BP especially SBP (P=0.005 and 0.002, respectively). Age adjusted regression showed significant association between arm circumference (β= 0.176, P 0.044), mid arm muscle circumference (MAMC) (β= 0.235, P 0.007), lean body mass (LBM) (β= 0.238, P 0.006), basal metabolism rate (BMR) (β= 0.219, P 0.012) and SBP and, also, MAMC (β= 0.201, P 0.022), LBM (β= 0.203, P 0.021), BMR (β= 0.189, P 0.030) and DBP. Fat intake was associated with DBP (β= 0.14, P =0.040). Multivariate regression models adjusted for age, BMI, WC and fat intake/kg body weight showed positive association of SBP with MAMC, BMR and LBM (P<0.05). Conclusion: The relationship between blood pressure and body composition in young adults may be associated to LBM and MAMC. LBM or MAMC in this population may be indirect indicators of heart muscle mass and heart pumping power. PMID:26811815

  11. Evaluating morphometric body mass prediction equations with a juvenile human test sample: accuracy and applicability to small-bodied hominins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Christopher S; Yapuncich, Gabriel S; Sridhar, Shilpa; Cameron, Noël; Churchill, Steven E

    2018-02-01

    Body mass is an ecologically and biomechanically important variable in the study of hominin biology. Regression equations derived from recent human samples allow for the reasonable prediction of body mass of later, more human-like, and generally larger hominins from hip joint dimensions, but potential differences in hip biomechanics across hominin taxa render their use questionable with some earlier taxa (i.e., Australopithecus spp.). Morphometric prediction equations using stature and bi-iliac breadth avoid this problem, but their applicability to early hominins, some of which differ in both size and proportions from modern adult humans, has not been demonstrated. Here we use mean stature, bi-iliac breadth, and body mass from a global sample of human juveniles ranging in age from 6 to 12 years (n = 530 age- and sex-specific group annual means from 33 countries/regions) to evaluate the accuracy of several published morphometric prediction equations when applied to small humans. Though the body proportions of modern human juveniles likely differ from those of small-bodied early hominins, human juveniles (like fossil hominins) often differ in size and proportions from adult human reference samples and, accordingly, serve as a useful model for assessing the robustness of morphometric prediction equations. Morphometric equations based on adults systematically underpredict body mass in the youngest age groups and moderately overpredict body mass in the older groups, which fall in the body size range of adult Australopithecus (∼26-46 kg). Differences in body proportions, notably the ratio of lower limb length to stature, influence predictive accuracy. Ontogenetic changes in these body proportions likely influence the shift in prediction error (from under- to overprediction). However, because morphometric equations are reasonably accurate when applied to this juvenile test sample, we argue these equations may be used to predict body mass in small-bodied hominins

  12. Association of Childhood Body Mass Index and Change in Body Mass Index With First Adult Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjærde, Line K; Gamborg, Michael; Ängquist, Lars; Truelsen, Thomas C; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Baker, Jennifer L

    2017-11-01

    The incidence of ischemic stroke among young adults is rising and is potentially due to an increase in stroke risk factors occurring at younger ages, such as obesity. To investigate whether childhood body mass index (BMI) and change in BMI are associated with adult ischemic stroke and to assess whether the associations are age dependent or influenced by birth weight. This investigation was a population-based cohort study of schoolchildren born from 1930 to 1987, with follow-up through national health registers from 1977 to 2012 in Denmark. Participants were 307 677 individuals (8899 ischemic stroke cases) with measured weight and height at ages 7 to 13 years. The dates of the analysis were September 1, 2015, to May 27, 2016. Childhood BMI, change in BMI, and birth weight. Ischemic stroke events were divided into early (≤55 years) or late (>55 years) age at diagnosis. The study cohort comprised 307 677 participants (approximately 49% female and 51% male). During the study period, 3529 women and 5370 men experienced an ischemic stroke. At all ages from 7 to 13 years, an above-average BMI z score was positively associated with early ischemic stroke. At age 13 years, a BMI z score of 1 was associated with hazard ratios (HRs) of 1.26 (95% CI, 1.11-1.43) in women and 1.21 (95% CI, 1.10-1.33) in men. No significant associations were found for below-average BMI z scores. Among children with above-average BMI z scores at age 7 years, a score increase of 0.5 from ages 7 to 13 years was positively associated with early ischemic stroke in women (HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.01-1.20) and in men (HR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.00-1.16). Similarly, among children with below-average BMI z scores at age 7 years, a score increase of 0.5 from ages 7 to 13 years was positively associated with early ischemic stroke in women (HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.06-1.23) and in men (HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.04-1.18). Adjusting for birth weight minimally affected the associations. Independent of birth weight, above

  13. Evaluation of body mass index and plasma lipid profile in Boerboel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the body mass index (BMI) and plasma lipid profile in Boerboel dogs. Body weights (BW), height (H) at shoulder and waist circumference (WC) were obtained from fifty-three Boerboels to determine the BMI while, body condition score (BCS) was determined subjectively. Also 5mls of blood was obtained ...

  14. Evaluation of body mass index and plasma lipid profile in dogs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the body mass index (BMI), plasma lipid profile and gait assessment score (GAS) in dogs. Body weights (BW), height (H) at shoulder and waist circumference (WC) were obtained from fifty client-owned dogs of both sexes to determine the BMI. In addition, body condition score (BCS) and GAS were ...

  15. Body fat and fat-free mass and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigaard, Janne; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Tjønneland, Anne

    2004-01-01

    ,178 men and 29,875 women 50 to 64 years old recruited from 1993 to 1997. By the end of year 2001, the median follow-up was 5.8 years, and 1851 had died. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance. Cox regression models were used to estimate the relationships among body fat mass index (body...

  16. Revisions of rump fat and body scoring indices for deer, elk, and moose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Rachel C.; Cook, John G.; Stephenson, Thomas R.; Myers, Woodrow L.; Mccorquodale, Scott M.; Vales, David J.; Irwin, Larry L.; Hall, P. Briggs; Spencer, Rocky D.; Murphie, Shannon L.; Schoenecker, Kathryn A.; Miller, Patrick J.

    2010-01-01

    Because they do not require sacrificing animals, body condition scores (BCS), thickness of rump fat (MAXFAT), and other similar predictors of body fat have advanced estimating nutritional condition of ungulates and their use has proliferated in North America in the last decade. However, initial testing of these predictors was too limited to assess their reliability among diverse habitats, ecotypes, subspecies, and populations across the continent. With data collected from mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), elk (Cervus elaphus), and moose (Alces alces) during initial model development and data collected subsequently from free-ranging mule deer and elk herds across much of the western United States, we evaluated reliability across a broader range of conditions than were initially available. First, to more rigorously test reliability of the MAXFAT index, we evaluated its robustness across the 3 species, using an allometric scaling function to adjust for differences in animal size. We then evaluated MAXFAT, rump body condition score (rBCS), rLIVINDEX (an arithmetic combination of MAXFAT and rBCS), and our new allometrically scaled rump-fat thickness index using data from 815 free-ranging female Roosevelt and Rocky Mountain elk (C. e. roosevelti and C. e. nelsoni) from 19 populations encompassing 4 geographic regions and 250 free-ranging female mule deer from 7 populations and 2 regions. We tested for effects of subspecies, geographic region, and captive versus free-ranging existence. Rump-fat thickness, when scaled allometrically with body mass, was related to ingesta-free body fat over a 38–522-kg range of body mass (r2 = 0.87; P 12% body fat. This bias translated into a difference between subspecies, because Rocky Mountain elk tended to be fatter than Roosevelt elk in our sample. Effects of observer error with the rBCS also existed for mule deer with moderate to high levels of body fat, and deer body size significantly affected accuracy of the MAXFAT predictor

  17. [The effect of high-frequency current and ultrasonic wave on selected indicators of body weight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiełczewska, Magdalena; Szymczyk, Jerzy; Leszczyńsk, Ryszard; Błaszczyk, Jan

    2015-03-01

    Effective change the appearance of the body through available both invasive and non-invasive methods such as treatment has been documented in numerous clinical trials. Liposuction and lipoplasty are currently the most widely used methods of reducing fat deposits. Technological advances made has become increasingly popular use of invasive procedures using energy fields and high-frequency ultrasonic wave. It is now one of the most effective and safe methods of treatment, based on the principle of mechanical and thermal stimulation of the physiological processes leading to the reduction of locally accumulated fat. The aim of the study was to evaluate the behavior of selected parameters of body weight in patients undergoing fat reduction BTL Exilis device. IThe study included a 50-group of women who are patients of the Specialist Outpatient Clinic Al-Med in Kolobrzeg. Taken twice the measurement of body weight, waist circumference and thickness measurement of skinfolds before the first treatment, and after a series of treatments. Treatment consisted of 4 sessions while maintaining the 10-day interval between treatments. In the study a statistically significant reduction in the studied parameters such as actual body weight, waist circumference, fat mass and thickness of the skinfolds were showed. The effect of treatment with the energy field of highfrequency ultrasonic wave in a reduction in the size of fat body mass and improving the contour shape. Willingness to continue participation examined in this type of surgery proves positive reception of therapy and its effectiveness. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  18. Relationships between bone mineral density and new indices of body composition in young, sedentary men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kęska

    2018-03-01

    The use of IFM and ILM in the present study, allowed the observation that in young adults lean body mass was associated with BMD, regardless of gender, while fat mass is significant for bone mineral density only in women

  19. Lean body mass estimation by bioelectrical impedance analysis: a four-site cross-validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, K R; Van Loan, M; Fitzgerald, P I; Hodgdon, J A; Van Itallie, T B

    1988-01-01

    This study validated further the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) method for body composition estimation. At four laboratories densitometrically-determined lean body mass (LBMd) was compared with BIA in 1567 adults (1069 men, 498 women) aged 17-62 y and with 3-56% body fat. Equations for predicting LBMd from resistance measured by BIA, height, weight, and age were obtained for the men and women. Application of each equation to the data from the other labs yielded small reductions in R values and small increases in SEEs. Some regression coefficients differed among labs but these differences were eliminated after adjustment for differences among labs in the subjects' body fatness. All data were pooled to derive fatness-specific equations for predicting LBMd: the resulting R values ranged from 0.907 to 0.952 with SEEs of 1.97-3.03 kg. These results confirm the validity of BIA and indicate that the precision of predicting LBM from impedance can be enhanced by sex- and fatness-specific equations.

  20. Body mass index during adolescence, rather than childhood, is critical in determining MS risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedström, A K; Olsson, T; Alfredsson, L

    2016-06-01

    Obesity in childhood and during adolescence has repeatedly been associated with increased risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS). We aimed to investigate whether the most critical period occurs during childhood or later, during adolescence. Using a population-based case-control study (1586 cases and 2800 controls), individuals with different body sizes at age 10 and different body mass indices at age 20 were compared regarding MS risk, by calculating odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Potential interactions between HLA-DRB1*15 and absence of HLA-A*02, respectively, and both childhood and adolescent obesity were evaluated by calculating the attributable proportion due to interaction. Regardless of body size at age 10, individuals with adolescent obesity had a 90% increased risk of MS. Among participants who were not obese at age 20, no association was observed between body size at age 10 and subsequent MS risk. An interaction was observed between the HLA MS risk genes and adolescent, but not childhood, obesity. Our results suggest that BMI during adolescence, rather than childhood, is critical in determining MS risk. © The Author(s), 2015.

  1. Body dissatisfaction in women's artistic gymnastics: A longitudinal study of psychosocial indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Clara Mockdece; Filgueiras Meireles, Juliana Fernandes; Berbert de Carvalho, Pedro Henrique; Schubring, Astrid; Barker-Ruchti, Natalie; Caputo Ferreira, Maria Elisa

    2017-09-01

    Body dissatisfaction is prevalent in women's artistic gymnastics (WAG). Cross-sectional research points to social and individual risk factors, however it does not account for potential changes in body dissatisfaction during an athletic season. This study aimed to determine how gymnasts' body dissatisfaction, risk factors for eating disorders, media internalisation, perfectionism and mood state change during pre-competition, competition and post-competition seasons and to identify how these psychosocial indicators impact on body dissatisfaction during the athletic year. The sample consisted of 20 Brazilian elite women's artistic gymnasts aged 10-16 years. Data were obtained from a 9-month study using: Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ); Eating Attitude Test-26; Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3); Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS); Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS) and triceps and subscapular skinfolds. Body dissatisfaction was higher during the competition season and disordered eating, perfectionism and vigour values were higher in the pre-competition season. Disordered eating has been found as the strongest predictor of body dissatisfaction during all seasons, and mood state partly contributed to body dissatisfaction in the competitive season. Stakeholders should understand that body dissatisfaction and the prevalence of disordered eating may change over time.

  2. Gender differences in vestibular modulation of body mass in altered force environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Charles; Fuller, Patrick; Hoban-Higgins, Tana; Fuller, Charles

    Body mass regulation is affected by the gravitational environment. Gravitational and linear acceleration information is transduced by the vestibular macular receptors. In addition, there are gender differences in the regulation of body mass and composition. This study therefore investigated the role of the vestibular system in the regulation of body mass in age-matched male and female rats. Four groups of male and female rats were established. A 1G and a 2G labyrinthectomized experimental group (Labx) and a 1G and 2G control group (Con). Labyrinthectomies were accomplished by trans-tympanic injection of sodium arsanilate to remove vestibular input. Control groups experienced the same surgical procedures, but with a saline control injection. Body mass and food and water consumption data were collected twice weekly. Baseline data were collected prior to surgery. There was a decrease in body mass following chemical labyrinthectomy in both male and female rats. A recovery period followed surgery to allow for the re-establishment of stable growth curves. Body mass of female experimental rats returned to the same levels as the female controls while male labyrinthectomized rats continued to regulate body mass at a lower level. All 2G groups were exposed to 8 weeks of 2G produced via centrifugation while all control groups remained at 1G. All 2G groups decreased body mass at the onset of centrifugation, with experimental groups having a smaller response than the controls. Males continued to maintain body mass at a lower level under 2G, while, again body mass of the females returned to levels similar to controls. At the conclusion of the eight week centrifugation period, all four female groups had a similar body mass while differences were evident between male groups. Overall, 1G males had a higher body mass than did males exposed to 2G. Within G levels, 1G controls were heavier than 1G Labx and, in contrast, at 2G Labx had a larger body mass than controls. (Supported by

  3. Quercetin with vitamin C and niacin does not affect body mass or composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knab, Amy M; Shanely, R Andrew; Jin, Fuxia; Austin, Melanie D; Sha, Wei; Nieman, David C

    2011-06-01

    In vitro and animal data suggest that quercetin affects adipogenesis and basal metabolism; however, whether this metabolic effect translates to reductions in body mass or improvement in body composition in humans is unknown. This study investigated 12-week supplementation of 2 different doses of quercetin, combined with vitamin C and niacin, on body mass and composition in a large, heterogeneous group of adults (n = 941; 60% female, 40% male; 18-85 years of age; 45% normal body mass index, 30% overweight, 25% obese). Subjects were randomized into 3 groups, with supplements administered in double-blind fashion: Q500 = 500 mg quercetin·day(-1), Q1000 = 1000 mg quercetin·day(-1), and placebo. Quercetin supplements were consumed twice daily over a 12-week period, and pre- and poststudy body mass and composition measurements were taken in an overnight fasted state. A general linear model was used to predict change in body mass and composition across groups with adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors. Plasma quercetin increased in a dose-responsive manner in both Q500 and Q1000 groups relative to placebo. After adjustment for confounders, no significant differences in body mass (males interaction p value = 0.721, females p = 0.366) or body composition (males p = 0.650, females p = 0.639) were found between Q500 or Q1000 groups compared with placebo. No group differences in body mass or body composition were found in a subgroup of overweight and obese subjects. High-dose quercetin supplementation (500 and 1000 mg·day(-1)) for 12 weeks in a large, heterogeneous group of adults did not affect body mass or composition.

  4. Body Mass-Related Predictors of the Female Athlete Triad Among Adolescent Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thralls, Katie J; Nichols, Jeanne F; Barrack, Michelle T; Kern, Mark; Rauh, Mitchell J

    2016-02-01

    Early detection of the female athlete triad is essential for the long-term health of adolescent female athletes. The purpose of this study was to assess relationships between common anthropometric markers (ideal body weight [IBW] via the Hamwi formula, youth-percentile body mass index [BMI], adult BMI categories, and body fat percentage [BF%]) and triad components, (low energy availability [EA], measured by dietary restraint [DR], menstrual dysfunction [MD], low bone mineral density [BMD]). In the sample (n = 320) of adolescent female athletes (age 15.9± 1.2 y), Spearman's rho correlations and multiple logistic regression analyses evaluated associations between anthropometric clinical cutoffs and triad components. All underweight categories for the anthropometric measures predicted greater likelihood of MD and low BMD. Athletes with an IBW >85% were nearly 4 times more likely to report MD (OR = 3.7, 95% CI [1.8, 7.9]) and had low BMD (OR = 4.1, 95% CI [1.2, 14.2]). Those in Athletes with a high BF% were almost 3 times more likely to report DR (OR = 2.8, 95% CI [1.4, 6.1]). Our study indicates that low age-adjusted BMI and low IBW may serve as evidence-based clinical indicators that may be practically evaluated in the field, predicting MD and low BMD in adolescents. These measures should be tested for their ability as tools to minimize the risk for the triad.

  5. Medical Sequencing at the extremes of Human Body Mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahituv, Nadav; Kavaslar, Nihan; Schackwitz, Wendy; Ustaszewski,Anna; Martin, Joes; Hebert, Sybil; Doelle, Heather; Ersoy, Baran; Kryukov, Gregory; Schmidt, Steffen; Yosef, Nir; Ruppin, Eytan; Sharan,Roded; Vaisse, Christian; Sunyaev, Shamil; Dent, Robert; Cohen, Jonathan; McPherson, Ruth; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2006-09-01

    Body weight is a quantitative trait with significantheritability in humans. To identify potential genetic contributors tothis phenotype, we resequenced the coding exons and splice junctions of58 genes in 379 obese and 378 lean individuals. Our 96Mb survey included21 genes associated with monogenic forms of obesity in humans or mice, aswell as 37 genes that function in body weight-related pathways. We foundthat the monogenic obesity-associated gene group was enriched for rarenonsynonymous variants unique to the obese (n=46) versus lean (n=26)populations. Computational analysis further predicted a significantlygreater fraction of deleterious variants within the obese cohort.Consistent with the complex inheritance of body weight, we did notobserve obvious familial segregation in the majority of the 28 availablekindreds. Taken together, these data suggest that multiple rare alleleswith variable penetrance contribute to obesity in the population andprovide a deep medical sequencing based approach to detectthem.

  6. Relationship between radiation dose estimation in patients submitted to abdominal tomography examination and the body mass index; Relacao entre a estimativa de dose de radiacao em pacientes submetidos a exame de tomografia computadorizada do abdomen e o indice de massa corporal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capaverde, Alexandre da S.; Pimentel, Juliana; Froner, Ana Paula P., E-mail: alexandre.capaverde@acad.pucrs.br, E-mail: juliana.pimentel@pucrs.br, E-mail: ana.froner@pucrs.br [Hospital Sao Lucas (HSL/PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Silva, Ana Maria Marques da, E-mail: ana.marques@pucrs.br [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Fac. de Fisica

    2014-07-01

    Because of the radiation dose in computed tomography (CT) is relatively high, it is important to have an estimate of the dose to which the patient is submitted, considering parameters and correction factors, so that the value is closer to the real. The objective of this study is to relate the estimated dose in patients undergoing abdominal CT with BMI (Body Mass Index) groups, considering the specific size of the anatomical region. The work developed in a hospital in Porto Alegre, Brazil, using 16 Siemens Somatom Emotion equipment. We selected 30 adult that underwent to CT of the abdomen in January 2014. Of these, 13 using dose reduction mechanism (Care Dose), (Sample 1) and the rest without this mechanism (Sample 2). Registered weight, height, CTDI{sub vol} (Computed Tomography Dose Index) and anteroposterior and lateral diameter at the umbilicus. BMI and the correction factor for the dose estimates were calculated, according to the specific size of the abdomen. It was determined the percentage change between the CTDI{sub vol} values provided by CT and the value of CTDI{sub vol} after application of the correction factor, plus the average percentage change for each BMI group. The mean percentage change was between 54% and 19% for sample 1 and between 35% and 10% for sample 2, the lowest to highest BMI group. There was a reduction in the medium average percent with the increasing of the BMI groups in both samples. A larger sample of individuals for verification of results is required.

  7. Large meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies five loci for lean body mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zillikens, M Carola; Demissie, Serkalem; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang

    2017-01-01

    ,227 of European ancestry) individuals from 33 cohorts for whole body lean body mass and in 45,090 (42,360 of European ancestry) subjects from 25 cohorts for appendicular lean body mass was successful for five single-nucleotide polymorphisms in/near HSD17B11, VCAN, ADAMTSL3, IRS1, and FTO for total lean body mass...

  8. Effects of Exogenous Melatonin on Body Mass Regulation and Hormone Concentrations in Eothenomys miletus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu, Wan-Long

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available By regulating the pineal hormone, photoperiods affect many physiological characteristics in small mammals. Thus, melatonin might take part in the thermoregulation of seasonal variations in small mammals. This study determined the influence of melatonin treatment on thermogenic pattern, we measured body mass, thermogenic activities and hormone concentrations of Eothenomys miletus were given exogenous melatonin (MLT for 28 days. The results shown that body mass was reduced significantly, whereas resting metabolic rate (RMR and nonshivering thermogenesis (NST increased at 28 days in MLT group compared to control group as well as the oxidative capacities of mitochondria in liver and brown adipose tissue (BAT were enhanced; the contents of total and mitochodrial protein increased markedly. Melatonin treatment significantly increased the State 3, State 4 respiration of liver mitochondria, and the activity of cytochrome C oxidase (COX in liver; but the α-glerocephasphate oxidase (α-PGO capacity showed no differences during the acclimation in liver. Furthermore, the State 4 respiration, the activities of COX and α-PGO in BAT increased, respectively. The activity of thyroxin 5’-deiodinase ( T45’-DII in BAT increased remarkably. The serum content of thyroxine (T 4 decreased, and that of tri-iodothyronine (T 3 increased. Moreover, serum leptin levels showed no significant differences in MLT group compared to control group. Together, these data indicate that melatonin enhances thermogenic capacity in E. miletus. Our results suggested that melatonin is potentially involved in the regulation of body mass, adaptive thermogenic capacity and hormone concentrations in E. miletus.

  9. Serum Proteins Alteration in Association with Body Mass Index in Human Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhuvanthi, M; Lathadevi, G V

    2016-06-01

    Serum proteins are an important indicator of the nutritional status in an individual. There is a worldwide prevalence of both undernourishment and obesity. It has been suggested that low Body Mass Index (BMI) is associated with a decrease in serum protein levels predisposing them to other illnesses. Overweight and obese individuals carry risk for various other non-communicable diseases. To compare the serum protein levels in underweight, overweight and obese individuals with that of normal body mass index individuals. This prospective study was conducted in subjects who attended the master health checkup clinic of PSG hospitals. Subjects in the age group of 20-50 years were selected. Their serum proteins and BMI was measured. Twenty subjects each of underweight, normal, overweight and obese individuals were selected, categorized and compared. The serum protein level of normal individuals (Group I) was compared with underweight (Group II), overweight (Group III) and obese subjects (Group IV) by one-way ANOVA analysis. The mean serum total proteins in gm/dl in group I controls was 7.555±0.37 compared to Group II (underweight) which was 7.295±0.419. Low BMI was found to be associated with a decrease in serum protein level which was not statistically significant. Elevated BMI as in overweight and obese subjects showed no significant alterations in serum protein levels with p >0.05 and the changes were found to be independent of the body mass index. Underweight individuals showed a decrease in serum protein levels whereas there were no significant changes in the serum protein levels in overweight and obese individuals.

  10. Maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index and pubertal development among sons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, M L; Håkonsen, L B; Vested, A

    2014-01-01

    Maternal overweight and obesity in pregnancy has been associated with earlier age of menarche in daughters as well as reduced semen quality in sons. We aimed at investigating pubertal development in sons born by mothers with a high body mass index (BMI). The study included 2522 sons of mothers...... that during pregnancy in 1984-1987 were enrolled in a mother-child cohort and gave information on their pre-pregnancy height and weight from which we calculated their BMI. Information on sons' pubertal development, assessed by age when starting regular shaving, voice break, acne and first nocturnal emission...... indicators of pubertal development, results also indicated earlier pubertal development among sons of obese mothers. After excluding sons of underweight mothers in a subanalysis, we observed an inverse trend between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and age at regular shaving, acne and first nocturnal emission...

  11. Indices of quality surface water bodies in the planning of water resources

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Miranda, Juan Pablo; Serna Mosquera, Jorge Antonio; Sánchez Céspedes, Juan Manuel

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers a review of the literature major and significant methods of quality indices of water applied in surface water bodies, used and proposed for assessing the significance of parameters of water quality in the assessment of surface water currents and they are usually used in making decisions for intervention and strategic prevention measures for those responsible for the conservation and preservation of watersheds where these water bodies belong. An exploratory methodology was...

  12. Body fat and fat-free mass and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigaard, Janne; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Tjønneland, Anne

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the association between BMI and all-cause mortality could be disentangled into opposite effects of body fat and fat-free mass (FFM). RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: All-cause mortality was studied in the Danish follow-up study "Diet, Cancer and Health" with 27......,178 men and 29,875 women 50 to 64 years old recruited from 1993 to 1997. By the end of year 2001, the median follow-up was 5.8 years, and 1851 had died. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance. Cox regression models were used to estimate the relationships among body fat mass index (body...... fat mass divided by height squared), FFM index (FFM divided by height squared), and mortality. All analyses were adjusted for smoking habits. RESULTS: Men and women showed similar associations. J-shaped associations were found between body fat mass index and mortality adjusted for FFM and smoking...

  13. Effects of different circuit training protocols on body mass, fat mass and blood parameters in overweight adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Contrò

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Benefits of exercise are known for a long time, but mechanisms underlying the exercise mode recommendations for specific chronic cardiovascular diseases remain unclear. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of different circuit training protocols in order to determine which is the best for weight loss and for specific overweight- related disorders. Forty-five female sedentary overweight participants from 20 to 50 years (average 31.8±11.2 were enrolled and assigned to three different groups; each group was compared with a control normal-weight group. Three different circuit protocols were randomly assigned to each overweight group: aerobictone- aerobic (ATA, aerobic-circuit-aerobic (ACA and mini-trampoline circuit (MTC, while control group performed a classic circuit weight training (CWT. Every group trained three times per week, for 12 weeks. The results show that ATA group reduced body fat and total body mass more than other groups (P<0.001; P=0.007. ACA group reduced total body mass in significant statistical way (P=0.032, as well as body fat (P<0.001 and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.013. In MTC group there was a significant reduction in every parameter we analyzed (total body mass, body fat and lipid profile: P<0.001. CWT group has shown a significant loss only in body fat (P<0.001. Every circuit protocol is optimal for reducing body fat and total body mass: however, MTC protocol has shown the best results on lipid profile.

  14. Genome-wide association analysis identifies three new susceptibility loci for childhood body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Janine F; Bradfield, Jonathan P; Monnereau, Claire; van der Valk, Ralf J P; Stergiakouli, Evie; Chesi, Alessandra; Gaillard, Romy; Feenstra, Bjarke; Thiering, Elisabeth; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Mahajan, Anubha; Pitkänen, Niina; Joro, Raimo; Cavadino, Alana; Huikari, Ville; Franks, Steve; Groen-Blokhuis, Maria M; Cousminer, Diana L; Marsh, Julie A; Lehtimäki, Terho; Curtin, John A; Vioque, Jesus; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Myhre, Ronny; Price, Thomas S; Vilor-Tejedor, Natalia; Yengo, Loïc; Grarup, Niels; Ntalla, Ioanna; Ang, Wei; Atalay, Mustafa; Bisgaard, Hans; Blakemore, Alexandra I; Bonnefond, Amelie; Carstensen, Lisbeth; Eriksson, Johan; Flexeder, Claudia; Franke, Lude; Geller, Frank; Geserick, Mandy; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Haworth, Claire M A; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Hofman, Albert; Holm, Jens-Christian; Horikoshi, Momoko; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Huang, Jinyan; Kadarmideen, Haja N; Kähönen, Mika; Kiess, Wieland; Lakka, Hanna-Maaria; Lakka, Timo A; Lewin, Alexandra M; Liang, Liming; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Ma, Baoshan; Magnus, Per; McCormack, Shana E; McMahon, George; Mentch, Frank D; Middeldorp, Christel M; Murray, Clare S; Pahkala, Katja; Pers, Tune H; Pfäffle, Roland; Postma, Dirkje S; Power, Christine; Simpson, Angela; Sengpiel, Verena; Tiesler, Carla M T; Torrent, Maties; Uitterlinden, André G; van Meurs, Joyce B; Vinding, Rebecca; Waage, Johannes; Wardle, Jane; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Zemel, Babette S; Dedoussis, George V; Pedersen, Oluf; Froguel, Philippe; Sunyer, Jordi; Plomin, Robert; Jacobsson, Bo; Hansen, Torben; Gonzalez, Juan R; Custovic, Adnan; Raitakari, Olli T; Pennell, Craig E; Widén, Elisabeth; Boomsma, Dorret I; Koppelman, Gerard H; Sebert, Sylvain; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Hyppönen, Elina; McCarthy, Mark I; Lindi, Virpi; Harri, Niinikoski; Körner, Antje; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Heinrich, Joachim; Melbye, Mads; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Hakonarson, Hakon; Ring, Susan M; Smith, George Davey; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Timpson, Nicholas J; Grant, Struan F A; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2016-01-15

    A large number of genetic loci are associated with adult body mass index. However, the genetics of childhood body mass index are largely unknown. We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of childhood body mass index, using sex- and age-adjusted standard deviation scores. We included 35 668 children from 20 studies in the discovery phase and 11 873 children from 13 studies in the replication phase. In total, 15 loci reached genome-wide significance (P-value genetic risk score combining all 15 SNPs showed that each additional average risk allele was associated with a 0.073 SDS (SE 0.011, P-value = 3.12 × 10(-10)) increase in childhood body mass index in a population of 1955 children. This risk score explained 2% of the variance in childhood body mass index. This study highlights the shared genetic background between childhood and adult body mass index and adds three novel loci. These loci likely represent age-related differences in strength of the associations with body mass index. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Body mass index and adult female urinary incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mommsen, Søren; Foldspang, Anders

    1994-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to study the possible role of obesity in the etiology of adult female urinary incontinence (UI). A random population sample of 3,114 women aged 30–59 years were mailed a questionnaire concerning UI and, among other things, body weight and height. The overall...

  16. Fat Mass Index and Body Mass Index Affect Peak Metabolic Equivalent Negatively during Exercise Test among Children and Adolescents in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenghui Tuan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Peak metabolic equivalent (MET is the most reliable indicator of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF. The aim of this study was to examine the association between CRF indicated by peak MET and body mass index (BMI or fat mass index (FMI in Taiwanese children and adolescents (C-A. Data of 638 C-A aged 10–18 that received symptom-limited treadmill exercise testing was analyzed. Anthropometry-body composition was measured by vector bioelectrical impedance analysis. BMI was defined as body weight (kg/body height (m2 and FMI was defined as fat mass (kg/body height (m2. BMI was grouped by Taiwanese obesity cut-off points. FMI Class-I was categorized by percentage of body fat. FMI Class-II used the reference values from Korean C-A. Excess adiposity was defined as (1 “overweight” and “obesity” by BMI, (2 greater than the sex- and age-specific 75th percentile of whole subjects by FMI Class-I, and (3 greater than 95th percentiles of reference value by FMI Class-II. Boys had significantly higher fat mass and FMI, and had more excess adiposity than girls (all p < 0.05. Both boys and girls with excess adiposity (by any definition had lower MET at anaerobic threshold (AT MET and peak MET (all p < 0.001. BMI and FMI were significantly negatively associated with both AT MET and peak MET significantly (all p < 0.001. FMI (95% CI: −0.411~−0.548 correlated with peak MET more than BMI (95% CI: −0.134~ −0.372 did. Excess adiposity affected CRF negatively. It is concluded that weight management should start early in childhood.

  17. Body mass index and some psychopathological symptoms in open community nuns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guisado, J A; Vaz, F J; Guisado, J; Torres, M I; Peral, D; Fernández-Gil, M A

    2003-06-01

    This article examines the connections between body weight and psychopathological symptoms in a religious community. The Symptom Checklist 90-Revised was administered to 34 nuns, whose body mass index (BMI) values significantly correlated with hostility (r=0.46, p<0.01). These findings support the idea that people living in open religious communities share social values regarding weight and body size, and reveal high levels of psychological discomfort when body weight increases.

  18. The effects of phosphorus supplementation on body mass and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The weaning mass of calves and their average daily growth (ADG) showed significant differences ... exists, because of the difficulty of determining the p intake of ..... intake by the cows. Although it requires additional facilities. (e.g. creep feeding type enclosures for calves and elevated troughs for cows), it would be better to ...

  19. Recurrent neck mass after carotid body tumour excision: a case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We offered her a left CBT excision without prior embolisation or radiotherapy. The neck mass was approached through a longitudinal incision anterior to the sternocleidomastoid muscle and both proximal and distal control was attained. The CBT did not extend to the skull base but the ECA was totally encased by the tumour ...

  20. Sleep quality and body mass index: a co-twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid-Valero, Juan J; Martínez-Selva, José M; Ordoñana, Juan R

    2017-08-01

    There is a consistent relationship between body mass index and sleep quality. However, the directionality and possible confounding factors of this relationship are unclear. Our aim is to confirm the association between sleep quality and body mass index, independent of possible genetic confounding, as well as to provide some indirect inferences about the directionality of this association. The co-twin study design was used to analyse the body mass index-sleep relationship in a sample of 2150 twins. We selected two parallel sub-samples of twins discordant for body mass index (n = 430 pairs), or discordant for sleep quality (n = 316 pairs). Sleep quality and body mass index showed an inverse relationship (b = 0.056, P = 0.032) in the global sample. When twins discordant for body mass index were selected, this association maintained a similar effect size and statistical significance, at all levels of the case-control analysis (all discordant pairs b = 0.173, P sleep quality, the association between body mass index and sleep quality appeared weaker and lost significance (b = 0.021, P = 0.508). The analyses including only dizygotic (b = 0.028, P = 0.526) or monozygotic (b = 0.001, P = 0.984) pairs produced similar non-significant results. Our results confirm the relationship between sleep quality and body mass index, even after applying high levels of control, including genetic factors. Moreover, this study suggests a possible directionality of this relationship, such that sleep quality would strongly affect body mass index, while the opposite would be less robust and consistent in non-clinical samples. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  1. Effects of salinity and body mass on oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion of mudskipper Boleophthalmus pectinirostris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Fujun; Wang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of salinity and body mass on the oxygen consumption rate and ammonia excretion rate of mudskipper Boleophthalmus pectinirostris under laboratory conditions. Salinity and body mass had highly significant effects on the oxygen consumption rate ( R O) and ammonia excretion rate ( R N) ( Pbody mass on R O and R N were insignificant ( P>0.05) and highly significant ( Pbody mass increased. The relationship between R O and body mass was represented by R O = aW b ( R 2=0.956, Pbody mass of B. pectinirostris was represented by R N = cW d ( R 2=0.966, Pprotein was the secondary energy source within the salinity range 12-32. R O and R N were significantly higher at 27 than at other salinity levels. Our results suggest that the optimum salinity level for B. pectinirostris is 27.

  2. Comparison of Body Image and its Relationship with Body Mass Index (BMI in High School Students of Ahvaz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Behdarvandi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIt is not clearly specified that which of the components of body mass index (BMI affect body image and which of them do not. Given that having information in this regard is of special importance as a basis for future planning for adolescents, the present research aimed to compare body image in female and male adolescents and study its relationship with body mass index in high school students of Ahwaz, Khuzestan Province in the academic year 2015-2016.Materials and MethodsIn this descriptive-analytic study, 200 high school students were selected as the sample using the random cluster sampling method. The required data were collected using demographic questionnaire, anthropometric data checklist (height and weight, and the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ. All descriptive and inferential statistics tests were performed using SPSS-17 at a confidence level of 95%.Results: The students ranged from 15 to 18 years old. Equal distribution was employed among all four grades of high school. Body mass index (BMI in male students showed a significant inverse relationship only with appearance orientation (P

  3. Acute dim light at night increases body mass, alters metabolism, and shifts core body temperature circadian rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borniger, Jeremy C; Maurya, Santosh K; Periasamy, Muthu; Nelson, Randy J

    2014-10-01

    The circadian system is primarily entrained by the ambient light environment and is fundamentally linked to metabolism. Mounting evidence suggests a causal relationship among aberrant light exposure, shift work, and metabolic disease. Previous research has demonstrated deleterious metabolic phenotypes elicited by chronic (>4 weeks) exposure to dim light at night (DLAN) (∼ 5 lux). However, the metabolic effects of short-term (body mass, alter whole body metabolism, and display altered body temperature (Tb) and activity rhythms compared to mice maintained in dark nights. Our data largely support these predictions; DLAN mice gained significantly more mass, reduced whole body energy expenditure, increased carbohydrate over fat oxidation, and altered temperature circadian rhythms. Importantly, these alterations occurred despite similar activity locomotor levels (and rhythms) and total food intake between groups. Peripheral clocks are potently entrained by body temperature rhythms, and the deregulation of body temperature we observed may contribute to metabolic problems due to "internal desynchrony" between the central circadian oscillator and temperature sensitive peripheral clocks. We conclude that even relatively short-term exposure to low levels of nighttime light can influence metabolism to increase mass gain.

  4. Genome-wide association analysis identifies three new susceptibility loci for childhood body mass index

    OpenAIRE

    Felix, Janine; Bradfield, Jonathan; Monnereau, C.; Valk, Ralf; Stergiakouli, Evie; Chesi, Alessandra; Gaillard, Romy; Feenstra, Bjarke; Thiering, Elisabeth; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Mahajan, Anubha; Niina Pitkänen; Joro, Raimo; Cavadino, Alana; Huikari, Ville

    2016-01-01

    textabstractA large number of genetic loci are associated with adult body mass index. However, the genetics of childhood body mass index are largely unknown.We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of childhood body mass index, using sex- and age-adjusted standard deviation scores.We included 35 668 children from 20 studies in the discovery phase and 11 873 children from 13 studies in the replication phase. In total, 15 loci reached genome-wide significance (P-value < 5...

  5. The association between smoking and psychopathology adjusted for body mass index and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadis, Dimitrios G; Mamplekou, Efterpi; Dimitriadis, Panayiotis G; Dimitriadis, George D; Papageorgiou, Charalambos

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the correlation between smoking habits and psychopathology status, as well as the impact of confounders such as body mass index and gender. A total of 134 non-smokers and 152 smokers were enrolled in this study. We measured psychopathology features using Symptom Checklist 90-Revised. We ran logistic regression models testing the smoking-psychopathology association, controlling for body mass index and gender. Smoking was positively correlated with depression, interpersonal sensitivity, hostility, somatization, paranoid ideation and psychoticism (Ppsychopathology than body mass index and gender. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  6. Feed intake, live mass-gain, body composition and protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Deposition rates increased from a mean of 106 g/d (93 g for obese gilts and 118 g for lean boars) to 124 g (103 g for obese gilts and 143 g for lean boars) at peak deposition, only to decline thcreafter to 105 g /d (85 g for obese gilts and 132 g for lean boars) at 90 kg live mass. A reduction of 15% in dietary protein content ...

  7. Massachusetts Pediatricians' Views Toward Body Mass Index Screening in Schools: Continued Controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottino, Clement J; de Ferranti, Sarah D; Meyers, Alan F; Rhodes, Erinn T

    2016-08-01

    Objective Evaluate Massachusetts pediatricians' views toward school-based body mass index screening since its implementation. Methods Survey of 286 members of the Massachusetts Chapter of the American Academy of Pediatrics on attitudes toward screening and perceived impact on clinical practice. Results Overall, 36.3% supported screening, with suburban or rural pediatricians significantly less likely (vs urban) to indicate support. Less than 10% of pediatricians agreed or strongly agreed that screening improved communication with schools (4.2%), communication with families (8.9%), or helped them care for patients (7.0%), with suburban or rural pediatricians significantly less likely to agree. Most pediatricians reported contact from patients regarding screening (59.4%) and identifying concerns from patients regarding screening during office visits (60.4%), including bullying and self-esteem. Suburban or rural pediatricians were significantly more likely to report patient contact and concerns related to screening. Conclusions Support for school-based body mass index screening is low among Massachusetts pediatricians, particularly among suburban and rural pediatricians. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Effects of aerobic and/or resistance training on body mass and fat mass in overweight or obese adults

    OpenAIRE

    Willis, Leslie H.; Slentz, Cris A.; Bateman, Lori A.; Shields, A. Tamlyn; Piner, Lucy W.; Bales, Connie W.; Houmard, Joseph A.; Kraus, William E.

    2012-01-01

    Recent guidelines on exercise for weight loss and weight maintenance include resistance training as part of the exercise prescription. Yet few studies have compared the effects of similar amounts of aerobic and resistance training on body mass and fat mass in overweight adults. STRRIDE AT/RT, a randomized trial, compared aerobic training, resistance training, and a combination of the two to determine the optimal mode of exercise for obesity reduction. Participants were 119 sedentary, overweig...

  9. Associations between Body Composition Indices and Metabolic Disorders in Chinese Adults: A Cross-Sectional Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: This study identified positive associations between all evaluated body composition indices and metabolic parameters in Chinese adults. Among the body composition indices, BMI predicted four of the five evaluated metabolic disorders in both gender groups.

  10. Predictors of Indicators of body adiposity by chronological and biological age in children and adolescents residing in southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Alvear

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aims of this study were to identify the skin folds that predict the indicators of body adiposity (Body Mass Index [BMI] and waist circumference [CC], as well as to analyze if the indicators of body adiposity should be evaluated by chronological and/or biological age. Material and Methods: 131 children and adolescents (76 men and 55 women were studied. The age range ranged between 6.0 and 14.9 years. Weight, standing height, sitting height, waist circumference were evaluated. The BMI and the peak growth rate years were calculated. The nutritional status categories were determined by BMI and CC according to the cut-off points of the CDC-2012. Results: The four folds used (tricipital, bicipital, suprailiac and calf explained the BMI from 38 to 58% in men and women from 38 to 72%. The power of explanation for CC in men was 30 to 56% and in women from 27 to 53%. The chronological age explained the BMI and CC in men from 0.08 to 37% and in women from 15 to 17%. The biological age explained BMI and CC in men from 11 to 44% and in women from 21 to 24%. Conclusions: The suprailiac fold appears as the best predictor of BMI and CC in both sexes. The analysis of both indicators must be carried out by biological age rather than by chronological age.

  11. Mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigg, Chris

    2007-01-01

    In the classical physics we inherited from Isaac Newton, mass does not arise, it simply is. The mass of a classical object is the sum of the masses of its parts. Albert Einstein showed that the mass of a body is a measure of its energy content, inviting us to consider the origins of mass. The protons we accelerate at Fermilab are prime examples of Einsteinian matter: nearly all of their mass arises from stored energy. Missing mass led to the discovery of the noble gases, and a new form of missing mass leads us to the notion of dark matter. Starting with a brief guided tour of the meanings of mass, the colloquium will explore the multiple origins of mass. We will see how far we have come toward understanding mass, and survey the issues that guide our research today.

  12. Body fat assessment by bioelectrical impedance and its correlation with anthropometric indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz Araújo, Ma L; Coelho Cabral, P; Kruze Grande de Arruda, I; Siqueira Tavares Falcão, A P; Silva Diniz, A

    2012-01-01

    Since the excess of body fat is associated with higher morbid-mortality rates (mainly in adults), precise, reliable, cost-effective, and broadly applicable methods are necessary for its assessment in population-based studies and in clinical practice. To evaluate the correlation between body fat estimated either by bioelectrical impedance or by the sum of skinfold thicknesses and anthropometric indicators of fat distribution. A cross-sectional study was conducted enrolled 348 undergraduate students (median 21 years), from the Federal University of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil. 262 of the subjects were women. Mean body fat assessed by bioelectrical impedance was 22.3 ± 6.2% in women and 15.2 ± 4.2% in men. Body fat obtained by the sum of skinfold thicknesses was similar to that assessed by bioelectrical impedance only in men. A strong correlation was observed between body fat assessed by bioelectrical impedance and that assessed by the sum of the skinfold thicknesses, waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio. Regarding the conicity index, there was a moderate correlation for men and a weak correlation for women. The sum of skinfold thicknesses surrogate of body fat percentage and can be used to assess body fat when BIA is not available in the field. Additional information about central fat distribution can be supply by measuring the waist circumference or waist-to-height ratio.

  13. Psychosocial Aspects of Body Mass and Body Image among Rural American Indian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Denise L.; Sontag, Lisa M.; Salvato, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the psychosocial risks associated with body weight (BMI) and body image in a southeastern, rural Lumbee American Indian community. A total of 134 adolescents (57% female) were surveyed over 2 years at ages of 13 and 15 years. On average, boys (55%) were more likely to be overweight or obese than were girls (31%). BMI was…

  14. Afkapwaarden van de 'body-mass index' (BMI) voor ondergewicht van Nederlandse kinderen [Body-mass index cut-off values for underweight in Dutch children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van

    2004-01-01

    Objective. To determine the cut-off values for the body-mass index (BMI) for underweight and serious underweight in children up to 18 years of age based on the Dutch growth standards of 1980, and to determine the prevalence of underweight and serious underweight in the 1997 Dutch growth-study

  15. A model of social influence on body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Ross A; Ornstein, Joseph T

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we develop an agent-based model of social influence on body weight. The model's assumptions are grounded in theory and evidence from physiology, social psychology, and behavioral science, and its outcomes are tested against longitudinal data from American youth. We discuss the implementation of the model, the insights it generates, and its implications for public health policy. By explicating a well-grounded dynamic mechanism, our analysis helps clarify important dependencies for both efforts to leverage social influence for obesity intervention and efforts to interpret clustering of BMI in networks. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  16. Body Condition Indices Predict Reproductive Success but Not Survival in a Sedentary, Tropical Bird

    OpenAIRE

    Milenkaya, Olga; Catlin, Daniel H.; Legge, Sarah; Walters, Jeffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    Body condition may predict individual fitness because those in better condition have more resources to allocate towards improving their fitness. However, the hypothesis that condition indices are meaningful proxies for fitness has been questioned. Here, we ask if intraspecific variation in condition indices predicts annual reproductive success and survival. We monitored a population of Neochmia phaeton (crimson finch), a sedentary, tropical passerine, for reproductive success and survival ove...

  17. Associations between lifestyle patterns and body mass index in a sample of Greek children and adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kontogianni, Meropi D; Farmaki, Anastasia-Eleni; Vidra, Nikoletta; Sofrona, Stavroula; Magkanari, Flora; Yannakoulia, Mary

    BACKGROUND: Although eating and physical activity behaviors have been previously individually investigated with regard to overweight in children, multidimensional lifestyle patterns, based on these behaviors, have not been explored. OBJECTIVE: To assess lifestyle patterns in relation to body mass

  18. Lung volumes related to physical activity, physical fitness, aerobic capacity and body mass index in students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailova A.

    2016-01-01

    Reduced lung volumes were associated with lower aerobic fitness, lower physical fitness and lower amount of weekly physical activity. Healthier body mass index was associated with higher aerobic fitness (relative VO2max in both female and male.

  19. Does Body Mass Index Predict Premature Cardiomyopathy Onset for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKane, Meghann; Soslow, Jonathan H; Xu, Meng; Saville, Benjamin R; Slaughter, James C; Burnette, W Bryan; Markham, Larry W

    2017-04-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy leads to cardiomyopathy. The objective of this study was to estimate the association of body mass index with cardiomyopathy onset. Cardiomyopathy was defined as left ventricular ejection fraction Duchenne muscular dystrophy subjects and age of cardiomyopathy onset.

  20. Webinar Presentation: Prenatal Exposures to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) and Childhood Body Mass Index Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation, Prenatal Exposures to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) and Childhood Body Mass Index Trajectories, was given at the NIEHS/EPA Children's Centers 2015 Webinar Series held on Feb. 11, 2015.

  1. An assessment of morphometric indices, blood chemistry variables and an energy meter as indicators of the whole body lipid content in Micropterus dolomieu, Sander vitreus and Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, Matthew G.; Rose, Brien P.

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of several non-lethal techniques as indicators of total lipid content in smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, walleye Sander vitreus and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus was investigated. The techniques included (1) the Fulton and relative condition factors, (2) relative mass, (3) plasma indicators of nutritional status (alkaline phosphatase, calcium, cholesterol, protein, triglycerides and glucose) and (4) readings from a hand-held, microwave energy meter. Although simple linear regression analysis showed that lipid content was significantly correlated with several predictor variables in each species, the r2 values for the relations ranged from 0·17 to 0·50 and no single approach was consistent for all species. Only one model, between energy-meter readings and lipid content in I. punctatus, had an r2 value (0·83) high enough to justify using it as a predictive tool. Results indicate that no single variable was an accurate and reliable indicator of whole body lipid content in these fishes, except the energy meter for I. punctatus.

  2. Body composition indicators of 7-14 year Andibila children in Oju ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anthropometry provides a useful indicator, both for growth and nutritional assessment. The Andibila is an isolated population living at the Andibila mountain characterized by aboriginal lifestyle. Their anthropometrical profile is undocumented. This study presents the anthropometric and body composition profiles of Andibila ...

  3. Serum lathosterol concentration is an indicator of whole-body cholesterol synthesis in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, H.J.M.; Glatz, J.F.C.; Gevers Leuven, J.A.; Voort, van der H.A.; Katan, M.B.

    1988-01-01

    The power of serum lathosterol concentration as an indicator of whole- body cholesterol synthesis was investigated in 47 human volunteers consuming two diets differing in fatty acid composition. The cholesterol balance (fecal excretion of neutral and acid steroids minus cholesterol intake) was

  4. Serum lathosterol concentration is an indicator of whole-body cholesterol synthesis in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, H.J.M.; Glatz, J.F.C.; Gevers Leuven, J.A.; Voort, H.A. van der; Katan, M.B.

    1988-01-01

    The power of serum lathosterol concentration as an indicator of whole-body cholesterol synthesis was investigated in 47 human volunteers consuming two diets differing in fatty acid composition. The cholesterol balance (fecal excretion of neutral and acid steroids minus cholesterol intake) was

  5. Effect of body mass and clothing on decomposition of pig carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuszewski, Szymon; Konwerski, Szymon; Frątczak, Katarzyna; Szafałowicz, Michał

    2014-11-01

    Carcass mass and carcass clothing are factors of potential high forensic importance. In casework, corpses differ in mass and kind or extent of clothing; hence, a question arises whether methods for post-mortem interval estimation should take these differences into account. Unfortunately, effects of carcass mass and clothing on specific processes in decomposition and related entomological phenomena are unclear. In this article, simultaneous effects of these factors are analysed. The experiment followed a complete factorial block design with four levels of carcass mass (small carcasses 5-15 kg, medium carcasses 15.1-30 kg, medium/large carcasses 35-50 kg, large carcasses 55-70 kg) and two levels of carcass clothing (clothed and unclothed). Pig carcasses (N = 24) were grouped into three blocks, which were separated in time. Generally, carcass mass revealed significant and frequently large effects in almost all analyses, whereas carcass clothing had only minor influence on some phenomena related to the advanced decay. Carcass mass differently affected particular gross processes in decomposition. Putrefaction was more efficient in larger carcasses, which manifested itself through earlier onset and longer duration of bloating. On the other hand, active decay was less efficient in these carcasses, with relatively low average rate, resulting in slower mass loss and later onset of advanced decay. The average rate of active decay showed a significant, logarithmic increase with an increase in carcass mass, but only in these carcasses on which active decay was driven solely by larval blowflies. If a blowfly-driven active decay was followed by active decay driven by larval Necrodes littoralis (Coleoptera: Silphidae), which was regularly found in medium/large and large carcasses, the average rate showed only a slight and insignificant increase with an increase in carcass mass. These results indicate that lower efficiency of active decay in larger carcasses is a consequence

  6. Gender, Stress in Childhood and Adulthood, and Trajectories of Change in Body Mass

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Hui; Umberson, Debra

    2015-01-01

    Despite substantial evidence of the linkage between stress and weight change, previous studies have not considered how stress trajectories that begin in childhood and fluctuate throughout adulthood may work together to have long-term consequences for weight change. Working from a stress and life course perspective, we investigate the linkages between childhood stress, adulthood stress and trajectories of change in body mass (i.e., Body Mass Index, BMI) over time, with attent...

  7. Metabolic Disturbances Independent of Body Mass in Patients with Schizophrenia Taking Atypical Antipsychotics

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Shi Hyun; Lee, Jong Il

    2015-01-01

    Objective Atypical antipsychotic (AAP) treatment is associated with weight gain and metabolic disturbances such as dyslipidemia and dysglycemia. The metabolic disturbances are usually considered to develop secondary to weight gain. We performed the comparison of metabolic disturbances of three AAP group with different risk of metabolic side effect after adjusting for body mass to investigate whether any metabolic disturbances develop independently from body mass index (BMI). Methods This cros...

  8. The CROES percutaneous nephrolithotomy global study: the influence of body mass index on outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuller, Andrew; Razvi, Hassan; Denstedt, John D

    2012-01-01

    In addition to more commonly forming stones, obese patients present a number of challenges when undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy. We evaluated percutaneous nephrolithotomy outcomes in 3,709 patients stratified by body mass index.......In addition to more commonly forming stones, obese patients present a number of challenges when undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy. We evaluated percutaneous nephrolithotomy outcomes in 3,709 patients stratified by body mass index....

  9. Body mass index influences prostate cancer risk at biopsy in Japanese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Hitoshi; Kagawa, Makoto; Kawakami, Satoru; Numao, Noboru; Matsuoka, Yoh; Yokoyama, Minato; Yamamoto, Shinya; Yonese, Junji; Fukui, Iwao; Kihara, Kazunori

    2013-07-01

    To determine the relationship between body mass index and prostate cancer risk at biopsy in Japanese men, and to compared the risk with that of Caucasian men. We retrospectively evaluated 3966 men with prostate-specific antigen levels from 2.5 to 19.9 ng/mL who underwent an initial extended prostate biopsy. Using logistic regression, odds ratios of each body mass index category for risk of prostate cancer and high-grade disease (Gleason score ≥4 + 3) were estimated after controlling for age, prostate-specific antigen, %free prostate-specific antigen, prostate volume, digital rectal examination findings, family history of prostate cancer and the number of biopsy cores. Patients were divided into six categories according to their body mass index (kg/m(2) ) as follows: body mass index and prostate cancer risk at biopsy, with an increased risk observed in men whose body mass index was ≥27.0 compared with the reference group. A significantly increased risk starting at body mass index ≥25.0 was found in high-grade disease. In contrast to our results, there has been no reported increase in the risk of prostate cancer at biopsy in Caucasians within the overweight range (body mass index of 25.0-29.9 based on World Health Organization classification). Japanese men within the overweight body mass index range who have an elevated prostate-specific antigen level also have a significant risk of harboring prostate cancer, especially high-grade disease. Overweight Japanese might be at greater prostate cancer risk at biopsy than overweight Caucasians. © 2012 The Japanese Urological Association.

  10. The effect of elevated body mass index on ischemic heart disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Børge G; Palmer, Tom M; Benn, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Adiposity, assessed as elevated body mass index (BMI), is associated with increased risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD); however, whether this is causal is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that positive observational associations between BMI and IHD are causal.......Adiposity, assessed as elevated body mass index (BMI), is associated with increased risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD); however, whether this is causal is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that positive observational associations between BMI and IHD are causal....

  11. Lean body mass is a major determinant of levothyroxine dosage in the treatment of thyroid diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, Ferruccio; Pinchera, Aldo; Marsili, Alessandro; Ceccarini, Giovanni; Castagna, Maria Grazia; Valeriano, Rocco; Giannetti, Monica; Taddei, Donatella; Centoni, Roberta; Scartabelli, Giovanna; Rago, Teresa; Mammoli, Claudia; Elisei, Rossella; Vitti, Paolo

    2005-01-01

    Total body weight is usually employed to calculate the amount of l-T(4) to be administered in patients with thyroid diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of body composition on l-T(4) requirements. Body composition was assessed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry in 75 patients on TSH-suppressive l-T(4) therapy after conventional thyroid ablation for differentiated cancer. The mean daily dose of l-T(4) was lower in normal-weight (127.5 +/- 21.3 mug/d) vs. overweight (139.4 +/- 24.5) and obese (151.3 +/- 29.1) subjects. There was a much stronger association between the l-T(4) dosage and lean body mass (P < 0.001, r = 0.667) compared with fat mass (P = 0.023, r = 0.26). Measurement of regional tissue composition showed peripheral lean mass as the best correlate with the dose of l-T(4) (r = 0.679, P < 0.001) whereas no correlation was observed with peripheral fat mass. In conclusion, individual l-T(4) requirements are dependent on lean body mass. Age- and gender-related differences in l-T(4) needs reflect different proportions of lean mass over the total body weight. An estimate of lean mass may be helpful to shorten the time required to attain a stable dose of l-T(4), particularly in subjects with high body mass index values that may be due either to increased muscular mass or to obesity.

  12. Changes in regional body fat, lean body mass and body shape in trans persons using cross-sex hormonal therapy: results from a multicenter prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaver, M; de Blok, C J M; Wiepjes, C M; Nota, N M; Dekker, M J H J; de Mutsert, R; Schreiner, T; Fisher, A D; T'Sjoen, G; den Heijer, M

    2018-02-01

    Cross-sex hormonal therapy (CHT) in trans persons affects their total body fat and total lean body mass. However, it is unknown how separate body regions are affected and whether these changes alter body shape. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effects on body fat and lean body mass in separate body regions and on body shape after one year of CHT. In a multicenter prospective study at university hospitals, 179 male-to-female gender dysphoric persons, referred to as transwomen, and 162 female-to-male gender dysphoric persons, referred to as transmen, were included. All underwent whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and anthropometric measurements before and after one year of CHT. In transwomen, increases in body fat ranged from +18% (95% CI: 13%;23%) in the android region to +42% (95% CI: 37%;46%) in the leg region and +34% (95% CI: 29%;38%) in the gynoid region. In transmen, changes in body fat ranged from -16% (95% CI: -19;-14%) in the leg region and -14% in the gynoid region (95% CI: -16%;-12) to no change in the android region (+1%, 95% CI: -3%;5%). Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) decreased in transwomen (-0.03, 95% CI: -0.04;-0.02) mainly due to an increase in hip circumference (+3.2 cm, 95% CI: 2.3;4.0). Transmen have a decrease in hip circumference (-1.9 cm, 95% CI: -3.1;-0.7) resulting in an increase in WHR (+0.01, 95% CI: 0.00;0.02). CHT causes a more feminine body fat distribution and a lower WHR in transwomen and a more masculine body fat distribution with a lower hip circumference in transmen. © 2018 European Society of Endocrinology.

  13. Structural and interpersonal characteristics of family meals: associations with adolescent body mass index and dietary patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; Jin, Seok Won; Hannan, Peter; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2013-06-01

    The last decade of research has suggested that family meals play an important role in promoting healthful dietary intake in youth. However, little is known about the structural characteristics and interpersonal dynamics of family meals that might help to inform why family meals are protective for youth. The current mixed methods, cross-sectional study conducted in 2010-2011 includes adolescents and parents who participated in two linked population-based studies. Participants included 40 parents (91.5% female) and adolescents (57.5% female) from the Minneapolis/St Paul, MN, area participating in EAT (Eating and Activity Among Teens) 2010 and F-EAT (Families and Eating and Activity Among Teens). The structural (eg, length of the meal, types of foods served) and interpersonal characteristics (eg, communication, emotion/affect management) of family meals were described, and associations between interpersonal dynamics at family meals and adolescent body mass index and dietary intake were examined via direct observational methods. Families were videorecorded during two mealtimes in their homes. Results indicated that family meals were approximately 20 minutes in length, included multiple family members, were typically served family style (70%), and occurred in the kitchen 62% of the time and 38% of the time in another room (eg, family room, office). In addition, significant associations were found between positive interpersonal dynamics (ie, communication, affect management, interpersonal involvement, overall family functioning) at family meals and lower adolescent body mass index and higher vegetable intake. These findings add to the growing body of literature on family meals by providing a better understanding of what is happening at family meals in order to inform obesity-prevention studies and recommendations for providers working with families of youth. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of relationship between body-mass index and spermiogram parameters in subfertile males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Solmaz Hasdemir

    2016-06-01

    Material and Methods: The study was conducted in Infertility Research and Treatment Center of a University Hospital. Hospital records of male partner of 102 infertile couple was considered and patients who had factors possibly had a negative effect on the results of the sperm analysis as chemical agent exposure and systemic disease were excluded, and a total of 94 patients included in the study after this evaluation. These 94 patients were divided in two groups (body-mass index and #8804;25 and body-mass index >25 and results of the sperm analysis were compared between two groups as primary out-come of the study. These 94 patients were divided in two groups (body-mass index and #8804;30 and body-mass index >30 and results of the sperm analysis were compared as secondary out-come of the study. Results: The mean age (+/-standart deviation of the 94 cases included in the study was 34.44+/-5.58. Distribution of the basal demographic characteristics of the cases according to the body-mass index were similar. Results of the statistical analysis based on the cut-off values of overweight (>25 and obese (>30 were similar in terms of volum, likefaction, total sperm count and total motile sperm count. Conclusion: There was no relationship between body-mass index and sperm parameters calculating by conventional sperm analysis. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(2.000: 299-303

  15. Early efficacy of the ketogenic diet is not affected by initial body mass index percentile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shull, Shastin; Diaz-Medina, Gloria; Wong-Kisiel, Lily; Nickels, Katherine; Eckert, Susan; Wirrell, Elaine

    2014-05-01

    Predictors of the ketogenic diet's success in treating pediatric intractable epilepsy are not well understood. The aim of this study was to determine whether initial body mass index and weight percentile impact early efficacy of the traditional ketogenic diet in children initiating therapy for intractable epilepsy. This retrospective study included all children initiating the ketogenic diet at Mayo Clinic, Rochester from January 2001 to December 2010 who had body mass index (children ≥2 years of age) or weight percentile (those diet initiation and seizure frequency recorded at diet initiation and one month. Responders were defined as achieving a >50% seizure reduction from baseline. Our cohort consisted of 48 patients (20 male) with a median age of 3.1 years. There was no significant correlation between initial body mass index or weight percentile and seizure frequency reduction at one month (P = 0.72, r = 0.26 and P = 0.91, r = 0.03). There was no significant association between body mass index or weight percentile quartile and responder rates (P = 0.21 and P = 0.57). Children considered overweight or obese at diet initiation (body mass index or weight percentile ≥85) did not have lower responder rates than those with body mass index or weight percentiles ketogenic diet. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The association among chronotype, timing of food intake and food preferences depends on body mass status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, J S G; Cañavate, R; Hernández, C M; Cara-Salmerón, V; Morante, J J H

    2017-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that individuals with circadian preferences for the evening (wake up later and reach maximum activity in the afternoon) have distorted dietary habits and misregulated body weight. Therefore, the present study was conducted to analyse the possible relationships between 'morningness' or 'eveningness' (chronotype), dietary habits and the level of obesity. Among 400 participants, 171 subjects finished the follow-up period and were evaluated. Anthropometric, clinical and dietary parameters were analysed; the Horne-Östberg test was used to determine chronotype. A hypocaloric-behavioural intervention was performed in the overweight/obese subjects. In normal-weight subjects, the morningness group ingested most of their energy and nutrients at breakfast and lunch, whereas the eveningness group showed a higher intake at dinner, corresponding with their chronotypes. A significant interaction was revealed between chronotype and body mass index regarding the energy and nutrients consumed at dinner (Pfood intake was higher in the eveningness group, but in the overweight subjects the situation was inverse. In addition, the food preferences were related to the chronotype, as the morningness subjects showed a higher intake of fruit (Ptiming of food intake corresponded to the chronotype in the normal-weight subjects; however, the overweight/obese subjects showed intake patterns removed from their physiological rhythms. These findings may indicate a need to design specific diets based not only on the total energy expenditure but also on the chronotype, as an indicator of the biological rhythms.

  17. Sleep stage classification by body movement index and respiratory interval indices using multiple radar sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, Masayuki; Sasaki, Noriyuki; Suzumura, Kazuki; Matsui, Takemi

    2015-01-01

    Disturbed sleep has become more common in recent years. To increase the quality of sleep, undergoing sleep observation has gained interest as an attempt to resolve possible problems. In this paper, we evaluate a non-restrictive and non-contact method for classifying real-time sleep stages and report on its potential applications. The proposed system measures body movements and respiratory signals of a sleeping person using a multiple 24-GHz microwave radar placed beneath the mattress. We determined a body-movement index to identify wake and sleep periods, and fluctuation indices of respiratory intervals to identify sleep stages. For identifying wake and sleep periods, the rate agreement between the body-movement index and the reference result using the R&K method was 83.5 ± 6.3%. One-minute standard deviations, one of the fluctuation indices of respiratory intervals, had a high degree of contribution and showed a significant difference across the three sleep stages (REM, LIGHT, and DEEP; p sleep periods and to estimate the three sleep stages. The accuracy was 79.3% for classification and 71.9% for estimation. This is a novel system for measuring body movements and body-surface movements that are induced by respiration and for measuring high sensitivity pulse waves using multiple radar signals. This method simplifies measurement of sleep stages and may be employed at nursing care facilities or by the general public to increase sleep quality.

  18. Physical Activity And Dietary Fat As Determinants Of Body Mass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Overweight/obesity and related disease conditions will constitute a major threat to the economically productive adults and subsequently, will present a huge health-care burden on developing countries in the near future. Suspected determinants include physical activity and dietary fat. The main indicator of ...

  19. Effects of exogenous human insulin dose adjustment on body mass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results. The majority of the patients (84.8%) received the twice-daily biphasic human insulin regimen and the remainder received the basal neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) plus prandial regular human insulin regimen. The multivariable multilevel mixed-effects linear regression model indicated that time-varying BMI was ...

  20. Body mass index and its effect on serum cortisol level

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-08-21

    Aug 21, 2014 ... Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice • Mar-Apr 2015 • Vol 18 • Issue 2. Abstract. Introduction: Cortisol measurement is indicated in suspected over or underproduction of cortisol by the adrenal cortex. The finding of low cortisol can create concern and initiate further investigations for the exclusion of adrenal ...

  1. Does Body Mass Index Influence Behavioral Regulations, Dispositional Flow and Social Physique Anxiety in Exercise Setting?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gözde Ersöz, Ersin Altiparmak, F. Hülya Aşçı

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine differences in behavioral regulations, dispositional flow, social physique anxiety of exercisers in terms of body mass index (BMI. 782 university students participated in this study. Dispositional Flow State Scale-2, Behavioral Regulations in Exercise Questionnaire-2, Social Physique Anxiety Scale and Physical Activity Stages of Change Questionnaire were administered to participants. After controlling for gender, analysis indicated significant differences in behavioral regulations, dispositional flow and social physique anxiety of exercise participants with regards to BMI. In summary, the findings demonstrate that normal weighted participants exercise for internal reasons while underweighted participants are amotivated for exercise participation. Additionally, participants who are underweight had higher dispositional flow and lower social physique anxiety scores than other BMI classification.

  2. Mid-upper arm circumference: A surrogate for body mass index in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    disease, and the associated diseases of diabetes, hypertension and stroke. Whitaker[6] looked at risk factors for childhood obesity and found that maternal obesity in early pregnancy doubles the risk of childhood obesity at age 2 - 4 years. The body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) is currently the gold standard for measuring body ...

  3. Decreased body mass index during treatment with sodium oxybate in narcolepsy type 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schinkelshoek, Mink S; Smolders, Isabelle M; Donjacour, Claire E H M; van der Meijden, Wisse P; van Zwet, Erik W; Fronczek, Rolf; Lammers, Gert Jan

    2018-01-01

    Narcolepsy type 1 is characterised by an increase in body weight after disease onset, frequently leading to obesity. It was suggested that this weight gain may be counteracted by treatment with sodium oxybate. We here provide longitudinal body mass index data of patients with narcolepsy type 1 after

  4. Correlates of Body Mass Index, Weight Goals, and Weight-Management Practices among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Raheem J.; Valois, Robert F.; Drane, J. Wanzer

    2004-01-01

    The study examined associations among physical activity, cigarette smoking, body mass index, perceptions of body weight, weight-management goals, and weight-management behaviors of public high school adolescents. The CDC Youth Risk Behavior Survey provided a cross-sectional sample (n = 3,089) of public high school students in South Carolina.…

  5. Basal metabolic rate scaled to body mass within species by the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Basal metabolic rate scaled to body mass within species by the fractal dimension of the vascular system and body composition. ... The postulate bd = c is shown to hold for both these species within the limits of experimental error, with the crucian carp evidence being especially convincing, since b, c and d are estimated from ...

  6. Zygosity Differences in Height and Body Mass Index of Twins From Infancy to Old Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelenkovic, Aline; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Sund, Reijo

    2015-01-01

    A trend toward greater body size in dizygotic (DZ) than in monozygotic (MZ) twins has been suggested by some but not all studies, and this difference may also vary by age. We analyzed zygosity differences in mean values and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) among male and female twins...

  7. Cold storage affects mortality, body mass, lifespan, reproduction and flight capacity of Praon volucre (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lins, J.C.; Bueno, V.H.P.; Sidney, L.A.; Silva, D.B.; Sampaio, M.V.; Pereira, J.M.; Nomelini, Q.S.S.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2013-01-01

    The possibility of storing natural enemies at low temperatures is important for the mass production of biological control agents. We evaluated the effect of different periods of cold storage on immature mortality, mummy body mass, lifespan, reproduction and flight capacity of the parasitoid Praon

  8. New body mass estimates of British Pleistocene wolves: Palaeoenvironmental implications and competitive interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flower, L. O. H.

    2016-10-01

    Body mass was reconstructed for early Middle Pleistocene Canis mosbachensis and late Middle to Late Pleistocene Canis lupus from key assemblages in Britain, to explore the presence of temporal size variability and whether size fluctuations were related to changes in climate and environment or to differences in Pleistocene carnivore community structure. Using the well-known body mass predictor of lower carnassial (m1) tooth length, combined with an extant canid dataset incorporating 25 species, least squares regression was used to assess allometric scaling prior to modelling the relationship between body mass and m1 length, producing a new predictive equation of Pleistocene canid body mass. The medium-sized C. mosbachensis had relatively stable body mass, with remarkable consistency in size compared to populations in the late Early Pleistocene of Europe. Periodical fluctuations in climatic conditions had a minimal effect on C. mosbachensis size over time, with the terrestrial connection between Britain and mainland Europe at this time key in promoting body mass stability by enabling movement away from less favourable conditions and to follow prey into refugia. Overall changes in carnivore guild structure were of minimal influence to C. mosbachensis in Britain, as the continued predominance of larger carnivores, in particular a larger canid, effectively constrained C. mosbachensis. In contrast, the body mass of larger-sized C. lupus was highly temporally varied, with an increasing size trend evident into the Devensian. Similar body size in the penultimate interglacial (MIS 7) and Middle Devensian (MIS 3) populations likely reflects palaeoenvironmental similarity and comparable carnivore community and prey spectrums, with larger predators effectively constraining C. lupus. However, the severely cold conditions of the Early Devensian (MIS 5a) may have caused a Bergmannian response in wolves, leading to their comparatively much larger size, with C. lupus further

  9. Sex Ratio and Body Mass of Adult Herbivorous Beetles Depend on Time of Occurrence and Light Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Łukowski

    Full Text Available Body mass and sex ratio (F/M of folivorous insects are easily measured parameters that are commonly used to assess the effect of food quality, living conditions, and preferences on the selection of favourable sites for offspring. A study was conducted on the polyphagous beetle, Gonioctenaquinquepunctata (a pest of the native Prunus padus and alien P. serotina and on the monophagous beetle, Alticabrevicollis coryletorum (a pest of Corylus avellana. Both species have a similar life cycle with emergence of current-year adults in summer, and reproduction of 1-year-old insects in spring. A. brevicollis coryletorum feeds primarily on sunlit shrubs, while G. quinquepunctata prefers shaded leaves. The present study assessed the effect of time of occurrence(insect age on body mass in both sexes and on the sex ratio F/M, taking into account the influence of light conditions associated with their favoured food source (sunlit vs. shaded leaves. We hypothesized that a change in body mass in current-year insects would be determined by the amount of consumed food, while the sex ratio would be stable, when in 1-year-old insects females would die shortly after oviposition, while males would be active for a prolonged time. Results confirmed the hypothesis that changes in mass of current-year beetles was determined by the amount of food intake. We also found that in spring, unfertilized females coexist with fertilized ones and that the latter females live for some time after oviposition; resulting in fluctuations of the mean mass for females. In both species, 1-year-old beetles were heavier than current-year. The preference of A. brevicollis coryletorum for sunlit leaves results in a higher body weight than in G. quinquepunctata in both seasons. The data are consistent and indicate seasonal fluctuations in body mass and changes in the sex ratio in 1-year-old beetles, due to the entrance into their reproductive period.

  10. Apparent mass of the human body in the vertical direction: Inter-subject variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toward, Martin G. R.; Griffin, Michael J.

    2011-02-01

    The biodynamic responses of the seated human body to whole-body vibration vary considerably between people, but the reasons for the variability are not well understood. This study was designed to determine how the physical characteristics of people affect their apparent mass and whether inter-subject variability is influenced by the magnitude of vibration and the support of a seat backrest. The vertical apparent masses of 80 seated adults (41 males and 39 females aged 18-65) were measured at frequencies between 0.6 and 20 Hz with four backrest conditions (no backrest, upright rigid backrest, reclined rigid backrest, reclined foam backrest) and with three magnitudes of random vibration (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 m s -2 rms). Relationships between subject physical characteristics (age, gender, weight, and anthropometry) and subject apparent mass were investigated with multiple regression models. The strongest predictor of the modulus of the vertical apparent mass at 0.6 Hz, at resonance, and at 12 Hz was body weight, with other factors having only a marginal effect. After correction for other variables, the principal resonance frequency was most consistently associated with age and body mass index. As age increased from 18 to 65 years, the resonance frequency increased by up to 1.7 Hz, and when the body mass index was increased from 18 to 34 kg m -2 the resonance frequency decreased by up to 1.7 Hz. These changes were greater than the 0.9-Hz increase in resonance frequency between sitting without a backrest and sitting with a reclined rigid backrest, and greater than the 1.0-Hz reduction in resonance frequency when the magnitude of vibration increased from 0.5 to 1.5 m s -2 rms. It is concluded that the effects of age, body mass index, posture, vibration magnitude, and weight should be taken into account when defining the vertical apparent mass of the seated human body.

  11. Body Acceleration as Indicator for Walking Economy in an Ageing Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenti, Giulio; Bonomi, Alberto G; Westerterp, Klaas R

    2015-01-01

    In adults, walking economy declines with increasing age and negatively influences walking speed. This study aims at detecting determinants of walking economy from body acceleration during walking in an ageing population. 35 healthy elderly (18 males, age 51 to 83 y, BMI 25.5±2.4 kg/m2) walked on a treadmill. Energy expenditure was measured with indirect calorimetry while body acceleration was sampled at 60Hz with a tri-axial accelerometer (GT3X+, ActiGraph), positioned on the lower back. Walking economy was measured as lowest energy needed to displace one kilogram of body mass for one meter while walking (WCostmin, J/m/kg). Gait features were extracted from the acceleration signal and included in a model to predict WCostmin. On average WCostmin was 2.43±0.42 J/m/kg and correlated significantly with gait rate (r2 = 0.21, peconomy is induced by the adoption of an increased gait rate and by irregular body acceleration in the horizontal plane.

  12. Long-term leucine supplementation reduces fat mass gain without changing body protein status of aging rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianna, Daiana; Resende, Gabriela Fulin Teodoro; Torres-Leal, Francisco Leonardo; Pantaleão, Lucas Carminatti; Donato, Jose; Tirapegui, Julio

    2012-02-01

    Aging is characterized by alterations in body composition such as an increase in body fat and decreases in muscle mass (sarcopenia) and bone density (osteopenia). Leucine supplementation has been shown to acutely stimulate protein synthesis and to decrease body fat. However, the long-term effect of consistent leucine supplementation is not well defined. This study investigated the effect of leucine supplementation during aging. Six-month-old rats were divided into three groups: an adult group (n = 10) euthanized at 6 mo of age, a leucine group (n = 16) that received a diet supplemented with 4% leucine for 40 wk, and a control group (n = 19) that received the control diet for 40 wk. The following parameters were evaluated: body weight, food intake, chemical carcass composition, indicators of acquired chronic diseases, and indicators of protein nutritional status. Body weight and fat were lower in the leucine group after 40 wk of supplementation compared with the control group but still higher than in the adult group. The lipid and glycemic profiles were equally altered in the control and leucine groups because of aging. In addition, leucine supplementation did not affect the changes in protein status parameters associated with aging, such as decreases in body and muscle protein and total serum protein. The results indicate that leucine supplementation attenuates body fat gain during aging but does not affect risk indicators of acquired chronic diseases. Furthermore, supplemented animals did not show signs of a prevention of the decrease in lean mass associated with aging. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. An accurate and adaptable photogrammetric approach for estimating the mass and body condition of pinnipeds using an unmanned aerial system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Douglas J; Hinke, Jefferson T; Perryman, Wayne L; Goebel, Michael E; LeRoi, Donald J

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of body size and mass are fundamental to pinniped population management and research. Manual measurements tend to be accurate but are invasive and logistically challenging to obtain. Ground-based photogrammetric techniques are less invasive, but inherent limitations make them impractical for many field applications. The recent proliferation of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) in wildlife monitoring has provided a promising new platform for the photogrammetry of free-ranging pinnipeds. Leopard seals (Hydrurga leptonyx) are an apex predator in coastal Antarctica whose body condition could be a valuable indicator of ecosystem health. We aerially surveyed leopard seals of known body size and mass to test the precision and accuracy of photogrammetry from a small UAS. Flights were conducted in January and February of 2013 and 2014 and 50 photogrammetric samples were obtained from 15 unrestrained seals. UAS-derived measurements of standard length were accurate to within 2.01 ± 1.06%, and paired comparisons with ground measurements were statistically indistinguishable. An allometric linear mixed effects model predicted leopard seal mass within 19.40 kg (4.4% error for a 440 kg seal). Photogrammetric measurements from a single, vertical image obtained using UAS provide a noninvasive approach for estimating the mass and body condition of pinnipeds that may be widely applicable.

  14. An accurate and adaptable photogrammetric approach for estimating the mass and body condition of pinnipeds using an unmanned aerial system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas J Krause

    Full Text Available Measurements of body size and mass are fundamental to pinniped population management and research. Manual measurements tend to be accurate but are invasive and logistically challenging to obtain. Ground-based photogrammetric techniques are less invasive, but inherent limitations make them impractical for many field applications. The recent proliferation of unmanned aerial systems (UAS in wildlife monitoring has provided a promising new platform for the photogrammetry of free-ranging pinnipeds. Leopard seals (Hydrurga leptonyx are an apex predator in coastal Antarctica whose body condition could be a valuable indicator of ecosystem health. We aerially surveyed leopard seals of known body size and mass to test the precision and accuracy of photogrammetry from a small UAS. Flights were conducted in January and February of 2013 and 2014 and 50 photogrammetric samples were obtained from 15 unrestrained seals. UAS-derived measurements of standard length were accurate to within 2.01 ± 1.06%, and paired comparisons with ground measurements were statistically indistinguishable. An allometric linear mixed effects model predicted leopard seal mass within 19.40 kg (4.4% error for a 440 kg seal. Photogrammetric measurements from a single, vertical image obtained using UAS provide a noninvasive approach for estimating the mass and body condition of pinnipeds that may be widely applicable.

  15. Reward circuitry responsivity to food predicts future increases in body mass: moderating effects of DRD2 and DRD4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Yokum, Sonja; Bohon, Cara; Marti, Nate; Smolen, Andrew

    2010-05-01

    To determine whether responsivity of reward circuitry to food predicts future increases in body mass and whether polymorphisms in DRD2 and DRD4 moderate these relations. The functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm investigated blood oxygen level dependent activation in response to imagined intake of palatable foods, unpalatable foods, and glasses of water shown in pictures. DNA was extracted from saliva samples using standard salting-out and solvent precipitation methods. Forty-four adolescent female high school students ranging from lean to obese. Future increases in body mass index (BMI). Weaker activation of the frontal operculum, lateral orbitofrontal cortex, and striatum in response to imagined intake of palatable foods, versus imagined intake of unpalatable foods or water, predicted future increases in body mass for those with the DRD2 TaqIA A1 allele or the DRD4-7R allele. Data also suggest that for those lacking these alleles, greater responsivity of these food reward regions predicted future increases in body mass. This novel prospective fMRI study indicates that responsivity of reward circuitry to food increases risk for future weight gain, but that genes that impact dopamine signaling capacity moderate the predictive effects, suggesting two qualitatively distinct pathways to unhealthy weight gain based on genetic risk. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of the Usefulness of four Risk-of-Malignancy Indices using Ultrasonography in Ovarian masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Moo Sung; Moon, Su Hyun; Joo, Jong Kil; Suh, Dong Soo; Kim, Ki Hyung; Yoon, Man Soo

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of four Risk-of- Malignancy Indices (RMI) in women with ovarian masses. Between January 2007 and December 2008, 344 women who visited our hospital for surgical exploration due to an ovarian mass were enrolled in this study. Each RMI was based on the combination of menopausal status, ultrasound findings of ovarian masses, and absolute level of serum CA-125. A cutoff level of 200 was chosen as the threshold for determining between malignant and benign ovarian masses in RMI 1, RMI 2, and RMI 3. A cutoff level of 450 was chosen as the threshold in RMI 4. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were determined. The combination of four malignancy indices is more accurate than menopausal status, ultrasound findings, and serum CA-125 alone, respectively for determining whether a mass is benign or malignant. RMI 1 and RMI 4 were found to be better than RMI 2 and RMI 3. RMI 4 was the most reliable test among them. The relationship between RMI 1 and RMI 4 was not statistically significant. With the cutoff level for RMI 4 at 450, the corresponding, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 72.1%, 88.0%, 56.4%, 93.9%, respectively. All four RMI were reliable tests for determining whether ovarian masses are malignant or benign, and RMI 4 was the most reliable index among them

  17. Childhood body mass index in adolescent-onset anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Staci A; Witt, Ashley A; Gillberg, Christopher; Råstam, Maria; Wentz, Elisabet; Lowe, Michael R

    2016-11-01

    Although weight history is relevant in predicting eating disorder symptom severity, little is known about its role in the etiology of anorexia nervosa (AN). This study aimed to determine whether BMI or BMI trajectory differed between individuals who later developed adolescent-onset AN and a comparison group of HCs between school grades 1 through 6. This study was based on longitudinal data that identified 51 adolescents with AN and 51 matched HCs. Cases were identified through community screening in Sweden and included individuals born in 1969 through 1977. Measured weights and heights were retrieved and BMIs and weight trajectories of the AN and HC groups were compared using growth curve analysis. Main outcome measures included measured BMI and BMI trajectories from grades 1-6. Secondary outcomes examined included ponderal index at birth and maternal body weight. Individuals who later developed AN had higher BMIs than HCs between grades 1 and 6, by an average of 1.42 BMI-units. There was no difference in rate of weight gain between groups. Ponderal index at birth was higher for the AN as compared with HC group. Maternal weight did not differ significantly between groups. These findings, combined with those previously reported on the premorbid BMIs of those with bulimia nervosa, suggest that a predisposition toward elevated premorbid BMIs during childhood characterizes those who later develop anorexia or bulimia nervosa. These findings are consistent with a transdiagnostic perspective and suggest shared risk factors for AN and obesity. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:1002-1009). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Quantitative interpretation of tracks for determination of body mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schanz, Tom; Lins, Yvonne; Viefhaus, Hanna; Barciaga, Thomas; Läbe, Sashima; Preuschoft, Holger; Witzel, Ulrich; Sander, P Martin

    2013-01-01

    To better understand the biology of extinct animals, experimentation with extant animals and innovative numerical approaches have grown in recent years. This research project uses principles of soil mechanics and a neoichnological field experiment with an African elephant to derive a novel concept for calculating the mass (i.e., the weight) of an animal from its footprints. We used the elephant's footprint geometry (i.e., vertical displacements, diameter) in combination with soil mechanical analyses (i.e., soil classification, soil parameter determination in the laboratory, Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and gait analysis) for the back analysis of the elephant's weight from a single footprint. In doing so we validated the first component of a methodology for calculating the weight of extinct dinosaurs. The field experiment was conducted under known boundary conditions at the Zoological Gardens Wuppertal with a female African elephant. The weight of the elephant was measured and the walking area was prepared with sediment in advance. Then the elephant was walked across the test area, leaving a trackway behind. Footprint geometry was obtained by laser scanning. To estimate the dynamic component involved in footprint formation, the velocity the foot reaches when touching the subsoil was determined by the Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technique. Soil parameters were identified by performing experiments on the soil in the laboratory. FEA was then used for the backcalculation of the elephant's weight. With this study, we demonstrate the adaptability of using footprint geometry in combination with theoretical considerations of loading of the subsoil during a walk and soil mechanical methods for prediction of trackmakers weight.

  19. Quantitative interpretation of tracks for determination of body mass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Schanz

    Full Text Available To better understand the biology of extinct animals, experimentation with extant animals and innovative numerical approaches have grown in recent years. This research project uses principles of soil mechanics and a neoichnological field experiment with an African elephant to derive a novel concept for calculating the mass (i.e., the weight of an animal from its footprints. We used the elephant's footprint geometry (i.e., vertical displacements, diameter in combination with soil mechanical analyses (i.e., soil classification, soil parameter determination in the laboratory, Finite Element Analysis (FEA and gait analysis for the back analysis of the elephant's weight from a single footprint. In doing so we validated the first component of a methodology for calculating the weight of extinct dinosaurs. The field experiment was conducted under known boundary conditions at the Zoological Gardens Wuppertal with a female African elephant. The weight of the elephant was measured and the walking area was prepared with sediment in advance. Then the elephant was walked across the test area, leaving a trackway behind. Footprint geometry was obtained by laser scanning. To estimate the dynamic component involved in footprint formation, the velocity the foot reaches when touching the subsoil was determined by the Digital Image Correlation (DIC technique. Soil parameters were identified by performing experiments on the soil in the laboratory. FEA was then used for the backcalculation of the elephant's weight. With this study, we demonstrate the adaptability of using footprint geometry in combination with theoretical considerations of loading of the subsoil during a walk and soil mechanical methods for prediction of trackmakers weight.

  20. Evaluation of fruit intake and its relation to body mass index of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Eunah; Kim, Hyun-Jin

    2014-07-01

    Diets high in fruits and vegetables are recommended to maintain health. However, accurate fruit intake evaluation is hard and high sugar content in most of the fruits suggest possible negative relationships with health indices. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the fruit intake status of adolescents and to examine the relationship between fruit intake and body mass index (BMI). For this, 400 middle and high school students were surveyed for their fruit eating attitude, preference, and intake level for fruit along with the evaluation of their relationship with anthropometric measures. As for fruit preference, the most frequent answer was 'like very much' (60.0%) and the preference of fruit was significantly higher in females than in males (p fruits was 'delicious' (67.0%). The highest proportion of subjects replied that the amount of fruit intake was similar in both school meals and at home (39.3%) and unlikable feeling of fruits was 'sour' (47.0%). The favorite fruit was the apple followed by oriental melon, grape, Korean cherry, cherry, tangerine/orange, hallabong, plum, mango, persimmon, peach, pear/kiwi, apricot, Japanese apricot, and fig in order. As for the number of serving sizes per person were 2.9 times/day for male students and 3.0 times/day for female students showing no significant difference. The frequency of eating fruits in the evening showed a significant positive correlation with body weight (p fruit preference of adolescents was relatively high and their fruit intake level satisfied the recommended number of intake. The number of evening fruit intake had a significantly positive correlation with body weight and BMI. Further studies are required to examine the relationship between fruit intake and health indicators.

  1. [Confirming Indicators of Qualitative Results by Chromatography-mass Spectrometry in Biological Samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S D; Zhang, D M; Zhang, W; Zhang, W F

    2017-04-01

    Because of the exist of complex matrix, the confirming indicators of qualitative results for toxic substances in biological samples by chromatography-mass spectrometry are different from that in non-biological samples. Even in biological samples, the confirming indicators are different in various application areas. This paper reviews the similarities and differences of confirming indicators for the analyte in biological samples by chromatography-mass spectrometry in the field of forensic toxicological analysis and other application areas. These confirming indicators include retention time (RT), relative retention time (RRT), signal to noise (S/N), characteristic ions, relative abundance of characteristic ions, parent ion-daughter ion pair and abundance ratio of ion pair, etc. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine.

  2. Relationship between body mass index and women's body image, self-esteem and eating behaviours in pregnancy: a cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shloim, Netalie; Hetherington, Marion M; Rudolf, Mary; Feltbower, Richard G

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the relationship between self-esteem, restrained eating, body image and body mass index during pregnancy. A total of 110 pregnant Israeli and UK women completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Questionnaire, the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire, scales to assess body image and demographics. Body mass index was calculated from antenatal records. Regression modelling determined the relationship between variables, countries and body mass index categories. High correlations were found between body image and body mass index with significantly higher body dissatisfaction for Israeli women. Self-esteem scores for pregnant women were similar to those reported for non-pregnant women. Poorer body image and higher prevalence of restrained eating were found in healthy weight Israeli women. © The Author(s) 2013.

  3. Fossils and living taxa agree on patterns of body mass evolution: a case study with Afrotheria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttick, Mark N; Thomas, Gavin H

    2015-12-22

    Most of life is extinct, so incorporating some fossil evidence into analyses of macroevolution is typically seen as necessary to understand the diversification of life and patterns of morphological evolution. Here we test the effects of inclusion of fossils in a study of the body size evolution of afrotherian mammals, a clade that includes the elephants, sea cows and elephant shrews. We find that the inclusion of fossil tips has little impact on analyses of body mass evolution; from a small ancestral size (approx. 100 g), there is a shift in rate and an increase in mass leading to the larger-bodied Paenungulata and Tubulidentata, regardless of whether fossils are included or excluded from analyses. For Afrotheria, the inclusion of fossils and morphological character data affect phylogenetic topology, but these differences have little impact upon patterns of body mass evolution and these body mass evolutionary patterns are consistent with the fossil record. The largest differences between our analyses result from the evolutionary model, not the addition of fossils. For some clades, extant-only analyses may be reliable to reconstruct body mass evolution, but the addition of fossils and careful model selection is likely to increase confidence and accuracy of reconstructed macroevolutionary patterns. © 2015 The Authors.

  4. Associations among eating regulation and body mass index, weight, and body fat in college students: the moderating role of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gropper, Sareen S; Arsiwalla, Dilbur D; Lord, Denali C; Huggins, Kevin W; Simmons, Karla P; Ulrich, Pamela V

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated associations between eating regulation behaviors and body mass index (BMI), weight, and percent body fat in male and female students over the first two years of college. Subjects included 328 college students (215 females and 113 males). Height and weight (via standard techniques), body composition (via bioelectrical impedance analysis), and eating regulation behaviors (using the Regulation of Eating Behavior Scale) were conducted two to three times during both the freshman and sophomore years. Significant associations between eating regulation and BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat were shown mostly in females. In females, higher BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat at the end of the second year of college were found in those with low levels of autonomous, intrinsic motivation, and identified regulation, and high levels of amotivation, while lower BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat were associated with high levels of autonomous, intrinsic motivation, and identified regulation, and low levels of amotivation. The findings that specific eating behaviors in females during the first two years of college influence BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat may be useful for inclusion in university programs focused on college student health to help decrease the risk of obesity and disordered eating/eating disorders in female college students. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Fitness in animals correlates with proximity to discontinuities in body mass distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeler, David G.; Allen, Craig R.; Vila-Gispert, Anna; Almeida, David

    2014-01-01

    Discontinuous structure in landscapes may cause discontinuous, aggregated species body-mass patterns, reflecting the scales of structure available to animal communities within a landscape. Empirical analyses have shown that the location of species within body mass aggregations, which reflect this scale-specific organization, is non-random with regard to several ecological phenomena, including species extinctions. The propensity of declining species to have body masses proximate to discontinuities suggests that transition zones between scaling regimes ultimately decreases the ecological fitness for some species. We test this proposition using vulnerable and unthreatened fish species in Mediterranean streams with differing levels of human impact. We show that the proximity to discontinuities in body mass aggregations (“distance-to-edge”) of more vs. less fit individuals within vulnerable and unthreatened populations differs. Specifically, regression analysis between the scaled mass index, a proxy of animal fitness, and distance-to-edge reveals negative and positive relationships for vulnerable and unthreatened species, respectively. That is, fitness is higher close to discontinuities in vulnerable populations and toward the center of body mass aggregation groups in unthreatened populations. Our results demonstrate the suitability of the discontinuity framework for scrutinizing non-random patterns of environmental impact in populations. Further exploration of the usefulness of this method across other ecosystems and organism groups is warranted.

  6. Body mass index trajectories of Indigenous Australian children and relation to screen time, diet, and demographic factors

    OpenAIRE

    Thurber, Katherine Ann; Dobbins, Timothy; Neeman, Teresa; Banwell, Cathy; Banks, Emily

    2017-01-01

    Objective Limited cross?sectional data indicate elevated overweight/obesity prevalence among Indigenous versus non?Indigenous Australian children. This study aims to quantify body mass index (BMI) trajectories among Indigenous Australian children aged 3?6 and 6?9 years and to identify factors associated with the development of overweight/obesity. Methods Three?year BMI change was examined in up to 1,157 children in the national Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children. BMI trajectories among...

  7. Large meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies five loci for lean body mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zillikens, M Carola; Demissie, Serkalem; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M; Chou, Wen-Chi; Stolk, Lisette; Livshits, Gregory; Broer, Linda; Johnson, Toby; Koller, Daniel L; Kutalik, Zoltán; Luan, Jian'an; Malkin, Ida; Ried, Janina S; Smith, Albert V; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Hua Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Weihua; Aghdassi, Ali; Åkesson, Kristina; Amin, Najaf; Baier, Leslie J; Barroso, Inês; Bennett, David A; Bertram, Lars; Biffar, Rainer; Bochud, Murielle; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B; Buchman, Aron S; Byberg, Liisa; Campbell, Harry; Campos Obanda, Natalia; Cauley, Jane A; Cawthon, Peggy M; Cederberg, Henna; Chen, Zhao; Cho, Nam H; Jin Choi, Hyung; Claussnitzer, Melina; Collins, Francis; Cummings, Steven R; De Jager, Philip L; Demuth, Ilja; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A M; Diatchenko, Luda; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Enneman, Anke W; Erdos, Mike; Eriksson, Johan G; Eriksson, Joel; Estrada, Karol; Evans, Daniel S; Feitosa, Mary F; Fu, Mao; Garcia, Melissa; Gieger, Christian; Girke, Thomas; Glazer, Nicole L; Grallert, Harald; Grewal, Jagvir; Han, Bok-Ghee; Hanson, Robert L; Hayward, Caroline; Hofman, Albert; Hoffman, Eric P; Homuth, Georg; Hsueh, Wen-Chi; Hubal, Monica J; Hubbard, Alan; Huffman, Kim M; Husted, Lise B; Illig, Thomas; Ingelsson, Erik; Ittermann, Till; Jansson, John-Olov; Jordan, Joanne M; Jula, Antti; Karlsson, Magnus; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Klopp, Norman; Kloth, Jacqueline S L; Koistinen, Heikki A; Kraus, William E; Kritchevsky, Stephen; Kuulasmaa, Teemu; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Lahti, Jari; Lang, Thomas; Langdahl, Bente L; Launer, Lenore J; Lee, Jong-Young; Lerch, Markus M; Lewis, Joshua R; Lind, Lars; Lindgren, Cecilia; Liu, Yongmei; Liu, Tian; Liu, Youfang; Ljunggren, Östen; Lorentzon, Mattias; Luben, Robert N; Maixner, William; McGuigan, Fiona E; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Meitinger, Thomas; Melhus, Håkan; Mellström, Dan; Melov, Simon; Michaëlsson, Karl; Mitchell, Braxton D; Morris, Andrew P; Mosekilde, Leif; Newman, Anne; Nielson, Carrie M; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Oostra, Ben A; Orwoll, Eric S; Palotie, Aarno; Parker, Stephen C J; Peacock, Munro; Perola, Markus; Peters, Annette; Polasek, Ozren; Prince, Richard L; Räikkönen, Katri; Ralston, Stuart H; Ripatti, Samuli; Robbins, John A; Rotter, Jerome I; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Satterfield, Suzanne; Schadt, Eric E; Schipf, Sabine; Scott, Laura; Sehmi, Joban; Shen, Jian; Soo Shin, Chan; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; Smith, Shad; Soranzo, Nicole; Stančáková, Alena; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Streeten, Elizabeth A; Styrkarsdottir, Unnur; Swart, Karin M A; Tan, Sian-Tsung; Tarnopolsky, Mark A; Thompson, Patricia; Thomson, Cynthia A; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Tikkanen, Emmi; Tranah, Gregory J; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; van Schoor, Natasja M; Verma, Arjun; Vollenweider, Peter; Völzke, Henry; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Walker, Mark; Weedon, Michael N; Welch, Ryan; Wichmann, H-Erich; Widen, Elisabeth; Williams, Frances M K; Wilson, James F; Wright, Nicole C; Xie, Weijia; Yu, Lei; Zhou, Yanhua; Chambers, John C; Döring, Angela; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Econs, Michael J; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Kooner, Jaspal S; Psaty, Bruce M; Spector, Timothy D; Stefansson, Kari; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, André G; Wareham, Nicholas J; Ossowski, Vicky; Waterworth, Dawn; Loos, Ruth J F; Karasik, David; Harris, Tamara B; Ohlsson, Claes; Kiel, Douglas P

    2017-07-19

    Lean body mass, consisting mostly of skeletal muscle, is important for healthy aging. We performed a genome-wide association study for whole body (20 cohorts of European ancestry with n = 38,292) and appendicular (arms and legs) lean body mass (n = 28,330) measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry or bioelectrical impedance analysis, adjusted for sex, age, height, and fat mass. Twenty-one single-nucleotide polymorphisms were significantly associated with lean body mass either genome wide (p lean body mass and in 45,090 (42,360 of European ancestry) subjects from 25 cohorts for appendicular lean body mass was successful for five single-nucleotide polymorphisms in/near HSD17B11, VCAN, ADAMTSL3, IRS1, and FTO for total lean body mass and for three single-nucleotide polymorphisms in/near VCAN, ADAMTSL3, and IRS1 for appendicular lean body mass. Our findings provide new insight into the genetics of lean body mass.Lean body mass is a highly heritable trait and is associated with various health conditions. Here, Kiel and colleagues perform a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for whole body lean body mass and find five novel genetic loci to be significantly associated.

  8. Energy expenditure during flight in relation to body mass : effects of natural increases in mass and artificial load in Rose Coloured Starlings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt-Wellenburg, Carola A.; Engel, Sophia; Visser, G. Henk

    Rose Coloured Starlings (Sturnus roseus) flew repeatedly for several hours in a wind tunnel while undergoing spontaneous variation in body mass. The treatments were as follows: flying unrestrained (U), with a control harness of 1.2% of their body mass (C), or with a harness of 7.4% of their body

  9. No evidence for directional evolution of body mass in herbivorous theropod dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanno, Lindsay E; Makovicky, Peter J

    2013-01-22

    The correlation between large body size and digestive efficiency has been hypothesized to have driven trends of increasing mass in herbivorous clades by means of directional selection. Yet, to date, few studies have investigated this relationship from a phylogenetic perspective, and none, to our knowledge, with regard to trophic shifts. Here, we reconstruct body mass in the three major subclades of non-avian theropod dinosaurs whose ecomorphology is correlated with extrinsic evidence of at least facultative herbivory in the fossil record--all of which also achieve relative gigantism (more than 3000 kg). Ordinary least-squares regressions on natural log-transformed mean mass recover significant correlations between increasing mass and geological time. However, tests for directional evolution in body mass find no support for a phylogenetic trend, instead favouring passive models of trait evolution. Cross-correlation of sympatric taxa from five localities in Asia reveals that environmental influences such as differential habitat sampling and/or taphonomic filtering affect the preserved record of dinosaurian body mass in the Cretaceous. Our results are congruent with studies documenting that behavioural and/or ecological factors may mitigate the benefit of increasing mass in extant taxa, and suggest that the hypothesis can be extrapolated to herbivorous lineages across geological time scales.

  10. Associations of 18-year-old daughters' and mothers' serum leptin, body mass index and DXA-derived fat mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Sanae; Bin, Wu; Honda, Mari; Nanbu, Seiki; Suzuki, Kazuhisa; Fukuo, Keisuke; Kazumi, Tsutomu

    2010-10-27

    We assessed the relationship of the body mass index (BMI) of 187 college female students aged 18 years with the reported BMI of their middle-aged biological parents measured on 2 occasions: when the parents were 18-20 years old and at the time of the study. The relationships of fat mass measured using whole body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and serum leptin levels were also determined between 148 daughters and middle-aged parents (148 mothers and 59 fathers). The BMI of daughters was associated with their mothers' BMI (r=0.30, pfathers' BMI measured when they were 18 years old. Daughters' BMI showed a stronger association with the current BMI of their mothers BMI (r=0.36, pfathers' BMI (r=0.19, p=0.01). In addition, the serum leptin levels of daughters were correlated with their mothers' leptin values (r=0.22, p=0.04). Further, not only total body fat mass (r=0.19, pdaughters and their mothers. The significant correlation between daughters' and mothers' BMI measured when their mothers were 18 years old did not result from shared environmental factors, including the intrauterine environment. The results in the present study therefore suggest that adiposity in 18-year-old daughters may be influenced by the maternal effect. The associations of serum leptin and DXA-derived fat mass between daughters and their mothers may support our hypothesis.

  11. The Effect Of Body Mass Index On Bone Mineral Density In Postmenopausal Women - Original Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Yanık

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We aimed to determine the relationship between bone mineral density and body mass index in postmenopausal women. Material and Methods: 54 postmenopausal women were included in the study. Age and time of menopause were recorded. Smoking, alcohol and exercise status were also recorded. Weight and height were measured and body mass index was calculated. The patients were separated into four groups according to their body mass index, as underweight, ideal weight, over-weight and obese. Bone mineral density in all the patients was assessed via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry from antero-posterior lumbar and right proximal femoral regions. For L2-4 and the femoral neck, bone mineral density and t scores were determined. Results: The study was performed in 54 postmenopausal women, ranging in age from 51 to 79 years. 22 (%40.8 of the patients were obese, 24 (%44.4 were overweight and 8 (%14.8 had ideal weight. There were no patients in underweight group. There were no difference in age, smoking, time of menopause, bone mineral density and t-scores among the groups. There was statistically significant correlation between body mass index and bone mineral density of the femoral neck (r =0.407, p=0.002, and femoral neck t-scores (r =0.297, p=0.029. There was no significant correlation between the body mass index and lumbar bone mineral density and lumbar t-scores (p >0.05. Conclusion: Body mass index was found to be related to bone mineral density of the femoral neck. Our findings suggest that maintenance of adequate body mass is important for the prevention of postmenopausal bone loss. (From the World of Osteoporosis 2007;13:56-9

  12. Density-body mass relationships: Inconsistent intercontinental patterns among termite feeding-groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlsjö, Cecilia A. L.; Parr, Catherine L.; Malhi, Yadvinder; Meir, Patrick; Rahman, Homathevi; Eggleton, Paul

    2015-02-01

    Allometric relationships are useful for estimating and understanding resource distribution in assemblages with species of different masses. Damuth's law states that body mass scales with population density as M-0.75, where M is body mass and -0.75 is the slope. In this study we used Damuth's law (M-0.75) as a null hypothesis to examine the relationship between body mass and population density for termite feeding-groups in three different countries and regions (Cameroon, West Africa; Peru South America; and Malaysia SE Asia). We found that none of the feeding-groups had a relationship where M-0.75 while the data suggested that population density-body mass relationships for true soil-feeding termites in Cameroon (M2.7) and wood-feeding termites in Peru (M1.5) were significantly different from the expected values given by Damuth's law. The dominance of large-bodied true soil-feeding termites in Cameroon and the absence of fungus-growing termites from Peru suggest that these allometric patterns are due to heterogeneities in termite biogeographical evolution. Additionally, as these feeding-groups have higher population density than expected by their body masses it may be suggested that they also have a higher energy throughput than expected. The results presented here may be used to gain further understanding of resource distribution among termite feeding-groups across regions and an insight into the importance of evolutionary history and biogeography on allometric patterns. Further understanding of population density-body mass relationships in termite feeding-groups may also improve understanding of the role these feeding-groups play in ecosystem processes in different regions.

  13. Biochemical, anthropometric and body composition indicators as predictors of hepatic steatosis in obese adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Gobato, Amanda Oliva; Vasques, Ana Carolina J.; Yamada, Roberto Massao; Zambon, Mariana Porto; Barros-Filho, Antonio de Azevedo; Hessel, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of hepatic steatosis and to assess the performance of biochemical, anthropometric and body composition indicators for hepatic steatosis in obese teenagers.METHODS: Cross-sectional study including 79 adolecents aged from ten to 18 years old. Hepatic steatosis was diagnosed by abdominal ultrasound in case of moderate or intense hepatorenal contrast and/or a difference in the histogram ≥7 on the right kidney cortex. The insulin resistance was determined by t...

  14. Maternal lean body mass may be the major determinant of birth weight: A study from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, B; Shatrugna, V; Balakrishna, N

    2006-11-01

    This study explored the relationship of maternal body composition parameters to the birth weight of the offspring. Maternal anthropometric parameters (weight, height) and body composition by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry were measured in 76 women from low-income group during 12-21 days postpartum. The mean+/-s.d. height, weight of the mothers and birth weight of the newborns were 151.5+/-5.29 cm, 46.7+/-6.04 and 2.84+/-0.358 kg, respectively. When the relationship of maternal anthropometric and body composition parameters to the infants' birth weight was studied, maternal lean body mass was found to be the most important determinant of birth weight (R2 (%) = 21.3) (P < 0.001). This study highlights the importance of increasing lean body mass in young women for better pregnancy outcome.

  15. Body weight homeostat that regulates fat mass independently of leptin in rats and mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, John-Olov; Hägg, Daniel A.; Schéle, Erik; Dickson, Suzanne L.; Anesten, Fredrik; Bake, Tina; Montelius, Mikael; Bellman, Jakob; Johansson, Maria E.; Cone, Roger D.; Drucker, Daniel J.; Wu, Jianyao; Aleksic, Biljana; Törnqvist, Anna E.; Sjögren, Klara; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Windahl, Sara H.; Ohlsson, Claes

    2018-01-01

    Subjects spending much time sitting have increased risk of obesity but the mechanism for the antiobesity effect of standing is unknown. We hypothesized that there is a homeostatic regulation of body weight. We demonstrate that increased loading of rodents, achieved using capsules with different weights implanted in the abdomen or s.c. on the back, reversibly decreases the biological body weight via reduced food intake. Importantly, loading relieves diet-induced obesity and improves glucose tolerance. The identified homeostat for body weight regulates body fat mass independently of fat-derived leptin, revealing two independent negative feedback systems for fat mass regulation. It is known that osteocytes can sense changes in bone strain. In this study, the body weight-reducing effect of increased loading was lost in mice depleted of osteocytes. We propose that increased body weight activates a sensor dependent on osteocytes of the weight-bearing bones. This induces an afferent signal, which reduces body weight. These findings demonstrate a leptin-independent body weight homeostat (“gravitostat”) that regulates fat mass. PMID:29279372

  16. [Body mass, self-esteem and life satisfaction in adolescents aged 13-15 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Izabela; Mazur, Joanna; Oblacińska, Anna; Jodkowska, Maria

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the relationships between objective body mass index and subjective body image, life satisfaction and self-esteem of adolescents. the study was carried in 5 regions in Poland, on the sample of over 8,000 pupils aged 13-15 yrs, from randomly chosen 112 lower secondary schools. School nurses measured the height and weight of pupils, calculated the BMI and qualified overweight pupils (BMI> or =85 percentile) to the obese group (n = 953). Matching gender and age, from the rest of pupils, they found the non-obese group with BMI between 15 and 75 percentile (n = 953). Pupils from both groups participated in a questionnaire study containing the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Cantril ladder and Stunkard Body Figure Perception Questionnaire. Hierarchic regression analyses and structural equation models were calculated. in the obese group the percentage of pupils satisfied with their life was lower (76% vs 82%, pself-esteem higher than in the non-obese (37% vs 23%, plife satisfaction and self-esteem was subjective body image, and not the objective body mass index. Objective body mass (BMI) determined the body image and relationship between BMI and life satisfaction or self-esteem of adolescents was only indirect. change of subjective body image in obese adolescents is a chance for improving their quality of life and in consequence undertaking effective struggle with obesity.

  17. Length Normalized Indices for Fat Mass and Fat-Free Mass in Preterm and Term Infants during the First Six Months of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ipsita Goswami

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Postnatal tissue accretion in preterm infants differs from those in utero, affecting body composition (BC and lifelong morbidity. Length normalized BC data allows infants with different body lengths to be compared and followed longitudinally. This study aims to analyze BC of preterm and term infants during the first six months of life. Methods: The BC data, measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, of 389 preterm and 132 term infants from four longitudinal studies were combined. Fat-mass/length2 (FMI and fat-free mass/length2 (FFMI for postmenstrual age were calculated after reaching full enteral feeding, at term and two further time points up to six months corrected age. Results: Median FMI (preterm increased from 0.4 kg/m2 at 30 weeks to 2.5, 4.3, and 4.8 kg/m2 compared to 1.7, 4.7, and 6 kg/m2 in term infants at 40, 52, and 64 weeks, respectively. Median FFMI (preterm increased from 8.5 kg/m2 (30 weeks to 11.4 kg/m2 (45 weeks and remained constant thereafter, whereas term FFMI remained constant at 11 kg/m2 throughout the tested time points. Conclusion: The study provides a large dataset of length normalized BC indices. Followed longitudinally, term and preterm infants differ considerably during early infancy in the pattern of change in FMI and FFMI for age.

  18. Body Mass Index (BMI) and Cognitive Functions in Later Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momtaz, Yadollah A; Haron, Sharifah A; Hamid, Tengku A; Ibrahim, Rahimah; Tanjani, Parisa T

    2018-01-01

    The findings from previous studies exploring the association between BMI and cognitive function in the elderly are conflicting. The purpose of the present study is twofold; to verify the association between BMI and cognitive functions and examine whether this association is impacted by height, when adjusted for possible covariates. The data for this study, consisted of 2287 older adults aged 60 years and above, drawn from a nationally representative population-based survey entitled "Determinants of Wellness among Older Malaysians: A Health Promotion Perspective" conducted in 2009. The mean age of the respondents was 68.7 (SD=6.6) years. The average score of cognitive function, measured by MMSE was 24.5 (SD=5.6). About 40% of the respondents were classified as overweight. Results of the multiple linear regression analysis revealed a significant association between BMI and cognitive function (Beta=.10, pFactorial ANCOVA revealed significant interaction effect between BMI and height on cognitive function (F= 10.8, p<.001), after adjusting for possible covariates. The findings from the current study indicating the positive association between BMI and cognitive function depends on height, therefore it is suggested that short people might be targeted for dementia prevention. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Body mass index mediates inflammatory response to acute dietary challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matone, Alice; O'Grada, Colm M; Dillon, Eugene T; Morris, Ciara; Ryan, Miriam F; Walsh, Marianne; Gibney, Eileen R; Brennan, Lorraine; Gibney, Michael J; Morine, Melissa J; Roche, Helen M

    2015-11-01

    Acute metabolic challenges provide an opportunity to identify mechanisms of metabolic and nutritional health. In this study, we assessed the transcriptomic response to oral glucose and lipid challenges in a cohort of individuals ranging in age and BMI. The main goal is to identify whether BMI can mediate the metabolic and transcriptional response to dietary challenges, and the differences between lipid and glucose tests. Two hundred fourteen healthy adults were assigned to the challenges and twenty-three individuals were selected for further transcriptomic proofing, using microarray analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Through linear-mixed models and network analysis, different sets of transcripts and pathways were identified that responded to the challenges depending on BMI. Different transcripts that responded to the lipid and glucose tests, independently of BMI, were also identified. In the network analysis, inflammatory and adhesion processes were strongly represented for both challenges. Our results indicate that BMI is strongly linked to the transcriptomic and metabolic response to acute challenges. The emerging biological processes are mainly inflammation-related pathways, highlighting an interconnection between obesity, inflammation/adhesion, and response to nutritional challenge. The comparison between lipid and glucose challenges shows how these trigger a substantially different molecular response. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Body Mass Dynamics of Pink-footed Geese (Anser brachyrhynchus) During Stopover on Autumn Migration in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundersen, Ove Martin; Clausen, Kevin; Madsen, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    Body mass accumulation is a widely used measure of waterfowl condition and predictor of fitness. So far, however, post-breeding changes in body mass affecting autumn and winter condition have been largely unexplored. Here, changes in body mass of Pink-footed Geese (Anser brachyrhynchus) were...... adult body mass did not vary between years. During the stopover, juveniles of both sexes increased their body mass substantially (11.4 ± 2.8 g/day), while adult birds showed sex-specific differences. Adult males took on an average of 6.1 ± 2.4 g/day, whereas adult females showed no increase during...

  1. DIFFERENCES IN THE MOTORIC ABILITIES OF STUDENTS DUE TO THE BODY MASS INDEX (BMI

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    Arben Osmani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:The research has been conducted in order to establish differences in motoric abilities due to the body mass index (BMI with the tested students at the eighth grade (Barlow, & the Expert Committee, 2007. Methods: During the research 160 male students aged 14 were tested. On the base of (BMI they were divided into 3 groups (normal, overweight, and with obesity. They were tested with 6 motor tests for: explosive power, repetitive power, coordination, equilibrium, precision, and flexibility. Along with basic statistic parameters, the differences between the groups are established through: ANOVA, MANOVA and LSD-tests. Results: The obtained results are presented in 5 tables. On the base of the results, a statistically significant difference in favor of the group of normal body mass index is recorded in the following tests: standing a long jump, agility on the ground and keeping balance on one leg. Discussion: The results obtained in this research indicate that obesity and overweight cause a negative effect and result in lower performances concerning some motoric abilities. On the base of the obtained results, it is concluded that the group of students of normal body mass index achieved the best results in the motoric abilities with assessing the following: explosive power, coordination, and equilibrium. As for the motoric ability concerning: precision, repetitive power, and flexibility, there are no established statistically significant differences between the three groups. The obtained results correspond with some former researches (Milanese, et al., 2010; Zhu, Sheng, Wu, & Cairney, 2010, and some do not (De Toia, et al., 2009. References: Barlow SE et al. (2007. Pediatrics, 120, 164–92. De Toia D, Klein D, Weber S, Wessely N, Koch B, Tokarski W, Dordel S, Strüder H, Graf C (2009. European Journal of Obesity, 2(4, 221–5. Zhu YC, Sheng K, Wu SK, Cairney J (2011. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 32(2, 801–7. Milanese C

  2. Association of body mass index with removal of etonogestrel subdermal implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Petra M; Long, Margaret E; Marnach, Mary L; Fleming-Harvey, Jennifer; Drozdowicz, Linda B; Weaver, Amy L

    2013-03-01

    Bleeding irregularities represent the most common etonogestrel subdermal implant (ESI) removal indication. ESI placements (n=304) from June 2007 to April 2011 were grouped by removal indications. Group characteristics were compared using one-way analysis of variance, Kruskal-Wallis and χ(2) test. Of 304 insertions, 30.6% reported irregular bleeding. Removal indications included bleeding (Group 1, n=50), side effects (Group 2, n=17) and desired pregnancy/no need (Group 3, n=25). Group 4 kept (n=198) or reinserted (n=14) ESI. Median body mass index was lower for Group 1 compared to other groups (p=.012). Group 3 was older than Group 1 or 4 (p=.021), and more likely parous (p<.001) and postpartum (p=.001) than other groups. Lactational placement was more common in Group 3 than 4 (p<.001). Obese women were 2.6 times less likely to remove ESI for bleeding vs. normal-weight or overweight women (95% confidence interval, 1.2-5.7; p=.014). After adjusting for age and parity, obese women were less likely to have ESI removal for bleeding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Body mass index, safety hazards, and neighborhood attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovasi, Gina S; Bader, Michael D M; Quinn, James; Neckerman, Kathryn; Weiss, Christopher; Rundle, Andrew

    2012-10-01

    Neighborhood attractiveness and safety may encourage physical activity and help individuals maintain a healthy weight. However, these neighborhood characteristics may not be equally relevant to health across all settings and population subgroups. To evaluate whether potentially attractive neighborhood features are associated with lower BMI, whether safety hazards are associated with higher BMI, and whether environment-environment interactions are present such that associations for a particular characteristic are stronger in an otherwise supportive environment. Survey data and measured height and weight were collected from a convenience sample of 13,102 adult New York City (NYC) residents in 2000-2002; data analyses were completed 2008-2012. Built-environment measures based on municipal GIS data sources were constructed within 1-km network buffers to assess walkable urban form (density, land-use mix, transit access); attractiveness (sidewalk cafés, landmark buildings, street trees, street cleanliness); and safety (homicide rate, pedestrian-auto collision and fatality rate). Generalized linear models with cluster-robust SEs controlled for individual and area-based sociodemographic characteristics. The presence of sidewalk cafés, density of landmark buildings, and density of street trees were associated with lower BMI, whereas the proportion of streets rated as clean was associated with higher BMI. Interactions were observed for sidewalk cafés with neighborhood poverty, for street-tree density with walkability, and for street cleanliness with safety. Safety hazard indicators were not independently associated with BMI. Potentially attractive community and natural features were associated with lower BMI among adults in NYC, and there was some evidence of effect modification. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Lean Body Mass Associated with Upper Body Strength in Healthy Older Adults While Higher Body Fat Limits Lower Extremity Performance and Endurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Charlton

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Impaired strength adversely influences an older person’s ability to perform activities of daily living. A cross-sectional study of 117 independently living men and women (age = 73.4 ± 9.4 year; body mass index (BMI = 27.6 ± 4.8 kg/m2 aimed to assess the association between body composition and: (1 upper body strength (handgrip strength, HGS; (2 lower extremity performance (timed up and go (TUG and sit to stand test (STS; and (3 endurance (6-minute walk (SMWT. Body composition (% fat; lean body mass (LBM was assessed using bioelectrical impedance. Habitual physical activity was measured using the Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire (MLTPA and dietary macronutrient intake, assessed using 24 h recalls and 3-day food records. Regression analyses included the covariates, protein intake (g/kg, MLTPA, age and sex. For natural logarithm (Ln of right HGS, LBM (p < 0.001 and % body fat (p < 0.005 were significant (r2 = 46.5%; p < 0.000. For left LnHGS, LBM (p < 0.000, age (p = 0.036, protein intake (p = 0.015 and LnMLTPA (p = 0.015 were significant (r2 = 0.535; p < 0.000. For SMW, % body fat, age and LnMLTPA were significant (r2 = 0.346; p < 0.000. For STS, % body fat and age were significant (r2 = 0.251; p < 0.000. LBM is a strong predictor of upper body strength while higher % body fat and lower physical activity are associated with poorer outcomes on tests of lower extremity performance.

  5. Body mass index and subjective well-being in young adults: a twin population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linna, Milla S; Kaprio, Jaakko; Raevuori, Anu; Sihvola, Elina; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Rissanen, Aila

    2013-03-16

    Body mass index (BMI) is associated with subjective well-being. Higher BMI is believed to be related with lower well-being. However, the association may not be linear. Therefore, we investigated whether a nonlinear (U-shaped) trend would better describe this relationship, and whether eating disorders might account for the association in young adults. FinnTwin16 study evaluated multiple measures of subjective well-being, including life satisfaction, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-20), satisfaction with leisure time, work, and family relationships, and satisfaction with sex life in young adulthood in the 1975-79 birth cohorts of Finnish twins (n=5240). We studied the relationship between indicators of subjective well-being and BMI both in full birth cohorts and in subgroups stratified by lifetime DSM-IV eating disorders. We found an inverse U-shaped relationship between all indicators of subjective well-being and BMI in men. There was no overall association between BMI and subjective well-being in women. However, there was an inverse U-shaped relationship between BMI and indicators of subjective well-being in women with a lifetime eating disorder and their healthy female co-twins. Subjective well-being was optimal in the overweight category. Both underweight and obesity are associated with impaired subjective well-being in young men. The BMI reflecting optimal subjective well-being of young men may be higher than currently recognized. Categorization of body weight in terms of BMI may need to be reassessed in young men. BMI and subjective well-being are related in women with a lifetime eating disorder, but not in the general population of young women.

  6. High incidence of body image dissatisfaction in pregnancy and the postnatal period: Associations with depression, anxiety, body mass index and weight gain during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roomruangwong, Chutima; Kanchanatawan, Buranee; Sirivichayakul, Sunee; Maes, Michael

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to delineate the prevalence of body image dissatisfaction in pregnant women and parturients in relation to depression and anxiety symptoms. We assessed 126 pregnant women during the third trimester and 2-3days and 4-6weeks after delivery using the Body Image Scale (BIS). Many pregnant participants (34.1%) showed body image dissatisfaction (BIS score ≤3) which was associated with current antenatal depression, severity of depression, a lifetime history of mood disorders, trait anxiety, body mass index (BMI) and weight gain during pregnancy. The BIS score improved after delivery but was still associated with depression, lifetime history of mood disorders, age, BMI and weight gain during pregnancy. These findings suggest that about a third of pregnant women have a body image disturbance which is strongly associated with current and a life history of clinical depression and anxiety symptoms. Medical personnel should be alert to detect body image dissatisfaction in pregnant women because it may indicate an underlying mood disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Body mass index and incident ischemic heart disease in South Korean men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Sun Ha; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Appel, Lawrence J; Suh, Il; Miller, Edgar R; Guallar, Eliseo

    2005-07-01

    Asian populations have a higher body fat percentage for a given body mass index (BMI) than Caucasians. However, little information is available on the association of BMI with ischemic heart disease (IHD) incidence in Asians at low BMI levels. The authors prospectively evaluated the association of BMI (weight (kg)/height m2) with IHD incidence over 9 years of follow-up (1993-2001) among 133,740 South Korean adults (89,050 men, 44,690 women) who participated in the 1990 and 1992 examinations of the Korea Medical Insurance Corporation Study. Average BMI at baseline was 23.4 (standard deviation, 2.3) in men and 22.3 (standard deviation, 2.3) in women. After multivariate adjustment, there was a 14% (95% confidence interval: 12, 16) increased risk of incident IHD per unit of increase in BMI. This trend was also observed within the range considered normal by Western standards, and a BMI of 24-men and women was progressive over the range of BMI values, with no threshold of change in risk and no indication of a U-shaped relation at low BMI levels.

  8. Relationship between Body Mass Index and Percent Body Fat in Vietnamese: Implications for the Diagnosis of Obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan T Ho-Pham

    Full Text Available The burden of obesity in Vietnam has not been well defined because there is a lack of reference data for percent body fat (PBF in Asians. This study sought to define the relationship between PBF and body mass index (BMI in the Vietnamese population.The study was designed as a comparative cross-sectional investigation that involved 1217 individuals of Vietnamese background (862 women aged 20 years and older (average age 47 yr who were randomly selected from the general population in Ho Chi Minh City. Lean mass (LM and fat mass (FM were measured by DXA (Hologic QDR 4500. PBF was derived as FM over body weight.Based on BMI ≥30, the prevalence of obesity was 1.1% and 1.3% for men and women, respectively. The prevalence of overweight and obesity combined (BMI ≥25 was ~24% and ~19% in men and women, respectively. Based on the quadratic relationship between BMI and PBF, the approximate PBF corresponding to the BMI threshold of 30 (obese was 30.5 in men and 41 in women. Using the criteria of PBF >30 in men and PBF >40 in women, approximately 15% of men and women were considered obese.These data suggest that body mass index underestimates the prevalence of obesity. We suggest that a PBF >30 in men or PBF >40 in women is used as criteria for the diagnosis of obesity in Vietnamese adults. Using these criteria, 15% of Vietnamese adults in Ho Chi Minh City was considered obese.

  9. Aerobic power and lean mass are indicators of competitive sprint performance among elite female cross-country skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Tomas; Tonkonogi, Michail; Carlsson, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the optimal allometric models to predict International Ski Federation's ski-ranking points for sprint competitions (FISsprint) among elite female cross-country skiers based on maximal oxygen uptake ( [Formula: see text]) and lean mass (LM). Ten elite female cross-country skiers (age: 24.5±2.8 years [mean ± SD]) completed a treadmill roller-skiing test to determine [Formula: see text] (ie, aerobic power) using the diagonal stride technique, whereas LM (ie, a surrogate indicator of anaerobic capacity) was determined by dual-emission X-ray anthropometry. The subjects' FISsprint were used as competitive performance measures. Power function modeling was used to predict the skiers' FISsprint based on [Formula: see text], LM, and body mass. The subjects' test and performance data were as follows: [Formula: see text], 4.0±0.3 L min -1 ; LM, 48.9±4.4 kg; body mass, 64.0±5.2 kg; and FISsprint, 116.4±59.6 points. The following power function models were established for the prediction of FISsprint: [Formula: see text] and 6.95 × 10 10 · LM -5.25 ; these models explained 66% ( P =0.0043) and 52% ( P =0.019), respectively, of the variance in the FISsprint. Body mass failed to contribute to both models; hence, the models are based on [Formula: see text] and LM expressed absolutely. The results demonstrate that the physiological variables that reflect aerobic power and anaerobic capacity are important indicators of competitive sprint performance among elite female skiers. To accurately indicate performance capability among elite female skiers, the presented power function models should be used. Skiers whose [Formula: see text] differs by 1% will differ in their FISsprint by 5.8%, whereas the corresponding 1% difference in LM is related to an FISsprint difference of 5.1%, where both differences are in favor of the skier with higher [Formula: see text] or LM. It is recommended that coaches use the absolute expression of these

  10. Aerobic power and lean mass are indicators of competitive sprint performance among elite female cross-country skiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlsson T

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tomas Carlsson, Michail Tonkonogi, Magnus Carlsson School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Dalarna University, Falun, SwedenAbstract: The purpose of this study was to establish the optimal allometric models to predict International Ski Federation’s ski-ranking points for sprint competitions (FISsprint among elite female cross-country skiers based on maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max and lean mass (LM. Ten elite female cross-country skiers (age: 24.5±2.8 years [mean ± SD] completed a treadmill roller-skiing test to determine V̇O2max (ie, aerobic power using the diagonal stride technique, whereas LM (ie, a surrogate indicator of anaerobic capacity was determined by dual-emission X-ray anthropometry. The subjects’ FISsprint were used as competitive performance measures. Power function modeling was used to predict the skiers’ FISsprint based on V̇O2max, LM, and body mass. The subjects’ test and performance data were as follows: V̇O2max, 4.0±0.3 L min-1; LM, 48.9±4.4 kg; body mass, 64.0±5.2 kg; and FISsprint, 116.4±59.6 points. The following power function models were established for the prediction of FISsprint: 3.91×105 ∙ VO -6.00 2max and 6.95×1010 ∙ LM-5.25; these models explained 66% (P=0.0043 and 52% (P=0.019, respectively, of the variance in the FISsprint. Body mass failed to contribute to both models; hence, the models are based on V̇O2max and LM expressed absolutely. The results demonstrate that the physiological variables that reflect aerobic power and anaerobic capacity are important indicators of competitive sprint performance among elite female skiers. To accurately indicate performance capability among elite female skiers, the presented power function models should be used. Skiers whose V̇O2max differs by 1% will differ in their FISsprint by 5.8%, whereas the corresponding 1% difference in LM is related to an FISsprint difference of 5.1%, where both differences are in favor of the skier with

  11. Body mass index, but not FTO genotype or major depressive disorder, influences brain structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, J H; Boyle, C P; Simmons, A; Cohen-Woods, S; Rivera, M; McGuffin, P; Thompson, P M; Fu, C H Y

    2013-11-12

    Obesity and major depressive disorder (MDD) are highly prevalent and often comorbid health conditions. Both are associated with differences in brain structure and are genetically influenced. Yet, little is known about how obesity, MDD, and known risk genotypes might interact in the brain. Subjects were 81 patients with MDD (mean age 48.6 years) and 69 matched healthy controls (mean age 51.2 years). Subjects underwent 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging, genotyping for the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene rs3751812 polymorphism, and measurements for body mass index (BMI). We conducted a whole brain voxelwise analysis using tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to examine the main and interaction effects of diagnosis, BMI and FTO genotype. Significant effects of BMI were observed across widespread brain regions, indicating reductions in predominantly subcortical and white matter areas associated with increased BMI, but there was no influence of MDD or FTO rs3751812 genotype. There were no significant interaction effects. Within MDD patients, there was no effect of current depressive symptoms; however the use of antidepressant medication was associated with reductions in brain volume in the frontal lobe and cerebellum. Obesity affects brain structure in both healthy participants and MDD patients; this influence may account for some of the brain changes previously associated with MDD. BMI and the use of medication should ideally be measured and controlled for when conducting structural brain imaging research in MDD. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Long-term patterns of body mass and stature evolution within the hominin lineage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pablos, Adrián; Stock, Jay T.

    2017-01-01

    Body size is a central determinant of a species' biology and adaptive strategy, but the number of reliable estimates of hominin body mass and stature have been insufficient to determine long-term patterns and subtle interactions in these size components within our lineage. Here, we analyse 254 body mass and 204 stature estimates from a total of 311 hominin specimens dating from 4.4 Ma to the Holocene using multi-level chronological and taxonomic analytical categories. The results demonstrate complex temporal patterns of body size variation with phases of relative stasis intermitted by periods of rapid increases. The observed trajectories could result from punctuated increases at speciation events, but also differential proliferation of large-bodied taxa or the extinction of small-bodied populations. Combined taxonomic and temporal analyses show that in relation to australopithecines, early Homo is characterized by significantly larger average body mass and stature but retains considerable diversity, including small body sizes. Within later Homo, stature and body mass evolution follow different trajectories: average modern stature is maintained from ca 1.6 Ma, while consistently higher body masses are not established until the Middle Pleistocene at ca 0.5–0.4 Ma, likely caused by directional selection related to colonizing higher latitudes. Selection against small-bodied individuals (less than 40 kg; less than 140 cm) after 1.4 Ma is associated with a decrease in relative size variability in later Homo species compared with earlier Homo and australopithecines. The isolated small-bodied individuals of Homo naledi (ca 0.3 Ma) and Homo floresiensis (ca 100–60 ka) constitute important exceptions to these general patterns, adding further layers of complexity to the evolution of body size within the genus Homo. At the end of the Late Pleistocene and Holocene, body size in Homo sapiens declines on average, but also extends to lower limits not seen in