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Sample records for body irradiation induced

  1. Chondrosarcoma arising within a radiation-induced osteochondroma several years following childhood total body irradiation: Case report

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    Nagata, Shuji [Kurume University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Fukuoka (Japan); Shen, Robert K. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Surgery, Rochester, MN (United States); Laack, Nadia N. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiation Oncology, Rochester, MN (United States); Inwards, Carrie Y. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Pathology, Rochester, MN (United States); Wenger, Doris E.; Amrami, Kimberly K. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Malignant degeneration arising in radiation-induced osteochondromas is extremely rare. We report a case of a 34-year-old man with a chondrosarcoma arising from an osteochondroma of the left posterior eighth rib that developed following total body irradiation received as part of the conditioning regimen prior to bone marrow transplantation at age 8. To our knowledge, this is only the fourth reported case of a chondrosarcoma arising within a radiation-induced osteochondroma and the first case occurring following childhood total body irradiation. (orig.)

  2. Stimulation of hematopoietic stem cells by interferon inducer in nonhuman primates receiving fractionated total body irradiation

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    Lvovsky, E.A. (George Washington Univ. Medical Center, Washington, DC); Levine, P.H.; Bengali, Z.; Leiseca, S.A.; Cicmanec, J.L.; Robinson, J.E.; Bautro, N.; Levy, H.B.; Scott, R.M.

    1982-10-01

    Interferon response and hematopoietic stem cells (spleen colony forming units--CFU-S) were studied in rhesus monkeys subjected to fractionated total body irradiation (FTBI). An interferon inducer, a nuclease resistant complex of polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid with poly-L-lysine and carboxmethylcellulose(-poly(ICLC)) was used. Poly(ICLC) at 3.75 mg/m/sup 2/ was given I.V. to 7 monkeys, 5 of which, starting 24 hours later, received 50 rad of 4 MV X rays twice a week at 2.5 weeks (total of 250 rad). Another group of 4 monkeys received FTBI only. Although the initial interferon response was similar in both groups treated wih poly(ICLC)--800 international units (IU), the animals that receiving FTBI showed reduced interferon levels after 100 rad. These animals, however, did not develop the hyporesponsiveness to subsequent poly(ICLC) injections that was observed in non-irradiated monkeys. Stabile interferon response (30-100 IU) in the FTBI group paralleled the prolonged persistence of the drug in their serum. Bone marrow (BM) aspirates from animals receiving FTBI and poly(ICLC) contained more CFU-S per 10/sup 6/ nucleated cells than those treated with poly(ICLC) along or FTBI with and without poly(ICLC) lead to thrombocytopenia and leukopenia. Lower white blood cell (WBC) count was found in irradiated animals treated with poly(ICLC). Partial alopecia was observed in animals receiving poly(ICLC). Two animals--one in the poly(ICLC) and FTBI group and the other receiving FTBI along, died with thrombocytopenia and leukopenia.

  3. Whole Body Irradiation Induces Cutaneous Dendritic Cells Depletion via NF-κB Activation

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    Yanyong Yang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Effect of ionizing radiation on cutaneous dendritic cells (cDC is critical to its influence on immune status of the skin, which plays an important role in the progression and recovery of radiation skin sickness. This study was to study the influence of whole body irradiation (WBI on the cDC. Methods: Density of epidermal and dermal DC was determined with a fluorescent microscopy and the DC numbers in lymph node were measured by flow cytometry. A FITC induced migration assay was also used to study the migration of DC. The expressions of cytokines and chemokines were evaluated by Realtime PCR, and the protein level of was measured by Western blot. Results: WBI caused depletion of cDC in epidermal as well as dermal and augmented FITC-induced migration of DC to the draining lymph node (LN. The number of DC migrated from ear explants to the CCL19-containing medium also increased after exposure to WBI. It was also found that WBI increased mRNA level of CCL19/CCL21 as well as CCR7 in LN and skin tissue. The expressions of TNFa, IL-1a, IL-1ß, and IL-6 in skin tissues were also greatly induced by WBI in a dose dependent manner. Finally, we found that WBI induced translocation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB and that the radiation-induced migration of DC was blocked by NF-κB inhibitor or TLR4 knockout. Conclusion: WBI caused cDC depletion through induction of DC migration to the draining LN, which might result from the activation of NF-κB and the induction of inflammatory microenvironment within the skin.

  4. Organ-specific responses of total body irradiated doxycycline-inducible manganese superoxide dismutase Tet/Tet mice.

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    Rhieu, Byung Han; Shinde, Ashwin; Epperly, Michael W; Dixon, Tracy; Wang, Hong; Chaillet, Richard; Greenberger, Joel S

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated doxycycline-inducible manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD(tet/tet)) mice after 9.25 Gy total-body irradiation (TBI) or 20 Gy thoracic irradiation. Six-week-old MnSOD(tet/tet) or control C57BL/6NHsd mice on or off doxycycline (doxy) in food received 9.25 Gy TBI, were sacrificed at day 19 and bone marrow, brain, esophagus, heart, intestine, kidney, liver, lung, spleen and tongue harvested, total RNAs extracted and transcripts for irradiation response genes quantitated by real time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). MnSOD(tet/tet) mice only survived with daily injections of doxy beginning 5 days after birth until weaning, at which time they were placed on food containing doxy. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) transcript levels were reduced in all tissues except the lung. Adult mice survived with low MnSOD levels, but induced by doxy or TBI. Thoracic-irradiated MnSOD(tet/tet) mice survived past day 120. MnSOD(tet/tet) mice should be valuable for elucidating the role of MnSOD in growth and irradiation response. Copyright © 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  5. Hydrogen-Rich Water Ameliorates Total Body Irradiation-Induced Hematopoietic Stem Cell Injury by Reducing Hydroxyl Radical

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    Junling Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined whether consumption of hydrogen-rich water (HW could ameliorate hematopoietic stem cell (HSC injury in mice with total body irradiation (TBI. The results indicated that HW alleviated TBI-induced HSC injury with respect to cell number alteration and to the self-renewal and differentiation of HSCs. HW specifically decreased hydroxyl radical (OH∙ levels in the c-kit+ cells of 4 Gy irradiated mice. Proliferative bone marrow cells (BMCs increased and apoptotic c-kit+ cells decreased in irradiated mice uptaken with HW. In addition, the mean fluorescence intensity (MFI of γ-H2AX and percentage of 8-oxoguanine positive cells significantly decreased in HW-treated c-kit+ cells, indicating that HW can alleviate TBI-induced DNA damage and oxidative DNA damage in c-kit+ cells. Finally, the cell cycle (P21, cell apoptosis (BCL-XL and BAK, and oxidative stress (NRF2, HO-1, NQO1, SOD, and GPX1 proteins were significantly altered by HW in irradiated mouse c-kit+ cells. Collectively, the present results suggest that HW protects against TBI-induced HSC injury.

  6. Total Body Irradiation in the "Hematopoietic" Dose Range Induces Substantial Intestinal Injury in Non-Human Primates.

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    Wang, Junru; Shao, Lijian; Hendrickson, Howard P; Liu, Liya; Chang, Jianhui; Luo, Yi; Seng, John; Pouliot, Mylene; Authier, Simon; Zhou, Daohong; Allaben, William; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2015-11-01

    The non-human primate has been a useful model for studies of human acute radiation syndrome (ARS). However, to date structural changes in various parts of the intestine after total body irradiation (TBI) have not been systematically studied in this model. Here we report on our current study of TBI-induced intestinal structural injury in the non-human primate after doses typically associated with hematopoietic ARS. Twenty-four non-human primates were divided into three groups: sham-irradiated control group; and total body cobalt-60 (60Co) 6.7 Gy gamma-irradiated group; and total body 60Co 7.4 Gy gamma-irradiated group. After animals were euthanized at day 4, 7 and 12 postirradiation, sections of small intestine (duodenum, proximal jejunum, distal jejunum and ileum) were collected and fixed in 10% formalin. The intestinal mucosal surface length, villus height and crypt depths were assessed by computer-assisted image analysis. Plasma citrulline levels were determined using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Total bone marrow cells were counted and hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in bone marrow were analyzed by flow cytometer. Histopathologically, all segments exhibited conspicuous disappearance of plicae circulares and prominent atrophy of crypts and villi. Intestinal mucosal surface length was significantly decreased in all intestinal segments on day 4, 7 and 12 after irradiation (P 0.05). Crypt depth was also significantly reduced in all segments on day 4, 7 and 12 after irradiation (P irradiation, consistent with intestinal mucosal injury. Both 6.7 and 7.4 Gy TBI reduced total number of bone marrow cells. And further analysis showed that the number and function of CD45(+)CD34(+) hematopoietic stem/progenitors in bone marrow decreased significantly. In summary, TBI in the hematopoietic ARS dose range induces substantial intestinal injury in all segments of the small bowel. These findings underscore the importance of maintaining the

  7. Protective Effects of Hong Shan Capsule against Lethal Total-Body Irradiation-Induced Damage in Wistar Rats

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    Jianzhong Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hong Shan Capsule (HSC, a crude drug of 11 medicinal herbs, was used in clinical practice for the treatment of radiation injuries in China. In this study, we investigated its protection in rats against acute lethal total-body irradiation (TBI. Pre-administration of HSC reduced the radiation sickness characteristics, while increasing the 30-day survival of the irradiated rats. Administration of HSC also reduced the radiation sickness characteristics and increased the 30-day survival of mice after exposure to lethal TBI. Ultrastructural observation illustrated that the pretreatment of rats with HSC significantly attenuated the TBI-induced morphological changes in the different organs of irradiated rats. Gene expression profiles revealed the dramatic effect of HSC on alterations of gene expression caused by lethal TBI. Pretreatment with HSC prevented differential expression of 66% (1398 genes of 2126 genes differentially expressed in response to TBI. Pathway enrichment analysis indicated that these genes were mainly involved in a total of 32 pathways, such as pathways in cancer and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathway. Our analysis indicated that the pretreatment of rats with HSC modulated these pathways induced by lethal TBI, such as multiple MAPK pathways, suggesting that pretreatment with HSC might provide protective effects on lethal TBI mainly or partially through the modulation of these pathways. Our data suggest that HSC has the potential to be used as an effective therapeutic or radio-protective agent to minimize irradiation damage.

  8. Protective Effects of Hong Shan Capsule against Lethal Total-Body Irradiation-Induced Damage in Wistar Rats.

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    Li, Jianzhong; Xu, Jing; Xu, Weiheng; Qi, Yang; Lu, Yiming; Qiu, Lei; Hu, Zhenlin; Chu, Zhiyong; Chai, Yifeng; Zhang, Junping

    2015-08-12

    Hong Shan Capsule (HSC), a crude drug of 11 medicinal herbs, was used in clinical practice for the treatment of radiation injuries in China. In this study, we investigated its protection in rats against acute lethal total-body irradiation (TBI). Pre-administration of HSC reduced the radiation sickness characteristics, while increasing the 30-day survival of the irradiated rats. Administration of HSC also reduced the radiation sickness characteristics and increased the 30-day survival of mice after exposure to lethal TBI. Ultrastructural observation illustrated that the pretreatment of rats with HSC significantly attenuated the TBI-induced morphological changes in the different organs of irradiated rats. Gene expression profiles revealed the dramatic effect of HSC on alterations of gene expression caused by lethal TBI. Pretreatment with HSC prevented differential expression of 66% (1398 genes) of 2126 genes differentially expressed in response to TBI. Pathway enrichment analysis indicated that these genes were mainly involved in a total of 32 pathways, such as pathways in cancer and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Our analysis indicated that the pretreatment of rats with HSC modulated these pathways induced by lethal TBI, such as multiple MAPK pathways, suggesting that pretreatment with HSC might provide protective effects on lethal TBI mainly or partially through the modulation of these pathways. Our data suggest that HSC has the potential to be used as an effective therapeutic or radio-protective agent to minimize irradiation damage.

  9. SIGN-R1 and complement factors are involved in the systemic clearance of radiation-induced apoptotic cells in whole-body irradiated mice

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    Park, Jin-Yeon; Loh, SoHee; Cho, Eun-hee [Department of Biomedical Science & Technology, Konkuk University, 1 Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hyeong-Jwa [Division of Radiation Effect, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 215-4, 75 Nowon gil Nowon-Gu, Seoul, 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Na, Tae-Young [College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-741 (Korea, Republic of); Nemeno, Judee Grace E.; Lee, Jeong Ik [Regenerative Medicine Laboratory, Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, Seoul, 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Taek Joon [Department of Food and Nutrition, Yuhan College, Bucheon, Gyeonggi-do, 422-749 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, In-Soo [Department of Infectious Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, 1 Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Minyoung [Division of Radiation Effect, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 215-4, 75 Nowon gil Nowon-Gu, Seoul, 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae-Seon [Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, Inha University, Incheon, 400-712 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Young-Sun, E-mail: kangys1967@naver.com [Department of Biomedical Science & Technology, Konkuk University, 1 Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, 1 Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, 143-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-07

    Although SIGN-R1-mediated complement activation pathway has been shown to enhance the systemic clearance of apoptotic cells, the role of SIGN-R1 in the clearance of radiation-induced apoptotic cells has not been characterized and was investigated in this study. Our data indicated that whole-body γ-irradiation of mice increased caspase-3{sup +} apoptotic lymphocyte numbers in secondary lymphoid organs. Following γ-irradiation, SIGN-R1 and complements (C4 and C3) were simultaneously increased only in the mice spleen tissue among the assessed tissues. In particular, C3 was exclusively activated in the spleen. The delayed clearance of apoptotic cells was markedly prevalent in the spleen and liver of SIGN-R1 KO mice, followed by a significant increase of CD11b{sup +} cells. These results indicate that SIGN-R1 and complement factors play an important role in the systemic clearance of radiation-induced apoptotic innate immune cells to maintain tissue homeostasis after γ-irradiation. - Highlights: • Splenic SIGN-R1{sup +} macrophages are activated after γ-irradiation. • C3 and C4 levels increased and C3 was activated in the spleen after γ-irradiation. • SIGN-R1 mediated the systemic clearance of radiation-induced apoptotic cells in spleen and liver.

  10. Differential effects of whole-body {gamma}-irradiation on antinociception induced by morphine and {beta}-endorphin administered intracerebroventricularly in the mouse

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    Kim, J.K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Chung, K.M.; Park, T.W.

    2000-05-01

    Two separate lines of evidence suggested the present study. First, intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administered morphine (a {mu}-opioid receptor agonist) and {beta}-endorphin (an {epsilon}-opioid receptor agonist) produce antinociception by activating different descending pain inhibitory systems. Second, {gamma}-irradiation attenuates the acute antinociceptive action of i.c.v. injected morphine, but not DPLPE (a {delta}-opioid receptor agonist), in mice. These findings prompted us to investigate the effect of {gamma}-irradiation on the antinociception produced by i.c.v. injected morphine and {beta}-endorphin in male ICR mice. In one group, mice were exposed to whole-body irradiation at a dose of 5 Gy from a {sup 60}Co {gamma}-source and the antinociceptive effects were tested 5, 30, 60,90 and 180 min after irradiation using the 1% acetic acid-induced writhing test (10 ml/kg). The antinociceptive effect was produced time-dependently and reached its maximum at 90 min after irradiation. Thus, time was fixed in the following studies. In another group, mice were irradiated with 5 Gy and tested 90 minutes later for antinociception produced by i.c.v. administration of morphine (50 and 100 ng/mouse) or {beta}-endorphin (31 ng/mouse). Irradiation significantly potentiated the antinociception produced by {beta}-endorphin. However, the antinociception produced by morphine was not affected by irradiation. These results demonstrate a differential sensitivity of {mu}- and {epsilon}-opioid receptors to {gamma}-irradiation, in addition, support the hypothesis that morphine and {beta}-endorphin administered supraspinally produce antinociception by different neuronal mechanisms. (author)

  11. Total body irradiation: current indications; L`irradiation corporelle totale: les indications actuelles

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    Giraud, P.; Danhier, S.; Dubray, B.; Cosset, J.M. [Institut Curie, 75 - Paris (France)

    1998-05-01

    The choice of dose and fractionation for total body irradiation is made difficult by the large number of considerations to be taken into account. The outcome of bone marrow transplantation after total body irradiation can be understood in terms of tumor cell killing, engraftment, and normal tissue damage, each of these endpoints being influenced by irradiation-, disease-, transplant-, and patient- related factors. Interpretation of clinical data is further hampered by the overwhelming influence of logistic constraints, the small numbers of randomized studies, and the concomitant variations in total dose and fraction size or dose rate. So far, three cautious conclusions can be drawn in order to tentatively adapt the total body irradiation schedule to clinically-relevant situations. Firstly, the organs at risk for normal tissue damage (lung, liver, lens, kidney) are protected by delivering small doses per fraction at low dose rate. This suggests that, when toxicity is at stake (e.g. in children), fractionated irradiation should be preferred, provided that inter-fraction intervals are long enough. Secondly, fractionated irradiation should be avoided in case of T-cell depleted transplant, given the high risk of graft rejection in this setting. An alternative would be to increase total (or fractional) dose of fractionated total body irradiation, but this approach is likely to induce more normal tissue toxicity. Thirdly, clinical data have shown higher relapse rates in chronic myeloid leukemia after fractionated or low dose rate total body irradiation, suggesting that fractionated irradiation should not be recommended, unless total (or fractional) dose is increased. Total body irradiation-containing regimens, primarily cyclophosphamide / total body irradiation, are either equivalent to or better than the chemotherapy-only regimens, primarily busulfan / cyclophosphamide. Busulfan / cyclophosphamide certainly represents a reasonable alternative, especially in patients who

  12. Metabolic changes in serum steroids induced by total-body irradiation of female C57B/6 mice.

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    Moon, Ju-Yeon; Shin, Hee-June; Son, Hyun-Hwa; Lee, Jeongae; Jung, Uhee; Jo, Sung-Kee; Kim, Hyun Sik; Kwon, Kyung-Hoon; Park, Kyu Hwan; Chung, Bong Chul; Choi, Man Ho

    2014-05-01

    The short- and long-term effects of a single exposure to gamma radiation on steroid metabolism were investigated in mice. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to generate quantitative profiles of serum steroid levels in mice that had undergone total-body irradiation (TBI) at doses of 0Gy, 1Gy, and 4Gy. Following TBI, serum samples were collected at the pre-dose time point and 1, 3, 6, and 9 months after TBI. Serum levels of progestins, progesterone, 5β-DHP, 5α-DHP, and 20α-DHP showed a significant down-regulation following short-term exposure to 4Gy, with the exception of 20α-DHP, which was significantly decreased at each of the time points measured. The corticosteroids 5α-THDOC and 5α-DHB were significantly elevated at each of the time points measured after exposure to either 1 or 4Gy. Among the sterols, 24S-OH-cholestoerol showed a dose-related elevation after irradiation that reached significance in the high dose group at the 6- and 9-month time points.

  13. MASM, a Matrine Derivative, Offers Radioprotection by Modulating Lethal Total-Body Irradiation-Induced Multiple Signaling Pathways in Wistar Rats.

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    Li, Jianzhong; Xu, Jing; Lu, Yiming; Qiu, Lei; Xu, Weiheng; Lu, Bin; Hu, Zhenlin; Chu, Zhiyong; Chai, Yifeng; Zhang, Junping

    2016-05-17

    Matrine is an alkaloid extracted from Sophora flavescens Ait and has many biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antitumor, anti-fibrosis, and immunosuppressive properties. In our previous studies, the matrine derivative MASM was synthesized and exhibited potent inhibitory activity against liver fibrosis. In this study, we mainly investigated its protection against lethal total-body irradiation (TBI) in rats. Administration of MASM reduced the radiation sickness characteristics and increased the 30-day survival of rats before or after lethal TBI. Ultrastructural observation illustrated that pretreatment of rats with MASM significantly attenuated the TBI-induced morphological changes in the different organs of irradiated rats. Gene expression profiles revealed that pretreatment with MASM had a dramatic effect on gene expression changes caused by TBI. Pretreatment with MASM prevented differential expression of 53% (765 genes) of 1445 differentially expressed genes induced by TBI. Pathway enrichment analysis indicated that these genes were mainly involved in a total of 21 pathways, such as metabolic pathways, pathways in cancer, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. Our data indicated that pretreatment of rats with MASM modulated these pathways induced by TBI, suggesting that the pretreatment with MASM might provide the protective effects on lethal TBI mainly or partially through the modulation of these pathways, such as multiple MAPK pathways. Therefore, MASM has the potential to be used as an effective therapeutic or radioprotective agent to minimize irradiation damages and in combination with radiotherapy to improve the efficacy of cancer therapy.

  14. MASM, a Matrine Derivative, Offers Radioprotection by Modulating Lethal Total-Body Irradiation-Induced Multiple Signaling Pathways in Wistar Rats

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    Jianzhong Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Matrine is an alkaloid extracted from Sophora flavescens Ait and has many biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antitumor, anti-fibrosis, and immunosuppressive properties. In our previous studies, the matrine derivative MASM was synthesized and exhibited potent inhibitory activity against liver fibrosis. In this study, we mainly investigated its protection against lethal total-body irradiation (TBI in rats. Administration of MASM reduced the radiation sickness characteristics and increased the 30-day survival of rats before or after lethal TBI. Ultrastructural observation illustrated that pretreatment of rats with MASM significantly attenuated the TBI-induced morphological changes in the different organs of irradiated rats. Gene expression profiles revealed that pretreatment with MASM had a dramatic effect on gene expression changes caused by TBI. Pretreatment with MASM prevented differential expression of 53% (765 genes of 1445 differentially expressed genes induced by TBI. Pathway enrichment analysis indicated that these genes were mainly involved in a total of 21 pathways, such as metabolic pathways, pathways in cancer, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways. Our data indicated that pretreatment of rats with MASM modulated these pathways induced by TBI, suggesting that the pretreatment with MASM might provide the protective effects on lethal TBI mainly or partially through the modulation of these pathways, such as multiple MAPK pathways. Therefore, MASM has the potential to be used as an effective therapeutic or radioprotective agent to minimize irradiation damages and in combination with radiotherapy to improve the efficacy of cancer therapy.

  15. Studies on immunity to Schistosoma mansoni in vivo: whole-body irradiation has no effect on vaccine-induced resistance in mice

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    Vignali, D.A.A.; Bickle, Q.D.; Taylor, M.G.

    1988-02-01

    Actively immunized mice, whole-body irradiated with 650 or 525 rad., manifested comparable levels of resistance to Schistosoma mansoni compared with unirradiated, immunized mice in spite of a marked reduction in circulating leucocytes and platelets, and despite an abrogation of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) (Type IV) reponse to schistosomular antigens. However, limited histopathological comparison of lung sections from irradiated and unirradiated mice 7 days post-challenge showed that cellular reactions ('foci') around parasites were similar in size and cellular composition except that in irradiated mice, eosinophils were poorly represented both in the foci and in lung tissue in general. Neither presumed immune complex-mediated (Type III, Arthus reaction) hypersensitivity nor serum anti-schistosomulum extract antibody levels were affected. The pattern of /sup 125/I-labelled schistosomular surface antigens immunoprecipitated with serum from irradiated and unirradiated mice was essentially similar. These results are consistent with antibody playing an important role in vaccine-induced immunity in mice but suggest that radiosensitive T cell function and radiosensitive cells, such as platelets and polymorphonuclear cells, including eosinophils, may not be essential.

  16. Total body 100-mGy X-irradiation does not induce Alzheimer's disease-like pathogenesis or memory impairment in mice.

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    Wang, Bing; Tanaka, Kaoru; Ji, Bin; Ono, Maiko; Fang, Yaqun; Ninomiya, Yasuharu; Maruyama, Kouichi; Izumi-Nakajima, Nakako; Begum, Nasrin; Higuchi, Makoto; Fujimori, Akira; Uehara, Yoshihiko; Nakajima, Tetsuo; Suhara, Tetsuya; Ono, Tetsuya; Nenoi, Mitsuru

    2014-01-01

    The cause and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are poorly understood. Possible cognitive and behavioral consequences induced by low-dose radiation are important because humans are exposed to ionizing radiation from various sources. Early transcriptional response in murine brain to low-dose X-rays (100 mGy) has been reported, suggesting alterations of molecular networks and pathways associated with cognitive functions, advanced aging and AD. To investigate acute and late transcriptional, pathological and cognitive consequences of low-dose radiation, we applied an acute dose of 100-mGy total body irradiation (TBI) with X-rays to C57BL/6J Jms mice. We collected hippocampi and analyzed expression of 84 AD-related genes. Mouse learning ability and memory were assessed with the Morris water maze test. We performed in vivo PET scans with (11)C-PIB, a radiolabeled ligand for amyloid imaging, to detect fibrillary amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) accumulation, and examined characteristic AD pathologies with immunohistochemical staining of amyloid precursor protein (APP), Aβ, tau and phosphorylated tau (p-tau). mRNA studies showed significant downregulation of only two of 84 AD-related genes, Apbb1 and Lrp1, at 4 h after irradiation, and of only one gene, Il1α, at 1 year after irradiation. Spatial learning ability and memory were not significantly affected at 1 or 2 years after irradiation. No induction of amyloid fibrillogenesis or changes in APP, Aβ, tau, or p-tau expression was detected at 4 months or 2 years after irradiation. TBI induced early or late transcriptional alteration in only a few AD-related genes but did not significantly affect spatial learning, memory or AD-like pathological change in mice.

  17. Total body irradiation of donors can alter the course of tolerance and induce acute rejection in a spontaneous tolerance rat liver transplantation model.

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    Zhang, YeWei; Zhao, HeWei; Bo, Lin; Yang, YinXue; Lu, Xiang; Sun, JingFeng; Wen, JianFei; He, Xia; Yin, GuoWen

    2012-09-01

    Liver transplantation is an established therapy for end-stage liver diseases. Graft rejection occurs unless the recipient receives immunosuppression after transplantation. This study aimed to explore the mechanism of acute rejection of liver allografts in rats pre-treated with total body irradiation to eliminate passenger lymphocytes and to define the role of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells in the induction of immunotolerance in the recipient. Male Lewis rats were used as donors and male DA rats were recipients. Rats were randomly assigned to the following four groups: control group, homogeneity liver transplantation group, idio-immunotolerance group and acute rejection group. After transplantation, the survival time of each group, serum alanine aminotransferase, total bilirubin levels, number of Foxp3(+)CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells, expression of glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor on T cell subgroups, histopathology of the hepatic graft and spleen cytotoxic T lymphocyte lytic activity were measured. In the acute rejection group, where donors were preconditioned with total body irradiation before liver transplantation, all recipients died between day 17 and day 21. On day 14, serum alanine aminotransferase increased significantly to (459.2±76.9) U L(-1), total bilirubin increased to (124.1±33.7) μmol L(-1) (Pliver graft, and thus affected the course of tolerance and induced acute rejection after liver transplantation.

  18. Captopril Modulates Hypoxia-Inducible Factors and Erythropoietin Responses in a Murine Model of Total Body Irradiation

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    2011-01-01

    high-dose irradiation may aid in DNA repair, cell survival, and hematopoietic cell recovery [54]. We previously observed that captopril treatment...expression in tumor cells and other tissues. Oncologist. 2004;9(suppl 5):18–30. 28. Lam SY, Tipoe GL, Fung ML. Upregulation of erythropoietin and its

  19. Mitigating the Effects of Xuebijing Injection on Hematopoietic Cell Injury Induced by Total Body Irradiation with γ rays by Decreasing Reactive Oxygen Species Levels

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    Deguan Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic injury is the most common side effect of radiotherapy. However, the methods available for the mitigating of radiation injury remain limited. Xuebijing injection (XBJ is a traditional Chinese medicine used to treat sepsis in the clinic. In this study, we investigated the effects of XBJ on the survival rate in mice with hematopoietic injury induced by γ ray ionizing radiation (IR. Mice were intraperitoneally injected with XBJ daily for seven days after total body irradiation (TBI. Our results showed that XBJ (0.4 mL/kg significantly increased 30-day survival rates in mice exposed to 7.5 Gy TBI. This effect may be attributable to improved preservation of white blood cells (WBCs and hematopoietic cells, given that bone marrow (BM cells from XBJ-treated mice produced more granulocyte-macrophage colony forming units (CFU-GM than that in the 2 Gy/TBI group. XBJ also decreased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS by increasing glutathione (GSH and superoxide dismutase (SOD levels in serum and attenuated the increased BM cell apoptosis caused by 2 Gy/TBI. In conclusion, these findings suggest that XBJ enhances the survival rate of irradiated mice and attenuates the effects of radiation on hematopoietic injury by decreasing ROS production in BM cells, indicating that XBJ may be a promising therapeutic candidate for reducing hematopoietic radiation injury.

  20. Effects of Pre-exposure Mouse Pituitary with Low-dose 60Co γ-ray on Growth Hormone (GH) and Body Mass Induced by Subsequent High-dose Irradiation

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    ZhangHong; LiWenjian; JingXiaodong; LiuBing; MinFengling; ZhouQingming; XieYi

    2003-01-01

    The pituitary of the B6C3F1 hybrid strain mice were irradiated with 0.05 Gy of 60Co γ-ray as the pre-exposure dose (D1), and were then irradiated with 2 Gy of 60Co γ-ray as challenging irradiation dose (D2) at 4h after per-exposure. Body weight and serum growth hormone (GH) were measured at 35th day after irradiation. The results showed that irradiation of mouse testes with 2 Gy of 60Co γ-ray significantly diminished mousebody weight and level of serum GH (Table). Pre-exposure with a low-dose (0.05 Gy) of 60Co γ-ray significantly alleviated reductions of mouse body weight and level of serum GH induced by subsequent a high-dose (2 Gy) irradiation (Table). The data suggested that low-dose ionizing irradiation can induce adaptive responses to the harmful effects of pituitary by subsequent high-dose exposure.

  1. Alterations in rat cardiac myosin isozymes induced by whole-body irradiation are prevented by 3,5,3'-L-triiodothyronine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litten, R.Z.; Fein, H.G.; Gainey, G.T.; Walden, T.L.; Smallridge, R.C. (Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Changes in cardiac myosin isozymes and serum thyroid hormone levels were investigated in rats following 10 Gy whole-body gamma irradiation. The percent beta-myosin heavy chain increased from 21.3 {plus minus} 1.8 to 28.1 {plus minus} 6.8 (NS) at 3-day postirradiation, 37.7 {plus minus} 1.9 (P less than .001) at 6-day postirradiation, and 43.8 {plus minus} 3.3 (P less than .001) at 9-day postirradiation. Along with the change in myosin isozymes was a significant 53% decrease (P less than .001) in the serum thyroxine (T4) level by day 3 postirradiation, remaining depressed through day 9 postirradiation. The serum 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) level, however, was normal until day 9, when significant depression was also observed. In contrast, the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level was significantly increased by fourfold at day 3, returning to near normal values by day 9 postirradiation. Daily injections of physiological doses of T3 (0.3 microgram/100 g body weight) prevented the change in the myosin isozymes following whole-body irradiation. Daily pharmacological injections of T3 (3.0 micrograms/100 g body weight) to the irradiated rats produced a further decrease in the percent beta-myosin heavy chain (below control values) indicating tissue hyperthyroidism. Thus, this study suggests that the change in myosin isozymes following whole-body irradiation is caused by an alteration in thyroid hormone activity.

  2. Modulation of in utero total body irradiation induced newborn mouse growth retardation by maternal manganese superoxide dismutase-plasmid liposome (MnSOD-PL) gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epperly, M W; Smith, T; Zhang, X; Goff, J P; Franicola, D; Greenberger, B; Komanduri, P; Wang, H; Greenberger, J S

    2011-06-01

    To determine the effects of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) plasmid liposome (PL) maternal radioprotection on fetal mice, timed pregnant female mice (E14 gestation) were irradiated to 3.0 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) dose, and the number, weight and growth and development over 6 months after birth of newborn mice was quantitated compared with irradiated controls. Maternal MnSOD-PL treatment at E13 improved pup survival at birth (5.4±0.9 per litter) compared with non-irradiated 3.0 Gy controls 4.9±1.1. There was no statistically significant difference in newborn abnormalities, male to female ratio in newborn litters, or other evidence of teratogenesis in surviving newborn mice from MnSOD-PL treated compared with irradiated controls. However, E14 3 Gy irradiated pups from gene therapy-treated mothers showed a significant increase in both growth and overall survival over 6 months after birth (P=0.0022). To determine if transgene product crossed the placenta pregnant E13 mice were injected intravenously with hemagglutinin-epitope-tagged MnSOD (100 μg plasmid in 100 μl liposomes), then after 24 h, fetal mice, placentas and maternal tissues were removed and tested by both immunohistochemistry and reverse transcriptase-PCR for transgene and product. There was no evidence of transgene or product in placenta or any fetal tissue while maternal liver was positive by both assays. The data provide evidence for fetal radioprotection by maternal MnSOD-PL gene therapy before irradiation, which is mediated by an indirect bystander effect and is associated with a significant improvement in both survival at birth and growth and development of newborn mice.

  3. Morphological studies on the healing process of tooth extraction wounds in whole body irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosokawa, Yoichiro (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Dentistry)

    1991-06-01

    The present studies were performed to investigate the healing process of the tooth extraction wound in whole body irradiated rats and to clarify the effect of irradiation on bone metabolism. One hundred and seven Wistar rats of about 100 g body weight were used and divided into 3 groups. Whole body irradiated rats were given single exposure with a dose of 8 Gy. The region of the left upper molars of local irradiated rats as controls, was exposed to 8 Gy. On the 7th day after irradiation, the left upper first molar of each rat was extracted. The rats were sacrificed at intervals of 1 to 14 days after extraction. Non-irradiated rats were sacrificed at the same intervals after extraction. The maxillary bone including the extraction wound was evaluated, histologically, histometrically and ultrastructurally. From the histological and histometrical findings, the difference of the healing process between non-irradiated rats and locally irradiated rats is not significant. In whole body irradiated rats, the healing process especially in the socket was disturbed. The osteoblastic new bone formation following production of granulation tissue was interfered with. Ultrastructurally, the cytoplasmic organellae were poorly developed in the osteoblast and osteoid formation was reduced in the socket. But periosteal new bone formation was the same as that of the locally irradiated rats. In whole body irradiated rats, the osteoclasts in the interradicular alveolar bone were decreased and have smaller nuclei, compared with non-irradiated and locally irradiated rats. Histometrically, the amount of bone loss was decreased in whole body irradiated rats. Ultrastructurally, the cyoplasmic organellae and ruffled border were poorly developed in the osteoclasts of whole body irradiated rats. The findings suggested that irradiation induced cytological changes not only in osteoblasts but in osteoclasts and these changes resulted in the delayed healing of extraction wound. (author) 106 refs.

  4. Total body irradiation for children with malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanuki, Eiichi; Maeno, Toshio; Kamata, Rikisaburo; Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Mugishima, Hideo [Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-12-01

    Total body irradiation combined with high dose chemotherapy has been performed just before bone marrow transplantation in 35 children with advanced malignancies, with the object of achieving successful transplantation and improving the prognosis. Simulation was performed as follows: back scatter, flatness, dose accumulation using randophantom and dose distribution using a thermo-luminescence dosimeter and linac-graphy. The standard error of dose distribution was within 10%. In neuroblastoma, of which there were 14 cases in stage IV and one case in stage III, the 5-year survival rate was 55%. In leukemia, of which all cases were in the high-risk group (7 cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and 2 of acute myeloblastic leukemia) the 5-year survival rate was 55%. The 5 cases having first remission survived disease-free while the 4 cases having non-first remission died. In malignant lymphoma (6 cases in stage IV and one case in stage III, with bulky mass) the 5-year survival rate was 67%. Four cases with other diagnoses (severe aplastic anemia, and others) all survived. As yet no side effects resulting from total body irradiation have been recognized in our cases, but a longer follow-up period is necessary to observe possible late side effects. (author).

  5. Total body irradiation with a sweeping beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pla, M.; Chenery, S.G.; Podgorsak, E.B.

    1983-01-01

    A technique for total body irradiation, in which the patient lies in the prone or supine position in the beam of a conventional column mounted 4 MV linear accelerator, is described. A sufficiently large radiation field is obtained by rotating the beam in a vertical plane about the source (i.e., sweeping beam) at a source-to-skin distance of 190 cm on the vertical axis. The variation of the midplane dose is less than +lt. slash-5% in parallel-opposed beams, when attenuators are placed over the region containing the lungs and bolus is employed around the head and legs. The percentage depth dose for the sweeping beam is identical to that of a stationary beam for the same collimator setting and source-to-skin distance. A method for monitoring the dose to the patient by means of a thimble ionization chamber located on the vertical beam axis is outlined. The average dose rates used are between 5 and 10 cGy/min. The design and placement of lung attenuators is simple. The treatment technique with the sweeping beam requires minimal modification of a treatment unit and can be applied on any unit which has a head swivel option.

  6. Cardiac injury after 10 gy total body irradiation: indirect role of effects on abdominal organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenarczyk, Marek; Lam, Vy; Jensen, Eric; Fish, Brian L; Su, Jidong; Koprowski, Stacy; Komorowski, Richard A; Harmann, Leanne; Migrino, Raymond Q; Li, X Allen; Hopewell, John W; Moulder, John E; Baker, John E

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether radiation-induced injury to the heart after 10 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) is direct or indirect. Young male WAG/RijCmcr rats received a 10 Gy single dose using TBI, upper hemi-body (UHB) irradiation, lower hemi-body (LHB) irradiation, TBI with the kidneys shielded or LHB irradiation with the intestines shielded. Age-matched, sham-irradiated rats served as controls. The lipid profile, kidney injury, heart and liver morphology and cardiac function were determined up to 120 days after irradiation. LHB, but not UHB irradiation, increased the risk factors for cardiac disease as well as the occurrence of cardiac and kidney injury in a way that was quantitatively and qualitatively similar to that observed after TBI. Shielding of the kidneys prevented the increases in risk factors for cardiac disease. Shielding of the intestines did not prevent the increases in risk factors for cardiac disease. There was no histological evidence of liver injury 120 days after irradiation. Injury to the heart from irradiation appears to be indirect, supporting the notion that injury to abdominal organs, principally the kidneys, is responsible for the increased risk factors for and the occurrence of cardiac disease after TBI and LHB irradiation.

  7. Development of a new method of whole body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishi, Kazushi (Wakayama Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1989-08-01

    A new method of whole body irradiation was developed using a linear accelerator linked to microprocessor. By this modified arc technique, a total body photon irradiation and a total skin electron irradiation were practical for narrow room. Approximative calculations were deviced for dose distribution. Dosimetric results were consistent with those previosly calculated. Local doses in lungs, neck and other areas were easily adjustable with arrangements of pre-set dose rate. In total skin electron irradation, six predeterminated postures and 'make up' irradiation were necessary to dose homogeneity over 'shady area' such as axillae. Clinically, a large arteriovenous malformation in an arm decreased with normalization of plethysmogram after treatment, and remarkable reductions of mycosis fungoides tumor were observed. This new method of total skin electron irradiation and total body photon therapy will clinically expand with the progress of bone marrow transplantation. (author).

  8. Changes in serum amylase and its isoenzymes after whole body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, A.; Jacobs, A.; Kohn, J.; Raymond, J.; Powles, R.L. (Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton (UK). Surrey Branch; Royal Marsden Hospital, Sutton (UK))

    1982-07-17

    A study was carried out to assess the effect of total body irradiation on pancreatic and parotid isoenzymes of amylase in patients about to undergo bone-marrow transplantation who had received high-dose cyclophosphamide. Twelve patients were studied, enzyme activity being measured before and at various times after total body irradiation. Serum total amylase activity rose rapidly within 12 hours of irradiation to a maximum at 36 hours, returning to normal by six days; most of the increase was derived from salivary damage, with a much smaller pancreatic component. These results confirm that radiation produces acute changes in amylase activity, which may be of use in assessing radiation-induced damage.

  9. IMMUNE TOLERANCE INDUCED BY GAMMA-RAY IRRADIATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    练燕; 王延江; 粟永萍; 冉新泽; 艾国平; 刘晓宏; 郭朝华; 程天民

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To detect the existence of immune tolerance induced by gamma-ray irradiation. Methods: Peritoneal cells were harvested from mice subjected to 5 Gy 60Co gamma-ray total body irradiation at 3d, 7d, 15d and 30d, then their counts, morphological changes and IL-12 gene expression were investigated. Results: After irradiation, the peritoneal cells were sharply reduced, the cell morphology shifted from round-like to polymorphic and fusiform with some processes, expression of IL-12 p35 was seriously suppressed, while that of IL-12 p40 greatly enhanced. Conclusion: Our data highly suggest that the gamma-ray irradiation could potentially induce dendritic cell (DC) commitment and immune tolerance.

  10. Pathways analysis of differential gene expression induced by engrafting doses of total body irradiation for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinjian; Wang, Yuanyuan; Li, Qiuxia; Tsai, Schickwann; Thomas, Alun; Shizuru, Judith A; Cao, Thai M

    2013-08-01

    A major challenge in allogeneic bone marrow (BM) transplantation is overcoming engraftment resistance to avoid the clinical problem of graft rejection. Identifying gene pathways that regulate BM engraftment may reveal molecular targets for overcoming engraftment barriers. Previously, we developed a mouse model of BM transplantation that utilizes recipient conditioning with non-myeloablative total body irradiation (TBI). We defined TBI doses that lead to graft rejection, that conversely are permissive for engraftment, and mouse strain variation with regards to the permissive TBI dose. We now report gene expression analysis, using Agilent Mouse 8x60K microarrays, in spleens of mice conditioned with varied TBI doses for correlation to the expected engraftment phenotype. The spleens of mice given engrafting doses of TBI, compared with non-engrafting TBI doses, demonstrated substantially broader gene expression changes, significant at the multiple testing-corrected P change ≥2. Functional analysis revealed significant enrichment for a down-regulated canonical pathway involving B-cell development. Genes enriched in this pathway suggest that suppressing donor antigen processing and presentation may be pivotal effects conferred by TBI to enable engraftment. Regardless of TBI dose and recipient mouse strain, pervasive genomic changes related to inflammation was observed and reflected by significant enrichment for canonical pathways and association with upstream regulators. These gene expression changes suggest that macrophage and complement pathways may be targeted to overcome engraftment barriers. These exploratory results highlight gene pathways that may be important in mediating BM engraftment resistance.

  11. Dose measurement for systemic irradiation with a moving table specially designed for total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, Makoto; Oida, Masatada; Nagumo, Junya; Fujita, Katsuhisa; Furuya, Teruo; Watanabe, Yoshiharu [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Hospital

    2001-07-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI) is performed in combination with chemotherapy to kill malignant tumor cells in the body prior to bone marrow transplantation. This study reports the results of dose measurements required for clinical application of the moving table technique to TBI. Since irradiation is performed as the table moves, the authors gathered sufficient basic data for irradiation by measuring output dose, tissue peak dose ratio (TPR), and the relationship between dose rate and movement velocity. The output doses were varied according to dose rate, movement velocity, radiation field, and source-target distance (STD) under these conditions. The authors measured the relationship between the dose rate and the movement velocity with the irradiation field and STD set to fit clinical applications. TPR during irradiation while moving differs from TPR during stationary irradiation, and it was measured according to the method of irradiation. The effect of body thickness was easily corrected by changing the movement velocity during the measurements. The authors measured the dose with a thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) during clinical application and confirmed the accuracy of the measurements. TBI with the moving table, it makes possible to perform bilateral irradiation in both posterior-anterior and anterior-posterior directions with the patient in the supine position, to reduce treatment time, to shield the lung well with reproducibility of posture, and to treat with high accuracy. (K.H.)

  12. Total body irradiation with a reconditioned cobalt teletherapy unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Michael D C; Larouche, Renée-Xavière; Olivares, Marina; Léger, Pierre; Larkin, Joe; Freeman, Carolyn R; Podgorsak, Ervin B

    2006-01-01

    While the current trend in radiotherapy is to replace cobalt teletherapy units with more versatile and technologically advanced linear accelerators, there remain some useful applications for older cobalt units. The expansion of our radiotherapy department involved the decommissioning of an isocentric cobalt teletherapy unit and the replacement of a column-mounted 4-MV LINAC that has been used for total body irradiation (TBI). To continue offering TBI treatments, we converted the decommissioned cobalt unit into a dedicated fixed-field total body irradiator and installed it in an existing medium-energy LINAC bunker. This article describes the logistical and dosimetric aspects of bringing a reconditioned cobalt teletherapy unit into clinical service as a total body irradiator.

  13. Acute and delayed toxicities of total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deeg, H.J.

    1983-12-01

    Total body irradiation is being used with increasing frequency for the treatment of lymphopoietic malignancies and in preparation for marrow transplantation. Acute toxicities include reversible gastroeneritis, mucositis, myelosuppression alopecia. As the success of treatment improves and more patients become long-term survivors, manifestations of delayed and chronic toxicity become evident. These include impairment of growth and development, gonadal failure and sterility, cataract formation and possibly secondary malignancies. The contribution of total body irradiation to the development of pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis is still poorly understood. Some of these changes are reversible or correctable, whereas others are permanent. Nevertheless, until equally effective but less toxic regimens become available, total body irradiation appears to be the treatment of choice to prepare patients with leukemia for marrow transplantation.

  14. Effect of melatonin and time of administration on irradiation-induced damage to rat testes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Take

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ionizing irradiation on testes and the protective effects of melatonin were investigated by immunohistochemical and electron microscopic methods. Eighty-two adult male Wistar rats were divided into 10 groups. The rats in the irradiated groups were exposed to a sublethal irradiation dose of 8 Gy, either to the total body or abdominopelvic region using a 60Co source at a focus of 80 cm away from the skin in the morning or evening together with vehicle (20% ethanol or melatonin administered 24 h before (10 mg/kg, immediately before (20 mg/kg and 24 h after irradiation (10 mg/kg, all ip. Caspace-3 immunoreactivity was increased in the irradiated group compared to control (P < 0.05. Melatonin-treated groups showed less apoptosis as indicated by a considerable decrease in caspace-3 immunoreactivity (P < 0.05. Electron microscopic examination showed that all spermatogenic cells, especially primary spermatocytes, displayed prominent degeneration in the groups submitted to total body and abdominopelvic irradiation. However, melatonin administration considerably inhibited these degenerative changes, especially in rats who received abdominopelvic irradiation. Total body and abdominopelvic irradiation induced identical apoptosis and testicular damage. Chronobiological assessment revealed that biologic rhythm does not alter the inductive effect of irradiation. These data indicate that melatonin protects against total body and abdominopelvic irradiation. Melatonin was more effective in the evening abdominopelvic irradiation and melatonin-treated group than in the total body irradiation and melatonin-treated group.

  15. Designing attenuators for total-body irradiation using virtual simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corns, R; Evans, M; Olivares, M; Dyke, L; Podgorsak, E B; Freeman, C R

    2000-01-01

    In total-body photon irradiation, the lungs are the most commonly shielded organ. Lung compensators are often designed by using high-energy portal films. Other organs, such as the kidneys and liver, are poorly visualized in portal films due to their unit-density composition. A computed tomography-based technique to design kidney and liver attenuators involves outlining these organs in a virtual simulation. The position and the shape of the attenuator are then determined from a digitally-reconstructed radiograph. Appropriate attenuator thickness is determined from measured transmission curves. This article provides a summary of this technique for total-body photon irradiation in a 4-MV photon beam.

  16. Acid base balance in the rabbit following whole-body gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassant, M.H.; Touchard, F.; Court, L. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee)

    1981-07-06

    2 hrs. after whole-body gamma irradiation (doses of 1.5 and 4.5 Gy) a metabolic acidosis developed in curarised rabbits placed under artificial respiration in order to eliminate radiation-induced respiratory effect. The metabolic acidosis was evaluated by measurement of the negative base excess. The results were compared to others obtained under different experimental procedures.

  17. Early stages of irradiation induced dislocations in urania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, A.; Onofri, C.; Van Brutzel, L.; Sabathier, C.; Dorosh, O.; Jagielski, J.

    2016-10-01

    The early stages of nucleation and growth of dislocations by irradiation in urania is clarified based on the combination of experiments and atomistic calculations. It is established that irradiation induced dislocations follow a five stage process: (i) point defects are first created by irradiation, (ii) they aggregate into clusters, (iii) from which nucleate Frank loops, (iv) which transform into unfaulted loops via Shockley that in turn grow, and (v) finally reorganize into forest dislocations. Stages (i)-(iii) participate in the lattice expansion while the onset of lattice contraction starts with stage (iv), i.e., when unfaulted loops nucleate. Irradiation induced dislocations operate in the spontaneous recombination regime, to be opposed to the thermal diffusion regime. Body of arguments collaborates to this statement, the main one is the comparison between characteristic distances estimated from the dose rate (Vat/(K0×τ ) ) 1/3 and from the diffusion coefficient (D×τ ) 1/2 . Such a comparison identifies materials under irradiation as belonging either into the recombination regime or not.

  18. Protective value of piroxicam on the enhanced inflammatory response after whole body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    el-Ghazaly, M.; Saleh, S.; Kenawy, S.; Roushdy, H.M.; Khayyal, M.T.

    1986-06-01

    The anti-inflammatory activity of piroxicam was assessed after whole body irradiation in rats. Two models of inflammation, the carrageenan-induced edema and the adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats have been utilised. Piroxicam at doses of 1, 5 and 10 mg kg-1 i.p. was effective in inhibiting the paw edema produced in both models of inflammation. The inflammatory response in irradiated was significantly higher than that produced in normal animals and was dependent on the radiation dose level used (0.5-2 Gy). The effect of piroxicam on the late inflammatory response produced by exposure to 2 Gy was studied by measuring the carrageenan-induced edema 4 h after irradiation and on the third and seventh day thereafter. The increase in paw volume was significantly suppressed in animals receiving the drug. Administration of piroxicam (5 mg kg-1) one hour before irradiation of animals at 0.5 Gy, produced inhibition to the exaggerated inflammatory response in irradiated animals. This suggests that piroxicam possibly owes its protective value to prevention of the increase in cellular permeability induced by radiation. Alternatively, the drug may exert this effect by inhibiting PG synthesis, thereby reducing their potentiating influence on the other mediators of inflammation. Furthermore, the inhibition of lysosomal enzyme release possibly induced by the drug may contribute to the probable reduction in the release of inflammatory mediators.

  19. Radio-induced neuropathology: from early effects to late sequelae. Rat behavioural and metabolic studies after sublethal total body irradiation; Neuropathologie radio-induite: des effets precoces aux sequelles tardives. Etudes comportementales et metaboliques chez le rat apres irradiation globale subletale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martigne, A.P.

    2010-05-15

    The radioresistance dogma of Central Nervous System (CNS) is now obsolete. Recent progress in neuroscience allow us to reconsider the radiation-induced cognitive dysfunctions observed after radiation therapy or after a nuclear accident, and to devise appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic means. We have developed a Rat model to study the effects of total body irradiation at a sublethal dose (4.5 Gy). This leads to impaired learning and memory of a task being acquired during the first month - which is prevented by administration of a radioprotector (amifostine) - while it does not appear to affect retrograde memory. Early, an apoptotic wave occurs in the sub-ventricular zone, 5 to 9 hours after exposure, while neuro-genesis is suppressed. Two days after irradiation, the metabolic study conducted by NMR HRMAS (High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning) suggests the presence of cerebral oedema and the study of brain lipids in liquid NMR confirms the membrane damages (elevated cholesterol and phospholipids). The lipid profile is then normalized while a gliosis appears. Finally, 1 month post-irradiation, the elevation of GABA, an inhibitory neurotransmitter, in 2 separate brain structures, occurs simultaneously with a taurine decrease in the hippocampus that lasts 6 months. Our integrated model allows validating bio-markers measurable in vivo NMR spectroscopy - the next experimental stage - and testing new radiation-protective agents. (author)

  20. RESTORATION INDUCED BY CATALASE IN IRRADIATED MICROORGANISMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latarjet, Raymond; Caldas, Luis Renato

    1952-01-01

    1. E. coli, strain K-12, and B. megatherium 899, irradiated in strict but still undefined physiological conditions with certain heavy doses of ultraviolet light, are efficiently restored by catalase, which acts on or fixes itself upon the bacteria in a few minutes. This restoration (C. R.), different from photorestoration, is aided by a little visible light. 2. At 37° the restorability lasts for about 2 hours after UV irradiation; the restored cells begin to divide at the same time as the normal survivors. 3. C. R. is not produced after x-irradiation. 4. B. megatherium Mox and E. coli, strain B/r show little C. R.; E. coli strain B shows none. None of these three strains is lysogenic, whereas the two preceding catalase-restorable strains are. 5. Phage production in the system "K-12 infected with T2 phage" is restored by catalase after UV irradiation, whereas phage production in the system "infected B" is not. 6. With K-12, catalase does not prevent the growth of phage and the lysis induced by UV irradiation (Lwoff's phenomenon). 7. Hypotheses are discussed concerning: (a) the chemical nature of this action of catalase; (b) a possible relation between C. R. and lysogenicity of the sensitive bacteria; (c) the consequences of such chemical restorations on the general problem of cell radiosensitivity. PMID:14898028

  1. Secondary radiation dose during high-energy total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janiszewska, M.; Raczkowski, M. [Lower Silesian Oncology Center, Medical Physics Department, Wroclaw (Poland); Polaczek-Grelik, K. [University of Silesia, Medical Physics Department, Katowice (Poland); Szafron, B.; Konefal, A.; Zipper, W. [University of Silesia, Department of Nuclear Physics and Its Applications, Katowice (Poland)

    2014-05-15

    The goal of this work was to assess the additional dose from secondary neutrons and γ-rays generated during total body irradiation (TBI) using a medical linac X-ray beam. Nuclear reactions that occur in the accelerator construction during emission of high-energy beams in teleradiotherapy are the source of secondary radiation. Induced activity is dependent on the half-lives of the generated radionuclides, whereas neutron flux accompanies the treatment process only. The TBI procedure using a 18 MV beam (Clinac 2100) was considered. Lateral and anterior-posterior/posterior-anterior fractions were investigated during delivery of 2 Gy of therapeutic dose. Neutron and photon flux densities were measured using neutron activation analysis (NAA) and semiconductor spectrometry. The secondary dose was estimated applying the fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients. The main contribution to the secondary dose is associated with fast neutrons. The main sources of γ-radiation are the following: {sup 56}Mn in the stainless steel and {sup 187}W of the collimation system as well as positron emitters, activated via (n,γ) and (γ,n) processes, respectively. In addition to 12 Gy of therapeutic dose, the patient could receive 57.43 mSv in the studied conditions, including 4.63 μSv from activated radionuclides. Neutron dose is mainly influenced by the time of beam emission. However, it is moderated by long source-surface distances (SSD) and application of plexiglass plates covering the patient body during treatment. Secondary radiation gives the whole body a dose, which should be taken into consideration especially when one fraction of irradiation does not cover the whole body at once. (orig.) [German] Die zusaetzliche Dosis durch sekundaere Neutronen- und γ-Strahlung waehrend der Ganzkoerperbestrahlung mit Roentgenstrahlung aus medizinischen Linearbeschleunigern wurde abgeschaetzt. Bei der Emission hochenergetischer Strahlen zur Teletherapie finden hauptsaechlich im Beschleuniger

  2. Systemic lupus erythematosus following total body irradiation for malignant lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinozzi, F; Capodicasa, E; Gerli, R; Bertotto, A; Rambotti, P; Grignani, F

    1986-01-01

    A case of a 63-year old man, who developed systemic lupus erythematosus three years after an initial diagnosis of small-cleaved centrofollicular lymphoma is described. The diagnosis of SLE was made on the basis of the accepted "1982 revised criteria for the classification of SLE". The autoimmune disease arose after a cycle of total body irradiation, despite the treatment with combination chemotherapeutic doses such a CVP or COAP or Cyclophosphamide, Vincristine, VM-26 and Prednisone. Genetic, immunological and exogenous environmental factors may co-exist and might equally be implicated in the pathogenesis of SLE and malignant lymphoma. However, the onset of SLE after total body irradiation could have been caused by the inactivation of suppressor T lymphocytes, which are known to be sensitive to radiations in vitro.

  3. Antitumor Immunity Induced after α Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Baptiste Gorin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Radioimmunotherapy (RIT is a therapeutic modality that allows delivering of ionizing radiation directly to targeted cancer cells. Conventional RIT uses β-emitting radioisotopes, but recently, a growing interest has emerged for the clinical development of α particles. α emitters are ideal for killing isolated or small clusters of tumor cells, thanks to their specific characteristics (high linear energy transfer and short path in the tissue, and their effect is less dependent on dose rate, tissue oxygenation, or cell cycle status than γ and X rays. Several studies have been performed to describe α emitter radiobiology and cell death mechanisms induced after α irradiation. But so far, no investigation has been undertaken to analyze the impact of α particles on the immune system, when several studies have shown that external irradiation, using γ and X rays, can foster an antitumor immune response. Therefore, we decided to evaluate the immunogenicity of murine adenocarcinoma MC-38 after bismuth-213 (213Bi irradiation using a vaccination approach. In vivo studies performed in immunocompetent C57Bl/6 mice induced a protective antitumor response that is mediated by tumor-specific T cells. The molecular mechanisms potentially involved in the activation of adaptative immunity were also investigated by in vitro studies. We observed that 213Bi-treated MC-38 cells release “danger signals” and activate dendritic cells. Our results demonstrate that α irradiation can stimulate adaptive immunity, elicits an efficient antitumor protection, and therefore is an immunogenic cell death inducer, which provides an attractive complement to its direct cytolytic effect on tumor cells.

  4. Ion irradiation induced direct damage to DNA

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Wei; Su, Wenhui

    2008-01-01

    Ion beams have been widely applied in a few biological research fields such as radioactive breeding, health protection, and tumor therapy. Up to now many interesting and impressive achievements in biology and agriculture have been made. Over the past several decades, scientists in biology, physics, and chemistry have pursued investigations focused on understanding the mechanisms of these radiobiological effects of ion beams. From the chemical point of view, these effects are due to the ion irradiation induced biomolecular damage, direct or indirect. In this review, we will present a chemical overview of the direct effects of ion irradiation upon DNA and its components, based on a review of literature combined with recent experimental results. It is suggested that, under ion bombardment, a DNA molecule undergoes a variety of processes, including radical formation, atomic displacement, intramolecular bond-scissions, emission of fragments, fragment recombination and molecular crosslink, which may lead to genetic...

  5. Nanodot formation induced by femtosecond laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abere, M. J.; Kang, M.; Goldman, R. S.; Yalisove, S. M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Chen, C. [Applied Physics Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Rittman, D. R. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Phillips, J. D. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Torralva, B. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2014-10-20

    The femtosecond laser generation of ZnSe nanoscale features on ZnSe surfaces was studied. Irradiation with multiple exposures produces 10–100 nm agglomerations of nanocrystalline ZnSe while retaining the original single crystal structure of the underlying material. The structure of these nanodots was verified using a combination of scanning transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The nanodots continue to grow hours after irradiation through a combination of bulk and surface diffusion. We suggest that in nanodot formation the result of ultrafast laser induced point defect formation is more than an order of magnitude below the ZnSe ultrafast melt threshold fluence. This unique mechanism of point defect injection will be discussed.

  6. Inhibition effect of ADSCs on thymomas induced by irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi Xiong; Zhi-Hua Kong; Jun Zhu; Yu-Lin Yuan; Guo-Xiang Wang; Gan-Qing Xia

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate that the effect of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) on thymomas induced by irradiation.Methods: A total of 160 cleaning degree C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups randomly: control group of 40 mice with non-irradiation; irradiation group of 40 mice with irradiation; irradiation+ADSCs group with 40 mice, thymoma model mice injected with 0.5 mL ADSCs via tail vein at one day after last irradiation; non-irradiation+ADSCs group of 40 mice with the same ADSCs injection as irradiation+ADSCs group. All mice were sacrificed on the 1st, 3rd, 7th and 14th day after last irradiation, localization of ADSCs in thymoma tissue was detected using fluorescence microscope. Four groups mice were sacrificed on the 1st, 3rd, 7th, 14th day and the 6th month after last irradiation, pathological changes of thymus gland tissue were observed by HE staining and immunohistochemistry assay.Results: The thymoma incidence of irradiation+ADSCs group was significantly lower in control group. The expression of CD31 and PCNA in irradiation group and irradiation+ADSCs group mice was significantly higher than that of control group, and the expression of PCNA in irradiation+ADSCs group mice was significantly lower than that of radiation group mice. Conclusios:ADSCs can reduce the degree of irradiation damage of thymus tissue and inhibit the growth of thymoma induced by irradiation.

  7. Behavioural consequences of an 8 Gy total body irradiation in mice: Regulation by interleukin-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Meeren, A.; Lebaron-Jacobs, L. [Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Dept. de Protection de la sante de l' Homme et de Dosimetrie, Section Autonome de Radiobiologie Appliquee a la Medecine, IPSN, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2001-02-01

    The effects of an 8 Gy {gamma} total body irradiation (TBI) on exploration and locomotion activities as well as temperature were studied in C57BL6/J mice. Survival, body weight, and blood cell counts were also assessed in irradiated mice treated with placebo or interleukin (IL)-4. The efficacy of IL-4 treatment on improvement in exploration activity was evaluated. The study was carried out from 3 h to 30 days following exposure. Our results showed a biphasic response to irradiation concerning the exploration activity of mice. Irradiated mice had reduced activity as early as 3 h after exposure, with recovery of activity within 24 h. The exploration activity again decreased 4 days after irradiation and the recovery occurred slowly after day 17. IL-4 ameliorated the exploration status in mice in both phases. The locomotion activity was studied using a telemetry apparatus. A similar pattern to that of the exploration data was observed, with a minimal activity observed between days 13 and 17. A radiation-induced hypothermia was also noticed over the same time period. (author)

  8. Local brain heavy ion irradiation induced Immunosuppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Runhong; Deng, Yulin; Huiyang Zhu, Bitlife.; Zhao, Tuo; Wang, Hailong; Yu, Yingqi; Ma, Hong; Wang, Xiao; Zhuang, Fengyuan; Qing, Hong

    Purpose: To investigate the long term effect of acute local brain heavy ion irradiation on the peripheral immune system in rat model. Methodology: Only the brain of adult male Wistar rats were radiated by heavy ions at the dose of 15 Gy. One, two and three months after irradiation, thymus and spleen were analyzed by four ways. Tunel assay was performed to evaluate the percentage of apoptotic cells in thymus and spleen, level of Inflammatory cytokines (IL-2, IL-6, SSAO, and TNF-α) was detected by ELISA assay, the differentiation of thymus T lymphocyte subsets were measured by flow cytometry and the relative expression levels of genes related to thymus immune cell development were measured by using quantitative real-time PCR. Results: Thymus and spleen showed significant atrophy from one month to three months after irradiation. A high level of apoptosis in thymus and spleen were obtained and the latter was more vulnerable, also, high level of inflammatory cytokines were found. Genes (c-kit, Rag1, Rag2 and Sca1) related to thymus lymphocytes’ development were down-regulated. Conclusion: Local area radiation in the rat brain would cause the immunosuppression, especially, the losing of cell-mediated immune functions. In this model, radiation caused inflammation and then induced apoptosis of cells in the immune organs, which contributed to immunosuppression.

  9. Total Body Irradiation with Step Translation and Dynamic Field Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Hsing Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop a total body irradiation technique that does not require additional devices or sophisticated processes to overcome the space limitation of a small treatment room. The technique aims to deliver a uniform dose to the entire body while keeping the lung dose within the tolerance level. The technique treats the patient lying on the floor anteriorly and posteriorly. For each AP/PA treatment, two complementary fields with dynamic field edges are matched over an overlapped region defined by the marks on the body surface. A compensator, a spoiler, and lung shielding blocks were used during the treatment. Moreover, electron beams were used to further boost the chest wall around the lungs. The technique was validated in a RANDO phantom using GAFCHROMIC films. Dose ratios at different body sites along the midline ranged from 0.945 to 1.076. The dose variation in the AP direction ranged from 96.0% to 104.6%. The dose distribution in the overlapped region ranged from 98.5% to 102.8%. Lateral dose profiles at abdomen and head revealed 109.8% and 111.7% high doses, respectively, at the body edges. The results confirmed that the technique is capable of delivering a uniform dose distribution to the midline of the body in a small treatment room while keeping the lung dose within the tolerance level.

  10. Total body irradiation in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fundagul Andic

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Total body irradiation is used in conjunction with chemotherapy as a conditioning regimen in the treatment of many disease such as leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, aplastic anemia, multiple myeloma and lymphoma prior to the hematopoetic stem cell transplantation. The main purposes of the hematopoetic stem cell transplantation are eradication of the recipient bone marrow and any residual cancer cells, creation of space in the receipient bone marrow for donor hematopoetic stem cells, and immunosuppression to prevent rejection of donor stem cells in the case of an allotransplant. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2014; 23(3.000: 398-410

  11. DNA damage focus analysis in blood samples of minipigs reveals acute partial body irradiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Lamkowski

    Full Text Available Radiation accidents frequently involve acute high dose partial body irradiation leading to victims with radiation sickness and cutaneous radiation syndrome that implements radiation-induced cell death. Cells that are not lethally hit seek to repair ionizing radiation (IR induced damage, albeit at the expense of an increased risk of mutation and tumor formation due to misrepair of IR-induced DNA double strand breaks (DSBs. The response to DNA damage includes phosphorylation of histone H2AX in the vicinity of DSBs, creating foci in the nucleus whose enumeration can serve as a radiation biodosimeter. Here, we investigated γH2AX and DNA repair foci in peripheral blood lymphocytes of Göttingen minipigs that experienced acute partial body irradiation (PBI with 49 Gy (± 6% Co-60 γ-rays of the upper lumbar region. Blood samples taken 4, 24 and 168 hours post PBI were subjected to γ-H2AX, 53BP1 and MRE11 focus enumeration. Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL of 49 Gy partial body irradiated minipigs were found to display 1-8 DNA damage foci/cell. These PBL values significantly deceed the high foci numbers observed in keratinocyte nuclei of the directly γ-irradiated minipig skin regions, indicating a limited resident time of PBL in the exposed tissue volume. Nonetheless, PBL samples obtained 4 h post IR in average contained 2.2% of cells displaying a pan-γH2AX signal, suggesting that these received a higher IR dose. Moreover, dispersion analysis indicated partial body irradiation for all 13 minipigs at 4 h post IR. While dose reconstruction using γH2AX DNA repair foci in lymphocytes after in vivo PBI represents a challenge, the DNA damage focus assay may serve as a rapid, first line indicator of radiation exposure. The occurrence of PBLs with pan-γH2AX staining and of cells with relatively high foci numbers that skew a Poisson distribution may be taken as indicator of acute high dose partial body irradiation, particularly when samples are available

  12. Dosimetry Formalism and Implementation of a Homogenous Irradiation Protocol to Improve the Accuracy of Small Animal Whole-Body Irradiation Using a 137Cs Irradiator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodin, N Patrik; Chen, Yong; Yaparpalvi, Ravindra; Guha, Chandan; Tomé, Wolfgang A

    2016-02-01

    Shielded Cs irradiators are routinely used in pre-clinical radiation research to perform in vitro or in vivo investigations. Without appropriate dosimetry and irradiation protocols in place, there can be large uncertainty in the delivered dose of radiation between irradiated subjects that could lead to inaccurate and possibly misleading results. Here, a dosimetric evaluation of the JL Shepard Mark I-68A Cs irradiator and an irradiation technique for whole-body irradiation of small animals that allows one to limit the between subject variation in delivered dose to ±3% are provided. Mathematical simulation techniques and Gafchromic EBT film were used to describe the region within the irradiation cavity with homogeneous dose distribution (100% ± 5%), the dosimetric impact of varying source-to-subject distance, and the variation in attenuation thickness due to turntable rotation. Furthermore, an irradiation protocol and dosimetry formalism that allows calculation of irradiation time for whole-body irradiation of small animals is proposed that is designed to ensure a more consistent dose delivery between irradiated subjects. To compare this protocol with the conventional irradiation protocol suggested by the vendor, high-resolution film dosimetry measurements evaluating the dose difference between irradiation subjects and the dose distribution throughout subjects was performed using phantoms resembling small animals. Based on these results, there can be considerable variation in the delivered dose of > ± 5% using the conventional irradiation protocol for whole-body irradiation doses below 5 Gy. Using the proposed irradiation protocol this variability can be reduced to within ±3% and the dosimetry formalism allows for more accurate calculation of the irradiation time in relation to the intended prescription dose.

  13. Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Mitigates Hematopoietic Toxicity After Lethal Total Body Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Dunhua; Deoliveira, Divino; Kang, Yubin; Choi, Seung S. [Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Li, Zhiguo [Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Chao, Nelson J. [Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Immunology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Duke Cancer Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Chen, Benny J., E-mail: chen0032@mc.duke.edu [Duke Cancer Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate whether and how insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) mitigates hematopoietic toxicity after total body irradiation. Methods and Materials: BALB/c mice were irradiated with a lethal dose of radiation (7.5 Gy) and treated with IGF-1 at a dose of 100 μg/dose intravenously once a day for 5 consecutive days starting within 1 hour after exposure. Survival and hematopoietic recovery were monitored. The mechanisms by which IGF-1 promotes hematopoietic recovery were also studied by use of an in vitro culture system. Results: IGF-1 protected 8 of 20 mice (40%) from lethal irradiation, whereas only 2 of 20 mice (10%) in the saline control group survived for more than 100 days after irradiation. A single dose of IGF-1 (500 μg) was as effective as daily dosing for 5 days. Positive effects were noted even when the initiation of treatment was delayed as long as 6 hours after irradiation. In comparison with the saline control group, treatment with IGF-1 significantly accelerated the recovery of both platelets and red blood cells in peripheral blood, total cell numbers, hematopoietic stem cells, and progenitor cells in the bone marrow when measured at day 14 after irradiation. IGF-1 protected both hematopoietic stem cells and progenitor cells from radiation-induced apoptosis and cell death. In addition, IGF-1 was able to facilitate the proliferation and differentiation of nonirradiated and irradiated hematopoietic progenitor cells. Conclusions: IGF-1 mitigates radiation-induced hematopoietic toxicity through protecting hematopoietic stem cells and progenitor cells from apoptosis and enhancing proliferation and differentiation of the surviving hematopoietic progenitor cells.

  14. Irradiation Induced Microstructure Evolution in Nanostructured Materials: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenbo; Ji, Yanzhou; Tan, Pengkang; Zang, Hang; He, Chaohui; Yun, Di; Zhang, Chi; Yang, Zhigang

    2016-02-06

    Nanostructured (NS) materials may have different irradiation resistance from their coarse-grained (CG) counterparts. In this review, we focus on the effect of grain boundaries (GBs)/interfaces on irradiation induced microstructure evolution and the irradiation tolerance of NS materials under irradiation. The features of void denuded zones (VDZs) and the unusual behavior of void formation near GBs/interfaces in metals due to the interactions between GBs/interfaces and irradiation-produced point defects are systematically reviewed. Some experimental results and calculation results show that NS materials have enhanced irradiation resistance, due to their extremely small grain sizes and large volume fractions of GBs/interfaces, which could absorb and annihilate the mobile defects produced during irradiation. However, there is also literature reporting reduced irradiation resistance or even amorphization of NS materials at a lower irradiation dose compared with their bulk counterparts, since the GBs are also characterized by excess energy (compared to that of single crystal materials) which could provide a shift in the total free energy that will lead to the amorphization process. The competition of these two effects leads to the different irradiation tolerance of NS materials. The irradiation-induced grain growth is dominated by irradiation temperature, dose, ion flux, character of GBs/interface and nanoprecipitates, although the decrease of grain sizes under irradiation is also observed in some experiments.

  15. Protease-mediated enhancement of lymphocyte-induced angiogenesis in X-ray irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminski, M.J.; Majewski, S.; Kaminska, G.; Bem, W.; Szmurlo, A. (Akademia Medyczna, Warsaw (Poland). Zaklad Histologii i Embriologii)

    1983-02-01

    Angiogenesis was induced in mice by intradermal injection of semi-syngeneic splenocytes, and after three days the number of newly formed blood vessels at the injection site was counted. When recipients were total-body irradiated with 700 R 2 hours before the lymphocyte injection, the angiogenesis was significantly higher than in non-irradiated mice. The angiogenesis enhancement was of a systemic (not local) character as revealed in experiments with shielding of irradiated animals. This enhancement was not due to X-ray dependent immunosuppression, as shown in experiments with non-irradiated, pharmacologically immunosuppressed mice. Decreased angiogenesis was observed in irradiated mice after treatment with cortisone acetate, aprotinin, and EACA. The results suggest that proteases might be involved in mediating the angiogenesis enhancement after X-irradiation.

  16. Enhanced responses to tumor immunization following total body irradiation are time-dependent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Diab

    Full Text Available The development of successful cancer vaccines is contingent on the ability to induce effective and persistent anti-tumor immunity against self-antigens that do not typically elicit immune responses. In this study, we examine the effects of a non-myeloablative dose of total body irradiation on the ability of tumor-naïve mice to respond to DNA vaccines against melanoma. We demonstrate that irradiation followed by lymphocyte infusion results in a dramatic increase in responsiveness to tumor vaccination, with augmentation of T cell responses to tumor antigens and tumor eradication. In irradiated mice, infused CD8(+ T cells expand in an environment that is relatively depleted in regulatory T cells, and this correlates with improved CD8(+ T cell functionality. We also observe an increase in the frequency of dendritic cells displaying an activated phenotype within lymphoid organs in the first 24 hours after irradiation. Intriguingly, both the relative decrease in regulatory T cells and increase in activated dendritic cells correspond with a brief window of augmented responsiveness to immunization. After this 24 hour window, the numbers of dendritic cells decline, as does the ability of mice to respond to immunizations. When immunizations are initiated within the period of augmented dendritic cell activation, mice develop anti-tumor responses that show increased durability as well as magnitude, and this approach leads to improved survival in experiments with mice bearing established tumors as well as in a spontaneous melanoma model. We conclude that irradiation can produce potent immune adjuvant effects independent of its ability to induce tumor ablation, and that the timing of immunization and lymphocyte infusion in the irradiated host are crucial for generating optimal anti-tumor immunity. Clinical strategies using these approaches must therefore optimize such parameters, as the correct timing of infusion and vaccination may mean the difference

  17. Effects of Zinc Compound on Body Weight and Recovery of Bone Marrow in Mice Treated with Total Body Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Yii Huang

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate if zinc compound would have effects on body weight loss and bone marrow suppression induced by total body irradiation (TBI. ICR mice were divided randomly into two groups and treated with test or control compounds. The test compound contained zinc (amino acid chelated with bovine prostate extract, and the control was reverse osmosis pure water (RO water. One week after receiving the treatment, mice were unirradiated, or irradiated with 6 or 3 Gy by 6MV photon beams to the total body. Body weight changes were examined at regular intervals. Three and 5 weeks after the radiation, animals were sacrificed to examine the histologic changes in the bone marrow. Lower body weight in the period of 1-5 weeks after radiation and poor survival rate were found after the 6 Gy TBI, as compared with the 3 Gy groups. The median survival time after 6 Gy and 3 Gy TBI for mice given the test compound were 26 and 76 days, respectively, and the corresponding figures were 14 and 70 days, respectively, for mice given the control compound (p < 0.00001. With zinc supplement, the mean body weight in mice which received the same dose of radiation was 7-8 g heavier than in the water-supplement groups during the second and third weeks (p < 0.05. Hence, there was no statistically significant difference in survival rate between zinc and water supplement in mice given the same dose of irradiation. Histopathologically there was less recovery of bone marrow cells in the 6Gy groups compared with the 3Gy groups. In the 3 Gy water-supplement group, the nucleated cells and megakaryocytes were recovered in the fifth week when recovery was still not seen in the 6Gy group. With zinc supplement, these cells were recovered in the third week. In this study, we found that zinc is beneficial to body weight in mice treated with TBI. Histologic examination of bone marrow showed better recovery of bone marrow cells in groups of mice fed with zinc. This study

  18. Renal effects of renal x irradiation and induced autoallergic glomerulonephritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rappaport, D.S.; Casarett, G.W.

    1979-09-01

    This study was conducted to determine what influence a single large x-ray exposure of kidney has on the development and course of an experimental autoallergic glomerulonephritis (EAG) in rats. EAG was induced in female Sprague-Dawley rats by immunization with Bordetella pertussis vaccine and homogenate of homologous kidney tissue and Freund's complete adjuvant. Progressive arteriolonephrosclerosis (ANS) was observed in right (irradiated) kidneys following unilateral renal irradiation (1500 rad). Rats were either immunized, sham-immunized, irradiated, sham-irradiated, or both immunized and irradiated. Light and immunofluorescent microscopic observation, urine protein content, and kidney weights were evaluated. In immunized-irradiated animals the effects of irradiation and immunization were largely additive. Immunization did not considerably influence the development and course of ANS and irradiation did not considerably influence the development and course of EAG.

  19. Single Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation Induces Genotoxicity in Adult Zebrafish and its Non-Irradiated Progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, J; Neuparth, T; Trigo, M; Costa, P; Vieira, D; Cunha, L; Ponte, F; Costa, P S; Metello, L F; Carvalho, A P

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated to what extent a single exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation can induce genotoxic damage in irradiated adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) and its non-irradiated F1 progeny. Four groups of adult zebrafish were irradiated with a single dose of X-rays at 0 (control), 100, 500 and 1000 mGy, respectively, and couples of each group were allowed to reproduce following irradiation. Blood of parental fish and whole-body offspring were analysed by the comet assay for detection of DNA damage. The level of DNA damage in irradiated parental fish increased in a radiation dose-dependent manner at day 1 post-irradiation, but returned to the control level thereafter. The level of DNA damage in the progeny was directly correlated with the parental irradiation dose. Results highlight the genotoxic risk of a single exposure to low-dose ionizing radiation in irradiated individuals and also in its non-irradiated progeny.

  20. Immunosuppression by whole-body irradiation and its effect on oedema in experimental cerebral ischaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strachan, R.D.; Kane, P.J.; Mendelow, A.D. (Department of Surgery, Neurosurgery, University of Newcastle-Upon-Tyne (United Kingdom)); Cook, S.; Chambers, I.R.; Clayton, C.B. (Department of Medical Physics, University of Newcastle-Upon-Tyne (United Kingdom))

    1992-01-01

    The effect of global immunosuppression by sublethal whole body X-irradiation on the development of cerebral oedema was assessed 24 h after right middle cerebral artery occulustion in the rat. Irradiation produced a significant leucopaenia and thrombocytopaenia, and significantly reduced cortical oedema when compared to non-irradiated control animals. (au).

  1. Whole-body proton irradiation causes long-term damage to hematopoietic stem cells in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jianhui; Feng, Wei; Wang, Yingying; Luo, Yi; Allen, Antiño R; Koturbash, Igor; Turner, Jennifer; Stewart, Blair; Raber, Jacob; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Zhou, Daohong; Shao, Lijian

    2015-02-01

    Space flight poses certain health risks to astronauts, including exposure to space radiation, with protons accounting for more than 80% of deep-space radiation. Proton radiation is also now being used with increasing frequency in the clinical setting to treat cancer. For these reasons, there is an urgent need to better understand the biological effects of proton radiation on the body. Such improved understanding could also lead to more accurate assessment of the potential health risks of proton radiation, as well as the development of improved strategies to prevent and mitigate its adverse effects. Previous studies have shown that exposure to low doses of protons is detrimental to mature leukocyte populations in peripheral blood, however, the underlying mechanisms are not known. Some of these detriments may be attributable to damage to hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that have the ability to self-renew, proliferate and differentiate into different lineages of blood cells through hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs). The goal of this study was to investigate the long-term effects of low-dose proton irradiation on HSCs. We exposed C57BL/6J mice to 1.0 Gy whole-body proton irradiation (150 MeV) and then studied the effects of proton radiation on HSCs and HPCs in the bone marrow (BM) 22 weeks after the exposure. The results showed that mice exposed to 1.0 Gy whole-body proton irradiation had a significant and persistent reduction of BM HSCs compared to unirradiated controls. In contrast, no significant changes were observed in BM HPCs after proton irradiation. Furthermore, irradiated HSCs and their progeny exhibited a significant impairment in clonogenic function, as revealed by the cobblestone area-forming cell (CAFC) and colony-forming cell assays, respectively. These long-term effects of proton irradiation on HSCs may be attributable to the induction of chronic oxidative stress in HSCs, because HSCs from irradiated mice exhibited a significant increase in NADPH

  2. Craniomandibular dysfunction in children treated with total-body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlloef, G.; Krekmanova, L.; Kopp, S.; Borgstroem, B.; Forsberg, C.M.; Ringden, O. (Huddinge Univ. Hospital (Sweden))

    1994-01-01

    The prevalence of pain and dysfunction in the stomatognathic system was studied in a group of 19 long-term survivors after pediatric bone marrow transplantation (BMT), conditioned with total-body irradiation (TBI). Compared with the control group, the children and adolescents in the BMT group had a significantly reduced mouth opening capacity. A reduced translation movement of the condyles was diagnosed in 53% of children treated with TBI, compared with 5% in the control group. Signs of craniomandibular dysfunction were found in 84% of children in the BMT group, compared with 58% in the control group. Both irradiation and chemotherapy induce long-term alterations in connective and muscle tissues resulting in inflammation and eventually fibrosis. These changes in tissue homeostasis and concomitant growth retardation may lead to the observed malocclusion and reduced mobility of the temporomandibular joint, with subsequent muscle pain and headaches, which were found in this study. 29 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs.

  3. Total body irradiation: present and future; Irradiation corporelle totale: present et avenir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zilli, T.; Miralbell, R.; Ozsahin, M. [Hopitaux Universitaires de Geneve, Service de Radio-Oncologie (Switzerland); Ozsahin, M. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Service de Radio-Oncologie, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2009-09-15

    Total body irradiation (T.B.I.) has an established role as preparative regimen for bone-marrow transplantation in the treatment of hematological malignancies. Many randomized trials demonstrated that the clinical outcomes obtained from the association of T.B.I. and cyclophosphamide are equivalent, or, sometimes, better than those based on chemotherapeutic agents. Despite the therapeutic progress of the last years, and the consequent improvement in the overall survival, this preparative regimen remains always associated with a relatively high rate of acute and late toxicity. In this article, we review the actual indications of T.B.I. in clinical practice, and analyze the technological progress in this domain. We focus on the hypothesis that a selective irradiation of the hematopoietic or lymphoid organs is actually possible with intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Technical limits and preliminary results in terms of acute and late toxicities of intensity-modulated T.B.I. are analyzed. With these new technologies, treatment-related toxicity is not anymore a major limiting factor in the preparative regimens for bone-marrow transplantation, allowing for a larger spectrum of T.B.I. indications, a possible extension to patients older than 50 years, or a dose escalation. Preliminary results warrant, however, further evaluation in clinical trials to better assess the impact of this new approach on disease control and the long-term toxicity. (authors)

  4. Mitochondrial DNA alterations of peripheral lymphocytes in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients undergoing total body irradiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Fuyun

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA alterations, including mtDNA copy number and mtDNA 4977 bp common deletion (CD, are key indicators of irradiation-induced damage. The relationship between total body irradiation (TBI treatment and mtDNA alterations in vivo, however, has not been postulated yet. The aim of this study is to analyze mtDNA alterations in irradiated human peripheral lymphocytes from acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL patients as well as to take them as predictors for radiation toxicity. Methods Peripheral blood lymphocytes were isolated from 26 ALL patients 24 hours after TBI preconditioning (4.5 and 9 Gy, respectively. Extracted DNA was analyzed by real-time PCR method. Results Average 2.31 times mtDNA and 0.53 fold CD levels were observed after 4.5 Gy exposure compared to their basal levels. 9 Gy TBI produced a greater response of both mtDNA and CD levels than 4.5 Gy. Significant inverse correlation was found between mtDNA content and CD level at 4.5 and 9 Gy (P = 0.037 and 0.048. Moreover, mtDNA content of lymphocytes without irradiation was found to be correlated to age. Conclusions mtDNA and CD content may be considered as predictive factors to radiation toxicity.

  5. Optimized total body irradiation for induction of renal allograft tolerance through mixed chimerism in cynomolgus monkeys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimikawa, Masaaki; Kawai, Tatsuo; Ota, Kazuo [Tokyo Women`s Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1996-12-01

    We previously demonstrated that a nonmyeloablative preparative regimen can induce mixed chimerism and renal allograft tolerance between MHC-disparate non-human primates. The basic regimen includes anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG), total body irradiation (TBI, 300 cGy), thymic irradiation (TI, 700 cGy), splenectomy, donor bone marrow (DBM) infusion, and posttransplant cyclosporine therapy (CYA, discontinued after 4 weeks). To evaluate the importance and to minimize the toxicity of irradiation, kidney allografts were transplanted with various manipulations of the irradiation protocol. Monkeys treated with the basic protocol without TBI and TI did not develop chimerism or long-term allograft survival. In monkeys treated with the full protocol, all six monkeys treated with two fractionated dose of 150 cGy developed chimerism and five monkeys appeared tolerant. In contrast, only two of the four monkeys treated with fractionated doses of 125 cGy developed chimerism and only one monkey survived long term. The degree of lymphocyte depletion in all recipients was proportional to the TBI dose. The fractionated TBI regimen of 150 cGy appears to be the most consistently effective regimen for establishing donor bone marrow cell engraftment and allograft tolerance. (author)

  6. 28Si total body irradiation injures bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells via induction of cellular apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jianhui; Feng, Wei; Wang, Yingying; Allen, Antiño R.; Turner, Jennifer; Stewart, Blair; Raber, Jacob; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Zhou, Daohong; Shao, Lijian

    2017-05-01

    Long-term space mission exposes astronauts to a radiation environment with potential health hazards. High-energy charged particles (HZE), including 28Si nuclei in space, have deleterious effects on cells due to their characteristics with high linear energy transfer and dense ionization. The influence of 28Si ions contributes more than 10% to the radiation dose equivalent in the space environment. Understanding the biological effects of 28Si irradiation is important to assess the potential health hazards of long-term space missions. The hematopoietic system is highly sensitive to radiation injury and bone marrow (BM) suppression is the primary life-threatening injuries after exposure to a moderate dose of radiation. Therefore, in the present study we investigated the acute effects of low doses of 28Si irradiation on the hematopoietic system in a mouse model. Specifically, 6-month-old C57BL/6 J mice were exposed to 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 Gy 28Si (600 MeV) total body irradiation (TBI). The effects of 28Si TBI on BM hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) were examined four weeks after the exposure. The results showed that exposure to 28Si TBI dramatically reduced the frequencies and numbers of HSCs in irradiated mice, compared to non-irradiated controls, in a radiation dose-dependent manner. In contrast, no significant changes were observed in BM HPCs regardless of radiation doses. Furthermore, irradiated HSCs exhibited a significant impairment in clonogenic ability. These acute effects of 28Si irradiation on HSCs may be attributable to radiation-induced apoptosis of HSCs, because HSCs, but not HPCs, from irradiated mice exhibited a significant increase in apoptosis in a radiation dose-dependent manner. However, exposure to low doses of 28Si did not result in an increased production of reactive oxygen species and DNA damage in HSCs and HPCs. These findings indicate that exposure to 28Si irradiation leads to acute HSC damage.

  7. Modeling a radiotherapy clinical procedure: total body irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, Ernesto P; García, Camille; De La Rosa, Verónica

    2010-09-01

    Leukemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and neuroblastoma patients prior to bone marrow transplants may be subject to a clinical radiotherapy procedure called total body irradiation (TBI). To mimic a TBI procedure, we modified the Jones model of bone marrow radiation cell kinetics by adding mutant and cancerous cell compartments. The modified Jones model is mathematically described by a set of n + 4 differential equations, where n is the number of mutations before a normal cell becomes a cancerous cell. Assuming a standard TBI radiotherapy treatment with a total dose of 1320 cGy fractionated over four days, two cases were considered. In the first, repopulation and sub-lethal repair in the different cell populations were not taken into account (model I). In this case, the proposed modified Jones model could be solved in a closed form. In the second, repopulation and sub-lethal repair were considered, and thus, we found that the modified Jones model could only be solved numerically (model II). After a numerical and graphical analysis, we concluded that the expected results of TBI treatment can be mimicked using model I. Model II can also be used, provided the cancer repopulation factor is less than the normal cell repopulation factor. However, model I has fewer free parameters compared to model II. In either case, our results are in agreement that the standard dose fractionated over four days, with two irradiations each day, provides the needed conditioning treatment prior to bone marrow transplant. Partial support for this research was supplied by the NIH-RISE program, the LSAMP-Puerto Rico program, and the University of Puerto Rico-Humacao.

  8. Immunological network activation by low-dose rate irradiation. Analysis of cell populations and cell surface molecules in whole body irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ina, Yasuhiro; Sakai, Kazuo [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Low Dose Radiation Research Center, Komae, Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    The effects of low-dose rate whole body irradiation on biodefense and immunological systems were investigated using female C57BL/6 (B6) mice. These B6 mice were exposed continuously to {gamma}-rays from a {sup 137}Cs source in the long-term low-dose rate irradiation facility at CRIEPI for 0 - 12 weeks at a dose rate of 0.95 mGy/hr. In the bone marrow, thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, and peripheral blood of the irradiated mice, changes in cell populations and cell surface molecules were examined. The cell surface functional molecules (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19, CD45R/B220, ICAM-1, Fas, NK-1.1, CXCR4, and CCR5), and activation molecules (THAM, CD28, CD40, CD44H, CD70, B7-1, B7-2, OX-40 antigen, CTLA-4, CD30 ligand, and CD40 ligand) were analyzed by flow cytometry. The percentage of CD4{sup +} T cells and cell surface CD8 molecule expressions on the CD8{sup +} T cells increased significantly to 120-130% after 3 weeks of the irradiation, compared to non-irradiated control mice. On the other hand, the percentage of CD45R/B220{sup +} CD40{sup +} B cells, which is one of the immunological markers of inflammation, infection, tumor, and autoimmune disease, decreased significantly to 80-90% between the 3rd to 5th week of irradiation. There was no significant difference in other cell population rates and cell surface molecule expression. Furthermore, abnormal T cells bearing mutated T cell receptors induced by high-dose rate irradiation were not observed throughout this study. These results suggest that low-dose rate irradiation activates the immunological status of the whole body. (author)

  9. Whole-body. gamma. -irradiation in the treatment of hemoblastoses in man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shishkova, T.V.; Danilova, N.B.; Khrushchev, V.G.; Grammatikati, V.S.

    1982-11-01

    An analysis of foreign literature on treatment acute leukoses with irradiation and transplantation of allogenic bone marrow is given. It is shown that whole-body irradiation used to increase treatment efficiency of man hemoblastosis are widely applied nowadays abroad. Bone marrow transplantation including compulsory whole-body irradiation with 10 Gy is the only practicable attempt to eradicate leukosis. Whole-body irradiation unlike chemotherapy provides more durable survival rate without recurrence; it doesn't require hospitalization and continuity of treatment following the general course; it doesn't produce toxic complications.

  10. Ion irradiation induced effects in polyamidoimide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merhari, L.; Belorgeot, C.; Moliton, J.P. (Laboratoire d' Electronique des Polymeres sous Faisceaux Ioniques 123, avenue Albert Thomas, 87060 Limoges Cedex (France))

    1991-09-01

    The interaction between ion beam and polyamidoimide (PAI) is studied by means of low-temperature infrared spectroscopy. 200 keV Ar{sup +} and 250 keV He{sup +} beams with fluences ranging from 10{sup 13} ions cm{sup {minus}2} to 5{times}10{sup 16} ions cm{sup {minus}2} are found to induce atomic bond breaks leading to absorption bands at 2344, 2261, and 2125 cm{sup {minus}1} corresponding respectively to CO{sub 2}, C=N=N and C=N--R vibrations. Shrinkage of the polymer along with a drastic decrease of the resistivity during Ar{sup +} and He{sup +} irradiation are observed. Speculations on the respective role of electronic processes and atomic collisions in the evolution of the polymer are made. No evidence of PAI modification through knock-on mechanism for fluences lower than 5{times}10{sup 15} ions cm{sup {minus}2} is noticed. In fact, our results would suggest a predominant role of the electronic processes for the low fluences (up to 5{times}10{sup 15} ions cm{sup {minus}2} ), whereas a degradation mechanism based on atomic collisions is more likely to take place for higher fluences. A theoretical mechanism of reactions based upon our Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and secondary ion mass spectroscopies (SIMS) results, describing the chemical changes occurring in the PAI, is presented and briefly discussed.

  11. Patterns of patient specific dosimetry in total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akino, Yuichi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); McMullen, Kevin P.; Das, Indra J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: Total body irradiation (TBI) has been used for bone marrow transplant for hematologic and immune deficiency conditions. The goal of TBI is to deliver a homogeneous dose to the entire body, with a generally accepted range of dose uniformity being within {+-}10% of the prescribed dose. The moving table technique for TBI could make dose uniform in whole body by adjusting couch speed. However, it is difficult to accurately estimate the actual dose by calculation and hence in vivo dosimetry (IVD) is routinely performed. Here, the authors present patterns of patient-specific IVD in 161 TBI patients treated at our institution. Methods: Cobalt-60 teletherapy unit (Model C9 Cobalt-60 teletherapy unit, Picker X-ray Corporation) with customized moving bed (SITI Industrial Products, Inc., Fishers, IN) were used for TBI treatment. During treatment, OneDose{sup TM} (Sicel Technology, NC) Metal Oxide-silicon Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor detectors were placed at patient body surface; both entrance and exit side of the beam at patient head, neck, mediastinum, umbilicus, and knee to estimate midplane dose. When large differences (>10%) between the prescribed and measured dose were observed, dose delivery was corrected for subsequent fractions by the adjustment of couch speed and/or bolus placement. Under IRB exempt status, the authors retrospectively analyzed the treatment records of 161 patients who received TBI treatment between 2006 and 2011. Results: Across the entire cohort, the median {+-} SD (range) percent variance between calculated and measured dose for head, neck, mediastinum, umbilicus, and knee was -2.3 {+-} 10.2% (-66.2 to +35.3), 1.1 {+-} 11.5% (-62.2 to +40.3), -1.9 {+-} 9.5% (-66.4 to +46.6), -1.1 {+-} 7.2% (-35.2 to +42.9), and 3.4 {+-} 12.2% (-47.9 to +108.5), respectively. More than half of treatments were within {+-}10% of the prescribed dose for all anatomical regions. For 80% of treatments (10%-90%), dose at the umbilicus was within {+-}10

  12. Optimization of total body irradiation: the match between (maximal) leukemic cell kill and (minimal) late effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harteveld, M.L. van

    2007-01-01

    Optimization of total body irradiation: the match between (maximal) leukemic cell kill and (minimal) late effects: In this thesis, cataract formation and renal dysfunction as late effects of high-dose total body irradiation (TBI) as part of the conditioning before hematological stem cell transplanta

  13. Lung autophagic response following exposure of mice to whole body irradiation, with and without amifostine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zois, Christos E. [Department of Radiotherapy - Oncology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis 68100 (Greece); Giatromanolaki, Alexandra [Department of Pathology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis (Greece); Kainulainen, Heikki [Department of Biology of Physical Activity, University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Botaitis, Sotirios [Department of Experimental Surgery, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis (Greece); Torvinen, Sira [Department of Biology of Physical Activity, University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Simopoulos, Constantinos [Department of Experimental Surgery, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis (Greece); Kortsaris, Alexandros [Department of Biochemistry, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis (Greece); Sivridis, Efthimios [Department of Pathology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis (Greece); Koukourakis, Michael I., E-mail: targ@her.forthnet.gr [Department of Radiotherapy - Oncology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis 68100 (Greece)

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} We investigated the effect 6 Gy of WBI on the autophagic machinery of normal mouse lung. {yields} Irradiation induces dysfunction of the autophagic machinery in normal lung, characterized by decreased transcription of the LC3A/Beclin-1 mRNA and accumulation of the LC3A, and p62 proteins. {yields} The membrane bound LC3A-II protein levels increased in the cytosolic fraction (not in the pellet), contrasting the patterns noted after starvation-induced autophagy. {yields} Administration of amifostine, reversed all the LC3A and p62 findings, suggesting protection of the normal autophagic function. -- Abstract: Purpose: The effect of ionizing irradiation on the autophagic response of normal tissues is largely unexplored. Abnormal autophagic function may interfere the protein quality control leading to cell degeneration and dysfunction. This study investigates its effect on the autophagic machinery of normal mouse lung. Methods and materials: Mice were exposed to 6 Gy of whole body {gamma}-radiation and sacrificed at various time points. The expression of MAP1LC3A/LC3A/Atg8, beclin-1, p62/sequestosome-1 and of the Bnip3 proteins was analyzed. Results: Following irradiation, the LC3A-I and LC3A-II protein levels increased significantly at 72 h and 7 days. Strikingly, LC3A-II protein was increased (5.6-fold at 7 days; p < 0.001) only in the cytosolic fraction, but remained unchanged in the membrane fraction. The p62 protein, was significantly increased in both supernatant and pellet fraction (p < 0.001), suggesting an autophagosome turnover deregulation. These findings contrast the patterns of starvation-induced autophagy up-regulation. Beclin-1 levels remained unchanged. The Bnip3 protein was significantly increased at 8 h, but it sharply decreased at 72 h (p < 0.05). Administration of amifostine (200 mg/kg), 30 min before irradiation, reversed all the LC3A and p62 findings on blots, suggesting restoration of the normal autophagic function

  14. Melatonin prevents inflammation and oxidative stress caused by abdominopelvic and total body irradiation of rat small intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Guney

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the day-night differences in intestinal oxidative-injury and the inflammatory response following total body (TB or abdominopelvic (AP irradiation, and the influence of melatonin administration on tissue injury induced by radiation. Rats (male Wistar, weighing 220-280 g in the irradiated groups were exposed to a dose of 8 Gy to the TB or AP region in the morning (resting period - 1 h after light onset or evening (activity span - 13 h after light onset. Vehicle or melatonin was administered immediately before, immediately after and 24 h after irradiation (10, 2.0 and 10 mg/kg, ip, respectively to the irradiated rats. AP (P < 0.05 and TB (P < 0.05 irradiation applied in the morning caused a significant increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS levels. Melatonin treatment in the morning (P < 0.05 or evening (P < 0.05 decreased TBARS levels after TB irradiation. After AP irradiation, melatonin treatment only in the morning caused a significant decrease in TBARS levels (P < 0.05. Although we have confirmed the development of inflammation after radiotherapy by histological findings, neither AP nor TB irradiation caused any marked changes in myeloperoxidase activity in the morning or evening. Our results indicate that oxidative damage is more prominent in rats receiving TB and AP irradiation in the morning and melatonin appears to have beneficial effects on oxidative damage irrespective of the time of administration. Increased neutrophil accumulation indicates that melatonin administration exerts a protective effect on AP irradiation-induced tissue oxidative injury, especially in the morning.

  15. In vivo dosimetry with silicon diodes in total body irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, F. F.; Amaral, L. L.; Costa, A. M.; Netto, T. G.

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this work is the characterization and application of silicon diode detectors for in vivo dosimetry in total body irradiation (TBI) treatments. It was evaluated the diode response with temperature, dose rate, gantry angulations and field size. A maximum response variation of 2.2% was obtained for temperature dependence. The response variation for dose rate and angular was within 1.2%. For field size dependence, the detector response increased with field until reach a saturation region, where no more primary radiation beam contributes for dose. The calibration was performed in a TBI setup. Different lateral thicknesses from one patient were simulated and then the calibration factors were determined by means of maximum depth dose readings. Subsequent to calibration, in vivo dosimetry measurements were performed. The response difference between diode readings and the prescribed dose for all treatments was below 4%. This difference is in agreement as recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU), which is ±5%. The present work to test the applicability of a silicon diode dosimetry system for performing in vivo dose measurements in TBI techniques presented good results. These measurements demonstrated the value of diode dosimetry as a treatment verification method and its applicability as a part of a quality assurance program in TBI treatments.

  16. Bone markers after total body irradiation in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto-Silva, A-C; Trivin, C; Espérou, H; Michon, J; Baruchel, A; Souberbielle, J-C; Brauner, R

    2010-03-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI) can cause short stature because of decreased growth hormone (GH) and skeletal abnormalities. To evaluate the plasma concentrations of markers of bone formation (osteocalcin and procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide, P1NP) and resorption (carboxy-terminal telopeptide, CTX), in patients (n=65) who had been given TBI at 6.6+/-0.4 years were evaluated at 9.8+/-0.4 years. Patients given single 10 Gy or fractionated 12 Gy TBI had similar characteristics, except that plasma insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) was lower in those given a single 10 Gy. Seven had lower osteocalcin and two had higher CTX than controls. Bone markers (as zs) were positively correlated (osteocalcin with P1NP, rho=0.42, P=0.0007; osteocalcin with CTX, rho=0.3, Pirradiated when young (P=0.0002) or given single TBI lost more height between TBI and adult height. Most TBI patients had normal bone formation and resorption markers. Thus, impaired bone turnover is probably not the cause of their short stature and poor response to GH.

  17. Total body irradiation for myasthenia gravis with thymoma: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Ki Mun; Choi, Ihl Bohng; Kim, In Ah [College of Medicine, Catholic Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-06-01

    Myasthenia Gravis (MG) is relatively rare occuring as one of important autoimmune disease to affect neuromuscular junction. This study was clinically to evaluate total body irradiation (TBI) against two patients including 33-year and 39-year females for chronic MG with thymoma who hospitalized in the St. Mary's Hospital, Catholic University since 1994 as well as who showed no response by thymectomy, immunotherapy and hormonal therapy. TBI designed by the dose of 150-180 cGy consisting of 10 cGy per fraction, three times a week, for 5-6 weeks using linear accelerator of 6 MV. During the treatment of TBI, they did complain acute side effect such as vomiting and also appear improved physical condition from 4-6 weeks after TBI. Through the follow-up period of 18 or 42 months after TBI, they did not have any symptomatic recurrence. Consequently, the results suggest that TBI can be used as an alternative tool for the patients concurrently for MG with thymoma who had been refractory to various conventional therapies like thymectomy, immunotherapy and hormonal therapy.

  18. Dosimetry with phantom for total body irradiation (TBI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tezuka, Takako; Sakakura, Noriyuki; Obata, Yasunori; Tabushi, Katuyoshi; Kondou, Satoru [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). School of Health Sciences; Koyama, Syuuji; Aoyama, Yuuichi; Shimohira, Akiyo [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Hospital

    2002-04-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI) is being used as a method of preparation for bone marrow transplantation (BMT). In TBI, the dose calculation is based on dosimetry using a phantom. We measured the basic dose with a phantom using a 10 MV X-rays. We confirmed the accuracy of the dose calculation performed in our facilities and investigated a method of more accurate dosimetry. We measured the variation in dose according to the size of the phantom and the depth using a tough water phantom, and examined the difference in TMR according to SCD, field size, and size of the phantom. Consequently, the dose has been changed regardless of the size of the phantom at larger than 80 x 30 x 30 cm{sup 3}, and it is about 1% larger than 30 x 30 x 30 cm{sup 3}. Also TMR has changed according to various conditions, including the size of the phantom, field size, and SCD. Therefore, it was found that dosimetry using the 30 x 30 x 30 cm{sup 3} phantom leads to underestimation in dose calculation, and there is no difference in dose between the field size of 151.5 x 160 cm{sup 2} and 151.5 x 80 cm{sup 2}. It is also necessary to consider the effect of the vertical size of the phantom. (author)

  19. Changes in plasma apolipoproteins following whole-body irradiation in rabbit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feliste, R. (INSERM, Toulouse, France); Dousset, N.; Carton, M.; Douste-Blazy, L.

    1981-09-01

    Male New Zealand white rabbits were whole-body-irradiated with a linear electron accelerator at 800 rad (LD/sub 50/ in 30 days). This treatment induced a pronounced hypertriglyceridemia. The apoprotein composition of very low density lipoproteins (VLDL, d < 1.006 g/ml) and high-density lipoproteins (HDL, d = 1.063 - 1.21 g/ml) from irradiated rabbits was studied and compared to those of normal rabbits. Significant changes were observed in both very low density apolipoproteins and high-density apolipoproteins. (1) In the VLDL fraction from irradiated rabbits, there appeared in high proportion two apolipoproteins with electrophoretic mobility in urea/polyacrylamide gels similar to apoA-I and A-II but which were distinctly different in their apparent molecular weights, their isoelectric points, and their amino acid composition from these latter proteins. These proteins had apparent molecular weights of about 10,000. They focused into three bands with pI values of 6.1, 6.4, and 6.6. Their amino acid composition was characterized by a very low content of threonine and serine and a high content of aspartic acid, glycine, alanine, and arginine. In addition, a marked increase of an apolipoprotein with an apparent molecular weight of about 43,000 and with an amino acid composition similar to rat apoA-IV was also observed in rabbit VLDL after irradiation. Apolipoprotein C constituents with slowmobility decreased significantly. (2) The irradiated rabbit HDL apolipoproteins showed an important increase of the proteins with molecular weight 10,000 and isoelectric points 6.1, 6.4, and 6.6. Compared to normal rabbit HDL apolipoproteins, a significant decrease of apoA-IV occurred. These modifications were also observed with lower radiation doses (200 and 400 rad).

  20. Virtual bolus for total body irradiation treated with helical tomotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moliner, Gilles; Izar, Françoise; Ferrand, Régis; Bardies, Manuel; Ken, Soléakhéna; Simon, Luc

    2015-11-08

    Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for total body irradiation (TBI) is practiced in several centers using the TomoTherapy System. In this context the planning target volume (PTV) is the entire body including the skin. A safety margin in the air surrounding the body should be added to take into account setup errors. But using inverse planning, over-fluence peak could be generated in the skin region to insure dose homogeneity. This work proposes to study the performance of the use of a virtual bolus (VB). A VB is a material placed on the skin surface during planning, but absent for the real treatment. The optimal VB that compensates large setup errors without introducing a high-dose increase or hot spots for small setup errors was determined. For two cylindrical phantoms, 20VBs with different densities, thicknesses or designs were tested. Dose coverage of the PTV (V95%) in the presence of simulated setup errors was computed to assess the VB performance. A measure of the dose increase in the phantom center due to the absence of the VB during treatment was also achieved. Finally, the fluence peak at the phantom edge was measured in complete buildup conditions using a large phantom and a detector matrix. Using these VBs, simulated setup errors were compensated to a minimum value of 2.6 and 2.1 cm for small and large phantom, respectively (and only 1.2 and 1.7 cm with no VB). An optimal double-layer VB was found with a density of 0.4 kg.m(-3) and a total thickness of 8mm; an inner layer of 5 mm was declared as the target for the treatment planning system and an additional layer of 3 mm was added to avoid the over-fluence peak. Using this VB, setup errors were compensated up to 2.9 cm. The dose increase was measured to be only +1.5% at the phantom center and over-fluence peak was strongly decreased.

  1. Fluid and sodium loss in whole-body-irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraci, J.P.; Jackson, K.L.; Mariano, M.S.

    1987-09-01

    Whole-body and organ fluid compartment sizes and plasma sodium concentrations were measured in conventional, GI decontaminated, bile duct ligated, and choledochostomized rats at different times after various doses of gamma radiation. In addition, sodium excretion was measured in rats receiving lethal intestinal radiation injury. After doses which were sublethal for 3-5 day intestinal death, transient decreases occurred in all the fluid compartments measured (i.e., total body water, extracellular fluid space, plasma volume). No recovery of these fluid compartments was observed in rats destined to die from intestinal radiation injury. The magnitude of the decreases in fluid compartment sizes was dose dependent and correlated temporally with the breakdown and recovery of the intestinal mucosa but was independent of the presence or absence of enteric bacteria or bile acids. Associated with the loss of fluid was an excess excretion of 0.83 meq of sodium between 48 and 84 h postirradiation. This represents approximately 60% of the sodium lost from the extracellular fluid space in these animals during this time. The remaining extracellular sodium loss was due to redistribution of sodium to other spaces. It is concluded that radiation-induced breakdown of the intestinal mucosa results in lethal losses of fluid and sodium as evidenced by significant decreases in total body water, extracellular fluid space, plasma volume, and plasma sodium concentration, with hemoconcentration. These changes are sufficient to reduce tissue perfusion leading to irreversible hypovolemic shock and death.

  2. Delayed renal dysfunction after total body irradiation in pediatric malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe Nemoto, Miho; Isobe, Koichi; Togasaki, Gentaro; Kanazawa, Aki; Kurokawa, Marie; Saito, Makoto; Harada, Rintaro; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Ito, Hisao; Uno, Takashi

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the incidence of delayed renal dysfunction after total body irradiation (TBI) in long-term survivors of TBI/hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Between 1989 and 2006, 24 pediatric patients underwent TBI as part of the conditioning regimen for HSCT at Chiba University Hospital. Nine patients who survived for more than 5 years were enrolled in this study. No patient had any evidence of renal dysfunction prior to the transplant according to their baseline creatinine levels. The median age at the time of diagnosis was 6 years old (range: 1-17 years old). The follow-up period ranged from 79-170 months (median: 140 months). Renal dysfunction was assessed using the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). The TBI dose ranged from 8-12 Gy delivered in 3-6 fractions over 2-3 d. The patients were treated with linear accelerators in the supine position, and the radiation was delivered to isocentric right-left and left-right fields via the extended distance technique. The kidneys and the liver were not shielded except in one patient with a left adrenal neuroblastoma. No patient required hemodialysis. The eGFR of four patients (44.4%) progressively decreased. The remaining patients did not demonstrate any eGFR deterioration. Only one patient developed hypertension. By evaluating the changes in eGFR, renal dysfunction among long-term survivors of TBI/HSCT could be detected. Our results suggested that the TBI schedule of 12 Gy in 6 fractions over three consecutive days affects renal function.

  3. γ irradiation induced effects on the TCO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabacelik, Ismail; Kutaruk, Hakan; Yaltkaya, Serafettin; Sahin, Ramazan

    2017-05-01

    We report on gamma irradiation induced changes both in the optical and electrical properties of the Transparent Conductive Oxide (TCO) thin films. We used Co-60 radioisotope as a natural source of γ in our experiments. Applied total irradiation doses to the prepared samples change from 1 to 4 kGy. The dose rate is kept finely constant at 200 Gy/min. Optical transmissions in VIS-NIR region of electromagnetic spectrum and electrical conductivity (I-V) measurements on irradiated samples are conducted with respect to the total dose. Results show that regardless of the irradiation dose, there is no change in the current flow through the contacts on the TCO thin films after the irradiation. On the other hand, based on the on-line measurements, the current increases with the gamma irradiation and a threshold irradiation is detected in the optical properties of irradiated samples. Also, thin films are seen to preserve their initial amorphous structures at such a low irradiation doses according to XRD measurements. We propose that these thin films can be used in gamma sensors for both optical and electrical applications.

  4. Comparative seric TGF({beta}1, {beta}2) levels and platelets count response in total body irradiated baboons; Evolution comparee des taux seriques des TGF ({beta}1, {beta}2) et de la numeration plaquettaire chez le babouin irradie globalement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mestries, J.C.; Veyret, J.; Agay, D.; Van Uye, A.; Caterini, R.; Herodin, F.; Mathieu, J.; Chancerelle, Y.

    1994-12-31

    Total body irradiation associated or not with r-hIL-6 treatment a relation between TGF-{beta}1 and TGF-{beta}2 blood levels and platelets count. During radio-induced thrombocytopenia, by decreasing its ability to inhibit proliferation of stem cells and megakaryocytopoiesis, the TGF-{beta} falling induced a favorable condition for hematopoietic recovery. (author). 5 refs.

  5. Pregnancy complicating irradiation-induced constrictive pericarditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakri, Younes N.; Martan, Ahmed; Amri, Aladin (King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology); Amri, M. (King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Cardiovascular Diseases)

    1992-01-01

    A case is reported of a 24 year-old primigravida who had severe effusive constrictive pericarditis secondary to mediastinal irradiation following chemotherapy for Hodgkins disease. Pregnancy was threatened by serious maternal cardiovascular complications and a non-viable fetus was born spontaneously and prematurely. Patient was completely asymptomatic before pregnancy. (au).

  6. Engraftment of DLA-nonidentical unrelated canine marrow after high-dose fractionated total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deeg, H.J. (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA); Storb, R.; Shulman, H.M.; Weiden, P.L.; Graham, T.C.; Thomas, E.D.

    1982-04-01

    Marrow transplants were carried out between unrelated DLA-nonidentical dogs. Recipients were conditioned for transplantation by total body irradiation (TBI) given either as a single dose of 9 Gy (900 rad) or fractionated in three increments of 6 Gy (600 rad) each at intervals of 48 hr. All recipients received marrow, less than or equal to to 4 X 10/sup 8/ cells/kg, and no buffy coat cells. No immunosuppression was given after grafting. All 10 dogs given single-dose total body irradiation failed to show engraftment and died with marrow aplasia and infectious complications (median survival 12 days). In contrast, all 10 dogs given fractionated TBI had sustained engraftment and died with graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and infectious complications (median survival 12.5 days). None of the dogs died from radiation-induced gastroenteritis.In conclusion, resistance to DLA-nonidentical unrelated marrow grafts can be abrogated by high-dose TBI. This technique may allow hemopoietic engraftment even after in vitro manipulation of the marrow such as lymphocyte depletion by cell separation or treatment with anti-T cell antisera.

  7. Engraftment of DLA-nonidentical unrelated canine marrow after high-dose fractionated total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deeg, H.J.; Storb, R.; Shulman, H.M.; Weiden, P.L.; Graham, T.C.; Thomas, E.D.

    1982-04-01

    Marrow transplants were carried out between unrelated DLA-nonidentical dogs. Recipients were conditioned for transplantation by total body irradiation (TBI) given eigher as a single dose of 9 Gy (900 rad) or fractionated in three increments of 6 Gy (600 rad) each at intervals of 48 hr. All recipients received marrow, less than or equal to 4 x 10(8) cells/kg, and no buffy coat cells. No immunosuppression was given after grafting. All 10 dogs given single dose total body irradiation failed to show engraftment and died with marrow aplasia and infectious complications (median survival 12 days). In contrast, all 10 dogs given fractionated TBI had sustained engraftment and died with graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and infectious complications (median survival 12.5 days). None of the dogs died from radiation-induced gastroenteritis. In conclusion, resistance to DLA-nonidentical unrelated marrow grafts can be abrogated by high-dose TBI. This technique may allow hemopoietic engraftment even after i vitro manipulation of the marrow such as lymphocyte depletion by cell separation or treatment with anti-T cell antisera.

  8. Effect of bifidobacteria implantation on the survival time of whole-body irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokokura, T.; Onoue, M.; Mutai, M. (Yakult Institute for Microbiological Research)

    1980-01-01

    Letahl dose (2 KR) of gamma-ray was irradiated on the whole bodies of mice. Survival time after irradiation was significantly longer in mice with administration of both Bifidobacterium breve YIT 4008 and transgalactosyl oligosaccharide than in mice with administration of either of the two or nothing.

  9. Recombinant Human Prolactin Protects against Irradiation Induced Myelosuppression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weici Zhang; Rui Sun; Jianhua Zhang; Jian Zhang; Zhigang Tian

    2005-01-01

    Prolactin is a multifunctional hormone that exerts many separate functions and acts as an important connection between the endocrine and immune systems. There are increasing researches implicating the role of prolactin in hematopoiesis. Enhanced erythropoiesis in pregnant women and direct erythropoietic effects in vitro of plasma either from pregnant or lactating mice have been reported. Furthermore, regression of erythroblastic leukemia has been observed in a significant number of rats after hypophysectomy. In this study, the effects of recombinant human prolactin (rhPRL) on hematopoiesis were assessed in irradiated mice. Mice were treated with rhPRL for five consecutive days after exposure to a lethal dose or a sub-dose irradiation. Prolonged survival rate and increased erythropoiesis were observed in the irradiation-induced myelosuppressive mice. It was concluded that rhPRL might act on erythropoiesis and could be a potential candidate for the treatment of irradiation-induced myelosuppresion in clinic. Cellular & Molecular Immunology.

  10. Androgen deprivation modulates the inflammatory response induced by irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Paul-Yang

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine whether radiation (RT-induced inflammatory responses and organ damage might be modulated by androgen deprivation therapies. Methods The mRNA and tissue sections obtained from the lungs, intestines and livers of irradiated mice with or without androgen deprivation were analyzed by real-time PCR and histological analysis. Activation of NF-kappa B was examined by measuring nuclear protein levels in the intestine and lung 24 h after irradiation. We also examined the levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, TGF-β1 and p-AKT to elucidate the related pathway responsible to irradiation (RT -induced fibrosis. Results We found androgen deprivation by castration significantly augmented RT-induced inflammation, associated with the increase NF-κB activation and COX-2 expression. However, administration of flutamide had no obvious effect on the radiation-induced inflammation response in the lung and intestine. These different responses were probably due to the increase of RT-induced NF-κB activation and COX-2 expression by castration or lupron treatment. In addition, our data suggest that TGF-β1 and the induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT via the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway may contribute to RT-induced fibrosis. Conclusion When irradiation was given to patients with total androgen deprivation, the augmenting effects on the RT-induced inflammation and fibrosis should take into consideration for complications associated with radiotherapy.

  11. Stability of the translocation frequency following whole-body irradiation measured in rhesus monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, J. N.; Hill, F. S.; Burk, C. E.; Cox, A. B.; Straume, T.

    1996-01-01

    Chromosome translocations are persistent indicators of prior exposure to ionizing radiation and the development of 'chromosome painting' to efficiently detect translocations has resulted in a powerful biological dosimetry tool for radiation dose reconstruction. However, the actual stability of the translocation frequency with time after exposure must be measured before it can be used reliably to obtain doses for individuals exposed years or decades previously. Human chromosome painting probes were used here to measure reciprocal translocation frequencies in cells from two tissues of 8 rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) irradiated almost three decades previously. Six of the monkeys were exposed in 1965 to whole-body (fully penetrating) radiation and two were unexposed controls. The primates were irradiated as juveniles to single doses of 0.56, 1.13, 2.00, or 2.25 Gy. Blood lymphocytes (and skin fibroblasts from one individual) were obtained for cytogenetic analysis in 1993, near the end of the animals' lifespans. Results show identical dose-response relationships 28 y after exposure in vivo and immediately after exposure in vitro. Because chromosome aberrations are induced with identical frequencies in vivo and in vitro, these results demonstrate that the translocation frequencies induced in 1965 have not changed significantly during the almost three decades since exposure. Finally, our emerging biodosimetry data for individual radiation workers are now confirming the utility of reciprocal translocations measured by FISH in radiation dose reconstruction.

  12. Establishment of Early Endpoints in Mouse Total-Body Irradiation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Amory; Gulani, Jatinder; King, Gregory; Hieber, Kevin; Chappell, Mark; Ossetrova, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Acute radiation sickness (ARS) following exposure to ionizing irradiation is characterized by radiation-induced multiorgan dysfunction/failure that refers to progressive dysfunction of two or more organ systems, the etiological agent being radiation damage to cells and tissues over time. Radiation sensitivity data on humans and animals has made it possible to describe the signs associated with ARS. A mouse model of total-body irradiation (TBI) has previously been developed that represents the likely scenario of exposure in the human population. Herein, we present the Mouse Intervention Scoring System (MISS) developed at the Veterinary Sciences Department (VSD) of the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI) to identify moribund mice and decrease the numbers of mice found dead, which is therefore a more humane refinement to death as the endpoint. Survival rates were compared to changes in body weights and temperatures in the mouse (CD2F1 male) TBI model (6-14 Gy, 60Co γ-rays at 0.6 Gy min-1), which informed improvements to the Scoring System. Individual tracking of animals via implanted microchips allowed for assessment of criteria based on individuals rather than by group averages. From a total of 132 mice (92 irradiated), 51 mice were euthanized versus only four mice that were found dead (7% of non-survivors). In this case, all four mice were found dead after overnight periods between observations. Weight loss alone was indicative of imminent succumbing to radiation injury, however mice did not always become moribund within 24 hours while having weight loss >30%. Only one survivor had a weight loss of greater than 30%. Temperature significantly dropped only 2-4 days before death/euthanasia in 10 and 14 Gy animals. The score system demonstrates a significant refinement as compared to using subjective assessment of morbidity or death as the endpoint for these survival studies.

  13. Establishment of Early Endpoints in Mouse Total-Body Irradiation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulani, Jatinder; King, Gregory; Hieber, Kevin; Chappell, Mark; Ossetrova, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Acute radiation sickness (ARS) following exposure to ionizing irradiation is characterized by radiation-induced multiorgan dysfunction/failure that refers to progressive dysfunction of two or more organ systems, the etiological agent being radiation damage to cells and tissues over time. Radiation sensitivity data on humans and animals has made it possible to describe the signs associated with ARS. A mouse model of total-body irradiation (TBI) has previously been developed that represents the likely scenario of exposure in the human population. Herein, we present the Mouse Intervention Scoring System (MISS) developed at the Veterinary Sciences Department (VSD) of the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI) to identify moribund mice and decrease the numbers of mice found dead, which is therefore a more humane refinement to death as the endpoint. Survival rates were compared to changes in body weights and temperatures in the mouse (CD2F1 male) TBI model (6–14 Gy, 60Co γ-rays at 0.6 Gy min-1), which informed improvements to the Scoring System. Individual tracking of animals via implanted microchips allowed for assessment of criteria based on individuals rather than by group averages. From a total of 132 mice (92 irradiated), 51 mice were euthanized versus only four mice that were found dead (7% of non-survivors). In this case, all four mice were found dead after overnight periods between observations. Weight loss alone was indicative of imminent succumbing to radiation injury, however mice did not always become moribund within 24 hours while having weight loss >30%. Only one survivor had a weight loss of greater than 30%. Temperature significantly dropped only 2–4 days before death/euthanasia in 10 and 14 Gy animals. The score system demonstrates a significant refinement as compared to using subjective assessment of morbidity or death as the endpoint for these survival studies. PMID:27579862

  14. Neutron irradiation induced amorphization of silicon carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snead, L.L.; Hay, J.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1998-09-01

    This paper provides the first known observation of silicon carbide fully amorphized under neutron irradiation. Both high purity single crystal hcp and high purity, highly faulted (cubic) chemically vapor deposited (CVD) SiC were irradiated at approximately 60 C to a total fast neutron fluence of 2.6 {times} 10{sup 25} n/m{sup 2}. Amorphization was seen in both materials, as evidenced by TEM, electron diffraction, and x-ray diffraction techniques. Physical properties for the amorphized single crystal material are reported including large changes in density ({minus}10.8%), elastic modulus as measured using a nanoindentation technique ({minus}45%), hardness as measured by nanoindentation ({minus}45%), and standard Vickers hardness ({minus}24%). Similar property changes are observed for the critical temperature for amorphization at this neutron dose and flux, above which amorphization is not possible, is estimated to be greater than 130 C.

  15. Neuro-immune response and sleep studies after whole body irradiation with high-LET particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquette, C.; Bertho, J.M.; Wysoki, J.; Maubert, C.; Gerbin, R.; Aigueperse, J. [IRSN, F-92260 Fontenay Aux Roses, (France); Mathieu, J.; Galonnier, M.; Clarencon, D. [CRSSA, Dept Radiobiol and Radiopathol, F-38700 La Tronche, (France); Balanzat, E. [CEA, DSM, CIRIL, Ganil, Caen, (France)

    2009-07-01

    In order to investigate the biological effects of galactic rays on astronaut cerebral functions after space flight, mice were exposed to different heavy ions (HZE) in whole-body conditions at doses comparable to the galactic flux: {sup 12}C, {sup 16}O and {sup 20}Ne (95 MeV/u, at 42-76 mGy). Animals were also exposed to 42 mGy of {sup 60}Co radiation for comparison with HZE. The neuro-immune response, evaluated by interleukin-I (IL-1) measurement, showed that this cytokine was produced 3 h after irradiation by {sup 16}O or {sup 60}Co. In contrast, neither {sup 12}C (56.7 mGy) nor {sup 20}Ne (76 mGy) induced IL-1 production. However, immunohistochemical staining of {sup 12}C-irradiated mouse brain tissue showed 2 months later a marked inflammatory reaction in the hippocampus and a diffuse response in parenchyma. Sleep studies were realized before and after exposure to 42 mGy of {sup 16}O and 76 mGy of {sup 20}Ne: only the {sup 20}Ne radiation displayed a small effect. A slight decrease in paradoxical sleep, corresponding to a reduction in the number of episodes of paradoxical sleep, was manifested between 8 and 22 days after exposure. Exposure to {sup 12}C and {sup 16}O induced no changes either in cellularity of spleen or thymus, or in caspase 3 activity (as much as four months after irradiation). Taken together, these data indicate that the CNS could be sensitive to heavy ions and that responses to HZE impact depend on the nature of the particle, the dose threshold and the time delay to develop biological processes. Differences in responses to different HZE highlight the complex biological phenomena to which astronauts are submitted during space flight. (authors)

  16. Effects of a granulocyte colony stimulating factor, Neulasta, in mini pigs exposed to total body proton irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanzari, Jenine K.; Krigsfeld, Gabriel S.; Shuman, Anne L.; Diener, Antonia K.; Lin, Liyong; Mai, Wilfried; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2015-04-01

    Astronauts could be exposed to solar particle event (SPE) radiation, which is comprised mostly of proton radiation. Proton radiation is also a treatment option for certain cancers. Both astronauts and clinical patients exposed to ionizing radiation are at risk for loss of white blood cells (WBCs), which are the body's main defense against infection. In this report, the effect of Neulasta treatment, a granulocyte colony stimulating factor, after proton radiation exposure is discussed. Mini pigs exposed to total body proton irradiation at a dose of 2 Gy received 4 treatments of either Neulasta or saline injections. Peripheral blood cell counts and thromboelastography parameters were recorded up to 30 days post-irradiation. Neulasta significantly improved WBC loss, specifically neutrophils, in irradiated animals by approximately 60% three days after the first injection, compared to the saline treated, irradiated animals. Blood cell counts quickly decreased after the last Neulasta injection, suggesting a transient effect on WBC stimulation. Statistically significant changes in hemostasis parameters were observed after proton radiation exposure in both the saline and Neulasta treated irradiated groups, as well as internal organ complications such as pulmonary changes. In conclusion, Neulasta treatment temporarily alleviates proton radiation-induced WBC loss, but has no effect on altered hemostatic responses.

  17. Cranial irradiation induces bone marrow-derived microglia in adult mouse brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonogi, Noriyuki; Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Suto, Nana; Suzue, Kazutomo; Kaminuma, Takuya; Nakano, Takashi; Hirai, Hirokazu

    2014-07-01

    Postnatal hematopoietic progenitor cells do not contribute to microglial homeostasis in adult mice under normal conditions. However, previous studies using whole-body irradiation and bone marrow (BM) transplantation models have shown that adult BM cells migrate into the brain tissue and differentiate into microglia (BM-derived microglia; BMDM). Here, we investigated whether cranial irradiation alone was sufficient to induce the generation of BMDM in the adult mouse brain. Transgenic mice that express green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of a murine stem cell virus (MSCV) promoter (MSCV-GFP mice) were used. MSCV-GFP mice express GFP in BM cells but not in the resident microglia in the brain. Therefore, these mice allowed us to detect BM-derived cells in the brain without BM reconstitution. MSCV-GFP mice, aged 8-12 weeks, received 13.0 Gy irradiation only to the cranium, and BM-derived cells in the brain were quantified at 3 and 8 weeks after irradiation. No BM-derived cells were detected in control non-irradiated MSCV-GFP mouse brains, but numerous GFP-labeled BM-derived cells were present in the brain stem, basal ganglia and cerebral cortex of the irradiated MSCV-GFP mice. These BM-derived cells were positive for Iba1, a marker for microglia, indicating that GFP-positive BM-derived cells were microglial in nature. The population of BMDM was significantly greater at 8 weeks post-irradiation than at 3 weeks post-irradiation in all brain regions examined. Our results clearly show that cranial irradiation alone is sufficient to induce the generation of BMDM in the adult mouse.

  18. Employment of whole-body. gamma. -irradiation in chronic lymphoid leukemia and malignant lymphomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danilova, N.B.; Baranov, A.E.; Khrushchev, V.G.; Grammatikati, V.S.; Murav' eva, L.I.; Strashnenko, E.S.

    1982-11-01

    There are presented data showing that whole-body therapeutic ..gamma..-irradiation is an effective method of treatment of chronic lymphoid leukosis and lymphomas. Rapid lymphopenic effect, satisfactory diminution of lymph nodes and spleen sizes testify to the effect. The necessity of further investigation of the treatment method is underlined. It is of interest to trace the fate of lymphocyte subpopulations in the course and after treatment. The urgency of working out a most rational scheme for whole-body therapeutic irradiation and for investigating indications for local irradiation of various groups of lymphatic nodes is indicated.

  19. Bone-marrow haemopoiesis in dogs exposed to various repeated total-body nonuniform irradiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalandarova, M.P.; Gorlov, V.G.

    1982-03-01

    Dogs were exposed to total-body nonuniform irradiation, the absorbed doses varying by 2.8 to 8 times and doses on the dog's back amounting to 0.0774 C/kg and 0.01290 C/kg. It is shown that, after a three-fold exposure at 90-day intervals between the fractions, a haemopoiesis affection develops which is analogous to that observed in the case of a typical form of radiation sickness induced by a single exposure. Long-term hypoplasia and aplasia of the bone marrow and the impairment of postirradiation recovery are indicative of the exhaustion of the haemopoietic resources upon repeated exposure to ionizing radiation.

  20. X Irradiation Induces Acute Cognitive Decline via Transient Synaptic Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puspitasari, Anggraeini; Koganezawa, Noriko; Ishizuka, Yuta; Kojima, Nobuhiko; Tanaka, Natsume; Nakano, Takashi; Shirao, Tomoaki

    2016-04-01

    Cranial X irradiation can severely impair higher brain function, resulting in neurocognitive deficits. Radiation-induced brain injury is characterized by acute, early and late delayed changes, and morbidity is evident more than 6 months after irradiation. While the acute effects of radiation exposure on the brain are known, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we examined the acute effect of X radiation on synaptic function using behavioral analysis and immunohistochemistry. We found that 10 Gy whole-brain irradiation immediately after conditioning (within 30 min) impaired the formation of fear memory, whereas irradiation 24 h prior to conditioning did not. To investigate the mechanisms underlying these behavioral changes, we irradiated one hemisphere of the brain and analyzed synaptic function and adult neurogenesis immunohistochemically. We focused on drebrin, whose loss from dendritic spines is a surrogate marker of synaptopathy. The intensity of drebrin immunoreactivity started to decrease in the irradiated hemisphere 2 h after exposure. The immunostaining intensity recovered to preirradiation levels by 24 h, indicating that X radiation induced transient synaptic dysfunction. Interestingly, the number of newly generated neurons was not changed at 2 h postirradiation, whereas it was significantly decreased at 8 and 24 h postirradiation. Because irradiation 24 h prior to conditioning had no effect on fear memory, our findings suggest that radiation-induced death of newly-generated neurons does not substantially impact fear memory formation. The radiation-induced synaptic dysfunction likely caused a transient memory deficit during the critical period for fear memory formation (approximately 1-3 h after conditioning), which coincides with a change in drebrin immunostaining in the hippocampus, a structure critical for fear memory formation.

  1. SU-E-T-522: Investigation of Underdosage of Total Body Irradiation with Bilateral Irradiation Scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, T; Eldib, A; Hossain, M; Price, R; Ma, C [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Patient in-vivo measurements report lower readings than those predicted from TMR-based treatment planning on TBI patient knees and ankles where rice was placed to fill the gap between patient’s legs. This study is to understand and correct the under dosage of Total Body Irradiation(TBI) with rice tissue equivalent bolus placement at TBI treatment patient setup. Methods: Bilateral TBI scheme was investigated with rice bags bolus placing between patient’s two legs acting as missing tissue. In-house TMR based treatment planning system was commissioned with measurements under TBI condition at 10MV, i.e. source-to-reference distance 383.4cm with 40×40cm field size with 1cm thickness Lucite. Predictions of patient specific dose points are reported at different sites with 200cGy prescription at patient umbilicus point. Solid water and rice bag phantoms are used at TBI conditions for the attenuation factor verification and CT scanned to verify the CT number and electron density. Results: We found that the rice bag bolus overall density is 11% lower than the water; however, the attenuation factor of rice bags could become 15% lower than that of water at TBI condition. This overestimate of rice bag electron density could cause the lack of lateral scatter and the lack of backscatter. This could Result in an overestimate of dose at in-vivo dosimeter measurement points with TMR-based treatment planning systems. Observations of patient specific optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters(OSLDs) were used to confirm this overestimation. Measurements of setups with increasing the rice bag filled patient leg separation were performed to demonstrate eliminating the overdose issue. Conclusion: Rice bolus has a lower electron density than water does(11%) but results in 15% lower in attenuation factor at TBI condition. This effect was observed in patient delivery with OSLD measurements and can be corrected by increasing the filling rice bolus thickness with 15% longer of

  2. Induction of systemic bone changes by preconditioning total body irradiation for bone marrow transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, Osamu; Okamoto, Reiko; Masaki, Hidekazu [National Centre for Child Health and Development, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Nishimura, Gen [Tokyo Metropolitan Kiyose Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Kumagai, Masaaki; Shioda, Yoko [National Centre for Child Health and Development, Department of Oncology, Tokyo (Japan); Nozawa, Kumiko [Saitama Children' s Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Saitama (Japan); Kitoh, Hiroshi [Nagoya University Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan)

    2009-01-15

    Preconditioning total body irradiation (TBI) prior to bone marrow transplantation (BMT) has been believed to be a safe procedure that does not cause late morbidity; yet, a recent report raises the suspicion that TBI-induced chondroosseous abnormalities do occur. To evaluate the radiological manifestations of TBI-induced skeletal alterations and their orthopaedic morbidity. Subjects included 11 children with TBI-induced skeletal changes, including 9 in our hospital and 2 in other hospitals. The former were selected from 53 children who had undergone TBI with BMT. Radiographic examinations (n=11), MRI (n=3), CT (n=2), and medical records in the 11 children were retrospectively reviewed. The skeletal alterations included abnormal epiphyseal ossification and metaphyseal fraying (8/11), longitudinal metaphyseal striations (8/11), irregular metaphyseal sclerosis (6/11), osteochondromas (4/11), slipped capital femoral epiphysis (2/10), genu valgum (3/10), and platyspondyly (2/3). MRI demonstrated immature primary spongiosa in the metaphysis. Of the 11 children, 9 had clinical symptoms. TBI can induce polyostotic and/or generalized bone changes, mainly affecting the epiphyseal/metaphyseal regions and occasionally the spine. The epi-/metaphyseal abnormalities represent impaired chondrogenesis in the epiphysis and growth plate and abnormal remodelling in the metaphysis. Generalized spine changes may lead to misdiagnosis of a skeletal dysplasia. (orig.)

  3. Radiation-induced apoptosis in SCID mice spleen after low dose irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, A.; Kondo, N.; Inaba, H.; Uotani, K.; Kiyohara, Y.; Ohnishi, K.; Ohnishi, T.

    To assess the radioadaptive response of the whole body system in mice, we examined the temporal effect of low dose priming as an indicator of challenging irradiation-induced apoptosis through a p53 tumor suppressor protein- mediated signal transduction pathway. The p53 protein also plays an important role both in cell cycle control and DNA repair through cellular signal transduction. Using severe combined immunodeficiency mice defective in DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit, we examined the role of DNA-dependent protein kinase activity in radioadaptation induced by low dose irradiation. Specific pathogen free 5-week-old female severe combined immunodeficiency mice and the parental mice (CB-17 Icr +/ + were irradiated with X-ray at 3.0 C3y at 1, 2, 3 or 4 weeks after the conditioning irradiation at 0.15, 0.30, 0.45 or 0.60 Gy. The mice spleens were fixed for immunohistochemistry 12 h after the challenging irradiation. The p53-dependent apoptosis related Bax proteins on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections were stained by the avidin-biotin peroxidase complex method The apoptosis incidence in the sections was measured by hematoxylin-eosin staining. The frequency of Bax- and apoptosis-positive cells increased up to 12 h after the challenging irradiation in the spleen of both mice. However, these cells were not observed after a low dose irradiation at 0.15-0.60 Gy When pre-irradiation at 0.45 Gy 2 weeks before the challenging irradiation at 3.0 Gy was performed, Bax accumulation and apoptosis induced by challenging irradiation were depressed in the spleens of CB-17 Icr +/ + mice, but not in severe combined immunodeficiency mice. These data suggest that DNA-dependent protein kinase might play a major role in radioadaptation induced by pre-irradiation with a low dose in mice spleen. We expect that the present findings will provide useful information in the health care of space crews.

  4. Multicolor flow cytometry analysis of blood cell subsets in patients given total body irradiation before bone marrow transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clave, E.; Socie, G.; Carosella, E. [Hopital-Saint Louis, Paris (France)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    Bone marrow transplantation has often been closely linked with accidental or intentional therapeutical irradiation. In both situations, study of the radiosensitivity of human blood cell subsets is of interest. Using one-color flow cytometry analysis of B lymphocytes, T cell subsets, and natural killer cells, we previously reported that lymphocyte subsets exhibit equal radiosensitivity. Taking advantage of recent developments in the knowledge of leukocyte differentiation antigens and flow cytometry technology we undertook a study of blood cell subsets to search for rare populations exhibiting different radiosensitivity. Thirty patients, who were delivered a 12 Gy fractionated total body irradiation as part of their conditioning regimen before transplantation for malignant disorders, were studied using multicolor flow cytometry. T and B lymphocytes showed a sharp, radiation-induced decrease, with the B lymphocytes (cluster of differentiation (CD) 19+) being the most sensitive. When analyzed by multicolor flow cytometry all major lymphocyte subsets appeared equally sensitive to the in vivo irradiation. Therefore, all major lymphocyte subsets sharing the helper phenotype (naive or memory) and the cytotoxic phenotype appeared equally sensitive to in vivo whole body irradiation. In parallel, the CD34+ cell subset remained basically unchanged after whole body irradiation. Finally, the CD3{minus}, 56+, 16+ natural killer cell subset was relatively radioresistant (91 and 74% of its initial value, after 2 and 4 Gy, respectively) as compared to other lymphocyte subsets. Our study provides evidence that T and B cell subsets seem to be highly radiosensitive in vivo. The CD34+ progenitor/stem cells and NK cells seem to be more radioresistant. This latter result might provide clues to the understanding of the pathophysiogeny of radiation-induced aplasia and of the engrafment/rejection process following bone marrow transplantation. 20 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Irradiation spectrum and ionization-induced diffusion effects in ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinkle, S.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-08-01

    There are two main components to the irradiation spectrum which need to be considered in radiation effects studies on nonmetals, namely the primary knock-on atom energy spectrum and ionizing radiation. The published low-temperature studies on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and MgO suggest that the defect production is nearly independent of the average primary knock-on atom energy, in sharp contrast to the situation for metals. On the other hand, ionizing radiation has been shown to exert a pronounced influence on the microstructural evolution of both semiconductors and insulators under certain conditions. Recent work on the microstructure of ion-irradiated ceramics is summarized, which provides evidence for significant ionization-induced diffusion. Polycrystalline samples of MgO, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} were irradiated with various ions ranging from 1 MeV H{sup +} to 4 MeV Zr{sup +} ions at temperatures between 25 and 650{degrees}C. Cross-section transmission electron microscopy was used to investigate the depth-dependent microstructural of the irradiated specimens. Dislocation loop nucleation was effectively suppressed in specimens irradiated with light ions, whereas the growth rate of dislocation loops was enhanced. The sensitivity to irradiation spectrum is attributed to ionization-induced diffusion. The interstitial migration energies in MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} are estimated to be {le}0.4 eV and {le}0.8 eV, respectively for irradiation conditions where ionization-induced diffusion effects are expected to be negligible.

  6. Gastroprotective effect of kefir on ulcer induced in irradiated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmy, Hanan A; Ismail, Amel F M

    2015-03-01

    The current study was designed to investigate the protective effect of kefir milk on ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in γ-irradiated rats. The results of the present study revealed that treatment with γ-irradiation and/or ethanol showed a significant increase in ulcers number, total acidity, peptic, H(+)K(+)ATPase, MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities and MDA level, which were accompanied by a significant decrease in the mucus content, the stomach GSH level, the GSH-Px activity and DNA damage. Pre-treatment with kefir milk exert significant improvement in all the tested parameters. Kefir milk exerts comparable effect to that of the antiulcer drug ranitidine. In conclusion, the present study revealed that oral administration of kefir milk prevents ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in γ-irradiated rats that could attribute to its antioxidant, anti-apoptotic and radio-protective activities.

  7. Effect of antihistamines, disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) or methysergide on post-irradiation cerebral blood flow and mean systemic arterial blood pressure in primates after 25 Gy, whole-body, gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockerham, L.G.; Forcino, C.D. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation causes hypotension, cerebral ischemia and release of histamine (HA) and serotonin (5-HT). To investigate the relationship among these responses, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) received physiological saline (i.v.), disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), antihistamines (AH, mepyramine and cimetidine), or methysergide (METH), then were given 25 Gy whole-body irradiation. Monkeys receiving DSCG, AH or METH had higher post-irradiation mean arterial blood pressure (MBP) than saline-treated controls. Compared to levels in controls, post-irradiation hippocampal blood flow (rCBF) levels were higher in monkeys receiving DSCG, AH or METH. Treatment with the 5-HT{sub 2} receptor antagonist methysergide was the most effective in maintaining both rCBF and MBP after irradiation. Results support the hypothesis that the irradiation-induced cerebral ischemia and, to some extent, the hypotension is mediated by serotonin through 5-HT{sub 2} receptor sites. (author) 72 refs.

  8. DAMAGE OF SILICONE RUBBER INDUCED BY PROTON IRRADIATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-xin Zhang; Shi-qin Yang; Shi-yu He

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the damage to methyl silicone rubber induced by irradiation with protons of 150 keV energy was studied. The surface morphology, tensile strength, Shore hardness, cross-linking density and glass transition temperature were examined. Positron annihilation lifetime spectrum analysis (PALS) was perfomed to reveal the damage mechanisms of the rubber. The results showed that tensile strength and Shore hardness of the rubber increased first and then decreased with increasing irradiation fluence. The PALS characteristics τ3 and I3, as well as the free volume Vf, decreased with increasing irradiation fluence up to 1015 cm-2, and then increased slowly. It indicates that proton irradiation causes a decrease of free volume in the methyl silicone rubber when the fluence is less than l015 cm-2, while the free volume increases when the fluence is greater than 1015 cm-2. The results on cross-linking density indicate that the cross-linking induced by proton irradiation is dominant at smaller proton fluences, increasing the tensile strength and Shore hardness of the rubber, while the degradation of rubber dominates at greater fluence, leading to a decrease of tensile strength and Shore hardness.

  9. Prospective randomized comparison of single-dose versus hyperfractionated total-body irradiation in patients with hematologic malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girinsky, T.; Benhamou, E.; Bourhis, J.H.; Dhermain, F.; Guillot-Valls, D.; Ganansia, V.; Luboinski, M.; Perez, A.; Cosset, J.M.; Socie, G.; Baume, D.; Bouaouina, N.; Briot, E.; Baudre, A.; Bridier, A.; Pico, J.L

    2001-02-01

    The efficiency of the two irradiation modes are similar, but the hyperfractionated irradiation seems superior in term of global and specific survival. The incidence rates of pneumopathies are not different between the two groups but the incidence rate of the liver vein-occlusive illness is superior in the group treated by non fractionated whole body irradiation. The cost of the hyperfractionated whole body irradiation is superior to this one of the non fractionated whole body irradiation around a thousand dollars. (N.C.)

  10. Influence of absorption induced thermal initiation pathway on irradiance threshold for laser induced breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Babu; Bonito, Valentina; Jurna, Martin; Palero, Jonathan; Verhagen, Margaret Hortonand Rieko

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the influence of thermal initiation pathway on the irradiance threshold for laser induced breakdown in transparent, absorbing and scattering phantoms. We observed a transition from laser-induced optical breakdown to laser-induced thermal breakdown as the absorption coefficient of the medium is increased. We found that the irradiance threshold after correction for the path length dependent absorption and scattering losses in the medium is lower due to the thermal pathway for the generation of seed electrons compared to the laser-induced optical breakdown. Furthermore, irradiance threshold gradually decreases with the increase in the absorption properties of the medium. Creating breakdown with lower irradiance threshold that is specific at the target chromophore can provide intrinsic target selectivity and improve safety and efficacy of skin treatment methods that use laser induced breakdown. PMID:25909007

  11. Survival After Total Body Irradiation: Effects of Irradiation of Exteriorized Small Intestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Forces only have relieved mortality in animals that were Radiobiology Research Institute, Defense Nuclear destined to die from bone marrow aplasia [20...the difference between the highest dose leading to a intestinal dose. Shielding appeared to be effective in this bone marrow syndrome (11 Gy) and the...intestine that influence regeneration in the irradiated Shielding experiments (Fig. 4) exclude bone marrow proximal small intestine. Such "trophic

  12. Irradiation-induced effects of proton irradiation on zirconium carbides with different stoichiometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Y., E-mail: na.huang@materials.ox.ac.uk [Engineering Physics Department, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Maier, B.R. [Engineering Physics Department, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Allen, T.R. [Engineering Physics Department, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Highlights: • ZrC{sub x} with four different stoichiometries (x = 0.9–1.2 with 0.1 step) were studied. • Proton irradiation at 800 °C introduced large amount of dislocation loops. • No voids were found before or after irradiation. • Dislocation loops size distribution and density varied with stoichiometry. - Abstract: Zirconium carbide (ZrC) is being considered for utilization in deep burn TRISO fuel particles for high-temperature, gas-cooled reactors. Zirconium carbide has a cubic B1 type crystal structure along with a very high melting point (3420 °C), exceptional hardness and good thermal and electrical conductivities. Understanding the ZrC irradiation response is crucial for establishing ZrC as an alternative component in TRISO fuel. Until now, very few studies on irradiation effects on ZrC have been released and fundamental aspects of defect evolution and kinetics are not well understood although some atomistic simulations and phenomenological studies have been performed. This work was carried out to understand the damage evolution in float-zone refined ZrC with different stoichiometries. Proton irradiations at 800 °C up to doses of 3 dpa were performed on ZrC{sub x} (where x ranges from 0.9 to 1.2) to investigate the damage evolution. The irradiation-induced defects, such as density of dislocation loops, at different stoichiometries and doses which were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is presented and discussed.

  13. Impairment in extinction of contextual and cued, fear following post-training whole body irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reid HJ Olsen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Because of the use of radiation in cancer therapy, the risk of nuclear contamination from power plants, military conflicts, and terrorism, there is a compelling scientific and public health interest in the effects of environmental radiation exposure on brain function, in particular hippocampal function and learning and memory. Previous studies have emphasized changes in learning and memory following radiation exposure. These approaches have ignored the question of how radiation exposure might impact recently acquired memories, which might be acquired under traumatic circumstances (cancer treatment, nuclear disaster, etc.. To address the question of how radiation exposure might affect the processing and recall of recently acquired memories, we employed a fear-conditioning paradigm wherein animals were trained, and subsequently irradiated (whole-body X-ray irradiation 24 hours later. Animals were given two weeks to recover, and were tested for retention and extinction of hippocampus-dependent contextual fear conditioning. Exposure to irradiation following training was associated with reduced daily increases in body weights over the 22 days of the study and resulted in greater freezing levels and aberrant extinction 2 weeks later. This was also observed when the intensity of the training protocol was increased. Cued freezing levels and measures of anxiety 2 weeks after training were also higher in irradiated than sham-irradiated mice. In contrast to contextual freezing levels, cued freezing levels were even higher in irradiated mice receiving 5 shocks during training than sham-irradiated mice receiving 10 shocks during training. In addition, the effects of radiation on extinction of contextual fear were more profound than those on the extinction of cued fear. Thus, whole body irradiation elevates contextual and cued fear memory recall.

  14. Impairment in extinction of contextual and cued fear following post-training whole-body irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Reid H J; Marzulla, Tessa; Raber, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Because of the use of radiation in cancer therapy, the risk of nuclear contamination from power plants, military conflicts, and terrorism, there is a compelling scientific and public health interest in the effects of environmental radiation exposure on brain function, in particular hippocampal function and learning and memory. Previous studies have emphasized changes in learning and memory following radiation exposure. These approaches have ignored the question of how radiation exposure might impact recently acquired memories, which might be acquired under traumatic circumstances (cancer treatment, nuclear disaster, etc.). To address the question of how radiation exposure might affect the processing and recall of recently acquired memories, we employed a fear conditioning paradigm wherein animals were trained, and subsequently irradiated (whole-body X-ray irradiation) 24 h later. Animals were given 2 weeks to recover, and were tested for retention and extinction of hippocampus-dependent contextual fear conditioning or hippocampus-independent cued fear conditioning. Exposure to irradiation following training was associated with reduced daily increases in body weights over the 22-days of the study and resulted in greater freezing levels and aberrant extinction 2 weeks later. This was also observed when the intensity of the training protocol was increased. Cued freezing levels and measures of anxiety 2 weeks after training were also higher in irradiated than sham-irradiated mice. In contrast to contextual freezing levels, cued freezing levels were even higher in irradiated mice receiving 5 shocks during training than sham-irradiated mice receiving 10 shocks during training. In addition, the effects of radiation on extinction of contextual fear were more profound than those on the extinction of cued fear. Thus, whole-body irradiation elevates contextual and cued fear memory recall.

  15. Irradiation-induced effects of proton irradiation on zirconium carbides with different stoichiometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. Huang; B.R. Maier; T.R. Allen

    2014-10-01

    Zirconium carbide (ZrC) is being considered for utilization in deep burn TRISO fuel particles for hightemperature, gas-cooled reactors. Zirconium carbide has a cubic B1 type crystal structure along with a very high melting point (3420 ?C), exceptional hardness and good thermal and electrical conductivities. Understanding the ZrC irradiation response is crucial for establishing ZrC as an alternative component in TRISO fuel. Until now, very few studies on irradiation effects on ZrC have been released and fundamental aspects of defect evolution and kinetics are not well understood although some atomistic simulations and phenomenological studies have been performed. This work was carried out to understand the damage evolution in float-zone refined ZrC with different stoichiometries. Proton irradiations at 800 ?C up to doses of 3 dpa were performed on ZrCx (where x ranges from 0.9 to 1.2) to investigate the damage evolution. The irradiation-induced defects, such as density of dislocation loops, at different stoichiometries and doses which were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is presented and discussed.

  16. An anti-apoptotic peptide improves survival in lethal total body irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDunn, Jonathan E; Muenzer, Jared T; Dunne, Benjamin; Zhou, Anthony; Yuan, Kevin; Hoekzema, Andrew; Hilliard, Carolyn; Chang, Katherine C; Davis, Christopher G; McDonough, Jacquelyn; Hunt, Clayton; Grigsby, Perry; Piwnica-Worms, David; Hotchkiss, Richard S

    2009-05-15

    Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) have been used to deliver the anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL-derived BH4 peptide to prevent injury-induced apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. Here we demonstrate that the nuclear localization sequence (NLS) from the SV40 large T antigen has favorable properties for BH4 domain delivery to lymphocytes compared to sequences based on the HIV-1 TAT sequence. While both TAT-BH4 and NLS-BH4 protected primary human mononuclear cells from radiation-induced apoptotic cell death, TAT-BH4 caused persistent membrane damage and even cell death at the highest concentrations tested (5-10 microM) and correlated with in vivo toxicity as intravenous administration of TAT-BH4 caused rapid death. The NLS-BH4 peptide has significantly attenuated toxicity compared to TAT-BH4 and we established a dosing regimen of NLS-BH4 that conferred a significant survival advantage in a post-exposure treatment model of LD90 total body irradiation.

  17. Effect of Whole-Body X-Irradiation of the Synthesis of Individual Fatty Acids in Liver Slices from Normal and Fasted Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Hansen, Lisbeth Grænge; Faber, M.

    1965-01-01

    (1) Using (2-14C) acetate and (1-14C) butyrate as precursors, rat-liver fatty acids were synthesized in vitro and assayed by paper chromatography. (2) Whole-body x-irradiation induced a change in the synthetic pattern of hepatic fatty acids towards a relatively enhanced synthesis of palmitic acid...

  18. Investigation on the radiation induced conductivity of space-applied polyimide under cyclic electron irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Long; Wu, Yiyong; Sun, Chengyue; Xiao, Jingdong; Shi, Yaping; Ma, Guoliang; He, Shiyu

    2012-11-01

    Radiation induced conductivity (RIC) is an important property of dielectric materials to evaluate the charge/discharge effect in orbit-service spacecraft. RIC of space-applied polyimide film was in situ measured and studied under continuous and cyclic electron irradiation in this paper. The results indicate that, for cyclic electron irradiation, there is a similar increasing-mode of RIC to those for continuous irradiation with the electron irradiation time. However, under the cyclic electron irradiation, the RIC of polyimide shows an obvious irradiation-history characteristic, namely preliminary irradiation dose effect (PIDE). In this case, the steady RIC value presents an "overshoot" behavior in the first few irradiation cycles and then decrease to a stable one as that under continuous irradiation. Prolonging the initial irradiation duration may avoid occurrence of overshoot phenomenon. The behaviors of irradiation-induced free radicals in polyimide could be applied to explain the RIC evolution processes.

  19. The Persistence of FISH Translocations for Retrospective Biological Dosimetry after Simulated Whole or Partial Body Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero-Carbajal, Y.C.; Moquet, J.E.; Edwards, A.A.; Lloyd, D.C

    1998-07-01

    High acute whole and partial body accidental irradiations were simulated by in vitro irradiation of blood. Lymphocyte culture times were extended from 48 h to 72 h and 96 h to simulate the elimination of chromosomal damage that occurs over time in vivo following successive cell divisions. The yields of stable translocations involving chromosomes 2, 3 and 5 were scored by the FISH method together with full genome dicentrics. With simulated whole body irradiation the yieldsof dicentrics fell sharply with successive cell divisions whilst translocation frequencies remained constant. With partial irradiation both dicentric and translocation yields reduced. This may be explained by the hypothesis that with homogeneous irradiation at high doses the distributions of stable and unstable aberrations are Poisson and independent whilst with partial exposure their distributions are linked because both types are confined to the irradiated fraction of cells. This has highlighted a possible limitation in the use of FISH for retrospective dosimetry and may explain instances where the method has been reported to underestimate dose when compared with contemporary dosimetry. (author)

  20. Erlotinib-induced rash spares previously irradiated skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lips, Irene M.; Vonk, Ernest J.A. [Radiotherapeutisch Instituut Stedendriehoek en Omstreken (RISO), Deventer (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Koster, Mariska E.Y. [Deventer Hospital (Netherlands). Dept. of Lung Diseases; Houwing, Ronald H. [Deventer Hospital (Netherlands). Dept. of Dermatology

    2011-08-15

    Erlotinib is an epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor prescribed to patients with locally advanced or metastasized non-small cell lung carcinoma after failure of at least one earlier chemotherapy treatment. Approximately 75% of the patients treated with erlotinib develop acneiform skin rashes. A patient treated with erlotinib 3 months after finishing concomitant treatment with chemotherapy and radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer is presented. Unexpectedly, the part of the skin that had been included in his previously radiotherapy field was completely spared from the erlotinib-induced acneiform skin rash. The exact mechanism of erlotinib-induced rash sparing in previously irradiated skin is unclear. The underlying mechanism of this phenomenon needs to be explored further, because the number of patients being treated with a combination of both therapeutic modalities is increasing. The therapeutic effect of erlotinib in the area of the previously irradiated lesion should be assessed. (orig.)

  1. Molecular characterization of microbial mutations induced by ion beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichida, Hiroyuki [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Chiba University, Matsudo, Chiba 271-8510 (Japan); Accelerator Applications Research Group, Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)], E-mail: ichida@riken.jp; Matsuyama, Tomoki [Cellular Biochemistry Laboratory, Discovery Research Institute, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Ryuto, Hiromichi [Accelerator Operation Group, Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Hayashi, Yoriko [Accelerator Applications Research Group, Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Fukunishi, Nobuhisa [Accelerator Operation Group, Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Abe, Tomoko [Accelerator Applications Research Group, Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Koba, Takato [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Chiba University, Matsudo, Chiba 271-8510 (Japan)

    2008-03-01

    A positive selection system for gene disruption using a sucrose-sensitive transgenic rhizobium was established and used for the molecular characterization of mutations induced by ion beam irradiations. Single nucleotide substitutions, insertions, and deletions were found to occur in the sucrose sensitivity gene, sacB, when the reporter line was irradiated with highly accelerated carbon and iron ion beams. In all of the insertion lines, fragments of essentially the same sequence and of approximately 1188 bp in size were identified in the sacB regions. In the deletion lines, iron ions showed a tendency to induce larger deletions than carbon ions, suggesting that higher LET beams cause larger deletions. We found also that ion beams, particularly 'heavier' ion beams, can produce single gene disruptions and may present an effective alternative to transgenic approaches.

  2. 2nd Tuebingen radiotherapy symposium: Whole body, large field and whole skin irradiation. Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebener, K.H.; Frommhold, W.

    1987-04-01

    The symposium which took place on the 11th and 12th April 1986 set itself the task of discussing three different groups of radiotherapy topics. The chief issue was whole-body irradiation prior to bone marrow transplants, in which all the therapy centres in West Germany, Austria, East Germany and German-speaking Switzerland made clinical and radiophysical contributions. The second part of the Symposium consisted mainly of talks and discussions on large-field irradiation, more precisely half-body and sequential partial body irradiation. This topic was chosen because this type of therapy is scarcely practised at all, particularly in West Germany, whereas in the United States, East Germany, Switzerland and a number of other countries it has long since become one of the established methods. The last talk at the Symposium explained clinical and radiophysical aspects of whole-skin irradiation. Here too, one was impressed by the wide diversity of the equipment and methods of irradiation used which, nevertheless, all demonstrated satisfactory practical solutions in their common aim of distributing the dose as homogeneously as possible.

  3. Effects of mecobalamin on testicular dysfunction induced by X-ray irradiation in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshio, Shigeru; Yazaki, Tsunetada; Umeda, Takashi (Teikyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Ozaki, Satoru; Ohkawa, Isao; Tajima, Tetsuya; Yamada, Takeshi; Mohri, Hideo

    1991-12-01

    Experimental testicular dysfunction was produced by X-ray irradiation to the testes in mice. Mecobalamin (CH{sub 3}-B{sub 12}) was orally administered at a daily dose of 0.01, 0.1 or 1 mg/kg six times a week for 8 weeks from the next day after the irradiation. The control mice received physiological saline in the same manner. On 4th- and 6th-week after the irradiation, the weights of testes and epididymides were decreased, although those of the body and accessory sex glands (seminal vesicle, coagulating gland and prostate) were nearly equal to those of non-irradiated mice. At the same time, the diameter of seminiferous tubules decreased and sperm parameters (sperm count, sperm motility and sperm abnormality) deteriorated. When CH{sub 3}-B{sub 12} (1 mg/kg) was administered, the diameter of seminiferous tubules increased and sperm parameters improved as compared to those of the control. The results indicate that CH{sub 3}-B{sub 12} improved the experimental testicular dysfunction in mice induced by the irradiation. These results suggest that CH{sub 3}-B{sub 12} might accelerate testicular function. (author).

  4. [Effects of mecobalamin on testicular dysfunction induced by X-ray irradiation in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshio, S; Yazaki, T; Umeda, T; Ozaki, S; Ohkawa, I; Tajima, T; Yamada, T; Mohri, H

    1991-12-01

    Experimental testicular dysfunction were produced by X-ray irradiation to the testes in mice. Mecobalamin (CH3-B12) was orally administered at a daily dose of 0.01, 0.1 or 1 mg/kg six times a week for 8 weeks from the next day after the irradiation. The control mice received physiological saline in the same manner. On 4th- and 6th-week after the irradiation, the weights of testes and epididymides were decreased, although those of the body and accessory sex glands (seminal vesicle, coagulating gland and prostate) were nearly equal to those of non-irradiated mice. At the same time, the diameter of seminiferous tubules decreased and sperm parameters (sperm count, sperm motility and sperm abnormality) deteriorated. When CH3-B12 (1 mg/kg) was administered, the diameter of seminiferous tubules increased and sperm parameters improved as compared to those of the control. The results indicate that CH3-B12 improved the experimental testicular dysfunction in mice induced by the irradiation. These results suggest that CH3-B12 might accelerate testicular function.

  5. Clinical aspects of accidents resulting in acute total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronkite, E.P.

    1988-01-01

    That the management of whole body radiation injury involves: (1) watchful waiting, (2) observation of the hematologic parameters, (3) use of antibiotics, platelet red cell and possibly granulocyte transfusions, (4) administration of hemopoietic molecular regulators of granulopoiesis, and (5) bone marrow transplantation as the last line of defense. The clinical indication for the preceding will not be discussed, since this will be a subject of later speakers in this conference. Certainly, if a radiation casualty is fortunate enough to have an identical twin, a marrow transplant may be lifesaving and certainly can do no harm to the patient, and there is little risk to the donor.

  6. Myocardial hypertrophy induces carotid body hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivridis, Efthimios; Pavlidis, Pavlos; Fiska, Aliki; Pitsiava, Dimitra; Giatromanolaki, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    The carotid bodies tend to enlarge after long-standing cardiopulmonary disease. Our objective was to investigate whether cardiac hypertrophy is associated with carotid body hyperplasia. Fifteen autopsy cases with combined left and right ventricular hypertrophy were examined and compared with two control groups (16 cases). The study involved a meticulous dissection of carotid bifurcations, thin serial sections, and morphometric analysis of carotid body volume and cell types (progenitor, dark, light, and sustentacular). There was a significant increase in sustentacular cells in all individuals with cardiac hypertrophy, which was not drug-induced, and accompanied by a similar increase in carotid body volume. Dark or light cell accumulation was detected focally and only in three instances. It appears that the generalized sustentacular cell hyperplasia is the result of long-standing hypoxia, while a superimposed focal prominence of dark or light cells may be proliferative or metaplastic in nature and attributed to short-term hypoxia.

  7. Characterization of spontaneous bone marrow recovery after sublethal total body irradiation: importance of the osteoblastic/adipocytic balance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géraldine Poncin

    Full Text Available Many studies have already examined the hematopoietic recovery after irradiation but paid with very little attention to the bone marrow microenvironment. Nonetheless previous studies in a murine model of reversible radio-induced bone marrow aplasia have shown a significant increase in alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP prior to hematopoietic regeneration. This increase in ALP activity was not due to cell proliferation but could be attributed to modifications of the properties of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC. We thus undertook a study to assess the kinetics of the evolution of MSC correlated to their hematopoietic supportive capacities in mice treated with sub lethal total body irradiation. In our study, colony-forming units-fibroblasts (CFU-Fs assay showed a significant MSC rate increase in irradiated bone marrows. CFU-Fs colonies still possessed differentiation capacities of MSC but colonies from mice sacrificed 3 days after irradiation displayed high rates of ALP activity and a transient increase in osteoblastic markers expression while pparγ and neuropilin-1 decreased. Hematopoietic supportive capacities of CFU-Fs were also modified: as compared to controls, irradiated CFU-Fs significantly increased the proliferation rate of hematopoietic precursors and accelerated the differentiation toward the granulocytic lineage. Our data provide the first evidence of the key role exerted by the balance between osteoblasts and adipocytes in spontaneous bone marrow regeneration. First, (preosteoblast differentiation from MSC stimulated hematopoietic precursor's proliferation and granulopoietic regeneration. Then, in a second time (preosteoblasts progressively disappeared in favour of adipocytic cells which down regulated the proliferation and granulocytic differentiation and then contributed to a return to pre-irradiation conditions.

  8. Caffeine protects mice against whole-body lethal dose of {gamma}-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, K.C.; Hebbar, S.A.; Kale, S.P.; Kesavan, P.C. [Biosciences Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    1999-06-01

    Administration of caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine), a major component of coffee, to Swiss mice at doses of 80 or 100 mg/kg body weight 60 min prior to whole-body lethal dose of {gamma}-irradiation (7.5 Gy) resulted in the survival of 70 and 63% of animals, respectively, at the above doses in contrast to absolutely no survivors (LD-100/25 days) in the group exposed to radiation alone. Pre-treatment with a lower concentration of caffeine (50 mg/kg) did not confer any radioprotection. The protection exerted by caffeine (80 mg/kg), however, was reduced from 70 to 50% if administered 30 min prior to irradiation. The trend statistics reveal that a dose of 80 mg/kg administered 60 min before whole-body exposure to 7.5 Gy is optimal for maximal radioprotection. However, caffeine (80 mg/kg) administered within 3 min after irradiation offered no protection. While there is documentation in the literature that caffeine is an antioxidant and radioprotector against the toxic pathway of radiation damage in a wide range of cells and organisms, this is the first report demonstrating unequivocally its potent radioprotective action in terms of survival of lethally whole-body irradiated mice. (author)

  9. A SIMPLIFIED IN VIVO DOSLMETRY FOR TOTAL BODY IRRADIATION PRIOR TO BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖泽久

    1994-01-01

    For TBI (total body irradiation) prior to BMT (bone marrow transplantation) and in order to guarantee exact treatment, it is necessary to perfect is vivo dosimetry to detect any deviation of the treatment and to verify the dose dis-tribution. A simplified and convenient transmission type in vivo dosimetry and problems are introduced and discussed.

  10. Whole-body irradiation technique: physical aspects; Tecnica de irradiacion corporal total: aspectos fisicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venencia, D.; Bustos, S.; Zunino, S. [Instituto Privado de Radioterapia. Obispo Oro 425. Cordoba 5000 (Argentina)

    1998-12-31

    The objective of this work has been to implement a Total body irradiation technique that fulfill the following conditions: simplicity, repeatability, fast and comfortable positioning for the patient, homogeneity of the dose between 10-15 %, short times of treatments and In vivo dosimetric verifications. (Author)

  11. FORMATION BY IRRADIATION OF AN EXPANDED, CELLULAR, POLYMERIC BODY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlesby, A.; Ross, M.

    1958-12-01

    The treatment of polymeric esters of methacrylic acid having a softening polnt above 40 icient laborato C to form an expanded cellular mass with a smooth skin is discussed. The disclosed method comprises the steps of subjecting the body at a temperature below the softenpoint to a dose of at least 5 x lO/sup 6/ roentgen of gamma radiation from cobalt-60 source until its average molecular weight is reduced to a value within the range of 3 x lO/sup 5/ to 10/sup 4/, and heating at a temperature within the range of 0 to lO icient laborato C above its softening point to effect expansion.

  12. Interstitial pneumonitis following total body irradiation for bone marrow transplantation using two different dose rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, T.H.; Rybka, W.B.; Lehnert, S.; Podgorsak, E.B.; Freeman, C.R.

    1985-07-01

    A total of 22 patients with leukemia have undergone allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) by the Quebec Co-operative Group for Marrow Transplantation from 1980 to 1982. All patients received 900 cGy total body irradiation (TBI), in a single fraction, on the day preceding BMT. The first 11 patients were treated on a cobalt unit at a constant dose rate of 4.7 to 6.3 cGy/min. Six of these patients developed interstitial pneumonitis (IP). The clinical course of three patients, two with idiopathic and one with drug-induced pneumonitis, was mild and recovery was complete in all. The other three patients developed severe infectious IP and two died. The next 11 patients were treated with a sweeping beam technique on a 4 MV linear accelerator delivering a total tumor dose of 900 cGy at an average dose rate of 6.0 to 6.5 cGy/min but an instantaneous dose rate of 21.0 to 23.5 cGy/min. Eight patients developed severe IP. Five of these were idiopathic and four died. Three were infectious and all died. The fatality of interstitial pneumonitis appeared to be greater in the group treated with the sweeping beam technique.

  13. Total body irradiation therapy for thymectomized myasthenic patients and immunological evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanaka, Nobukazu; Tanaka, Masayuki; Kurihara, Teruyuki (Miyazaki Medical College (Japan))

    1983-06-01

    Three patients with intractable myasthenia gravis (MG) were treated with total body irradiation (TBI). All the three patients had been unstable after extended thymectomy and poorly responding to prednisolone therapy. Radiation therapy consisted of 10 doses of 10 rads/day given over five weeks. After the radiation therapy the three patients improved clinically, and an objective parameter, area of M-waves also improved. No significant side effects were noted. TBI therapy can be considered as a safe method to induce selective reduction of circulating lymphocytes. This was indeed achieved, as evidenced by a drop of the lymphocyte counts to the levels of 20-40 % of the pretreatment level. The effects were persistent over twelve weeks. Early radiosensitivity of B lymphocytes were recognized. The levels of T..gamma.. cells were low before TBI therapy, increasing gradually during TBI therapy and returned to normal range after twelve weeks. Serum anti-AChR antibody titers decreased in all the cases, but it was impossible to determine whether the decrement was due to the therapy or natural course after thymectomy. Two of our three cases had a significant percentage decrement of the titers after TBI therapy. We suggest that TBI therapy is a safe method of immunosupperssive treatment for the myasthenic patients after thymectomy.

  14. Renal dysfunction after total-body irradiation. Significance of selective renal shielding blocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igaki, Hiroshi [Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital (Japan). Dept. of Radiation Center; University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Proton Medical Research Center; University of Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Radiology; Karasawa, Katsuyuki [Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital (Japan). Dept. of Radiation Center; Sakamaki, Hisashi [Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital (Japan). Dept. of Hematology; Saito, Hiroshi [Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital (Japan). Dept. of Nephrology; Nakagawa, Keiichi; Ohtomo, Kuni [University of Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Radiology; Tanaka, Yoshiaki [Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Radiology

    2005-11-01

    Purpose: A retrospective analysis was conducted on the outcome of total-body irradiation (TBI) followed by bone marrow transplantation (BMT) on leukemia patients. Also studied was the risk of renal dysfunction after TBI/BMT with or without the use of selective renal shielding blocks. Patients and Methods: The cases of 109 leukemia patients who received TBI as a component of the conditioning regimen for their BMT were reviewed. They received 12 Gy of TBI in six fractions over 3 consecutive days. Doses to eyes and lungs were reduced to 7 Gy and 8 Gy, respectively, but customized organ shielding blocks. After March 1999, renal shielding blocks were used to constrain the renal dose to 10 Gy. The patients were followed for a median period of 16.6 months (range: 0.3-180.1 months). Results: The 2-year and 5-year overall survival rates were 55.4% and 43.2%, respectively. Renal dysfunction-free rates were different between those with and without renal shielding blocks: 100% and 78.5%, respectively, at 2 years. Overall survivals were not significantly different among these patients: 60.4% and 52.9%, respectively, at 2 years in patients with and without renal shielding blocks (p=0.53). Conclusion: The use of selective renal shielding blocks provided evidence for reducing radiation-induced renal toxicities without decreasing the overall survival rate. (orig.)

  15. Pegylated G-CSF Inhibits Blood Cell Depletion, Increases Platelets, Blocks Splenomegaly, and Improves Survival after Whole-Body Ionizing Irradiation but Not after Irradiation Combined with Burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliann G. Kiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to ionizing radiation alone (radiation injury, RI or combined with traumatic tissue injury (radiation combined injury, CI is a crucial life-threatening factor in nuclear and radiological accidents. As demonstrated in animal models, CI results in greater mortality than RI. In our laboratory, we found that B6D2F1/J female mice exposed to 60Co-γ-photon radiation followed by 15% total-body-surface-area skin burns experienced an increment of 18% higher mortality over a 30-day observation period compared to irradiation alone; that was accompanied by severe cytopenia, thrombopenia, erythropenia, and anemia. At the 30th day after injury, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and platelets still remained very low in surviving RI and CI mice. In contrast, their RBC, hemoglobin, and hematocrit were similar to basal levels. Comparing CI and RI mice, only RI induced splenomegaly. Both RI and CI resulted in bone marrow cell depletion. It was observed that only the RI mice treated with pegylated G-CSF after RI resulted in 100% survival over the 30-day period, and pegylated G-CSF mitigated RI-induced body-weight loss and depletion of WBC and platelets. Peg-G-CSF treatment sustained RBC balance, hemoglobin levels, and hematocrits and inhibited splenomegaly after RI. The results suggest that pegylated G-CSF effectively sustained animal survival by mitigating radiation-induced cytopenia, thrombopenia, erythropenia, and anemia.

  16. Study on Fractionated Total Body Irradiation before Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tong Fang; Bo Liu; Hong Gao

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To observe the dose and the complications from total body irradiation before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.METHODS This study involved 312 patients with total body irradiation before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. They were entered into the treated research from May 1999 to October 2005. All patients had Received the irradiation from 60Co of an absorbed dose rate of (5.2 ± 1.13) cGy/min. The total dose of TBI was 7~12 Gy, 1 f/d × 2 d. A high-dose rate group (≥ 10 Gy) included 139 cases and a low-dose rate group (< 10 Gy) included 173 cases.RESULTS The probability of acute gastrointestinal reactions in the high-dose rate group was more compared with that in the low-dose rate group. The differences for other reactions, such as hematopoietic reconstitution and graft survival rate, between the two groups were insignificant.CONCLUSION Using fractional total body irradiation at a dose rate of 5 cGy/min, with a total dose of 7~12 Gy, 1 f/d x 2 d, with the lung receiving under 7.5 Gy is a safe and effective pretreatment for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

  17. UV-induced fragmentation of Cajal bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioce, Mario; Boulon, Séverine; Matera, A Gregory; Lamond, Angus I

    2006-11-06

    The morphology and composition of subnuclear organelles, such as Cajal bodies (CBs), nucleoli, and other nuclear bodies, is dynamic and can change in response to a variety of cell stimuli, including stress. We show that UV-C irradiation disrupts CBs and alters the distribution of a specific subset of CB components. The effect of UV-C on CBs differs from previously reported effects of transcription inhibitors. We demonstrate that the mechanism underlying the response of CBs to UV-C is mediated, at least in part, by PA28gamma (proteasome activator subunit gamma). The presence of PA28gamma in coilin-containing complexes is increased by UV-C. Overexpression of PA28gamma, in the absence of UV-C treatment, provokes a similar redistribution of the same subset of CB components that respond to UV-C. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of PA28gamma attenuates the nuclear disruption caused by UV-C. These data demonstrate that CBs are specific nuclear targets of cellular stress-response pathways and identify PA28gamma as a novel regulator of CB integrity.

  18. Final height and gonad function after total body irradiation during childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto-Silva, A-C; Trivin, C; Esperou, H; Michon, J; Baruchel, A; Lemaire, P; Brauner, R

    2006-09-01

    Short stature and gonad failure can be a side effect of total body irradiation (TBI). The purpose of the study was to evaluate the factors influencing final height and gonad function after TBI. Fifty young adults given TBI during childhood were included. Twenty-seven had been treated with growth hormone (GH). Those given single 10 Grays (Gy) or fractionated 12 Gy TBI had similar characteristics, GH peaks, final heights and gonad function. After the end of GH treatment, 11/20 patients evaluated had GH peak >10 microg/l. Final height was irradiated (Pirradiation, taking into account the GH peak. The plasma FSH and inhibin B concentrations may predict sperm function.

  19. He-Ne Laser Auricular Irradiation Plus Body Acupuncture for Treatment of Acne Vulgaris in 36 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Lihong

    2006-01-01

    In order to observe the therapeutic effects of He-Ne laser auricular irradiation plus body acupuncture for acne vulgaris, 68 cases of acne vulgaris were randomly divided into a treatment group of 36 cases treated with He-Ne laser auricular irradiation plus body acupuncture, and a control group of 32 cases treated with body acupuncture only. The results showed that the cure rate was 77.8% in the treatment group and 46.9% in the control group (P<0.05), indicating that He-Ne laser auricular irradiation plus body acupuncture may exhibit better effects for acne vulgaris.

  20. Evaluation of the analgesic activity and safety of ketorolac in whole body fractionated gamma irradiated animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Aly

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to evaluate the analgesic activity and the toxicity of ketorolac in normal and fractionated (1.5 Gy/day/4 days γ-irradiated animals. Determination of brain serotonin content and serum prostaglandin level were also undertaken. The analgesic activity was tested using formalin test, at three dose levels (15, 30 and 60 mg/kg after 1 and 7 days post radiation exposure. LD50 determinations and assessment of liver and kidney function tests were performed. Our results indicated marked analgesic effects on the early and late phases of nociception. Double treatment with ketorolac and irradiation increased brain serotonin content. The acute LD50 of ketorolac was decreased in irradiated animals as compared to the LD50 of normal animals. Double treatment with ketorolac and irradiation induced an elevation of gastric mucin content, urea and BUN levels on the 1st day post irradiation, whereas, albumin level was lowered and globulin level was elevated after 7 days post irradiation. Depending on this study the dose of ketorolac used for treating cancer patients addressed to radiotherapy should be reduced, however, this requires further clinical confirmation.

  1. Eight years of whole body irradiation at Verone: clinical and physical experience in 115 patients (june 2000-december 2008); Huit ans d'irradiation corporelle totale a verone: experience clinique et physique chez 115 patients (juin 2000-decembre 2008)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palazzi, M.; Benedetti, F.; Romano, M.; Maluta, S.; Compri, C.; Giri, M.G.; Meliado, G. [Azienda Ospedaliera, Verona (Italy)

    2009-10-15

    The multi fractionated whole-body irradiation has today replaced the technique of whole-body irradiation in single dose, that was at the origin of acute and delayed effects, especially pneumonia and cataract. The results and the tolerance of our whole-body irradiation pattern are similar to these ones mentioned in the national register of allogeneic marrow transplants. (N.C.)

  2. Low dose X-irradiation mitigates diazepam induced depression in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Amandeep; Singla, Neha; Dhawan, D K

    2016-10-01

    Depression is considered as one of the most prevalent health ailments. Various anti-depressant drugs have been used to provide succour to this ailment, but with little success and rather have resulted in many side effects. On the other hand, low dose of ionizing radiations are reported to exhibit many beneficial effects on human body by stimulating various biological processes. The present study was conducted to investigate the beneficial effects of low doses of X-rays, if any, during diazepam induced depression in rats. Female Sprague Dawley rats were segregated into four different groups viz: Normal control, Diazepam treated, X-irradiated and Diazepam + X-irradiated. Depression model was created in rats by subjecting them to diazepam treatment at a dosage of 2 mg/kg b.wt./day for 3 weeks. The skulls of animals belonging to X-irradiated and Diazepam + X-irradiated rats were X-irradiated with a single fraction of 0.5 Gy, given twice a day for 3 days, thereby delivered dose of 3 Gy. Diazepam treated animals showed significant alterations in the neurobehavior and neuro-histoarchitecture, which were improved after X-irradiation. Further, diazepam exposure significantly decreased the levels of neurotransmitters and acetylcholinesterase activity, but increased the monoamine oxidase activity in brain. Interestingly, X-rays exposure to diazepam treated rats increased the levels of neurotransmitters, acetylcholinesterase activity and decreased the monoamine oxidase activity. Further, depressed rats also showed increased oxidative stress with altered antioxidant parameters, which were normalized on X-rays exposure. The present study, suggests that low dose of ionizing radiations, shall prove to be an effective intervention and a novel therapy in controlling depression and possibly other brain related disorders.

  3. Effect of ultra-low dose whole-body-irradiation on patients with severe myasthenia gravis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arimori, Shigeru; Koriyama, Kenji (Tokai Univ., Isehara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1982-12-01

    An ultra-low dose whole body irradiation therapy was given to 5 patients with intractable bulbar syndrome, in a dose of 10 rad/fraction, 2 times a week for 5 weeks, with a total of 100 rad; and effects of this therapy on their clinical symptoms and immunological ability were discussed. In 3 of them, bulbar syndrome was improved, and the other one, the first irradiation was effective. The peripheral leukocyte count and lymphocyte count became lowest immediately after completion of the irradiation, and returned to the normal level within 1 to 2 months. The function of T-cells, especially suppressive T-cells, was recovered; and decrease in B-cells, resulted in a decrease in the AChR antibody titer.

  4. Prenatal irradiation-induced brain neuropathology and cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Ren, Bo Xu; Tang, Feng Ru

    2017-01-01

    Embryo/fetus is much more radiosensitive than neonatal and adult human being. The main potential effects of pre-natal radiation exposure on the human brain include growth retardation, small head/brain size, mental retardation, neocortical ectopias, callosal agenesis and brain tumor which may result in a lifetime poor quality of life. The patterns of prenatal radiation-induced effects are dependent not only on the stages of fetal development, the sensitivity of tissues and organs, but also on radiation sources, doses, dose rates. With the increased use of low dose radiation for diagnostic or radiotherapeutic purposes in recent years, combined with postnatal negative health effect after prenatal radiation exposure to fallout of Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident, the great anxiety and unnecessary termination of pregnancies after the nuclear disaster, there is a growing concern about the health effect of radiological examinations or therapies in pregnant women. In this paper, we reviewed current research progresses on pre-natal ionizing irradiation-induced abnormal brain structure changes. Subsequent postnatal neuropsychological and neurological diseases were provided. Relationship between irradiation and brain aging was briefly mentioned. The relevant molecular mechanisms were also discussed. Future research directions were proposed at the end of this paper. With limited human data available, we hoped that systematical review of animal data could relight research interests on prenatal low dose/dose rate irradiation-induced brain microanatomical changes and subsequent neurological and neuropsychological disorders. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Establishment of a mouse model of 70% lethal dose by total-body irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Seung-Hyun; Park, Jong-Hyung; Jeong, Eui-Suk; Choi, Soo-Young; Ham, Seung-Hoon; Park, Jin-Il; Jeon, Hee-Yeon; Kim, Jun-Young; Yoo, Ran-Ji; Lee, Yong-Jin; Woo, Sang-Keun; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2016-06-01

    Whereas increasing concerns about radiation exposure to nuclear disasters or side effects of anticancer radiotherapy, relatively little research for radiation damages or remedy has been done. The purpose of this study was to establish level of LD70/30 (a lethal dose for 70% of mice within 30 days) by total-body γ irradiation (TBI) in a mouse model. For this purpose, at first, 8-week-old male ICR and C57BL/6N mice from A and B companies were received high dose (10, 11, 12 Gy) TBI. After irradiation, the body weight and survival rate were monitored for 30 days consecutively. In next experiment, 5-week-old male ICR and C57BL/6N mice from B company were received same dose irradiation. Results showed that survival rate and body weight change rate in inbred C57BL/6N mice were similar between A and B company. In ICR mice, however, survival rate and body weight change rate were completely different among the companies. Significant difference of survival rate both ICR and C57BL6N mice was not observed in between 5-week-old and 8-week-old groups receiving 10 or 12 Gy TBI. Our results indicate that the strain and age of mice, and even purchasing company (especially outbred), should be matched over experimental groups in TBI experiment. Based on our results, 8-week-old male ICR mice from B company subjected to 12 Gy of TBI showed LD70/30 and suitable as a mouse model for further development of new drug using the ideal total-body irradiation model.

  6. Revisiting Biomarkers of Total-Body and Partial-Body Exposure in a Baboon Model of Irradiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Valente

    Full Text Available In case of a mass casualty radiation event, there is a need to distinguish total-body irradiation (TBI and partial-body irradiation (PBI to concentrate overwhelmed medical resources to the individuals that would develop an acute radiation syndrome (ARS and need hematologic support (i.e., mostly TBI victims. To improve the identification and medical care of TBI versus PBI individuals, reliable biomarkers of exposure could be very useful. To investigate this issue, pairs of baboons (n = 18 were exposed to different situations of TBI and PBI corresponding to an equivalent of either 5 Gy 60Co gamma irradiation (5 Gy TBI; 7.5 Gy left hemibody/2.5 right hemibody TBI; 5.55 Gy 90% PBI; 6.25 Gy 80% PBI; 10 Gy 50% PBI, 15 Gy 30% PBI or 2.5 Gy (2.5 Gy TBI; 5 Gy 50% PBI. More than fifty parameters were evaluated before and after irradiation at several time points up to 200 days. A partial least square discriminant analysis showed a good distinction of TBI from PBI situations that were equivalent to 5 Gy. Furthermore, all the animals were pooled in two groups, TBI (n = 6 and PBI (n = 12, for comparison using a logistic regression and a non parametric statistical test. Nine plasmatic biochemical markers and most of hematological parameters turned out to discriminate between TBI and PBI animals during the prodromal phase and the manifest illness phase. The most significant biomarkers were aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, lactico dehydrogenase, urea, Flt3-ligand, iron, C-reactive protein, absolute neutrophil count and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio for the early period, and Flt3-ligand, iron, platelet count, hemoglobin, monocyte count, absolute neutrophil count and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio for the ARS phase. These results suggest that heterogeneity could be distinguished within a range of 2.5 to 5 Gy TBI.

  7. Revisiting Biomarkers of Total-Body and Partial-Body Exposure in a Baboon Model of Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Marco; Denis, Josiane; Grenier, Nancy; Arvers, Philippe; Foucher, Barbara; Desangles, François; Martigne, Patrick; Chaussard, Hervé; Drouet, Michel; Abend, Michael; Hérodin, Francis

    2015-01-01

    In case of a mass casualty radiation event, there is a need to distinguish total-body irradiation (TBI) and partial-body irradiation (PBI) to concentrate overwhelmed medical resources to the individuals that would develop an acute radiation syndrome (ARS) and need hematologic support (i.e., mostly TBI victims). To improve the identification and medical care of TBI versus PBI individuals, reliable biomarkers of exposure could be very useful. To investigate this issue, pairs of baboons (n = 18) were exposed to different situations of TBI and PBI corresponding to an equivalent of either 5 Gy 60Co gamma irradiation (5 Gy TBI; 7.5 Gy left hemibody/2.5 right hemibody TBI; 5.55 Gy 90% PBI; 6.25 Gy 80% PBI; 10 Gy 50% PBI, 15 Gy 30% PBI) or 2.5 Gy (2.5 Gy TBI; 5 Gy 50% PBI). More than fifty parameters were evaluated before and after irradiation at several time points up to 200 days. A partial least square discriminant analysis showed a good distinction of TBI from PBI situations that were equivalent to 5 Gy. Furthermore, all the animals were pooled in two groups, TBI (n = 6) and PBI (n = 12), for comparison using a logistic regression and a non parametric statistical test. Nine plasmatic biochemical markers and most of hematological parameters turned out to discriminate between TBI and PBI animals during the prodromal phase and the manifest illness phase. The most significant biomarkers were aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, lactico dehydrogenase, urea, Flt3-ligand, iron, C-reactive protein, absolute neutrophil count and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio for the early period, and Flt3-ligand, iron, platelet count, hemoglobin, monocyte count, absolute neutrophil count and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio for the ARS phase. These results suggest that heterogeneity could be distinguished within a range of 2.5 to 5 Gy TBI.

  8. Study of color centers induced by PIXE irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Absil, J; Strivay, D; Oger, C; Weber, G

    2002-01-01

    The particle induced X-ray emission method is perfectly adapted to the study, by external beam, of art objects (like paintings) and allows non-destructive analysis of the atomic composition of the target. However, a strange phenomenon occurs during irradiation on some pigments: dark brownish stains appear, and this could be due to the formation of color centers. In fact, these darkening spots progressively fade out and disappear after a few weeks. Heat and UV light accelerate the decreasing process. The aim of this study is to understand the physical processes of the stain creation and to find a way to make stains disappear, avoiding any damage for the painting.

  9. Study of color centers induced by PIXE irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Absil, J.; Garnir, H.-P.; Strivay, D.; Oger, C.; Weber, G. E-mail: g.weber@ulg.ac.be

    2002-12-01

    The particle induced X-ray emission method is perfectly adapted to the study, by external beam, of art objects (like paintings) and allows non-destructive analysis of the atomic composition of the target. However, a strange phenomenon occurs during irradiation on some pigments: dark brownish stains appear, and this could be due to the formation of color centers. In fact, these darkening spots progressively fade out and disappear after a few weeks. Heat and UV light accelerate the decreasing process. The aim of this study is to understand the physical processes of the stain creation and to find a way to make stains disappear, avoiding any damage for the painting.

  10. Dose-effect relationships in total body irradiation on the healing of cutaneous wounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冉新泽; 程天民; 林远; 屈纪富; 刘都户; 艾国平; 阎国和; 王文昌; 许汝福

    2003-01-01

    ObjectiveTo study the effects of dosages of total body irradiation on the healing process of cutaneous wounds and to observe the changes of wound area at different periods after injury.star rats. The single dosage varied from 1 to 8 Gy. Within 1 h after irradiation, two whole thickness circular cutaneduced on the back of the animals (combined injury groups). Same wounds were produced on rats with no irradiation (single wound group). Wound healing was observed at different points after injury. ResultsAfter total body irradiation with the dose of 1,2,3,4,5,6, 7 or 8 Gy, the wound healing was obviously retarded as the dosages increased. The wound area remained was larger in the large dosage groups than in the small dosage groups. Seven days after injury, there was 33.5% wound surface left unhealed in the single wound group, whereas in the combined injury groups, 35.4%, 38.1%, 41.6%, 48.8%, 53.9%, 63.7%, 69.2% and 73.9% of the wound surfaces remained unhealed, respectively. Statistical analysis showed marked correlations between the varioustimes after total body irradiation and various dosages to the percentage of unhealed wound surface. Nine dose-effect relation formulae were deduced according to the statistical results.ConclusionsIn soft tissue trauma combined with radiation injury, the delay of wound healingis related to the dose of radiation inflicted. It is also related to the time between injury and time of observation.

  11. Enhancement of committed hematopoietic stem cell colony formation by nandrolone decanoate after sublethal whole body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallicchio, V.S.; Chen, M.G.; Watts, T.D.

    1984-11-01

    The ability of an anabolic steroid, nandrolone decanoate, to increase committed topoietic stem cell (CFU-gm, CFU-e, and BFU-e) colony formation after sublethal irradiation was evaluated. Immediately after receiving whole body irradiation and on the next two days, each mouse was injected intraperitoneally with nandrolone decanoate (1.25 mg) in propylene glycol. Irradiated control mice received only propylene glycol. Compared to controls, drug-treated mice showed marked peripheral blood leukocytosis and more stable packed red cell volume. Drug-treated mice also demonstrated increased erythropoiesis, as CFU-e/BFU-e concentrations from both marrow (9% to 581%) and spleen (15% to 797%) were elevated. Granulopoiesis was increased similarly, as CFU-gm concentrations from marrow (38% to 685%) and spleen (9% to 373%) were elevated. These results demonstrate that nandrolone decanoate enhances hematopoietic stem cell recovery after sublethal whole body irradiation. This suggests that following hematopoietic suppression, nandrolone decanoate may stimulate the recovery of hematopoiesis at the stem cell level and in peripheral blood.

  12. Hypnotically Induced Out-of-Body Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizio E. Tressoldi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The possibility to induce real out-of-body experiences (OBEs using hypnotic inductions, with the opportunity to interview participants during their experience, permits to investigate in depth the characteristics of different aspects of this particular state of consciousness from a first-person point of view. In this article, six selected participants report the description of another “body” we named “subtle body,” identified as an intermediate entity between the physical body (Pb and their “Self” or “I-identity” that was named “psychic body,” and their relationships and characteristics. The “subtle body” was described as a sort of white silvered cloud surrounding the Pb, with a particular enlargement of its hands and feet that could move quickly like flying from one place to another even if less easily than the “psychic body,” and a vague sense of attrition was perceived when passing through walls. Similar to the “psychic body,” the “subtle” one too could move forward and backward in time even if they did not seem perceiving the sense of time. The “subtle body” was referred to be connected with the physical one by a sort of white brilliant link sometimes described like a silvered string more or less visible, whereas no visible links were identified between the “subtle body” and the “psychic” one. These reports were compared with similar descriptions deriving from the Vedanta philosophy and Theosophical tradition.

  13. Hemopoiesis in the splenectomized-pregnant mouse following low-dose total-body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinberg, S.R.; MacVittie, T.J.

    1981-09-01

    The effect of splenectomy (SPLX) and total-body irradiation (TBI) (50-200 rad) on virgin and pregnant mouse hemopoiesis was studied, using peripheral blood hemogram values and femoral marrow hemopoietic progenitor cell activity (i.e., CFUlt. slash/sub E/, BFU/sub E/, and GM-CFC). The SPLX-maternal red cell counts and hematocrit values were lower than those of SPLX-virgin mice, reflecting the anemia of pregnancy. But the white cell counts of both SPLX-virgin and SPLX-day-14.5 pregnant mice were significantly higher (P<0.005) than normal-virgin mice. Both nonirradiated and day-4 irradiated SPLX-maternal marrow Ep-independent and Ep-dependent CFU/sub E/ were higher than the nonirradiated and day-4 irradiated SPLX-virgin values (respectively, for each TBI dose studied). On the other hand, nonirradiated and day-4 irradiated SPLX-maternal GM-CFC were lower than the nonirradiated and day-4 irradiated SPLX-virgin GM-CFC values. The data demonstrate the potential of the SPLX-maternal femoral marrow to respond to the stress of low-dose TBI with effective compensatory erythropoiesis, possibly at the expense of granulopoiesis.

  14. Half body irradiation of patients with multiple bone metastases: A phase II trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Randi; Yilmaz, Mette; Høyer, Morten

    2009-01-01

    AIM OF STUDY: The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of half-body irradiation (HBI) on pain and quality of life in cancer patients with multiple bone metastases. The secondary aim was to evaluate side effects of the treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 44 patients received...... on the patients' global quality of life. CONCLUSION: Single fraction HBI is safe and effective providing long lasting pain reduction in 76% of patients with multiple bone metastases....

  15. Deuterium ion irradiation induced blister formation and destruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jaemin; Kim, Nam-Kyun; Kim, Hyun-Su; Jin, Younggil; Roh, Ki-Baek; Kim, Gon-Ho, E-mail: ghkim@snu.ac.kr

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The areal number density of blisters on the grain with (1 1 1) plane orientation increased with increasing ion fluence. • No more blisters were created above the temperature about 900 K due to high thermal mobility of ions and inactivity of traps. • The destruction of blister at the boundary induced by sputtering is proposed. • The blisters were destructed at the position about the boundary by high sputtering yield of oblique incident ions and thin thickness due to plastic deformation at the boundary. - Abstract: The blisters formation and destruction induced by the deuterium ions on a polycrystalline tungsten were investigated with varying irradiation deuterium ion fluence from 3.04 × 10{sup 23} to 1.84 × 10{sup 25} D m{sup −2} s{sup −1} and an fixed irradiated ion energy of 100 eV in an electron cyclotron resonance plasma source, which was similar to the far-scrape off layer region in the nuclear fusion reactors. Target temperature was monitored during the irradiation. Most of blisters formed easily on the grain with (1 1 1) plane orientation which had about 250 nm in diameter. In addition, the areal number density of blisters increased with increasing the ion fluence under the surface temperature reaching to about 900 K. When the fluence exceeded 4.6 × 10{sup 24} D m{sup −2}, the areal number density of the blister decreased. It could be explained that the destruction of the blister was initiated by erosion at the boundary region where the thickness of blister lid was thin and the sputtering yield was high by oblique incident ions, resulting in remaining the lid open, e.g., un-eroded center dome. It is possible to work as a tungsten dust formation from the plasma facing divertor material at far-SOL region of fusion reactor.

  16. A case of dysphagia induced by irradiation to the neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hiroyuki [Kanagawa Rehabilitation Hospital, Atsugi (Japan); Kubota, Akira; Moriyama, Hiroshi

    1995-12-31

    This report deals with a case of dysphagia induced by the irradiation of a malignant lymphoma of the neck. The patient was a 55-year-old male with dysphagia who had undergone irradiation to the neck for a malignant lymphoma ten years previously. The dysphagia that had gradually worsened in ten years made him enable to eat and drink orally. He often contracted by pneumonia. On first examination, atrophic changes were observed in the soft palates, and the epiglottis, and the improvement of the tongue was bilaterally impaired. These findings were diagnosed as the causes of the dysphagia. A barium study showed that the movement of the tongue and the pharynx were impaired. The barium was aspirated. A plain X-ray film of the mandible showed ostitis. The impairment of the tongue movement was due to bilateral hypopharyngeal nerve palsies induced by the irradiation. Laryngeal suspension and cricopharyngeal myotomy were not suitable because they could have aggravated the radiation necrosis of the thyroid cartilage which will be expected in the future. A total laryngectomy, which sacrifies the phonation, was out of the question, because the patient`s dysarthria was not so hard to understand. He was instructed in the self-insertion of a feeding tube to get enough nutrition, the physical therapy of the lung with the aid of his wife to prevent aspiration pneumonia. The loss of phonation lowers the QOL of such patients. In the cases with dysphagia which do not recover with surgical treatments, rehabilitation should mainly stress the conservation of phonation and the prevention of pneumonia to maintain the higher QOL of patients. (author).

  17. Irradiation induced injury reduces energy metabolism in small intestine of Tibet minipigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jue Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The radiation-induced energy metabolism dysfunction related to injury and radiation doses is largely elusive. The purpose of this study is to investigate the early response of energy metabolism in small intestinal tissue and its correlation with pathologic lesion after total body X-ray irradiation (TBI in Tibet minipigs. METHODS AND RESULTS: 30 Tibet minipigs were assigned into 6 groups including 5 experimental groups and one control group with 6 animals each group. The minipigs in these experimental groups were subjected to a TBI of 2, 5, 8, 11, and 14 Gy, respectively. Small intestine tissues were collected at 24 h following X-ray exposure and analyzed by histology and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. DNA contents in this tissue were also examined. Irradiation causes pathologic lesions and mitochondrial abnormalities. The Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA content-corrected and uncorrected adenosine-triphosphate (ATP and total adenine nucleotides (TAN were significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner by 2-8 Gy exposure, and no further reduction was observed over 8 Gy. CONCLUSION: TBI induced injury is highly dependent on the irradiation dosage in small intestine and inversely correlates with the energy metabolism, with its reduction potentially indicating the severity of injury.

  18. Mitigating effects of hUCB-MSCs on the hematopoietic syndrome resulting from total body irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Sehwan; Lee, Seung Bum; Lee, Jong-geol; Jang, Won-Suk; Lee, Sun-Joo; Park, Sunhoo; Lee, Seung-Sook

    2013-04-01

    This study evaluated the clinical and pathologic effects of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) in the recovery from total body irradiation by comparing it with the effects of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), an efficacious drug in the treatment of acute bone marrow radiation syndrome. BALB/c mice were treated with G-CSF or hUCB-MSCs after they were irradiated with 7 Gy cobalt-60 γ-rays. Circulating blood counts, histopathologic changes in the bone marrow, and plasma level of Flt-3L and transforming growth factor (TGF-β1) were monitored in the postirradiation period. Hematologic analysis revealed that the peripheral leukocyte counts were markedly increased in the hUCB-MSCs-treated group, whereas G-CSF-treated mice did not recover significantly. Moreover, differential counts showed that hUCB-MSC treatment has regenerative effects on white blood cells, lymphocytes, and monocytes compared with the irradiated group. Treatment with hUCB-MSCs or G-CSF significantly increased immunoreactivity of Ki-67 until 3 weeks after total body irradiation. However, at 3 weeks, the number of Ki-67 immunoreactive cells significantly increased in the hUCB-MSCs-treated group compared with the G-CSF-treated group. Furthermore, hUCB-MSC treatment significantly modulated plasma levels of the hematopoietic cytokines Flt-3L and TGF-β1, whereas G-CSF treatment failed to decrease the plasma Flt-3L levels at 2 weeks after irradiation. Based on the differences in circulating blood cell reconstitution and cell density of bone marrow, the authors suggest that MSC treatment is superior to G-CSF treatment for hematopoietic reconstitution following sublethal dose radiation exposure.

  19. Lymphoid and Myeloid Recovery in Rhesus Macaques Following Total Body X-Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farese, Ann M; Hankey, Kim G; Cohen, Melanie Veirs; MacVittie, Thomas J

    2015-11-01

    Recovery from severe immunosuppression requires hematopoietic stem cell reconstitution and effective thymopoiesis to restore a functional immune cell repertoire. Herein, a model of immune cell reconstitution consequent to potentially lethal doses of irradiation is described, which may be valuable in evaluating potential medical countermeasures. Male rhesus macaques were total body irradiated by exposure to 6.00 Gy 250 kVp x-radiation (midline tissue dose, 0.13 Gy min), resulting in an approximate LD10/60 (n = 5/59). Animals received medical management, and hematopoietic and immune cell recovery was assessed (n ≤ 14) through 370 d post exposure. A subset of animals (n ≤ 8) was examined through 700 d. Myeloid recovery was assessed by neutrophil and platelet-related parameters. Lymphoid recovery was assessed by the absolute lymphocyte count and FACS-based phenotyping of B- and T-cell subsets. Recent thymic emigrants were identified by T cell receptor excision circle quantification. Severe neutropenia, lymphopenia, and thrombocytopenia resolved within 30 d. Total CD3+ cells μL required 60 d to reach values 60% of normal, followed by subsequent slow recovery to approximately normal by 180 d post irradiation. Recovery of CD3+4+ and CD3+8+ cell memory and naïve subsets were markedly different. Memory populations were ≥ 100% of normal by day 60, whereas naïve populations were only 57% normal at 180 d and never fully recovered to baseline post irradiation. Total (CD20+) B cells μL were within normal levels by 77 d post exposure. This animal model elucidates the variable T- and B-cell subset recovery kinetics after a potentially lethal dose of total-body irradiation that are dependent on marrow-derived stem and progenitor cell recovery, peripheral homeostatic expansion, and thymopoiesis.

  20. Development of a metabolomic radiation signature in urine from patients undergoing total body irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laiakis, Evagelia C; Mak, Tytus D; Anizan, Sebastien; Amundson, Sally A; Barker, Christopher A; Wolden, Suzanne L; Brenner, David J; Fornace, Albert J

    2014-04-01

    The emergence of the threat of radiological terrorism and other radiological incidents has led to the need for development of fast, accurate and noninvasive methods for detection of radiation exposure. The purpose of this study was to extend radiation metabolomic biomarker discovery to humans, as previous studies have focused on mice. Urine was collected from patients undergoing total body irradiation at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at 4-6 h postirradiation (a single dose of 1.25 Gy) and 24 h (three fractions of 1.25 Gy each). Global metabolomic profiling was obtained through analysis with ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS). Prior to further analyses, each sample was normalized to its respective creatinine level. Statistical analysis was conducted by the nonparametric Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and the Fisher's exact test and markers were validated against pure standards. Seven markers showed distinct differences between pre- and post-exposure samples. Of those, trimethyl-l-lysine and the carnitine conjugates acetylcarnitine, decanoylcarnitine and octanoylcarnitine play an important role in the transportation of fatty acids across mitochondria for subsequent fatty acid β-oxidation. The remaining metabolites, hypoxanthine, xanthine and uric acid are the final products of the purine catabolism pathway, and high levels of excretion have been associated with increased oxidative stress and radiation induced DNA damage. Further analysis revealed sex differences in the patterns of excretion of the markers, demonstrating that generation of a sex-specific metabolomic signature will be informative and can provide a quick and reliable assessment of individuals in a radiological scenario. This is the first radiation metabolomics study in human urine laying the foundation for the use of metabolomics in biodosimetry and providing confidence in biomarker

  1. Irradiation-induced precipitates in a neutron irradiated 304 stainless steel studied by three-dimensional atom probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyama, T., E-mail: ttoyama@imr.tohoku.ac.jp [International Research Center for Nuclear Materials Science, Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Narita-cho 2145-2, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Nozawa, Y. [International Research Center for Nuclear Materials Science, Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Narita-cho 2145-2, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Van Renterghem, W. [SCK-CEN, Nuclear Materials Science Institute, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Matsukawa, Y.; Hatakeyama, M.; Nagai, Y. [International Research Center for Nuclear Materials Science, Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Narita-cho 2145-2, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Al Mazouzi, A. [EDF R and D, Avenue des Renardieres Ecuelles, 77818 Moret sur Loing Cedex (France); Van Dyck, S. [SCK-CEN, Nuclear Materials Science Institute, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: > Irradiation-induced precipitates in a 304 stainless steel were investigated by three-dimensional atom probe. > The precipitates were found to be {gamma}' precipitates (Ni{sub 3}Si). > Post-irradiation annealing was performed to discuss the contribution of the precipitates to irradiation-hardening. - Abstract: Irradiation-induced precipitates in a 304 stainless steel, neutron-irradiated to a dose of 24 dpa at 300 deg. C in the fuel wrapper plates of a commercial pressurized water reactor, were investigated by laser-assisted three-dimensional atom probe. A high number density of 4 x 10{sup 23} m{sup -3} of Ni-Si rich precipitates was observed, which is one order of magnitude higher than that of Frank loops. The average diameter was {approx}10 nm and the average chemical composition was 40% Ni, 14% Si, 11% Cr and 32% Fe in atomic percent. Over a range of Si concentrations, the ratio of Ni to Si was {approx}3, close to that of {gamma}' precipitate (Ni{sub 3}Si). In some precipitates, Mn enrichment inside the precipitate and P segregation at the interface were observed. Post-irradiation annealing was performed to discuss the contribution of the precipitates to irradiation-hardening.

  2. Ion irradiation induced disappearance of dislocations in a nickel-based alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H.C.; Li, D.H.; Lui, R.D.; Huang, H.F.; Li, J.J.; Lei, G.H.; Huang, Q.; Bao, L.M.; Yan, L., E-mail: yanlong@sinap.ac.cn; Zhou, X.T., E-mail: zhouxingtai@sinap.ac.cn; Zhu, Z.Y.

    2016-06-15

    Under Xe ion irradiation, the microstructural evolution of a nickel based alloy, Hastelloy N (US N10003), was studied. The intrinsic dislocations are decorated with irradiation induced interstitial loops and/or clusters. Moreover, the intrinsic dislocations density reduces as the irradiation damage increases. The disappearance of the intrinsic dislocations is ascribed to the dislocations climb to the free surface by the absorption of interstitials under the ion irradiation. Moreover, the in situ annealing experiment reveals that the small interstitial loops and/or clusters induced by the ion irradiation are stable below 600 °C.

  3. The Role of DNA Methylation Changes in Radiation-Induced Bystander Effects in cranial irradiated Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Sun, Yeqing; Xue, Bei; Wang, Xinwen; Wang, Jiawen

    2016-07-01

    Heavy-ion radiation could lead to bystander effect in neighboring non-hit cells by signals released from directly-irradiated cells. The exact mechanisms of radiation-induced bystander effect in distant organ remain obscure, yet accumulating evidence points to the role of DNA methylation changes in bystander effect. To identify the molecular mechanism that underlies bystander effects of heavy-ion radiation, the male Balb/c and C57BL mice were cranial exposed to 40, 200, 2000mGy dose of carbon heavy-ion radiation, while the rest of the animal body was shielded. The γH2AX foci as the DNA damage biomarker in directly irradiation organ ear and the distant organ liver were detected on 0, 1, 2, 6, 12 and 24h after radiation, respectively. Methylation-sensitive amplifcation polymorphism (MSAP) was used to monitor the level of polymorphic genomic DNA methylation changed with dose and time effects. The results show that cranial irradiated mice could induce the γH2AX foci and genomic DNA methylation changes significantly in both the directly irradiation organ ear and the distant organ liver. The percent of DNA methylation changes were time-dependent and tissue-specific. Demethylation polymorphism rate were highest separately at 1 h in 200 mGy and 6 h in 2000 mGy after irradiation in ear. The global DNA methylation changes tended to occur in the CG sites. We also found that the numbers of γH2AX foci and the genomic methylation changes of heavy-ion radiation-induced bystander effect in liver could be obvious 1 h after radiation and achieved the maximum at 6 h, while the changes could recover gradually at 12 h. The results suggest that mice head exposed to heavy-ion radiation can induce damage and methylation pattern changed in both directly radiation organ ear and distant organ liver. Moreover, our findings are important to understand the molecular mechanism of radiation induced bystander effects in vivo. Keywords: Heavy-ion radiation; Bystander effect; DNA methylation; γH2

  4. Glucidic and lipidic metabolic changes in rats induced by irradiation and the effect of adrenalectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groza, P.; Ghizari, E.; Butculescu, I.; Ciontescu, L.; Ciuntu, L.

    1975-01-01

    In experiments on X-irradiated rats (1000 R) the hepatic glycogen, total lipids, phospholipids content, and plasma glucose, cholesterol and beta-lipoprotein concentration were determined in intact and adrenalectomized animals. It was confirmed that irradiation produces a hepatic glycogen and blood glucose increased concentration. The glucidic metabolic response on irradiation is diminished by adrenalectomy. The adrenalectomy-induced modifications in the lipid metabolism of irradiated rats are more inconstant, which corresponds with its relative independence from glucocorticoid hormones.

  5. Glucidic and lipidic metabolic changes in rats induced by irradiation and the effect of adrenalectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groza, P; Ghizari, E; Butculescu, I; Ciontescu, L; Ciuntu, L

    1975-01-01

    In experiments on X-irradiated rats (1000 R) the hepatic glycogen, total lipids, phospholipids content, and plasma glucose, cholesterol and beta-lipoprotein concentration were determined in intact and adrenalectomized animals. It was confirmed that irradiation produces a hepatic glycogen and blood glucose increased concentration. The glucidic metabolic response on irradiation is diminished by adrenalectomy. The adrenalectomy-induced modifications in the lipid metabolism of irradiated rats are more inconstant, which corresponds with its relative independence from glucocorticoid hormones.

  6. Growth Enhancement of Radish Sprouts Induced by Low Pressure O2 Radio Frequency Discharge Plasma Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazaki, Satoshi; Koga, Kazunori; Shiratani, Masaharu; Hayashi, Nobuya

    2012-01-01

    We studied growth enhancement of radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus L.) induced by low pressure O2 radio frequency (RF) discharge plasma irradiation. The average length of radish sprouts cultivated for 7 days after O2 plasma irradiation is 30-60% greater than that without irradiation. O2 plasma irradiation does not affect seed germination. The experimental results reveal that oxygen related radicals strongly enhance growth, whereas ions and photons do not.

  7. Energetic proton irradiation history of the HED parent body regolith and implications for ancient solar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M. N.; Garrison, D. H.; Palma, R. L.; Bogard, D. D.

    1997-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that the Kapoeta howardite, as well as several other meteorites, contain excess concentrations of cosmogenic neon in the darkened, solar-irradiated phase compared to the light, non-irradiated phase. The two explanations offered for the nuclear production of these Ne excesses in the parent body regolith are either from galactic particle (GCR) irradiation or from a greatly enhanced flux of energetic solar protons (SCR), as compared to the recent solar flux. Combining new isotopic data we obtained on acid-etched, separated feldspar from Kapoeta light and dark phases with literature data, we show that the cosmogenic 21Ne /22Ne ratio of light phase feldspar (0.80) is consistent with only GCR irradiation in space for ~3 Myr. However, the 21Ne/22Ne ratio (0.68) derived for irradiation of dark phase feldspar in the Kapoeta regolith indicates that cosmogenic Ne was produced in roughly equal proportions from galactic and solar protons. Considering a simple model of an immature Kapoeta parent body regolith, the duration of this early galactic exposure was only ~3-6 Myr, which would be an upper limit to the solar exposure time of individual grains. Concentrations of cosmogenic 21Ne in pyroxene separates and of cosmogenic 126Xe in both feldspar and pyroxene are consistent with this interpretation. The near-surface irradiation time of individual grains in the Kapoeta regolith probably varied considerably due to regolith mixing to an average GCR irradiation depth of ~10 cm. Because of the very different depth scales for production of solar ~Fe tracks, SCR Ne, and GCR Ne, the actual regolith exposure times for average grains probably differed correspondingly. However, both the SCR 21Ne and solar track ages appear to be longer because of enhanced production by early solar activity. The SCR/GCR production ratio of 21Ne inferred from the Kapoeta data is larger by a at least a factor of 10 and possibly as much as a factor of ~50 compared to recent solar

  8. Gamma irradiation inhibits wound induced browning in shredded cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Aparajita; Suprasanna, Penna; Variyar, Prasad S; Sharma, Arun

    2015-04-15

    Gamma-radiation induced browning inhibition in minimally processed shredded cabbage stored (10 °C) for up to 8 days was investigated. γ-irradiation (2 kGy) resulted in inhibition of browning as a result of down-regulation (1.4-fold) in phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) gene expression and a consequent decrease in phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity. Activity of polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase, total and individual phenolic content as well as o-quinone concentration were, however, unaffected. In the non-irradiated samples, PAL activity increased as a consequence of up-regulation of PAL gene expression after 24 and 48 h by 1.2 and 7.7-fold, respectively, during storage that could be linearly correlated with enhanced quinone formation and browning. Browning inhibition in radiation processed shredded cabbage as a result of inhibition of PAL activity was thus clearly demonstrated. The present work provides an insight for the first time on the mechanism of browning inhibition at both biochemical and genetic level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of irradiation on the dental pulp tissues in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Ho Duk; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae [Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-03-15

    To observe the histological changes in the pulp tissues of mandibular molars in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats after irradiation. The male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing approximately 250 gm were divided into four groups : control, diabetes, irradiation, and diabetes-irradiation groups. Diabetes mellitus was induced in the rats by injecting streptozotocin. Rats in control and irradiation groups were injected with citrate buffer only. After 5 days, the head and neck region of the rats in irradiation and diabetes-irradiation groups were irradiated with a single absorbed dose of 10 Gy. All the rats were sacrificed at 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after irradiation. The specimen including the mandibular molars were sectioned and observed using a histopathological method. In the diabetes group, capillary dilatation was observed. However, there was no obvious morphologic alteration of the odontoblasts. In the irradiation group, generalized necrosis of the dental pulp tissues was observed. Vacuolation of the odontoblasts and dilatation of the capillaries were noted in the early experimental phases. In the diabetes-irradiation group, generalized degeneration of the dental pulp tissues was observed. Vacuolation of the dental pulp cells and the odontoblasts was noted in the late experimental phases. This experiment suggest that dilatation of the capillaries in the dental pulp tissue is induced by diabetic state, and generalized degeneration of the dental pulp tissues is induced by irradiation of the diabetic group.

  10. Biodosimetry Based on γ-H2AX Quantification and Cytogenetics after Partial- and Total-Body Irradiation during Fractionated Radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahnreich, Sebastian; Ebersberger, Anne; Kaina, Bernd; Schmidberger, Heinz

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this current study was to quantitatively describe radiation-induced DNA damage and its distribution in leukocytes of cancer patients after fractionated partial- or total-body radiotherapy. Specifically, the impact of exposed anatomic region and administered dose was investigated in breast and prostate cancer patients receiving partial-body radiotherapy. DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) were quantified by γ-H2AX immunostaining. The frequency of unstable chromosomal aberrations in stimulated lymphocytes was also determined and compared with the frequency of DNA DSBs in the same samples. The frequency of radiation-induced DNA damage was converted into dose, using ex vivo generated calibration curves, and was then compared with the administered physical dose. This study showed that 0.5 h after partial-body radiotherapy the quantity of radiation-induced γ-H2AX foci increased linearly with the administered equivalent whole-body dose for both tumor entities. Foci frequencies dropped 1 day thereafter but proportionality to the equivalent whole-body dose was maintained. Conversely, the frequency of radiation-induced cytogenetic damage increased from 0.5 h to 1 day after the first partial-body exposure with a linear dependence on the administered equivalent whole-body dose, for prostate cancer patients only. Only γ-H2AX foci assessment immediately after partial-body radiotherapy was a reliable measure of the expected equivalent whole-body dose. Local tumor doses could be approximated with both assays after one day. After total-body radiotherapy satisfactory dose estimates were achieved with both assays up to 8 h after exposure. In conclusion, the quantification of radiation-induced γ-H2AX foci, but not cytogenetic damage in peripheral leukocytes was a sensitive and rapid biodosimeter after acute heterogeneous irradiation of partial body volumes that was able to primarily assess the absorbed equivalent whole-body dose.

  11. Ion-irradiation-induced hardening in Inconel 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunn, J. D.; Lee, E. H.; Byun, T. S.; Mansur, L. K.

    2001-07-01

    Inconel 718 is a material under consideration for areas in the target region of the spallation neutron source (SNS), now under construction at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the US. In these positions, displacement damage from protons and neutrons will affect the mechanical properties. In addition, significant amounts of helium and hydrogen will build up in the material due to transmutation reactions. Nanoindentation measurements of solution-annealed (SA) Inconel 718 specimens, implanted with Fe-, He-, and H-ions to simulate SNS target radiation conditions, have shown that hardening occurs due to ion-induced displacement damage as well as due to the build-up of helium bubbles in the irradiated layer. Precipitation-hardened (PH) Inconel 718 also exhibited hardening by helium build-up but showed softening as a function of displacement damage due to dissolution of the γ ' and γ″ precipitates.

  12. Analysis of dose-LET distribution in the human body irradiated by high energy hadrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, T; Tsuda, S; Sakamoto, Y; Yamaguchi, Y; Niita, K

    2003-01-01

    For the purposes of radiological protection, it is important to analyse profiles of the particle field inside a human body irradiated by high energy hadrons, since they can produce a variety of secondary particles which play an important role in the energy deposition process, and characterise their radiation qualities. Therefore Monte Carlo calculations were performed to evaluate dose distributions in terms of the linear energy transfer of ionising particles (dose-LET distribution) using a newly developed particle transport code (Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System, PHITS) for incidences of neutrons, protons and pions with energies from 100 MeV to 200 GeV. Based on these calculations, it was found that more than 80% and 90% of the total deposition energies are attributed to ionisation by particles with LET below 10 keV microm(-1) for the irradiations of neutrons and the charged particles, respectively.

  13. Meningioma: The role of a foreign body and irradiation in tumor formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleh, J.; Silberstein, H.J.; Salner, A.L.; Uphoff, D.F. (Hartford Hospital, CT (USA))

    1991-07-01

    A case of meningioma is reported. At the age of 18 years, the patient had undergone insertion of a Torkildsen shunt through a posteroparietal burr hole for obstructive hydrocephalus secondary to a tumor of the pineal region, of which no biopsy had been made. After the hydrocephalus was relieved, he underwent irradiation of the tumor. Thirty years later, he was treated for an intracranial meningioma wrapped around the shunt. The tumor followed the shunt in all of its intracranial course. Microscopy disclosed pieces of the shunt tube within the meningioma. The role of a foreign body and irradiation in the induction of meningiomas is discussed, and a comprehensive review of the literature is presented. 47 references.

  14. Commercial sunscreen formulations: UVB irradiation stability and effect on UVB irradiation-induced skin oxidative stress and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Fernanda M P; Oliveira, Franciane M; Vicentini, Fabiana T M C; Casagrande, Rubia; Verri, Waldiceu A; Cunha, Thiago M; Fonseca, Maria J V

    2016-10-01

    Evidence shows that sunscreens undergo degradation processes induced by UV irradiation forming free radicals, which reduces skin protection. In this regard, the biological effects of three commercial sunscreen formulations upon UVB irradiation in the skin were investigated. The three formulations had in common the presence of benzophenone-3 added with octyl methoxycinnamate or octyl salycilate or both, which are regular UV filters in sunscreens. The results show that formulations F1 and F2 presented partial degradation upon UVB irradiation. Formulations F1 and F2 presented higher skin penetration profiles than F3. None of the formulations avoided UVB irradiation-induced GSH depletion, but inhibited reduction of SOD activity, suggesting the tested formulations did not present as a major mechanism inhibiting all UVB irradiation-triggered oxidative stress pathways. The formulations avoided the increase of myeloperoxidase activity and cytokine production (IL-1β and TNF-α), but with different levels of protection in relation to the IL-1β release. Concluding, UVB irradiation can reduce the stability of sunscreens, which in turn, present the undesirable properties of reaching viable skin. Additionally, the same SPF does not mean that different sunscreens will present the same biological effects as SPF is solely based on a skin erythema response. This found opens up perspectives to consider additional studies to reach highly safe sunscreens.

  15. Incoherent twin boundary migration induced by ion irradiation in Cu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, N.; Misra, A. [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Materials Physics and Applications Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Wang, J.; Wang, Y. Q. [Materials Science and Technology Division, MST-8, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Serruys, Y. [CEA, DEN, Service de Recherches de Metallurgie Physique, Laboratoire JANNUS, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Nastasi, M. [Nebraska Center for Energy Sciences Research, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States)

    2013-01-14

    Grain boundaries can act as sinks for radiation-induced point defects. The sink capability is dependent on the atomic structures and varies with the type of point defects. Using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, we observed that {Sigma}3{l_brace}112{r_brace} incoherent twin boundary (ITB) in Cu films migrates under Cu{sup 3+} ion irradiation. Using atomistic modeling, we found that {Sigma}3{l_brace}112{r_brace} ITB has the preferred sites for adsorbing interstitials and the preferential diffusion channels along the Shockley partial dislocations. Coupling with the high mobility of grain boundary Shockley dislocations within {Sigma}3{l_brace}112{r_brace} ITB, we infer that {Sigma}3{l_brace}112{r_brace} ITB migrates through the collective glide of grain boundary Shockley dislocations, driven by a concurrent reduction in the density of radiation-induced defects, which is demonstrated by the distribution of nearby radiation-induced defects.

  16. Partial body irradiation of small laboratory animals with an industrial X-ray tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frenzel, Thorsten; Kruell, Andreas [Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Bereich Strahlentherapie; Grohmann, Carsten; Schumacher, Udo [Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Anatomie und Experimentelle Morphologie

    2014-07-01

    Dedicated precise small laboratory animal irradiation sources are needed for basic cancer research and to meet this need expensive high precision radiation devices have been developed. To avoid such expenses a cost efficient way is presented to construct a device for partial body irradiation of small laboratory animals by adding specific components to an industrial X-ray tube. A custom made radiation field tube was added to an industrial 200 kV X-ray tube. A light field display as well as a monitor ionization chamber were implemented. The field size can rapidly be changed by individual inserts of MCP96 that are used for secondary collimation of the beam. Depth dose curves and cross sectional profiles were determined with the use of a custom made water phantom. More components like positioning lasers, a custom made treatment couch, and a commercial isoflurane anesthesia unit were added to complete the system. With the accessories described secondary small field sizes down to 10 by 10 mm{sup 2} (secondary collimator size) could be achieved. The dosimetry of the beam was constructed like those for conventional stereotactical clinical linear accelerators. The water phantom created showed an accuracy of 1 mm and was well suited for all measurements. With the anesthesia unit attached to the custom made treatment couch the system is ideal for the radiation treatment of small laboratory animals like mice. It was feasible to shrink the field size of an industrial X-ray tube from whole animal irradiation to precise partial body irradiation of small laboratory animals. Even smaller secondary collimator sizes than 10 by 10 mm{sup 2} are feasible with adequate secondary collimator inserts. Our custom made water phantom was well suited for the basic dosimetry of the X-ray tube.

  17. Partial body irradiation of small laboratory animals with an industrial X-ray tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenzel, Thorsten; Grohmann, Carsten; Schumacher, Udo; Krüll, Andreas

    2014-12-01

    Dedicated precise small laboratory animal irradiation sources are needed for basic cancer research and to meet this need expensive high precision radiation devices have been developed. To avoid such expenses a cost efficient way is presented to construct a device for partial body irradiation of small laboratory animals by adding specific components to an industrial X-ray tube. A custom made radiation field tube was added to an industrial 200 kV X-ray tube. A light field display as well as a monitor ionization chamber were implemented. The field size can rapidly be changed by individual inserts of MCP96 that are used for secondary collimation of the beam. Depth dose curves and cross sectional profiles were determined with the use of a custom made water phantom. More components like positioning lasers, a custom made treatment couch, and a commercial isoflurane anesthesia unit were added to complete the system. With the accessories described secondary small field sizes down to 10 by 10 mm2 (secondary collimator size) could be achieved. The dosimetry of the beam was constructed like those for conventional stereotactical clinical linear accelerators. The water phantom created showed an accuracy of 1 mm and was well suited for all measurements. With the anesthesia unit attached to the custom made treatment couch the system is ideal for the radiation treatment of small laboratory animals like mice. It was feasible to shrink the field size of an industrial X-ray tube from whole animal irradiation to precise partial body irradiation of small laboratory animals. Even smaller secondary collimator sizes than 10 by 10 mm2 are feasible with adequate secondary collimator inserts. Our custom made water phantom was well suited for the basic dosimetry of the X-ray tube. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  18. Melatonin may play a role in modulation of bax and bcl-2 expression levels to protect rat peripheral blood lymphocytes from gamma irradiation-induced apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohseni, Mehran [Department of Radiology and Medical Physics, Faculty of Paramedicine, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mihandoost, Ehsan, E-mail: mihandoost.e@gmail.com [Department of Medical Radiation Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shirazi, Alireza [Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sepehrizadeh, Zargham [Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bazzaz, Javad Tavakkoly [Department of Medical Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghazi-khansari, Mahmoud [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The close relationship between free radicals effects and apoptosis process has been proved. Melatonin has been reported as a direct free radical scavenger. We investigated the capability of melatonin in the modification of radiation-induced apoptosis and apoptosis-associated upstream regulators expression in rat peripheral blood lymphocytes. Rats were irradiated with a single whole body Cobalt 60-gamma radiation dose of 8 Gy at a dose rate of 101 cGy/min with or without melatonin pretreatments at different concentrations of 10 and 100 mg/kg body weight. The rats were divided into eight groups of control, irradiation-only, vehicle-only, vehicle plus irradiation, 10 mg/kg melatonin alone, 10 mg/kg melatonin plus irradiation, 100 mg/kg melatonin alone and 100 mg/kg melatonin plus irradiation. Rats were given an intraperitoneal (IP) injection of melatonin or the same volume of vehicle alone 1 h prior to irradiation. Blood samples were taken 4, 24, 48 and 72 h after irradiation for evaluation of flow cytometric analysis of apoptotic lymphocytes using Annexin V/PI assay and measurement of bax and bcl-2 expression using quantitative real-time PCR (RT{sup 2}qPCR). Irradiation-only and vehicle plus irradiation showed an increase in the percentage of apoptotic lymphocytes significantly different from control group (P < 0.01), while melatonin pretreatments in a dose-dependent manner reduced it as compared with the irradiation-only and vehicle plus irradiation groups (P < 0.01) in all time points. This reduced apoptosis by melatonin was related to the downregulation of bax, upregulation of bcl-2, and therefore reduction of bax/bcl-2 ratio. Our results suggest that melatonin in these doses may provide modulation of bax and bcl-2 expression as well as bax/bcl-2 ratio to protect rat peripheral blood lymphocytes from gamma irradiation-induced apoptosis.

  19. Feasibility of intrafraction whole-body motion tracking for total marrow irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manju; Santos, Troy Dos; Papanikolopoulos, Nikolaos P.; Hui, Susanta Kumar

    2011-05-01

    With image-guided tomotherapy, highly targeted total marrow irradiation (TMI) has become a feasible alternative to conventional total body irradiation. The uncertainties in patient localization and intrafraction motion of the whole body during hour-long TMI treatment may pose a risk to the safety and accuracy of targeted radiation treatment. The feasibility of near-infrared markers and optical tracking system (OTS) is accessed along with a megavoltage scanning system of tomotherapy. Three near-infrared markers placed on the face of a rando phantom are used to evaluate the capability of OTS in measuring changes in the markers' positions as the rando is moved in the translational direction. The OTS is also employed to determine breathing motion related changes in the position of 16 markers placed on the chest surface of human volunteers. The maximum uncertainty in locating marker position with the OTS is 1.5 mm. In the case of normal and deep breathing motion, the maximum marker position change is observed in anterior-posterior direction with the respective values of 4 and 12 mm. The OTS is able to measure surface changes due to breathing motion. The OTS may be optimized to monitor whole body motion during TMI to increase the accuracy of treatment delivery and reduce the radiation dose to the lungs.

  20. Whole Body Microwave Irradiation for Improved Dacarbazine Therapeutical Action in Cutaneous Melanoma Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Neagu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A cutaneous melanoma mouse model was used to test the efficacy of a new therapeutical approach that uses low doses of cytostatics in conjunction with mild whole body microwave exposure of 2.45 GHz in order to enhance cytostatics antitumoral effect. Materials and Methods. A microwave exposure system for C57BL/6 mouse whole body microwave irradiation was designed; groups of 40 mice (males and females bearing experimental tumours were subjected to a combined therapy comprising low doses of dacarbazine in combination with mild whole body irradiation. Clinical parameters and serum cytokine testing using xMAP technology were performed. Results. The group that was subjected to combined therapy, microwave and cytostatic, had the best clinical evolution in terms of overall survival, tumour volume, and metastatic potential. At day 14 the untreated group had 100% mortality, while in the combined therapy group 40% of mice were surviving. Quantifying serum IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 (p70, IFN-γ, GM-CSF, TNF-α, MIP-1α, MCP-1, and KC during tumorigenesis and therapy found that the combined experimental therapy decreases all the inflammatory cytokines, except chemokine MCP-1 that was found increased, suggesting an increase of the anti-tumoral immune response triggered by the combined therapy. The overall metastatic process is decreased in the combined therapy group.

  1. Clinical efficacy of blue light full body irradiation as treatment option for severe atopic dermatitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Detlef Becker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Therapy of atopic dermatitis (AD relies on immunosuppression and/or UV irradiation. Here, we assessed clinical efficacy and histopathological alterations induced by blue light-treatment of AD within an observational, non-interventional study. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 36 patients with severe, chronic AD resisting long term disease control with local corticosteroids were included. Treatment consisted of one cycle of 5 consecutive blue light-irradiations (28.9 J/cm(2. Patients were instructed to ask for treatment upon disease exacerbation despite interval therapy with topical corticosteroids. The majority of patients noted first improvements after 2-3 cycles. The EASI score was improved by 41% and 54% after 3 and 6 months, respectively (p≤0.005, and p≤0.002. Significant improvement of pruritus, sleep and life quality was noted especially after 6 months. Also, frequency and intensity of disease exacerbations and the usage of topical corticosteroids was reduced. Finally, immunohistochemistry of skin biopsies obtained at baseline and after 5 and 15 days revealed that, unlike UV light, blue light-treatment did not induce Langerhans cell or T cell depletion from skin. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Blue light-irradiation may represent a suitable treatment option for AD providing long term control of disease. Future studies with larger patient cohorts within a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial are required to confirm this observation.

  2. Long-Term Effects of Stem Cells on Total-Body Irradiated Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyalkina, M. V.; Alchinova, I. B.; Yakovenko, E. N.; Medvedeva, Yu S.; Saburina, I. N.; Karganov, M. Yu

    2017-01-01

    C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to γ-radiation in a sublethal dose of 7.5 Gy. In 3 hours injection 106/mouse of bone marrow multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells stem cells intravenously to experimental group was done. Methods used: body weight measurement, open field behavior, subfraction composition of blood serum (laser correlation spectroscopy, LCS), histological examination of the spleen, liver, and pancreas, count of T and B cells, white blood formula. After 1.5 and 3 months the general trend towards intermediate position of the parameters observed in the experimental between those in intact and irradiated controls attests to partial protective/restorative effects of the injected cells.

  3. An Acute Transverse Myelitis Attack after Total Body Irradiation: A Rare Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer Keklik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Total body irradiation (TBI combined with chemotherapy is widely used as a pretreatment regimen of bone marrow transplantation (BMT in hematologic disorders. Late complications related to TBI as part of the conditioning regimen for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation have been revealed. Acute transverse myelitis (ATM is a neurological syndrome characterized by disorder of motor, sensorial, and autonomic nerves, and tracts at medulla spinalis, which is resulted from involvement of spinal cord. In this paper, we presented an ATM attack developed after TBI in a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL as it is a rarely seen case.

  4. Approaches to modelling irradiation-induced processes in transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowron, Stephen T; Lebedeva, Irina V; Popov, Andrey M; Bichoutskaia, Elena

    2013-08-07

    The recent progress in high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) has given rise to the possibility of in situ observations of nanostructure transformations and chemical reactions induced by electron irradiation. In this article we briefly summarise experimental observations and discuss in detail atomistic modelling of irradiation-induced processes in HRTEM, as well as mechanisms of such processes recognised due to modelling. Accurate molecular dynamics (MD) techniques based on first principles or tight-binding models are employed in the analysis of single irradiation-induced events, and classical MD simulations are combined with a kinetic Monte Carlo algorithm to simulate continuous irradiation of nanomaterials. It has been shown that sulphur-terminated graphene nanoribbons are formed inside carbon nanotubes as a result of an irradiation-selective chemical reaction. The process of fullerene formation in HRTEM during continuous electron irradiation of a small graphene flake has been simulated, and mechanisms driving this transformation analysed.

  5. The relationship between the alkaline phosphatase network and the haematopoiesis in mice subjected to whole-body irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almohamad Khaled M.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the relationship between the alkaline phosphatase (ALP network of the marrow stroma and the haematopoietic regeneration after mice whole-body irradiation. Materials and methods: Three groups of mice were irradiated with a non-lethal ionising radiation dose: the fi rst one received an intraperitoneal injection of Levamisole, ALP inhibitor, 24 h before irradiation; the second one received an intraperitoneal injection of Lisinopril, haematopoiesis inhibitor, 24 h before irradiation; the third was left untreated, but irradiated. The fourth group, untreated and not irradiated, was the control. The total surface occupied by ALP positive processes, revealed by means of ALP cytochemistry in the marrow area, was evaluated semi-quantitively. Nucleated bone marrow cells were also counted. Results: ALP network began to increase 24 h after irradiation to reach a maximum after 72 h, when the bone marrow was almost become completely empty of the haematopoietic cells. This increase advances the haematopoietic recovery. This process was substantially delayed when the mice were injected with Levamisole 24 h before irradiation. On the contrary, ALP network increased strongly since the fi rst day after irradiation when the mice were injected with Lisinopril 24 h before irradiation. Conclusions: These data have indicated that the haematopoietic recovery and repopulation of the bone marrow were advanced by the ALP network recovery.

  6. Neural induced embryoid bodies present high levels of metals detected by x-ray microfluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stelling, Mariana P.; Cardoso, Simone C.; Paulsen, Bruna S.; Rehen, Stevens K. [Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Av. Carlos Chagas, 373 (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Av. Athos da Silveira Ramos, 14, 21941 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Av. Carlos Chagas, 373 (Brazil)

    2012-05-17

    Molecular mechanisms driving neural differentiation in human embryonic stem cells are not completely elucidated, specially, the role of atomic elements within this process. In this work, we described the distribution of trace elements in those stem cells growing as embryoid bodies by using synchrotron radiation X-ray microfluorescence (SR-XRF). Naive and neural induced embryoid bodies derived from embryonic stem cells were irradiated with a spatial resolution of 20 {mu}m to make elemental maps and qualitative chemical analyses. We consistently detected metallic elements content raise on neural induced embryoid bodies, mimicking characteristic brain development. The use of SR-XRF reveals that human embryoid bodies exhibit self-organization at the atomic level, which is enhanced during neurogenesis triggered in vitro.

  7. Neural induced embryoid bodies present high levels of metals detected by x-ray microfluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelling, Mariana P.; Cardoso, Simone C.; Paulsen, Bruna S.; Rehen, Stevens K.

    2012-05-01

    Molecular mechanisms driving neural differentiation in human embryonic stem cells are not completely elucidated, specially, the role of atomic elements within this process. In this work, we described the distribution of trace elements in those stem cells growing as embryoid bodies by using synchrotron radiation X-ray microfluorescence (SR-XRF). Naive and neural induced embryoid bodies derived from embryonic stem cells were irradiated with a spatial resolution of 20 μm to make elemental maps and qualitative chemical analyses. We consistently detected metallic elements content raise on neural induced embryoid bodies, mimicking characteristic brain development. The use of SR-XRF reveals that human embryoid bodies exhibit self-organization at the atomic level, which is enhanced during neurogenesis triggered in vitro.

  8. Fetal liver transplantation in 2 patients with acute leukaemia after total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucarelli, G.; Izzi, T.; Porcellini, A.; Delfini, C.; Galimberti, M.; Moretti, L.; Polchi, P.; Agostinelli, F.; Andreani, M.; Manna, M. (Haematological Department, Pesaro Hospital, Pesaro, Italy)

    1982-01-01

    2 patients with acute leukaemia in relapse were transplanted with fetal liver cells following a conditioning regimen of cyclophosphamide (120 mg/kg) and total body irradiation (1000 r). Each patient achieved a remission with haematopoietic recovery that was rapid in one case and delayed in the other. In one case there was evidence of chimerism as demonstrated by the presence of the XYY karyotype of the donor fetus in 20 % of marrow metaphases, by the presence of double Y bodies in the peripheral blood, by the appearance of new HLA-antigens, and by red cell isoenzyme phenotypes of donor origin. In the second case there was prompt haemotopoietic recovery and the appearance of red cell isoenzyme phenotypes of donor origin. Survival was 153 and 30 d, respectively, and both patients died of interstitial pneumonia without evidence of graft versus host disease.

  9. Simvastatin mitigates increases in risk factors for and the occurrence of cardiac disease following 10 Gy total body irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenarczyk, Marek; Su, Jidong; Haworth, Steven T; Komorowski, Richard; Fish, Brian L; Migrino, Raymond Q; Harmann, Leanne; Hopewell, John W; Kronenberg, Amy; Patel, Shailendra; Moulder, John E; Baker, John E

    2015-06-01

    The ability of simvastatin to mitigate the increases in risk factors for and the occurrence of cardiac disease after 10 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) was determined. This radiation dose is relevant to conditioning for stem cell transplantation and threats from radiological terrorism. Male rats received single dose TBI of 10 Gy. Age-matched, sham-irradiated rats served as controls. Lipid profile, heart and liver morphology and cardiac mechanical function were determined for up to 120 days after irradiation. TBI resulted in a sustained increase in total- and LDL-cholesterol (low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol), and triglycerides. Simvastatin (10 mg/kg body weight/day) administered continuously from 9 days after irradiation mitigated TBI-induced increases in total- and LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides, as well as liver injury. TBI resulted in cellular peri-arterial fibrosis, whereas control hearts had less collagen and fibrosis. Simvastatin mitigated these morphological injuries. TBI resulted in cardiac mechanical dysfunction. Simvastatin mitigated cardiac mechanical dysfunction 20-120 days following TBI. To determine whether simvastatin affects the ability of the heart to withstand stress after TBI, injury from myocardial ischemia/reperfusion was determined in vitro. TBI increased the severity of an induced myocardial infarction at 20 and 80 days after irradiation. Simvastatin mitigated the severity of this myocardial infarction at 20 and 80 days following TBI. It is concluded simvastatin mitigated the increases in risk factors for cardiac disease and the extent of cardiac disease following TBI. This statin may be developed as a medical countermeasure for the mitigation of radiation-induced cardiac disease.

  10. Berberine potentizes apoptosis induced by X-rays irradiation probably through modulation of gap junctions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bing; WANG Qin; YUAN Dong-dong; HONG Xiao-ting; TAO Liang

    2011-01-01

    Background Clinical combination of some traditional Chinese medical herbs, including berberine, with irradiation is demonstrated to improve efficacy of tumor radiotherapy, yet the mechanisms for such effect remain largely unknown. The present study investigated the effect of berberine on apoptosis induced by X-rays irradiation and the relation between this effect and gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC).Methods The role of gap junctions in the modulation of X-rays irradiation-induced apoptosis was explored by manipulation of connexin (Cx) expression, and gap junction function, using oleamide, a GJIC inhibitor, and berberine.Results In transfected HeLa cells, Cx32 expression increased apoptosis induced by X-rays irradiation, while inhibition of gap junction by oleamide reduced the irradiation responses, indicating the dependence of X-rays irradiation-induced apoptosis on GJIC. Berberine, at the concentrations without cytotoxicity, enhanced apoptosis induced by irradiation only in the presence of functional gap junctions.Conclusions These results suggest that berberine potentizes cell apoptosis induced by X-rays irradiation, probably through enhancement of gap junction activity.

  11. Late ophthalmological complications after total body irradiation in non-human primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemer-Tucker, M. M.; Sterk, C. C.; de Wolff-Rouendaal, D.; Lee, A. C.; Lett, J. T.; Cox, A.; Emmanouilidis-van der Spek, K.; Davelaar, J.; Lambooy, A. C.; Mooy, C. M.; Broerse, J. J.

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the long-term effects of total body irradiation (TBI) on the incidence and time course of ocular complications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rhesus monkeys treated with TBI photon doses up to 8.5 Gy and proton doses up to 7.5 Gy were studied at intervals up to 25 years post-irradiation. They were compared with control groups with a similar age distribution. Cataract formation and ocular fundus lesions were scored according to a standardized protocol. Fluorescein angiography and histopathology was performed in selected animals. RESULTS: Cataract formation occurred after a latent period of 3-5 years. Significant cataract induction was observed for photon-doses of 8 and 8.5 Gy and beyond 20 years after proton irradiation. The severity of the lesions represents significant impairment of vision and would require cataract surgery if similar results occurred in human bone marrow transplant patients. Fluorescein angiography demonstrated a normal pattern of retinal vessels in 13 out of 14 animals (93%) from the irradiated group and in eight out of nine animals (89%) from the control group. No additional lesions apart from age-related degenerative changes could be demonstrated. Histological evaluation revealed no radiation-associated vasculopathy. CONCLUSIONS: Radiation alone for doses up to 8.5 Gy of photons does not carry a potential risk for fundus pathology, whereas clinically important cataract induction should be anticipated within 5 years after photon doses of 8.0 and 8.5 Gy and proton doses in excess of 2.5 Gy.

  12. Early micro-rheological consequences of single fraction total body low-dose photon irradiation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szluha, Kornelia; Lazanyi, Kornelia; Furka, Andrea; Kiss, Ferenc; Szabo, Imre; Pintye, Eva; Miko, Iren; Nemeth, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Despite of the studies on widespread biological effects of irradiation, surprisingly only little number of papers can be found dealing with its in vivo hemorheological impact. Furthermore, other studies suggested that low-dose irradiation might differ from high-dose in more than linear ways. On Balb/c Jackson female adult mice hematological and hemorheological impacts of total body irradiation were investigated 1 hour following 0.002, 0.005, 0.01, 0.02, 0.05 and 0.1 Gy dose irradiation. In case of 0.01 Gy further groups were analyzed 30 minutes, 2, 4, 6, 24 and 48 h after irradiation. According to the results, it seems that the dose-dependent changes of blood micro-rheological parameters are not linear. The irradiation dose of 0.01 Gy acted as a point of 'inflexion', because by this dose we found the most expressed changes in hematological parameters, as well as in red blood cell aggregation, deformability and osmoscan data. The time-dependent changes showed progressive decrease in pH, rise in lactate concentration, further decrease in erythrocyte aggregation index and deformability, with moderate shifting of the optimal osmolarity point and modulation in membrane stability. As conclusion, low-dose total body irradiation may cause micro-rheological changes, being non-linearly correlated with the irradiation dose.

  13. Dose and dose rate effects of whole-body gamma-irradiation: II. Hematological variables and cytokines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gridley, D. S.; Pecaut, M. J.; Miller, G. M.; Moyers, M. F.; Nelson, G. A.

    2001-01-01

    The goal of part II of this study was to evaluate the effects of gamma-radiation on circulating blood cells, functional characteristics of splenocytes, and cytokine expression after whole-body irradiation at varying total doses and at low- and high-dose-rates (LDR, HDR). Young adult C57BL/6 mice (n = 75) were irradiated with either 1 cGy/min or 80 cGy/min photons from a 60Co source to cumulative doses of 0.5, 1.5, and 3.0 Gy. The animals were euthanized at 4 days post-exposure for in vitro assays. Significant dose- (but not dose-rate-) dependent decreases were observed in erythrocyte and blood leukocyte counts, hemoglobin, hematocrit, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced 3H-thymidine incorporation, and interleukin-2 (IL-2) secretion by activated spleen cells when compared to sham-irradiated controls (p < 0.05). Basal proliferation of leukocytes in the blood and spleen increased significantly with increasing dose (p < 0.05). Significant dose rate effects were observed only in thrombocyte counts. Plasma levels of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) and splenocyte secretion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) were not affected by either the dose or dose rate of radiation. The data demonstrate that the responses of blood and spleen were largely dependent upon the total dose of radiation employed and that an 80-fold difference in the dose rate was not a significant factor in the great majority of measurements.

  14. Blood-brain barrier permeability after gamma whole-body irradiation: an in vivo microdialysis study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diserbo, M.; Agin, A.; Lamproglou, I.; Mauris, J.; Staali, F.; Multon, E.; Amourette, C

    2002-07-01

    The effects of total-body irradiation on the permeability of rat striatal blood-brain barrier (BBB) to [{sup 3}H]{alpha}-aminoisobutyric acid (AIBA) and [{sup 14}C] sucrose were investigated using the microdialysis technique. Seven days, 3 and 6 weeks, and 3, 5, and 8 months after gamma exposure at a dose of 4.5 Gy, no modification of the permeability to both [{sup 3}H]AIBA and [{sup 14}C] sucrose was observed. But, in the course of the initial syndrome, we observed a significant but transient increase in the BBB permeability to the two markers between 3 and 17 h after exposure. A secondary transient 'opening' of the BBB to [{sup 14}C] sucrose was noticed about 28 h following irradiation without the corresponding increase in BBB permeability to [{sup 3}H]AIBA. On the contrary, the transport of [{sup 3}H]AIBA through the BBB was decreased between 33 and 47 h postradiation. In conclusion, our experiments showed early modifications of BBB permeability after a moderate-dose whole-body exposure. Confirmation of these results with other tracers, in another experimental model or in humans, would have clinical applications for designing appropriate pharmacotherapy in radiotherapy and treatment of accidental overexposure. (author)

  15. Dose calculation method with 60-cobalt gamma rays in total body irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Scaff, L A M

    2001-01-01

    Physical factors associated to total body irradiation using sup 6 sup 0 Co gamma rays beams, were studied in order to develop a calculation method of the dose distribution that could be reproduced in any radiotherapy center with good precision. The method is based on considering total body irradiation as a large and irregular field with heterogeneities. To calculate doses, or doses rates, of each area of interest (head, thorax, thigh, etc.), scattered radiation is determined. It was observed that if dismagnified fields were considered to calculate the scattered radiation, the resulting values could be applied on a projection to the real size to obtain the values for dose rate calculations. In a parallel work it was determined the variation of the dose rate in the air, for the distance of treatment, and for points out of the central axis. This confirm that the use of the inverse square law is not valid. An attenuation curve for a broad beam was also determined in order to allow the use of absorbers. In this wo...

  16. Allogeneic compact bone-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation increases survival of mice exposed to lethal total body irradiation: a potential immunological mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiao Shukai; Ren Hanyun; Shi Yongjin; Liu Wei

    2014-01-01

    Background Radiation-induced injury after accidental or therapeutic total body exposure to ionizing radiation has serious pathophysiological consequences,and currently no effective therapy exists.This study was designed to investigate whether transplantation of allogeneic murine compact bone derived-mesenchymal stem cells (CB-MSCs) could improve the survival of mice exposed to lethal dosage total body irradiation (TBI),and to explore the potential immunoprotective role of MSCs.Methods BALB/c mice were treated with 8 Gy TBI,and then some were administered CB-MSCs isolated from C57BL/6 mice.Survival rates and body weight were analyzed for 14 days post-irradiation.At three days post-irradiation,we evaluated IFN-Y and IL-4 concentrations; CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cell (Treg) percentage; CXCR3,CCR5,and CCR7 expressions on CD3+T cells; and splenocyte T-bet and GATA-3 mRNA levels.CB-MSC effects on bone marrow hemopoiesis were assessed via colony-forming unit granulocyte/macrophage (CFU-GM) assay.Results After lethal TBI,compared to non-transplanted mice,CB-MSC-transplanted mice exhibited significantly increased survival,body weight,and CFU-GM counts of bone marrow cells (P<0.05),as well as higher Treg percentages,reduced IFN-Y,CXCR3 and CCR5 down-regulation,and CCR7 up-regulation.CB-MSC transplantation suppressed Th1 immunity.Irradiated splenocytes directly suppressed CFU-GM formation from bone marrow cells,and CB-MSC co-culture reversed this inhibition.Conclusion Allogeneic CB-MSC transplantation attenuated radiation-induced hematopoietic toxicity,and provided immunoprotection by alleviating lymphocyte-mediated CFU-GM inhibition,expanding Tregs,regulating T cell chemokine receptor expressions,and skewing the Th1/Th2 balance toward anti-inflammatory Th2 polarization.

  17. Induced effect of irradiated exogenous DNA on wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李忠杰; 孙光祖; 等

    1996-01-01

    Irradiated exogenous DNA introduced into wheat can give rise to break of DNA-chain and damage of part of alkali radicals.Introducing exogenous DNA irradiated by γ rays could increase Do fructification rate and decrease seed size and lumpness.These tendencies became obvious with dose increase.In comparison with control DNA,introducing DNA irradiated could raise evidently mutagenic effect of pollen tube pathway technique.

  18. UV irradiation induced transformation of TiO2 nanoparticles in water: aggregation and photoreactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Guo, Liang-Hong; Zhang, Hui; Zhao, Lixia

    2014-10-21

    Transformation of nanomaterials in aqueous environment has significant impact on their behavior in engineered application and natural system. In this paper, UV irradiation induced transformation of TiO2 nanoparticles in aqueous solutions was demonstrated, and its effect on the aggregation and photocatalytic reactivity of TiO2 was investigated. UV irradiation of a TiO2 nanoparticle suspension accelerated nanoparticle aggregation that was dependent on the irradiation duration. The aggregation rate increased from UV irradiation which might be responsible for the change of surface charge and aggregation rate. UV irradiation also changed the photocatalytic degradation rate of Rhodamine B by TiO2, which initially increased with irradiation time, then decreased. Based on the photoluminescence decay and photocurrent collection data, the change was attributed to the variation in interparticle charge transfer kinetics. These results highlight the importance of light irradiation on the transformation and reactivity of TiO2 nanomaterials.

  19. A case of irradiation induced carcinoma of the lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Osamu; Arakawa, Naoko; Abe, Asushi; Yamakawa, Yoshio; Saito, Hideaki; Yamagishi, Hiroaki; Sugita, Tadashi; Sekitani, Masao (Niigata Prefectural Central Hospital, Joetsu (Japan))

    1993-08-01

    A 61-year-old heavy smoker had received irradiation therapy (cobalt 84 Gy) for a suspected metastatic seminoma in the right upper lobe. Thirteen years later, a chest X-p showed mass shadow at the right S[sup 3]b in the same irradiated field. A transbronchial biopsy revealed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma histologically. Systemic chemotherapy, irradiation therapy (Lineac), and bronchial arterial infusion therapy were not effective. He died of carcinomatous pericarditis 7 months thereafter. It was supposed that the irradiation was on initiator, and smoking was the suspected promoter with synergistic effect in the carcinogenesis in this case. (author).

  20. Preparation and characterization of DNA films induced by UV irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Masanori; Kato, Kozue; Nomizu, Motoyoshi; Sakairi, Nobuo; Ohkawa, Kousaku; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Nishi, Norio

    2002-03-15

    Large amounts of DNA-enriched materials, such as salmon milts and shellfish gonads, are discarded as industrial waste. We have been able to convert the discarded DNA to a useful material by preparing novel DNA films by UV irradiation. When DNA films were irradiated with UV light, the molecular weight of DNA was greatly increased. The reaction was inhibited by addition of the radical scavenger galvinoxyl suggesting that the DNA polymerization with UV irradiation proceeded by a radical reaction. Although this UV-irradiated DNA film was water-insoluble and resistant to hydrolysis by nuclease, the structure of the DNA film in water was similar to non-irradiated DNA and maintained B-form structure. In addition, the UV-irradiated DNA film could effectively accumulate and condense harmful DNA-intercalating compounds, such as ethidium bromide and acridine orange, from diluted aqueous solutions. The binding constant and exclusion number of ethidium bromide for UV-irradiated DNA were determined to be 6.8 +/- 0.3 x 10(4) M(-1) and 1.6 +/- 0.2, respectively; these values are consisted with reported results for non-irradiated DNA. The UV-irradiated DNA films have potential uses as a biomaterial filter for the removal of harmful DNA intercalating compounds.

  1. Early cognitive changes due to whole body γ-irradiation: a behavioral and diffusion tensor imaging study in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mayank; Haridas, Seenu; Trivedi, Richa; Khushu, Subhash; Manda, Kailash

    2013-10-01

    Radiation-induced aberration in the neuronal integrity and cognitive functions are well known. However, there is a lacuna between sparsely reported immediate effects and the well documented delayed effects of radiation on cognitive functions. The present study was aimed at investigating the radiation-dose dependent incongruities in the early cognitive changes, employing two approaches, behavioral functions and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Six-month old female C57BL/6 mice were exposed to whole-body doses of 2, 5 and 8 Gy of γ-radiation and 24 h after exposure, the stress and anxiety levels were examined in the open-field test (OFT). Forty-eight hours after irradiation, the hippocampal dependent recognition memory was observed by the novel object recognition task (NORT), and the cognitive functions related to memory processing and recall were tested using the elevated plus maze (EPM). Magnetic resonance imaging, including diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was done at 48-hour post-irradiation to visualize microstructural damage in brain parenchyma. Our results indicate a complex dose independent effect on the cognitive functions immediately after exposure to gamma rays. Radiation exposure caused short-term memory dysfunctions at lower doses, which were seen to be abrogated at higher doses, but the long-term memory processing was disrupted at higher doses. The hippocampus emerged as one of the sensitive regions to be affected by whole-body exposure to gamma rays, which led to profound immediate alterations in cognitive functions. Furthermore, the results indicate a cognitive recovery process, which might be dependent on the extent of damage to the hippocampal region. The present study also emphasizes the importance of further research to unravel the complex pattern of neurobehavioral responses immediately following ionizing radiation exposure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Myeloid and lymphoid contribution to non-haematopoietic lineages through irradiation-induced heterotypic cell fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygren, J.M.; Liuba, K.; Breitbach, M.;

    2008-01-01

    and Purkinje neurons. However, through lineage fate-mapping we demonstrate that such in vivo fusion of lymphoid and myeloid blood cells does not occur to an appreciable extent in steady-state adult tissues or during normal development. Rather, fusion of blood cells with different non-haematopoietic cell types...... is induced by organ-specific injuries or whole-body irradiation, which has been used in previous studies to condition recipients of bone marrow transplants. Our findings demonstrate that blood cells of the lymphoid and myeloid lineages contribute to various non-haematopoietic tissues by forming rare fusion......Recent studies have suggested that regeneration of non-haematopoietic cell lineages can occur through heterotypic cell fusion with haematopoietic cells of the myeloid lineage. Here we show that lymphocytes also form heterotypic-fusion hybrids with cardiomyocytes, skeletal muscle, hepatocytes...

  3. PROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF PROPOLIS ON GAMMA- IRRADIATED NIGELLA SATIVA EXTRACT INDUCED BLOOD AND IMMUNE CHANGES IN WISTAR RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Moseilhy Saleh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study conducted to test the effect of Nigella Sativa (NS, 5 mg kg-1 of body weight, or γ-irradiated Nigella Sativa (GRNS on the changes of blood component profiles, liver, kidney functions and immune cytokines secretion in male Wistar rats. Moreover, the possible protection by propolis (200 mg kg-1 B. W. on the changes induced by NS and GRNS was examined. Results revealed that both NS and GRNS administration for two weeks induced changes in blood, GPT, GOT and urea levels and co-administration with propolis significantly ameliorated such changes. Also, liver histology showed numerous vacuolar degeneration and fatty changes in γ-irradiated groups which disappeared in presence of propolis. Kidney histology of NS administered rats showed less lymphocytic infiltration, while GRNS groups showed desquamation in the cytoplasm of the renal tubules, hemorrhage in the renal corpuscle and lymphocytic infiltration which disappeared when propolis given together with GRNS. Finally propolis induced protective effect on the changes induced in TNF-α and IL-10 secretion by either NS or GRNS in Wistar rats. In conclusion, the findings of present study clarified the protective effect of propolis on changes induced by γ-irradiated NS on blood, liver, kidney and cytokines changes in Wistar rats.

  4. Metformin ameliorates ionizing irradiation-induced long-term hematopoietic stem cell injury in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guoshun; Wu, Hongying; Zhang, Junling; Li, Deguan; Wang, Yueying; Wang, Yingying; Zhang, Heng; Lu, Lu; Li, Chengcheng; Huang, Song; Xing, Yonghua; Zhou, Daohong; Meng, Aimin

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) increases the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) not only by the radiolysis of water but also through IR-induced perturbation of the cellular metabolism and disturbance of the balance of reduction/oxidation reactions. Our recent studies showed that the increased production of intracellular ROS induced by IR contributes to IR-induced late effects, particularly in the hematopoietic system, because inhibition of ROS production with an antioxidant after IR exposure can mitigate IR-induced long-term bone marrow (BM) injury. Metformin is a widely used drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Metformin also has the ability to regulate cellular metabolism and ROS production by activating AMP-activated protein kinase. Therefore, we examined whether metformin can ameliorate IR-induced long-term BM injury in a total-body irradiation (TBI) mouse model. Our results showed that the administration of metformin significantly attenuated TBI-induced increases in ROS production and DNA damage and upregulation of NADPH oxidase 4 expression in BM hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). These changes were associated with a significant increase in BM HSC frequency, a considerable improvement in in vitro and in vivo HSC function, and complete inhibition of upregulation of p16Ink4a in HSCs after TBI. These findings demonstrate that metformin can attenuate TBI-induced long-term BM injury at least in part by inhibiting the induction of chronic oxidative stress in HSCs and HSC senescence. Therefore, metformin has the potential to be used as a novel radioprotectant to ameliorate TBI-induced long-term BM injury. PMID:26086617

  5. Comparison of /sup 32/P therapy and sequential hemibody irradiation (HBI) for bony metastases as methods of whole body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, H.; Choi, K.; Sohn, C.; Yaes, R.; Rotman, M.

    1986-06-01

    We report a retrospective study of 15 patients with prostate carcinoma and diffuse bone metastases treated with sodium /sup 32/P for palliation of pain at Downstate Medical Center and Kings County Hospital from 1973 to 1978. The response rates, duration of response, and toxicities are compared with those of other series of patients treated with /sup 32/P and with sequential hemibody irradiation. The response rates and duration of response are similar with both modalities ranging from 58 to 95% with a duration of 3.3 to 6 months with /sup 32/P and from 75 to 86% with a median duration of 5.5 months with hemibody irradiation. There are significant differences in the patterns of response and in the toxicities of the two treatment methods. Both methods cause significant bone marrow depression. Acute radiation syndrome, radiation pneumonitis, and alopecia are seen with sequential hemibody irradiation and not with /sup 32/P, but their incidence can be reduced by careful treatment planning. Hemibody irradiation can provide pain relief within 24 to 48 h, while /sup 32/P may produce an initial exacerbation of pain. Lower hemibody irradiation alone is less toxic than either upper hemibody irradiation or /sup 32/P treatment.

  6. Analysis of irradiation processes for laser-induced periodic surface structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eichstädt, J.; Huis in 't Veld, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of errors on the irradiation process for laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) was studied theoretically with energy density simulations. Therefore an irradiation model has been extended by a selection of technical variations. The influence of errors has been found in a dev

  7. Comparison of total body irradiation-based or non-total body irradiation-based conditioning regimens for allogeneic stem cell transplantation in pediatric leukemia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Jeong Kim

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : This study aims to compare the outcome of total body irradiation (TBI- or non-TBI-containing conditioning regimens for leukemia in children. Methods : We retrospectively evaluated 77 children conditioned with TBI (n=40 or non-TBI (n=37 regimens, transplanted at Chonnam National University Hospital between January 1996 and December 2007. The type of transplantation, disease status at the time of transplant, conditioning regimen, engraftment kinetics, development of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD, complications, cause of deaths, overall survival (OS, and event-free survival (EFS were compared between the 2 groups. Results : Among 34 patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, 28 (82.4% were in the TBI group, while 72.7% (24/33 of patients with myeloid leukemia were in the non-TBI group. Although the 5-year EFS of the 2 groups was similar for all patients (62% vs 63%, the TBI group showed a better 5-year EFS than the non-TBI group when only ALL patients were analyzed (65% vs 17%; P =0.005. In acute myelogenous leukemia patients, the non-TBI group had better survival tendency (73% vs 38%; P=0.089. The incidence of GVHD, engraftment, survival, cause of death, and late complications was not different between the 2 groups. Conclusion : The TBI and non-TBI groups showed comparable results, but the TBI group showed a significantly higher 5-year EFS than the non-TBI group in ALL patients. Further prospective, randomized controlled studies involving larger number of patients are needed to assess the late-onset complications and to compare the socioeconomic quality of life.

  8. Comparison of total body irradiation vs chlorambucil and prednisone for remission induction of active chronic lymphocytic leukemia: an ECOG study. Part I: total body irradiation-response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, P.I. (Univ. of Rochester Cancer Center, NY); Bennett, J.M.; Begg, C.; Bozdech, M.J.; Silber, R.

    1981-12-01

    Twenty-six evaluable patients were entered into two fractionated total body irradiation (TBI) programs; 11 patients received a course of 150 rad TBI (x 3 if tolerated) and 15 patients received a lower dose course of 50 rad (x 3 if tolerated). Complete remissions (CR) were not produced by either course; however, the higher dose course (Plan I) yielded a partial response (PR) rate of 73%, while the lower dose course yielded a PR of 47%. Although fraction size seemed trivial in both TBI plans, an unexpected high degree of hematologic toxicity was encountered, and was parallel to the response rates: in Plan I 73% of patients experienced severe to life-threatening depression of platelets or granulocytes, whereas in Plan II this rate was 47%. This was of short duration with rapid return of blood counts to normal levels. One death can be attributed to TBI. The chemotherapy arm of the study demonstrated superiority in terms of complete responses. Twenty-three percent of patients treated by cholrambucil and prednisone attained CR, in contrast to 0% of TBI patients. PR for chemotherapy was similar to that obtained with TBI. Chemotherapy also proved superior in terms of overall response rate, number of patients in remission, and in the median duration of response, but not in the median duration of survival. Fractional TBI techniques for active chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) should be interrupted when the platelet count dips below 100,000 and the granulocyte count is lower than 2,000. Future studies should combine TBI radiation therapy and chemotherapy.

  9. Protected graft copolymer-formulated fibroblast growth factors mitigate the lethality of partial body irradiation injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Gerardo M.; Nishimoto-Ashfield, Akiko; Jones, Cynthia C.; Kabirov, Kasim K.; Zakharov, Alexander; Lyubimov, Alexander V.

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the mitigating effects of fibroblast growth factor 4 and 7 (FGF4 and FGF7, respectively) in comparison with long acting protected graft copolymer (PGC)-formulated FGF4 and 7 (PF4 and PF7, respectively) administered to C57BL/6J mice a day after exposure to LD50/30 (15.7 Gy) partial body irradiation (PBI) which targeted the gastrointestinal (GI) system. The PGC that we developed increased the bioavailability of FGF4 and FGF7 by 5- and 250-fold compared to without PGC, respectively, and also sustained a 24 hr presence in the blood after a single subcutaneous administration. The dose levels tested for mitigating effects on radiation injury were 3 mg/kg for the PF4 and PF7 and 1.5 mg each for their combination (PF4/7). Amifostine administered prior to PBI was used as a positive control. The PF4, PF7, or PF4/7 mitigated the radiation lethality in mice. The mitigating effect of PF4 and PF7 was similar to the positive control and PF7 was better than other mitigators tested. The plasma citrulline levels and hematology parameters were early markers of recovery and survival. GI permeability function appeared to be a late or full recovery indicator. The villus length and crypt number correlated with plasma citrulline level, indicating that it can act as a surrogate marker for these histology evaluations. The IL-18 concentrations in jejunum as early as day 4 and TPO levels in colon on day 10 following PBI showed statistically significant changes in irradiated versus non-irradiated mice which makes them potential biomarkers of radiation exposure. Other colon and jejunum cytokine levels are potentially useful but require larger numbers of samples than in the present study before their full utility can be realized. PMID:28207794

  10. Experimental reproduction of polymorphous light eruption and benign summer light eruption by whole-body UVA irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, J; Verheyen, A; Dockx, P

    1997-01-01

    The entity 'benign summer light eruption' (BSLE) has been introduced to make a clinical subdivision in the heterogeneous group of polymorphous light eruptions (PLE). Provocation tests for PLE are not always easy to perform and require expensive apparatus. Our purpose was to evaluate a provocation test that could be readily done by a dermatologist with a UVA cabin. Provocation tests are currently required in order to obtain a financial contribution from the social security services in Belgium. In addition, we were interested in determining whether the results of the provocation test would permit us to differentiate between the clinical entities of BSLE and PLE. We studied the efficacy of whole-body UVA irradiation for BSLE and PLE patients. A total of 45 patients was tested, of whom 26 were diagnosed as having BSLE and 19 PLE. In the BSLE group, 24 patients (92%) presented lesions. In the PLE group, 15 patients (79%) had a reaction, but 3 had a positive UVB test. The mean dose to induce lesions was 65.96 J/cm2 for the BSLE group and 52.86 J/cm2 for the PLE group. We conclude that the whole-body UVA test is a high-performance provocation test for both BSLE and PLE patients although it cannot differentiate the two entities from one another.

  11. Development and clinical application of a length-adjustable water phantom for total body irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Wei; Yao, Sheng-Yu; Zhang, Tie-Ning; Zhu, Zhen-Hua; Hu, Zhe-Kai; Lu, Xun

    2012-08-01

    A new type of water phantom which would be specialised for the absorbed dose measurement in total body irradiation (TBI) treatment is developed. Ten millimetres of thick Plexiglas plates were arranged to form a square cube with 300 mm of edge length. An appropriate sleeve-type piston was installed on the side wall, and a tabular Plexiglas piston was positioned inside the sleeve. By pushing and pulling the piston, the length of the self-made water phantom could be varied to meet the required patients' physical sizes. To compare the international standard water phantom with the length-adjustable and the Plexiglas phantoms, absorbed dose for 6-MV X ray was measured by an ionisation chamber at different depths in three kinds of phantoms. In 70 cases with TBI, midplane doses were metered using the length-adjustable and the Plexiglas phantoms for simulating human dimensions, and dose validation was synchronously carried out. There were no significant statistical differences, p > 0.05, through statistical processing of data from the international standard water phantom and the self-designed one. There were significant statistical differences, p body width. Obviously, the difference had a positive correlation with the body width. The results proved that the new length-adjustable water phantom is more accurate for simulating human dimensions than Plexiglas phantom.

  12. In pediatric leukemia, dose evaluation according to the type of compensators in total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Yeon [Dongnam Inst. of Radiological and Medical science, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chang Soo; Kim, Jung Hoon [Dept. of Radiological Science, College of Health Science, Catholic University of Busan, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Total body irradiation (TBI) and chemotherapy are the pre-treatment method of a stem cell transplantations of the childhood leukemia. in this study, we evaluate the Quantitative human body dose prior to the treatment. The MCNPX simulation program evaluated by changing the material of the tissue compensators with imitation material of pediatric exposure in a virtual space. As a result, first, the average skin dose with the material of the tissue compensators of Plexiglass tissue compensators is 74.60 mGy/min, Al is 73.96 mGy/min, Cu is 72.26 mGy/min and Pb 67.90 mGy/min respectively. Second, regardless of the tissue compensators material that organ dose were thyroid, gentile, digestive system, brain, lungs, kidneys higher in order. Finally, the ideal distance between body compensator and the patient were 50 cm aparting each other. In conclusion, tissue compensators Al, Cu, Pb are able to replace of the currently used in Plexiglass materials.

  13. Irradiation induced improvement in crystallinity of epitaxially grown Ag thin films on Si substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahiro, Katsumi; Nagata, Shinji; Yamaguchi, Sadae [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Inst. for Materials Research

    1997-03-01

    We report the improvement in crystallinity of epitaxially grown Ag films on Si(100) substrates with ion irradiation. The irradiation of 0.5 MeV Si ions to 2x10{sup 16}/cm{sup 2} at 200degC, for example, reduces the channeling minimum yield from 60% to 6% at Ag surface. The improvement originates from the decrease of mosaic spread in the Ag thin film. In our experiments, ion energy, ion species and irradiation temperature have been varied. The better crystallinity is obtained as the higher concentration of defect is generated. The mechanism involved in the irradiation induced improvement is discussed. (author)

  14. Dosimetry and verification of Co total body irradiation with human phantom and semiconductor diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahverdi, Mahmoud; Geraily, Ghazale; Esfehani, Mahbod; Sharafi, Aliakbar; Haddad, Peyman; Shirazi, Alireza

    2007-10-01

    Total Body Irradiation (TBI) is a form of radiotherapy used for patients prior to bone marrow or stem cell transplant to destroy any undetectable cancer cells. The dosimetry characteristics of a (60)Co unit for TBI were studied and a simple method for the calculation of the prescribed dose for TBI is presented. Dose homogeneity was verified in a human phantom. Dose measurements were made in water phantom (30 × 30 × 30 cm(3)), using farmer ionization chamber (0.6 cc, TM30010, PTW) and a parallel plate ionization chamber (TM23343, PTW). Point dose measurements for AP/PA irradiation were measured in a human phantom using silicon diodes (T60010L, PTW). The lung dose was measured with an ionization chamber (0.3 cc, TM31013). The validity of the proposed algorithm was checked at TBI distance using the human phantom. The accuracy of the proposed algorithm was within 3.5%. The dose delivered to the mid-lobe of the lung was 14.14 Gy and it has been reduced to 8.16 Gy by applying the proper shield. Dose homogeneity was within ±7% for all measured points. The results indicate that a good agreement between the total prescribed and calculated midplane doses can be achieved using this method. Therefore, it could be possible to use calculated data for TBI treatments.

  15. Simple technique for fabrication of shielding blocks for total body irradiation at extended treatment distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravichandran R

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Techniques are being standardized in our department for total body irradiation (TBI with six MV photons in linear accelerator for preconditioning to bone marrow transplantation (BMT. Individualized shields with low melting point alloy are to be fabricated for shielding critical organs such as lungs, kidneys etc. A method to mount diminished dimension of shields in a tray at 3.75m is designed in the department for a teletreatment distance of four meters with magna field with A simulator image taken with the patient′s midplane (MP at one meter distance is used to mark the dimensions of lung, scaled down by a factor of 3.75/4.0. These lung dimensions are reprinted from the digital simulator image for making the shield. The methodology of the technique using digitized minification in radiography is the first of its kind to be used for shield cutting in magna field radiotherapy.

  16. Dose homogeneity of the total body irradiation in vivo and in vitro confirmed with thermoluminescent dosimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chie, E.K.; Park, S.W.; Kang, W.S.; Kim, I.H.; Ha, S.W.; Park, C.I. [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-05-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI) or whole body irradiation is used to acquire immune suppression, to treat malignant lymphoma and leukemia, and as a conditioning regimen for bone marrow transplantation. The objective of this study was to analyze and confirm the accuracy and the homogeneity of the treatment setup, the parallel opposed lateral technique, currently used in Seoul National University Hospital. Surface dose data, measured with a thermoluminescent dosimeter in 8 patients among 10 patients, who were given total body irradiation with the parallel opposed lateral technique between September 1996 to August 1998, in Seoul National University Hospital was analyzed. Surface doses were measured at the head, neck, axilla, thigh, and ankle level. Surface and midline doses of head, neck, axilla, abdomen, and hip level were measured with similar set-up and technique in the Humanoid phantom, as well. Measured surface doses relative to prescribed dose for the head, neck, axilla, thigh, and ankle level were 91.3{+-}7.8%, 98.3{+-}7.5%, 95.1{+-}6.3%, 98.3{+-}5.5%, and 95.3%{+-}6.3%, respectively in patients. Measured surface doses and midline doses relative to prescribed dose for the head, neck, axilla, abdomen, and thigh level were 85.0{+-}4.0%, 86.6{+-}5.8%, 83.9{+-}4.9%, 94.8{+-}2.8%, and 96.6{+-}2.2%, 95.3{+-}3.2%, 80.4{+-}1.9%, 100.0{+-}3.1%, 90.5{+-}2.2%, respectively. The surface-to-midline dose conversion ratio obtained from the Humanoid phantom study were 1.14{+-}0.06, 1.10{+-}0.09, 0.96{+-}0.05, 1.06{+-}0.06, 0.95{+-}0.02 for head, neck, axilla, abdomen, and hip level, respectively. The midline doses of the head, neck, axilla, thigh, and ankle in patients estimated from the surface-to-midline conversion ratios were 103.4{+-}9.0%, 107.8{+-}10.5%, 91.1{+-}6.1%, 93.8{+-}4.5%, and 104.5{+-}9.3%, respectively. Measured surface doses and estimated midline doses ranged from -8.9% to +7.8%. Midline doses at the neck and the axilla level deviated more than 5% from the

  17. Low-dose total body irradiation versus combination chemotherapy for lymphomas with follicular growth pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerwaldt, J H; Carde, P; Burgers, J M; Monconduit, M; Thomas, J; Somers, R; Sizoo, W; Glabbeke, M V; Duez, N; de Wolf-Peeters, C

    1991-10-01

    The treatment of Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas with follicular growth pattern and advanced stage of disease remains controversial. Treatments varying from no initial treatment up to aggressive combination chemotherapy have been advocated. The EORTC Lymphoma Cooperative Group has performed a randomized prospective trial comparing short duration low dose total body irradiation (TBI) vs combination chemotherapy (CHVmP) + consolidation radiotherapy. Ninety-three patients were entered; of 84 evaluable patients, 44 received TBI and 40 CHVmP. Complete remission (CR) rates were 36%--TBI and 55%--CHVmP, but overall response rates were identical, 76 versus 69%. No significant difference in freedom from progression or survival was observed. No unexpected toxicity was seen. Although numbers are small, we cannot conclude that aggressive combination chemo-radiotherapy resulted in a better survival. Our analysis confirms that there is a constant risk of relapse. Other approaches should be explored if survival benefit is the ultimate goal in treatment of this patient population.

  18. Half body irradiation of patients with multiple bone metastases: A phase II trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Randi; Yilmaz, Mette; Høyer, Morten

    2009-01-01

    AIM OF STUDY: The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of half-body irradiation (HBI) on pain and quality of life in cancer patients with multiple bone metastases. The secondary aim was to evaluate side effects of the treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 44 patients received...... on the patients' global quality of life. CONCLUSION: Single fraction HBI is safe and effective providing long lasting pain reduction in 76% of patients with multiple bone metastases....... lower (n = 37), upper (n = 5), or sequential HBI (n = 2). The dose for lower HBI was 8 Gy in one fraction and for upper HBI 7 Gy in one fraction, with reduction of the lung dose to 6 Gy in one fraction by partial shielding. The majority of patients (n = 41) were males with prostate cancers (93...

  19. The migration of human lens epithelial cells induced by UV-irradiation in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Yao; Guoxing Yuan; Yuan Liu; Yi Shen; Qin Jiang

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is one of the important cataract risk factors. However, the pathogenesis is still poorly understood.The migration of human lens epithelial cells(HLECs) plays a crucial role in the remodeling of lens capsule and cataract formation. The purpose of this study is to investigate the mechanism of UV inducing cataractogenesis. Methods:The toxicity of UV-irradiation on HLECs was assessed by Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium(MTT) assay. The activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2(MMP-2) was observed by Gelatin zymography. The migration of HLECs was examined by Cell Track Motility. Results:UV-irradiation does great harm to HLECs, and may induce apoptosis in the cells when UV higher than 15 mj/cm2. UV significantly increased MMP-2 activity in a timedependent manner. In addition, the irradiation could induce the migration of HLECs. Conclusion:UV-irradiation could induce the migration of HLECs by increasing the activity of MMP-2.

  20. Field- and irradiation-induced phenomena in memristive nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhaylov, A.N.; Gryaznov, E.G.; Belov, A.I.; Korolev, D.S.; Sharapov, A.N.; Guseinov, D.V.; Tetelbaum, D.I.; Tikhov, S.V.; Malekhonova, N.V.; Bobrov, A.I.; Pavlov, D.A.; Gerasimova, S.A.; Kazantsev, V.B.; Agudov, N.V.; Dubkov, A.A. [Lobachevsky University, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Rosario, C.M.M.; Sobolev, N.A. [Departamento de Fisica and I3N, Universidade de Aveiro (Portugal); Spagnolo, B. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica, Universita di Palermo, Group of Interdisciplinary Theoretical Physics (Italy); CNISM, Unita di Palermo (Italy)

    2016-12-15

    The breakthrough in electronics and information technology is anticipated by the development of emerging memory and logic devices, artificial neural networks and brain-inspired systems on the basis of memristive nanomaterials represented, in a particular case, by a simple 'metal-insulator-metal' (MIM) thin-film structure. The present article is focused on the comparative analysis of MIM devices based on oxides with dominating ionic (ZrO{sub x}, HfO{sub x}) and covalent (SiO{sub x}, GeO{sub x}) bonding of various composition and geometry deposited by magnetron sputtering. The studied memristive devices demonstrate reproducible change in their resistance (resistive switching - RS) originated from the formation and rupture of conductive pathways (filaments) in oxide films due to the electric-field-driven migration of oxygen vacancies and / or mobile oxygen ions. It is shown that, for both ionic and covalent oxides under study, the RS behaviour depends only weakly on the oxide film composition and thickness, device geometry (down to a device size of about 20 x 20 μm{sup 2}). The devices under study are found to be tolerant to ion irradiation that reproduces the effect of extreme fluences of high-energy protons and fast neutrons. This common behaviour of RS is explained by the localized nature of the redox processes in a nanoscale switching oxide volume. Adaptive (synaptic) change of resistive states of memristive devices is demonstrated under the action of single or repeated electrical pulses, as well as in a simple model of coupled (synchronized) neuron-like generators. It is concluded that the noise-induced phenomena cannot be neglected in the consideration of a memristive device as a nonlinear system. The dynamic response of a memristive device to periodic signals of complex waveform can be predicted and tailored from the viewpoint of stochastic resonance concept. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Free surface damage induced by irradiation of BCC iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korchuganov, Aleksandr V.

    2016-11-01

    The influence of the crystallographic orientation of bcc iron samples on the character of structural changes near the free surface irradiated with ions was studied in the framework of a molecular dynamics method. Irradiation of the (111) surface leads to the formation of craters surrounded by atoms escaped on the surface (adatoms). In the case of the (110) surface irradiation, a vacancy-type dislocation loop with the Burgers vector a or a/2 was formed. The number of adatoms and survived point defects was greater in the sample with the (110) surface than in the sample with the (111) surface for the atomic displacement cascade energies lower than 20 keV. The influence of the irradiated surface orientation on the number of generated point defects decreased with the increasing atomic displacement cascade energy.

  2. Irradiance and Temperature Dependence of Photo-Induced Orientation in Two Azobenzene-Based Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-23

    and Almeria Natansohn* Department of Chemistry, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, K7L 3N6 Paul Rochon Department of Physics, Royal Military...1. IRRADIANCE AND TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE OF PHOTO-INDUCED ORIENTATION IN TWO AZOBENZENE-BASED POLYMERS Dennis Hore and Almeria Natansohn...IRRADIANCE AND TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE OF PHOTO-INDUCED ORIENTATION IN TWO AZOBENZENE-BASED POLYMERS Dennis Hore and Almeria Natansohn Department of

  3. Inducing illusory ownership of a virtual body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mel Slater

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We discuss three experiments that investigate how virtual limbs and bodies can come to feel like real limbs and bodies. The first experiment shows that an illusion of ownership of a virtual arm appearing to project out of a person’s shoulder can be produced by tactile stimulation on a person’s hidden real hand and synchronous stimulation on the seen virtual hand. The second shows that the illusion can be produced by synchronous movement of the person’s hidden real hand and a virtual hand. The third shows that a weaker form of the illusion can be produced when a brain-computer interface is employed to move the virtual hand by means of motor imagery without any tactile stimulation. We discuss related studies that indicate that the ownership illusion may be generated for an entire body. This has important implications for the scientific understanding of body ownership and several practical applications.

  4. A Comparison of Molecular and Histopathological Changes in Mouse Intestinal Tissue Following Whole-Body Proton- or Gamma-Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purgason, Ashley; Mangala, Lingegowda; Zhang, Ye; Hamilton, Stanley; Wu, Honglu

    2010-01-01

    There are many consequences following exposure to the space radiation environment which can adversely affect the health of a crew member. Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) involving nausea and vomiting, damage to radio-sensitive tissue such as the blood forming organs and gastrointestinal tract, and cancer are some of these negative effects. The space radiation environment is ample with protons and contains gamma rays as well. Little knowledge exists to this point, however, regarding the effects of protons on mammalian systems; conversely several studies have been performed observing the effects of gamma rays on different animal models. For the research presented here, we wish to compare our previous work looking at whole-body exposure to protons using a mouse model to our studies of mice experiencing whole-body exposure to gamma rays as part of the radio-adaptive response. Radio-adaptation is a well-documented phenomenon in which cells exposed to a priming low dose of radiation prior to a higher dose display a reduction in endpoints like chromosomal aberrations, cell death, micronucleus formation, and more when compared to their counterparts receiving high dose-irradiation only. Our group has recently completed a radio-adaptive experiment with C57BL/6 mice. For both this study and the preceding proton research, the gastrointestinal tract of each animal was dissected four hours post-irradiation and the isolated small intestinal tissue was fixed in formalin for histopathological examination or snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen for RNA isolation. Histopathologic observation of the tissue using standard H&E staining methods to screen for morphologic changes showed an increase in apoptotic lesions for even the lowest doses of 0.1 Gy of protons and 0.05 Gy of gamma rays, and the percentage of apoptotic cells increased with increasing dose. A smaller percentage of crypts showed 3 or more apoptotic lesions in animals that received 6 Gy of gamma-irradiation compared to mice

  5. Ion irradiation induced enhancement of out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy in ultrathin Co films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazalski, P.; Kurant, Z.; Maziewski, A. [Faculty of Physics, University of Bialystok, Bialystok (Poland); Liedke, M. O.; Fassbender, J. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Baczewski, L. T.; Wawro, A. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Science, Warszawa (Poland)

    2013-05-07

    Ga{sup +} or He{sup +} irradiated MBE grown ultrathin films of sapphire/Pt/Co(d{sub Co})/Pt(d{sub Pt}) were studied using polar Kerr effect in wide ranges of both cobalt d{sub Co} and platinum d{sub Pt} thicknesses as well as ion fluences F. Two branches of increased magnetic anisotropy and enhanced Kerr rotation angle induced by Ga{sup +} or He{sup +} irradiation are clearly visible in two-dimensional (d{sub Co}, LogF) diagrams. Only Ga{sup +} irradiation induces two branches of out-of-plane magnetization state.

  6. The green tea extract epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits irradiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis in adult rats

    OpenAIRE

    You, Hua; Wei, Li; Sun, Wan-Liang; Wang, Lei; YANG, ZAI-LIANG; Liu, Yuan; Zheng, Ke; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Wei-Jing

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the most abundant catechin in green tea, on irradiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis and elucidated its mechanism of action. A rat model of irradiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis was generated using a 60Co irradiator and a dose of 22 Gy. Rats were intraperitoneally injected with EGCG (25 mg/kg) or dexamethasone (DEX; 5 mg/kg) daily for 30 days. Mortality rates and lung index values were calculated. The severity of fibr...

  7. Radiation-induced epigenetic alterations after low and high LET irradiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aypar, Umut, E-mail: uaypa001@umaryland.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radiation Oncology Research Laboratory, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Morgan, William F. [Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Baulch, Janet E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radiation Oncology Research Laboratory, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States)

    2011-02-10

    Epigenetics, including DNA methylation and microRNA (miRNA) expression, could be the missing link in understanding radiation-induced genomic instability (RIGI). This study tests the hypothesis that irradiation induces epigenetic aberrations, which could eventually lead to RIGI, and that the epigenetic aberrations induced by low linear energy transfer (LET) irradiation are different than those induced by high LET irradiations. GM10115 cells were irradiated with low LET X-rays and high LET iron (Fe) ions and evaluated for DNA damage, cell survival and chromosomal instability. The cells were also evaluated for specific locus methylation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF{kappa}B), tumor suppressor in lung cancer 1 (TSLC1) and cadherin 1 (CDH1) gene promoter regions, long interspersed nuclear element 1 (LINE-1) and Alu repeat element methylation, CpG and non-CpG global methylation and miRNA expression levels. Irradiated cells showed increased micronucleus induction and cell killing immediately following exposure, but were chromosomally stable at delayed times post-irradiation. At this same delayed time, alterations in repeat element and global DNA methylation and miRNA expression were observed. Analyses of DNA methylation predominantly showed hypomethylation, however hypermethylation was also observed. We demonstrate that miRNA expression levels can be altered after X-ray irradiation and that these miRNA are involved in chromatin remodeling and DNA methylation. A higher incidence of epigenetic changes was observed after exposure to X-rays than Fe ions even though Fe ions elicited more chromosomal damage and cell killing. This distinction is apparent at miRNA analyses at which only three miRNA involved in two major pathways were altered after high LET irradiations while six miRNA involved in five major pathways were altered after low LET irradiations. This study also shows that the irradiated cells acquire epigenetic changes suggesting that epigenetic aberrations may arise

  8. High fluence laser irradiation induces reactive oxygen species generation in human lung adenocarcinoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Xing, Da; Chen, Tong-Sheng

    2006-09-01

    Low-power laser irradiation (LPLI) has been used for therapies such as curing spinal cord injury, healing wound et al. Yet, the mechanism of LPLI remains unclear. Our previous study showed that low fluences laser irradiation induces human lung adenocarcinoma cells (ASTC-a-1) proliferation, but high fluences induced apoptosis and caspase-3 activation. In order to study the mechanism of apoptosis induced by high fluences LPLI further, we have measured the dynamics of generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) using H IIDCFDA fluorescence probes during this process. ASTC-a-1 cells apoptosis was induced by He-Ne laser irradiation at high fluence of 120J/cm2. A confocal laser scanning microscope was used to perform fluorescence imaging. The results demonstrated that high fluence LPLI induced the increase of mitochondria ROS. Our studies contribute to clarify the biological mechanism of high fluence LPLI-induced cell apoptosis.

  9. Radioprotective effect of Curcuma longa extract on γ-irradiation-induced oxidative stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nada, Ahmed S; Hawas, Asrar M; Amin, Nour El-Din; Elnashar, Magdy M; Abd Elmageed, Zakaria Y

    2012-04-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the modulatory effect of aqueous extract of Curcuma longa (L.) against γ-irradiation (GR), which induces biochemical disorders in male rats. The sublethal dose of GR was determined in primary hepatocytes. Also, the effect of C. longa extract was examined for its activity against GR. In rats, C. longa extract was administered daily (200 mg/kg body mass) for 21 days before, and 7 days after GR exposure (6.5 Gy). The lipid profile and antioxidant status, as well as levels of transaminases, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) were assessed. The results showed that in hepatocytes, the aqueous extract exhibited radioprotective activity against exposure to GR. Exposure of untreated rats to GR resulted in transaminase disorders, lipid abnormalities, elevation of lipid peroxidation, trace element alterations, release of IL-6 and TNF, and decrease in glutathione and protein level of superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD-1) and peroxiredoxin-1 (PRDX-1). However, treatment of rats with this extract before and after GR exposure improved antioxidant status and minimized the radiation-induced increase in inflammatory cytokines. Changes occurred in the tissue levels of trace elements, and the protein levels of SOD-1 and PRDX-1 were also modulated by C. longa extract. Overall, C. longa exerted a beneficial radioprotective effect against radiation-induced oxidative stress in male rats by alleviating pathological disorders and modulating antioxidant enzymes.

  10. Nitric oxide-mediated bystander signal transduction induced by heavy-ion microbeam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Masanori; Matsumoto, Hideki; Funayama, Tomoo; Yokota, Yuichiro; Otsuka, Kensuke; Maeda, Munetoshi; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko

    2015-07-01

    In general, a radiation-induced bystander response is known to be a cellular response induced in non-irradiated cells after receiving bystander signaling factors released from directly irradiated cells within a cell population. Bystander responses induced by high-linear energy transfer (LET) heavy ions at low fluence are an important health problem for astronauts in space. Bystander responses are mediated via physical cell-cell contact, such as gap-junction intercellular communication (GJIC) and/or diffusive factors released into the medium in cell culture conditions. Nitric oxide (NO) is a well-known major initiator/mediator of intercellular signaling within culture medium during bystander responses. In this study, we investigated the NO-mediated bystander signal transduction induced by high-LET argon (Ar)-ion microbeam irradiation of normal human fibroblasts. Foci formation by DNA double-strand break repair proteins was induced in non-irradiated cells, which were co-cultured with those irradiated by high-LET Ar-ion microbeams in the same culture plate. Foci formation was suppressed significantly by pretreatment with an NO scavenger. Furthermore, NO-mediated reproductive cell death was also induced in bystander cells. Phosphorylation of NF-κB and Akt were induced during NO-mediated bystander signaling in the irradiated and bystander cells. However, the activation of these proteins depended on the incubation time after irradiation. The accumulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), a downstream target of NO and NF-κB, was observed in the bystander cells 6 h after irradiation but not in the directly irradiated cells. Our findings suggest that Akt- and NF-κB-dependent signaling pathways involving COX-2 play important roles in NO-mediated high-LET heavy-ion-induced bystander responses. In addition, COX-2 may be used as a molecular marker of high-LET heavy-ion-induced bystander cells to distinguish them from directly irradiated cells, although this may depend on the time

  11. A simplified technique for delivering total body irradiation (TBI) with improved dose homogeneity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao Rui; Bernard, Damian; Turian, Julius; Abrams, Ross A.; Sensakovic, William; Fung, Henry C.; Chu, James C. H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rush University Medical Center, 500 South Paulina Street, Chicago, Illinois 60612 (United States); Sections of Hematology and Stem Cell Transplantation, Division of Hematology/Oncology, Rush University Medical Center, 500 South Paulina Street, Chicago, Illinois 60612 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Rush University Medical Center, 500 South Paulina Street, Chicago, Illinois 60612 (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: Total body irradiation (TBI) with megavoltage photon beams has been accepted as an important component of management for a number of hematologic malignancies, generally as part of bone marrow conditioning regimens. The purpose of this paper is to present and discuss the authors' TBI technique, which both simplifies the treatment process and improves the treatment quality. Methods: An AP/PA TBI treatment technique to produce uniform dose distributions using sequential collimator reductions during each fraction was implemented, and a sample calculation worksheet is presented. Using this methodology, the dosimetric characteristics of both 6 and 18 MV photon beams, including lung dose under cerrobend blocks was investigated. A method of estimating midplane lung doses based on measured entrance and exit doses was proposed, and the estimated results were compared with measurements. Results: Whole body midplane dose uniformity of {+-}10% was achieved with no more than two collimator-based beam modulations. The proposed model predicted midplane lung doses 5% to 10% higher than the measured doses for 6 and 18 MV beams. The estimated total midplane doses were within {+-}5% of the prescribed midplane dose on average except for the lungs where the doses were 6% to 10% lower than the prescribed dose on average. Conclusions: The proposed TBI technique can achieve dose uniformity within {+-}10%. This technique is easy to implement and does not require complicated dosimetry and/or compensators.

  12. Foreign Body Induced Neuralgia: A Diagnostic Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Padmashree

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuropathic pain is caused by neural injury or painful states associated with either peripheral or central nerve injury. One of the aetiologies of this type of pain is iatrogenic trauma. This case highlights the features of peripheral neuropathic pain caused by foreign body left in the mental foramen following a previous surgical procedure. The foreign body was detected on routine radiographic evaluation. Once the foreign body was removed by surgical intervention, the pain resolved. This stresses the importance of routine radiographic evaluation in proper diagnosis and treatment planning in the management of neuropathic pain. This paper also sheds light on the role of iatrogenic mechanical cause of peripheral neuropathic pain and warrants a tough degree of caution on the part of oral clinicians.

  13. Impact-induced differentiation in icy bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Tonks, W Brian; Melosh, H Jay

    2016-01-01

    By the time icy objects grow to about the mass of Europa and silicate bodies grow to approximately lunar mass, a large high-speed impact can generate an intact melt region that allows the dense material to gravitationally segregate, forming a large density anomaly. If this anomaly generates sufficient differential stress, it rapidly segregates to the object's center, triggering whole body differentiation. We used an impact melting model based on the Hugoniot equations, the linear shock-particle velocity relationship, and the empirical relationship between shock pressure and distance coupled with a Monte Carlo simulation of the late accretion process to determine conditions under which large impacts trigger differentiation in icy bodies. In a gas-free environment, impacts of projectiles in the satellite's accretion zone have a small probability of triggering differentiation in surviving proto-satellites as small as Triton. The probability increases to 100% by the time surviving proto-satellites grow to the mas...

  14. Detection of DNA damage induced by heavy ion irradiation in the individual cells with comet assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, S.; Natsuhori, M.; Ito, N.; Funayama, T.; Kobayashi, Y.

    2003-05-01

    Investigating the biological effects of high-LET heavy ion irradiation at low fluence is important to evaluate the risk of charged particles. Especially it is important to detect radiation damage induced by the precise number of heavy ions in the individual cells. Thus we studied the relationship between the number of ions traversing the cell and DNA damage produced by the ion irradiation. We applied comet assay to measure the DNA damage in the individual cells. Cells attached on the ion track detector CR-39 were irradiated with ion beams at TIARA, JAERI-Takasaki. After irradiation, the cells were stained with ethidium bromide and the opposite side of the CR-39 was etched. We observed that the heavy ions with higher LET values induced the heavier DNA damage. The result indicated that the amount of DNA damage induced by one particle increased with the LET values of the heavy ions.

  15. Haematological effects of rhGM-CSF in dogs exposed to total-body irradiation with a dose of 2. 4 Gy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nothdurft, W.; Selig, C.; Fliedner, T.M.; Kreja, L.; Weinsheimer, W. (Ulm Univ. (Germany)); Hintz-Obertreis, P.; Krumwieh, D.; Kurrle, R.; Seiler, F.R. (Ulm Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Occupational and Social Medicine)

    1992-04-01

    It was the aim of this study to test the stimulatory effects of recombinant human GM-CSF (rhGM-CSF) on haemopoietic regeneration in dogs which had received total-body irradiation (TBI) with a dose of 2.4 Gy. Results indicate that treatment with GM-CSF can be an effective biological monotherapy for radiation-induced bone marrow failure, but that for higher radiation doses the number of GM-CSF responsive target cells will become a critical determinant of therapeutic efficacy. (author).

  16. Swift heavy ion irradiation induced nanograin formation in CdTe thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Survase, Smita; Narayan, Himanshu; Sulania, I.; Thakurdesai, Madhavi

    2016-11-01

    Swift Heavy Ion (SHI) irradiation is a unique technique for nanograin formation through grain fragmentation. Contrary to the generally reported SHI irradiation induced grain growth on CdTe thin films, we report fragmentation leading to nanograin formation. Thermally evaporated polycrystalline CdTe thin films were irradiated with 100 MeV 197Au, 107Ag and 58Ni ions beams up to a fluence of 5 × 1012 ions/cm2. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) were carried out for surface analysis before and after irradiation. SEM micrographs indicate that the larger grains in the as-deposited films were fragmented into smaller grains due to irradiation. The extent of fragmentation was found to increase with increasing electronic energy loss (Se). AFM pictures also supported the irradiation induced fragmentation. Structural characterization was done using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) technique. The ion induced strain and dislocation density were calculated from the XRD data. Both the strain and dislocation density were found to increase with increasing Se . The observed grain fragmentation is explained on the basis of a combined effect of strain induced disintegration of grains after the Coulomb explosion, and an 'incomplete' re-crystallization of the molten thermal spikes. Moreover, the optical band gap Eg (1.5 eV for as-deposited film), determined from UV-vis spectroscopy, increased with Se, and possibly because of ion induced strain and defect annealing.

  17. Thyroxine clearance in rats within the first month after the single whole-body {gamma} - irradiation at a dose of 10Gy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pryadko, Kirill A. [Institute of Radiobiology, National Academy of Sciences, Minsk (Belarus)

    2002-07-01

    The effects of acute whole-body {gamma} -irradiation at a dose of 10 Gy on thyroxine (T{sub 4}) plasma clearance rate (PCR) and thyroidal and blood T4 concentration ([T{sub 4}]) were examined within one month after exposure. The PCR values were measured using the bolus injection, single-compartmental approach. To eliminate the influence of radiation-induced anorexia animals were fasting for two days before the pharmacokinetic experiments. Hormone concentrations in blood and in thyroid tissue were measured by RIA. Throughout the observation period, PCR was elevated in irradiated rats with maximum at day 4 after exposure (0.56{+-}0.04 vs. 0.36{+-}0.03 ml/h100 gbw, P<0.001). [T{sub 4}] in blood was not significantly different from that in control animals. Thyroidal [T{sub 4}] was significantly decreased in irradiated animals 4 days after exposure (151.8{+-}21.7 vs. 258.8{+-}29.9 pmol/mg protein, P<0.01) and gradually increased after day 9. 10 Gy {gamma} -irradiation causes the intensification of T{sub 4} metabolism without the pronounced changes in concentration. Presumably, at early terms the rising local demand in O{sub 4} can not be compensated with the existing level of production. Alterations in the intensity of T{sub 4} metabolism are evident at least one month after exposure but they may not be detected without taking into account kinetic data.

  18. COMPROMISING EFFECT OF LOW DOSE-RATE TOTAL-BODY IRRADIATION ON ALLOGENEIC BONE-MARROW ENGRAFTMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANOS, R; KONINGS, AWT; DOWN, JD

    1993-01-01

    The protraction of total body irradiation (TBI) to a continuous low dose-rate has been investigated for its effect on donor marrow engraftment in murine bone marrow transplant (BMT) models of varying histocompatibility. Three different BMT combinations were used: syngeneic [B6-Gpi-1a --> B6-Gpi-1b],

  19. COMPROMISING EFFECT OF LOW DOSE-RATE TOTAL-BODY IRRADIATION ON ALLOGENEIC BONE-MARROW ENGRAFTMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VAN OS, R; KONINGS, A W T; DOWN, J D

    1993-01-01

    The protraction of total body irradiation (TBI) to a continuous low dose-rate has been investigated for its effect on donor marrow engraftment in murine bone marrow transplant (BMT) models of varying histocompatibility. Three different BMT combinations were used: syngeneic [B6-Gpi-1a --> B6-Gpi-1b],

  20. Femtosecond laser irradiation-induced infrared absorption on silicon surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Zhu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The near-infrared (NIR absorption below band gap energy of crystalline silicon is significantly increased after the silicon is irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses at a simple experimental condition. The absorption increase in the NIR range primarily depends on the femtosecond laser pulse energy, pulse number, and pulse duration. The Raman spectroscopy analysis shows that after the laser irradiation, the silicon surface consists of silicon nanostructure and amorphous silicon. The femtosecond laser irradiation leads to the formation of a composite of nanocrystalline, amorphous, and the crystal silicon substrate surface with microstructures. The composite has an optical absorption enhancement at visible wavelengths as well as at NIR wavelength. The composite may be useful for an NIR detector, for example, for gas sensing because of its large surface area.

  1. In vivo dosimetry for total body irradiation: five-year results and technique comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Reshma P; Warry, Alison J; Eaton, David J; Collis, Christopher H; Rosenberg, Ivan

    2014-07-08

    The aim of this work is to establish if the new CT-based total body irradiation (TBI) planning techniques used at University College London Hospital (UCLH) and Royal Free Hospital (RFH) are comparable to the previous technique at the Middlesex Hospital (MXH) by analyzing predicted and measured diode results. TBI aims to deliver a homogeneous dose to the entire body, typically using extended SSD fields with beam modulation to limit doses to organs at risk. In vivo dosimetry is used to verify the accuracy of delivered doses. In 2005, when the Middlesex Hospital was decommissioned and merged with UCLH, both UCLH and the RFH introduced updated CT-planned TBI techniques, based on the old MXH technique. More CT slices and in vivo measurement points were used by both; UCLH introduced a beam modulation technique using MLC segments, while RFH updated to a combination of lead compensators and bolus. Semiconductor diodes were used to measure entrance and exit doses in several anatomical locations along the entire body. Diode results from both centers for over five years of treatments were analyzed and compared to the previous MXH technique for accuracy and precision of delivered doses. The most stable location was the field center with standard deviations of 4.1% (MXH), 3.7% (UCLH), and 1.7% (RFH). The least stable position was the ankles. Mean variation with fraction number was within 1.5% for all three techniques. In vivo dosimetry can be used to verify complex modulated CT-planned TBI, and demonstrate improvements and limitations in techniques. The results show that the new UCLH technique is no worse than the previous MXH one and comparable to the current RFH technique.

  2. Gamma ray irradiation to roots of tea-plants and induced mutant system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Yoshiyuki; Nekaku, Koji; Wada, Mitsumasa (National Research Inst. of Vegetables, Ornamental Plants and Tea, Ano, Mie (Japan))

    1990-11-01

    In order to utilize the useful mutation which is induced by irradiation for the breeding of tea-plants, the gamma-ray irradiation to the roots of tea-plants was carried out. The samples were the roots of tea-plants of four varieties dug up in February, 1984, and were adjusted to about 20 cm, then, put in the cold storage at 5degC for 9 months till the time of irradiation in November, 1984. However, a part of them was taken out in August, and planted in a field for 76 days to germinate, thereafter, used as the samples. The gamma-ray from a Co-60 source was irradiated in the radiation breeding laboratory of Agriculture Bioresources Research Institute at the total dose of 1, 2 and 3 kR and the dose rate of 500 R/h. The irradiated roots were planted as they are or in the state of being cut, and the rate of germination, the number of buds and the induced mutation were examined. Clear difference was not observed in the rate of germination and the number of buds between the irradiated samples and those without irradiation. The long roots were superior to the short roots regarding these items. The types of the induced mutation were mostly thin leaves, and also yellowing, mottling, fascination and so on occurred. The mutant system lacking trichomes on the back of new leaves is considered to be strong against tea anthracnose, and is valuable. (K.I.).

  3. Radiation-induced changes in melanization and phenoloxidase in Caribbean fruit fly larvae (diptera:tephritidae) as the basis for a simple test of irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nation, J.L.; Milne, K.; Smittle, B.J. [Univ. of Florida, Gainsville, FL (United States)

    1995-03-01

    First instars of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), were irradiated with 0, 5, 10, 20, 50, 75, 100, and 150 Gy doses from a Cs-137 source, and observed for whole body melanization as late third instars. Control larvae rapidly melanized, whereas larvae irradiated at {ge}20 Gy failed to show typical melanization after freezing and thawing. Assays of phenoloxidase in control and irradiated larvae showed greatly decreased enzyme activity at {ge}20 Gy and substantial reduction at lower doses. Larvae were also irradiated on the 1st d of each instar, and phenoloxidase activity was determined when they became late third instars. Larvae irradiated on the 1st d of the first instar and on 1st d of the second instar has {approx}90% or greater reduction in phenoloxidase activity as late third instars. Larvae irradiated on the 1st d of the instar had {approx}50% reduction in phenoloxidase activity at the time they became late third instars leaving the food to pupate. A simple spot test for phenoloxidase was developed that produced a red color with a crushed control larvae and no color with a larva irradiated at {ge}25 Gy. The radiation induced changes in melanization and phenoloxidase activity, and a simple spot test may serve as tests for irradiation treatment of Caribbean fruit fly larvae. 10 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. p38 MAPK Inhibitor Insufficiently Attenuates HSC Senescence Administered Long-Term after 6 Gy Total Body Irradiation in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Lu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Senescent hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs accumulate with age and exposure to stress, such as total-body irradiation (TBI, which may cause long-term myelosuppression in the clinic. However, the methods available for long-term myelosuppression remain limited. Previous studies have demonstrated that sustained p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38 MAPK activation in HSCs following exposure to TBI in mice and the administration of its inhibitor twenty-four hours after TBI may partially prevent long-term myelosuppression. However, long-term myelosuppression is latent and identified long after the administration of radiation. In this study, we investigated the effects of SB203580 (a small molecule inhibitor of p38 MAPK on long-term myelosuppression induced by TBI. Mice with hematopoietic injury were injected intraperitoneally with SB203580 every other day five times beginning 70 days after 6 Gy of 137Cs γ ray TBI. Our results at 80 days demonstrated that SB203580 did not significantly improve the TBI-induced long-term reduction of peripheral blood cell and bone marrow nucleated cell (BMNC counts, or defects in hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs and HSC clonogenic function. SB203580 reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS production and p-p38 expression; however, SB203580 had no effect on p16 expression in the HSCs of mice. In conclusion, these findings suggest that treatment with SB203580 70 days after TBI in mice inhibits the ROS-p38 oxidative stress pathway; however, it has no therapeutic effect on long-term myelosuppression induced by TBI.

  5. Ordered arrangement of irradiation-induced defects of polycrystalline tungsten irradiated with low-energy hydrogen ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Weiyuan; Yang, Qi; Fan, Hongyu; Liu, Lu [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); Berthold, Tobias; Benstetter, Günther [Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Media Technology, University of Applied Sciences Deggendorf, Deggendorf 94469 (Germany); Liu, Dongping, E-mail: dongping.liu@dlnu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China)

    2015-09-15

    Low-energy (20–520 eV) hydrogen ion irradiations were performed at W surface temperature of 373–1073 K and a fluence ranging from 5.0 × 10{sup 23} to 1.0 × 10{sup 25}/m{sup 2}. Conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM) as a nondestructive analytical technique was successfully used to detect irradiation-induced defects in polycrystalline W. The size and density of these nanometer-sized defects were strongly dependent on the fluence of hydrogen ions. Both ion energy (E) and temperature (T) play a crucial role in determining the ordering of nanometer-sized defects. Ordered arrangements were formed at relatively high E and T. This can be attributed to the stress-driven ripple effect of defect growth at crystal grains, resulting in the movement of W lattice along one certain crystal planes.

  6. The effects of pre-emptive low-dose X-ray irradiation on MIA induced inflammatory pain in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahm, Suk-Chan; Lee, Go-Eun; Kim, Eun-Hye; Kim, Junesun; Lee, Taewoong; Lee, Wonho

    2013-07-01

    This study was performed to determine the effect of pre-emptive low-dose irradiation on the development of inflammatory pain and to characterize the potential mechanisms underlying this effect in osteoarthritis (OA) animal model. Whole-body X-irradiations with 0.1, 0.5, 1 Gy or sham irradiations were performed for 3 days before the induction of ostearthritis with monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) (40 µl, in saline) into the right knee joint in male Sprague Dawley rats. Behavioral tests for arthritic pain including evoked and non-evoked pain were conducted before and after MIA injection and inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) expression level was measured by western blot. Low-dose radiation significantly prevented the development of mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia and reduction in weight bearing that is regarded as a behavioral signs of non-evoked pain following MIA injection. Low-dose radiation significantly inhibited the increase in iNOS expression after MIA injection in spinal L3-5 segments in rat. These data suggest that low-dose X-irradiation is able to prevent the development of arthritic pain through modulation of iNOS expression in the spinal cord dorsal horn. Thus, low-dose radiotherapy could be substituted in part for treatment with drugs for patients with chronic inflammatory disease in clinical setting.

  7. Effect of irradiation on the temporomandibular joint in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Ki Dong; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae [Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-06-15

    To investigate the histopathological changes in the temporomandibular joint in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat following irradiation. Sprague-Dawley rats weighing about 250 gm were divided into three groups: control, diabetic, and diabetic-irradiated groups. Diabetes mellitus was induced in the rats by injecting streptozotocin. Rats in the control group were injected with citrate buffer only. After 5 days, the head and neck region of the rats in diabetic-irradiated group were irradiated with single absorbed dose of 10 Gy. The rats were killed at 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after irradiation. The specimen including the temporomandibular joint were sectioned and observed using a histopathological method. In the diabetic group, severe bone resorption in the mandibular condyle was observed throughout the period of experiment. Necrosis of bone marrow and trabeculae was observed at 28 days after diabetic state. Atrophy and fibrosis in the retrodiscal tissue was gradually progressed during the time of the experiment. In the diabetic-irradiated group, severe bone resorption in the mandibular condyle was observed during the early experimental phases, but regeneration of bone marrow was initiated at 14 days after diabetic state and irradiation. Also, calcification of abnormal trabeculae was observed at 28 days after diabetic state and irradiation. The retrodiscal tissue was degenerated in the early experimental phases, but it had been gradually regenerated during the experimental time. This experiment suggests that bone resorption and degeneration in the mandibular condyle are caused by the induction of diabetes, and abnormal bone formation is induced after irradiation in diabetic state.

  8. Irradiation effects in polycarbonate induced by 2.1 GeV Kr ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Hui-Xian; JIN Yun-Fan; ZHU Zhi-Yong; SUN You-Mei; WANG Zhi-Guang

    2003-01-01

    Polycarbonate foil stacks were irradiated with 2.1 GeV Kr ions under vacuum at room temperature.The modifications in chemical structure induced by the irradiation were studied by means of Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) and ultraviolet visible (UV/VIS) spectroscopies. FTIR measurements reveal that material degradationsthrough bond breaking are the main effects. Alkyne end groups are produced by the irradiation. UV/VIS measure-ments indicate a shifting of the absorption edge from ultraviolet towards visible, and a strong increase of absorbancein the ultraviolet and visible regions. The changes in absorbance induced by the irradiation at wavelengths of 380 nm,450 nm and 500 nm scale well with Sne (Se is electronic energy loss) where the value of n increases from 1.69 to 2.02with increasing of the wavelength. The results are briefly discussed.

  9. Characterization of radiation induced defects in EUROFER 97 after neutron irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimenkov, M.; Materna-Morris, E.; Möslang, A.

    2011-10-01

    Specimens of EUROFER 97 prepared for impact tests have been irradiated to an average dose of 16.3 dpa at irradiation temperatures of 250-450 °C. TEM investigations have been performed to study radiation induced changes in the microstructure. The characterization and statistical analysis show the temperature dependant formation of small dislocation loops and He bubbles. The Burgers vector of dislocation loops was ½. A novel feature is that within statistical uncertainty the maximum in the dislocation density observed around 300 °C decreased with decreasing irradiation temperature down to 250 °C. The TEM data are correlated with tensile and instrumented Charpy test results.

  10. The Structure Evolution of Fused Silica Induced by CO2 Laser Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chun-Ming; LV Hai-Bing; ZHENG Wan-Guo; ZU Xiao-Tao; JIANG Yong; LUO Cheng-Si; SHI Xiao-Yan; REN Wei; XIANG Xia; WANG Hai-Jun; HE Shao-Bo; YUAN Xiao-Dong

    2012-01-01

    The structure evolution of fused silica induced by CO2 laser irradiation (with a wavelength of 10.6 μm) is studied in detail.In the non-evaporation mitigation process,the irradiation time should be long enough to completely eliminate damage.However,there is a raised rim around the mitigated site.The rim height is enhanced when the irradiation time increases,and the mitigated site can lead to off-axis and on-axis downstream light intensification.Volume shrinkage occurs during the irradiation and rapid cooling processes,and this may be due to a decrease in the Si O Si bond angle.The distribution of debris overlaps with the maximum phase retardance induced by stress.The debris arouses an enhanced light absorption in the region from 220nm to 800nm.%The structure evolution of fused silica induced by CO2 laser irradiation (with a wavelength of 10.6 μm) is studied in detail. In the non-evaporation mitigation process, the irradiation time should be long enough to completely eliminate damage. However, there is a raised rim around the mitigated site. The rim height is enhanced when the irradiation time increases, and the mitigated site can lead to off-axis and on-axis downstream light intensification. Volume shrinkage occurs during the irradiation and rapid cooling processes, and this may be due to a decrease in the Si-O-Si bond angle. The distribution of debris overlaps with the maximum phase retardance induced by stress. The debris arouses an enhanced light absorption in the region from 220 nm to 800 nm.

  11. Clinical application of glass dosimeter for in vivo dose measurements of total body irradiation treatment technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rah, Jeong-Eun; Hwang, Ui-Jung; Jeong, Hojin; Lee, Sang-Yeob; Lee, Doo-Hyun; Shin, Dong Ho; Yoon, Myonggeun; Lee, Se Byeong [Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center, 809 Madu-dong, Ilsan-gu, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do, 410-769 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Rena [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mokdong Hospital, Ewha Womans University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sung Yong, E-mail: cool_park@ncc.re.k [Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center, 809 Madu-dong, Ilsan-gu, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do, 410-769 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    The commercially available glass dosimeter (model GD-301) was investigated for its dosimetric characteristics, in order to evaluate its use for in vivo dosimetry. We specifically assessed overall precision of dosimetric dose data in patients who received treatment with the total body irradiation (TBI). Uniformity obtained in this study was within 1.2% (1 SD). The dose-response was linear in the range of 0.5-10 Gy with R of 0.999. Dose rate, SSD, field size, angular and energy dependence were found to be within 3.0%. In vivo skin dosimetry for TBI was performed for 3 patients. For all patients, the glass dosimeter was exposed and measured dose recorded for one fraction in addition to conventional used TLD and MOSFET. Overall uncertainty of the glass dosimeter for in vivo dose measurement was estimated at 2.4% (68.3% confidence level). The measured doses of the glass dosimeter were well within {+-}5.0% of the prescription dose at all sites expect mediastinum of one patient, for which it is within {+-}5.7%. Agreement of measured doses between glass dosimeter and TLD, MOSFET was within {+-}6.3% and {+-}6.6%, respectively. Results show that the glass dosimeter can be used as an accurate and reproducible dosimeter for TBI treatment skin dose measurements. The glass dosimeter is a practical alternative to TLD or MOSFET as an in vivo dosimeter.

  12. Benefits of online in vivo dosimetry for single-fraction total body irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, David J; Warry, Alison J; Trimble, Rachel E; Vilarino-Varela, Maria J; Collis, Christopher H

    2014-01-01

    Use of a patient test dose before single-fraction total body irradiation (TBI) allows review of in vivo dosimetry and modification of the main treatment setup. However, use of computed tomography (CT) planning and online in vivo dosimetry may reduce the need for this additional step. Patients were treated using a supine CT-planned extended source-to-surface distance (SSD) technique with lead compensators and bolus. In vivo dosimetry was performed using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and diodes at 10 representative anatomical locations, for both a 0.1-Gy test dose and the treatment dose. In total, 28 patients were treated between April 2007 and July 2013, with changes made in 10 cases (36%) following test dose results. Overall, 98.1% of measured in vivo treatment doses were within 10% of the prescribed dose, compared with 97.0% of test dose readings. Changes made following the test dose could have been applied during the single-fraction treatment itself, assuming that the dose was delivered in subportions and online in vivo dosimetry was available for all clinically important anatomical sites. This alleviates the need for a test dose, saving considerable time and resources.

  13. Monte Carlo optimization of total body irradiation in a phantom and patient geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakarova, R.; Müntzing, K.; Krantz, M.; Hedin, E.; Hertzman, S.

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this work is to apply a Monte Carlo (MC) accelerator model, validated by experimental data at isocentre distances, to a large-field total body irradiation (TBI) technique and to develop a strategy for individual patient treatment on the basis of MC dose distributions. Calculations are carried out using BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc code packages for a 15 MV Varian accelerator. Acceptable agreement is obtained between MC data and measurements in a large water phantom behind a spoiler at source-skin distances (SSD) = 460 cm as well as in a CIRS® thorax phantom. Dose distributions in patients are studied when simulating bilateral beam delivery at a distance of 480 cm to the patient central sagittal plane. A procedure for individual improvement of the dose uniformity is suggested including the design of compensators in a conventional treatment planning system (TPS) and a subsequent update of the dose distribution. It is demonstrated that the dose uniformity for the simple TBI technique can be considerably improved. The optimization strategy developed is straightforward and suitable for clinics where the TPS available is deficient to calculate 3D dose distributions at extended SSD.

  14. ACPSEM ROSG TBI working group recommendations for quality assurance in total body irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelligan, Raelene; Bailey, Michael; Tran, Thu; Baldwin, Zoë

    2015-06-01

    The Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine (ACPSEM) radiation oncology specialty group (ROSG) formed a series of working groups in 2011 to develop recommendations for guidance of radiation oncology medical physics practice within the Australasian setting. These recommendations are intended to provide guidance for safe work practices and a suitable level of quality control without detailed work instructions. It is the responsibility of the medical physicist to ensure that locally available equipment and procedures are sufficiently sensitive to establish compliance to these recommendations. The recommendations are endorsed by the ROSG, and have been subject to independent expert reviews. For the Australian audience, these recommendations should be read in conjunction with the tripartite radiation oncology practice standards [1, 2]. This publication presents the recommendations of the ACPSEM total body irradiation working group (TBIWG) and has been developed in alignment with other international associations. However, these recommendations should be read in conjunction with relevant national, state or territory legislation and local requirements, which take precedence over the ACPSEM recommendations. It is hoped that the users of this and other ACPSEM recommendations will contribute to the development of future versions through the ROSG of the ACPSEM. This document serves as a guideline for calibration and quality assurance of equipment used for TBI in Australasia.

  15. ACPSEM ROSG TBE working group recommendations for quality assurance in total body electron irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelligan, Raelene; Baldwin, Zoë; Ostwald, Trish; Tran, Thu; Bailey, Michael

    2015-09-01

    The Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine (ACPSEM) Radiation Oncology Specialty Group (ROSG) formed a series of working groups in 2011 to develop recommendations for guidance of radiation oncology medical physics practice within the Australasian setting. These recommendations are intended to provide guidance for safe work practices and a suitable level of quality control without detailed work instructions. It is the responsibility of the medical physicist to ensure that locally available equipment and procedures are sufficiently sensitive to establish compliance to these recommendations. The recommendations are endorsed by the ROSG, and have been subject to independent expert reviews. For the Australian readers, these recommendations should be read in conjunction with the Tripartite Radiation Oncology Reform Implementation Committee Quality Working Group: Radiation Oncology Practice Standards (2011), and Radiation Oncology Practice Standards Supplementary Guide (2011). This publication presents the recommendations of the ACPSEM ROSG Total Body Electron Irradiation Working Group and has been developed in alignment with other international associations. However, these recommendations should be read in conjunction with relevant national, state or territory legislation and local requirements, which take precedence over the ACPSEM recommendations. It is hoped that the users of this and other ACPSEM recommendations will contribute to the development of future versions through the Radiation Oncology Specialty Group of the ACPSEM. This document serves as a guideline for calibration and quality assurance of equipment used for TBE in Australasia.

  16. A Monte Carlo evaluation of beam characteristics for total body irradiation at extended treatment distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakarova, Roumiana; Krantz, Marcus

    2014-05-08

    The aim is to study beam characteristics at large distances when focusing on the electron component. In particular, to investigate the utility of spoilers with various thicknesses as an electron source, as well as the effect of different spoiler-to-surface distances (STSD) on the beam characteristics and, consequently, on the dose in the superficial region. A MC model of a 15 MV Varian accelerator, validated earlier by experimental data at isocenter and extended distances used in large-field total body irradiation, is applied to evaluate beam characteristics at distances larger than 400 cm. Calculations are carried out using BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc code packages and phase space data are analyzed by the beam data processor BEAMdp. The electron component of the beam is analyzed at isocenter and extended distances, with and without spoilers as beam modifiers, assuming vacuum or air surrounding the accelerator head. Spoiler thickness of 1.6 cm is found to be optimal compared to thicknesses of 0.8 cm and 2.4 cm. The STSD variations should be taken into account when treating patients, in particular when the treatment protocols are based on a fixed distance to the patient central sagittal plane, and also, in order to maintain high dose in the superficial region.

  17. Lung damage following bone marrow transplantation after hyperfractionated total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latini, Paolo; Aristei, Cynthia; Checcaglini, Franco; Maranzano, Ernesto; Panizza, B.M.; Perrucci, Elisabetta (University and Hospital, Policlinico, Perugia (Italy). Radiation Oncology Service); Aversa, Franco; Martelli, M.F. (University and Hospital, Policlinico, Perugia (Italy). Department of Haematology); Raymondi, Carlo (University and Hospital, Policlinico, Perugia (Italy). Radiation Physics Service)

    1991-10-01

    From July 1985 to December 1989, 72 evaluable patients aged 6-51 (median age 27) suffering from hematological malignancies received allo-geneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) depleted of T-lymphocytes to reduce risks of graft-versus-host-disease (GvHD); 57 were matched and 15 mis-matched. Three different conditioning regiments were used in an effort to enhance cytoreduction without increase extramedullary toxicity. Mis-matched patients were treated with more immunosuppressive regimens. Total body irradiation (TBI) was given in 3 doses/day, 5 h apart over 4 days for a total of 12 fractions. The dose to the lungs was 14.4, 15.6 and 9 Gy according to the conditioning regimen. The incidence of inter-stitial pneumonia (IP) was 12.3 percent in matched and 46.7 in mis-matched patients. The results seem to indicate that lung toxicity is correlated with the intensity of the conditioning regimen, the stage of disease and, in mismatched patients, with the degree of human leucocyte antigen (HLA) disparity and the poor post-BMT reconstitution, rather than the radiotherapy dose delivered to the lungs. On the contrary, the hyperfractionated scheme adopted, the absence of GvHD and, perhaps, the post-TBI administration of cyclophosphamide all seem to have contributed to the low incidence of IP in the matched patients. (author). 30 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 tab.

  18. Linac-based total body irradiation (TBI) with volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, B.; Durmus, I. F.; Okumus, A.; Uzel, O. E.

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate dose distribution of Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) planning tecnique using Versa HD® lineer accelerator to deliver Total Body Irradiation (TBI) on the coach. Eight TBI patient's Treatment Planning System (TPS) were performed with dual arc VMAT for each patient. The VMAT-TBI consisted of three isocentres and three dual overlapping arcs. The prescribed dose was 12 Gy. Mean dose to lung and kidney were restricted less than 10 Gy and max. dose to lens were restricted less than 6 Gy. The plans were verified using 2D array and ion chamber. The comparison between calculation and measurement were made by γ-index analysis and absolute dose. An average total delivery time was determined 923±34 seconds and an average MU was determined 2614±228 MUs for dual arc VMAT. Mean dose to lungs was 9.7±0.2 Gy, mean dose to kidneys was 8.8±0.3 Gy, max. dose to lens was 5.5±0.3 Gy and max. dose was 14.6±0.3 Gy, HI of PTV was 1.13±0.2, mean dose to PTV was 12.6±1.5 Gy and mean γ-index pass rate was %97.1±1.9. The results show that the tecnique for TBI using VMAT on the treatment coach is feasible.

  19. Conditioning with total body irradiation for autologous bone marrow transplantation in patients with advanced neuroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, Motoaki; Mugishima, Hideo; Nagata, Toshihito; Shichino, Hiroyuki; Takamura, Mayumi; Shimada, Toshiaki; Suzuki, Takashi; Fujisawa, Takahito; Harada, Kensuke [Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1996-12-01

    We administered a combination of chemotherapy, autologous bone marrow purged with magnet immunobeads and total body irradiation (TBI) for advanced neuroblastoma (NB). The effect of TBI was retrospectively studied with regard to hematological recovery and complications after autologous bone marrow transplantation (A-BMT). The bone marrow was engrafted in all patients, both recipients and non-recipients of TBI. In patients receiving TBI, the average number or days after A-BMT required for the white blood cell count to exceed 1,000/{mu}l, the neutrophile count to exceed 500/{mu}l and the platelet count to exceed 5.0 x 10{sup 4}/{mu}l was 15.0{+-}6.5, 16.0{+-}6.4 and 59.7{+-}24.4, respectively. In patients not receiving TBI, the corresponding figures were 12.2{+-}6.2, 12.9{+-}6.9 and 43.2{+-}17.8 days, respectively. During hematological recovery after A-BMT, there was no statistical difference between patients having received TBI and those who did not receive TBI. Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) was observed in four patients while receiving TBI, but no HUS developed after shielding the kidney from TBI. In terms or engraftment and complications, A-BMT can be performed on patients receiving TBI as safely as on those patients not receiving TBI. (author)

  20. Benefits of online in vivo dosimetry for single-fraction total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaton, David J., E-mail: davideaton@nhs.net [Department of Radiotherapy, Royal Free Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Warry, Alison J. [Department of Radiotherapy Physics, University College London Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Trimble, Rachel E.; Vilarino-Varela, Maria J.; Collis, Christopher H. [Department of Radiotherapy, Royal Free Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-01

    Use of a patient test dose before single-fraction total body irradiation (TBI) allows review of in vivo dosimetry and modification of the main treatment setup. However, use of computed tomography (CT) planning and online in vivo dosimetry may reduce the need for this additional step. Patients were treated using a supine CT-planned extended source-to-surface distance (SSD) technique with lead compensators and bolus. In vivo dosimetry was performed using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and diodes at 10 representative anatomical locations, for both a 0.1-Gy test dose and the treatment dose. In total, 28 patients were treated between April 2007 and July 2013, with changes made in 10 cases (36%) following test dose results. Overall, 98.1% of measured in vivo treatment doses were within 10% of the prescribed dose, compared with 97.0% of test dose readings. Changes made following the test dose could have been applied during the single-fraction treatment itself, assuming that the dose was delivered in subportions and online in vivo dosimetry was available for all clinically important anatomical sites. This alleviates the need for a test dose, saving considerable time and resources.

  1. Fractionated half body irradiation for palliation of multiple symptomatic bone metastases from solid tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekiguchi, Kenji; Hayashi, Shinya; Sunagawa, Yoshimitsu; Sougawa, Mitsuharu; Nakazawa, Masanori; Yamashita, Takashi (Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan). Hospital)

    1992-06-01

    This was a phase I-II nonrandomized study that explored the toxicity and response of fractionated half-body irradiation (F-HBI) in patients with multiple symptomatic osseous metastases. The patients had no premedication and received 10 Gy in 5 fractions with a dose rate of 15 cGy/min. At the Cancer Institute Hospital, 9 patients were treated by this technique (1 upper and lower F-HBI, 6 upper F-HBI, 2 lower F-HBI). All patients were female and had adenocarcinomas (8 breast and 1 lung). Adverse effects were myelosuppression, vomiting and partial alopecia. But hematologic toxicity was treated with blood transfusion or G-CSF. All toxicity was transient, and no pneumonitis nor radiation-related deaths occurred. When given as palliation, F-HBI was found to relieve pain in 80% of the patients. In 10% of the patients the pain relief was complete. The mean time to achieve pain relief in responders after F-HBI was 9 days. The pain relief was long-lasting and continued without need of reirradiation for 40% of the remaining patient's life. This treatment modality appears to be well tolerated and effective in patients with multiple symptomatic osseous metastases. The optimal indications, dose and fractionation for F-HBI should be further explored in randomized trials. (author).

  2. Partial depletion of regulatory T cells does not influence the inflammation caused by high dose hemi-body irradiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihong Ma

    Full Text Available There is clinical interest in the modulation of regulatory T cells for cancer therapy. The safety of these therapies in combination with conventional anti-cancer therapies, including radiation therapy, can be studied in animal models. The effects of partial depletion of regulatory T (Treg cells with an anti-CD25 antibody in conjunction with ionizing radiation on inflammation and tissue injury were analyzed in C57BL/6 mice. An anti-CD25 antibody (PC61 was administered 3 days prior to 13 Gy lower-half hemi-body irradiation (HBI. The blood, spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes (mLNs and inguinal lymph nodes (iLNs were harvested at various times thereafter. Alterations in the proportion of leukocyte subsets including CD4(+ T cells, CD8(+ T cells, Treg cells, B cells, NK cells, NK1.1(+ T cells, macrophages and granulocytes were analyzed by FACS. The lungs, liver, pancreas, stomach, jejunum, duodenum, ileum, colon and kidney were harvested and studied by H&E staining. Expression of inflammatory mediators in plasma and tissue were investigated by ELISA. HBI significantly decreased the leukocyte pool though the various leukocyte subsets had different sensitivities to HBI. The administration of PC61 significantly decreased the proportion of Treg cells in spleen, iLN, mLN and blood (reduction of approximately 60%. Irradiation significantly increased the proportion of Treg cells in the spleen, iLN and mLN. HBI induced a systemic inflammatory reaction as demonstrated by increased plasma levels of IL-6, KC/CXCL1 and circulating granulocytes in the blood. Neutrophils also infiltrated the small bowel. The same general patterns were observed whether or not Treg cells were partially depleted with PC61 prior to HBI. These data demonstrate that partial depletion of Treg cells in these mice does not influence HBI-induced inflammatory response and tissue injury, and that combining anti-CD25 therapy with radiation may be safe and well tolerated in a clinical setting.

  3. Partial Depletion of Regulatory T Cells Does Not Influence the Inflammation Caused by High Dose Hemi-Body Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shihong; Richardson, James A.; Bitmansour, Andrew; Solberg, Timothy D.; Pidikiti, Rajesh; Song, Kwang; Stojadinovic, Strahinja; Vitetta, Ellen S.; Meyer, Jeffrey J.

    2013-01-01

    There is clinical interest in the modulation of regulatory T cells for cancer therapy. The safety of these therapies in combination with conventional anti-cancer therapies, including radiation therapy, can be studied in animal models. The effects of partial depletion of regulatory T (Treg) cells with an anti-CD25 antibody in conjunction with ionizing radiation on inflammation and tissue injury were analyzed in C57BL/6 mice. An anti-CD25 antibody (PC61) was administered 3 days prior to 13 Gy lower-half hemi-body irradiation (HBI). The blood, spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes (mLNs) and inguinal lymph nodes (iLNs) were harvested at various times thereafter. Alterations in the proportion of leukocyte subsets including CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, Treg cells, B cells, NK cells, NK1.1+ T cells, macrophages and granulocytes were analyzed by FACS. The lungs, liver, pancreas, stomach, jejunum, duodenum, ileum, colon and kidney were harvested and studied by H&E staining. Expression of inflammatory mediators in plasma and tissue were investigated by ELISA. HBI significantly decreased the leukocyte pool though the various leukocyte subsets had different sensitivities to HBI. The administration of PC61 significantly decreased the proportion of Treg cells in spleen, iLN, mLN and blood (reduction of approximately 60%). Irradiation significantly increased the proportion of Treg cells in the spleen, iLN and mLN. HBI induced a systemic inflammatory reaction as demonstrated by increased plasma levels of IL-6, KC/CXCL1 and circulating granulocytes in the blood. Neutrophils also infiltrated the small bowel. The same general patterns were observed whether or not Treg cells were partially depleted with PC61 prior to HBI. These data demonstrate that partial depletion of Treg cells in these mice does not influence HBI-induced inflammatory response and tissue injury, and that combining anti-CD25 therapy with radiation may be safe and well tolerated in a clinical setting. PMID:23409194

  4. Light Irradiation And Response Of The Living Body - Effect Of Pain Relief And Promotion Of Wound Healing -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Yoshio; Kurokawa, Yoshimochi; Ohara, Itaru; Ueki, Hamaichi; Inaba, Humio

    1989-09-01

    suffering from vascular disorders but was not effective in normal subjects. From a study of cellular electrophoretic mobility, irradiated G0G1 cells increased their mobility, but irradiated G2M cells decreased. These results suggested light irradiation contributed to homeostasis of living cells, tissues, and body. Experiments concerning the light sources, i.e. wave length, energy density and polarization were done. As a result, linear polarization and right circular polarization improved wound healing, but incoherent light itself did not. ,According to our studies, no distinguished differences among various kinds of wave length were noticed. And light irradiation with energy density was very effective between 2 to 6 J/cm2. We strongly suggest the role of coherency is very important to do light irradiation on the living body. In conclusion, we like to propose our new viewpoint. That is, the light irradiation should be discussed with the structure of high molecular substances in the living body.

  5. Ameliorative effect of septilin, an ayurvedic preparation against gamma-irradiation-induced oxidative stress and tissue injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Heba Hosny; Ismael, Naglaa El-Sayed Rifaat; Hafez, Hafez Farouk

    2014-04-01

    Ionizing radiation is known to induce multiple organ dysfunctions directly related to an increase of cellular oxidative stress, due to overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This study was aimed to investigate the effect of septilin (an ayurvedic poly-herbal formulation containing the principal herbs, namely Commiphora wightii, Trinospora cordifolia, Rubia cardifolia, Emblica officinalis, Saussurea lappa and Glycyrrhiza glabra) against whole body gamma-irradiation-induced oxidative damage in hepatic and brain tissues in rats. Administration of septilin for 5 days (100 mg/kg) prior to radiation resulted in a significant increase in both superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and total glutathione (GSH) level in hepatic and brain tissues, while serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL) was reduced by gamma-irradiation. Also, septilin resulted in a significant decrease in NO(x), nitric oxide and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in hepatic and brain tissues and a significant decrease in serum triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL) and total cholesterol levels and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activities, as well as serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), compared to irradiated group. In conclusion, data obtained from this study indicated that septilin exhibited potential antioxidant activity and showed radioprotective effect against gamma-radiation by preventing oxidative stress and scavenging free radicals.

  6. Protective effects of Nasturtium officinale against gamma-irradiation-induced hepatotoxicity in C57 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Karami

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Nasturtium officinale W.T.Aiton (Brassicaceae is used as an edible vegetable in various parts of Iran. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective activity of the methanolic extract of Nasturtium officinale against gamma-radiation-induced hepatotoxicity in terms of histopathological changes. Methods: Male C57 mice were divided into 10 groups. Groups 1 and 2 received saline solution intra-peritoneally (IP for 15 days (subacute and 2 h (acute before whole body γ-irradiation (6 Gy. Groups 3 to 5 (subacute and 6 to 8 (acute received the extract at doses of 20 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg body weight IP, respectively. Group 9 served as radiation group. Group 10 received nothing. Finally, sections of the liver tissue were evaluated for any histopathologic changes. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined using Folin Ciocalteu andaluminium chloride methods. Results: Pre-treatment with 100 mg/kg body weight per day for 15 days and 2 h before γ-radiation significantly lowered incidence of inflammation (portal and periportal inflammation. Furthermore, liver cells necrosis, edema and congestion were slightly reduced. The total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of the extract were 11.3 ± 0.4 mg gallic acid equivalents and 9.4 ± 0.7 mg quercetin equivalents per gram of dried extract. Conclusion: This protection can be attributed to the presence of phenols and isothiocyanates in the extract of N. officinale which act as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents.

  7. SU-E-T-501: Normal Tissue Toxicities of Pulsed Low Dose Rate Radiotherapy and Conventional Radiotherapy: An in Vivo Total Body Irradiation Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cvetkovic, D; Zhang, P; Wang, B; Chen, L; Ma, C [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Pulsed low dose rate radiotherapy (PLDR) is a re-irradiation technique for therapy of recurrent cancers. We have previously shown a significant difference in the weight and survival time between the mice treated with conventional radiotherapy (CRT) and PLDR using total body irradiation (TBI). The purpose of this study was to investigate the in vivo effects of PLDR on normal mouse tissues.Materials and Methods: Twenty two male BALB/c nude mice, 4 months of age, were randomly assigned into a PLDR group (n=10), a CRT group (n=10), and a non-irradiated control group (n=2). The Siemens Artiste accelerator with 6 MV photon beams was used. The mice received a total of 18Gy in 3 fractions with a 20day interval. The CRT group received the 6Gy dose continuously at a dose rate of 300 MU/min. The PLDR group was irradiated with 0.2Gyx20 pulses with a 3min interval between the pulses. The mice were weighed thrice weekly and sacrificed 2 weeks after the last treatment. Brain, heart, lung, liver, spleen, gastrointestinal, urinary and reproductive organs, and sternal bone marrow were removed, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded and stained with H and E. Morphological changes were observed under a microscope. Results: Histopathological examination revealed atrophy in several irradiated organs. The degree of atrophy was mild to moderate in the PLDR group, but severe in the CRT group. The most pronounced morphological abnormalities were in the immune and hematopoietic systems, namely spleen and bone marrow. Brain hemorrhage was seen in the CRT group, but not in the PLDR group. Conclusions: Our results showed that PLDR induced less toxicity in the normal mouse tissues than conventional radiotherapy for the same dose and regimen. Considering that PLDR produces equivalent tumor control as conventional radiotherapy, it would be a good modality for treatment of recurrent cancers.

  8. Radiation-Induced Epigenetic Alterations after Low and High LET Irradiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aypar, Umut; Morgan, William F.; Baulch, Janet E.

    2011-02-01

    Epigenetics, including DNA methylation and microRNA (miRNA) expression, could be the missing link in understanding the delayed, non-targeted effects of radiation including radiationinduced genomic instability (RIGI). This study tests the hypothesis that irradiation induces epigenetic aberrations, which could eventually lead to RIGI, and that the epigenetic aberrations induced by low linear energy transfer (LET) irradiation are different than those induced by high LET irradiations. GM10115 cells were irradiated with low LET x-rays and high LET iron (Fe) ions and evaluated for DNA damage, cell survival and chromosomal instability. The cells were also evaluated for specific locus methylation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NFκB), tumor suppressor in lung cancer 1 (TSLC1) and cadherin 1 (CDH1) gene promoter regions, long interspersed nuclear element 1 (LINE-1) and Alu repeat element methylation, CpG and non-CpG global methylation and miRNA expression levels. Irradiated cells showed increased micronucleus induction and cell killing immediately following exposure, but were chromosomally stable at delayed times post-irradiation. At this same delayed time, alterations in repeat element and global DNA methylation and miRNA expression were observed. Analyses of DNA methylation predominantly showed hypomethylation, however hypermethylation was also observed. MiRNA shown to be altered in expression level after x-ray irradiation are involved in chromatin remodeling and DNA methylation. Different and higher incidence of epigenetic changes were observed after exposure to low LET x-rays than high LET Fe ions even though Fe ions elicited more chromosomal damage and cell killing. This study also shows that the irradiated cells acquire epigenetic changes even though they are chromosomally stable suggesting that epigenetic aberrations may arise in the cell without initiating RIGI.

  9. Adoptive transfer of Mammaglobin-A epitope specific CD8 T cells combined with a single low dose of total body irradiation eradicates breast tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerret, Nadine M; Rogozinska, Magdalena; Jaramillo, Andrés; Marzo, Amanda L

    2012-01-01

    Adoptive T cell therapy has proven to be beneficial in a number of tumor systems by targeting the relevant tumor antigen. The tumor antigen targeted in our model is Mammaglobin-A, expressed by approximately 80% of human breast tumors. Here we evaluated the use of adoptively transferred Mammaglobin-A specific CD8 T cells in combination with low dose irradiation to induce breast tumor rejection and prevent relapse. We show Mammaglobin-A specific CD8 T cells generated by DNA vaccination with all epitopes (Mammaglobin-A2.1, A2.2, A2.4 and A2.6) and full-length DNA in vivo resulted in heterogeneous T cell populations consisting of both effector and central memory CD8 T cell subsets. Adoptive transfer of spleen cells from all Mammaglobin-A2 immunized mice into tumor-bearing SCID/beige mice induced tumor regression but this anti-tumor response was not sustained long-term. Additionally, we demonstrate that only the adoptive transfer of Mammaglobin-A2 specific CD8 T cells in combination with a single low dose of irradiation prevents tumors from recurring. More importantly we show that this single dose of irradiation results in the down regulation of the macrophage scavenger receptor 1 on dendritic cells within the tumor and reduces lipid uptake by tumor resident dendritic cells potentially enabling the dendritic cells to present tumor antigen more efficiently and aid in tumor clearance. These data reveal the potential for adoptive transfer combined with a single low dose of total body irradiation as a suitable therapy for the treatment of established breast tumors and the prevention of tumor recurrence.

  10. External gamma irradiation-induced effects in early-life stages of zebrafish, Danio rerio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagnaire, B., E-mail: beatrice.gagnaire@irsn.fr [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sureté Nucléaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV/SERIS/LECO, Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance 13115 (France); Cavalié, I. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sureté Nucléaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV/SERIS/LECO, Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance 13115 (France); Pereira, S. [Neolys Diagnostics, Lyon 69373 (France); Floriani, M.; Dubourg, N.; Camilleri, V.; Adam-Guillermin, C. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sureté Nucléaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV/SERIS/LECO, Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance 13115 (France)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of gamma rays on zebrafish larvae. • Different techniques were used: gene expression, biochemistry, microscopy and macroscopical observations. • The results showed that gamma irradiation can alter embryo-larval development at several levels of organization. - Abstract: In the general context of validation of tools useful for the characterization of ecological risk linked to ionizing radiation, the effects of an external gamma irradiation were studied in zebrafish larvae irradiated for 96 h with two dose rates: 0.8 mGy/d, which is close to the level recommended to protect ecosystems from adverse effects of ionizing radiation (0.24 mGy/d) and a higher dose rate of 570 mGy/d. Several endpoints were investigated, such as mortality, hatching, and some parameters of embryo-larval development, immunotoxicity, apoptosis, genotoxicity, neurotoxicity and histological alterations. Results showed that an exposure to gamma rays induced an acceleration of hatching for both doses and a decrease of yolk bag diameter for the highest dose, which could indicate an increase of global metabolism. AChE activity decreased with the low dose rate of gamma irradiation and alterations were also shown in muscles of irradiated larvae. These results suggest that gamma irradiation can induce damages on larval neurotransmission, which could have repercussions on locomotion. DNA damages, basal ROS production and apoptosis were also induced by irradiation, while ROS stimulation index and EROD biotransformation activity were decreased and gene expression of acetylcholinesterase, choline acetyltransferase, cytochrome p450 and myeloperoxidase increased. These results showed that ionizing radiation induced an oxidative stress conducting to DNA damages. This study characterized further the modes of action of ionizing radiation in fish.

  11. Changes in Storage Properties of Hydrides Induced by Ion Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina GRBOVIĆ NOVAKOVIĆ

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of structural changes caused by irradiation with different ions, their energies and fluences on sorption properties has been investigated. Results suggest that there are several mechanisms of desorption depending on defect concentration, their interaction and ordering. It has been also demonstrated that the changes in near-surface area play the crucial role in hydrogen desorption kinetics. It is confirmed that there is possibility to control the thermodynamic parameters of these systems by controlling vacancies depth profile and concentration. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.2.1579

  12. Changes in Storage Properties of Hydrides Induced by Ion Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina GRBOVIĆ NOVAKOVIĆ

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of structural changes caused by irradiation with different ions, their energies and fluences on sorption properties has been investigated. Results suggest that there are several mechanisms of desorption depending on defect concentration, their interaction and ordering. It has been also demonstrated that the changes in near-surface area play the crucial role in hydrogen desorption kinetics. It is confirmed that there is possibility to control the thermodynamic parameters of these systems by controlling vacancies depth profile and concentration. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.2.1579

  13. Assessment of population external irradiation doses with consideration of Rospotrebnadzor bodies equipment for monitoring of photon radiation dose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Stamat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides review of equipment and methodology for measurement of photon radiation dose; analysis of possible reasons for considerable deviation between the Russian Federation population annual effective external irradiation doses and the relevant average global value. Data on Rospotrebnadzor bodies dosimetry equipment used for measurement of gamma radiation dose are collected and systematized. Over 60 kinds of dosimeters are used for monitoring of population external irradiation doses. Most of dosimeters used in the country have gas-discharge detectors (Geiger-Mueller counters, minor biochemical annunciators, etc. which have higher total values of own background level and of space radiation response than the modern dosimeters with scintillation detectors. This feature of dosimeters is apparently one of most plausible reasons of a bit overstating assessment of population external irradiation doses. The options for specification of population external irradiation doses assessment are: correction of gamma radiation dose measurement results with consideration of dosimeters own background level and space radiation response, introduction of more up-to-date dosimeters with scintillation detectors, etc. The most promising direction of research in verification of population external irradiation doses assessment is account of dosimetry equipment.

  14. Transcranial low-level infrared laser irradiation ameliorates depression induced by reserpine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Haitham S

    2016-11-01

    Transcranial low-level infrared laser is a modality of therapy based on the principle of photons delivered in a non-invasive manner through the skull for the treatment of some neurological conditions such as psychological disorders, traumatic brain injuries, and neurodegenerative diseases among others. In the present study, effects of low-level infrared laser irradiation with different radiation powers (80, 200, and 400 mW, continuous wave) were investigated on normal animals subjected to forced swimming test (FST). Results indicated that there are changes in FST parameters in animals irradiated with laser; the lowest dose provoked a significant increase in animal activity (swimming and climbing) and a significant decrease in animal's immobility, while the highest laser dose resulted in a complete inverse action by significantly increasing animal immobility and significantly decreasing animal activity with respect to control animals. The lowest dose (80 mW) of transcranial laser irradiation has then utilized on animals injected with a chronic dose of reserpine (0.2 mg/kg i.p. for 14 days) served as an animal model of depression. Laser irradiation has successfully ameliorated depression induced by reserpine as indicated by FST parameters and electrocorticography (ECoG) spectral analysis in irradiated animals. The findings of the present study emphasized the beneficial effects of low-level infrared laser irradiation on normal and healthy animals. Additionally, it indicated the potential antidepressant activity of the low dose of infrared laser irradiation.

  15. Single administration of p2TA (AB103, a CD28 antagonist peptide, prevents inflammatory and thrombotic reactions and protects against gastrointestinal injury in total-body irradiated mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salida Mirzoeva

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to elucidate the action of the CD28 mimetic peptide p2TA (AB103 that attenuates an excessive inflammatory response in mitigating radiation-induced inflammatory injuries. BALB/c and A/J mice were divided into four groups: Control (C, Peptide (P; 5 mg/kg of p2TA peptide, Radiation (R; total body irradiation with 8 Gy γ-rays, and Radiation + Peptide (RP; irradiation followed by p2TA peptide 24 h later. Gastrointestinal tissue damage was evaluated by analysis of jejunum histopathology and immunohistochemistry for cell proliferation (Cyclin D1 and inflammation (COX-2 markers, as well as the presence of macrophages (F4/80. Pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and KC as well as fibrinogen were quantified in plasma samples obtained from the same mice. Our results demonstrated that administration of p2TA peptide significantly reduced the irradiation-induced increase of IL-6 and fibrinogen in plasma 7 days after exposure. Seven days after total body irradiation with 8 Gy of gamma rays numbers of intestinal crypt cells were reduced and villi were shorter in irradiated animals compared to the controls. The p2TA peptide delivery 24 h after irradiation led to improved morphology of villi and crypts, increased Cyclin D1 expression, decreased COX-2 staining and decreased numbers of macrophages in small intestine of irradiated mice. Our study suggests that attenuation of CD28 signaling is a promising therapeutic approach for mitigation of radiation-induced tissue injury.

  16. Detection of radiation-induced hydrocarbons in baked sponged cake prepared with irradiated liquid egg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulzki, G.; Spiegelberg, A.; Bögl, K. W.; Schreiber, G. A.

    1995-02-01

    For identification of irradiated food, radiation-induced volatile hydrocarbons (HC) are determined by gas chromatography in the non-polar fraction of fat. However, in complex food matrices the detection is often disturbed by fat-associated compounds. On-line coupling of high performance liquid chromatography (LC) and gas chromatography (GC) is very efficient to remove such compounds from the HC fraction. The high sensitivity of this fast and efficient technique is demonstrated by the example of detection of radiation-induced HC in fat isolated from baked sponge cake which had been prepared with irradiated liquid egg.

  17. Detection of radiation-induced hydrocarbons in baked sponge cake prepared with irradiated liquid egg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulzki, G.; Spiegelberg, A.; Boegl, K.W.; Schreiber, G.A. [Federal Institute for Health Protection of Consumers and Veterinary Medicine, Berlin (Germany)

    1995-10-01

    For identification of irradiated food, radiation-induced volatile hydrocarbons (HC) are determined by gas chromatography in the non-polar fraction of fat. However, in complex food matrices the detection is often disturbed by fat-associated compounds. On-line coupling of high performance liquid chromatography (LC) and gas chromatography (GC) is very efficient to remove such compounds from the HC fraction. The high sensitivity of this fast and efficient technique is demonstrated by the example of detection of radiation-induced HC in fat isolated from baked sponge cake which had been prepared with irradiated liquid egg. (Author).

  18. Schisandrin B protects against solar irradiation-induced oxidative stress in rat skin tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Philip Y; Yan, Chung Wai; Chiu, Po Yee; Leung, Hoi Yan; Ko, Kam Ming

    2011-04-01

    Schisandrin B (Sch B) and schisandrin C (Sch C), but not schisandrin A and dimethyl diphenyl bicarboxylate, protected rat skin tissue against solar irradiation-induced oxidative injury, as evidenced by a reversal of solar irradiation-induced changes in cellular reduced glutathione and α-tocopherol levels, as well as antioxidant enzyme activities and malondialdehyde production. The cytochrome P-450-mediated metabolism of Sch B or Sch C caused ROS production in rat skin microsomes. Taken together, Sch B or Sch C, by virtue of its pro-oxidant action and the subsequent eliciting of a glutathione antioxidant response, may prevent photo-aging of skin.

  19. Late Effects of Total-Body Roentgen Irradiation. Longevity and Incidence of Nephrosclerosis as Influenced by Partial-Body Shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    1959-05-01

    postirradiation with complete obliteration oi the capillary developed this lesion (table III). Nephrosclero- tufts (3). sis was nearly absent during the 17.5...the human species. We have not ob- these organs are not yet complete. Possiblyserved significant arteriosclerosis of large irradiation of the kidneys

  20. Raman Spectroscopy of Irradiation Effect in Three Carbon Allotropes Induced by Low Energy B Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Yun-Chong; JIN Yun-Fan; YAO Cun-Feng; ZHANG Chong-Hong

    2009-01-01

    Irradiation effect in three carbon allotropes C6o, diamond and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) induced by 170 keV B ions, mainly including the process of the damage creation, is investigated by means of Rarnan spectroscopy technique. The differences on irradiation sensitivity and structural stability for C6o, HOPG and diamond are compared. The analysis results indicate that C6o is the most sensitive for B ions irradiation, diamond is the second one and the structure of HOPG is the most stable under B ion irradiation. The damage cross sections σ of C6o, diamond and HOPG deduced from the Raman spectra are 7.78 × 10-15, 6.38 × 10-15 and 1.31 × 10-15 cm-2, respectively.

  1. Protective effects of melatonin against 12C6+ beam irradiation-induced oxidative stress and DNA injury in the mouse brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z. H.; Zhang, H.; Wang, X. Y.; Yang, R.; Liu, B.; Liu, Y.; Zhao, W. P.; Feng, H. Y.; Xue, L. G.; Hao, J. F.; Niu, B. T.; Wang, Z. H.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to estimate the protective effects of melatonin against radiation-induced brain damages in mice induced by heavy ion beams. Kun-Ming mice were randomly divided into five groups: normal control group, irradiation control group, and three different doses of melatonin (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg, i.p.) treated groups. Apart from the normal control group, the other four groups were exposed to whole-body 4.0 Gy carbon ion beam irradiation (approximately 0.5 Gy/min) after i.p. administration of normal saline or melatonin 1 h before irradiation. The oxidative redox status of brain tissue was assessed by measurement of malondiadehyde (MDA) levels, total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), cytosolic superoxide dismutase (Cu/ZnSOD, SOD1) and mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (MnSOD, SOD2) activities at 8 h after irradiation. DNA damages were determined using the Comet assay and apoptosis and cell cycle distribution were detected by flow cytometric analyses. A dramatic dose-dependent decrease in MDA levels, tail moment, rates of tailing cells, and apoptosis, and a dose-dependent increase in T-SOD and SOD2 activities, in brain tissues in the melatonin-treated groups were detected compared with the irradiation only group. Furthermore, flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that the percentage of brain cells in the G0/G1 phase decreased significantly, while those in the S and G2/M stage increased dramatically, with mice pretreated with melatonin compared to the irradiation control group. These data indicate that melatonin has protective effects against irradiation-induced brain injury, and that its underlying protective mechanisms may relate to modulation of oxidative stress induced by heavy ionirradiation.

  2. Long-term results of low dose total body irradiation for advanced non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lybeert, M L; Meerwaldt, J H; Deneve, W

    1987-08-01

    Sixty-eight patients received fractionated low dose total body irradiation (LTBI) as treatment for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) at the Rotterdamsch Radio-Therapeutisch Instituut (RRTI) in the period 1973-1979. Ninety percent (61/68) of these patients had advanced disease (Stage III + IV). According to current malignancy grade classifications, 34 patients had low grade NHL, 10 intermediate, and 19 high grade. In 5 cases no exact grading was possible. LTBI was given 3 times a week, midline dose 0.1 Gy, using 6 or 25 MeV photons to a mean total dose of 1.78 Gy. Initial response rate for low, intermediate, and high grade NHL was resp. 84, 42, and 40%. The main prognostic factor for survival and recurrence-free survival (RFS) was malignancy grade. Probability of uncorrected survival at 10 years for low, intermediate, and high grade was resp. 34, 0 and 0%. Probability of RFS at 10 years was resp. 19, 0, and 0%. Neither stage nor sex had any influence on survival. Age was reversely correlated with survival, but was not correlated with RFS. Influence of prior therapy (18 patients) on survival and RFS was separately analyzed. Neither survival nor RFS of unfavorable histologic type NHL (high and intermediate grade) was influenced. On the other hand patients with a favorable histologic type NHL (low grade) had a significantly (p less than 0.05) better RFS if they received LTBI as initial treatment, but survival was not significantly influenced. RFS at 5 and 10 years of patients who received LTBI as first treatment was respectively 32% and 27%. No treatment related complications were noted. Subsequent chemotherapy in case of relapse was not hampered by previous LTBI. The high response rate and extended RFS, without maintenance therapy, makes LTBI a preferable first line treatment for patients with advanced stage low grade NHL.

  3. Build-up material requirements in clinical dosimetry during total body irradiation treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butson, Martin; Pope, Dane; Haque, Mamoon; Chen, Tom; Song, Guangli; Whitaker, May

    2016-01-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI) treatments are mainly used in a preparative regimen for hematopoietic stem cell (or bone marrow) transplantation. Our standard clinical regimen is a 12 Gy/6 fraction bi-daily technique using 6MV X-rays at a large extended source to surface distance (SSD). This work investigates and quantifies the dose build-up characteristics and thus the requirements for bolus used for in vivo dosimetry for TBI applications. Percentage dose build-up characteristics of photon beams have been investigated at large extended SSDs using ionization chambers and Gafchromic film. Open field measurements at different field sizes and with differing scatter conditions such as the introduction of standard Perspex scattering plates at different distances to the measurement point were made in an effort to determine the required bolus/build-up material required for accurate determination of applied dose. Percentage surface dose values measured for open fields at 300 cm SSD were found to range from 20% up to 65.5% for fields 5 cm × 5 cm to 40 cm × 40 cm, respectively. With the introduction of 1 cm Perspex scattering plates used in TBI treatments, the surface dose values increased up to 83-90% (93-97% at 1 mm depth), depending on the position of the Perspex scattering plate compared to the measurement point. Our work showed that at least 5 mm water equivalent bolus/scatter material should be placed over the EBT3 film for accurate dose assessment for TBI treatments. Results also show that a small but measurable decrease in measured dose occurred with 5 mm water equivalent thick bolus material of areas '3 cm(2). As such, we recommend that 3 cm × 3 cm × 5 mm bolus build-up is the smallest size that should be placed over EBT3 Gafchromic film when used for accurate in vivo dosimetry for TBI applications.

  4. Half body irradiation of patients with multiple bone metastases: A phase II trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Randi S.; Yilmaz, Mette K. (Dept. of Oncology, Aalborg Hospital, Aarhus Univ., Aalborg (Denmark)); Hoeyer, Morten; Nielsen, Ole S. (Dept. of Oncology, Aarhus Univ. Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark)); Keldsen, Nina (Dept. of Oncology, Herning Hospital, Herning (Denmark)); Ewertz, Marianne (Dept. of Oncology, Odense Univ. Hospital, Odense (Denmark))

    2009-05-15

    Aim of study. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of half-body irradiation (HBI) on pain and quality of life in cancer patients with multiple bone metastases. The secondary aim was to evaluate side effects of the treatment. Patients and methods. A total of 44 patients received lower (n = 37), upper (n = 5), or sequential HBI (n = 2). The dose for lower HBI was 8 Gy in one fraction and for upper HBI 7 Gy in one fraction, with reduction of the lung dose to 6 Gy in one fraction by partial shielding. The majority of patients (n = 41) were males with prostate cancers (93%). Outcome and side effects were measured by the EORTC Quality of Life Questionnaire C30 (QLQ-C30), and by the doctors' toxicity scores in the medical record. Pain relief was defined as a reduction of more than 10 points on the QLQ-C30 scale. Evaluations were performed before and 2, 4, 8, 16, and 24 weeks after treatment. Results. Relief of pain was observed in 76% of the patients receiving HBI with 8.8% of the patients experiencing complete pain relief with no residual pain in the treated field. For most patients, the pain relief was lasting throughout the follow-up period. About one third of the patients were able to reduce their intake of analgesics. Grade 1-2 diarrhoea was the most common side effect observed in 49% of the patients two weeks after treatment. Mild pulmonary symptoms (grade 1-2) were observed in four of seven patients receiving upper HBI. No clear effect was observed on the patients' global quality of life.Conclusion. Single fraction HBI is safe and effective providing long lasting pain reduction in 76% of patients with multiple bone metastases.

  5. SU-E-T-275: Dose Build Up and Bolusing Characteristics for Total Body Irradiation Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butson, M; Pope, D; Whitaker, M [Chris O’Brien LifeHouse, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Total Body Irradiation (TBI) treatments are mainly used in a preparative regimen for haematopoietic stem cell (or bone marrow) transplantation. Our standard regimen is a 12 Gy / 6 fraction bi-daily technique. To evaluate the delivered dose homogeneity to the patient, EBT3 Gafchromic film is positioned at the head, neck, chest, pelvis and groin for all fractions. This work investigates and quantifies the build-up dose characteristics at TBI distances and requirements for in-vivo dosimetry bolusing. Methods: Percentage dose build up characteristics of photon beams have been investigated at large extended SSD’s using parallel plate ionisations chambers (Attix) and EBT3 Gafchromic film. Measurements were made to open fields at different field sizes as well as large 40cm × 40cm fields with differing scatter conditions such as the introduction of standard Perspex scattering plates at different distances to the measurement point. Results: Percentage surface dose measured values for open fields at 300 cm SSD were found to range from 20 % up to 65.5 % for fields of 5 cm × 5 cm to 40 cm × 40 cm. With the introduction of 1cm Perspex scattering plates used in TBI treatments the surface dose values increased up to 83% to 90%, depending on the position of the Perspex scattering plate compared to the measurement point. Our work showed that at least 3mm water equivalent bolus / scatter material should be placed over the EBT3 for accurate dose assessment for TBI treatments. Conclusion: Build up dose characteristics exist at long (300cm) SSD’s including treatments using Perspex scattering plates placed at various distances form the patient during TBI treatment. Top accurately assess the applied dose during treatment, in-vivo dosimeters such as Gafchromic EBT3 should have at least 3mm bolus / scatter material placed over them to measure actual applied doses.

  6. Retrospective, monocentric analysis of late effects after total body irradiation (TBI) in adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boelling, Tobias [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Paracelsus Clinic Osnabrueck (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Kreuziger, David Christoph; Ernst, Iris; Elsayed, Hassan; Willich, Normann [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy

    2011-05-15

    Purpose: Total body irradiation (TBI) is a standard treatment modality within the multidisciplinary approach for allogeneous stem cell or bone marrow transplantation. However, surviving patients are at risk for developing a variety of late sequelae. This analysis aimed to retrospectively characterize late effects after TBI in adults treated in a single center. Patients and Methods: Patients {>=} 18 years treated with fractionated TBI (4-12 Gy) between 1996 and 2008 were included in this study. Treatment data were collected retrospectively from the treating departments. Late effects were evaluated using the clinic charts and/or were obtained from the general practitioners using a standardized questionnaire. Analyses were performed by calculation of the cumulative incidences using the Kaplan-Meier method and the log rank test. Results: A total of 308 patients {>=} 18 years were treated including a TBI of whom 78 patients were excluded from further analysis due to death within less than 1 year after TBI. Patients suffered from leukemia in most cases. Late toxicity follow-up was available in 120 patients (mean age 46.1 years; range, 18-70 years) after a mean follow-up of 23 months (range, 12-96 months). The cumulative incidences (CI) at 3 years were 28% for pulmonary event, 8% for pulmonary toxicity, 25% for kidney toxicity, 8% for cataract, 17% for bone toxicity, and 10% for secondary malignancy. The CI of bone toxicity was higher in female than in male patients (p = 0.019). Conclusion: Late effects after TBI in the context of allogeneous stem cell or bone marrow transplantation can frequently be observed. Regular follow-up examinations are advised for the early registration and treatment of adverse effects. (orig.)

  7. Ex vivo expansion of haematopoietic cells in the treatment of accidental irradiation-induced aplasia. Feasibility Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thierry, D.; Bertho, J.M.; Chapel, A.; Gourmelon, P. [Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fountenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2000-05-01

    The lessons learnt from the treatment of previous radiation accidents using either bone marrow transplantation or growth factor therapy suggest that it is of importance to investigate new therapeutic regiments. Ex vivo expansion of haematopoietic stem cells, precursors and differentiated cells is a new approach of growth factor therapy which may be of interest for the treatment of patients with irradiation-induced bone marrow aplasia. Ex vivo expanded maturing cells could be used to limit the early risks bound to aplasia (infections related to granulocytopaenia, bleedings associated with thrombocytopaenia), whereas expanded immature cells could hasten haematopoietic recovery. Indeed, it is possible to culture from the blood or bone marrow the cells able to proliferate and differentiate. A sufficient quantity of cells to cover the transfusion needs of a radiation victim through an aplasia episode can be produced, in presence of a specific growth factor combination. Qualitative studies shows that the expanded cells exhibit a close to normal functionality. Long-term culture techniques demonstrate the expansion of immature cells. We have set up a high dose total body irradiation non-human primate model in order to study the therapeutic potential of ex vivo expansion of autologous progenitors and differentiating cells. All the steps of the process (sampling, positive selection of the immature cells, ex vivo expansion, irradiation of the animals, reinjection of the cultured cells and study of the outcome) are established. In order to allow the long term follow up of the ex vivo expanded haematopoietic cells (homing to the bone marrow or localization to specific organs for example), a retroviral gene transfer technique for transduction of green fluorescence protein (GFP) gene toward the selected immature blood or bone marrow cells is under development in this model. Taken together these elements will allow establishing the feasibility of ex vivo expansion of

  8. Impact of Whole Body Irradiation on the Intestinal Microbiome- Considerations for Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karouia, Fathi; Santos, Orlando; Valdivia-Silva, Julio E.; Jones, Jeffrey; Greenberger, Joel S.; Epperly, Michael W.

    Human space travelers experience a unique environment that affects homeostasis and physiologic adaptation. Spaceflight-related changes have been reported in the musculo-skeletal, cardiovascular, neurovestibular, endocrine, and immune systems to just name a few. However, to date, radiation exposure is one of the main limiting factors for long duration space exploration missions and especially a mission to Mars. Over the past few years through advances in technology, the characterization of the microbiome has revealed a large and complex community of microorganisms living in symbiosis with the human host. However, heterogeneity of the intestinal microbial spectrum in humans has been associated with a variety of diseases and susceptibility to infectious and toxic agents. Limited information is known about the influence of space environment in general and radiation in particular on the microbiome. Furthermore, multiple spaceflight and simulated microgravity experiments have shown changes in phenotypic microbial characteristics such as microbial growth, morphology, metabolism, genetic transfer, antibiotic and stress susceptibility, and an increase in virulence factors. We now report a study of the bacterial composition of the intestine in C57BL/6NTAC mice and the types of microbes entering the body at two time points after the LD 50/30 dose of total body irradiation using microarray-based assay, G3 PhyloChip 16S rRNA, and bioinformatics methods. Bacteria and archaea taxon richness was determined at the genus level and ranged from 2 to 107 and 0 to 3 respectively. As expected, pre-exposure blood samples exhibited less bacterial and archaeal genus richness compared to all other samples. However, the study shows a significant shift in the mouse gut microbial speciation in several bacterial families, with increases in the Turicibacteraceae and Enterobacteriaceae and decreases in the Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae families. The findings most relevant to occupational

  9. Recombinant human MFG-E8 attenuates intestinal injury and mortality in severe whole body irradiation in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Ajakaiye

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal (GI syndrome component of acute radiation syndrome (ARS results from depletion of immature parenchymal stem cells after high dose irradiation and contributes significantly to early mortality. It is associated with severe, irreparable damage in the GI tract and extremely low survival. There is a need for the development of viable mitigators of whole body irradiation (WBI due to the possibility of unexpected high level radiation exposure from nuclear accidents or attacks. We therefore examined the effect of recombinant human milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 (rhMFG-E8 in mitigating damage after WBI. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 10 Gy WBI using Cesium-137 as the radiation source. The animals in the treatment group received rhMFG-E8 (166 µg/kg BW subcutaneously once a day with the first dose given 6 h after WBI. Blood and tissue samples from the ileum were collected after 3 days of treatment. A separate cohort of animals was treated for 7 days and the 21 day mortality rate was determined. Treatment with rhMFG-E8 significantly improved the survival from 31% to 75% over 21 days. Furthermore, rhMFG-E8 treatment resulted in a 36% reduction in the radiation injury intestinal mucosal damage score, corresponding to visible histological changes. MFG-E8 gene expression was significantly decreased in WBI-induced animals as compared to sham controls. Treatment with rhMFG-E8 increased p53 and p21 expression by 207% and 84% compared to untreated controls. This was accompanied by an 80% increase in the expression of anti-apoptotic cell regulator Bcl-2. p53 and p21 levels correlate with improved survival after radiation injury. These cell regulators arrest the cell after DNA damage and enable DNA repair as well as optimize cell survival. Taken together, these results indicate that rhMFG-E8 ameliorates the GI syndrome and improves survival after WBI by minimizing intestinal cell damage and optimizing recovery.

  10. Rescue Effects and Underlying Mechanisms of Intragland Shh Gene Delivery on Irradiation-Induced Hyposalivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Bo; Zhao, Qingguo; Qin, Lizheng; Rangaraj, Dharanipathy; Gutti, Veera R; Liu, Fei

    2016-05-01

    Irreversible hypofunction of salivary glands is common in head and neck cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy and can only be temporarily relieved with current treatments. We found in an inducible sonic hedgehog (Shh) transgenic mouse model that transient activation of the Hedgehog pathway after irradiation rescued salivary gland function in males by preserving salivary stem/progenitor cells and parasympathetic innervation. To translate these findings into feasible clinical application, we evaluated the effects of Shh gene transfer to salivary glands of wild-type mice on irradiation-induced hyposalivation. Shh or control GFP gene was delivered by noninvasive retrograde ductal instillation of corresponding adenoviral vectors. In both male and female mice, Shh gene delivery efficiently activated Hedgehog/Gli signaling, and significantly improved stimulated saliva secretion and preserved saliva-producing acinar cells after irradiation. In addition to preserving parasympathetic innervation through induction of neurotrophic factors, Shh gene delivery also alleviated the irradiation damage of the microvasculature, likely via inducing angiogenic factors, but did not expand the progeny of cells responsive to Hedgehog/Gli signaling. These data indicate that transient activation of the Hedgehog pathway by gene delivery is promising to rescue salivary function after irradiation in both sexes, and the Hedgehog/Gli pathway may function mainly in cell nonautonomous manners to achieve the rescue effect.

  11. Interactions between dislocations and irradiation-induced defects in light water reactor pressure vessel steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumel, Stéphanie; Van Duysen, Jean-Claude; Ruste, Jacky; Domain, Christophe

    2005-11-01

    The REVE project (REactor for Virtual Experiments) is an international effort aimed at developing tools to simulate irradiation effects in light water reactors materials. In the framework of this project, a European team developed a first tool, called RPV-1 designed for reactor pressure vessel steels. This article is the third of a series dedicated to the presentation of the codes and models used to build RPV-1. It describes the simplified approach adopted to simulate the irradiation-induced hardening. This approach relies on a characterization of the interactions between a screw dislocation and irradiation-induced defects from molecular dynamics simulations. The pinning forces exerted by the defects on the dislocation were estimated from the obtained results and some hypotheses. In RPV-1, these forces are used as input parameters of a Foreman and Makin-type code, called DUPAIR, to simulate the irradiation-induced hardening at 20 °C. The relevance of the proposed approach was validated by the comparison with experimental results. However, this work has to be considered as an initial step to facilitate the development of a first tool to simulate irradiation effects. It can be improved by many ways (e.g. by use of dislocation dynamics code).

  12. Radiation-induced bystander effect in non-irradiated glioblastoma spheroid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faqihi, Fahime; Neshastehriz, Ali; Soleymanifard, Shokouhozaman; Shabani, Robabeh; Eivazzadeh, Nazila

    2015-09-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBEs) are detected in cells that are not irradiated but receive signals from treated cells. The present study explored these bystander effects in a U87MG multicellular tumour spheroid model. A medium transfer technique was employed to induce the bystander effect, and colony formation assay was used to evaluate the effect. Relative changes in expression of BAX, BCL2, JNK and ERK genes were analysed using RT-PCR to investigate the RIBE mechanism. A significant decrease in plating efficiency was observed for both bystander and irradiated cells. The survival fraction was calculated for bystander cells to be 69.48% and for irradiated cells to be 34.68%. There was no change in pro-apoptotic BAX relative expression, but anti-apoptotic BCL2 showed downregulation in both irradiated and bystander cells. Pro-apoptotic JNK in bystander samples and ERK in irradiated samples were upregulated. The clonogenic survival data suggests that there was a classic RIBE in U87MG spheroids exposed to 4 Gy of X-rays, using a medium transfer technique. Changes in the expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic genes indicate involvement of both intrinsic apoptotic and MAPK pathways in inducing these effects. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  13. Naringenin Inhibits UVB Irradiation-Induced Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in the Skin of Hairless Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Renata M; Pinho-Ribeiro, Felipe A; Steffen, Vinicius S; Caviglione, Carla V; Vignoli, Josiane A; Barbosa, Décio S; Baracat, Marcela M; Georgetti, Sandra R; Verri, Waldiceu A; Casagrande, Rubia

    2015-07-24

    Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation may cause inflammation- and oxidative-stress-dependent skin cancer and premature aging. Naringenin (1) has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, but its effects and mechanisms on UVB irradiation-induced inflammation and oxidative stress are still not known. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the potential of naringenin to mitigate UVB irradiation-induced inflammation and oxidative damage in the skin of hairless mice. Skin edema, myeloperoxidase (neutrophil marker) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity, and cytokine production were measured after UVB irradiation. Oxidative stress was evaluated by 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical (ABTS) scavenging ability, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), reduced glutathione levels, catalase activity, lipid peroxidation products, superoxide anion production, and gp91phox (NADPH oxidase subunit) mRNA expression by quantitative PCR. The intraperitoneal treatment with naringenin reduced skin inflammation by inhibiting skin edema, neutrophil recruitment, MMP-9 activity, and pro-inflammatory (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17, IL-22, and IL-23) and anti-inflammatory (TGF-β and IL-10) cytokines. Naringenin also inhibited oxidative stress by reducing superoxide anion production and the mRNA expression of gp91phox. Therefore, naringenin inhibits UVB irradiation-induced skin damage and may be a promising therapeutic approach to control skin disease.

  14. HZE ⁵⁶Fe-ion irradiation induces endothelial dysfunction in rat aorta: role of xanthine oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucy, Kevin G; Lim, Hyun Kyo; Kim, Jae Hyung; Oh, Young; Attarzadeh, David O; Sevinc, Baris; Kuo, Maggie M; Shoukas, Artin A; Vazquez, Marcelo E; Berkowitz, Dan E

    2011-10-01

    Ionizing radiation has been implicated in the development of significant cardiovascular complications. Since radiation exposure is associated with space exploration, astronauts are potentially at increased risk of accelerated cardiovascular disease. This study investigated the effect of high atomic number, high-energy (HZE) iron-ion radiation on vascular and endothelial function as a model of space radiation. Rats were exposed to a single whole-body dose of iron-ion radiation at doses of 0, 0.5 or 1 Gy. In vivo aortic stiffness and ex vivo aortic tension responses were measured 6 and 8 months after exposure as indicators of chronic vascular injury. Rats exposed to 1 Gy iron ions demonstrated significantly increased aortic stiffness, as measured by pulse wave velocity. Aortic rings from irradiated rats exhibited impaired endothelial-dependent relaxation consistent with endothelial dysfunction. Acute xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibition or reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging restored endothelial-dependent responses to normal. In addition, XO activity was significantly elevated in rat aorta 4 months after whole-body irradiation. Furthermore, XO inhibition, initiated immediately after radiation exposure and continued until euthanasia, completely inhibited radiation-dependent XO activation. ROS production was elevated after 1 Gy irradiation while production of nitric oxide (NO) was significantly impaired. XO inhibition restored NO and ROS production. Finally, dietary XO inhibition preserved normal endothelial function and vascular stiffness after radiation exposure. These results demonstrate that radiation induced XO-dependent ROS production and nitroso-redox imbalance, leading to chronic vascular dysfunction. As a result, XO is a potential target for radioprotection. Enhancing the understanding of vascular radiation injury could lead to the development of effective methods to ameliorate radiation-induced vascular damage.

  15. Citrulline as a Biomarker in the Non-human Primate Total- and Partial-body Irradiation Models: Correlation of Circulating Citrulline to Acute and Prolonged Gastrointestinal Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jace W; Bennett, Alexander; Carter, Claire L; Tudor, Gregory; Hankey, Kim G; Farese, Ann M; Booth, Catherine; MacVittie, Thomas J; Kane, Maureen A

    2015-11-01

    The use of plasma citrulline as a biomarker for acute and prolonged gastrointestinal injury via exposure to total- and partial-body irradiation (6 MV LINAC-derived photons; 0.80 Gy min) in nonhuman primate models was investigated. The irradiation exposure covered gastrointestinal injuries spanning lethal, mid-lethal, and sub-lethal doses. The acute gastrointestinal injury was assessed via measurement of plasma citrulline and small intestinal histopathology over the first 15 d following radiation exposure and included total-body irradiation at 13.0 Gy, 10.5 Gy, and 7.5 Gy and partial-body irradiation at 11.0 Gy with 5% bone marrow sparing. The dosing schemes of 7.5 Gy total-body irradiation and 11.0 Gy partial-body irradiation included time points out to day 60 and day 180, respectively, which allowed for correlation of plasma citrulline to prolonged gastrointestinal injury and survival. Plasma citrulline values were radiation-dependent for all radiation doses under consideration, with nadir values ranging from 63-80% lower than radiation-naïve NHP plasma. The nadir values were observed at day 5 to 7 post irradiation. Longitudinal plasma citrulline profiles demonstrated prolonged gastrointestinal injury resulting from acute high-dose irradiation had long lasting effects on enterocyte function. Moreover, plasma citrulline did not discriminate between total-body or partial-body irradiation over the first 15 d following irradiation and was not predictive of survival based on the radiation models considered herein.

  16. Convoluted dislocation loops induced by helium irradiation in reduced-activation martensitic steel and their impact on mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Fengfeng [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education, Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory, School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Yao, Z. [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Queen' s University, Kingston, ON, Canada K7L 3N6 (Canada); Guo, Liping, E-mail: guolp@whu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education, Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory, School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Suo, Jinping [State Key Laboratory of Mould Technology, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wen, Yongming [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education, Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory, School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2014-06-01

    Helium irradiation induced dislocation loops in reduced-activation martensitic steels were investigated using transmission electron microscopy. The specimens were irradiated with 100 keV helium ions to 0.8 dpa at 350 °C. Unexpectedly, very large dislocation loops were found, significantly larger than that induced by other types of irradiations under the same dose. Moreover, the large loops were convoluted and formed interesting flower-like shape. The large loops were determined as interstitial type. Loops with the Burgers vectors of b=〈100〉 were only observed. Furthermore, irradiation induced hardening caused by these large loops was observed using the nano-indentation technique.

  17. Total Body Irradiation using VMAT (RapidArc: A Planning Study of a novel treatment delivery method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santam Chakraborty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT using RapidArc to deliver total body irradiation (TBI treatment. Methods: VMAT planning was performed a whole body computed tomography (CT data set using Rapid Arc. The planning target volumes included entire body trimmed to 3 mm below the skin. The organs at risk included the lungs and kidneys. A dose of 12 Gy in 10 fractions was prescribed to the target volume. The VMAT-TBI technique consisted of three isocentres and three overlapping arcs: the head and neck, the chest, and the pelvis. The plans were prescribed to ensure, at a minimum, 95% planning target volume dose coverage with the prescription dose (percentage of volume receiving dose of 12 Gy was 95% and maximum dose of 109.8%. Mean dose to lung was restricted at 8.6Gy. Results: The total body volume in the study was 15469cm3 and the PTV volume was 11322cm3. The mean dose to PTV was 104%. The homogeneity index was 0.09. Sparing of normal tissues with adequate coverage of skeletal bones was shown to be feasible with Rapid Arc. The study demonstrates that VMAT is feasible for TBI treatment. Unlike conventional TBI chest wall boost with electrons was not required. Conclusion: The technique for total body irradiation using RapidArc VMAT was found feasible and is undergoing further studies prior to clinical use.

  18. Pulsed laser irradiation-induced microstructures in the Mn ion implanted Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naito, Muneyuki, E-mail: naito22@center.konan-u.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, Konan University, Okamoto, Higashi-Nada, Kobe, Hyogo 658-8501 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Yamada, Ryo; Machida, Nobuya [Department of Chemistry, Konan University, Okamoto, Higashi-Nada, Kobe, Hyogo 658-8501 (Japan); Koshiba, Yusuke; Sugimura, Akira; Aoki, Tamao; Umezu, Ikurou [Department of Physics, Konan University, Okamoto, Higashi-Nada, Kobe, Hyogo 658-8501 (Japan)

    2015-12-15

    We have examined microstructures induced by pulsed-laser-melting for the Mn ion implanted Si using transmission electron microscopy. Single crystalline Si(0 0 1) wafers were irradiated with 65 keV and 120 keV Mn ions to a fluence of 1.0 × 10{sup 16}/cm{sup 2} at room temperature. The ion beam-induced amorphous layers in the as-implanted samples were melted and resolidified by pulsed YAG laser irradiation. After laser irradiation with appropriate laser fluence, the surface amorphous layers recrystallize into the single crystalline Si. The Mn concentration becomes higher in the near-surface region with increasing the number of laser shots. The migrated Mn atoms react with Si atoms and form the amorphous Mn–Si in the Si matrix.

  19. Schisandrin B protects against solar irradiation-induced oxidative injury in BJ human fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Po Yee; Lam, Philip Y; Yan, Chung Wai; Ko, Kam Ming

    2011-06-01

    The effects of schisandrin B (Sch B) and its analogs on solar irradiation-induced oxidative injury were examined in BJ human fibroblasts. Sch B and schisandrin C (Sch C) increased cellular reduced glutathione (GSH) level and protected against solar irradiation-induced oxidative injury. The photoprotection was paralleled by decreases in the elastases-type protease activity and matrix-metalloproteinases-1 expression in solar-irradiated fibroblasts. The cytochrome P-450-mediated metabolism of Sch B or Sch C caused ROS production. The results suggest that by virtue of its pro-oxidant action and the subsequent glutathione antioxidant response, Sch B or Sch C may offer the prospect of preventing skin photo-aging.

  20. Changes in the surface electronic states of semiconductor fine particles induced by high energy ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaki, Tetsuya; Asai, Keisuke; Ishigure, Kenkichi [Tokyo Univ. (Japan); Shibata, Hiromi

    1997-03-01

    The changes in the surface electronic states of Q-sized semiconductor particles in Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films, induced by high energy ion irradiation, were examined by observation of ion induced emission and photoluminescence (PL). Various emission bands attributed to different defect sites in the band gap were observed at the initial irradiation stage. As the dose increased, the emissions via the trapping sites decreased in intensity while the band-edge emission developed. This suggests that the ion irradiation would remove almost all the trapping sites in the band gap. The low energy emissions, which show a multiexponential decay, were due to a donor-acceptor recombination between the deeply trapped carriers. It was found that the processes of formation, reaction, and stabilization of the trapping sites would predominantly occur under the photooxidizing conditions. (author)

  1. Hemi body irradiation: An economical way of palliation of pain in bone metastasis in advanced cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santanu Pal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The primary aim of this prospective non-randomized study was to evaluate the effect of hemi-body irradiation (HBI on pain and quality of life in cancer patients with extensive bone metastases. The secondary aim was to evaluate side-effects and cost-effectiveness of the treatment. Materials and Methods: Between March 2008 and December 2010, a total of 23 (male = 14, female = 9, median age = 60 years diagnosed cases of metastatic cancer patients (prostate = 11, breast = 6, and lung = 6 received HBI, which was delivered as lower (n = 7 (dose = 8 Gy, upper (n = 8 (dose = 6 Gy, or sequential HBI (n = 8 with a Telecobalt unit (Theratron 780C. Among them, one lung cancer patient died at 2 months and one prostate cancer patient defaulted after the second follow-up. Thus, 21 patients (male = 13, female = 8, median age = 65 years (prostatic cancer = 10, breast cancer = 6, and lung cancer = 5 were followed up for a minimum of 6 months. Evaluations were performed before and at 2, 4, 8, 16, and 24 weeks after treatment. Pain evaluation was done by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS, Verbal Rating Scale (VRS, Percentage of Pain Relief (PRR, and Global Pain Score (GPS. Toxicity was assessed by CTC v-3 toxicity scores in the medical record. Assessment of oral morphine consumption was done before and after radiation using paired t-test, and correlation analysis was also done with decrease of morphine consumption and reduction of pain score using statistical analysis. Results: Response (control of pain was partial (PR in 67% and complete (CR in 22% of patients. For most patients, the pain control lasted throughout the follow-up period (6 months. From 66.66% patients requiring 13 or more Morphine (10 mg tablets per day prior to HBI, none of the patients required to consume 13 or more Morphine (10 mg tablets per day following HBI, which was correlated with significant reduction in various pain scores (P < 0.05. One way ANOVA with Dunnett′s Multiple Comparison

  2. New mechanism of irradiation creep based on the radiation-induced vacancy emission from dislocations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubinko, [No Value

    2005-01-01

    A new mechanism of irradiation creep is proposed, which is based on the radiation and stress induced difference in emission ( RSIDE) of vacancies from dislocations of different orientations with respect to the external stress. This phenomenon is due to the difference in vacancy formation energies, w

  3. Determination of irradiation parameters for laser-induced periodic surface structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eichstädt, J.; Römer, G.R.B.E.; Huis in 't Veld, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    The spatial emergence of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) on single-crystalline silicon, upon irradiation with linearly polarized picosecond laser pulses (wavelength λ = 1030 nm, pulse duration τ = 6.7 ps, pulse repetition frequency fp = 1 kHz) was studied theoretically and experime

  4. Hepatocyte growth factor protects endothelial cells against gamma ray irradiation-induced damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shun-ying HU; Hai-feng DUAN; Qing-fang LI; Yue-feng YANG; Jin-long CHEN; Li-sheng WANG; Hua WANG

    2009-01-01

    Aim:To investigate the effect of HGF on proliferation, apoptosis and migratory ability of human vascular endothelial cells against gamma ray irradiation.Methods: ECV304 cells derived from adult human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were irradiated with a single gamma ray dose of 20 Gy. Immunocytochemistry and Western blot analysis were used to detect c-Met protein expression and HGF/c-Met signal pathway. In the HGF-treated groups, ECV304 cells were incubated with HGF (20 or 40 ng/mL) 3 h prior to irradiation. At 48 h post-irradiation, the proliferation of ECV304 cells was measured by MTT assay, the apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry, and the migratory ability of ECV304 cells was measured by transwell chamber assay.Results: c-Met protein is expressed in ECV304 cells and can be activated by HGF. Gamma ray irradiation inhibits proliferation and migration of ECV304 cells in a dose-dependent manner. HGF significantly promoted the proliferation of ECV304 cells, and flow cytom-etry revealed that HGF can inhibit apoptosis of ECV304 cells. Transwell chamber assay also showed that HGF increases migration activity of endothelial cells.Conclusion: HGF may afford protection to vascular endothelial cells against gamma ray irradiation-induced damage.

  5. Ion irradiation-induced structure damage to botanic samples using the ion transmission energy spectrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In order to study the mechanism of irradiation-induced damage ofbotanic samples caused by low energy heavy ions, transmission energy spectrum mea-surement was performed. Kidney bean slice samples 100μm in thickness were irradi-ated by 50 kev N+ ions. The irradiation beam current density was about 30μA/cm2,and the irradiation ion doses were 1×1015, 1×1016, 3×1016 and 1×1017 ions@cm-2,respectively. A target set up that could greatly reduce the incident ion current densitywas designed to achieve the damage-free measurement. The 3.2 MeV H+ transmittedion energy spectrum measurement was carried out before and after the irradiation.From the transmission ion energy spectrum, it was found that the kidney bean sliceitself was structurally inhomogeneous compared with the PET films (C10HsO4). Ourresults indicated that the average mass thickness changed little when the N+ iondose was below 3×1016 ions.cm-2, but changed obviously whcn ion dose was beyond3×1016 ions.cm-2.

  6. Small-Molecule XIAP Inhibitors Enhance γ-Irradiation-Induced Apoptosis in Glioblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Hari Krishna Vellanki

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Because evasion of apoptosis can cause radioresistance of glioblastoma, there is a need to design rational strategies that counter apoptosis resistance. In the present study, we investigated the potential of targeting the antiapoptotic protein XIAP for the radiosensitization of glioblastoma. Here, we report that small-molecule XIAP inhibitors significantly enhance γ-irradiation-induced loss of viability and apoptosis and cooperate with γ-irradiation to suppress clonogenic survival of glioblastoma cells. Analysis of molecular mechanisms reveals that XIAP inhibitors act in concert with γ-irradiation to cause mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization, caspase activation, and caspasedependent apoptosis. Importantly, XIAP inhibitors also sensitize primary cultured glioblastoma cells derived from surgical specimens as well as glioblastoma-initiating stemlike cancer stem cells for γ-irradiation. In contrast, they do not increase the toxicity of γ-irradiation on some nonmalignant cells of the central nervous system, including rat neurons or glial cells, pointing to some tumor selectivity. In conclusion, by demonstrating for the first time that smallmolecule XIAP inhibitors increase the radiosensitivity of glioblastoma cells while sparing normal cells of the central nervous system, our findings build the rationale for further (preclinical development of XIAP inhibitors in combination with γ-irradiation in glioblastoma.

  7. Various categories of defects after surface alloying induced by high current pulsed electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Dian [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Tang, Guangze, E-mail: oaktang@hit.edu.cn [School of Material Science & Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Ma, Xinxin [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Gu, Le [School of Mechatronics Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Sun, Mingren [School of Material Science & Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wang, Liqin [School of Mechatronics Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • Four kinds of defects are found during surface alloying by high current electron beam. • Exploring the mechanism how these defects appear after irradiation. • Increasing pulsing cycles will help to get good surface quality. • Choosing proper energy density will increase surface quality. - Abstract: High current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB) is an attractive advanced materials processing method which could highly increase the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. However, how to eliminate different kinds of defects during irradiation by HCPEB especially in condition of adding new elements is a challenging task. In the present research, the titanium and TaNb-TiW composite films was deposited on the carburizing steel (SAE9310 steel) by DC magnetron sputtering before irradiation. The process of surface alloying was induced by HCPEB with pulse duration of 2.5 μs and energy density ranging from 3 to 9 J/cm{sup 2}. Investigation of the microstructure indicated that there were several forms of defects after irradiation, such as surface unwetting, surface eruption, micro-cracks and layering. How the defects formed was explained by the results of electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The results also revealed that proper energy density (∼6 J/cm{sup 2}) and multi-number of irradiation (≥50 times) contributed to high quality of alloyed layers after irradiation.

  8. In Vivo Imaging Reveals Significant Tumor Vascular Dysfunction and Increased Tumor Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α Expression Induced by High Single-Dose Irradiation in a Pancreatic Tumor Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Azusa; Chen, Yonghong; Bu, Jiachuan; Mujcic, Hilda; Wouters, Bradly G; DaCosta, Ralph S

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the effect of high-dose irradiation on pancreatic tumor vasculature and microenvironment using in vivo imaging techniques. A BxPC3 pancreatic tumor xenograft was established in a dorsal skinfold window chamber model and a subcutaneous hind leg model. Tumors were irradiated with a single dose of 4, 12, or 24 Gy. The dorsal skinfold window chamber model was used to assess tumor response, vascular function and permeability, platelet and leukocyte adhesion to the vascular endothelium, and tumor hypoxia for up to 14 days after 24-Gy irradiation. The hind leg model was used to monitor tumor size, hypoxia, and vascularity for up to 65 days after 24-Gy irradiation. Tumors were assessed histologically to validate in vivo observations. In vivo fluorescence imaging revealed temporary vascular dysfunction in tumors irradiated with a single dose of 4 to 24 Gy, but most significantly with a single dose of 24 Gy. Vascular functional recovery was observed by 14 days after irradiation in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, irradiation with 24 Gy caused platelet and leukocyte adhesion to the vascular endothelium within hours to days after irradiation. Vascular permeability was significantly higher in irradiated tumors compared with nonirradiated controls 14 days after irradiation. This observation corresponded with increased expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in irradiated tumors. In the hind leg model, irradiation with a single dose of 24 Gy led to tumor growth delay, followed by tumor regrowth. Irradiation of the BxPC3 tumors with a single dose of 24 Gy caused transient vascular dysfunction and increased expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α. Such biological changes may impact tumor response to high single-dose and hypofractionated irradiation, and further investigations are needed to better understand the clinical outcomes of stereotactic body radiation therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Irradiation-induced structural changes in surveillance material of VVER 440-type weld metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, M.; Denner, V.; Böhmert, J.; Mathon, M.-H.

    2000-01-01

    The irradiation-induced microstructural changes in surveillance materials of the VVER 440-type weld metal Sv-10KhMFT were investigated by small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and anomalous small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Due to the high fluence, a strong effect was found in the SANS experiment. No significant effect of the irradiation is detected by SAXS. The reason for this discrepancy is the different scattering contrast of irradiation-induced defects for neutrons and X-rays. An analysis of the SAXS shows that the scattering intensity is mainly caused by vanadium-containing (VC) precipitates and grain boundaries. Both types of scattering defects are hardly changed by irradiation. Neutron irradiation rather produces additional scattering defects of a few nanometers in size. Assuming these defects are clusters containing copper and other foreign atoms with a composition according to results of atom probe field ion microscopy (APFIM) investigations, both the high SANS and the low SAXS effect can be explained.

  10. Damage induced by proton irradiation in carbonate based natural painting pigments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enguita, Olga E-mail: olga.enguita@uam.es; Calderon, T.; Fernandez-Jimenez, M.T.; Beneitez, P.; Millan, A.; Garcia, G

    2004-06-01

    The so called 'dark spot' phenomenon produced during proton irradiation of pigments is an important factor to determine experimental conditions of ion beam analysis of pigments in paintings, miniatures, pottery and other art objects. Recently it has been suggested that this phenomenon could be due to the formation of colour centres during irradiation, but there is scarce knowledge about the characteristics and the reversibility of the damage. In this work a representative set of natural carbonate minerals, traditionally used as pigments, were exposed to proton irradiation in an external beam set-up, in order to simulate routine external proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis conditions of an art object. During irradiation ionoluminescence (IL) combined with PIXE were employed to identify the microscopic processes involved in the proton damage. After irradiation, two well-established techniques for the study of colour centres, thermoluminescence (TL) and optical absorption were used. Particularly, TL is a very sensitive technique to detect very low concentrations of radiation induced defects.

  11. Irradiation-induced disordering and amorphization of Al3Ti-based intermetallic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong-Yong; Kim, Il-Hyun; Motta, Arthur T.; Ulmer, Christopher J.; Kirk, Marquis A.; Ryan, Edward A.; Baldo, Peter M.

    2015-12-01

    An in situ ion-irradiation study, simultaneously examined using transmission electron microscopy, was performed to investigate irradiation-induced disordering and amorphization of Al3Ti-based intermetallic compounds. Thin foil samples of two crystalline structures: D022-structured Al3Ti and L12-structured (Al,Cr)3Ti were irradiated using 1.0 MeV Kr ions at a temperature range from 40 K to 573 K to doses up to 4.06 × 1015 ions/cm2. The results showed that both the compounds underwent an order-disorder transformation under irradiation, where both Al3Ti and (Al,Cr)3Ti ordered structures were fully transformed to the disordered face-centered cubic (FCC) structure except at the highest irradiation temperature of 573 K. A slightly higher irradiation dose was required for order-disorder transformation in case of Al3Ti as compared to (Al,Cr)3Ti at a given temperature. However, their amorphization resistances were different: while the disordered FCC (Al,Cr)3Ti amorphized at the irradiation dose of 6.25 × 1014 ions/cm2 (0.92 dpa) at 40 K and 100 K, the Al3Ti compound with the same disordered FCC structure maintained crystallinity up to 4.06 × 1015 ions/cm2 (5.62 dpa) at 40 K. The critical temperature for amorphization of (Al,Cr)3Ti under Kr ion irradiation is likely between 100 K and room temperature and the critical temperature for disordering between room temperature and 573 K.

  12. The influence of composition of porous copolyester scaffolds on reactions induced by irradiation sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odelius, Karin; Plikk, Peter; Albertsson, Ann-Christine

    2008-01-01

    In our previous work regarding radiation sterilization of porous scaffolds we have concluded that the composition and microstructure of the polymer chain are a key factor influencing the degradation reactions occurring upon irradiation. In this work we in contrast reported on the effects of high-energy irradiation on the thermal and mechanical properties. Electron beam (EB)- and gamma-irradiation sterilization were used in order to finalize the properties of a series of porous scaffolds comprised of different aliphatic polyester copolymers. The results presented here show that, for both sterilization methods, the crystallinity increased for all copolymers of 1,5-dioxepan-2-one (DXO) and l,l-lactide (LLA) at the minimum sterilization dose. The same was true of the epsilon-caprolactone (CL)- and LLA-containing copolymers upon EB sterilization, while a reduction in crystallinity were found upon gamma-irradiation. As was anticipated, it was shown that crystallinity also is a characteristic of the copolymer influencing the effects of the irradiation-induced reactions. Both the onset temperature and the temperature corresponding to the maximum rate of weight loss increased after irradiation and hence the thermal stability was increased. This is a result of a simultaneous lengthening of the chains by cross-linking reactions and a shortening by random chain-scissions occurring throughout the molecule, which lead to the formation of new endgroups with higher thermal stability. Scaffolds of crystalline polymers retained more of their initial tensile properties after irradiation compared to amorphous materials. The result previously published, showing that the composition was a key factor influencing the degradation reactions occurring upon irradiation, was augmented here.

  13. Thermal effects in tissues induced by interstitial irradiation of near infrared laser with a cylindrical diffuser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Kelvin; Johsi, Chet; Figueroa, Daniel; Goddard, Jessica; Li, Xiaosong; Towner, Rheal A.; Saunders, Debra; Smith, Nataliya; Liu, Hong; Hode, Tomas; Nordquist, Robert E.; Chen, Wei R.

    2011-03-01

    Laser immunotherapy (LIT), using non-invasive laser irradiation, has resulted in promising outcomes in the treatment of late-stage cancer patients. However, the tissue absorption of laser light limits the clinical applications of LIT in patients with dark skin, or with deep tumors. The present study is designed to investigate the thermal effects of interstitial irradiation using an 805-nm laser with a cylindrical diffuser, in order to overcome the limitations of the non-invasive mode of treatment. Cow liver and rat tumors were irradiated using interstitial fiber. The temperature increase was monitored by thermocouples that were inserted into the tissue at different sites around the cylinder fiber. Three-dimensional temperature distribution in target tissues during and after interstitial laser irradiation was also determined by Proton Resonance Frequency. The preliminary results showed that the output power of laser and the optical parameters of the target tissue determined the light distribution in the tissue. The temperature distributions varied in the tissue according to the locations relative to the active tip of the cylindrical diffuser. The temperature increase is strongly related to the laser power and irradiation time. Our results using thermocouples and optical sensors indicated that the PRF method is reliable and accurate for temperature determination. Although the inhomogeneous biological tissues could result in temperature fluctuation, the temperature trend still can be reliable enough for the guidance of interstitial irradiation. While this study provides temperature profiles in tumor tissue during interstitial irradiation, the biological effects of the irradiation remain unclear. Future studies will be needed, particularly in combination with the application of immunostimulant for inducing tumor-specific immune responses in the treatment of metastatic tumors.

  14. Transition pattern and mechanism of B-lymphocyte precursors in regenerated mouse bone marrow after subtotal body irradiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deping Han

    Full Text Available Little is known about the effects of ionizing radiation on the transition and the related signal transduction of progenitor B cells in the bone marrow. Thus, using an NIH Swiss mouse model, we explored the impact of ionizing radiation on the early stage of B-cell development via an examination of the transition of CLP to pro-B to pre-B cells within bone marrow as a function of radiation doses and times. Our results showed that while the total number of bone marrow lymphoid cells at different stages were greatly reduced by subtotal body irradiation (sub-TBI, the surviving cells continued to transition from common lymphoid progenitors to pro-B and then to pre-B in a reproducible temporal pattern. The rearrangement of the immunoglobulin heavy chain increased significantly 1-2 weeks after irradiation, but no change occurred after 3-4 weeks. The rearrangement of the immunoglobulin light chain decreased significantly 1-2 weeks after sub-TBI but increased dramatically after 3-4 weeks. In addition, several key transcription factors and signaling pathways were involved in B-precursor transitions after sub-TBI. The data indicate that week 2 after irradiation is a critical time for the transition from pro-B cells to pre-B cells, reflecting that the functional processes for different B-cell stages are well preserved even after high-dose irradiation.

  15. Adult Umbilical Cord Blood Transplantation Using Myeloablative Thiotepa, Total Body Irradiation, and Fludarabine Conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Sarah; Thomas, Samantha; Corbet, Kelly; Gasparetto, Cristina; Long, Gwynn D; Lopez, Richard; Morris, Ashley K; Rizzieri, David A; Sullivan, Keith M; Sung, Anthony D; Sarantopoulos, Stefanie; Chao, Nelson J; Horwitz, Mitchell E

    2017-07-17

    Treatment-related mortality (TRM) remains elevated in adult patients undergoing umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT), including an early rise in TRM suggestive of excessive toxicity associated with the standard myeloablative total body irradiation (TBI), fludarabine, and cyclophosphamide regimen. In an attempt to reduce regimen-related toxicity, we previously studied a modified myeloablative regimen with TBI (1350 cGy) and fludarabine (160 mg/m(2)); TRM was decreased, but neutrophil engraftment was suboptimal. Therefore, to improve engraftment while still minimizing regimen-related toxicity, we piloted a myeloablative regimen with the addition of thiotepa (10 mg/kg) to TBI and fludarabine conditioning. Thirty-one adult patients (median age, 46 years; range, 19 to 65) with hematologic malignancies (acute leukemia/myelodysplastic syndrome, 77%; lymphoid malignancy, 23%) underwent single (n = 1) or double (n = 30) UCBT from 2010 to 2015 at our institution. The cumulative incidence of neutrophil engraftment was 90% (95% confidence interval [CI], 70% to 97%) by 60 days, with a median time to engraftment of 21 days (95% CI, 19 to 26). The cumulative incidence of platelet engraftment was 77% (95% CI, 57% to 89%) by 100 days, with a median time to engraftment of 47 days (95% CI, 37 to 73). Cumulative incidences of grades II to IV and grades III to IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) at day 100 were 45% (95% CI, 27% to 62%) and 10% (95% CI, 2% to 23%), respectively. The overall incidence of chronic GVHD at 2 years was 40% (95% CI, 22% to 57%), with 17% of patients (95% CI, 6% to 33%) experiencing moderate to severe chronic GVHD by 2 years. TRM at 180 days was 13% (95% CI, 4% to 27%), at 1 year 24% (95% CI, 10% to 41%), and at 3 years 30% (95% CI, 13% to 49%). Relapse at 1 year was 13% (95% CI, 4% to 27%) and at 3 years 19% (95% CI, 6% to 38%). With a median follow-up of 35.5 months (95% CI, 12.7 to 52.2), disease-free and overall survival at 3 years

  16. Studies on chemical protectors against radiation, 29; Protective effects of methanol extracts of various Chinese traditional medicines on skin injury induced by X-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Cheng-Ming; Ohta, Setsuko; Shinoda, Masato (Hoshi Coll. of Pharmacy, Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-03-01

    In order to investigate useful protective medicines for the relief of skin injury induced by irradiation, 60 methanol extracts of Chinese traditional medicines were used in the test of protective potency on skin injury. ICR male mice at 6 weeks of age were whole-body irradiated with 1100R by using a soft X-ray generator (30 kVp, 10 mA, 190 R/min). Each methanol extract of these medicines was injected intraperitoneally into mice before or after irradiation. The degrees of skin injury were determined by a score system of skin reaction within the observation period from 21st to 40th day after irradiation. Protective potency of each medicine on skin injury was calculated from the maximum mean scores of administrated group and un-administrated group. As a result of these studies, the protective potency was detected in Unsei-in, Kumibinro-to, Keisi-syakuyaku-chimo-to, Keigai-rengyo-to, Gosyuyu-to, Koso-san, Saiko-seikan-to, Syo-kankyo-to, Syo-saiko-to, Syoma-kakkon-to, Sen-kan-meimoku-to, Zokumei-to, Sokei-kakketu-to, Bokuryo-in, Mao-to and Rikkunsi-to by intraperitoneal injection before irradiation. Of these effective medicines, only Unsei-in and Mao-to are shown to have a significant protective effect by intraperitoneal injection after irradiation. (author).

  17. Skin Inqjuries Reduce Survival and Modulate Corticosterone, C-Reactive Protein, Complement Component 3, IgM, and Prostaglandin E2 after Whole-Body Reactor-Produced Mixed Field (n + γ-Photons Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliann G. Kiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin injuries such as wounds or burns following whole-body γ-irradiation (radiation combined injury (RCI increase mortality more than whole-body γ-irradiation alone. Wound-induced decreases in survival after irradiation are triggered by sustained activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase pathways, persistent alteration of cytokine homeostasis, and increased susceptibility to systemic bacterial infection. Among these factors, radiation-induced increases in interleukin-6 (IL-6 concentrations in serum were amplified by skin wound trauma. Herein, the IL-6-induced stress proteins including C-reactive protein (CRP, complement 3 (C3, immunoglobulin M (IgM, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 were evaluated after skin injuries given following a mixed radiation environment that might be found after a nuclear incident. In this report, mice received 3 Gy of reactor-produced mixed field (n+γ-photons radiations at 0.38 Gy/min followed by nonlethal skin wounding or burning. Both wounds and burns reduced survival and increased CRP, C3, and PGE2 in serum after radiation. Decreased IgM production along with an early rise in corticosterone followed by a subsequent decrease was noted for each RCI situation. These results suggest that RCI-induced alterations of corticosterone, CRP, C3, IgM, and PGE2 cause homeostatic imbalance and may contribute to reduced survival. Agents inhibiting these responses may prove to be therapeutic for RCI and improve related survival.

  18. Electron irradiation-induced change of structure and damage mechanisms in multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨剑群; 李兴冀; 刘超铭; 马国亮; 高峰

    2015-01-01

    Owing to their unique structure and excellent electrical property, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as an ideal candidate for making future electronic components have great application potentiality. In order to meet the requirements for space appli-cation in electronic components, it is necessary to study structural changes and damage mechanisms of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), caused by the irradiations of 70 and 110 keV electrons. In the paper, the changes of structure and damage mechanisms in the irradiated MWCNTs, induced by the irradiations of 70 and 110 keV electrons, are investigated. The changes in surface morphology and structure of the irradiated MWCNT film are characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. It is found that the MWCNTs show different behaviors in structural changes after 70 and 110 keV electron irradiation due to different damage mechanisms. SEM results reveal that the irra-diation of 70 keV electrons does not change surface morphology of the MWCNT film, while the irradiation of 110 keV electrons with a high fluence of 5 × 1015 cm−2 leads to evident morphological changes, such as the formation of a rough surface, the entanglement of nanotubes and the shrinkage of nanotubes. Based on Raman spectroscopy, XPS, and XRD analyses, it is confirmed that the irradiation of 70 keV electrons increases the interlayer spacing of the MWCNTs and disorders their structure through electronic excitations and ionization effects, while the irradiation of 110 keV electrons obviously reduces the interlayer spacing of the MWCNTs and improves their graphitic order through knock-on atom dis-placements. The improvement of the irradiated MWCNTs by 110 keV electrons is attributed to the restructuring of defect sites induced by knock-on atom displacements. EPR spectroscopic analyses reveal that the MWCNTs

  19. High-dose irradiation induces cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and developmental defects during Drosophila oogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Jin Shim

    Full Text Available Ionizing radiation (IR treatment induces a DNA damage response, including cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, and apoptosis in metazoan somatic cells. Because little has been reported in germline cells, we performed a temporal analysis of the DNA damage response utilizing Drosophila oogenesis as a model system. Oogenesis in the adult Drosophila female begins with the generation of 16-cell cyst by four mitotic divisions of a cystoblast derived from the germline stem cells. We found that high-dose irradiation induced S and G2 arrests in these mitotically dividing germline cells in a grp/Chk1- and mnk/Chk2-dependent manner. However, the upstream kinase mei-41, Drosophila ATR ortholog, was required for the S-phase checkpoint but not for the G2 arrest. As in somatic cells, mnk/Chk2 and dp53 were required for the major cell death observed in early oogenesis when oocyte selection and meiotic recombination occurs. Similar to the unscheduled DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs generated from defective repair during meiotic recombination, IR-induced DSBs produced developmental defects affecting the spherical morphology of meiotic chromosomes and dorsal-ventral patterning. Moreover, various morphological abnormalities in the ovary were detected after irradiation. Most of the IR-induced defects observed in oogenesis were reversible and were restored between 24 and 96 h after irradiation. These defects in oogenesis severely reduced daily egg production and the hatch rate of the embryos of irradiated female. In summary, irradiated germline cells induced DSBs, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and developmental defects resulting in reduction of egg production and defective embryogenesis.

  20. Coilin is rapidly recruited to UVA-induced DNA lesions and γ-radiation affects localized movement of Cajal bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bártová, Eva; Foltánková, Veronika; Legartová, Soňa; Sehnalová, Petra; Sorokin, Dmitry V; Suchánková, Jana; Kozubek, Stanislav

    2014-01-01

    Cajal bodies are important nuclear structures containing proteins that preferentially regulate RNA-related metabolism. We investigated the cell-type specific nuclear distribution of Cajal bodies and the level of coilin, a protein of Cajal bodies, in non-irradiated and irradiated human tumor cell lines and embryonic stem (ES) cells. Cajal bodies were localized in different nuclear compartments, including DAPI-poor regions, in the proximity of chromocenters, and adjacent to nucleoli. The number of Cajal bodies per nucleus was cell cycle-dependent, with higher numbers occurring during G2 phase. Human ES cells contained a high coilin level in the nucleoplasm, but coilin-positive Cajal bodies were also identified in nuclei of mouse and human ES cells. Coilin, but not SMN, recognized UVA-induced DNA lesions, which was cell cycle-independent. Treatment with γ-radiation reduced the localized movement of Cajal bodies in many cell types and GFP-coilin fluorescence recovery after photobleaching was very fast in nucleoplasm in comparison with GFP-coilin recovery in DNA lesions. By contrast, nucleolus-localized coilin displayed very slow fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, which indicates very slow rates of protein diffusion, especially in nucleoli of mouse ES cells.

  1. Irradiation of Spinal Metastases: Should We Continue to Include One Uninvolved Vertebral Body Above and Below in the Radiation Field?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klish, Darren S. [Lawrence Cancer Center, Lawrence, KS (United States); Grossman, Patricia; Allen, Pamela K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas, Houston, TX (United States); Rhines, Laurence D. [Department of Neurosurgery and (PG, PKA, ELC), M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas, Houston, TX (United States); Chang, Eric L., E-mail: echang@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas, Houston, TX (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: Historically, the appropriate target volume to be irradiated for spinal metastases is 1-2 vertebral bodies above and below the level of involvement for three reasons: (1) to avoid missing the correct level in the absence of simulation or (2) to account for the possibility of spread of disease to the adjacent level, and (3) to account for beam penumbra. In this study, we hypothesized that isolated failures occurring in the level adjacent to level treated with stereotactic body radiosurgery (SBRS) were infrequent and that with improved localization techniques with image-guided radiation therapy, treatment of only the involved level of spinal metastases may be more appropriate. Methods and Materials: Patients who had received SBRS treatments to only the involved level of the spine as part of a prospective trial for spinal metastases comprised the study population. Follow-up imaging with spine MRI was performed at 3-month intervals following initial treatment. Failures in the adjacent (V{+-}1, V{+-}2) and distant spine were identified and classified accordingly. Results: Fifty-eight patients met inclusion criteria for this study and harbored 65 distinct spinal metastases. At 18-month median follow-up, seven (10.7%) patients failed simultaneously at adjacent levels V{+-}1 and at multiple sites throughout the spine. Only two (3%) patients experienced isolated, solitary adjacent failures at 9 and 11 months, respectively. Conclusion: Isolated local failures of the unirradiated adjacent vertebral bodies may occur in <5% of patients with isolated spinal metastasis. On the basis of the data, the current practice of irradiating one vertebral body above and below seems unnecessary and could be revised to irradiate only the involved level(s) of the spine metastasis.

  2. Topological evolution of self-induced silicon nanogratings during prolonged femtosecond laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golosov, E.V.; Kolobov, Y.R. [Belgorod State University, Belgorod (Russian Federation); Ionin, A.A.; Kudryashov, S.I.; Novoselov, Y.N.; Seleznev, L.V.; Sinitsyn, D.V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ligachev, A.E. [A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Makarov, S.V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University, MEPHI, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-08-15

    Gradual evolution of self-induced silicon surface topology from one-dimensional ridge-like to two-dimensional spike-like nanogratings and then to isotropic sets of micro-columns was observed by evenly increasing IR and UV femtosecond laser irradiation dose. This topological evolution exhibits clear indications of consequent melting and vaporization processes being set up during the prolonged laser irradiation. Monotonously decreasing cumulative IR and UV femtosecond laser-nanostructuring thresholds may indicate an increase of optical absorbance of the laser-nanostructured silicon surfaces versus the increasing laser dose, consistent with the consequent onset of the abovementioned thermal modification processes. (orig.)

  3. Long-term results of total body irradiation in adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marnitz, Simone; Zich, Alexander; Budach, Volker; Jahn, Ulrich; Neumann, Oliver [Charite University Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Berlin (Germany); Martus, Peter [University Tuebingen, Institute of Clinical Epidemiology and Applied Biostatistics, Tuebingen (Germany); Arnold, Renate [Charite University Medicine, Campus CVK, Department of Hematology and Oncology, Bone Marrow Transplant Unit, Berlin (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    The aim of this chart review of adult patients treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with total body irradiation (TBI) was to evaluate early and late toxicity and long-term outcome. A total of 110 adult patients (34 ± 12 years) with ALL underwent TBI (6 fractions of 2 Gy for a total of 12 Gy) as a part of the treatment regimen before transplantation. Treatment-related toxicity, mortality, and hematologic outcome are reported. Mean follow-up was 70 months. The 2- and 5-year leukemia-free survival rates were 78 and 72 %, respectively. In all, 29 % (32/110) patients suffered from medullary recurrence after a median time of 7 months. Gender was the only statistically significant prognostic factor in terms of overall survival in favor of female patients. Treatment-related mortality and overall survival after 2 and 5 years were 16 and 22 %, and 60 and 52.7 %, respectively. The most frequent late reaction wascGVHD of the skin (n = 33, 30 %). In addition, 15.5 % (17/110 patients) suffered pulmonary symptoms, and 6 patients developed lung fibrosis. Eyes were frequently affected by the radiation (31/110 = 28 %); 12 of 110 patients (11 %) presented with symptoms from osteoporosis, 5 of 110 patients (4.5 %) developed hypothyreosis and 2 patients diabetes mellitus. Of the male patients, 11 % reported erectile dysfunction or loss of libido, while 2 of 36 women reported menopausal syndrome at the mean time of 28 months after treatment with requirement for substitution. No women became pregnant after treatment. No acute or late cardiac toxicities were documented in our patients. No secondary malignancies were documented. Although hematologic outcome was in the upper range of that reported in the literature, treatment-related mortality (TRM) and medullary recurrences remain a challenge. Sophisticated radiation techniques allow for decreasing toxicity to certain organs and/or dose escalation to the bone marrow in highly selected patients in order to improve therapeutic

  4. Evaluation of induced radioactivity in 10 MeV electron-irradiated spices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuta, Masakazu; Ito, Norio; Mizohata, Akira; Matsunami, Tadao; Katayama, Tadashi; Toratani, Hirokazu (Osaka Prefectural Univ., Sakai (Japan). Research Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology); Takeda, Atsuhiko

    1993-10-01

    In order to make clear appreciation to induced radioactivity in the irradiated foods, photonuclear reactions which could produce radioactivity at energies up to 10 MeV were listed up from elemental compositions of black pepper, white pepper, red pepper, ginger and turmeric. The samples were irradiated with 10 MeV electron from a linear accelerator to a dose of 100 kGy and radioactivity was measured. Induced radioactivity could not be detected significantly by gamma-ray spectrometry and beta-ray counting in the irradiated samples except for spiked samples which contain some photonuclear target nuclides in the list. From the amount of observed radioactivities of short-lived photonuclear products in the spiked samples and calculation of H[sub 50] according to ICRP Publication 30, it was concluded that the induced radioactivity and its biological effects in the 10 MeV electron-irradiated natural samples were negligible in comparison with natural radioactivity from [sup 40]K contained in the samples. (J.P.N.).

  5. Purple grape juice as a protector against acute X-irradiation induced alterations on mobility, anxiety, and feeding behaviour in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix A. A. Soares

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to test the hypothesis that a moderate intake of organic purple grape juice shows a positive radiomodifier effect over early behavioural damage following acute X-irradiation in mice. Anxiety-, locomotion-, and feeding-related responses to 6 Gy total body X-irradiation (TBI were studied via open field, Rotarod, and feeding/drinking recording. Thirty-two male mice weighing 25-30 g were grouped according grape juice (J or water (W ad libitum drinking and either non-irradiated (N or irradiated (R. 24 h post-TBI the access frequency to the center and corners of the open field was decreased, and the total stay in the corners increased, in RW vs. NW mice. Anxiety-related parameters decreased in RJ vs. RW mice. Rotarod latency times increased 72 h post-TBI in RJ vs RW mice. No overall changes in food and drink intake were observed along the experimental period. On the irradiation day, bout number was increased and bout duration was decreased in RW mice. The changes were reversed by purple grape juice intake. Grape juice intake before and after TBI can overcome several radiation-induced changes in behaviour within 24-72 hours after sub-lethal X-irradiation. This beneficial effect on short-term anxiety and mobility-related activities could probably be included in the list of flavonoid bio-effects. The present findings could be relevant in designing preventive interventions aimed to enhance body defense mechanisms against short-term irradiation damage.

  6. The Role of DNA Methylation Changes in Radiation-Induced Transgenerational Genomic Instability and Bystander Effects in cranial irradiated Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Sun, Yeqing; Gao, Yinglong; Zhang, Baodong

    Heavy-ion radiation could lead to genome instability in the germline, and therefore to transgenerational genome and epigenome instability in offspring of exposed males. The exact mechanisms of radiation-induced genome instability in directly exposed and in bystander organ remain obscure, yet accumulating evidence points to the role of DNA methylation changes in genome instability development. The potential of localized body-part exposures to affect the germline and thus induce genome and epigenome changes in the progeny has not been studied. To investigate whether or not the paternal cranial irradiation can exert deleterious changes in the protected germline and the offsprings, we studied the alteration of DNA methylation in the shielded testes tissue. Here we report that the localized paternal cranial irradiation results in a significant altered DNA methylation in sperm cells and leads to a profound epigenetic dysregulation in the unexposed progeny conceived 3 months after paternal exposure. The possible molecular mechanisms and biological consequences of the observed changes are discussed. Keywords: Heavy-ion radiation; Transgenerational effect; Genomic Instability Bystander Effects; DNA methylation.

  7. Gamma knife irradiation of injured sciatic nerve induces histological and behavioral improvement in the rat neuropathic pain model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Yagasaki

    Full Text Available We examined the effects of gamma knife (GK irradiation on injured nerves using a rat partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSL model. GK irradiation was performed at one week after ligation and nerve preparations were made three weeks after ligation. GK irradiation is known to induce immune responses such as glial cell activation in the central nervous system. Thus, we determined the effects of GK irradiation on macrophages using immunoblot and histochemical analyses. Expression of Iba-1 protein, a macrophage marker, was further increased in GK-treated injured nerves as compared with non-irradiated injured nerves. Immunohistochemical study of Iba-1 in GK-irradiated injured sciatic nerves demonstrated Iba-1 positive macrophage accumulation to be enhanced in areas distal to the ligation point. In the same area, myelin debris was also more efficiently removed by GK-irradiation. Myelin debris clearance by macrophages is thought to contribute to a permissive environment for axon growth. In the immunoblot study, GK irradiation significantly increased expressions of βIII-tubulin protein and myelin protein zero, which are markers of axon regeneration and re-myelination, respectively. Toluidine blue staining revealed the re-myelinated fiber diameter to be larger at proximal sites and that the re-myelinated fiber number was increased at distal sites in GK-irradiated injured nerves as compared with non-irradiated injured nerves. These results suggest that GK irradiation of injured nerves facilitates regeneration and re-myelination. In a behavior study, early alleviation of allodynia was observed with GK irradiation in PSL rats. When GK-induced alleviation of allodynia was initially detected, the expression of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF, a potent analgesic factor, was significantly increased by GK irradiation. These results suggested that GK irradiation alleviates allodynia via increased GDNF. This study provides novel evidence that GK

  8. SU-E-T-540: Volumetric Modulated Total Body Irradiation Using a Rotational Lazy Susan-Like Immobilization System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, X; Hrycushko, B; Lee, H; Lamphier, R; Jiang, S; Abdulrahman, R; Timmerman, R [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Traditional extended SSD total body irradiation (TBI) techniques can be problematic in terms of patient comfort and/or dose uniformity. This work aims to develop a comfortable TBI technique that achieves a uniform dose distribution to the total body while reducing the dose to organs at risk for complications. Methods: To maximize patient comfort, a lazy Susan-like couch top immobilization system which rotates about a pivot point was developed. During CT simulation, a patient is immobilized by a Vac-Lok bag within the body frame. The patient is scanned head-first and then feet-first following 180° rotation of the frame. The two scans are imported into the Pinnacle treatment planning system and concatenated to give a full-body CT dataset. Treatment planning matches multiple isocenter volumetric modulated arc (VMAT) fields of the upper body and multiple isocenter parallel-opposed fields of the lower body. VMAT fields of the torso are optimized to satisfy lung dose constraints while achieving a therapeutic dose to the torso. The multiple isocenter VMAT fields are delivered with an indexed couch, followed by body frame rotation about the pivot point to treat the lower body isocenters. The treatment workflow was simulated with a Rando phantom, and the plan was mapped to a solid water slab phantom for point- and film-dose measurements at multiple locations. Results: The treatment plan of 12Gy over 8 fractions achieved 80.2% coverage of the total body volume within ±10% of the prescription dose. The mean lung dose was 8.1 Gy. All ion chamber measurements were within ±1.7% compared to the calculated point doses. All relative film dosimetry showed at least a 98.0% gamma passing rate using a 3mm/3% passing criteria. Conclusion: The proposed patient comfort-oriented TBI technique provides for a uniform dose distribution within the total body while reducing the dose to the lungs.

  9. Late effects of childhood cancer treatment: severe hypertriglyceridaemia, central obesity, non alcoholic fatty liver disease and diabetes as complications of childhood total body irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, R; Abu, E; Fadl, A; Byrne, C D

    2013-08-01

    Childhood cancer survivors may develop a number of endocrine complications linked to organ failure, such as hypogonadism, diabetes and growth hormone deficiency. However, increasing evidence now suggests that total body irradiation treatment, specifically, is linked with future risk of insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis and dyslipidaemia, possibly because total body irradiation affects adipocyte differentiation and impairs subcutaneous adipose tissue depot expansion during times of positive energy balance. We describe a 20-year-old woman who developed pancreatitis with severe hypertriglyceridaemia (serum triglycerides > 300 mmol/l) that required plasmapheresis. She had received total body irradiation prior to her bone marrow transplant at age 6 years for relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. She developed ovarian failure at age 12 years. At age 15 years she was noted to have hyperglycaemia, increased blood pressure, hepatic steatosis and mild hypertriglyceridaemia. She presented with severe hypertriglyceridaemia and eruptive xanthoma, and developed pancreatitis 12 h after admission. She was treated with plasmapheresis and intravenous insulin and made an excellent recovery. We implicate and discuss total body irradiation as the major contributing factor to her severe hypertriglyceridaemia, compounded by worsening glycaemic control, oestrogen deficiency and a changing adult lifestyle. Children who have received total body irradiation are at risk of diabetes and an exaggerated form of the metabolic syndrome with hypertriglyceridaemia, which can be life-threatening. We suggest that survivors of total body irradiation treatment require careful lifelong monitoring of their metabolic status. © 2013 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2013 Diabetes UK.

  10. Process induced morphology of irradiated HD-PE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldt, Regine; Gohs, Uwe; Stamm, Manfred; Heinrich, Gert

    2016-03-01

    The preparation of cross-linked polyethylene with high energy electrons is a well-known and used method to change material properties [1-6]. A new developed technique called "Electron induced reactive processing" simultaneously combines polymer modification with high energy electrons and melt mixing processes [7-13]. In the case of polyethylene, this novel technique leads to exceptional mechanical properties. Definitely, these properties depend on the molecular architecture as well as the morphological characteristics of polyethylene after the electron treatment. In this work we concentrate on the morphological changes of high density polyethylene generated by using state of the art high energy electron treatment in the solid state compared with high density polyethylene modified with the electron induced reactive processing.

  11. Process induced morphology of irradiated HD-PE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boldt, Regine, E-mail: boldt@ipfdd.de; Gohs, Uwe [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e.V., Hohe Strasse 6, D-1069 Dresden (Germany); Stamm, Manfred [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e.V., Hohe Strasse 6, D-1069 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, Physical Chemistry of Polymer Materials D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Heinrich, Gert [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e.V., Hohe Strasse 6, D-1069 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, Institut für Werkstoffwissenschaften D-01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2016-03-09

    The preparation of cross-linked polyethylene with high energy electrons is a well-known and used method to change material properties [1-6]. A new developed technique called “Electron induced reactive processing” simultaneously combines polymer modification with high energy electrons and melt mixing processes [7-13]. In the case of polyethylene, this novel technique leads to exceptional mechanical properties. Definitely, these properties depend on the molecular architecture as well as the morphological characteristics of polyethylene after the electron treatment. In this work we concentrate on the morphological changes of high density polyethylene generated by using state of the art high energy electron treatment in the solid state compared with high density polyethylene modified with the electron induced reactive processing.

  12. Survival and Neurocognitive Outcomes After Cranial or Craniospinal Irradiation Plus Total-Body Irradiation Before Stem Cell Transplantation in Pediatric Leukemia Patients With Central Nervous System Involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiniker, Susan M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Agarwal, Rajni [Section of Stem Cell Transplantation, Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Modlin, Leslie A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Gray, Christine C. [Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Harris, Jeremy P.; Million, Lynn [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Kiamanesh, Eileen F. [Cancer Clinical Trials Office, Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Donaldson, Sarah S., E-mail: sarah2@stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate survival and neurocognitive outcomes in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients with central nervous system (CNS) involvement treated according to an institutional protocol with stem cell transplantation (SCT) and a component of craniospinal irradiation (CSI) in addition to total-body irradiation (TBI) as preparative regimen. Methods and Materials: Forty-one pediatric ALL patients underwent SCT with TBI and received additional cranial irradiation or CSI because of CNS leukemic involvement. Prospective neurocognitive testing was performed before and after SCT in a subset of patients. Cox regression models were used to determine associations of patient and disease characteristics and treatment methods with outcomes. Results: All patients received a cranial radiation boost; median total cranial dose was 24 Gy. Eighteen patients (44%) received a spinal boost; median total spinal dose for these patients was 18 Gy. Five-year disease-free survival (DFS) for all patients was 67%. Those receiving CSI had a trend toward superior DFS compared with those receiving a cranial boost alone (hazard ratio 3.23, P=.14). Patients with isolated CNS disease before SCT had a trend toward superior DFS (hazard ratio 3.64, P=.11, 5-year DFS 74%) compared with those with combined CNS and bone marrow disease (5-year DFS 59%). Neurocognitive testing revealed a mean post-SCT overall intelligence quotient of 103.7 at 4.4 years. Relative deficiencies in processing speed and/or working memory were noted in 6 of 16 tested patients (38%). Pre- and post-SCT neurocognitive testing revealed no significant change in intelligence quotient (mean increase +4.7 points). At a mean of 12.5 years after transplant, 11 of 13 long-term survivors (85%) had completed at least some coursework at a 2- or 4-year college. Conclusion: The addition of CSI to TBI before SCT in pediatric ALL with CNS involvement is effective and well-tolerated. Craniospinal irradiation plus TBI is worthy

  13. Erythropoiesis in mice exposed to continuous whole body irradiation of gamma-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshima, Hisamasa; Fukutsu, Kumiko; Matsushita, Satoru; Kashima, Masatoshi

    1988-09-01

    The erythropoietic effects of continuous ..gamma..-irradiation with a daily regime of 0.029, 0.083 and 0.374 Gy were studied in mice. Irradiation was performed with /sup 137/Cs ..gamma..-rays for 22 hr/day. The length of irradiation time varied from 3 to 112 days. Erythropoiesis was investigated on the basis of clearance of /sup 59/Fe from the circulation and of incorporation of /sup 59/Fe into circulating erythrocytes and erythropoietic tissue. A chemical method for the separation of heme and nonheme iron-containing fractions was employed to examine the uptake of /sup 59/Fe into both the heme and nonheme iron fractions. Daily exposure to 0.029 and 0.083 Gy caused no significant changes in erythropoiesis. Daily exposure to 0.374 Gy caused some significant changes in erythropoiesis. On day 7 of continuous irradiation, the amount of /sup 59/Fe incorporated into erythrocytes decreased, but the values returned to normal on day 14 and 28 of continuous irradiation, indicating recovery within erythropoietic tissues at earlier time. On day 56, depressed incorporation of /sup 59/Fe into erythrocytes with normal rate of disappearance of /sup 59/Fe from the circulation and increased heme level of /sup 59/Fe in the femoral marrow were observed. Results observed on day 56 may suggest the possibility of ineffective erythropoiesis during the continuous irradiation. On day 112, some mice showed almost the same changes in erythropoiesis as those mice exposed to acute X-rays radiation.

  14. Radiation-Induced Centers in Lead Silicate Glasses Irradiated by Stationary and Pulsed Electron Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhidkov, I. S.; Zatsepin, A. F.; Konev, S. F.; Cholakh, S. O.

    2015-08-01

    Radiation-induced centers formed in heavy flint glasses irradiated by electron beams are investigated by the methods of optical and EPR spectroscopy. It is revealed that stable and short-living optical absorption centers of close natures are formed under irradiation by fast electrons. A correlation is established between the stable optical absorption bands and the EPR signals interpreted as signals of the (Pb2+)/h+ hole centers. The shortliving color centers are formed due to short-term distortion of the O-Pb bonds, and the stable centers are formed due to the spatial separation, thermalization, and subsequent stabilization of excited electrons and holes in tails of the localized states. Irradiation by electron beams leads to a change in the spectral characteristics of the fundamental absorption edge and, in particular, of the Urbach energy that determines the degree of structural disorder.

  15. Low-dose total body irradiation (TBI) and fludarabine followed by hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from HLA-matched or mismatched unrelated donors and postgrafting immunosuppression with cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) can induce durable complete chimerism and sustained remissions in patients with hematological diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederwieser, Dietger; Maris, Michael; Shizuru, Judith A; Petersdorf, Effie; Hegenbart, Ute; Sandmaier, Brenda M; Maloney, David G; Storer, Barry; Lange, Thoralf; Chauncey, Thomas; Deininger, Michael; Pönisch, Wolfram; Anasetti, Claudio; Woolfrey, Ann; Little, Marie-Terese; Blume, Karl G; McSweeney, Peter A; Storb, Rainer F

    2003-02-15

    Toxicities of high-dose conditioning regimens have limited the use of conventional unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) to younger, medically fit patients. Based on preclinical studies, an HCT approach has been developed for elderly or medically infirm patients with HLA-matched or mismatched unrelated donors. In this study, 52 patients with hematological diseases were included. Most (88%) had preceding unsuccessful conventional HCT or refractory/advanced disease. Patients were treated with fludarabine 30 mg/m(2)/d from days -4 to -2, 2 Gy total body irradiation on day 0, cyclosporine at 6.25 mg/kg twice daily from day -3, and mycophenolate mofetil at 15 mg/kg twice daily from day 0. Durable donor chimerism was attained in 88% of the patients. By day 28, a median of 100% of CD56(+) cells were of donor origin. Granulocyte and T-cell donor chimerism increased to medians of 100% on day 56 and day 180 (range, 55%-100%), respectively. Acute GVHD, grade II, was seen in 42% (CI, 29%-56%); grade III in 8% (CI, 0%-15%); and grade IV in 13% (CI, 4%-23%) of patients; it was fatal in 9%. The 100-day transplantation-related mortality was 11%. Complete remissions, including molecular remissions, were seen in 45% of patients with measurable disease before transplantation. Mortality from disease progression was 27% at one year. With a median follow-up of 19 months, 18 of the 52 patients (35%) were alive and 25% were in remission. HCT from HLA-matched or mismatched unrelated donors can be performed with a reduced intensity conditioning regimen in patients ineligible for conventional HCT.

  16. Parathyroid hormone and calcitonin interactions in bone: Irradiation-induced inhibition of escape in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krieger, N.S.; Tashjian, A.H. Jr.; Feldman, R.S.

    1982-01-01

    Calcitonin (CT) inhibits hormonally stimulated bone resorption only transiently in vitro. This phenomenon has been termed ''escape,'' but the mechanism for the effect is not understood. One possible explanation is that bone cell differentiation and recruitment of specific precursor cells, in response to stimulators of resorption, lead to the appearance of osteoclasts that are unresponsive to CT. To test this hypothesis, cell proliferation in neonatal mouse calvaria in organ culture was inhibited by irradiation from a cobalt-60 source. At a dose of 6000 R, (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation into intact calvaria was inhibited approximately 90%. Irradiation had no effect on the resorptive response to 0.1 U/ml parathyroid hormone (PTH). However, irradiation induced a dose-dependent inhibition of the escape response which was maximal at 6000 R. A dose of 6000 R did not affect the binding of /sup 125/I-salmon CT to calvaria and decreased PTH stimulation of cyclic AMP release from bone without affecting the cyclic AMP response to CT. Although irradiation caused a dose-dependent inhibition of DNA synthesis, the dose-response curves for that effect and inhibition of escape were not superimposable. A morphologic study of hormonally treated calvaria demonstrated that irradiation prevented the early increase in number of osteoclasts in PTH-treated calvaria that had been observed previously in unirradiated bones. Autoradiography showed that irradiation also prevented the PTH-stimulated recruitment of newly divided mononuclear cell precursors into osteoclasts. This may be correlated with the effect of irradiation to prevent the loss of responsiveness to CT in the presence of PTH.

  17. High resolution laser beam induced current images under trichromatic laser radiation: approximation to the solar irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas, F J; Alcántara, R; Fernández-Lorenzo, C; Martín-Calleja, J

    2010-03-01

    A laser beam induced current (LBIC) map of a photoactive surface is a very useful tool when it is necessary to study the spatial variability of properties such as photoconverter efficiency or factors connected with the recombination of carriers. Obtaining high spatial resolution LBIC maps involves irradiating the photoactive surface with a photonic beam with Gaussian power distribution and with a low dispersion coefficient. Laser emission fulfils these characteristics, but against it is the fact that it is highly monochromatic and therefore has a spectral distribution different to solar emissions. This work presents an instrumental system and procedure to obtain high spatial resolution LBIC maps in conditions approximating solar irradiation. The methodology developed consists of a trichromatic irradiation system based on three sources of laser excitation with emission in the red, green, and blue zones of the electromagnetic spectrum. The relative irradiation powers are determined by either solar spectrum distribution or Planck's emission formula which provides information approximate to the behavior of the system if it were under solar irradiation. In turn, an algorithm and a procedure have been developed to be able to form images based on the scans performed by the three lasers, providing information about the photoconverter efficiency of photovoltaic devices under the irradiation conditions used. This system has been checked with three photosensitive devices based on three different technologies: a commercial silicon photodiode, a commercial photoresistor, and a dye-sensitized solar cell. These devices make it possible to check how the superficial quantum efficiency has areas dependent upon the excitation wavelength while it has been possible to measure global incident photon-to-current efficiency values approximating those that would be obtained under irradiation conditions with sunlight.

  18. Developmental toxicity and oxidative stress induced by gamma irradiation in zebrafish embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Miao; Hu, Nan; Ding, Dexin; Zhao, Weichao; Feng, Yongfu; Zhang, Hui; Li, Guangyue; Wang, Yongdong [University of South China, Key Discipline Laboratory for National Defense for Biotechnology in Uranium Mining and Hydrometallurgy, Hengyang, Hunan Province (China)

    2016-11-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the biological effects of gamma irradiation on zebrafish embryos. Different doses of gamma rays (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 and 1 Gy) were used to irradiate zebrafish embryos at three developmental stages (stage 1, 6 h post-fertilization (hpf); stage 2, 12 hpf; stage three, 24 hpf), respectively. The survival, malformation and hatching rates of the zebrafish embryos were measured at the morphological endpoint of 96 hpf. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were assayed. Morphology analysis showed that gamma irradiation inhibited hatching and induced developmental toxicity in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, after irradiation the malformation rate changed not only in a dose-dependent manner but also in a developmental stage-dependent manner, indicating that the zebrafish embryos at stage 1 were more sensitive to gamma rays than those at other stages. Biochemical analysis showed that gamma irradiation modulated the activities of antioxidant enzymes in a dose-dependent manner. A linear relationship was found between GPx activity and irradiation dose in 0.1-1 Gy group, and GPx was a suitable biomarker for gamma irradiation in the dose range from 0.1 to 1 Gy. Furthermore, the activities of SOD, CAT, GR and GPx of the zebrafish embryos at stage 3 were found to be much higher than those at other stages, indicating that the zebrafish embryos at stage 3 had a greater ability to protect against gamma rays than those at other stages, and thus the activities of antioxidant enzymes changed in a developmental stage-dependent manner. (orig.)

  19. Total body irradiation with a compensator fabricated using a 3D optical scanner and a 3D printer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, So-Yeon; Kim, Jung-in; Joo, Yoon Ha; Lee, Jung Chan; Park, Jong Min

    2017-05-01

    We propose bilateral total body irradiation (TBI) utilizing a 3D printer and a 3D optical scanner. We acquired surface information of an anthropomorphic phantom with the 3D scanner and fabricated the 3D compensator with the 3D printer, which could continuously compensate for the lateral missing tissue of an entire body from the beam’s eye view. To test the system’s performance, we measured doses with optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters (OSLDs) as well as EBT3 films with the anthropomorphic phantom during TBI without a compensator, conventional bilateral TBI, and TBI with the 3D compensator (3D TBI). The 3D TBI showed the most uniform dose delivery to the phantom. From the OSLD measurements of the 3D TBI, the deviations between the measured doses and the prescription dose ranged from  -6.7% to 2.4% inside the phantom and from  -2.3% to 0.6% on the phantom’s surface. From the EBT3 film measurements, the prescription dose could be delivered to the entire body of the phantom within  ±10% accuracy, except for the chest region, where tissue heterogeneity is extreme. The 3D TBI doses were much more uniform than those of the other irradiation techniques, especially in the anterior-to-posterior direction. The 3D TBI was advantageous, owing to its uniform dose delivery as well as its efficient treatment procedure.

  20. Total body irradiation with a compensator fabricated using a 3D optical scanner and a 3D printer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, So-Yeon; Kim, Jung-In; Joo, Yoon Ha; Lee, Jung Chan; Park, Jong Min

    2017-05-07

    We propose bilateral total body irradiation (TBI) utilizing a 3D printer and a 3D optical scanner. We acquired surface information of an anthropomorphic phantom with the 3D scanner and fabricated the 3D compensator with the 3D printer, which could continuously compensate for the lateral missing tissue of an entire body from the beam's eye view. To test the system's performance, we measured doses with optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters (OSLDs) as well as EBT3 films with the anthropomorphic phantom during TBI without a compensator, conventional bilateral TBI, and TBI with the 3D compensator (3D TBI). The 3D TBI showed the most uniform dose delivery to the phantom. From the OSLD measurements of the 3D TBI, the deviations between the measured doses and the prescription dose ranged from  -6.7% to 2.4% inside the phantom and from  -2.3% to 0.6% on the phantom's surface. From the EBT3 film measurements, the prescription dose could be delivered to the entire body of the phantom within  ±10% accuracy, except for the chest region, where tissue heterogeneity is extreme. The 3D TBI doses were much more uniform than those of the other irradiation techniques, especially in the anterior-to-posterior direction. The 3D TBI was advantageous, owing to its uniform dose delivery as well as its efficient treatment procedure.

  1. Determination of irradiation parameters for laser-induced periodic surface structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichstaedt, J., E-mail: j.eichstadt@utwente.nl [University of Twente, Faculty of Engineering Technology, Chair of Applied Laser Technology, P.O. Box 217, Enschede, 7500 AE (Netherlands); Roemer, G.R.B.E. [University of Twente, Faculty of Engineering Technology, Chair of Applied Laser Technology, P.O. Box 217, Enschede, 7500 AE (Netherlands); Huis in ' t Veld, A.J. [University of Twente, Faculty of Engineering Technology, Chair of Applied Laser Technology, P.O. Box 217, Enschede, 7500 AE (Netherlands); TNO Technical Sciences, Mechatronics, Mechanics and Materials, De Rondom 1, Eindhoven, 5600 HE (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present an approach for the determination of irradiation parameters for laser-induced periodic surface structures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The approach is based on accumulated fluence and consists of two steps. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer (1) Determination of fluence domain boundaries and (2) approximation of irradiation parameters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The approach is required to apply LIPSS for surface functionalization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We provide experimental evidence that the accumulated fluence has a decisive role in the spatial emergence of LIPSS. - Abstract: The spatial emergence of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) on single-crystalline silicon, upon irradiation with linearly polarized picosecond laser pulses (wavelength {lambda} = 1030 nm, pulse duration {tau} = 6.7 ps, pulse repetition frequency f{sub p} = 1 kHz) was studied theoretically and experimentally, under lateral displacement conditions. An experimental approach is presented for the determination of irradiation parameters of extended surface areas homogenously covered with LIPSS. The approach is based on accumulated fluence and consists of two steps, first the empirical determination of accumulated fluence domain boundaries and second the approximation of irradiation parameters. Such an approach is required for the application of LIPSS in the field of surface functionalization. The approach was successfully applied for structuring extended surface areas, which were homogenously covered with LIPSS. The areas, obtained by different irradiation parameter combinations, satisfying accumulated fluence boundary conditions, show the same type of LIPSS. This observation provides evidence, that the accumulated fluence has a decisive role in the spatial emergence of LIPSS. In the future, further experiments are required to verify the validity and boundaries of the approximations applied.

  2. Biochemical and topological analysis of bovine sperm cells induced by low power laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyer, T. R.; Siqueira, A. F. P.; Magrini, T. D.; Fiorito, P. A.; Assumpção, M. E. O. A.; Nichi, M.; Martinho, H. S.; Milazzotto, M. P.

    2011-07-01

    Low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) increases ATP production and energy supply to the cell which could increase sperm motility, acrossomal reaction and consequently the fertilizing potential. The aim of this study was to characterize the biochemical and topological changes induced by low power laser irradiation on bull sperm cells. Post-thawing sperm were irradiated with a 633nm laser with fluence rates of 30, 150 and 300mJ.cm-2 (power of 5mW for 1, 5 and 10minutes, respectively); 45, 230, and 450mJ.cm-2 (7.5mW for 1, 5 and 10 minutes); and 60, 300 and 600mJ.cm-2 (10mW for 1, 5 and 10 minutes). Biochemical and metabolical changes were analyzed by FTIR and flow cytometry; oxygen reactive species production was assessed by TBARS and the morphological changes were evaluated by AFM. Motility had no difference among times or powers of irradiation. Increasing in ROS generation was observed with power of 5mW compared to 7.5 and 10mW, and with 10min of irradiation in comparison with 5 and 1min of irradiation. This higher ROS generation was related to an increase in acrossomal and plasma membrane damage. FTIR results showed that the amount of lipids was inversely proportional to the quantity of ROS generated. AFM images showed morphological differences in plasma/acrossomal membrane, mainly on the equatorial region. We conclude that LLLI is an effective method to induce changes on sperm cell metabolism but more studies are necessary to establish an optimal dose to increase the fertility potential of these cells.

  3. Proton irradiation induced defects in GaN: Rutherford backscattering and thermally stimulated current studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, T.; Nishikata, N.; Kamioka, K.; Kuriyama, K.; Kushida, K.

    2016-03-01

    The proton irradiation induced defects in GaN are studied by combining elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA), thermally stimulated current (TSC), and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) measurements. The proton irradiation (peak concentration: 1.0 × 1015 cm-2) into GaN films with a thickness of 3 μm is performed using a 500 keV implanter. The proton concentration by a TRIM simulation is maximum at 3600 nm in depth, which means that the proton beam almost passes through the GaN film. The carrier concentration decreases three orders of magnitude to 1015 cm-3 by the proton irradiation, suggesting the existence of the proton irradiation-induced defects. The ERDA measurements using the 1.5 MeV helium beam can evaluate hydrogen from the surface to ∼300 nm. The hydrogen concentration at ∼220 nm is ∼8.3 × 1013 cm-2 and ∼1.0 × 1014 cm-2 for un-irradiated and as-irradiated samples, respectively, suggesting that electrical properties are almost not affected by hydrogen. TSC measurements show a broad spectrum at around 110 K which can be divided into three traps, P1 (ionization energy 173 meV), P2 (251 meV), and P3 (330 meV). The peak intensity of P1 is much larger than that of P2 and P3. These traps are related to the N vacancy and/or complex involving N vacancy (P1), neutral Ga vacancy (VGa) (P2), and complex involving VGa (P3). The Ga displacement concentration evaluated by RBS measurements is 1.75 × 1019 cm-3 corresponding to 1/1000 of the Ga concentration in GaN. The observed Ga displacement may be origins of P2 and P3 traps.

  4. Light-induced fading of the PSL signal from irradiated herbs and spices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, A.; Corda, U.; Fuochi, P.; Bortolin, E.; Calicchia, A.; Onori, S.

    2007-08-01

    Reliability of the photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) technique, as screening method for irradiated food identification, has been tested with three kinds of herbs and spices (oregano, red pepper and fennel), prepared in two different ways (granular: i.e. seeds and flakes, or powdered), over a long period of storage with different light exposures. The irradiated samples kept in the dark gave always a positive response (the sample is correctly classified as "irradiated") for the overall examination period. The samples kept under ambient light conditions, in typical commercial glass containers, exhibited a reduction of the PSL signal, more or less pronounced depending on the type of food and packaging. The different PSL response of the irradiated samples is to be related to the quantity and quality of the mineral debris present in the individual food. It was also found that, for the same type of food, the light-induced fading was much stronger for the flaked and seed samples than for the corresponding powder samples, the penetrating capability of light being much more inhibited in powdered than in whole seeds or flaked form samples. The observed light bleaching of the PSL signal in irradiated herbs and spices is of practical relevance since it may lead to false negative classifications.

  5. Low-energy electron irradiation induced top-surface nanocrystallization of amorphous carbon film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Cheng [Institute of Nanosurface Science and Engineering (INSE), Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Devices and Systems of Ministry of Education and Guangdong Province, College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Fan, Xue, E-mail: fanx@szu.edu.cn [Institute of Nanosurface Science and Engineering (INSE), Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Diao, Dongfeng, E-mail: dfdiao@szu.edu.cn [Institute of Nanosurface Science and Engineering (INSE), Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China)

    2016-10-30

    Graphical abstract: Low-energy electron irradiation was proposed to nanocrystallize the top-surface of the as-deposited amorphous carbon film, and sp{sup 2} nanocrystallites formed in the film top-surface within 4 nm thickness. Display Omitted - Abstract: We report a low-energy electron irradiation method to nanocrystallize the top-surface of amorphous carbon film in electron cyclotron resonance plasma system. The nanostructure evolution of the carbon film as a function of electron irradiation density and time was examined by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy. The results showed that the electron irradiation gave rise to the formation of sp{sup 2} nanocrystallites in the film top-surface within 4 nm thickness. The formation of sp{sup 2} nanocrystallite was ascribed to the inelastic electron scattering in the top-surface of carbon film. The frictional property of low-energy electron irradiated film was measured by a pin-on-disk tribometer. The sp{sup 2} nanocrystallized top-surface induced a lower friction coefficient than that of the original pure amorphous film. This method enables a convenient nanocrystallization of amorphous surface.

  6. Cation disordering in magnesium aluminate spinel crystals induced by electron or ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeda, Takeshi E-mail: soeda@regroup5.nucl.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Matsumura, Syo; Kinoshita, Chiken; Zaluzec, Nestor J

    2000-12-01

    Structural changes in magnesium aluminate spinel (MgO {center_dot} nAl{sub 2}O{sub 3}) single crystals, which were irradiated with 900 keV electrons or 1 MeV Ne{sup +} ions at 873 K, were examined by electron channeling enhanced X-ray microanalysis. Unirradiated MgO {center_dot} Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} has a tendency to form the normal spinel configuration, where Mg{sup 2+} ions and Al{sup 3+} ions occupy mainly the tetrahedral and the octahedral sites, respectively. Electron irradiation induces simple cation disordering between the tetrahedral sites and the octahedral sites in MgO {center_dot} Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. In addition to cation disordering, slight evacuation of cations from the tetrahedral sites to the octahedral sites occurs in a peak-damaged area in MgO {center_dot} Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} irradiated with Ne{sup +} ions. In contrast, cation disordering is suppressed in MgO {center_dot} 2.4Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} irradiated with electrons. The structural vacancies, present in the non-stoichiometric compound, appear to be effective in promoting irradiation damage recovery through interstitial-vacancy recombination.

  7. Structural modifications induced by ion irradiation and temperature in boron carbide B{sub 4}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victor, G., E-mail: g.victor@ipnl.in2p3.fr [Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon (IPNL), Université Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, 4 rue Enrico Fermi, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Pipon, Y.; Bérerd, N. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon (IPNL), Université Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, 4 rue Enrico Fermi, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Institut Universitaire de Technologie (IUT) Lyon-1, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Toulhoat, N. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon (IPNL), Université Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, 4 rue Enrico Fermi, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); CEA-DEN, Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Moncoffre, N. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon (IPNL), Université Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, 4 rue Enrico Fermi, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Djourelov, N. [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tzarigradsko chaussee blvd, BG-1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); ELI-NP, IFIN-HH, 30 Reactorului Str, MG-6 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Miro, S. [CEA-DEN, Service de Recherches de Métallurgie Physique, Laboratoire JANNUS, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Baillet, J. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon (IPNL), Université Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, 4 rue Enrico Fermi, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Pradeilles, N.; Rapaud, O.; Maître, A. [SPCTS, UMR CNRS 7315, Centre Européen de la céramique, University of Limoges (France); Gosset, D. [CEA, Saclay, DMN-SRMA-LA2M, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2015-12-15

    Already used as neutron absorber in the current French nuclear reactors, boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) is also considered in the future Sodium Fast Reactors of the next generation (Gen IV). Due to severe irradiation conditions occurring in these reactors, it is of primary importance that this material presents a high structural resistance under irradiation, both in the ballistic and electronic damage regimes. Previous works have shown an important structural resistance of boron carbide even at high neutron fluences. Nevertheless, the structural modification mechanisms due to irradiation are not well understood. Therefore the aim of this paper is to study structural modifications induced in B{sub 4}C samples in different damage regimes. The boron carbide pellets were shaped and sintered by using spark plasma sintering method. They were then irradiated in several conditions at room temperature or 800 °C, either by favoring the creation of ballistic damage (between 1 and 3 dpa), or by favoring the electronic excitations using 100 MeV swift iodine ions (S{sub e} ≈ 15 keV/nm). Ex situ micro-Raman spectroscopy and Doppler broadening of annihilation radiation technique with variable energy slow positrons were coupled to follow the evolution of the B{sub 4}C structure under irradiation.

  8. Atomistic Analysis Of Radiation-Induced Segregation In Ion-Irradiated Stainless Steel 316

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee G.-G.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Stainless steel (SS is a well-known material for the internal parts of nuclear power plants. It is known that these alloys exhibit radiation-induced segregation (RIS at point defect sinks at moderate temperature, while in service. The RIS behavior of SS can be a potential problem by increasing the susceptibility to irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking. In this work, the RIS behavior of solute atoms at sinks in SS 316 irradiated with Fe4+ ions were characterized by atom probe tomography (APT. There were torus-shaped defects along with a depletion of Cr and enrichment of Ni and Si. These clusters are believed to be dislocation loops resulting from irradiation. The segregation of solutes was also observed for various defect shapes. These observations are consistent with other APT results from the literature. The composition of the clusters was analyzed quantitatively almost at the atomic scale. Despite the limitations of the experiments, the APT analysis was well suited for discovering the structure of irradiation defects and performing a quantitative analysis of RIS in irradiated specimens.

  9. Structural modifications induced by ion irradiation and temperature in boron carbide B4C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, G.; Pipon, Y.; Bérerd, N.; Toulhoat, N.; Moncoffre, N.; Djourelov, N.; Miro, S.; Baillet, J.; Pradeilles, N.; Rapaud, O.; Maître, A.; Gosset, D.

    2015-12-01

    Already used as neutron absorber in the current French nuclear reactors, boron carbide (B4C) is also considered in the future Sodium Fast Reactors of the next generation (Gen IV). Due to severe irradiation conditions occurring in these reactors, it is of primary importance that this material presents a high structural resistance under irradiation, both in the ballistic and electronic damage regimes. Previous works have shown an important structural resistance of boron carbide even at high neutron fluences. Nevertheless, the structural modification mechanisms due to irradiation are not well understood. Therefore the aim of this paper is to study structural modifications induced in B4C samples in different damage regimes. The boron carbide pellets were shaped and sintered by using spark plasma sintering method. They were then irradiated in several conditions at room temperature or 800 °C, either by favoring the creation of ballistic damage (between 1 and 3 dpa), or by favoring the electronic excitations using 100 MeV swift iodine ions (Se ≈ 15 keV/nm). Ex situ micro-Raman spectroscopy and Doppler broadening of annihilation radiation technique with variable energy slow positrons were coupled to follow the evolution of the B4C structure under irradiation.

  10. Combined total body X-ray irradiation and total skin electron beam radiotherapy with an improved technique for mycosis fungoides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halberg, F.E.; Fu, K.K.; Weaver, K.A.; Zackheim, H.S.; Epstein, E.H. Jr.; Wintroub, B.U.

    1989-08-01

    Twelve consecutive patients with advanced stage mycosis fungoides (MF) were treated with combined total body X ray irradiation (TBI) and total skin electron beam radiotherapy (EBRT). Six had generalized plaque disease and dermatopathic nodes, three had tumor stage disease and node biopsy positive for mycosis fungoides, and three had erythroderma/Sezary syndrome. The treatment regimen consisted of split course total body X ray irradiation, given in twice weekly 15 cGy fractions to 75 cGy, then total skin electron beam radiation therapy given in once weekly 400 cGy fractions to a total dose of 2400 cGy. Underdosed areas and areas of greatest initial involvement were boosted 400 cGy twice weekly for an additional 1200 cGy. This was followed by a second course of total body X ray irradiation, to a total dose of 150 cGy. The total skin electron beam radiotherapy technique is a modification of an established six position EBRT technique for mycosis fungoides. Measurements to characterize the beam with and without a lexan scattering plate, demonstrated that the combination of no-plate beams produced better dose uniformity with a much higher dose rate. This improved technique is particularly advantageous for elderly and/or frail patients. Nine (75%) of the 12 patients achieved complete response (CR). The other three had significant improvement with greater than 80% clearing of their disease and resolution of symptoms. All six patients with generalized plaque disease achieved complete response and remained free of disease from 2 to 16 months. Two of three node positive patients also achieved complete response; one, with massive biopsy-documented mycosis fungoides nodal disease and deep open tumors, remained relapse-free over 2 years. Only one of the three patients with erythroderma/Sezary syndrome achieved a complete response, which was short lived.

  11. Hesperidin methyl chalcone inhibits oxidative stress and inflammation in a mouse model of ultraviolet B irradiation-induced skin damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Renata M; Pinho-Ribeiro, Felipe A; Steffen, Vinicius S; Caviglione, Carla V; Vignoli, Josiane A; Baracat, Marcela M; Georgetti, Sandra R; Verri, Waldiceu A; Casagrande, Rubia

    2015-07-01

    Hesperidin methyl chalcone (HMC) is a safe flavonoid used to treat chronic venous diseases, but its effects and mechanisms on UVB irradiation-induced inflammation and oxidative stress have never been described in vivo. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of systemic administration of HMC in skin oxidative stress and inflammation induced by UVB irradiation. To induce skin damage, hairless mice were exposed to an acute UVB irradiation dose of 4.14 J/cm(2), and the dorsal skin samples were collected to evaluate oxidative stress and inflammatory response. The intraperitoneal treatment with HMC at the dose of 300 mg/kg inhibited UVB irradiation-induced skin edema, neutrophil recruitment, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity. HMC also protected the skin from UVB irradiation-induced oxidative stress by maintaining ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical (ABTS) scavenging ability and antioxidant levels (reduced glutathione and catalase). Corroborating, HMC inhibited UVB irradiation-induced superoxide anion generation and gp91phox (NADPH oxidase subunit) mRNA expression. Furthermore, the antioxidant effect of HMC resulted in lower production of inflammatory mediators, including lipid hydroperoxides and a wide range of cytokines. Taken together, these results unveil a novel applicability of HMC in the treatment of UVB irradiation-induced skin inflammation and oxidative stress.

  12. Phenomenological understanding of dewetting and embedding of noble metal nanoparticles in thin films induced by ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, Jai, E-mail: jai.gupta1983@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, MMH College (Ch. Charan Singh University Meerut), Ghaiziabad 201001 (India); Chemical Physics of Materials, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Campus de la Plaine, CP 243, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Tripathi, A. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asif Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India); Gautam, Sanjeev; Chae, K.H.; Song, Jonghan [Advanced Analysis Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136–791 (Korea, Republic of); Rigato, V. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Via Romea. 4, 35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Tripathi, Jalaj [Department of Chemistry, MMH College (Ch. Charan Singh University Meerut), Ghaiziabad 201001 (India); Asokan, K. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asif Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India)

    2014-10-15

    The present experimental work provides the phenomenological approach to understand the dewetting in thin noble metal films with subsequent formation of nanoparticles (NPs) and embedding of NPs induced by ion irradiation. Au/polyethyleneterepthlate (PET) bilayers were irradiated with 150 keV Ar ions at varying fluences and were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (X-TEM). Thin Au film begins to dewet from the substrate after irradiation and subsequent irradiation results in spherical nanoparticles on the surface that at a fluence of 5 × 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2} become embedded into the substrate. In addition to dewetting in thin films, synthesis and embedding of metal NPs by ion irradiation, the present article explores fundamental thermodynamic principles that govern these events systematically under the effect of irradiation. The results are explained on the basis of ion induced sputtering, thermal spike inducing local melting and of thermodynamic driving forces by minimization of the system free energy where contributions of surface and interfacial energies are considered with subsequent ion induced viscous flow in substrate. - Highlights: • Phenomenological interpretation of dewetting and embedding of metal NPs in thin film. • Exploring fundamental thermodynamic principles under influence of ion irradiation. • Ion induced surface/interface microstructural changes using SEM/X-TEM. • Ion induced sputtering, thermal spike induced local melting. • Thermodynamic driving forces relate to surface and interfacial energies.

  13. Influence of L-dopa and of thymus fraction on the survival rate of whole-body irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busse, E.; Helmholz, M. (Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (German Democratic Republic). Bereich Medizin (Charite))

    1982-06-01

    The survival rate of mice with exposure of the whole body (7 Gy) was hardly changed by one dose as well as several doses of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor amantadine and the interferon inductor measles vaccine. However, the survival rates were increased by one administration of L-dopa or by the long-term therapy using L-dopa at 7 and 9 Gy, resp. The survival rates were also increased at 7 and 9 Gy, resp. if the thymus factor was three times applied to the animals after irradiation. The increased survival rates gained by using L-dopa and thymus factor are correlated with the leukocyte values determined.

  14. Effect of irradiation on the expression of caspase-3 in the submandibular gland of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Heung Ki; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae [Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-09-15

    To observe the histopathological changes and caspace-3 expression in the submandibular gland in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats after irradiation. The male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing approximately 250gm were divided into four groups; control, diabetes, irradiation, and diabetes-irradiation groups. Diabetes mellitus was induced in the rats by injecting streptozotocin. Rats in the control and irradiation groups were injected with citrate buffer only. After 5 days, rats in irradiation, and diabetes-irradiation groups were irradiated with a single absorbed dose of 10 Gy to the head and neck region. All the rats were sacrificed at 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after irradiation. The specimen including the submandibular gland were sectioned and observed using histopathological and immunohistochemical methods. In the irradiation group, the condensed nucleus, karyolysis, and degeneration of the acinar cells and atrophy of the duct cells were observed in the early experimental phase. However, the acinar cells were found to be normal at 28 days after irradiation. In the diabetes group, the condensed nucleus, karyolysis, atrophy, and degeneration of the acinar cells were observed in the early experimental phase. However, the acinar cells were found to be normal at 21 days, after diabetic state induction. In the diabetes-irradiation group, the ductal epithelial cells were predominant in their glandular tissues at 28 days after irradiation. In all of the experimental groups, the most prominent change of the acinar cells and ductal cells were observed at 14 days after diabetic state induction and irradiation. The expression of caspase-3 in the acinar cells and ductal cells of the submandibular gland was weak after irradiation, but that in the acinar cells, ductal cells, and fibrous cells of the submandibular gland was prominent after diabetic state induction.

  15. Basic research of the relationship between irradiation dose and volume in radiation-induced pulmonary injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Qing-song; WANG Ping; WANG Jing; WANG Wei; WANG Jun; YUAN Zhi-yong

    2009-01-01

    Background Irradiation dose and volume are the major physical factors of radiation-induced lung injury.The study investigated the relationships between the irradiation dose and volume in radiation-induced lung injury by setting up a model of graded volume irradiation of the rat lung.Methods Animals were randomly assigned to three groups.The ELEKTA precise 2.03 treatment plan system was applied to calculate the irradiation dose and volume.The treatment plan for the three groups was:group 1 received a "high dose to a small volume" (25% volume group) with the mean irradiation volume being 1.748 cm3 (25% lung volume);the total dose and mean lung dose (MLD) were 4610 cGy and 2006 cGy,respectively (bilateral AP-PA fields,source to axis distance (SAD)=100 cm,6MVX,single irradiation);Group 2 received a "low dose to a large volume" (100% volume group) with the mean irradiation volume being 6.99 cm3 (100% lung volume);the total dose was 1153 cGy.MLD was 2006 cGy,which was the same as that of group 1 (bilateral AP-PA fields,SAD = 100 cm,6MVX,single irradiation);Group 3 was a control group.With the exception of receiving no irradiation,group 3 had rest steps that were the same as those of the experimental groups.After irradiation,functional,histopathological,and CT changes were compared every two weeks till the 16th week.Results Functionally,after irradiation breath rate (BR) increases were observed in both group 1 and group 2,especially during the period of 6th-8th weeks.The changes of BR in the 100% volume group were earlier and faster.For the 25% volume group,although pathology was more severe,hardly any obvious increase in BR was observed.Radiographic changes were observed during the early period (the 4th week) and the most obvious changes manifested during the mediated period (the 8th week).The extensiveness of high density and the decreased lung permeability were presented in the 100% volume group,and ground glass opacity and patchy consolidation were presented in the 25

  16. Solar ultraviolet irradiation induces decorin degradation in human skin likely via neutrophil elastase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Xia, Wei; Liu, Ying; Remmer, Henriette A; Voorhees, John; Fisher, Gary J

    2013-01-01

    Exposure of human skin to solar ultraviolet (UV) irradiation induces matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) activity, which degrades type I collagen fibrils. Type I collagen is the most abundant protein in skin and constitutes the majority of skin connective tissue (dermis). Degradation of collagen fibrils impairs the structure and function of skin that characterize skin aging. Decorin is the predominant proteoglycan in human dermis. In model systems, decorin binds to and protects type I collagen fibrils from proteolytic degradation by enzymes such as MMP-1. Little is known regarding alterations of decorin in response to UV irradiation. We found that solar-simulated UV irradiation of human skin in vivo stimulated substantial decorin degradation, with kinetics similar to infiltration of polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells. Proteases that were released from isolated PMN cells degraded decorin in vitro. A highly selective inhibitor of neutrophil elastase blocked decorin breakdown by proteases released from PMN cells. Furthermore, purified neutrophil elastase cleaved decorin in vitro and generated fragments with similar molecular weights as those resulting from protease activity released from PMN cells, and as observed in UV-irradiated human skin. Cleavage of decorin by neutrophil elastase significantly augmented fragmentation of type I collagen fibrils by MMP-1. Taken together, these data indicate that PMN cell proteases, especially neutrophil elastase, degrade decorin, and this degradation renders collagen fibrils more susceptible to MMP-1 cleavage. These data identify decorin degradation and neutrophil elastase as potential therapeutic targets for mitigating sun exposure-induced collagen fibril degradation in human skin.

  17. Solar ultraviolet irradiation induces decorin degradation in human skin likely via neutrophil elastase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Li

    Full Text Available Exposure of human skin to solar ultraviolet (UV irradiation induces matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1 activity, which degrades type I collagen fibrils. Type I collagen is the most abundant protein in skin and constitutes the majority of skin connective tissue (dermis. Degradation of collagen fibrils impairs the structure and function of skin that characterize skin aging. Decorin is the predominant proteoglycan in human dermis. In model systems, decorin binds to and protects type I collagen fibrils from proteolytic degradation by enzymes such as MMP-1. Little is known regarding alterations of decorin in response to UV irradiation. We found that solar-simulated UV irradiation of human skin in vivo stimulated substantial decorin degradation, with kinetics similar to infiltration of polymorphonuclear (PMN cells. Proteases that were released from isolated PMN cells degraded decorin in vitro. A highly selective inhibitor of neutrophil elastase blocked decorin breakdown by proteases released from PMN cells. Furthermore, purified neutrophil elastase cleaved decorin in vitro and generated fragments with similar molecular weights as those resulting from protease activity released from PMN cells, and as observed in UV-irradiated human skin. Cleavage of decorin by neutrophil elastase significantly augmented fragmentation of type I collagen fibrils by MMP-1. Taken together, these data indicate that PMN cell proteases, especially neutrophil elastase, degrade decorin, and this degradation renders collagen fibrils more susceptible to MMP-1 cleavage. These data identify decorin degradation and neutrophil elastase as potential therapeutic targets for mitigating sun exposure-induced collagen fibril degradation in human skin.

  18. Effect of a body-tie structure fabricated by partial trench isolation on the suppression of floating body effect induced soft errors in SOI SRAM investigated using nuclear probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abo, Satoshi, E-mail: abo@cqst.osaka-u.ac.jp [Center for Quantum Science and Technology under Extreme Conditions, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Masuda, Naoyuki; Wakaya, Fujio [Center for Quantum Science and Technology under Extreme Conditions, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Onoda, Shinobu; Makino, Takahiro; Hirao, Toshio; Ohshima, Takeshi [Semiconductor Analysis and Radiation Effects Group, Environment and Industrial Materials Research Division, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Iwamatsu, Toshiaki; Oda, Hidekazu [Advanced Device Technology Department, Production and Technology Unit, Devices and Analysis Technology Division, Renesas Electronics Corporation, 751, Horiguchi, Hitachinaka, Ibaraki 312-8504 (Japan); Takai, Mikio [Center for Quantum Science and Technology under Extreme Conditions, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)

    2011-10-15

    Soft errors induced by proton, helium and oxygen ion irradiations were measured as a function of distance between a body electrode under partial trench isolation and a metal pad connected to a tungsten via for the first metal layer of a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) static random access memory. Abnormal drain charges induced by ion irradiations with various distances in the SOI metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor were simulated to be compared with the experimental results. The soft errors were found to depend on the distance between the body electrode and the metal pad in the case of the abnormal drain charge, which is induced by incident ions, lower than the critical charge of the SRAM cells. The soft errors did not depend on the distance for the abnormal drain charges higher than the critical charge.

  19. Mechanisms of induced conductivity in polyvinylidene fluoride irradiated by X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, R. M.

    1992-10-01

    Prompt and delayed components of conductivity of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) samples induced by continuous irradiation of X-rays were measured under vacuum. The prompt component was composed of two distinct parts, classified as instantaneous radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) and time-dependent evolution of the RIC. With the help of thermally stimulated current measurements carried out with both virgin and irradiated samples, which indicated the existence of deep-trap levels in the material, we developed a model of kinetics of the carriers to explain the time-evolution of the RIC. Hot electrons generated by irradiation ware considered as responsible for the instantaneous part of the RIC. We also showed that the electrodes had a nonblocking behaviour during the electrical current measurements under irradiation, while the external electric field caused the generated carriers to drift out of the sample. Nous avons mesuré sous vide la conductivité induite due à la radiation des rayons X sur des échantillons de poly(fluorure de vinylidène), pendant et après irradiation (composante retardée). Pendant l'irradiation la conductivité induite est formée de deux différentes parties : l'une est la conductivité instantanée, et l'autre est une fonction croissante avec le temps. Grâce à la méthode du courant stimulé par la température, exécutée sur des échantillons vierges d'une part, et irradiés d'autre part, nous avons conclu à l'existence de niveaux de pièges profonds dans le matériau. Nous avons par la suite développé un modèle de cinétique des porteurs qui explique l'évolution avec le temps de la conductivité induite. Les électrons chauds créés par la radiation ont été considérés comme responsables de la conductivité induite instantanée. Nous montrons aussi que les électrodes sont non-bloquées pendant les mesures de courant électrique sous irradiation, alors que le champ électrique appliqué rejette les porteurs hors de l'échantillon.

  20. Effect of intestinal microflora on the survival time of mice exposed to lethal whole-body. gamma. irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onoue, M.; Uchida, K.; Yokokura, T.; Takahashi, T.; Mutai, M.

    1981-11-01

    The effect of intestinal microflora on the survival time of mice exposed to 2-kR whole-body ..gamma.. irradiation was studied using germfree, monoassociated, and conventionalized ICR mice. The germfree mice were monoassociated with 1 of 11 bacterial strains, which were isolated from the fresh feces of conventional mice, 2 weeks prior to irradiation. All mice died within 3 weeks after irradiation. Monoassociation with Fusobacterium sp., Streptococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, or Pseudomonas sp. significantly reduced the mean survival time compared to that of germfree mice. In contrast, monoassociation with Clostridium sp., Bifidobacterium pseudolongum, or Lactobacillus acidophilus significantly prolonged the mean survival time compared to that of germfree mice. This suggests that the latter organisms may perform some activity to protect the mice from radiation injury. In this histopathological autopsy examination, the main lesions were hypocellularity in hematopoietic organs and hemorrhage in various organs. Neither karyorrhexis nor desquamation of intestinal mucosal cells was observed in any mice. From these observations, it is suggested that the death of these mice was related to hematopoietic damage. Bacterial invasion into various organs was observed in conventionalized and Pseudomonas-, E. coli-, or S. faecalis-monoassociated mice but not in Clostridium-, B. pseudolongum-, L. acidophilus-, or Fusobacterium-monoassociated mice.

  1. Measurement of Irradiated Pyroprocessing Samples via Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phongikaroon, Supathorn [Virginia Commonwealth Univ., Richmond, VA (United States)

    2016-10-31

    The primary objective of this research is to develop an applied technology and provide an assessment to remotely measure and analyze the real time or near real time concentrations of used nuclear fuel (UNF) dissolute in electrorefiners. Here, Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), in UNF pyroprocessing facilities will be investigated. LIBS is an elemental analysis method, which is based on the emission from plasma generated by focusing a laser beam into the medium. This technology has been reported to be applicable in the media of solids, liquids (includes molten metals), and gases for detecting elements of special nuclear materials. The advantages of applying the technology for pyroprocessing facilities are: (i) Rapid real-time elemental analysis|one measurement/laser pulse, or average spectra from multiple laser pulses for greater accuracy in < 2 minutes; (ii) Direct detection of elements and impurities in the system with low detection limits|element specific, ranging from 2-1000 ppm for most elements; and (iii) Near non-destructive elemental analysis method (about 1 g material). One important challenge to overcome is achieving high-resolution spectral analysis to quantitatively analyze all important fission products and actinides. Another important challenge is related to accessibility of molten salt, which is heated in a heavily insulated, remotely operated furnace in a high radiation environment with an argon atmosphere.

  2. Study of the degradation process of polyimide induced by high energetic ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severin, Daniel

    2008-09-19

    The dissertation focuses on the radiation hardness of Kapton under extreme radiation environment conditions. To study ion-beam induced modifications, Kapton foils were irradiated at the GSI linear accelerator UNILAC using several projectiles (e.g. Ti, Mo, Au, and U) within a large fluence regime (1 x 10{sup 10}-5 x 10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2}). The irradiated Kapton foils were analysed by means of infrared and UV/Vis spectroscopy, tensile strength measurement, mass loss analysis, and dielectric relaxation spectroscopy. For testing the radiation stability of Kapton at the cryogenic operation temperature (5-10 K) of the superconducting magnets, additional irradiation experiments were performed at the Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL, France) focusing on the online analysis of the outgassing process of small volatile degradation fragments. The investigations of the electrical properties analysed by dielectric relaxation spectroscopy exhibit a different trend: high fluence irradiations with light ions (e.g. Ti) lead to a slight increase of the conductivity, whereas heavy ions (e.g. Sm, Au) cause a drastic change already in the fluence regime of nonoverlapping tracks (5 x 10{sup 10} ions/cm{sup 2}). Online analysis of the outgassing process during irradiation at cryogenic temperatures shows the release of a variety of small gaseous molecules (e.g. CO, CO{sub 2}, and short hydro carbons). Also a small amount of large polymer fragments is identified. The results allow the following conclusions which are of special interest for the application of Kapton as insulating material in a high-energetic particle radiation environment. a) The material degradation measured with the optical spectroscopy and tensile strength tests are scalable with the dose deposited by the ions. The high correlation of the results allows the prediction of the mechanical degradation with the simple and non-destructive infrared spectroscopy. The degradation curve points to a

  3. The Effects of Low Dose {gamma}-Irradiation on MIA Induced Joint Inflammation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, Seok Chan; Lee, Ko Eun; Kim, Eun-hea; Lee, Tae Woong; Lee, Won Ho; Kim, June Sun [Korea University, College of Health Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Inflammation of the synovial membrane is associated with the progression of cartilage degeneration and unexpected pain in osteoarthritis (OA). Inflammation produces painful sensations which are largely divided into spontaneous (non-evoked) pain and evoked pain depending on the presence of external stimuli and are characterized by hyperalgesia and allodynia Nitric oxide (NO) is related to the pathogenesis of OA as inflammatory mediator. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is marker of enhanced NO production in arthritic pain. In previously, low dose irradiation can suppress pro-inflammatory cytokines. But, ray therapeutic effect is unclear. Thus, present study examined the preemptive effect of low dose irradiation on the development of inflammatory pain in MIA induced OA animal model

  4. Citrulline as a Biomarker in the Murine Total-Body Irradiation Model: Correlation of Circulating and Tissue Citrulline to Small Intestine Epithelial Histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jace W; Tudor, Gregory; Li, Fei; Tong, Yan; Katz, Barry; Farese, Ann M; MacVittie, Thomas J; Booth, Catherine; Kane, Maureen A

    2015-11-01

    The use of plasma citrulline as a biomarker for gastrointestinal acute radiation syndrome via exposure to total-body irradiation in a murine model was investigated. The radiation exposure covered lethal, mid-lethal, and sub-lethal gastrointestinal acute radiation syndrome. Plasma citrulline profiles were generated over the first 6 d following total-body irradiation exposure of 6-15 Gy. In addition, plasma citrulline was comprehensively evaluated in the context of matching small intestine citrulline and histopathology. Higher plasma citrulline was significantly associated with lower irradiation doses over the first 6 d following the irradiation insult. Furthermore, higher plasma citrulline was significantly associated with higher crypt survival. The correlation of the plasma citrulline to crypt survival was more robust for higher irradiation doses and for later time points. The data suggested plasma citrulline was most informative for reflecting gastrointestinal injury resulting from exposure to 9-15 Gy total-body irradiation covering time-points 2-5 d post the irradiation insult.

  5. Late effects from whole body irradiation and protection by chemical and biological agents. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maisin, J.R. [Catholic Univ. of Louvain, Brussels (Belgium); Gerber, G.B.

    2000-07-01

    This review described studies attempting to reduce damage of exposure to ionizing radiation with an application of chemical or biological agents by illustrating authors' data to point out which possibilities such protectors might hold in future. Authors described their studies on mice exposed to a single or fractionated dose of X-rays at the Belgian Atomic Center at Mol. Mice were irradiated with 250 kV of X-rays at a dose rate of 1 Gy/min or underwent the fractionated irradiation of 1-week intervals with total dose of 2-25 Gy. Before irradiation, some animals were given glutathione, mercaptoethylamine, cystein, serotonine-creatine, 2{beta}-aminoethylisothiuronium, and other agents, alone or as a mixture. Results indicated that radioprotectors reduced many specific late diseases to different degrees together with protection against tumor induction which other investigators had shown. Future prospects were considered for ideal radioprotectors and searches for new radioprotectors and for combination of biological agents (e.g., cytokines with polysaccharides or prostaglandins) were described. (K.H.)

  6. Ion-Irradiation-Induced Ferromagnetism in Undoped ZnO Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Ion-irradiation-induced ferromagnetism in undoped ZnO thin filmsq Siddhartha Mal a,⇑, Sudhakar Nori a, J. Narayan a, J.T. Prater b, D.K. Avasthi c...S, Narayan J, Nori S, Prater JT, Kumar D. Solid State Commun 2010;150:1660. [8] Mal S, Nori S, Jin C, Narayan J, Nellutla S, Smirnov AI, et al. J

  7. Simulation of synergistic effects on lateral PNP bipolar transistors induced by neutron and gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chenhui, E-mail: wangchenhui@nint.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulsed Irradiation Simulation and Effect, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O.Box 69-10, Xi' an 710024 (China); Bai, Xiaoyan; Chen, Wei; Yang, Shanchao; Liu, Yan; Jin, Xiaoming [State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulsed Irradiation Simulation and Effect, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O.Box 69-10, Xi' an 710024 (China); Ding, Lili [State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulsed Irradiation Simulation and Effect, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O.Box 69-10, Xi' an 710024 (China); Department of Information Engineering, Padova University, Via Gradenigo 6/B, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2015-10-01

    With semiconductor device simulation software TCAD, numerical simulations of ionizing/displacement synergistic effects on 6 kinds of lateral PNP bipolar transistors induced by the mixed irradiation of neutron and gamma are carried out by means of changing the minority carrier lifetimes, adding charged traps to the oxide layer and increasing the surface recombination velocity in Si/SiO{sub 2} interface. The results indicate that ionizing/displacement synergistic effects on the lateral PNP bipolar transistors are not a simple sum of total ionizing dose effects and displacement effects, and total ionizing dose effects can enhance neutron displacement damages, leading to greater gain degradation. The physical mechanisms of ionizing/displacement synergistic effects are analyzed based on the results. The positive charge in the oxide layer and Si/SiO{sub 2} interface traps induced by gamma irradiation can enhance the recombination processes of carriers in the bulk defects induced by neutron irradiation, and this is the main cause of ionizing/displacement synergistic effects on the lateral PNP bipolar transistors. - Highlights: • Numerical simulation methods of ionizing/displacement synergistic effects induced by the mixed irradiation of neutron and gamma are established with semiconductor device simulation software TCAD. • Ionizing/displacement synergistic effects between the lateral PNP bipolar transistors with different neutral base widths and base doping concentrations are compared. • The difference between ionizing/displacement synergistic effects and the simple sum of total ionizing dose effects and displacement effects is analyzed. • The physical mechanisms of ionizing/displacement synergistic effects are explained.

  8. Detection of some irradiated spices on the basis of radiation induced damage of starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, J.; Sharif, M. M.; Koncz, Á.

    Untreated and irradiated samples of spices were suspended in water, alkalized, and after heat-gelatinization, the apparent viscosity was determined by a rotational viscometer. Several spices, i.e. white pepper, black pepper, nutmeg and ginger showed considerable loss of viscosity as a function of γ-radiation dose in the dose range required for microbial decontamination of natural spices. Less promising results were obtained with spices such as allspice, garlic powder, and onion powder forming low-viscosity heat-treated suspensions even when unirradiated viscometric studies were also performed with a number of pepper samples of various origin to estimate the "natural" variation of rheological properties. Irradiation and storage studies were performed with ground black pepper samples of moisture contents in equilibrium with air of 25%, 50% and 75% R.H., respectively, either untreated or irradiated with 4, 8, 16 or 32 kGy, to study the effect of equilibrium relative humidity and storage time on detectability of radiation treatment. During the entire storage period of 100 days, statistically significant differences of the apparent viscosities of heat-gelatinized suspensions remained detectable between untreated samples and those irradiated with 8 kGy or higher doses. The apparent viscosity of high-moisture (75% E.R.H.) untreated samples was decreasing during long-term storage. Differences between viscosities of untreated and irradiated samples were enlarged when measured at elevated temperatures such as 50°C in the rotational viscometer, or in the boiling-water bath of a falling number apparatus. Other analytical indices such as onset and peak temperatures of gelatinization endotherms by DSC (damaged starch content), by colorimetry, reducing sugar content, alcohol-induced turbidity of hot water extracts of pepper samples, have been changed less dramatically by irradiation than the apparent viscosity of the gelatinized suspensions

  9. Radiation-Induced Topological Disorder in Irradiated Network Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, Linn W.

    2002-12-21

    This report summarizes results of a research program investigating the fundamental principles underlying the phenomenon of topological disordering in a radiation environment. This phenomenon is known popularly as amorphization, but is more formally described as a process of radiation-induced structural arrangement that leads in crystals to loss of long-range translational and orientational correlations and in glasses to analogous alteration of connectivity topologies. The program focus has been on a set compound ceramic solids with directed bonding exhibiting structures that can be described as networks. Such solids include SiO2, Si3N4, SiC, which are of interest to applications in fusion energy production, nuclear waste storage, and device manufacture involving ion implantation or use in radiation fields. The principal investigative tools comprise a combination of experimental diffraction-based techniques, topological modeling, and molecular-dynamics simulations that have proven a rich source of information in the preceding support period. The results from the present support period fall into three task areas. The first comprises enumeration of the rigidity constraints applying to (1) more complex ceramic structures (such as rutile, corundum, spinel and olivine structures) that exhibit multiply polytopic coordination units or multiple modes of connecting such units, (2) elemental solids (such as graphite, silicon and diamond) for which a correct choice of polytope is necessary to achieve correct representation of the constraints, and (3) compounds (such as spinel and silicon carbide) that exhibit chemical disorder on one or several sublattices. With correct identification of the topological constraints, a unique correlation is shown to exist between constraint and amorphizability which demonstrates that amorphization occurs at a critical constraint loss. The second task involves the application of molecular dynamics (MD) methods to topologically-generated models

  10. Optimizing the Microscopy Time Schedule for Chromosomal Dosimetry of High-dose and Partial-body Irradiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinnikov, Volodymyr A.

    2017-01-01

    The methodology of cytogenetic triage can be improved by optimizing a schedule of microscopy for different exposure scenarios. Chromosome aberrations were quantified by microscopy in human blood lymphocytes irradiated in vitro to ~2, 4, and 12 Gy acute 60Co γ-rays mixed with the unirradiated blood simulating 10%, 50%, 90%, and 100% exposure and in along with a sample from a homogeneous exposure to ~20 Gy. Biodosimetry workload was statistically modeled assuming that 0.5, 1, 5, or 25 h was available for scoring one case or for analysis of up to 1000 cells or 100 dicentrics plus centric rings by one operator. A strong negative correlation was established between the rates of aberration acquisition and cell recording. Calculations showed that the workload of 1 case per operator per·day (5 h of scoring by microscopy) allows dose estimates with high accuracy for either 90%–100% irradiations of 2 Gy or 50%–90% irradiations of 4–12 Gy; lethal homogeneous (100%) exposures of 12 and 20 Gy can be evaluated with just 1 h of microscopy. Triage analysis of 0.5 h scoring per case results in the minimum tolerable accuracy only for partial- and total-body exposure of 4–20 Gy. Time-related efficacy of conventional biodosimetry depends primarily on the aberration yield in the sample, which is dependent on the radiation dose and its distribution in the patient's body. An optimized schedule of microscopy scoring should be developed for different exposure scenarios in each laboratory to increase their preparedness to radiological emergencies. PMID:28250910

  11. Signalling pathways induced in cells exposed to medium from irradiated cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyng, F.M.; Maguire, P. (Radiation and Environmental Science Centre, Focas Institute, Dublin Institute of Technology, Dublin (Ireland)); McClean, B.; Seymour, C.; Mothersill, C. (St Luke' s Hospital, Dublin (Ireland))

    2008-12-15

    In recent years, radiation induced bystander effects have been reported in cells which were not themselves irradiated but were either in the vicinity of irradiated cells or exposed to medium from irradiated cells. The effects have been clearly shown to occur both in vivo and in vitro. This work has led to a paradigm shift in radiobiology over the last 5 - 10 years. The target theory of radiation induced effects is now being challenged because of an increasing number of studies which demonstrate non(DNA)-targeted effects. These effects appear to be particularly important at low doses. Considerable evidence now exists relating to radiation-induced bystander effects but the mechanisms involved in the transduction of the signal are still unclear. Cell - cell communication through gap junctions and / or secretion of a cytotoxic factor into the medium are thought to be involved in the transduction of the bystander signal. Oxidative metabolism has been shown to be important in both mechanisms. Signalling pathways leading to apoptosis, such as calcium, MAP kinase, mitochondrial and reactive oxygen species (ROS) signalling are discussed. The importance of oxidative metabolism and calcium signalling in bystander responses are demonstrated. Further investigations of these signalling pathways may aid in the identification of novel therapeutic targets. (orig.)

  12. Irradiation-induced grain growth and defect evolution in nanocrystalline zirconia with doped grain boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Sanchita; Mardinly, John; Wang, Yongqiang; Valdez, James A; Holesinger, Terry G; Uberuaga, Blas P; Ditto, Jeff J; Drazin, John W; Castro, Ricardo H R

    2016-06-22

    Grain boundaries are effective sinks for radiation-induced defects, ultimately impacting the radiation tolerance of nanocrystalline materials (dense materials with nanosized grains) against net defect accumulation. However, irradiation-induced grain growth leads to grain boundary area decrease, shortening potential benefits of nanostructures. A possible approach to mitigate this is the introduction of dopants to target a decrease in grain boundary mobility or a reduction in grain boundary energy to eliminate driving forces for grain growth (using similar strategies as to control thermal growth). Here we tested this concept in nanocrystalline zirconia doped with lanthanum. Although the dopant is observed to segregate to the grain boundaries, causing grain boundary energy decrease and promoting dragging forces for thermally activated boundary movement, irradiation induced grain growth could not be avoided under heavy ion irradiation, suggesting a different growth mechanism as compared to thermal growth. Furthermore, it is apparent that reducing the grain boundary energy reduced the effectiveness of the grain boundary as sinks, and the number of defects in the doped material is higher than in undoped (La-free) YSZ.

  13. Defect-induced magnetism in neutron irradiated 6H-SiC single crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Wang, Gang; Wang, Shunchong; Yang, Jianhui; Chen, Liang; Qin, Xiubo; Song, Bo; Wang, Baoyi; Chen, Xiaolong

    2011-02-25

    Defect-induced magnetism is firstly observed in neutron irradiated SiC single crystals. We demonstrated that the intentionally created defects dominated by divacancies (V(Si)V(C)) are responsible for the observed magnetism. First-principles calculations revealed that defect states favor the formation of local moments and the extended tails of defect wave functions make long-range spin couplings possible. Our results confirm the existence of defect-induced magnetism, implying the possibility of tuning the magnetism of wide band-gap semiconductors by defect engineering.

  14. Geometry-induced Casimir suspension of oblate bodies in fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Alejandro W; Reid, M T Homer; Intravaia, Francesco; Woolf, Alexander; Dalvit, Diego A R; Capasso, Federico; Johnson, Steven G

    2013-11-01

    We predict that a low-permittivity oblate body (disk-shaped object) above a thin metal substrate (plate with a hole) immersed in a fluid of intermediate permittivity will experience a metastable equilibrium (restoring force) near the center of the hole. Stability is the result of a geometry-induced transition in the sign of the force, from repulsive to attractive, that occurs as the disk approaches the hole--in planar or nearly planar geometries, the same material combination yields a repulsive force at all separations, in accordance with the Dzyaloshinskiĭ-Lifshitz-Pitaevskiĭ condition of fluid-induced repulsion between planar bodies. We explore the stability of the system with respect to rotations and lateral translations of the disks and demonstrate interesting transitions (bifurcations) in the rotational stability of the disks as a function of their size. Finally, we consider the reciprocal situation in which the disk-plate materials are interchanged and find that in this case the system also exhibits metastability. The forces in the system are sufficiently large to be observed in experiments and should enable measurements based on the diffusion dynamics of the suspended bodies.

  15. Irradiation-induced off-odour in chicken and its possible control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, R L; Stevenson, M H

    1995-07-01

    1. Volatiles isolated from irradiated raw chicken were analysed by gas chromatography (GC) in conjunction with olfactory assessment of the effluent carrier gas to locate compounds with strong smells. 2. Sixteen odours of differing intensities were registered, some, but not others, coinciding with recognisable GC peaks. Identifications were made on the basis of retention data, mass spectrometric information and odour quality agreement. 3. Dimethyltrisulphide was found to be the most potent and obnoxious compound (foul gas, sulphurous), followed by cis-3- and trans-6-nonenals (soapy), oct-1-en-3-one (mushroom) and bis(methylthio-)methane (foul). With the exception of oct-1-en-3-one, none of these compounds has been reported before in irradiated raw chicken. 4. alpha-Tocopherol and ascorbic acid induce stability in tissues in vivo and post mortem. Chickens were reared on diets supplemented with high concentrations (800 mg/kg food) of each of these vitamins. Yields of irradiation volatiles from the tissues of these birds were very much reduced, compared to yields from similar tissues from birds fed unsupplemented diets. 5. Concomitantly with the reduced yield of volatiles, less odour was associated with the samples when analysed by GC-olfactory analysis. 6. The use of enhanced concentrations of the two vitamins in combination in the diet of poultry may provide a means of controlling development of off-odour in irradiated raw chicken, thus improving acceptability to the consumer.

  16. Low-dose X-irradiation of adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. Efficacy of different fractionation schedules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebmann, A.; Hindemith, M.; Jahns, J.; Kamprad, F.; Hildebrandt, G. [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Univ. of Leipzig (Germany); Madaj-Sterba, P.; Weisheit, S. [Medical-Experimental Center, Univ. of Leipzig (Germany)

    2004-03-01

    Background and purpose: low-dose radiotherapy is widely accepted as a very effective treatment option for inflammatory symptoms associated with painful degenerative joint disorders. Radiation doses and fractionation schedules in practical use are empirical and mainly based on clinical observations. Experimental data are rare. The efficacy of low-dose X-irradiation on adjuvant induced arthritis in rats using different fractionation schemes was investigated in vivo, in order to explore whether there is a dose and fractionation dependence. Material and methods: adjuvant arthritis in female lewis rats (n = 128) was induced by intradermal injection of heat-inactivated Mycobacterium tuberculosis on day 0. Both arthritic hind paws were sham-irradiated (group 1: days 10-14; group 2: days 15-19; group 3: days 22-26) or X-irradiated with either 5 x 1.0 Gy (group 4: days 10-14; group 6: days 15-19; group 8: days 22-26; group 10: days 10, 12, 14, 16, and 18) or 5 x 0.5 Gy (group 5: days 10-14; group 7: days 15-19; group 9: days 22-26; group 11: days 10, 12, 14, 16, and 18; group 12: days 10-14 and 22-26). The clinical parameters arthritis score (AS), hind paw volume (HPV), and body weight were determined. Results: a significant decrease of the clinical arthritis parameters was observed following 5 x 0.5 Gy or 5 x 1.0 Gy during the acute maximum of the inflammatory response (days 15-19). The most pronounced treatment effect was reached after two daily fractionated series of 5 x 0.5 Gy with an early treatment onset (days 10-14) and repetition in interval (days 22-26). After the application of 5 x 1.0 Gy on days 10-14 or in a protracted scheme (days 10, 12, 14, 16, and 18), only a nonsignificant positive trend could be detected. Daily fractionated X-irradiation in the chronic phase of adjuvant arthritis (days 22-26) did not show any positive clinical effect. Conclusion: low-dose radiotherapy is able to prevent a full-blown arthritic reaction if given during the florid phase of

  17. The Gottingen Minipig Is a Model of the Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome: G-Colony Stimulating Factor Stimulates Hematopoiesis and Enhances Survival From Lethal Total-Body γ-Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moroni, Maria, E-mail: maria.moroni@usuhs.edu [Radiation Countermeasures Program, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Ngudiankama, Barbara F. [Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Christensen, Christine [Division of Comparative Pathology, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Olsen, Cara H. [Biostatistics Consulting Center, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Owens, Rossitsa [Radiation Countermeasures Program, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Lombardini, Eric D. [Veterinary Medicine Department, Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangkok (Thailand); Holt, Rebecca K. [Veterinary Science Department, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Whitnall, Mark H. [Radiation Countermeasures Program, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: We are characterizing the Gottingen minipig as an additional large animal model for advanced drug testing for the acute radiation syndrome (ARS) to enhance the discovery and development of novel radiation countermeasures. Among the advantages provided by this model, the similarities to human hematologic parameters and dynamics of cell loss/recovery after irradiation provide a convenient means to compare the efficacy of drugs known to affect bone marrow cellularity and hematopoiesis. Methods and Materials: Male Gottingen minipigs, 4 to 5 months old and weighing 9 to 11 kg, were used for this study. We tested the standard off-label treatment for ARS, rhG-CSF (Neupogen, 10 μg/kg/day for 17 days), at the estimated LD70/30 total-body γ-irradiation (TBI) radiation dose for the hematopoietic syndrome, starting 24 hours after irradiation. Results: The results indicated that granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) enhanced survival, stimulated recovery from neutropenia, and induced mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells. In addition, the administration of G-CSF resulted in maturation of monocytes/macrophages. Conclusions: These results support continuing efforts toward validation of the minipig as a large animal model for advanced testing of radiation countermeasures and characterization of the pathophysiology of ARS, and they suggest that the efficacy of G-CSF in improving survival after total body irradiation may involve mechanisms other than increasing the numbers of circulating granulocytes.

  18. Electron beam irradiation induces abnormal development and the stabilization of p53 protein of American serpentine leafminer, Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Hyun-Na; Yun, Seung-Hwan; Yoon, Changmann [Department of Plant Medicine, College of Agriculture, Life and Environment Sciences, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Gil-Hah, E-mail: khkim@chungbuk.ac.kr [Department of Plant Medicine, College of Agriculture, Life and Environment Sciences, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    The American serpentine leafminer fly, Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess), is one of the most destructive polyphagous pests worldwide. In this study, we determined electron beam doses for inhibition of normal development of the leaf miner and investigated the effect of electron beam irradiation on DNA damage and p53 stability. Eggs (0-24 h old), larvae (2nd instar), puparia (0-24 h old after pupariation) and adults (24 h after emergence) were irradiated with increasing doses of electron beam irradiation (six levels between 30 and 200 Gy). At 150 Gy, the number of adults that developed from irradiated eggs, larvae and puparia was lower than in the untreated control. Fecundity and egg hatchability decreased depending on the doses applied. Reciprocal crosses between irradiated and unirradiated flies demonstrated that males were more radiotolerant than females. Adult longevity was not affected in all stages. The levels of DNA damage in L. trifolii adults were evaluated using the alkaline comet assay. Our results indicate that electron beam irradiation increased levels of DNA damage in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, low doses of electron beam irradiation led to the rapid appearance of p53 protein within 6 h; however, it decreased after exposure to high doses (150 Gy and 200 Gy). These results suggest that electron beam irradiation induced not only abnormal development and reproduction but also p53 stability caused by DNA damage in L. trifolii. We conclude that a minimum dose of 150 Gy should be sufficient for female sterilization of L. trifolii. - Highlights: > Electron beam irradiation inhibited normal development of the leaf miner. > Electron beam irradiation inhibited normal reproduction of the leaf miner. > Electron beam irradiation increased levels of DNA damage. > Electron beam irradiation induced p53 stability.

  19. Post-irradiation dietary vitamin E does not affect the development of radiation-induced lung damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegman, Erwin M; van Gameren, Mieke M; Kampinga, Harm H; Szabó, Ben G; Coppes, Rob P

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether application of post-irradiation vitamin E, an anti-oxidant, could prevent the development of radiation induced lung damage. Wistar rats were given vitamin E enriched or vitamin E deprived food starting from 4 weeks after 18Gy single dose irradiation of the right thorax. Neither breathing frequencies nor CT density measurements revealed differences between the groups. It is concluded that post-irradiation vitamin E does not influence radiation-induced fibrosis to the lung.

  20. Gamma irradiation does not induce detectable changes in DNA methylation directly following exposure of human cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Lahtz

    Full Text Available Environmental chemicals and radiation have often been implicated in producing alterations of the epigenome thus potentially contributing to cancer and other diseases. Ionizing radiation, released during accidents at nuclear power plants or after atomic bomb explosions, is a potentially serious health threat for the exposed human population. This type of high-energy radiation causes DNA damage including single- and double-strand breaks and induces chromosomal rearrangements and mutations, but it is not known if ionizing radiation directly induces changes in the epigenome of irradiated cells. We treated normal human fibroblasts and normal human bronchial epithelial cells with different doses of γ-radiation emitted from a cesium 137 ((137Cs radiation source. After a seven-day recovery period, we analyzed global DNA methylation patterns in the irradiated and control cells using the methylated-CpG island recovery assay (MIRA in combination with high-resolution microarrays. Bioinformatics analysis revealed only a small number of potential methylation changes with low fold-difference ratios in the irradiated cells. These minor methylation differences seen on the microarrays could not be verified by COBRA (combined bisulfite restriction analysis or bisulfite sequencing of selected target loci. Our study shows that acute γ-radiation treatment of two types of human cells had no appreciable direct effect on DNA cytosine methylation patterns in exposed cells.

  1. Irradiation-induced formation of nanocrystallites with C15 Laves phase structure in bcc iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinica, M-C; Willaime, F; Crocombette, J-P

    2012-01-13

    A three-dimensional periodic structure is proposed for self-interstitial clusters in body-centered-cubic metals, as opposed to the conventional two-dimensional loop morphology. The underlying crystal structure corresponds to the C15 Laves phase. Using density functional theory and interatomic potential calculations, we demonstrate that in α-iron these C15 aggregates are highly stable and immobile and that they exhibit large antiferromagnetic moments. They form directly in displacement cascades, and they can grow by capturing self-interstitials. They thus constitute an important new element to account for when predicting the microstructural evolution of iron base materials under irradiation.

  2. Acute effects of whole body gamma irradiation on exocrine pancreatic secretion in the pig; Effets aigus d'une irradiation corps entier sur la secretion pancreatique exocrine chez le porc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monti, P.; Scanff, P.; Joubert, C.; Vergnet, M.; Grison, S.; Griffiths, N. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), DPRH/SRBE, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France)

    2004-06-01

    Reports on radiation damage to the pancreas deal essentially with long-term morphological changes with few data on pancreatic exocrine function. The aim of this work was to study the acute effects of whole body irradiation on volume and enzyme activities in the pancreatic juice. A whole body gamma irradiation (6 Gy) was investigated in pigs with continuous sampling of pancreatic juice before and after exposure via an indwelling catheter in the pancreatic duct. For each sample collected, total protein concentration and enzyme activities of trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, lipase and amylase were determined. Pancreatic juice volume was monitored during all periods of collection. The volume of pancreatic juice secreted daily decreased one day after irradiation and remained lower than the control values over the experimental period. Total proteins secreted in the pancreatic juice and total activities of pancreatic enzymes were reduced similarly. On the other hand, only specific activities of elastase and lipase were affected by irradiation. Whole body gamma irradiation resulted in a rapid and marked decrease of exocrine pancreatic secretion, in terms of volume as well as secreted enzymes. This may contribute in part to the intestinal manifestations of the acute and/or late radiation syndrome. (author)

  3. Anethole Isomerization and Dimerization Induced by Acid Sites or UV Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Stashenko

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The formation of cis-anethole and various dimers as a result of the exposure of trans-anethole to microporous solid acids (dealuminated HY zeolites, or UV-Vis irradiation was established by means of high resolution gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. 3,4-bis-(4-Methoxyphenyl-(E-hex-2-ene was the most abundant compound among eight different methoxyphenyl-disubstituted hexenes produced by electrophilic addition and elimination reactions induced by HY zeolites. (1a,2a,3b,4b-1,2-bis(4-Methoxyphenyl-3,4-dimethylcyclobutane was the principal component in the mixture of 5 methoxyphenyl-disubstituted cyclobutanes found, together with cis-anethole, after UV-Vis irradiation of a trans-anethole solution in toluene.

  4. The effect of electronic energy loss on irradiation-induced grain growth in nanocrystalline oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanwen; Aidhy, Dilpuneet S; Varga, Tamas; Moll, Sandra; Edmondson, Philip D; Namavar, Fereydoon; Jin, Ke; Ostrouchov, Christopher N; Weber, William J

    2014-05-07

    Grain growth of nanocrystalline materials is generally thermally activated, but can also be driven by irradiation at much lower temperature. In nanocrystalline ceria and zirconia, energetic ions deposit their energy to both atomic nuclei and electrons. Our experimental results have shown that irradiation-induced grain growth is dependent on the total energy deposited, where electronic energy loss and elastic collisions between atomic nuclei both contribute to the production of disorder and grain growth. Our atomistic simulations reveal that a high density of disorder near grain boundaries leads to locally rapid grain movement. The additive effect from both electronic excitation and atomic collision cascades on grain growth demonstrated in this work opens up new possibilities for controlling grain sizes to improve functionality of nanocrystalline materials.

  5. The Effect of Eectronic Energy Loss on Irradiation-Induced Grain Growth in Nanocrystalline Oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yanwen; Aidhy, Dilpuneet S.; Varga, Tamas; Moll, Sandra; Edmondson, P. D.; Namavar, Fereydoon; Jin, Ke; Ostrouchov, Christopher N.; Weber, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Grain growth of nanocrystalline materials is generally thermally activated, but can also be driven by irradiation at much lower temperature. In nanocrystalline ceria and zirconia, contributions from both displacement damage and ionization to the grain growth are identified. Our atomistic simulations have revealed fast grain boundary (GB) movements due to the high density of disorder near GBs. Our experimental results have shown that irradiation-induced grain growth is a function of total energy deposited, where the excitation of target electrons and displacement of lattice atoms both contribute to the overall disorder and both play important roles in grain growth. The coupling of energy deposition to the electronic and lattice structures should both be taken into consideration when engineering nanostructural materials.

  6. Study on Plasmid and Damage Induced by Low-energy Neon Ion Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MaQiufeng; WangXiao; JinGenming; LiWenjian; DangBingrong; XieHongmei; ZhouLibin; MaoShuhong

    2003-01-01

    DNA is considered to be the most important and sensitive target in biological systems. Beside base damage, DNA strand breaks are the major lesion in the genome due to exposure to ionizing radiation. Mutation can be introduced to DNA as a result of enzymatic processing of DNA lesions or post-irradiation replication. However, the mechanisms of radiation-induced mutations are not well clarified at the molecular level. A good way to approach the mechanism is to irradiate the plasmid DNA of heavy ion, then transfect the DNA to host cells to determine the mutation spectra. So to study the effect of heavy ions on the simple plasmid DNA is even predominant or more feasible.

  7. Irradiation induces a biphasic expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruebe, C.E.; Wilfert, F.; Palm, J.; Burdak-Rothkamm, S.; Ruebe, C. [Dept. of Radiotherapy - Radiooncology, Saarland Univ., Homburg/Saar (Germany); Koenig, J. [Inst. of Medical Biometrics, Epidemiology and Medical Informatics, Saarland Univ., Homburg/Saar (Germany); Liu Li [Dept. of Radiotherapy - Radiooncology, Saarland Univ., Homburg/Saar (Germany); Cancer Center, Union Hospital Tongji Medical Coll., Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Schuck, A.; Willich, N. [Dept. of Radiotherapy - Radiooncology, Univ. of Muenster (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Background and purpose: the precise pathophysiological mechanisms of radiation-induced lung injury are poorly understood, but have been shown to correlate with dysregulation of different cytokines. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the time course of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-(TNF-){alpha}, interleukin-(IL)-1{alpha} and IL-6 after whole-lung irradiation. Material and methods: the thoraces of C57BL/6J mice were irradiated with 12 Gy. Treated and control mice were sacrificed at 0.5, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 h, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 24 weeks post irradiation (p.i.). Real-time multiplex RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase polmyerase chain reaction) was established to evaluate the expression of TNF-{alpha}, IL-1{alpha} and IL-6 in the lung tissue of the mice. For histological analysis, lung tissue sections were stained by hematoxylin and eosin. Results: multiplex RT-PCR analysis revealed a biphasic expression of these pro-inflammatory cytokines in the lung tissue after irradiation. After an initial increase at 1 h p.i. for TNF-{alpha} and at 6 h p.i. for IL-1{alpha} and IL-6, the mRNA expression of these pro-inflammatory cytokines returned to basal levels (48 h, 72 h, 1 week, 2 weeks p.i.). During the pneumonic phase, TNF-{alpha}, IL-1{alpha} and IL-6 were significantly elevated and revealed their maximum at 8 weeks p.i. Histopathologic evaluation of the lung sections obtained within 4 weeks p.i. revealed only minor lung damage in 5-30% of the lung tissue. By contrast, at 8, 16, and 24 weeks p.i., 70-90% of the lung tissue revealed histopathologically detectable organizing alveolitis. Conclusion: irradiation induces a biphasic expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the lung. The initial transitory cytokine response occurred within the first hours after lung irradiation with no detectable histopathologic alterations. The second, more persistent cytokine elevation coincided with the onset of histologically discernible organizing acute

  8. Total-body irradiation and host reconstitution with stored autologous marrow: an experimental model for the induction of allogeneic unresponsiveness in large mammals. [Dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapaport, F.T.; Bachvaroff, R.J.; Dicke, K.; Santos, G.

    1979-03-01

    These results point to the capacity of suprelethal total-body irradiation and autologous bone marrow replacement to produce in the host a time-dependent privileged phase of immunologic reactivity during which exposure to alloantigens is more likely to produce unresponsiveness, rather than sensitization. The mechanisms implicated in the mediation of this phenomenon are not clear. Regardless of hypothetical interpretations, however, the current growing interest in total-body irradiation and autologous bone marrow replacement in clinical medicine, and the ease with which this approach appears to produce allogenic unresponsiveness in large mammals, raise the possibility that this method may constitute a highly promising approach to the facilitation of survival of vital transplanted organs in man. This possibility is further supported by the long-term record of the world's longest surviving renal allograft recipient, whose preoperative preparation consisted of total-body irradiation 24 hr before a kidney transplant.

  9. TH-C-12A-04: Dosimetric Evaluation of a Modulated Arc Technique for Total Body Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsiamas, P; Czerminska, M; Makrigiorgos, G; Karen, M; Zygmanski, P [Brigham and Women' s Hospital/ Dana-Farber Institute/ Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: A simplified Total Body Irradiation (TBI) was developed to work with minimal requirements in a compact linac room without custom motorized TBI couch. Results were compared to our existing fixed-gantry double 4 MV linac TBI system with prone patient and simultaneous AP/PA irradiation. Methods: Modulated arc irradiates patient positioned in prone/supine positions along the craniocaudal axis. A simplified inverse planning method developed to optimize dose rate as a function of gantry angle for various patient sizes without the need of graphical 3D treatment planning system. This method can be easily adapted and used with minimal resources. Fixed maximum field size (40×40 cm2) is used to decrease radiation delivery time. Dose rate as a function of gantry angle is optimized to result in uniform dose inside rectangular phantoms of various sizes and a custom VMAT DICOM plans were generated using a DICOM editor tool. Monte Carlo simulations, film and ionization chamber dosimetry for various setups were used to derive and test an extended SSD beam model based on PDD/OAR profiles for Varian 6EX/ TX. Measurements were obtained using solid water phantoms. Dose rate modulation function was determined for various size patients (100cm − 200cm). Depending on the size of the patient arc range varied from 100° to 120°. Results: A PDD/OAR based beam model for modulated arc TBI therapy was developed. Lateral dose profiles produced were similar to profiles of our existing TBI facility. Calculated delivery time and full arc depended on the size of the patient (∼8min/ 100° − 10min/ 120°, 100 cGy). Dose heterogeneity varied by about ±5% − ±10% depending on the patient size and distance to the surface (buildup region). Conclusion: TBI using simplified modulated arc along craniocaudal axis of different size patients positioned on the floor can be achieved without graphical / inverse 3D planning.

  10. SU-E-T-600: In Vivo Dosimetry for Total Body and Total Marrow Irradiations with Optically Stimulated Luminescence Dosimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niedbala, M; Save, C [The Ottawa Hospital Cancer Ctr., Ottawa, ON (Canada); Cygler, J [The Ottawa Hospital Cancer Ctr., Ottawa, ON (Canada); University of Ottawa (Canada); Carleton University (Canada)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of using optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLDs) for in-vivo dosimetry of patients undergoing Total Body and Total Marrow Irradiations (TBI and TMI). Methods: TBI treatments of 12 Gy were delivered in 6 BID fractions with the patient on a moving couch under a static 10 MV beam (Synergy, Elekta). TMI treatments of 18 Gy in 9 BID fractions were planned and delivered using a 6 MV TomoTherapy unit (Accuray). To provide a uniform dose to the entire patient length, the treatment was split into 2 adjacent fields junctioned in the thigh region. Our standard clinical practice involves in vivo dosimetry with MOSFETs for each TBI fraction and TLDs for at least one fraction of the TMI treatment for dose verification. In this study we also used OSLDs. Individual calibration coefficients were obtained for the OSLDs based on irradiations in a solid water phantom to the dose of 50 cGy from Elekta Synergy 10 MV (TBI) and 6 MV (TMI) beams. Calibration coefficients were calculated based on the OSLDs readings taken 2 hrs post-irradiation. For in vivo dosimetry OSLDs were placed alongside MOSFETs for TBI patients and in approximately the same locations as the TLDs for TMI patients. OSLDs were read 2 hours post treatment and compared to the MOSFET and TLD results. Results: OSLD measured doses agreed within 5% with MOSFET and TLD results, with the exception of the junction region in the TMI patient due to very high dose gradient and difficulty of precise and reproducible detector placement. Conclusion: OSLDs are useful for in vivo dosimetry of TBI and TMI patients. The quick post-treatment readout is an advantage over TLDs, allowing the results to be obtained between BID fractions, while wireless detectors are advantageous over MOSFETs for treatments involving a moving couch.

  11. Poster — Thur Eve — 38: Feasibility of a Table-Top Total Body Irradiation Technique using Robotic Couch Motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, Erika; Otto, Karl; Hoppe, Richard; Hsu, Annie; Loo, Billy; Million, Lynn; Xing, Lei; Fahimian, Benjamin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: To develop and test the feasibility of a table-top implementation for total body irradiation (TBI) via robotic couch motion and coordinated monitor unit modulation on a standard C-arm linac geometry. Methods: To allow for collision free delivery and to maximize the effective field size, the couch was rotated to 270° IEC and dropped to 150 cm from the vertical radiation source. The robotic delivery was programmed using the TrueBeam STx Developer Mode using custom XML scripting. To assess the dosimetry of a sliding 30×20 cm{sup 2} field, irradiation on a solid water phantom of varying thickness was analyzed using EDR2 radiographic film and OSLDs. Beam modulation was achieved by dividing the couch path into multiple segments of varying dose rates and couch speeds in order to deliver 120 cGy to the midline. Results: The programmed irradiation in conjunction with coordinated couch motion was successfully delivered on a TrueBeam linac. When no beam modulation was employed, the dose difference between two different phantom sections was 17.0%. With simple beam modulation via changing dose rates and couch speeds, the desired prescription dose can be achieved at the centre of each phantom section within 1.9%. However, dose deviation at the junction was 9.2% due to the nonphysical change in the phantom thickness. Conclusions: The feasibility of robotic table-top TBI on a C-arm linac geometry was experimentally demonstrated. To achieve a more uniform dose distribution, inverse-planning allowing for a combination of dose rate modulation, jaw tracking and MLC motion is under investigation.

  12. Formation of rutile fasciculate zone induced by sunlight irradiation at room temperature and its hemocompatibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xuan-Hui; Zheng, Xiang; Cheng, Yuan [School of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China); Li, Guo-Hua, E-mail: nanozjut@zjut.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China); State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Green Chemistry Synthesis Technology, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China); Research Center of Nanoscience and Technology, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China); Chen, Xiao-Ping, E-mail: chxp@zjut.edu.cn [School of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China); Zheng, Jian-Hui [School of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China)

    2013-08-01

    The fasciculate zone of phase pure rutile was fabricated under sunlight irradiation at room temperature, using titanium tetrachloride as a sole precursor. The crystal phase, morphology and microstructure, and optical absorption behavior of the samples were characterized by X-ray Diffraction, High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HRTEM) and UV–vis Diffuse Reflectance Spectra (DRS), respectively. XRD results show that the crystal phase of the sample is composed of rutile only, and a lattice distortion displays in the crystallite of the sample. HRTEM results show that the morphology of rutile particle is fasciculate zone constituted of nanoparticles with a diameter of 4–7 nm, and these particles grow one by one and step by step. The pattern of the selected area electron diffraction of the sample is Kikuchi type, which can be attributed to the predominant orientation growth of rutile nanoparticles along [001] induced by sunlight irradiation. DRS results show that the absorption threshold of the sample is 415 nm, corresponding to the band gap energy of 2.99 eV, which is lower than the band gap energy of rutile, 3.03 eV. Blood compatibility measurement shows that the sample has no remarkable effect on hemolytic and coagulation activity. The percent hemolysis of red blood cells is less than 5% even treated with a big dosage of the fasciculate rutile and under UV irradiation, and there are no obvious changes of plasma recalcification time after the rutile treatment. Thus, the novel structure of rutile fasciculate has low potential toxicity for blood and is hemocompatibility safe. Highlights: • A novel approach to fabricate the fasciculate zone of phase pure rutile • The fasciculate grows from a particle to nanorod and to fasciculate, step by step. • A preferred orientation growth induced by sunlight irradiation in the fasciculate • The rutile fasciculate is low toxicity for blood and is hemocompatibility safe.

  13. Effect of whole body proton or gamma irradiation on genetic damage and hematological variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Ji-Young; Ahn, Ji-Yeon; Yi, Jae Youn; Kang, Chang-Mo; Yun, Yeon-Sook; Song, Jie-Young [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    For the purpose of cancer therapy or spaceflight with mission or simple trip, a considerable concern about the absorbed amount of radiation and its deleterious effect on physiological system, if any, has been increased. Many efforts have been dedicated to estimate the risk, however, there is very little known about the spectrum of radiations during the flight through arctic zone as well as the effects of low-dose radiation. Here, we aimed to evaluate the effect of proton or gamma-irradiation at a recommended dose limit of occupational (20mGy per year) and the standardized radio-therapeutic fraction dose (2Gy) on gastro-intestinal damages, peripheral hematology, and the frequency of micronuclei formation.

  14. Evaluation of induced radioactivity in 10 MeV-electron irradiated spices, (1); [gamma]-ray measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuta, Masakazu; Katayama, Tadashi; Ito, Norio; Mizohata, Akira; Matsunami, Tadao; Shibata, Setsuko; Toratani, Hirokazu (Osaka Prefectural Univ., Sakai (Japan). Research Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology); Takeda, Atsuhiko

    1994-02-01

    Black pepper, white pepper, red pepper, ginger and turmeric were irradiated with 10 MeV electrons from a linear accelerator to a dose of 100 kGy and radioactivity was measured in order to estimate induced radioactivity in the irradiated foods. Induced radioactivity could not be detected significantly by [gamma]-ray spectrometry in the irradiated samples except for spiked samples which contain some photonuclear target nuclides in the list of photonuclear reactions which could produce radioactivity below 10 MeV. From the amount of observed radioactivities of short-lived photonuclear products in the spiked samples and calculation of H[sub 50] according to ICRP Publication 30, it was concluded that the induced radioactivity and its biological effects in the 10 MeV electron-irradiated natural samples were negligible in comparison with natural radioactivity from [sup 40]K contained in the samples. (author).

  15. Amorphization of silicon via electronic processes induced by irradiation with fullerenes; Amorphisation du silicium par processus electroniques induits par irradiation avec des fullerenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canut, B.; Bonardi, N.; Ramos, S.M.M. [Universite Claude Bernard, Dept. de Physique des Materiaux, UMR CNRS, 69 - Lyon (France); Della Negra, S. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, (IN2P3/CNRS) 91 - Orsay (France)

    1999-07-01

    For the first time it is shown that single crystalline silicon is sensitive to collective electronic excitations. Irradiations with C{sub 60} clusters accelerated in the 10 MeV range induce the formation of amorphous latent tracks in this material. This result has never been observed with high energy heavy ions, it means that what may matter is the very high electronic energy density deposited in the silicon by the incident cluster. TEM (transmission electronic microscopy) analysis of irradiated samples have enable us to measure surface damage cross-sections: 55 nm{sup 2} and 87 nm{sup 2} for irradiations with C{sub 60}{sup 2+} beams and C{sub 60}{sup 3+} beams accelerated respectively to 30 and 40 MeV. (A.C.)

  16. Heavy ion irradiation induced dislocation loops in AREVA's M5 Registered-Sign alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hengstler-Eger, R.M., E-mail: Rosmarie.Hengstler-Eger@areva.com [AREVA, AREVA NP GmbH, Paul-Gossen-Str. 100, 91052 Erlangen (Germany); Baldo, P. [Argonne National Laboratory, Materials Science Division, 9700 South Cass Avenue, 60439 Argonne IL (United States); Beck, L. [Maier-Leibnitz-Laboratorium (MLL), Am Coulombwall 6, 85748 Garching (Germany); Dorner, J.; Ertl, K. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Hoffmann, P.B. [AREVA, AREVA NP GmbH, Paul-Gossen-Str. 100, 91052 Erlangen (Germany); Hugenschmidt, C. [Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II), Lichtenbergstr. 1, 85747 Garching (Germany); Kirk, M.A. [Argonne National Laboratory, Materials Science Division, 9700 South Cass Avenue, 60439 Argonne IL (United States); Petry, W.; Pikart, P. [Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II), Lichtenbergstr. 1, 85747 Garching (Germany); Rempel, A. [AREVA, AREVA NP GmbH, Paul-Gossen-Str. 100, 91052 Erlangen (Germany)

    2012-04-15

    Pressurized water reactor (PWR) Zr-based alloy structural materials show creep and growth under neutron irradiation as a consequence of the irradiation induced microstructural changes in the alloy. A better scientific understanding of these microstructural processes can improve simulation programs for structural component deformation and simplify the development of advanced deformation resistant alloys. As in-pile irradiation leads to high material activation and requires long irradiation times, the objective of this work was to study whether ion irradiation is an applicable method to simulate typical PWR neutron damage in Zr-based alloys, with AREVA's M5 Registered-Sign alloy as reference material. The irradiated specimens were studied by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), positron Doppler broadening spectroscopy (DBS) and in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) at different dose levels and temperatures. The irradiation induced microstructure consisted of - and -type dislocation loops with their characteristics corresponding to typical neutron damage in Zr-based alloys; it can thus be concluded that heavy ion irradiation under the chosen conditions is an excellent method to simulate PWR neutron damage.

  17. Irradiation creep in austenitic and ferritic steels irradiated in a tailored neutron spectrum to induce fusion reactor levels of helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossbeck, M.L.; Gibson, L.T. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States); Jitsukawa, S.

    1996-04-01

    Six austenitic stainless steels and two ferritic alloys were irradiated sequentially in two research reactors where the neutron spectrum was tailored to produce a He production rate typical of a fusion device. Irradiation began in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor where an atomic displacement level of 7.4 dpa was achieved and was then transferred to the High Flux Isotope Reactor for the remainder of the irradiation to a total displacement level of 19 dpa. Temperatures of 60 and 330{degree}C are reported on. At 330{degree}C irradiation creep was found to be linear in stress and fluence with rates in the range of 1.7 - 5.5 x 10{sup -4}% MPa{sup -1} dpa{sup -1}. Annealed and cold-worked materials exhibited similar creep rates. There is some indication that austenitic alloys with TiC or TiO precipitates had a slightly higher irradiation creep rate than those without. The ferritic alloys HT-9 and Fe-16Cr had irradiatoin creep rates about 0.5 x 10{sup -4}% MPa{sup -1} dpa{sup -1}. No meaningful data could be obtained from the tubes irradiated at 60{degree}C because of damage to the tubes.

  18. Formation Mechanism of Micropores on the Surface of Pure Aluminum Induced by High-Current Pulsed Electron Beam Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Yang; CAI Jie; WAN Ming-Zhen; LV Peng; GUAN Qing-Feng

    2011-01-01

    The mechanism of micropores formed on the surface of polycrystalline pure aluminum under high-current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB) irradiation is explained. It is discovered that dispersed micropores with sizes of 0.1-1μm on the irradiated surface of pure aluminum can be successfully fabricated after HCPEB irradiation. The dominant formation mechanism of the surface micropores should be attributed to the formation of supersaturation vacancies within the near surface during the HCPEB irradiation and the migration of vacancies along gra,in boundaries and/or dislocations towards the irradiated surface. It is expected that the HCPEB technique will become a new method for the rapid synthesis of surface porous materials.%The mechanism of micropores formed on the surface of polycrystalline pure aluminum under high-current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB) irradiation is explained.It is discovered that dispersed micropores with sizes of 0.1-1μm on the irradiated surface of pure aluminum can be successfully fabricated after HCPEB irradiation.The dominant formation mechanism of the surface micropores should be attributed to the formation of supersaturation vacancies within the near surface during the HCPEB irradiation and the migration of vacancies along grain boundaries and/or dislocations towards the irradiated surface.It is expected that the HCPEB technique will become a new method for the rapid synthesis of surface porous materials.High-current pulsed electron beams (HCPEBs)have attracted much attention in the field of material surface modification.[1-7] During the transient bombardment process a high energy (108-109 W·cm-2) is deposited only in a very thin layer (less than tens of micrometers) within a very short time (a few microseconds) and thereby causes ultrafast heating and cooling on the irradiated surface of materials.The dynamic stress fields induced in these processes can induce intense deformation on the material surface.

  19. Fenofibrate induces ketone body production in melanoma and glioblastoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja M Grabacka

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ketone bodies (beta-hydroxybutyrate, bHB, acetoacetate are mainly produced in the liver during prolonged fasting or starvation. bHB is a very efficient energy substrate for sustaining ATP production in peripheral tissues; importantly its consumption is preferred over glucose. However, the majority of malignant cells, particularly cancer cells of neuroectodermal origin such as glioblastoma, are not able to use ketone bodies as a source of energy. Here, we report a novel observation that fenofibrate, a synthetic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARa agonist, induces bHB production in melanoma and glioblastoma cells, as well as in neurospheres composed of nontransformed cells. Unexpectedly, this effect is not dependent on PPARa activity or its expression level. The fenofibrate-induced ketogenesis is accompanied by growth arrest and down-regulation of transketolase, but the NADP/NADPH and GSH/GSSG ratios remain unaffected. Our results reveal a new, intriguing aspect of cancer cell biology and highlight the benefits of fenofibrate as a supplement to both canonical and dietary (ketogenic therapeutic approaches against glioblastoma.

  20. High-dose total body irradiation and myeloablative conditioning before allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation: time to rethink?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohty, Mohamad; Malard, Florent; Savani, Bipin N

    2015-04-01

    Over the last decade, the care of patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) has significantly improved, leading to a decrease in deaths related to allo-HCT as well as improved long-term survival. However, for many patients, long-term survivorship is associated with a substantial burden of chronic morbidities. Indeed, malignant and nonmalignant late complications after allo-HCT are numerous and usually multifactorial, with all organs and tissues a potential target. In many cases, these long-term side effects are associated with the use of high-dose total body irradiation, myeloablative conditioning regimens, and the onset of chronic graft-versus-host disease. It appears to be essential to change the natural history of these late effects. This requires the introduction of improved conditioning regimens and the development of lifelong monitoring controls, patient counseling, and preventative treatment measures. This approach will allow us to pursue our efforts to improve patient outcome.

  1. Regeneration of the epidermis and basement membrane of the planarian Dugesia japonica after total-body x irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hori, I.

    1979-03-01

    Fresh-water planarians were studied to examine effects of x rays on regeneration of the epidermis and basement membrane. During early stages of regeneration, free rhabdite-forming cells were associated with the wound epidermis and recruited it. In later stages, however, a gradual degeneration occurred in the epidermis and cells undergoing epithelization decreased in number. Eventually epidermal cells on the wound surface appeared necrotic as evidenced by pyknotic nuclei and vacuolized dense cytoplasm. The entire basement membrane could not be reconstituted in any stage after wounding though its precursor-like material was secreted in the interspace between epidermis and parenchyma. Morphological changes in extracellular products and in the cells surrounding the products suggest that epidermal cells which have covered the wound surface synthesize precursors of the basement membrane. Possible factors of a characteristic perturbation in epithelization and basement membrane formation after total-body irradiation are discussed.

  2. Treg depletion attenuates irradiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis by reducing fibrocyte accumulation, inducing Th17 response, and shifting IFN-γ, IL-12/IL-4, IL-5 balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Shanshan; Guo, Renfeng; Yang, Zhihua; Xu, Long; Du, Li; Li, Ruoxi; Xiao, Fengjun; Wang, Qianjun; Zhu, Maoxiang; Pan, Xiujie

    2015-11-01

    Irradiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis results from thoracic radiotherapy and severely limits radiotherapy approaches. CD4(+) CD25(+) FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) are involved in experimentally induced murine lung fibrosis. However, the precise contribution of Tregs to irradiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis still remains unclear. We have previously established the mouse model of irradiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis and observed an increased frequency of Tregs during the process. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Treg depletion on irradiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis and on fibrocyte, Th17 cell response and production of multiple cytokines in mice. Treg-depleted mice were generated by intraperitoneal injection with anti-CD25 mAb 2h after 20 Gy (60)CO γ-ray thoracic irradiation and every 7 days thereafter. Pulmonary fibrosis was semi-quantitatively assessed using Masson's trichrome staining. The proportions of Tregs, fibrocyte and Th17 cells were detected by flow cytometry. Th1/Th2 cytokines were assessed by Luminex assays. We found that Treg depletion decelerated the process of irradiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis and hindered fibrocyte recruitment to the lung. In response to Treg depletion, the number of CD4(+) T lymphocytes and Th17 cells increased. Moreover, Th1/Th2 cytokine balance was disturbed into Th1 dominance upon Treg depletion. Our study demonstrates that Tregs are involved in irradiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis by promoting fibrocyte accumulation, attenuating Th17 response and regulating Th1/Th2 cytokine balance in the lung tissues, which suggests that Tregs may be therapeutically manipulated to decelerate the progression of irradiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

  3. Radiation induced segregation and precipitation behavior in self-ion irradiated Ferritic/Martensitic HT9 steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ce; Auger, Maria A.; Moody, Michael P.; Kaoumi, Djamel

    2017-08-01

    In this study, Ferritic/Martensitic (F/M) HT9 steel was irradiated to 20 displacements per atom (dpa) at 600 nm depth at 420 and 440 °C, and to 1, 10 and 20 dpa at 600 nm depth at 470 °C using 5 MeV Fe++ ions. The characterization was conducted using ChemiSTEM and Atom Probe Tomography (APT), with a focus on radiation induced segregation and precipitation. Ni and/or Si segregation at defect sinks (grain boundaries, dislocation lines, carbide/matrix interfaces) together with Ni, Si, Mn rich G-phase precipitation were observed in self-ion irradiated HT9 except in very low dose case (1 dpa at 470 °C). Some G-phase precipitates were found to nucleate heterogeneously at defect sinks where Ni and/or Si segregated. In contrast to what was previously reported in the literature for neutron irradiated HT9, no Cr-rich α‧ phase, χ-phases, η phase and voids were found in self-ion irradiated HT9. The difference of observed microstructures is probably due to the difference of irradiation dose rate between ion irradiation and neutron irradiation. In addition, the average size and number density of G-phase precipitates were found to be sensitive to both irradiation temperature and dose. With the same irradiation dose, the average size of G-phase increased whereas the number density decreased with increasing irradiation temperature. Within the same irradiation temperature, the average size increased with increasing irradiation dose.

  4. Treatment of aggressive multiple myeloma by high-dose chemotherapy and total body irradiation followed by blood stem cells autologous graft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fermand, J.P.; Levy, Y.; Gerota, J.; Benbunan, M.; Cosset, J.M.; Castaigne, S.; Seligmann, M.; Brouet, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    Eight patients with stage III aggressive multiple myeloma, refractory to current chemotherapy in six cases, were treated by high-dose chemotherapy (nitrosourea, etoposide, and melphalan) (HDC) and total body irradiation (TBI), followed by autografting with blood stem cells. These cells were previously collected by leukapheresis performed during hematologic recovery following cytotoxic drug-induced bone marrow aplasia. Seven patients were alive 9 to 17 months after HDC-TBI and graft. One died at day 40 from cerebral bleeding. All living patients achieved a 90% or greater reduction in tumor mass. In two cases, a complete remission (CR) has persisted at a follow-up of 15 and 16 months. Three patients have been well and off therapy with stable minimal residual disease (RD) since 10, 11, and 17 months, respectively. A patient in apparent CR and another with RD have relapsed 9 to 12 months posttreatment. Autologous blood-derived hematopoietic stem cells induced successful and sustained engraftment in all living patients. These results, although still preliminary, indicate that HDC and TBI, followed by blood stem cells autograft, which has both practical and theoretical interest over allogeneic or autologous bone marrow transplantation, deserve consideration in selected patients with multiple myeloma.

  5. Coilin is rapidly recruited to UVA-induced DNA lesions and γ-radiation affects localized movement of Cajal bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Bártová, Eva; Foltánková, Veronika; Legartová, Soňa; Sehnalová, Petra; Sorokin, Dmitry V; Suchánková, Jana; Kozubek, Stanislav

    2014-01-01

    Cajal bodies are important nuclear structures containing proteins that preferentially regulate RNA-related metabolism. We investigated the cell-type specific nuclear distribution of Cajal bodies and the level of coilin, a protein of Cajal bodies, in non-irradiated and irradiated human tumor cell lines and embryonic stem (ES) cells. Cajal bodies were localized in different nuclear compartments, including DAPI-poor regions, in the proximity of chromocenters, and adjacent to nucleoli. The number...

  6. Topical Administration of Manuka Oil Prevents UV-B Irradiation-Induced Cutaneous Photoaging in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh Sook Kwon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Manuka tree is indigenous to New Zealand, and its essential oil has been used as a traditional medicine to treat wounds, fever, and pain. Although there is a growing interest in the use of manuka oil for antiaging skin care products, little is known about its bioactivity. Solar ultraviolet (UV radiation is the primary environmental factor causing skin damage and consequently premature aging. Therefore, we evaluated manuka oil for its effects against photoaging in UV-B-irradiated hairless mice. Topical application of manuka oil suppressed the UV-B-induced increase in skin thickness and wrinkle grading in a dose-dependent manner. Application of 10% manuka oil reduced the average length, depth, and % area of wrinkles significantly, and this was correlated with inhibition of loss of collagen fiber content and epidermal hyperplasia. Furthermore, we observed that manuka oil could suppress UV-B-induced skin inflammation by inhibiting the production of inflammatory cytokines. Taken together, this study provides evidence that manuka oil indeed possesses antiphotoaging activity, and this is associated with its inhibitory activity against skin inflammation induced by UV irradiation.

  7. Microstructural analysis of ion-irradiation-induced hardening in inconel 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, N.; Hunn, J. D.; Byun, T. S.; Mansur, L. K.

    2003-05-01

    As an assessment for a possible accelerator beam line window material for the US Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) target, performance, radiation-induced hardening and microstructural evolution in Inconel 718 were investigated in both solution annealed (SA) and precipitation hardened (PH) conditions. Irradiations were carried out using 3.5 MeV Fe +, 370 keV He + and 180 keV H + either singly or simultaneously at 200 °C to simulate the damage and He/H production in the SNS target vessel wall. This resulted in systematic hardening in SA Inconel and gradual net softening in the PH material. TEM microstructural analysis showed the hardening was associated with the formation of small loop and faulted loop structures. Helium-irradiated specimens included more loops and cavities than Fe + ion-irradiated specimens. Softening of the PH material was due to dissolution of the γ '/γ ″ precipitates. High doses of helium were implanted in order to study the effect of high retention of gaseous transmutation products. Simultaneous with the hardening and/or softening due to the displacement damage cascade, helium filled cavities produced additional hardening at high concentrations.

  8. Investigation of reactor neutron irradiation induced dark signals increase in COTS array CCDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zujun Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The experiments of reactor neutron irradiation which induce dark signal increase in COTS array CCDs are presented. The flux of the reactor neutron beams was about 1.33 × 108 n/cm2s. The three samples were exposed to 1MeV neutron-equivalent fluences of 1 × 1011, 5 × 1011, and 1 × 1012 n/cm2, respectively. The mean dark signal (KD, dark signal non-uniformity (DSNU, and dark signal spikes (hot pixels versus neutron fluence are investigated. The degradation mechanisms of the dark signal in CCDs are analyzed. The mean dark signal increase due to neutron displacement damage appears to be proportional to displacement damage dose. The dark images from the CCDs irradiated by neutrons are presented to investigate the generation of dark signal spike. The 1D and 2D figures which show the output signal voltage of pixels in dark images irradiated by different neutron beam fluences, are presented to compare the degradation of KD, DSNU, and dark signal spike.

  9. Modification of magnetic anisotropy induced by swift heavy ion irradiation in cobalt ferrite thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nongjai, Razia [Department of Applied Physics, Zakir Hussain College of Engineering & Technology, A.M.U., Aligarh 202002 (India); Khan, Shakeel, E-mail: skhanapad@gmail.com [Department of Applied Physics, Zakir Hussain College of Engineering & Technology, A.M.U., Aligarh 202002 (India); Ahmed, Hilal; Khan, Imran [Department of Applied Physics, Zakir Hussain College of Engineering & Technology, A.M.U., Aligarh 202002 (India); Annapoorni, S. [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Gautam, Sanjeev [Advanced Analysis Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lin, Hong-Ji; Chang, Fan-Hsiu [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC), Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Hwa Chae, Keun [Advanced Analysis Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Asokan, K. [Material Science Division, Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India)

    2015-11-15

    The present study demonstrates the modification of magnetic anisotropy in cobalt ferrite (CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) thin films induced by swift heavy ion irradiations of 200 MeV Ag-ion beams. The study reveals that both magnetizations and coercive field are sensitive to Ag-ions irradiation and to the fluences. The magnetic anisotropy enhanced at low fluence of Ag-ions due to domain wall pinning at defect sites created by ion bombardment and at high fluence, this magnetic anisotropy ceases and changes to isotropic behavior which is explained based on the significant structural and morphological changes. An X-ray absorption and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism studies confirms the inverse spinel structure of these compounds. - Highlights: • CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin films have been deposited on Silicon substrate by pulsed laser deposition technique. • Swift heavy ion irradiation of thin films at three different fluences. • Studied the structural and magnetic properties of the samples. • XRD and Raman studies indicate strain in the films. • Observed perpendicular magnetic anisotropy.

  10. A model of calcium signaling and degranulation dynamics induced by laser irradiation in mast cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI XiaoMin; ZHENG YuFan; LIU ZengRong; YANG WenZhong

    2008-01-01

    Recent experiments show that calcium signaling and degranulation dynamics induced by low power laser irradiation in mast cells must rely on extracellular Ca2+ influx. An analytical expression of Ca2+ flux through TRPV4 cation channel in response to interaction of laser photon energy and extracellular Ca2+ is deduced, and a model characterizing dynamics of calcium signaling and degranulation activated by laser irradiation in mast cells is established. The model indicates that the characteristics of calcium signaling and degranulation dynamics are determined by interaction between laser photon energy and Ca2+ influx. Extracellular Ca2+ concentration is so high that even small photon energy can activate mast cells, thus avoiding the possible injury caused by laser irradiation with shorter wavelengths. The model predicts that there exists a narrow parameter domain of photon energy and extracellular Ca2+ concentration of which results in cytosolic Ca2+ limit cycle oscillations, and shows that PKC activity is in direct proportion to the frequency of Ca2+ oscillations. With the model it is found that sustained and stable maximum plateau of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration can get optimal degranulation rate. Furthermore, the idea of introducing the realistic physical energy into model is applicable to modeling other physical signal transduction systems.

  11. Irradiation-induced precipitation and mechanical properties of vanadium alloys at <430 C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, H.M.; Gazda, J.; Smith, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1998-09-01

    Recent attention to V-base alloys has focused on the effect of low-temperature (<430 C) irradiation on tensile and impact properties of V-4Cr-4Ti. In previous studies, dislocation channeling, which causes flow localization and severe loss of work-hardening capability, has been attributed to dense, irradiation-induced precipitation of very fine particles. However, efforts to identify the precipitates were unsuccessful until now. In this study, analysis by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was conducted on unalloyed V, V-5Ti, V-3Ti-1Si, and V-4Cr-4Ti specimens that were irradiated at <430 C in conventional and dynamic helium charging experiments. By means of dark-field imaging and selected-area-diffraction analysis, the characteristic precipitates were identified to be (V,Ti{sub 1{minus}x})(C,O,N). In V-3Ti-1Si, precipitation of (V,Ti{sub 1{minus}x})(C,O,N) was negligible at <430 C, and as a result, dislocation channeling did not occur and work-hardening capability was high.

  12. Effect of proton and electron-irradiation intensity on radiation-induced damages in silicon bipolar transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannikov, Yu.A.; Gorin, B.M.; Kozhevnikov, V.P.; Mikhnovich, V.V.; Gusev, L.I.

    1981-11-01

    The increase of radiation-induced damages of bipolar n-p-n transistors 8-12 times with the irradiation intensity decrease by protons from 4.07x1010 to 2.5x107 cm-2 x c-1 has been found experimentally. Damages of p-n-p transistors vary in the opposite way - they are decreased 2-3 times with the irradiation intensity decrease within the same limits. The dependence of damages on intensity of proton irradiation occurs at the dose rate by three orders less than it has been observed for electron irradiation. The results obtained are explained by the dependence of radiation defect formation reactions on charge state of defects with account for the role of formation of disordering regions upon proton irradiation.

  13. Pre-irradiation induced emulsion graft polymerization of acrylonitrile onto polyethylene nonwoven fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hanzhou; Yu, Ming; Deng, Bo; Li, Linfan; Jiang, Haiqing; Li, Jingye

    2012-01-01

    Acrylonitrile has been widely used in the modification of polymers by graft polymerization. In the present work, pre-irradiation induced emulsion graft polymerization method is used to introduce acrylonitrile onto PE nonwoven fabric instead of the traditional reaction in organic solvents system. The degree of grafting (DG) is measured by gravimetric method and the kinetics of the graft polymerization is studied. The existence of the graft chains is proven by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis. Thermal stability of the grafted polymer is measured by Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

  14. Thermal Stress-Induced Birefringence in Borate Glass Irradiated by Femtosecond Laser Pulses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Ye; YU Bing-Kun; LU Bo; QIU Jian-Rong; YAN Xiao-Na; JIANG Xiong-Wei; ZHU Cong-Shan

    2005-01-01

    @@ Thermal stress-induced birefringence in borate glass which has been irradiated by 800-nm femtosecond laser pulses is observed under cross-polarized light. Due to the high temperature and pressure formed in the focal volume, the material at the edge of the micro-modified region is compressed between the expanding region and the unheated one, then stress emerges. Raman spectroscopy is used to investigate the stress distribution in the micro-modified region and indicates the redistributions of density and refractive index by Raman peak shift. We suggest that this technique can develop waveguide polarizers and Fresnel zone plates in integrated optics.

  15. In Situ Studies on the Irradiation-Induced Twin Boundary-Defect Interactions in Cu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, C.; Li, Jin; Fan, Zhe; Wang, H.; Zhang, X.

    2017-08-01

    Polycrystalline Cu films with nanoscale annealing twins are subjected to in situ Kr++ ion irradiation at room temperature inside a transmission electron microscope up to a dose of 1 displacement-per-atom. Radiation induces prominent migration of incoherent twin boundaries. Depending on twin thickness, three types of twin boundary evolutions are observed, including rapid detwinning, gradual detwinning, and self-healing. The mechanism of twin thickness-dependent evolution of microstructures is discussed. This study provides further evidence on twin boundary-defect interactions and may assist the design of radiation-tolerant twinned metallic materials.

  16. Pump-probe imaging of laser-induced periodic surface structures after ultrafast irradiation of Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Ryan D. [Applied Physics Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Torralva, Ben [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Adams, David P. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123 (United States); Yalisove, Steven M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2013-09-30

    Ultrafast pump-probe microscopy has been used to investigate laser-induced periodic surface structure (LIPSS) formation on polished Si surfaces. A crater forms on the surface after irradiation by a 150 fs laser pulse, and a second, subsequent pulse forms LIPSS within the crater. Sequentially delayed images show that LIPSS with a periodicity slightly less than the fundamental laser wavelength of 780 nm appear on Si surfaces ∼50 ps after arrival of the second pump laser pulse, well after the onset of melting. LIPSS are observed on the same timescale as material removal, suggesting that their formation involves material ejection.

  17. Pump-probe imaging of laser-induced periodic surface structures after ultrafast irradiation of Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Ryan D.; Torralva, Ben; Adams, David P.; Yalisove, Steven M.

    2013-09-01

    Ultrafast pump-probe microscopy has been used to investigate laser-induced periodic surface structure (LIPSS) formation on polished Si surfaces. A crater forms on the surface after irradiation by a 150 fs laser pulse, and a second, subsequent pulse forms LIPSS within the crater. Sequentially delayed images show that LIPSS with a periodicity slightly less than the fundamental laser wavelength of 780 nm appear on Si surfaces ˜50 ps after arrival of the second pump laser pulse, well after the onset of melting. LIPSS are observed on the same timescale as material removal, suggesting that their formation involves material ejection.

  18. Soft-mold-induced self-construction of polymer patterns under microwave irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Fu-Hsiang; Wu, Chia-Tien; Chen, Mei-Fen; Chen, Jem-Kun; Chu, Tieh-Chi

    2007-05-01

    In this study, the authors used a soft-mold-induced self-construction method to fabricate three-dimensional patterns under microwave irradiation for 1min. The authors estimated the actual pattern growth temperature using a fluorescence probe technique. The temperature at which pattern growth originated was, by necessity, higher than the glass transition temperature of the novolak resist. Electrostatic forces and surface tension effects under the electromagnetic field contributed significantly to the pattern growth, and the use of an antisticking agent allowed easy demolding.

  19. Indirect Tumor Cell Death After High-Dose Hypofractionated Irradiation: Implications for Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy and Stereotactic Radiation Surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Chang W., E-mail: songx001@umn.edu [Department of Therapeutic Radiology-Radiation Oncology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yoon-Jin [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Griffin, Robert J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Park, Inhwan [Department of Therapeutic Radiology-Radiation Oncology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Koonce, Nathan A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Hui, Susanta [Department of Therapeutic Radiology-Radiation Oncology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Kim, Mi-Sook [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Dusenbery, Kathryn E. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology-Radiation Oncology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Sperduto, Paul W. [Minneapolis Radiation Oncology and Gamma Knife Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Cho, L. Chinsoo [Department of Therapeutic Radiology-Radiation Oncology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to reveal the biological mechanisms underlying stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and stereotactic radiation surgery (SRS). Methods and Materials: FSaII fibrosarcomas grown subcutaneously in the hind limbs of C3H mice were irradiated with 10 to 30 Gy of X rays in a single fraction, and the clonogenic cell survival was determined with in vivo–in vitro excision assay immediately or 2 to 5 days after irradiation. The effects of radiation on the intratumor microenvironment were studied using immunohistochemical methods. Results: After cells were irradiated with 15 or 20 Gy, cell survival in FSaII tumors declined for 2 to 3 days and began to recover thereafter in some but not all tumors. After irradiation with 30 Gy, cell survival declined continuously for 5 days. Cell survival in some tumors 5 days after 20 to 30 Gy irradiation was 2 to 3 logs less than that immediately after irradiation. Irradiation with 20 Gy markedly reduced blood perfusion, upregulated HIF-1α, and increased carbonic anhydrase-9 expression, indicating that irradiation increased tumor hypoxia. In addition, expression of VEGF also increased in the tumor tissue after 20 Gy irradiation, probably due to the increase in HIF-1α activity. Conclusions: Irradiation of FSaII tumors with 15 to 30 Gy in a single dose caused dose-dependent secondary cell death, most likely by causing vascular damage accompanied by deterioration of intratumor microenvironment. Such indirect tumor cell death may play a crucial role in the control of human tumors with SBRT and SRS.

  20. Expression of activated ATF-2, CREB and c-Myc in rat colon transversum after whole-body gamma-irradiation and its contribution to pathogenesis and biodosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejchal, Jaroslav; Osterreicher, Jan; Vilasová, Zdenka; Tichý, Ales; Vávrová, Jirina

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of our study is to examine phospho-ATF-2(Thr-69/71) (phospho-activating transcription factor-2, p-ATF-2), phospho-CREB(Ser-133) (phospho-cAMP response binding element protein, p-CREB), and phospho-c-Myc(Thr-58/Ser-62) (phosho-myelocytomatosis protooncogene, p-c-Myc) expression in irradiated rat colon transversum. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided to 28 groups and irradiated with whole-body gamma-radiation of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 Gy. Samples were taken 4 and 24 hours after the irradiation, immunohistochemically stained. P-ATF-2, p-CREB, and p-c-Myc expression was measured. We measured increased cytoplasmatic p-ATF-2 expression 4 hours after irradiation by 0.25 - 1, 10 Gy and 24 hours after irradiation by 0.5 - 1, 10 Gy. Increased cytoplasmatic p-CREB expression was found 4 hours after irradiation by 0.25 - 1, 9, 10 Gy and 24 hours after irradiation by 0.25 - 1, 4, 10 Gy. Increased p-c-Myc cytoplasmatic expression was found 4 hours after irradiation by 0.25, 0.75, 4, 5 Gy and 24 hours after irradiation by 0.75, 1, 10 Gy. Nuclear p-ATF-2, p-CREB, and p-c-Myc expressions were similar to their cytoplasmatic expressions. The detection of p-ATF-2 and p-CREB might be considered as a perspective biodosimetric tool for irradiated enterocytes in vivo. The use of p-c-Myc appears to be controversial due to the ambivalent expression values.

  1. Localized surface grafting reactions on carbon nanofibers induced by gamma and e-beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evora, M.C., E-mail: cecilia@ieav.cta.br [Institute for Advanced Studies-IEAV/DCTA, Av. Cel Jose Alberto Albano do Amarante, 1-Putim, 12228-001 São Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Araujo, J.R., E-mail: jraraujo@inmetro.gov.br [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia, Av. Nossa Sra. das Graças, 50, 25250-020 Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil); Ferreira, E.H.M. [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia, Av. Nossa Sra. das Graças, 50, 25250-020 Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil); Strohmeier, B.R. [Thermo Fisher Scientific, 5225 Verona Road, Madison, WI 53711 (United States); Silva, L.G.A., E-mail: lgasilva@ipen.br [Institute for Nuclear and Energy Research- IPEN, Av. Prof lineu Prestes, 2242- Cidade Universitaria, 05508-000 SP (Brazil); Achete, C.A. [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia, Av. Nossa Sra. das Graças, 50, 25250-020 Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-04-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Methodology for the functionalization of carbon nanofibers was investigated. • Two radiation sources were used to promote grafting reactions: gamma and electron beam. • We report the optimum inhibitor concentration to achieve the functionalization. • Surface of carbon nanofibers showed an increase of oxygen content after irradiation. • The radiation-induced graphitization did not damage the overall sp{sup 2} structure. - Abstract: Electron beam and gamma-ray irradiation have potential application to modify the carbon fiber nanostructures in order to produce useful defects in the graphitic structure and create reactive sites. In this study, the methodology to functionalize carbon nanofiber (CNF), via a radiation process and using acrylic acid as a source of oxygen functional groups, was investigated. The samples were submitted to a direct grafting radiation process with electron beam and gamma-ray source. Several parameters were changed such as: acrylic acid concentration, radiation dose and percentage of inhibitor necessary to achieve functionalization, with higher percentage of oxygen functional groups on CNF surface, and better dispersion. The better results achieved were when mixing CNF in a solution of acrylic acid with 6% of inhibitor (FeSO{sub 4}·7H{sub 2}O) and irradiated at 100 kGy. The samples were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and the surface composition (atomic%) showed a significant increase of oxygen content for the samples after irradiation. Also, the dispersion of the functionalized CNF in water was stable during months which may be a good indication that the functionalization process of CNF via ionizing radiation was successful.

  2. Evaluation of induced radioactivity in 10 MeV-Electron irradiated spices, (2); [beta]-ray counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katayama, Tadashi; Furuta, Masakazu; Shibata, Setsuko; Matsunami, Tadao; Ito, Norio; Mizohata, Akira; Toratani, Hirokazu (Osaka Prefectural Univ., Sakai (Japan). Research Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology); Takeda, Atsuhiko

    1994-02-01

    In order to check radioactivity of beta-emmitters produced by ([gamma], n) reactions which could occur at energies up to 10 MeV, black pepper, white pepper, red pepper, ginger and turmeric were irradiated with 10 MeV electron from a linear accelerator to a dose of 100 kGy. Beta-rays were counted using a 2[pi] gas flow counter and a liquid scintillation counter. Any induced radioactivity could not be detected in irradiated samples. When inorganic compounds containing the nuclides in the list were artificially added in the samples and were irradiated, the [beta]-activities were detected. From the amount of observed radioactivities of [beta]-emmitters produced in the compounds as photonuclear products, it is concluded that the induced radioactivity in natural samples by 10 MeV-electron irradiation were far smaller than natural radioactivity from [sup 40]K contained in the samples and, hence, its biological effects should be negligible. (author).

  3. Time-course of micronucleated erythrocytes in response to whole-body gamma irradiation in a model mammalian species, the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus, Schreber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolich, Igor I; Savina, Natalya V; Ryabokon, Nadezhda I

    2011-01-01

    The time course of the formation of micronucleated polychromatic (MNPCEs) and normochromatic erythrocytes (MNNCEs) in the bone marrow of the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus, Schreber), a model mouse-like species, was studied using the standard micronucleus test at 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36 and 48 hr following whole-body acute γ-irradiation at a dose of 0.5 Gy. Based on the existing literature on laboratory mice, it was suggested that such a dose will not have significant effect on erythroid cell proliferation in the bank vole and hence on the time course of the rise of micronucleated cells. In total, ∼905,000 polychromatic (PCEs) and normochromatic erythrocytes (NCEs) from 82 adult bank voles were analyzed. Although the mean frequencies of MNNCEs were too low to allow for the correct assessment of their time course, an analysis of PCEs showed an increasing rate of MNPCE appearance at 6 hr that reached a maximum at 18-24 hr after irradiation and subsequently decreased. Because the kinetics of MNPCEs reflects the process of erythropoiesis, the current results regarding the time points of appearance of radiation-induced MNPCEs provide the first information on the prolongation of one of the terminal stages of erythrocyte formation in bank vole specimens, namely the stage of maturation of PCEs from erythroblasts. Moreover, the observed time-course data, as well as the low-background frequencies of MNPCEs and characteristic level of PCEs response to radiation, showed similarities between the two model species: bank vole (this study) and laboratory mice (literature data).

  4. Belgian class II nuclear facilities such as irradiators and accelerators. Regulatory Body attention points and operating experience feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minne, Etienne; Peters, Christelle; Mommaert, Chantal; Kennes, Christian; Cortenbosch, Geert; Schmitz, Frederic; Haesendonck, Michel van [Bel V, Brussels (Belgium); Carlier, Pascal; Schrayen, Virginie; Wertelaers, An [Federal Agency for Nuclear Control, Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-11-15

    The aim of this paper is to present the Regulatory Body attention points and the operating experience feedback from Belgian ''class IIA'' facilities such as industrial and research irradiators, bulk radionuclides producers and conditioners. Reinforcement of the nuclear safety and radiation protection has been promoted by the Federal Agency for Nuclear Control (FANC) since 2009. This paper is clearly a continuation of the former paper [1] presenting the evolution in the regulatory framework relative to the creation of Bel V, the subsidiary of the FANC, and to the new ''class IIA'' covering heavy installations such as those mentioned above. Some lessons learnt are extracted from the operating experience feedback based on the events declared to the authorities. Even though a real willingness to meet the new safety requirements is observed among the ''class IIA'' licensees, promoting the safety culture, the nuclear safety and radiation protection remains an endless challenge for the Regulatory Body.

  5. Electron-irradiation induced changes in structural and magnetic properties of Fe and Co based metallic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kane, S.N., E-mail: kane_sn@yahoo.com [School of Physics, D.A. University, Khandwa Road Campus, Indore 452001 (India); Satalkar, M., E-mail: satalkar.manvi@gmail.com [School of Physics, D.A. University, Khandwa Road Campus, Indore 452001 (India); Ghosh, A.; Shah, M. [School of Physics, D.A. University, Khandwa Road Campus, Indore 452001 (India); Ghodke, N. [UGC-DAE CSR, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452001 (India); Pramod, R.; Sinha, A.K.; Singh, M.N.; Dwivedi, J. [Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, P.O. CAT, Indore 452013 (India); Coisson, M.; Celegato, F.; Vinai, F.; Tiberto, P. [INRIM, Electromagnetism Division, Strada Delle Cacce 91, I-10135 TO (Italy); Varga, L.K. [RISSPO, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, 1525 Budapest (Hungary)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • Enhancement of Ms by low electron irradiation dose in Fe-based alloy. • Variation of magnetic properties by electron irradiation induced ordered phase. • Electron irradiation alters TM-TM distance and, magnetic properties. - Abstract: Electron-irradiation induced changes in structural and, magnetic properties of Co{sub 57.6}Fe{sub 14.4}Si{sub 4.8}B{sub 19.2}Nb{sub 4}, Fe{sub 72}Si{sub 4.8}B{sub 19.2}Nb{sub 4} and, Co{sub 72}Si{sub 4.8}B{sub 19.2}Nb{sub 4} metallic glasses were studied using magnetic hysteresis and, synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements. Results reveal composition dependent changes of magnetic properties in electron irradiated metallic glasses. A low electron irradiation dose (15 kGy) enhances saturation magnetization (up to 62%) in Fe-based alloy (Fe{sub 72}Si{sub 4.8}B{sub 19.2}Nb{sub 4}). Synchrotron XRD measurements reveal that electron irradiation transforms the amorphous matrix to a more ordered phase, accountable for changes in magnetic properties.

  6. Radiation-induced effects on murine kidney tumor cells: role in the interaction of local irradiation and immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, E; Haas, G P; Dezso, B; Ali, E; Maughan, R L; Montecillo, E; Pontes, J E; Hillman, G G

    1995-06-01

    Local tumor irradiation enhances the effect of interleukin-2 (IL-2) therapy in the Renca murine renal adenocarcinoma model. To investigate the mechanism(s) of this interaction, we studied the in vitro and in vivo effects of irradiation on the tumor cells. Tumor cells from in situ irradiated renal tumors had diminished proliferation in vitro. A similar growth inhibition was noted following injection of irradiated Renca cells into naive mice, but this effect could be overcome by injecting more cells. Histologic evaluation of tumors derived from irradiated cells revealed a decrease in mitosis and an increase in multinucleated giant cells, apoptosis and micronecrosis. The presence of irradiated tumor reduced the growth of nonirradiated tumor cells when both were injected into separate flanks of the same animal, suggesting that irradiated tumor cells may trigger a systemic antitumor response. Interleukin-2 therapy given after injection of irradiated tumor cells caused a significant increase in leukocytic infiltrates and micronecrosis. Our findings indicate that radiation directly affects tumor growth and induces a systemic mechanism which could be enhanced by IL-2.

  7. Jeju ground water containing vanadium induced immune activation on splenocytes of low dose γ-rays-irradiated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Danbee; Joo, Haejin; Ahn, Ginnae; Kim, Min Ju; Bing, So Jin; An, Subin; Kim, Hyunki; Kang, Kyung-goo; Lim, Yoon-Kyu; Jee, Youngheun

    2012-06-01

    Vanadium, an essential micronutrient, has been implicated in controlling diabetes and carcinogenesis and in impeding reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. γ-ray irradiation triggers DNA damage by inducing ROS production and causes diminution in radiosensitive immunocytes. In this study, we elucidate the immune activation capacities of Jeju water containing vanadium on immunosuppression caused by γ-ray irradiation, and identify its mechanism using various low doses of NaVO(3). We examined the intracellular ROS generation, DNA damage, cell proliferation, population of splenocytes, and cytokine/antibody profiles in irradiated mice drinking Jeju water for 180 days and in non-irradiated and in irradiated splenocytes both of which were treated with NaVO(3). Both Jeju water and 0.245 μM NaVO(3) attenuated the intracellular ROS generation and DNA damage in splenocytes against γ-ray irradiation. Splenocytes were significantly proliferated by the long-term intake of Jeju water and by 0.245 μM NaVO(3) treatment, and the expansion of B cells accounted for the increased number of splenocytes. Also, 0.245 μM NaVO(3) treatment showed the potency to amplify the production of IFN-γ and total IgG in irradiated splenocytes, which correlated with the expansion of B cells. Collectively, Jeju water containing vanadium possesses the immune activation property against damages caused by γ-irradiation.

  8. Facility for neutron induced few body reactions at Bochum University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannach, B.; Bodek, K.; Boerker, G.; Kamke, D.; Krug, J.; Lekkas, P.; Luebcke, W.; Stephan, M.

    1987-02-15

    A facility is described which is designed for the measurement of neutron induced three-body breakup. It has been used for the breakup of deuterium and of the nucleus /sup 9/Be. Neutrons are produced by a pulsed beam of deuterons from the Bochum 4MV Dynamitron-Tandem accelerator by bombarding a thick tritium-titanium target or a deuterium gas target. The outgoing beam is collimated by a 4..pi.. shielding to a solid angle of about 1 msr. In most cases, a liquid scintillator (NE232 or a mixture of NE232/Ne213) serves as a target for the neutron beam. Scattered neutrons are detected by Ne213-detectors of different sizes. For testing purposes the differential elastic n-d cross section and simultaneously the respnse of NE232 have beem measured at 22.4 and 7.9 MeV.

  9. Dynamin-related protein Drp1 is required for Bax translocation to mitochondria in response to irradiation-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Wang, Peiguo; Liu, Becky; Zhao, Jing; Pang, Qingsong; Agrawal, Samir G; Jia, Li; Liu, Feng-Ting

    2015-09-08

    Translocation of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax from the cytosol to the mitochondria is a crucial step in DNA damage-mediated apoptosis, and is also found to be involved in mitochondrial fragmentation. Irradiation-induced cytochrome c release and apoptosis was associated with Bax activation, but not mitochondrial fragmentation. Both Bax and Drp1 translocated from the cytosol to the mitochondria in response to irradiation. However, Drp1 mitochondrial translocation and oligomerization did not require Bax, and failed to induce apoptosis in Bax deficient diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cells. Using fluorescent microscopy and the intensity correlation analysis, we demonstrated that Bax and Drp1 were colocalized and the levels of colocalization were increased by UV irradiation. Using co-immuno-precipitation, we confirmed that Bax and Drp1 were binding partners. Irradiation induced a time-associated increase in the interaction between active Bax and Drp1. Knocking down Drp1 using siRNA blocked UV irradiation-mediated Bax mitochondrial translocation. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate for the first time, that Drp1 is required for Bax mitochondrial translocation, but Drp1-induced mitochondrial fragmentation alone is not sufficient to induce apoptosis in DLBCL cells.

  10. Radiation induced changes in electrical conductivity of chemical vapor deposited silicon carbides under fast neutron and gamma-ray irradiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, Bun, E-mail: btsuchiya@meijo-u.ac.jp [Department of General Education, Faculty of Science and Technology, Meijo University, 1-501, Shiogamaguchi, Tempaku-ku, Nagoya 468-8502 (Japan); Shikama, Tatsuo; Nagata, Shinji; Saito, Kesami [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1, Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Yamamoto, Syunya [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233, Watanuki-machi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Ohnishi, Seiki [Tokai Research and Development Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Nozawa, Takashi [Aomori Research and Development Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-166, Omotedate, Obuchi, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan)

    2011-10-15

    The radiation-induced changes in the volume electrical conductivities of chemical vapor deposited silicon carbides (CVD-SiCs) were in-site investigated by performing irradiation using 1.17 and 1.33-MeV gamma-ray and 14-MeV fast neutron beams in air and vacuum. Under gamma-ray irradiation at ionization dose rates of 3.6 and 5.9 Gy/s and irradiation temperature of approximately 300 K, the initial rapid increase in electrical conductivity; this is indicative of radiation-induced conductivity (RIC), occurred due to electronic excitation, and a more gradual increase followed up to a dose of approximately 10-50 kGy corresponding to the results in base conductivity without radiation; this is indicative of radiation-induced electrical degradation (RIED). However, the radiation-induced phenomena were not observed at irradiation temperatures above 373 K. Under neutron irradiation at a further low dose rate below approximately 2.1 Gy/s, a fast neutron flux of 9.2 x 10{sup 14} n/m{sup 2} s, and 300 K, the RIED-like behavior according to radiation-induced modification of the electrical property occurred with essentially no displacement damage, but ionizing effects (radiolysis).

  11. Glycoalkaloids and phenolic compounds in gamma irradiated potatoes; a food irradiation study on radiation induced stress in vegetable products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergers, W.W.A.

    1980-01-01

    Irradiation is a recent preservation method. With the aid of ionizing radiation microorganisms in food can be killed or specific physiological processes in vegetable products can be influenced.

    In order to study the effects of metabolic radiation stress on quantitative chemical changes in

  12. Glycoalkaloids and phenolic compounds in gamma irradiated potatoes (a food irradiation study on radiation-induced stress in vegetable products)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergers, W.W.A.

    1980-01-01

    Irradiation is a recent preservation method. With the aid of ionizing radiation microorganisms in food can be killed or specific physiological processes in vegetable products can be influenced.In order to study the effects of metabolic radiation stress on quantitative chemical changes in vegetable p

  13. Growth factor treatment prior to low-dose total body irradiation increases donor cell engraftment after bone marrow transplantation in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noach, EJK; Ausema, A; Dillingh, JH; Dontje, B; Weersing, E; Akkerman, [No Value; Vellenga, E; Haan, GC

    2002-01-01

    Low-toxicity conditioning regimens prior to bone marrow transplantation (BMT) are widely explored. We developed a new protocol using hematopoietic growth factors prior to low-dose total body irradiation (TBI) in recipients of autologous transplants to establish high levels of long-term donor cell en

  14. THE EFFECT OF DONOR LYMPHOCYTES-T AND TOTAL-BODY IRRADIATION ON HEMATOPOIETIC ENGRAFTMENT AND PULMONARY TOXICITY FOLLOWING EXPERIMENTAL ALLOGENEIC BONE-MARROW TRANSPLANTATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DOWN, JD; MAUCH, P; WARHOL, M; NEBEN, S; FERRARA, JLM

    1992-01-01

    To study the effects of donor T lymphocytes on engraftment and graft-versus-host disease in relation to recipient total-body irradiation, we have returned small numbers of T cells to T-cell-depleted bone marrow transplanted across a minor histocompatibility barrier in mice (B10.BR --> CBA). T-cell-d

  15. Results of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation after treatment with different high-dose total-body irradiation regimens in five Dutch centers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kempen-Harteveld, M. Loes; Brand, Ronald; Kal, Henk B.; Verdonck, Leo F.; Hofman, Pieter; Schattenberg, Anton V.; van der Maazen, Richard W.; Cornelissen, Jan J.; Eijkenboom, Wil M. H.; van der Lelie, Johannes P.; Oldenburger, Foppe; Barge, Renee M.; van Biezen, Anja; Vossen, Jaak M. J. J.; Noordijk, Evert M.; Struikmans, Henk

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate results of high-dose total-body irradiation (TBI) regimens for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Methods and Materials: A total of 1,032 patients underwent TBI in one or two fractions before autologous or allogeneic hematologic stem cell transplantation for acute leukemia

  16. Results of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation after treatment with different high-dose total-body irradiation regimens in five Dutch centers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen-Harteveld, ML van; Brand, R.; Kal, H.B.; Verdonck, L.F.; Hofman, P.; Schattenberg, A.V.M.B.; Maazen, R.W.M. van der; Cornelissen, J.J.L.M.; Eijkenboom, W.M.H.; Lelie, JP van der; Oldenburger, F.; Barge, R.M.; Biezen, A. van; Vossen, J.M.J.J.; Noordijk, E.M.; Struikmans, H.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate results of high-dose total-body irradiation (TBI) regimens for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A total of 1,032 patients underwent TBI in one or two fractions before autologous or allogeneic hematologic stem cell transplantation for acute leukemia

  17. Thread Embedding Acupuncture Inhibits Ultraviolet B Irradiation-Induced Skin Photoaging in Hairless Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Jung Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thread embedding acupuncture (TEA is an acupuncture treatment applied to many diseases in Korean medical clinics because of its therapeutic effects by continuous stimulation to tissues. It has recently been used to enhance facial skin appearance and antiaging, but data from evidence-based medicine are limited. To investigate whether TEA therapy can inhibit skin photoaging by ultraviolet B (UVB irradiation, we performed analyses for histology, histopathology, in situ zymography and western blot analysis in HR-1 hairless mice. TEA treatment resulted in decreased wrinkle formation and skin thickness (Epidermis; P=0.001 versus UV in UVB irradiated mice and also inhibited degradation of collagen fibers (P=0.010 versus normal by inhibiting proteolytic activity of gelatinase matrix-metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9. Western blot data showed that activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK induced by UVB (P=0.002 versus normal group was significantly inhibited by TEA treatment (P=0.005 versus UV with subsequent alleviation of MMP-9 activation (P=0.048 versus UV. These results suggest that TEA treatment can have anti-photoaging effects on UVB-induced skin damage by maintenance of collagen density through regulation of expression of MMP-9 and related JNK signaling. Therefore, TEA therapy may have potential roles as an alternative treatment for protection against skin damage from aging.

  18. Low-power laser irradiation inhibits amyloid beta-induced cell apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heng; Wu, Shengnan

    2011-03-01

    The deposition and accumulation of amyloid-β-peptide (Aβ) in the brain are considered a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease(AD). Apoptosis is a contributing pathophysiological mechanism of AD. Low-power laser irradiation (LPLI), a non-damage physical therapy, which has been used clinically for decades of years, is shown to promote cell proliferation and prevent apoptosis. Recently, low-power laser irradiation (LPLI) has been applied to moderate AD. In this study, Rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells were treated with amyloid beta 25-35 (Aβ25-35) for induction of apoptosis before LPLI treatment. We measured cell viability with CCK-8 according to the manufacture's protocol, the cell viability assays show that low fluence of LPLI (2 J/cm2 ) could inhibit the cells apoptosis. Then using statistical analysis of proportion of apoptotic cells by flow cytometry based on Annexin V-FITC/PI, the assays also reveal that low fluence of LPLI (2 J/cm2 ) could inhibit the Aβ-induced cell apoptosis. Taken together, we demonstrated that low fluence of LPLI (2 J/cm2 ) could inhibit the Aβ-induced cell apoptosis, these results directly point to a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of AD through LPLI.

  19. Effectiveness of trimethylopropane trimethacrylate for the electron-beam-irradiation-induced cross-linking of polylactic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Hon-Meng [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Jalan Genting Kelang, 53300 Setapak, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Bee, Soo-Tueen, E-mail: beest@utar.edu.my [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Jalan Genting Kelang, 53300 Setapak, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Ratnam, C.T. [Radiation Processing Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Sin, Lee Tin; Phang, Yee-Yao; Tee, Tiam-Ting [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Jalan Genting Kelang, 53300 Setapak, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Rahmat, A.R. [Department of Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor (Malaysia)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Investigation of trimethylopropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) on electron beam irradiated PLA. • Irradiated PLA blends were weakened by incorporation of high amount of TMPTMA. • TMPTMA interacts with polymer free radicals to build crosslinking network. -- Abstract: The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of various loading levels of trimethylopropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) on the properties of polylactic acid (PLA) cross-linked via electron-beam irradiation. PLA was compounded with 3–5 wt.% of TMPTMA to induce cross-linking upon subjection to electron-beam irradiation doses of 25–250 kGy. The physical properties of the PLA samples were characterised by means of X-ray diffraction, gel fraction and scanning electron microscopy analyses on fractured surfaces after tensile tests. The presence of TMPTMA in PLA was found to effectively increase the crystallite size and gel fraction. However, higher loading levels of TMPTMA could compromise the properties of the PLA/TMPTMA samples, indicating that a larger amount of monomer free radicals might promote degradation within the substantially cross-linked amorphous phase. Irradiation-induced cross-linking in the samples could improve the cross-linking density while decreasing the elongation and interfering with the crystallisation. These effects are caused by the intensive irradiation-induced chain scission that is responsible for the deterioration of the mechanical and crystalline properties of the samples.

  20. Early-response biomarkers for assessment of radiation exposure in a mouse total-body irradiation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossetrova, Natalia I; Condliffe, Donald P; Ney, Patrick H; Krasnopolsky, Katya; Hieber, Kevin P; Rahman, Arifur; Sandgren, David J

    2014-06-01

    Nuclear accidents or terrorist attacks could expose large numbers of people to ionizing radiation. Early biomarkers of radiation injury will be critical for triage, treatment, and follow-up of such individuals. The authors evaluated the utility of multiple blood biomarkers for early-response assessment of radiation exposure using a murine (CD2F1, males) total-body irradiation (TBI) model exposed to ⁶⁰Co γ rays (0.6 Gy min⁻¹) over a broad dose range (0-14 Gy) and timepoints (4 h-5 d). Results demonstrate: 1) dose-dependent changes in hematopoietic cytokines: Flt-3 ligand (Flt3L), interleukin 6 (IL-6), granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), thrombopoietin (TPO), erythropoietin (EPO), and acute phase protein serum amyloid A (SAA); 2) dose-dependent changes in blood cell counts: lymphocytes, neutrophils, platelets, and ratio of neutrophils to lymphocytes; 3) protein results coupled with peripheral blood cell counts established very successful separation of groups irradiated to different doses; and 4) enhanced separation of dose was observed as the number of biomarkers increased. Results show that the dynamic changes in the levels of SAA, IL-6, G-CSF, and Flt3L reflect the time course and severity of acute radiation syndrome (ARS) and may function as prognostic indicators of ARS outcome. These results also demonstrate proof-in-concept that plasma proteins show promise as a complimentary approach to conventional biodosimetry for early assessment of radiation exposures and, coupled with peripheral blood cell counts, provide early diagnostic information to manage radiation casualty incidents effectively, closing a gap in capabilities to rapidly and effectively assess radiation exposure early, especially needed in case of a mass-casualty radiological incident.

  1. 3-aminobenzamide, a poly (ADP ribose) polymerase inhibitor, enhances wound healing in whole body gamma irradiated model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hamoly, Tarek; El-Denshary, Ezzeddin S; Saad, Shokry Mohamed; El-Ghazaly, Mona A

    2015-09-01

    The custom use of radiotherapy was found to participate in the development of chronic unhealed wounds. In general, exposure to gamma radiation stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that eventually leads to damaging effect. Conversely, overexpression of a nuclear poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase enzyme (PARP) after oxidative insult extremely brings about cellular injury due to excessive consumption of NAD and ATP. Here, we dedicated our study to investigate the role of 3-aminobenzamide (3-AB), a PARP inhibitor, on pregamma irradiated wounds. Two full-thickness (6 mm diameter) wounds were created on the dorsum of Swiss albino mouse. The progression of wound contraction was monitored by capturing daily photo images. Exposure to gamma radiation (6Gy) exacerbated the normal healing of excisional wounds. Remarkably, topical application of 3-AB cream (50 µM) revealed a marked acceleration in the rate of wound contraction. Likewise, PARP inhibition ameliorated the unbalanced oxidative/nitrosative status of granulated skin tissues. Such effect was significantly revealed by the correction of the reduced antioxidant capacity and the enhanced lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide, and myeloperoxidase contents. Moreover, application of 3-AB modified the cutaneous nitrite content throughout healing process. Conversely, the expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines were down-regulated by PARP inhibition. The mitochondrial ATP content showed a lower consumption rate on 3-AB-treated wound bed as well. In parallel, the mRNA expressions of Sirt-1 and acyl-COA oxidase-2 (ACOX-2) were up-regulated; whom functions control the mitochondrial ATP synthesis and lipid metabolism. The current data suggested that inhibition of PARP-1 enzyme may accelerate the delayed wound healing in whole body gamma irradiated mice by early modifying the oxidative stress as well as the inflammatory response.

  2. Radioprotective Role of Some Bacteria Belonging to Actinomycetales against Gamma Irradiation-Induced Oxidative Stress in Male Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seham Abdel-Shafi1, Tamer M. M. Saad2 *, Abdel-Haliem M. E. F.1, Abdel-Rahman M. A. Ghonemey2, and Gamal Enan1

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: radiation protection concepts and philosophy have been evolving over the past several decades. The inadvertent exposure of human from various source of radiation causes ionization of molecules, setting off potentially damaging reactions via free radicals production. Development of radioprotectants and mitigators is the therapeutic approach to ameliorate the negative health impact of radiation exposure. The majority of substances with biological activity used in medicine are produced by actinomycetes and fungi. Aim: the aim of the present study is to evaluate the radioprotective role of the antimicrobial active metabolite of Streptomyces atrovirens Rahman as antioxidant against gamma irradiation that induced some biochemical alterations in rats. Material and Methods: animals were pretreated with antimicrobial active metabolite of Streptomyces atrovirens Ab1 using suitable stomach tube for two weeks prior to radiation exposure. The levels of malondialdhyde (MDA, glutathione content (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (ALT, glutamic aspartate transaminase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT activities, also total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL- C were estimated. Results: the results revealed that exposure to ionizing radiation resulted in significant elevation in the levels of MDA content, ALT, AST, ALP and GGT activities and concentration of TC, TG and LDL-C, meanwhile, showed significant depletion in GSH content and SOD, CAT and GPx activities and HDL-C concentration. Conclusion: it could be concluded that, the administration of the antimicrobial active metabolite of Streptomyces atrovirens Ab1 pre-whole body gamma irradiation resulted in sufficient amelioration against radiation effects on the biochemical aspects examined in the present

  3. A single whole-body low dose X-irradiation does not affect L1, B1 and IAP repeat element DNA methylation longitudina