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Sample records for body irradiated mice

  1. Biophysical study of mice blood after whole body irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad El Din, Alsha A.; Desouky, Omar S.; El Behay, Amin Z.; El Sayed, Anwar A.

    1996-05-01

    The immediate of whole body fractionated doses of 137Cs gamma rays totalling 13 Gy on mice as well as the late effects of accumulative dose of 10 Gy (8 days after exposure) were studied. Changes due to gamma irradiation in hemoglobin conductivity and buffer capacity indicate the appearance of hydrophobic groups and changes in hydrophilic/hydrophobic ratio. These changes demonstrate different degrees of unfolding and refolding of the hemoglobin molecule. The viscosity coefficient of hemoglobin is found to increase at fractionated doses of 7 and 13 Gy. Such effect seems to be due to aggregation of the protein part of hemoglobin. The fractionated dose of 13 Gy causes changes in the electronic state of oxyhemoglobin indicated by an increase in methemoglobin which reduces biological activity.

  2. Change in the mineralization of the healing bone callus after whole-body irradiation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drouet, J.; Pleinard, J.F.; Nguyen, T.L.; Goyffon, M.

    The delayed consolidation of diaphysial long-bone fractures in mice subjected to whole-body X-irradiation is expressed biochemically by a faulty mineralization of the repair callus. This deficiency is proportional to the irradiation intensity and is not corrected by previous administration of cycteamine [fr

  3. Antibiotic radioprotection of mice exposed to supralethal whole-body irradiation independent of antibacterial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastromarino, A.; Wilson, R.

    1976-01-01

    Oral administration of streptomycin, kanamycin, neomycin, or gentamicin to specific pathogen-free C57 x Af mice in their drinking water (4 mg/ml) for 2 weeks before supralethal whole-body irradiation very significantly prolonged their mean survival times (8.2 to 8.9 days vs 6.9 for controls) to values which exceed those reported for germ-free mice (7.3 days). The total fecal concentrations of aerobes and anaerobes were reduced by kanamycin, neomycin, and gentamicin. Streptomycin reduced the anaerobes significantly, but not the aerobes. Unlike germ-free mice, these antibiotic-treated mice did excrete free bile acids, products of bacterial action. Oral antibiotic treatment was ineffective in altering the transit time of the intestinal mucosal cells. Previously reported studies had indicated a correlation between decreased transit time and increased survival after irradiation. No significant correlation between mean survival time after irradiation and mucosal transit time was observed. The data demonstrate that certain antibiotics alter the character of the intestinal bacterial flora and increase protection against supralethal doses of whole-body irradiation. It is concluded that the mechanisms of radioresistance in antibiotic-treated mice and germ-free mice are different and that in both groups radioresistance is the result of more than elimination of postirradiation infection

  4. The effect of whole body irradiation on the action of strong analgesics of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvetkovicj, M.; Milovanovicj, A.; Tanasijevicj, D.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of whole body irradiation of male mice with single doses of 3 and 7 Gy ( 60 Co source) on analgesic action of three morphine-like drugs was studied. Over the first 6 days after irradiation, the analgesic effect of alfentanil and fentanyl was significantly less pronounced in irradiated animals than in control ones. During the subsequent period of 24 days till the end of experiment, the analgesic effect in irradiated animals gradually increased reaching and exceeding the control values. On the contrary, the analgesic effect of butorphanole was less pronounced in irradiated animals than in control ones, although the difference was not significantly. The difference between butorphanole and other two drugs are probably due to chemical structure and the metabolic fate in the body. (author) 8 refs.; 2 figs

  5. The effect of gamma-rays on the hemoglobin of whole-body irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashry, H.A.; Selim, N.S.; El-Behay, A.Z.

    1994-01-01

    Changes in the UV-visible absorption spectrum of mouse hemoglobin as a result of whole body irradiation were studied. White albino adult mice were exposed to a Cs-137 γ-source at a dose rate of 47.5 Gy/h to different absorbed dose values ranging from 1 to 8 Gy. Blood specimens were taken 24 h after irradiation. The UV-visible absorption spectra of hemoglobin of irradiated and control mice were measured in the wavelength range from 200 to 700 nm. The obtained results showed significant changes in the bands measured at 340 nm, in the Soret band measured at 410 nm, also, the α- and β-bands measured at 537 and 572 nm showed significant decrease in intensity with the absorbed dose increase. The absorbance measured at 630 nm showed no significant changes. The radiation effect on the animal hemoglobin was discussed on the basis of the obtained results. (Author)

  6. Sesamol attenuates cytogenetic damages in bone marrow cells of whole body gamma irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Arun; Tamizh Selvan, G.; Adhikari, Jawahar S.; Chaudhury, N.K.

    2014-01-01

    Whole body radiation exposure cause damages to all vital organs and bone marrow is the most sensitive. Pre-treatment with antioxidant as single prophylactic dose is expected to lower induction of damages in bone marrow. In the present study we have focused on sesamol, a dietary antioxidant mediated radioprotection in bone marrow cells of gamma irradiated mice and compared with melatonin. Male C57BL/6 mice were intraperitoneally administered with sesamol (10 and 20 mg/kg body) and after 30 minutes exposed to whole body gamma radiation using 60 Co Teletherapy unit. Mice were injected with 0.2 ml of a metaphase arresting agent (0.05% colchicine) intra-peritoneally 3 hours prior to sacrifice (24 hrs. post-irradiation). Bone marrow cells were flushed out from femurs of each animal and processed for chromosomal aberration assay. Another set of experiment without colchicine injection was performed to access the DNA damage in bone marrow using alkaline comet assay. At least 100 metaphases per animal were scored under light microscope to record various aberrations and total chromosomal aberrations (TCA) was calculated. Similar measurements were performed with melatonin for comparing the efficacy of sesamol. Gamma irradiation has increased the chromatid type aberrations (break formation, fragment) and chromosomal type aberrations (ring formation, acentric) in bone marrow cells. The results have shown significant (p< 0.001) increase in TCA of irradiated mice than control. While pre-treatment of sesamol and melatonin 10 mg/kg significantly (p<0.05) reduced the TCA. The extend of protection has increased at 20 mg/kg significantly (p<0.001) as evident from the reduced TCA compared to irradiated group. Interestingly, sesamol and melatonin have shown similar extent of reduction of TCA. Thus sesamol has demonstrated strong ability to protect bone marrow at low dosage. These investigations on sesamol mediated protection in bone marrow are likely to benefit development of

  7. Production of anti-SRBC antibodies after DDC administration in whole-body irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kautska, J.; Hosek, B.; Misustova, J.

    1990-01-01

    Production of antibody-forming cells (PFC) was studied in mice subjected to a single whole-body radiation dose of 3.8 Gy following an injection of sodium diethyl dithiocarbamate (DDC, 800 mg/kg) 30 min before irradiation. The animals were immunized (1% SRBC) 4 hours and 5 and 10 days after irradiation, and the number of PFC was determined by a modified Jerne plaque technique on days 4, 7 and 10 after immunization. After irradiation alone, the PFC levels were markedly reduced at all time intervals in comparison with unirradiated controls. Upon immunization of animals on day 10 after irradiation the peak PFC levels were observed on day 7 after immunization in the irradiated only group and in the group irradiated after DDC administration (in controls on day 4 after immunization). The administration of DDC entirely eliminated the unfavourable effect of radiation if immunization was performed 4 h after irradiation, in terms of the number and the peak level of PFC. Upon immunization of animals on day 5 and day 10 after irradiation the PFC levels were not markedly influenced by DDC injection. (author). 3 figs., 25 refs

  8. Accumulation of lipid peroxidation products in eye structures of mice subjected to whole-body X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakina, N.L.; Dontsov, A.E.; Afanas'ev, G.G.; Ostrovskij, M.A.; Pelevina, I.I.

    1990-01-01

    In studying the effect of whole-body X-irradiation on the accumulation of lipid peroxidation products (conjugated dienes, TBA-active products, and Sciff bases) in retina and retinal pigmented epithelium of pigmented and nonpigmented mice it was shown that irradiation of dark-pigmented mice does not cause even a slight accumulation of lipid peroxidation products as compared to that in the controls. Albino mice exhibited a marked increase in the level of lipid peroxidation products which was manifested soon after irradiation and persisted for at least 3 months after irradiation. Melanine is suggested to participate in protecting eye structures against pro-oxidizing action of ionizing radiation

  9. Anti-tumor effect of total body irradiation of low doses on WHT/Ht mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Miyako; Sakamoto, Kiyohiko

    1987-01-01

    The effect of low dose (0.05 - 1.0 Gy) of total body irradiation (TBI) on non-tumor bearing and tumor bearing mice were investigated. Mice received TBI of 0.1 Gy during 6 - 12 hours before tumor cell inoculation demonstrated to need larger number of tumor cells (approximately 2.5 times) for 50 per cent tumor incidence, compared to recipient mice not to receive TBI. On the other hand, in tumor bearing mice given 0.1 Gy of TBI only tumor cell killing effect was not detected, however enhancement of tumor cell killing effect and prolonged growth delay were observed when tumor bearing mice were treated with 0.1 Gy of TBI in combined with local irradiation on tumors, especially cell killing effect was remarkable in dose range over 6 Gy of local exposure. The mechanism of the effect of 0.1 Gy TBI is considered to be host mediated reactions from the other our experimental results. (author)

  10. Thymic nurse cells and thymic repopulation after whole body sublethal irradiation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houben-Defresne, M.P.; Varlet, A.; Boniver, J.

    1984-01-01

    Thymic Nurse Cells (TNCs) are lymphoepithelial complexes which are thought to play a role in the early stages of the intrathymic differentiation pathway. Their repopulation kinetics were analyzed in mice after sublethal whole-body irradiation. Changes of the number of TNCs per thymus were parallel with the evolution of the whole thymocyte population. Particularly, a first wave of TNCs restoration was followed by a secondary depletion and a final recovery. This suggests that TNCs restoration is related to the proliferating progeny of intrathymic radioresistant thymocytes. When normal bone marrow cells were grafted intravenously after irradiation, no secondary depletion was found. This pattern of restoration was obviously related to thymic repopulation by cells which were derived from the inoculated bone marrow. Homing studies with FITC labelled bone marrow cells showed that inoculated bone marrow cells did not penetrate TNCs early after irradiation. Later on, when immigrant cells started to proliferate, they were found preferentially within TNCs before spreading in the whole thymus. (Auth.)

  11. Effects of whole-body irradiation on neonatally thymectomized mice. Incidence of benign and malignant tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.E.; Howarth, J.L.; Troup, G.M.

    1978-01-01

    The individual and combined effects of neonatal thymectomy and whole-body irradiation on the prevalence of benign and malignant tumors in germ-free female mice of the Charles Rivers line were studied to determine if a portion of the tumorigenic effects of irradiation can be attributed to injury of the thymic-dependent component of the immune response. Neonatal thymectomy increased (a) the incidence of benign and malignant tumors and (b) the prevalence of multiple primary neoplasms in an individual mouse. Whole-body exposure to 700 rad at 6 weeks of age further increased the incidence of tumors, but the relative magnitude of this increase was less pronounced than in sham-operated controls. Thus, the cumulative effects of thymectomy plus irradiation are less pronounced than the sum of the individual effects. One of several possible explanations for this observation is that a portion of the carcinogenic effects of whole-body irradiation is mediated by suppression of the thymic-dependent component of the immune response

  12. Expression of IL-1{beta} mRNA in mice after whole body X-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemoto, Kumie; Ishihara, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Izumi; Suzuki, Gen; Tsuneoka, Kazuko; Yoshida, Kazuko; Ohtsu, Hiroshi [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1995-06-01

    IL-1{beta} is a stimulator of hematopoietic and inflammatory systems, and also acts as a radioprotector. After whole-body exposure to sublethal doses of ionizing radiation, the IL-1{beta} mRNA level in spleen cells increases for a short time prior to regeneration of the spleen. We analyzed spleen cells of C3H/He mice after whole-body irradiation with 3 Gy x-rays to determine the cause of this short-term increase in the transcription level. An increase in the level of the message in spleen cells, found by Northern blot hybridization, reached its peak 5 to 7 days after irradiation. There was a low correlation between the curves of the mRNA level and the ratio of monocyte/macrophage lineage cells; a typical source of the message. Spleen macrophages that produce a large amount of the message were found 7 days after irradiation in an in situ hybridization experiment in which heterogeneous spleen cell populations were used. In contrast, spleen cells had no detectable levels of macrophages rich in IL-1{beta} mRNA before and 17 days after irradiation. Additionally, the population of message-rich cells was 9.4% of the total number of monocytes/macrophages in the spleen. These results suggest that the short-term increase in IL-1{beta} mRNA is a result of the heterogeneous differentiation of a subpopulation of spleen macrophages before regeneration of the spleen. (author).

  13. Effect of intestinal microflora on the survival time of mice exposed to lethal whole-body. gamma. irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onoue, M.; Uchida, K.; Yokokura, T.; Takahashi, T.; Mutai, M.

    1981-11-01

    The effect of intestinal microflora on the survival time of mice exposed to 2-kR whole-body ..gamma.. irradiation was studied using germfree, monoassociated, and conventionalized ICR mice. The germfree mice were monoassociated with 1 of 11 bacterial strains, which were isolated from the fresh feces of conventional mice, 2 weeks prior to irradiation. All mice died within 3 weeks after irradiation. Monoassociation with Fusobacterium sp., Streptococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, or Pseudomonas sp. significantly reduced the mean survival time compared to that of germfree mice. In contrast, monoassociation with Clostridium sp., Bifidobacterium pseudolongum, or Lactobacillus acidophilus significantly prolonged the mean survival time compared to that of germfree mice. This suggests that the latter organisms may perform some activity to protect the mice from radiation injury. In this histopathological autopsy examination, the main lesions were hypocellularity in hematopoietic organs and hemorrhage in various organs. Neither karyorrhexis nor desquamation of intestinal mucosal cells was observed in any mice. From these observations, it is suggested that the death of these mice was related to hematopoietic damage. Bacterial invasion into various organs was observed in conventionalized and Pseudomonas-, E. coli-, or S. faecalis-monoassociated mice but not in Clostridium-, B. pseudolongum-, L. acidophilus-, or Fusobacterium-monoassociated mice.

  14. Effect of intestinal microflora on the survival time of mice exposed to lethal whole-body γ irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onoue, M.; Uchida, K.; Yokokura, T.; Takahashi, T.; Mutai, M.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of intestinal microflora on the survival time of mice exposed to 2-kR whole-body γ irradiation was studied using germfree, monoassociated, and conventionalized ICR mice. The germfree mice were monoassociated with 1 of 11 bacterial strains, which were isolated from the fresh feces of conventional mice, 2 weeks prior to irradiation. All mice died within 3 weeks after irradiation. Monoassociation with Fusobacterium sp., Streptococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, or Pseudomonas sp. significantly reduced the mean survival time compared to that of germfree mice. In contrast, monoassociation with Clostridium sp., Bifidobacterium pseudolongum, or Lactobacillus acidophilus significantly prolonged the mean survival time compared to that of germfree mice. This suggests that the latter organisms may perform some activity to protect the mice from radiation injury. In this histopathological autopsy examination, the main lesions were hypocellularity in hematopoietic organs and hemorrhage in various organs. Neither karyorrhexis nor desquamation of intestinal mucosal cells was observed in any mice. From these observations, it is suggested that the death of these mice was related to hematopoietic damage. Bacterial invasion into various organs was observed in conventionalized and Pseudomonas-, E. coli-, or S. faecalis-monoassociated mice but not in Clostridium-, B. pseudolongum-, L. acidophilus-, or Fusobacterium-monoassociated mice

  15. Lung autophagic response following exposure of mice to whole body irradiation, with and without amifostine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zois, Christos E.; Giatromanolaki, Alexandra; Kainulainen, Heikki; Botaitis, Sotirios; Torvinen, Sira; Simopoulos, Constantinos; Kortsaris, Alexandros; Sivridis, Efthimios; Koukourakis, Michael I.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We investigated the effect 6 Gy of WBI on the autophagic machinery of normal mouse lung. → Irradiation induces dysfunction of the autophagic machinery in normal lung, characterized by decreased transcription of the LC3A/Beclin-1 mRNA and accumulation of the LC3A, and p62 proteins. → The membrane bound LC3A-II protein levels increased in the cytosolic fraction (not in the pellet), contrasting the patterns noted after starvation-induced autophagy. → Administration of amifostine, reversed all the LC3A and p62 findings, suggesting protection of the normal autophagic function. -- Abstract: Purpose: The effect of ionizing irradiation on the autophagic response of normal tissues is largely unexplored. Abnormal autophagic function may interfere the protein quality control leading to cell degeneration and dysfunction. This study investigates its effect on the autophagic machinery of normal mouse lung. Methods and materials: Mice were exposed to 6 Gy of whole body γ-radiation and sacrificed at various time points. The expression of MAP1LC3A/LC3A/Atg8, beclin-1, p62/sequestosome-1 and of the Bnip3 proteins was analyzed. Results: Following irradiation, the LC3A-I and LC3A-II protein levels increased significantly at 72 h and 7 days. Strikingly, LC3A-II protein was increased (5.6-fold at 7 days; p < 0.001) only in the cytosolic fraction, but remained unchanged in the membrane fraction. The p62 protein, was significantly increased in both supernatant and pellet fraction (p < 0.001), suggesting an autophagosome turnover deregulation. These findings contrast the patterns of starvation-induced autophagy up-regulation. Beclin-1 levels remained unchanged. The Bnip3 protein was significantly increased at 8 h, but it sharply decreased at 72 h (p < 0.05). Administration of amifostine (200 mg/kg), 30 min before irradiation, reversed all the LC3A and p62 findings on blots, suggesting restoration of the normal autophagic function. The LC3A and Beclin1 m

  16. Radioresistance of intermediate TCR cells and their localization in the body of mice revealed by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Motohiko; Watanabe, Hisami; Ohtsuka, Kazuo; Iiai, Tsuneo; Tsuchida, Masanori; Sato, Shotaro; Abo, Toru

    1993-01-01

    Extrathymic generation of T cells in the liver and in the intestine was recently demonstrated. We investigated herein whether such T cells, especially those in the liver, are present in other organs of mice. This investigation is possible employing our recently introduced method with which even a minor proportion of extrathymic, intermediate T-cell receptor (TCR) cells in organs other than the liver can be identified. Intermediate TCR cells expressed higher levels of IL-2Rβ and lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) than bright TCR cells (i.e., T cells of thymic origin) as revealed by two-color staining. Although intermediate TCR cells were present at a small proportion in the spleen and thymus, they predominated in these organs after irradiation (9 Gy) and bone marrow reconstitution, or after low dose irradiation (6 Gy). This was due to that intermediate TCR cells were relatively radioresistant, whereas bright TCR cells were radiosensitive. Microscopic observation and immunochemical staining showed that intermediate TCR cells in the spleen localized in the red pulp and those in the thymus localized in the medulla. These intermediate TCR cells displayed a large light scatter, similar to such cells in the liver. The present results suggest that intermediate TCR cells may proliferate at multiple sites in the body. (author)

  17. Radio-modifying effects of amifostine analogues in whole body gamma irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soni, Ravi; Arora, Aastha; Singh, Saurabh; Bhuria, Vikas; Sharma, Anjali; Bhatt, A.N.; Dwarakanath, B.S.; Pathak, Uma; Mathur, Shweta; Sandhir, Rajat

    2014-01-01

    Damage to hematopoietic and gastro-intestinal systems contribute mainly to acute effects (mortality) following exposures to moderate doses of ionizing radiation. The aminothiol, amifostine (WR2721, a FDA approved pro-drug) has been well established protector of normal tissues against radiation damage and chemo-therapeutic drugs induced toxicity. A number of amifostine analogues (DRDE-07, DRDE-30 and DRDE-35) have been recently synthesized that afford protection against Sulfur Mustard (SM) when administered orally. Since, the mechanisms underlying toxicity by SM share a great deal with ionizing radiation and certain anti-cancer drugs, we investigated the potential of DRDE analogues in reducing the acute effects of radiation in whole body irradiated mice. Animal survival, body weight, changes in haematological parameters and CFU-S as well as morphology of GI was studied. DRDE analogues significantly enhanced the animal survival and reduced the radiation sickness (loss of weight) in a dose dependent manner when administered 30 min. before irradiation; optimal doses were 125 mg/kg body weight for DRDE-07; 220 mg/kg for DRDE-30 and 200 mg/kg for DRDE-35. All three analogues were orally effective unlike amifostine, albeit to different extents. The order of radio-protective efficacy in C57BL/6 mice when administered orally was DRDE-35 (60%) > DRDE-07 (50%) > DRDE-30 (40%), while it was DRDE-07 (58%) > DRDE-30 (44%) > DRDE-35 (40%) following intra-peritoneal administration. These analogues enhanced the recovery from radiation-induced hematopoietic damage (peripheral blood counts and improvement in endogenous spleen colony forming units) and gastrointestinal injury (improved structural integrity of GI, increase in villi height, regenerating crypts and mitotic figures) that correlated with the increase in survival. There were no survivors in the radiation group after 35 days of exposure and the values for the analyzed parameters were comparable to the control group. These

  18. Whole body proton irradiation causes acute damage to bone marrow hematopoietic progenitor and stem cells in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jianhui; Wang, Yingying; Pathak, Rupak; Sridharan, Vijayalakshmi; Jones, Tamako; Mao, Xiao Wen; Nelson, Gregory; Boerma, Marjan; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Zhou, Daohong; Shao, Lijian

    2017-12-01

    Exposure to proton irradiation during missions in deep space can lead to bone marrow injury. The acute effects of proton irradiation on hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells remain undefined and thus were investigated. We exposed male C57BL/6 mice to 0.5 and 1.0 Gy proton total body irradiation (proton-TBI, 150 MeV) and examined changes in peripheral blood cells and bone marrow (BM) progenitors and LSK cells 2 weeks after exposure. 1.0 Gy proton-TBI significantly reduced the numbers of peripheral blood cells compared to 0.5 Gy proton-TBI and unirradiated animals, while the numbers of peripheral blood cell counts were comparable between 0.5 Gy proton-TBI and unirradiated mice. The frequencies and numbers of LSK cells and CMPs in BM of 0.5 and 1.0 Gy irradiated mice were decreased in comparison to those of normal controls. LSK cells and CMPs and their progeny exhibited a radiation-induced impairment in clonogenic function. Exposure to 1.0 Gy increased cellular apoptosis but not the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in CMPs two weeks after irradiation. LSK cells from irradiated mice exhibited an increase in ROS production and apoptosis. Exposure to proton-TBI can induce acute damage to BM progenitors and LSK cells.

  19. Immuno-enhancement in tumor-bearing mice induced by whole body X-irradiation with 75 mGy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ying; Li Xiuyi; Gong Shouliang; Liu Shuzheng

    2000-01-01

    Objective: In present study the authors observed the effect of whole body irradiation (WBI) with 75 mGy X-rays on the immune function of tumor-bearing mice. Methods: Lewis lung carcinoma cells were implanted into the right thigh muscle of C57BL/6J mice. Ten days after tumor implantation, the tumor-bearing mice were administrated with 75 mGy X-rays WBI, then the mice were sacrificed 18 h after irradiation to detect the immune parameters including the spontaneous proliferation of thymocytes, the proliferative response of splenocytes to ConA and LPS, the cytotoxic activities of specific cytotoxic lymphocytes (CTL) and natural killer cells (NK), as well as lymphokine activated killer cells (LAK) in spleen. The methods the authors used were 3 H-TdR incorporation or release assay. Results: the immune parameters of exposed tumor-bearing mice were much higher than those of sham-irradiated tumor-bearing mice (P<0.01). Conclusion: These results suggested that low dose radiation (LDR) could enhance the immune function of tumor-bearing mice, which might be of practical significance in the prevention and therapy of cancer

  20. Hippophae leaf extract (SBL-1) countered radiation induced dysbiosis in jejunum of total body 60Cobalt gamma - irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beniwal, C.S.; Madhu Bala

    2014-01-01

    Single dose of SBL-1 administered at the rate 30 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) 30 min prior to whole body 60 Co-gamma-irradiation at lethal dose (10 Gy), rendered >90% survival in comparison to zero survival in the non-SBL-1 treated 60 Co-gamma-irradiated (10 Gy) mice population (J Herbs Spices Med Plants, 2009; 15(2): 203-215). Present study investigated the effect of SBL-1 on jejunal microbiota in lethally irradiated mice. Study was performed with inbred Swiss albino Strain 'A' male mice (age 9 weeks) weighing 28±2 g. The animals were maintained under controlled environment at 26±2℃; 12 h light/dark cycle and offered standard animal food (Golden feed, Delhi) as well as tap water ad libitum. Metagenomic DNA was extracted, purified and quantified from jejunum of the mice. Universal primers (27f and 1492r) were used to amplify the 16S rRNA DNA from the metagenomic DNA. Amplicons were sequenced, vector contamination and chimeras were removed. The sequences (GenBank Accession No: KF681283 to KF681351) were taxonomically classified by using Sequence Match program, Ribosomal Database Project as well as by nucleotide-BLAST (E-value: 10, database: 16S rRNA gene sequences, Bacteria and Archea). Phylogenetic Tree was prepared using MEGA 5.2 package, using maximum likelihood algorithm after sequence alignment by MUSCLE. Thermus aquaticus was used as out-group to construct rooted tree. Branch stability was assessed by bootstrap analysis. Untreated animals and the animals treated with SBL-1 had 100% Lactobacillus; 60 Co gamma-irradiated animals had 55% Cohaesibacter (Alphaproteobacteria); 27% Mycoplasma (Tenericutes) and only 18% Lactobacillus; animals treated with SBL-1 prior to irradiation had 89% Lactobacillus and 11% Clostridium. This study demonstrated that treatment with SBL-1 at radioprotective doses before total body irradiation with lethal dose (10 Gy) countered the jejunal dysbiosis. (author)

  1. Radiation Effect on Body Weight and Hematological Changes of Hybrid Mice by Conventional Fraction, Large Abdominal Field Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sung Heon; Shin, Sei One; Kim, Myung Se

    1985-01-01

    Radiation effect on mammals, especially on hematologic changes, has been studied since discovery of x-ray. Various experimental animals were tried for radiobiological studies. 72 hybrid mice with conventional fraction (5X/week), large abdominal field (2 x 3cm, from symphysis pubic to xyphoid process) were used. Body weight was declined gradually by increasing irradiation doses, nadir was about 29.7% in male ; 30.4% in female at 6000 rad irradiation group. Hemoglobin value was nearly normal throughout entire treatment. Significant dropping of WBC count was noted to 40-50% of pretreatment values by only 1000 rad irradiation. Change of differential count was interesting; lymphocyte proportion showed gradual reduction, instead of gradual increasing of segmented neutrophil. Those proportion were reversed after 6000 rad irradiation. Urinary protein tests showed + - +++, showing no correlation with dosage. Application. of our study in clinical combination therapy (radiation + chemotherapy) was discussed

  2. Uptake of carbon monoxide by C3H mice following X irradiation of lung only or total-body irradiation with 60Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rappaport, D.S.; Niewoehner, D.E.; Kim, T.H.; Song, C.W.; Levitt, S.H.

    1983-01-01

    Carbon monoxide uptake (V/sub co/) and ventilation rate (VR) of C3H mice were determined at 14 weeks following either X irradiation of lungs only or total-body irradiation with 60 Co at different dose rates. Following localized X irradiation of lung at 97 /sub c/Gy/min there was a reduction in V/sub co/, which was inversely related to radiation dose, with a small reduction below control levels being detected at 7 Gy, the lowest dose tested. An increase in VR could be detected only at doses of 11 Gy, or more. Another group of animals received 11.5 Gy total-body irradiation at either 26.2 or 4.85 /sub c/Gy/min fllowed by transplantation with syngeneic bone marrow. Following total-body irradiation, V/sub co/ was significantly reduced by about 37% at the higher dose rate and 23% at the lower dose rate. In contrast, a trend toward elevated VR was detected only at the higher dose rate.The results indicate that V/sub co/ is a sensitive indicator of radiation-induced lung injury and that under the experimental conditions used V/sub co/ is a more sensitive indicator of radiation-induced lung injury in C3H mice than VR

  3. Effect of whole-body irradiation of mice on the number of background plaque-forming cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.E.; Lefkovits, I.; Soeederberg, A.

    1983-01-01

    Mice were exposed in whole-body fashion to several doses of radiation and killed at various times thereafter for a determination of the number of background plaque-forming cells (PFCs) as assayed on either sheep erythrocytes or bromelain-treated autologous mouse erythrocytes. Increased numbers of both types of PFC were found in the irradiated groups. These increases were dependent on radiation dose and time after exposure. They did not appear to be caused by a disruption of normal lymphocyte traffic or a switch in immunoglobulin isotype. An increased number of PFCs on bromelain-treated mouse RBCs but not on sheep RBCs were found in irradiated congenitally athymic nude mice. On the basis of this and related observations, background PFCs on bromelain-treated mouse RBCs and on sheep RBCs appear to fall under different forms of homeostatic control

  4. Repopulated antigen presenting cells induced an imbalanced differentiation of the helper T cells in whole body gamma irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hae Ran; Jo, Sung Kee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Paik, Sang Kee [Chungnam National University, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Therapeutic irradiation of cancer patients, although it may be protected by several antioxidant agents against free radicals, often induces chronic sequelae such as inflammation (allergic inflammation). This is a limiting factor for radiotherapy. Following radiotherapy, the inflammation or injury can occur in any organ with a high radiosensitivity such as the lung, bladder, kidney, liver, stomach and intestine. The mechanism by which ionizing radiation initiates inflammation is, however, poorly understood. In recent studies, it was suggested that a factor for irradiation-induced inflammation might be the over production of IL-4 that enhances fibroblast proliferation and collagen synthesis. During the early stages after irradiation, type 2 of the helper T cells might be the major source of IL-4, and later on there seems to be an activation of the other IL-4 producing cell types, e.q. macrophages or mast cells. This is interesting because inflammation is classically seen to be dominated by Th1 cells secreting IFN-{gamma}. In the previous study, we were interested in the enhancement of the IL-4 and the IgE production during the development of immune cells after {gamma}-irradiation. We were able to deduce that IL-4 production was increased because of the shifted differentiation of the naive Th cells by the repopulated antigen presenting cells after irradiation. The aim of the present study was to precisely define whether antigen-presenting cells (APCs) of whole body irradiation-treated mice could influence the shifted differentiation of the Th cells. This view can be demonstrated by confirming that the shifted functional status of the Th cells is induced by the altered function of the repopulated macrophages after whole body irradiation (WBI)

  5. Elevation of blood levels of zinc protoporphyrin in mice following whole-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walden, T.L. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Elevation of zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels in the blood has served as an indicator of lead poisoning and iron deficiency anemia for many years. The author has discovered that sublethal doses of whole body irradiation with X-rays also elevates ZPP two- to three-fold over normal levels. The ZPP level does not begin to increase until days 12 to 14 post-irradiation and peaks between days 18 to 20 before returning to normal levels between days 28 to 35. Increasing the radiation dose delays the onset of the rise in ZPP but does not affect the magnitude of the elevation. At lethal doses, ZPP elevation is not observed. Neither of the two previously described mechanisms which cause elevations of ZPP, namely iron deficiency and inhibition of ferrochelatase, are responsible for the radiation induced elevation of ZPP. The elevation of ZPP appears to be correlated with the recovery of the hematopoietic system from radiation injury

  6. [Protective activity of different concentration of tea polyphenols and its major compound EGCG against whole body irradiation-induced injury in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shaolai; Hu, Yuan; Liu, Ping; Wang, Yuyu; Guo, Daihong; Wang, Dongxiao; Liao, Hongho

    2010-05-01

    To evaluate the different concentrate of tea polyphenols (TP) and its compound for irradiation-protection and investigate its mechanism. To evaluate the radioprotective activity, mice were exposed to whole body gamma irradiation. TP 80 and TP 50 (50, 10 mg x kg(-1)) and its major constituent epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) (50, 10 mg x kg(-1)) were administered after irradiation to examine its inhibition against irradiation-induced injury. This study indicate that in comparison with non-irradiated controls, irradiation resulted in a significant reduction the spleen index (spleen weight/body weight 100), haematological parameters (RBC, WBC and PLT), activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), and increase of malondialdehde (MDA) level in 28 days. Oral administration of TP (50 mg x kg(-1)) shown the best effect on reducing the irradiation-induced injury on mice studied, and showed a protective effect against irradiation-induced haematological parameters (RBC, WBC and PLT), the spleen index and MDA level significant reduction, and antioxidase activity (SOD) decrease. The results suggest that TP 50 mg x kg(-1) and EGCG have in vivo antioxidant potential and radioprotective activity against whole body gamma irradiation in mice. It may be concluded that TP (50% EGCG) possess good irradiation-protective and antioxidant effect.

  7. The elevation of blood levels of zinc protoporphyrin in mice following whole body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walden, T.L.; Draganac, P.S.; Farkas, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    Elevation of zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels in the blood has served as an indicator of lead poisoning and iron deficiency anemia for many years. We have discovered that sublethal doses of whole body irradiation with x-rays also elevates ZPP 2-3-fold over normal levels. The ZPP level does not begin to increase until days 12-14 postirradiation and peaks between days 18 and 20 before returning to normal levels between days 28 and 35. Increasing the radiation dose delays the onset of the rise in ZPP, but does not affect the magnitude of the elevation. At lethal doses, ZPP elevation is not observed. Neither of the two previously described mechanisms that cause elevations of ZPP, namely iron deficiency and inhibition of ferrochelatase, are responsible for the radiation-induced elevation of ZPP. The elevation of ZPP appears to be correlated with the recovery of the hematopoietic system from radiation injury

  8. p38 MAPK Inhibitor Insufficiently Attenuates HSC Senescence Administered Long-Term after 6 Gy Total Body Irradiation in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Lu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Senescent hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs accumulate with age and exposure to stress, such as total-body irradiation (TBI, which may cause long-term myelosuppression in the clinic. However, the methods available for long-term myelosuppression remain limited. Previous studies have demonstrated that sustained p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38 MAPK activation in HSCs following exposure to TBI in mice and the administration of its inhibitor twenty-four hours after TBI may partially prevent long-term myelosuppression. However, long-term myelosuppression is latent and identified long after the administration of radiation. In this study, we investigated the effects of SB203580 (a small molecule inhibitor of p38 MAPK on long-term myelosuppression induced by TBI. Mice with hematopoietic injury were injected intraperitoneally with SB203580 every other day five times beginning 70 days after 6 Gy of 137Cs γ ray TBI. Our results at 80 days demonstrated that SB203580 did not significantly improve the TBI-induced long-term reduction of peripheral blood cell and bone marrow nucleated cell (BMNC counts, or defects in hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs and HSC clonogenic function. SB203580 reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS production and p-p38 expression; however, SB203580 had no effect on p16 expression in the HSCs of mice. In conclusion, these findings suggest that treatment with SB203580 70 days after TBI in mice inhibits the ROS-p38 oxidative stress pathway; however, it has no therapeutic effect on long-term myelosuppression induced by TBI.

  9. Studies on immunity to Schistosoma mansoni in vivo: whole-body irradiation has no effect on vaccine-induced resistance in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vignali, D.A.A.; Bickle, Q.D.; Taylor, M.G.

    1988-01-01

    Actively immunized mice, whole-body irradiated with 650 or 525 rad., manifested comparable levels of resistance to Schistosoma mansoni compared with unirradiated, immunized mice in spite of a marked reduction in circulating leucocytes and platelets, and despite an abrogation of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) (Type IV) reponse to schistosomular antigens. However, limited histopathological comparison of lung sections from irradiated and unirradiated mice 7 days post-challenge showed that cellular reactions ('foci') around parasites were similar in size and cellular composition except that in irradiated mice, eosinophils were poorly represented both in the foci and in lung tissue in general. Neither presumed immune complex-mediated (Type III, Arthus reaction) hypersensitivity nor serum anti-schistosomulum extract antibody levels were affected. The pattern of 125 I-labelled schistosomular surface antigens immunoprecipitated with serum from irradiated and unirradiated mice was essentially similar. These results are consistent with antibody playing an important role in vaccine-induced immunity in mice but suggest that radiosensitive T cell function and radiosensitive cells, such as platelets and polymorphonuclear cells, including eosinophils, may not be essential. (author)

  10. Half body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartelink, H.; Battermann, J.; Hart, G.

    1980-01-01

    Twenty-one patients with complaints of severe pain from disseminated breast cancer were treated with half body irradiation with a single dose of 600 to 800 rad. All of them had a relief of pain for periods ranging from 14 to 280 days, with a median duration of 101 days. The objective effects of a single radiation dose was studied in 15 patients with lung metastases. The growth delay observed in these patients was of the same order as the period of pain relief observed in breast cancer patients after half body irradiation. In general a longer lasting palliation was obtained in patients with slowly growing tumors

  11. The enhancing effect of fractionated whole-body x-irradiation on replication of endogenous leukemia viruses in BALB/c mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamori, Yasuhiko; Okumoto, Masaaki; Iwai, Mineko; Iwai, Yoshiaki

    1976-01-01

    The incidence of leukemia, changes in the tissue weight of spleen and thymus, and the expression of endogenous viruses were examined with BALB/c mice following 4 weekly fractionated whole-body x-irradiation of 170 R each, starting at 4 weeks of age. The leukemia incidence was quite low for the unirradiated controls, while 60% of the irradiated male mice developed thymic lymphoma. The virus-positive cells appeared earlier in the spleen than in the thymus and bone marrow, and increased with aging. The time of appearance of virus-positive cells in these tissues was remarkably promoted by the fractionated x-irradiation, and its frequency was also enhanced. (auth.)

  12. Radioprotective Effect and Follow-up of Melatonin as Antifertility Drug in Male Adult Mice submitted to Whole-Body γ Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawfik, S.S.; Mansour, H.H.; El-Shamy, E.; Sallam, M.H.

    2006-01-01

    Melatonin is universal antioxidant for both man and animals and a substance normally produced in the human body. Radioprotective and follow up of melatonin as anti-fertility drug in whole body γ-irradiated male adult mice were studied. The alterations occurred in reproductive system and biochemical aspects in mice were evaluated. Control group, melatonin treated (received 10 mg/kg body wt for 20 successive days), following up for melatonin treated (2 recovery periods; 60 and 120 days), irradiated (2 Gy-γ-rays), pre-treated (received melatonin before irradiation) and following up for pre-treated (2 recovery periods) groups were designed. Body and testes wt, micronucleus test (MN), chromosomal aberration (CA), seminal plasma melatonin, sperm quality (count, motility and abnormal forms) and hormonal assay in serum (melatonin, testosterone, FSH and prolactin) were recorded for fertility assessment. Oxidative parameters in testis tissue (malonaldehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and nitric oxide (NO)) and biochemical assay (protein and lipid fractions in serum) were investigated for judgment melatonin radioprotective efficacy. Irradiation intensifies the processes of lipo peroxidation and oxidative modification of lipids and proteins with synchronized inhibition of the anti oxidative protection system. Melatonin administration against a background of radiation caused a distinctly expressed antioxidant effect

  13. Technical Note: Partial body irradiation of mice using a customized PMMA apparatus and a clinical 3D planning/LINAC radiotherapy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karagounis, Ilias V.; Koukourakis, Michael I., E-mail: targ@her.forthnet.gr, E-mail: mkoukour@med.duth.gr [Department of Radiotherapy–Oncology, Radiopathology and Radiobiology Unit, Medical School, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis 68100 (Greece); Abatzoglou, Ioannis M., E-mail: abadzoglou@yahoo.gr [Medical Physics Department, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Alexandroupolis 68100 (Greece)

    2016-05-15

    Purpose: In vivo radiobiology experiments involving partial body irradiation (PBI) of mice are of major importance because they allow for the evaluation of individual organ tolerance; overcoming current limitations of experiments using lower dose, whole body irradiation. In the current study, the authors characterize and validate an effective and efficient apparatus for multiple animal PBI, directed to the head, thorax, or abdomen of mice. Methods: The apparatus is made of polymethylmethacrylate and consists of a rectangular parallelepiped prism (40 cm × 16 cm × 8 cm), in which five holes were drilled to accomodate standard 60 ml syringes, each housing an unanesthetized, fully immobilized mouse. Following CT-scanning and radiotherapy treatment planning, radiation fields were designed to irradiate the head, thorax, or abdomen of the animal. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were used to confirm the treatment planning dosimetry for primary beam and scattered radiation. Results: Mice are efficiently placed into 60 ml syringes and immobilized, without the use of anesthetics. Although partial rotational movement around the longitudinal axis and a minor 2 mm forward/backward movement are permitted, this does not compromise the irradiation of the chosen body area. TLDs confirmed the dose values predicted by the treatment planning dosimetry, both for primary beam and scattered radiation. Conclusions: The customized PMMA apparatus described and validated is cost-effective, convenient to use, and efficient in performing PBI without the use of anesthesia. The developed apparatus permits the isolated irradiation of the mouse head, thorax, and abdomen. Importantly, the apparatus allows the delivery of PBI to five mice, simultaneously, representing an efficient way to effectively expose a large number of animals to PBI through multiple daily fractions, simulating clinical radiotherapy treatment schedules.

  14. Technical Note: Partial body irradiation of mice using a customized PMMA apparatus and a clinical 3D planning/LINAC radiotherapy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagounis, Ilias V; Abatzoglou, Ioannis M; Koukourakis, Michael I

    2016-05-01

    In vivo radiobiology experiments involving partial body irradiation (PBI) of mice are of major importance because they allow for the evaluation of individual organ tolerance; overcoming current limitations of experiments using lower dose, whole body irradiation. In the current study, the authors characterize and validate an effective and efficient apparatus for multiple animal PBI, directed to the head, thorax, or abdomen of mice. The apparatus is made of polymethylmethacrylate and consists of a rectangular parallelepiped prism (40 cm × 16 cm × 8 cm), in which five holes were drilled to accomodate standard 60 ml syringes, each housing an unanesthetized, fully immobilized mouse. Following CT-scanning and radiotherapy treatment planning, radiation fields were designed to irradiate the head, thorax, or abdomen of the animal. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were used to confirm the treatment planning dosimetry for primary beam and scattered radiation. Mice are efficiently placed into 60 ml syringes and immobilized, without the use of anesthetics. Although partial rotational movement around the longitudinal axis and a minor 2 mm forward/backward movement are permitted, this does not compromise the irradiation of the chosen body area. TLDs confirmed the dose values predicted by the treatment planning dosimetry, both for primary beam and scattered radiation. The customized PMMA apparatus described and validated is cost-effective, convenient to use, and efficient in performing PBI without the use of anesthesia. The developed apparatus permits the isolated irradiation of the mouse head, thorax, and abdomen. Importantly, the apparatus allows the delivery of PBI to five mice, simultaneously, representing an efficient way to effectively expose a large number of animals to PBI through multiple daily fractions, simulating clinical radiotherapy treatment schedules.

  15. SIGN-R1 and complement factors are involved in the systemic clearance of radiation-induced apoptotic cells in whole-body irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin-Yeon; Loh, SoHee; Cho, Eun-hee [Department of Biomedical Science & Technology, Konkuk University, 1 Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hyeong-Jwa [Division of Radiation Effect, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 215-4, 75 Nowon gil Nowon-Gu, Seoul, 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Na, Tae-Young [College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-741 (Korea, Republic of); Nemeno, Judee Grace E.; Lee, Jeong Ik [Regenerative Medicine Laboratory, Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, Seoul, 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Taek Joon [Department of Food and Nutrition, Yuhan College, Bucheon, Gyeonggi-do, 422-749 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, In-Soo [Department of Infectious Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, 1 Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Minyoung [Division of Radiation Effect, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 215-4, 75 Nowon gil Nowon-Gu, Seoul, 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae-Seon [Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, Inha University, Incheon, 400-712 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Young-Sun, E-mail: kangys1967@naver.com [Department of Biomedical Science & Technology, Konkuk University, 1 Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, 1 Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, 143-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-07

    Although SIGN-R1-mediated complement activation pathway has been shown to enhance the systemic clearance of apoptotic cells, the role of SIGN-R1 in the clearance of radiation-induced apoptotic cells has not been characterized and was investigated in this study. Our data indicated that whole-body γ-irradiation of mice increased caspase-3{sup +} apoptotic lymphocyte numbers in secondary lymphoid organs. Following γ-irradiation, SIGN-R1 and complements (C4 and C3) were simultaneously increased only in the mice spleen tissue among the assessed tissues. In particular, C3 was exclusively activated in the spleen. The delayed clearance of apoptotic cells was markedly prevalent in the spleen and liver of SIGN-R1 KO mice, followed by a significant increase of CD11b{sup +} cells. These results indicate that SIGN-R1 and complement factors play an important role in the systemic clearance of radiation-induced apoptotic innate immune cells to maintain tissue homeostasis after γ-irradiation. - Highlights: • Splenic SIGN-R1{sup +} macrophages are activated after γ-irradiation. • C3 and C4 levels increased and C3 was activated in the spleen after γ-irradiation. • SIGN-R1 mediated the systemic clearance of radiation-induced apoptotic cells in spleen and liver.

  16. Radioprotection by caffeine pre-treatment and post-treatment in the bone marrow chromosomes of mice given whole-body γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooqi, Z.; Kesavan, P.C.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of caffeine given as pre- and post-treatment in mice exposed to whole-body γ-irradiation (1.5 Gy 60 Co γ-rays) was studied. The pre-treatment was either acute or chronic. The acute dose (5 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg body weight) was in the form of an injection given intraperitoneally, 30 min before irradiation. The chronic administration was in the form of caffeine solution (4.208x10 -3 M and 7.72x10 -4 M) contained in drinking water for 5 weeks prior to radiation exposure. The acute pre-treatment with caffeine reduced the radiation-induced frequency of chromosomal aberrations discernibly, whereas chronic pre-treatment afforded a much more significant degree of radioprotection. The caffeine post-treatment (5 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg body weight) was given in the form of an intraperitoneal injection to the mice immediately following whole-body γ-irradiation. It is noted that both post-treatment concentrations of caffeine also significantly reduced the frequency of chromosomal aberrations induced by γ-rays. These data are briefly discussed in terms of possible mechanistic considerations. (author). 33 refs.; 3 tabs

  17. Protective role of Hippopahe leaves against kidney damage in total body 60Co-gamma-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, Manu; Prasad, Jagdish; Bala, Madhu

    2012-01-01

    Hippophae rhamnoides has diverse therapeutic applications in Indian, Chinese and Tibetan medicine. Our earlier studies have shown that pretreatment with Hippophae leaf extract rendered >90% survival in mice population. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of our herbal preparation from Hippophae leaf against radiation induced kidney damage. The study was conducted with Strain 'A' male mice weighing approximately 28 ±2 g. The mice were administered Hippophae leaf extract, 30 minutes prior to 60 cobalt-gamma irradiation. The weight of kidneys and histological changes in kidney tissues at the light microscopic level were examined at 2, 5, 7, 10 and 15 days after treatment. The results showed that no significant change was observed in kidney weight after 60 cobalt-gamma irradiation. The glomerular damage in the form of glomerular sclerosis and percentage of damaged glomeruli; tubular damage in form of tubular dilations; apoptosis, and interstitial hemorrhages in renal cortex was also observed after radiation treatment. The pretreatment with Hippophae leaf extract countered most of the histological alterations induced by radiation. In comparison to radiation alone group, there was a significant decrease (p 60 cobalt gamma radiation induced damage. (author)

  18. Histopathological studies show protective efficacy of Hippophae leaf extract against damage to jejunum in whole body 60Co-a-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Manish; Prasad, Jagdish; Madhu Bala

    2012-01-01

    Background: Ionizing radiation affect living tissue by causing majority of in vivo damage by free radical production. Earlier we reported that our preparation from Hippophae leaf offered survival benefit to >90% mice population which was whole body irradiated ( 60 Co-a-rays, 10 Gy). Objective: This study was planned to examine the protective effects of our drug (from Hippophae leaf) on ( 60 Co-a-ray induced oxidative damage and histopathological changes in jejunum. Methods: Around 2 months old adult male Strain 'A' mice were irradiated (10 Gy). Drug was administered intraperitoneally (-30 mm.). Histological parameters were studied after staining the sections with hematoxylin and eosin. Malondialdehyde formation (index of lipid peroxidation), alkaline phosphatase activity, and total thiol content were determined by biochemical techniques. The data was obtained at different time interval upto 30 days. Results: Biochemical studies showed that in comparison to the untreated controls, in the irradiated (10 Gy) mice, there was significant increase in the alkaline phosphatase activity and level of malondialdehyde whereas decrease in total thiol content within 2 days. Histological studies showed that whole body irradiation (10 Gy), damaged the jejunam crypt cells and decreased the villi height within 2 days. Intra-peritoneal administration of drug, 30 mm prior to irradiation, protected the crypt cells and villi height, countered the radiation induced increase in alkaline phosphatase activity and lipid peroxidation and values were comparable to the level of control in 30 days. Conclusions: These biochemical and histopathological studies suggested that our drug can offer effective radioprotection against the oxidative damage to jejunum in vivo. (author)

  19. Effect of Fluosol-DA 20% and oxygen on response of C57BL/6 mice to whole-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldow, S.M.; Lustig, R.A.; Brass-Marlow, E.L.; Nunno, M.P.; Holst, R.J.; Wallner, P.E.

    1990-01-01

    Normal tissue effects in mice due to combinations of a perfluorochemical emulsion, Fluosol-DA 20%, 100% oxygen, and whole-body irradiation were investigated. Eight-to-10-week-old C57BL/6 male mice were injected via the tail vein with 10 ml/kg of Fluosol-DA with and without subsequent exposure to oxygen for 60 minutes. Animals then received graded doses of whole-body radiation (4 MV photons) at a dose rate of 2.85 +/- .015 Gy/minute. Using linear regression analysis, the lethal doses of radiation to 50% and 10% of the animals within 30 days in the absence of Fluosol-DA and oxygen were 8.35 Gy (95% c.l.:7.77-8.93 Gy) and 6.73 Gy (95% cl.:6.21-7.25 Gy), respectively, and were unaffected by Fluosol-DA and/or oxygen pre-treatment. However, Fluosol-DA given alone or in combination with oxygen produced increased balding and decreased graying incidence in mice within 60 days, and resulted in depressed weight gain 15 to 60 days post-treatment. Normal tissue effects due to administration of Fluosol-DA and oxygen in combination with whole-body irradiation have been demonstrated but appear minimal compared to other anti-tumor modalities currently under investigation

  20. Chronic radiation injury with mice and dogs exposed to external whole-body irradiation at the Argonne National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grahn, D.; Fritz, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    This document describes studies on chronic radiation injury in experimental animals and the extrapolation of derived injury parameters to man. Most of the large studies have used mice given single, weekly, or continuous exposure to cobalt-60 gamma rays, or, more recently, single or weekly exposure to fission neutrons from the JANUS reactor. Primary measures of injury have been life shortening and the associated major pathological changes, particularly neoplastic diseases. Recent and ongoing studies compare the effects of extremely low neutron exposures with gamma irradiations delivered as a single dose or in 60 equal weekly increments. Total neutron doses range from 1 to 40 rads; gamma-ray doses range from 22.5 to 600 rads. Selected genetic studies are performed concurrently to provide a nearly complete matrix of somatic and genetic effects of these low exposures. Studies with the beagle have complemented those with mice and have shown a strong parallelism in the responses of the two species. Present exposures are at 0.3, 0.75, and 1.88 rads per day of continuous gamma irradiation to test a model for the prediction of life shortening in man which has evolved from Argonne's long-term studies. The dog offers the opportunity for longitudinal clinical evaluations that are not possible in the mouse, to develop a broader view of the neoplastic disease spectrum, and to study the mechanisms of radiation induction of leukemia. Diverse statistical approaches have been used to measure excess risk, dose-response functions, and rates of injury and repair. Actuarial statistical methods have been favored since they permit a more direct means of extrapolation to man. 50 refs., 4 figs

  1. Effects of whole body x-irradiation and cyclophosphamide treatment on induction of macrophage tumoricidal function in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, R.M.; Pavlidis, N.A.; Chirigos, M.A.; Weiss, J.F.

    1978-07-01

    The influence of whole-body x irradiation (200 to 800 R) and subcutaneous cyclophosphamide (CY) treatment (150 to 500 mg/kg) was studied on the ability of adjuvants to induce cytotoxic macrophages in vivo. Surprisingly, radiation or CY therapy alone produced growth inhibitory macrophages whose function peaked within 2 days after treatment. When adjuvants such as Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG), pyran copolymer, or glucan were administered ip within 2 hr after sublethal (600 R) x irradiation, adjuvant-induced cytotoxic function was depressed but not ablated. In addition, when noninduced peritoneal macrophages were obtained 6 days after lethal (800 R) x irradiation, their ability to be activated in vitro by lymphokine or fibroblast-derived interferon preparations was only slightly depressed at all concentrations of inducer tested. When BCG, pyran, or glucan was administered ip concurrently with sc CY treatment, only the ability of BCG to activate macrophages was markedly reduced, indicating separate mechanisms for the induction of tumoricidal macrophages. A better understanding of the interaction of chemotherapeutic and/or radiation regimens with adjuvants which affect macrophage function may be instrumental to rationalized immunotherapy protocols.

  2. Effects of whole body x-irradiation and cyclophosphamide treatment on induction of macrophage tumoricidal function in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, R.M.; Pavlidis, N.A.; Chirigos, M.A.; Weiss, J.F.

    1978-01-01

    The influence of whole-body x irradiation (200 to 800 R) and subcutaneous cyclophosphamide (CY) treatment (150 to 500 mg/kg) was studied on the ability of adjuvants to induce cytotoxic macrophages in vivo. Surprisingly, radiation or CY therapy alone produced growth inhibitory macrophages whose function peaked within 2 days after treatment. When adjuvants such as Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG), pyran copolymer, or glucan were administered ip within 2 hr after sublethal (600 R) x irradiation, adjuvant-induced cytotoxic function was depressed but not ablated. In addition, when noninduced peritoneal macrophages were obtained 6 days after lethal (800 R) x irradiation, their ability to be activated in vitro by lymphokine or fibroblast-derived interferon preparations was only slightly depressed at all concentrations of inducer tested. When BCG, pyran, or glucan was administered ip concurrently with sc CY treatment, only the ability of BCG to activate macrophages was markedly reduced, indicating separate mechanisms for the induction of tumoricidal macrophages. A better understanding of the interaction of chemotherapeutic and/or radiation regimens with adjuvants which affect macrophage function may be instrumental to rationalized immunotherapy protocols

  3. Hepatocytes, rather than leukocytes reverse DNA damage in vivo induced by whole body y-irradiation of mice, as shown by the alkaline comet assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUANA PINCHEIRA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA damage repair was assessed in quiescent (G0 leukocytes and in hepatocytes of mice, after 1 and 2 hours recovery from a single whole body y-irradiation with 0.5, 1 or 2 Gy. Evaluation of single-strand breaks (SSB and alkali-labile sites together were carried out by a single-cell electrophoresis at pH>13.0 (alkaline comet assay. In non-irradiated (control mice, the constitutive, endogenous DNA damage (basal was around 1.5 times higher in leukocytes than in hepatocytes. Irradiation immediately increased SSB frequency in both cell types, in a dose-dependent manner. Two sequential phases took place during the in vivo repair of the radio-induced DNA lesions. The earliest one, present in both hepatocytes and leukocytes, further increased the SSB frequency, making evident the processing of some primary lesions in DNA bases into the SSB repair intermediates. In a second phase, SSB frequency decreased because of their removal. In hepatocytes, such a frequency regressed to the constitutive basal level after 2 hours recovery from either 0.5 orí Gy. On the other hand, the SSB repair phase was specifically abrogated in leukocytes, at the doses and recovery times analyzed. Thus, the efficiency of in vivo repair of radio-induced DNA damage in dormant cells (lymphocytes is quite different from that in hepatocytes whose low proliferation activity accounts only for cell renewal.

  4. Total body 100-mGy X-irradiation does not induce Alzheimer's disease-like pathogenesis or memory impairment in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Bing; Tanaka, Kaoru; Ji, Bin

    2014-01-01

    The cause and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are poorly understood. Possible cognitive and behavioral consequences induced by low-dose radiation are important because humans are exposed to ionizing radiation from various sources. Early transcriptional response in murine brain to low-dose X-rays (100 mGy) has been reported, suggesting alterations of molecular networks and pathways associated with cognitive functions, advanced aging and AD. To investigate acute and late transcriptional, pathological and cognitive consequences of low-dose radiation, we applied an acute dose of 100-mGy total body irradiation (TBI) with X-rays to C57BL/6J Jms mice. We collected hippocampi and analyzed expression of 84 AD-related genes. Mouse learning ability and memory were assessed with the Morris water maze test. We performed in vivo PET scans with 11 C-PIB, a radiolabeled ligand for amyloid imaging, to detect fibrillary amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) accumulation, and examined characteristic AD pathologies with immunohistochemical staining of amyloid precursor protein (APP), Aβ, tau and phosphorylated tau (p-tau). mRNA studies showed significant downregulation of only two of 84 AD-related genes, Apbb1 and Lrp1, at 4 h after irradiation, and of only one gene, Il1α, at 1 year after irradiation. Spatial learning ability and memory were not significantly affected at 1 or 2 years after irradiation. No induction of amyloid fibrillogenesis or changes in APP, Aβ, tau, or p-tau expression was detected at 4 months or 2 years after irradiation. TBI induced early or late transcriptional alteration in only a few AD-related genes but did not significantly affect spatial learning, memory or AD-like pathological change in mice. (author)

  5. Total body irradiation: current indications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, P.; Danhier, S.; Dubray, B.; Cosset, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The choice of dose and fractionation for total body irradiation is made difficult by the large number of considerations to be taken into account. The outcome of bone marrow transplantation after total body irradiation can be understood in terms of tumor cell killing, engraftment, and normal tissue damage, each of these endpoints being influenced by irradiation-, disease-, transplant-, and patient- related factors. Interpretation of clinical data is further hampered by the overwhelming influence of logistic constraints, the small numbers of randomized studies, and the concomitant variations in total dose and fraction size or dose rate. So far, three cautious conclusions can be drawn in order to tentatively adapt the total body irradiation schedule to clinically-relevant situations. Firstly, the organs at risk for normal tissue damage (lung, liver, lens, kidney) are protected by delivering small doses per fraction at low dose rate. This suggests that, when toxicity is at stake (e.g. in children), fractionated irradiation should be preferred, provided that inter-fraction intervals are long enough. Secondly, fractionated irradiation should be avoided in case of T-cell depleted transplant, given the high risk of graft rejection in this setting. An alternative would be to increase total (or fractional) dose of fractionated total body irradiation, but this approach is likely to induce more normal tissue toxicity. Thirdly, clinical data have shown higher relapse rates in chronic myeloid leukemia after fractionated or low dose rate total body irradiation, suggesting that fractionated irradiation should not be recommended, unless total (or fractional) dose is increased. Total body irradiation-containing regimens, primarily cyclophosphamide / total body irradiation, are either equivalent to or better than the chemotherapy-only regimens, primarily busulfan / cyclophosphamide. Busulfan / cyclophosphamide certainly represents a reasonable alternative, especially in patients who

  6. Late complications following total-body irradiation and bone marrow rescue in mice: predominance of glomerular nephropathy and hemolytic anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Down, J.D.; Berman, A.J.; Mauch, P.; Warhol, M.

    1990-01-01

    Late mortality and pathology were assessed in various mouse strains following total-body irradiation (TBI) and bone marrow transplantation. Long-term survival data revealed both radiation dose- and strain-dependent onset of mortality between 1 and 2 years post-treatment. Renal damage appeared to have contributed to the late mortality in most treatment groups as shown by glomerular lesions, elevated blood urea nitrogen and an accompanying fall in hematocrit. Hemolysis was deduced to be the major cause of anemia, as concluded from results of 51 Cr-labeled erythrocyte survival. No decrease in erythropoiesis was evident as seen from spleen and bone marrow 59 Fe uptake. These findings are together consistent with the manifestation of a hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) with kidney glomeruli representing the principal sites of injury responsible for both renal dysfunction and microangiopathic hemolysis. (author)

  7. Late complications following total-body irradiation and bone marrow rescue in mice: predominance of glomerular nephropathy and hemolytic anemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Down, J.D.; Berman, A.J.; Mauch, P. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (USA)); Warhol, M. (Pennsylvania Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (USA). Dept. of Pathology); Yeap, B. (Dana Farber Cancer Inst., Boston, MA (USA))

    1990-03-01

    Late mortality and pathology were assessed in various mouse strains following total-body irradiation (TBI) and bone marrow transplantation. Long-term survival data revealed both radiation dose- and strain-dependent onset of mortality between 1 and 2 years post-treatment. Renal damage appeared to have contributed to the late mortality in most treatment groups as shown by glomerular lesions, elevated blood urea nitrogen and an accompanying fall in hematocrit. Hemolysis was deduced to be the major cause of anemia, as concluded from results of {sup 51}Cr-labeled erythrocyte survival. No decrease in erythropoiesis was evident as seen from spleen and bone marrow {sup 59}Fe uptake. These findings are together consistent with the manifestation of a hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) with kidney glomeruli representing the principal sites of injury responsible for both renal dysfunction and microangiopathic hemolysis. (author).

  8. Age and sex dependence in tumorigenesis in mice by continuous low-dose-rate gamma-ray whole-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsu, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Shigeru; Furuse, Takeshi; Noda, Yuko; Shiragai, Akihiro; Sato, Fumiaki.

    1992-01-01

    We investigated the dependency of sex and age in mice in the induction of neoplasms by gamma-rays from cesium-137 at a low dose rate of 0.375Gy/22h/day. Thymic lymphomas occurred significantly at the same incidence in both sexes, and more frequently when younger mice were exposed to radiation. Strain C57BL/6J mice were divided into 8 groups, which were whole-body irradiated with a total dose of 39Gy for 105 days each. The exposure was begun at 28 days of age (male:AM1, female:AF1), and then stepwise increasing the starting age by 105 days, i.e., from 133 days (AM2 and AF2), from 238 days (AM3 and AF3), and from 343 days (AM4 and AF4), respectively. Unirradiated mice served as control (UM and UF). The incidence of thymic lymphomas was about 60 % in AM1, AM2, AF1 and AF2, 40 % in AM3 and AF3 and 20 % in AF4 and AF4, demonstrating no sex dependency, but a distinct age dependency, for lymphomogenesis. It was proven that mice showed a tendency to become less susceptible to radiation induced thymic lymphoma with increasing age. Concomitantly, life-shortening also was caused, and the greater the degree of life-shortening was, the younger the mice were the start of exposure. Life-shortening was attributed to thymic lymphoma, and hemorrhage and infectious diseases due to the depletion of bone marrow cells. (author)

  9. Total Body Irradiation Mitigates Inflammation and Extends the Therapeutic Time Window for Anti-Ricin Antibody Treatment against Pulmonary Ricinosis in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoav Gal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ricin, a highly toxic plant-derived toxin, is considered a potential weapon in biowarfare and bioterrorism due to its pronounced toxicity, high availability, and ease of preparation. Pulmonary exposure to ricin results in the generation of an acute edematous inflammation followed by respiratory insufficiency and death. Massive neutrophil recruitment to the lungs may contribute significantly to ricin-mediated morbidity. In this study, total body irradiation (TBI served as a non-pharmacological tool to decrease the potential neutrophil-induced lung injury. TBI significantly postponed the time to death of intranasally ricin-intoxicated mice, given that leukopenia remained stable following intoxication. This increase in time to death coincided with a significant reduction in pro-inflammatory marker levels, and led to marked extension of the therapeutic time window for anti-ricin antibody treatment.

  10. Pathways analysis of differential gene expression induced by engrafting doses of total body irradiation for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinjian; Wang, Yuanyuan; Li, Qiuxia; Tsai, Schickwann; Thomas, Alun; Shizuru, Judith A; Cao, Thai M

    2013-08-01

    A major challenge in allogeneic bone marrow (BM) transplantation is overcoming engraftment resistance to avoid the clinical problem of graft rejection. Identifying gene pathways that regulate BM engraftment may reveal molecular targets for overcoming engraftment barriers. Previously, we developed a mouse model of BM transplantation that utilizes recipient conditioning with non-myeloablative total body irradiation (TBI). We defined TBI doses that lead to graft rejection, that conversely are permissive for engraftment, and mouse strain variation with regards to the permissive TBI dose. We now report gene expression analysis, using Agilent Mouse 8x60K microarrays, in spleens of mice conditioned with varied TBI doses for correlation to the expected engraftment phenotype. The spleens of mice given engrafting doses of TBI, compared with non-engrafting TBI doses, demonstrated substantially broader gene expression changes, significant at the multiple testing-corrected P change ≥2. Functional analysis revealed significant enrichment for a down-regulated canonical pathway involving B-cell development. Genes enriched in this pathway suggest that suppressing donor antigen processing and presentation may be pivotal effects conferred by TBI to enable engraftment. Regardless of TBI dose and recipient mouse strain, pervasive genomic changes related to inflammation was observed and reflected by significant enrichment for canonical pathways and association with upstream regulators. These gene expression changes suggest that macrophage and complement pathways may be targeted to overcome engraftment barriers. These exploratory results highlight gene pathways that may be important in mediating BM engraftment resistance.

  11. Influence of metronidazole on the survival rate of whole-body irradiated mice and on the DNA repair synthesis of lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magdon, E.; Schroeder, E.

    1978-01-01

    With reference to literature reports the effect of Metronidazole [1-(hydroxyethyl)-5-nitro-2-methyl-imidazole] on the survival rate of C 3 H inbred mice following whole-body doses ranging from 5 to 15 Gy was determined under oxic and hypoxic conditions. Ehrlich ascites tumor cells were used to study the influence of Metronidazole on radiation-induced alterations of the DNA sedimentation behavior in the alkaline sucrose gradient under oxic conditions in vitro. The effect of Metronidazole on the semiconservative DNA synthesis was investigated under oxic and hypoxic conditions in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells and L5178Y lymphoma cells. Furthermore, it was examined whether the radiation-induced inhibition of semiconservative DNA synthesis in L5178Y lymphoma cells and the radiation-induced repair synthesis in lymphocytes is influenced by Metronidazole. From the values of the LDsub(50/30) after whole-body irradiation a sensitilization factor of 1.3 was derived for Metronidazole under hypoxic conditions. Under atmospheric conditions an increase of the radiation effect by a factor of 1.1 was obtained. The protective factor of hypoxia was 1.6 and thus greater than the radiosensibilization caused by Metronidazole. The DNA synthesis was slightly inhibited by Metronidazole under both hypoxic and euoxic conditions. The studies revealed no significant influence of Metronidazole on radiation-induced changes of the DNA sedimentation behavior and of the DNA repair synthesis as well as on the radiation induced inhibition of semiconservative DNA synthesis. (author)

  12. Captopril Increases Survival after Whole-Body Ionizing Irradiation but Decreases Survival when Combined with Skin-Burn Trauma in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Aminul; Bolduc, David L; Zhai, Min; Kiang, Juliann G; Swift, Joshua M

    2015-09-01

    Past and recent radiation events have involved a high incidence of radiation combined injury where victims often succumb to serious infections as a consequence of bacterial translocation and subsequent sepsis. The risk of infection is exacerbated in radiation combined skin-burn injury (RCI), which increase vulnerability. Furthermore, no suitable countermeasures for radiation combined skin-burn injury have been established. In this study, we evaluated captopril as a potential countermeasure to radiation combined skin-burn injury. Captopril is an FDA-approved angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor that was previously reported to stimulate hematopoietic recovery after exposure to ionizing radiation. Female B6D2F1/J mice were whole-body bilateral (60)Co gamma-photon irradiated (dose rate of 0.4 Gy/min) with 9.5 Gy (LD70/30 for RCI), followed by nonlethal dorsal skin-burn injury under anesthesia (approximately 15% total-body surface-area burn). Mice were provided with acidified drinking water with or without dissolved captopril (0.55 g/l) for 30 days immediately after injury and were administered topical gentamicin (0.1% cream; day 1-10) and oral levofloxacin (90-100 mg/kg; day 3-16). Surviving mice were euthanized on day 30 after analyses of water consumption, body weight and survival. Our data demonstrate that, while treatment with captopril did mitigate mortality induced by radiation injury (RI) alone (55% captopril vs. 80% vehicle; n = 20, P captopril vs. 41% vehicle; n = 22, P captopril administration via drinking water produced an uneven dosage pattern among the different injury groups ranging from 74 ± 5.4 to 115 ± 2.2 mg/kg/day. Captopril treatment also did not counteract the negative alterations in hematology, splenocytes or bone marrow cellularity after either radiation injury or radiation combined skin-burn injury. These data suggest that captopril may exert its actions differently between the two injury models (RI vs. RCI) and that captopril dosing, when

  13. Single administration of p2TA (AB103, a CD28 antagonist peptide, prevents inflammatory and thrombotic reactions and protects against gastrointestinal injury in total-body irradiated mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salida Mirzoeva

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to elucidate the action of the CD28 mimetic peptide p2TA (AB103 that attenuates an excessive inflammatory response in mitigating radiation-induced inflammatory injuries. BALB/c and A/J mice were divided into four groups: Control (C, Peptide (P; 5 mg/kg of p2TA peptide, Radiation (R; total body irradiation with 8 Gy γ-rays, and Radiation + Peptide (RP; irradiation followed by p2TA peptide 24 h later. Gastrointestinal tissue damage was evaluated by analysis of jejunum histopathology and immunohistochemistry for cell proliferation (Cyclin D1 and inflammation (COX-2 markers, as well as the presence of macrophages (F4/80. Pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and KC as well as fibrinogen were quantified in plasma samples obtained from the same mice. Our results demonstrated that administration of p2TA peptide significantly reduced the irradiation-induced increase of IL-6 and fibrinogen in plasma 7 days after exposure. Seven days after total body irradiation with 8 Gy of gamma rays numbers of intestinal crypt cells were reduced and villi were shorter in irradiated animals compared to the controls. The p2TA peptide delivery 24 h after irradiation led to improved morphology of villi and crypts, increased Cyclin D1 expression, decreased COX-2 staining and decreased numbers of macrophages in small intestine of irradiated mice. Our study suggests that attenuation of CD28 signaling is a promising therapeutic approach for mitigation of radiation-induced tissue injury.

  14. The Application of Flow Cytometry to Examine Damage Clearance in Stem Cells From Whole-Body Irradiated Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marples, Brian; Kovalchuk, Olga; McGonagle, Michele; Martinez, Alvaro; Wilson, George, D.

    2010-02-26

    The bone marrow contains many types of cells. Approximately 1-2% of these cells are critical for life, these are the so-called ‘bone marrow stem cells’ which divide indefinitely to produce platelets, red blood cells and white blood cells. Death of the bone marrow stem cells results in a diminished ability of the organism to make new blood cell components and can be fatal without medical intervention, such as a bone marrow transplant. Bone marrow stem cells are considered to be particularly sensitive to radiation injury. Therefore, it is important to understand how these cells response to total body radiation exposure and how these cells can be protected from radiation damage. The aim of this project was to determine if these critical cells in the bone marrow are susceptible to short-term and long-term injury after a whole-body exposure to a sub-lethal low dose of ionizing radiation. The overall aims were to determine if the extent of injury produced by the sub-lethal radiation exposure would be cleared from the stem cells and therefore present no long- term genetic risk to the organism, or if the radiation injury persisted and had an adverse long-term consequences for the cell genome. This research question is of interest in order to define the risks to exposed persons after occupational, accidental or terrorism-related sub-lethal low-dose radiation exposures. The novel aspect of this project was the methodology used to obtain the bone marrow stem cell-like cells and examining the outcomes of sub-lethal low-dose radiation in a mammalian animal model. Four radiation treatments were used: single treatments of 0.01Gy, 0.1 Gy, 1 Gy and ten treatments of 0.1 Gy given over 10 days. Bone marrow stem cell-like cells were then harvested 6 hours, 24 hours and 24 days later. The levels of radiation-induced cell death, damage to DNA and permanent changes to cellular DNA were measured in the isolated stem cell-like cells after each radiation treatment and time point and

  15. Immunity to Trichinella spiralis in irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakelin, D.; Wilson, M.M.

    1980-01-01

    Irradiation prevented the accelerated expulsion of Trichinella spiralis from mice immunized by transfer of immune mesenteric lymph node cells (IMLNC) or by prior infection. Nevertheless, worms in irradiated immune mice were smaller and less fecund than those in controls. In adoptively immunized and irradiated mice expulsion could not be achieved by increasing the numbers of IMLNC transferred, although the effect upon worm length was more severe. Thus IMLNC express a direct, anti-worm immunity which is independent of their role in worm expulsion. IMLNC cause expulsion in irradiated mice only when adequate levels of bone marrow-derived cells are available. The results are discussed in terms of a possible antibody-mediated basis for direct anti-worm immunity. (author)

  16. Biological study on the effect of an anabolic steroidal agent administration pre-exposure to whole body gamma irradiated male mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, S.M.; Eldawy, H.A.E.; Ragab, E.A.

    2002-01-01

    The present study was prepared to evaluate the potency of methoxy dimethylamino phenyl epiandrosterone (an anabolic agent animal in origin with an additive side chain) in a dose of 35 μ/g/kg b.wt in male albino mice as a radio-protective agent pre-exposure to gamma irradiation. This was accomplished through measuring follicular stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and prostaglandin-E 2 (PGE 2 ) and endothelin in plasma of mice. Meanwhile, observations of the chromosomal aberrations and sperm head abnormalities were recorded. The administration of the anabolic agent pre-irradiation resulted in slightly non-significant amelioration in the pituitary hormone levels and in levels of PGE 2 and endothelin

  17. Total body irradiation: what schedule(s)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosset, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    In this article, the author explains why a whole-body irradiation is still an essential step before a bone marrow graft. He presents irradiation protocols for acute myeloid leukemia and chronic myeloid leukemia. 14 refs

  18. Protective effects of a preparation(hemoHIM) of herb mixture on self-renewal tissues and immune system in whole body irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hae-Ran; Oh, Heon; Jo, Sung-Kee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung-Ho [Chonnam National Univ., Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Yee, Sung-Tae [Sunchon National Univ., Sunchon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    A preparation (HemoHIM) of herb mixture was designed to protect the gastrointestine and hematopoietic organs and to promote recovery of the immune system against radiation damage. The mixture of 3 edible medicinal herbs (Angelica gagantis Radix, etc.) was decocted with hot water and the extract was fractionated with ethanol. The preparation HemoHIM was made up with addition of ethanol- insoluble fraction yielded from one half of the total water extract to the other half of the total water extract. In vitro, lymphocytes were protected by HemoHIM, its polysaccharide and ethanol fractions against radiation. The proliferation of lymphocytes and bone marrow cells by HemoHIM was due to its polysaccharide fraction. In mice administered with the preparation (HemoHIM) before gamma- irradiation, the jejunal crypt survival was increased and the apoptosis of crypt cells was decreased. HemoHIM administration increased the survival of bone marrow stem cells and promoted the repopulation of blood cells following irradiation. In the analysis of the repopulated lymphocyte subsets, B cells were firstly regenerated and then T cells were recovered in mice administrated with HemoHIM. The antibody production against T-dependent antigen DNP-KLH was augmented by HemoHIM in irradiated mice. These results indicated that HemoHIM, a preparation of the herb mixture, protected the stem cells of self-renewal tissues and hematopoietic organs and promoted recovery of the immune system against radiation damage. Since the preparation of herb mixture is a relatively nontoxic natural product, it might be a useful modifier for prevention and control of radiation damages.

  19. Biochemical aspects of the immunomodular action in irradiated survival mice with 60C gama irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Agudo, N.L. del M. de.

    1983-01-01

    The radioprotective action of Calmetti-Guerin bacillus (BCG), Corynebacterium parvum, Escherichia coli Lipopolysccharides (LPS) and peptone proteose was evaluated. A single injection of the macrophage activiting agents prior to 60 Co whole-body irradiation increased the survival rate of mice in the lethal dose range. (L.M.J.) [pt

  20. Effect of low frequency low energy pulsing electromagnetic field (PEMF) on X-ray-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadossi, R.; Hentz, V.R.; Kipp, J.

    1989-01-01

    C3H/Km flora-defined mice were used to investigate the effect of exposure to pulsing electromagnetic field (PEMF) after total body x-ray irradiation. Prolonged exposure to PEMF had no effect on normal nonirradiated mice. When mice irradiated with different doses of x-ray (8.5 Gy, 6.8 Gy, and 6.3 Gy) were exposed to PEMF 24 h a day, we observed a more rapid decline in white blood cells (WBC) in the peripheral blood of mice exposed to PEMF at all the x-ray dosages used. No effect of exposure to PEMF was observed on the survival of the mice irradiated with 6.3 Gy and 8.5 Gy; in mice irradiated with 6.8 Gy, 2 out of 12 survived when exposed to PEMF as compared to 10 out of 12 control mice that were irradiated only. At day 4 after irradiation autoradiographic studies performed on bone marrow and spleen of 8.5-Gy-irradiated mice showed no difference between controls and mice exposed to PEMF, whereas on 6.8-Gy mice the bone marrow labeling index was lower in mice exposed to PEMF. In mice irradiated to 6.3 Gy we observed that the recovery of WBC in the peripheral blood was slowed in mice exposed to PEMF and their body weight was significantly lower than in control mice that were irradiated only. The spleen and bone marrow of the mice irradiated to 6.3 Gy and sacrificed at days 4, 14, 20, and 25 after irradiation were analyzed by autoradiography to evaluate the labeling index. Half of the spleens from mice sacrificed at day 25 after irradiation were used to evaluate the RNA content. Autoradiography showed that in the spleen and bone marrow of control mice, there were more cells labeled with [3H]thymidine at days 4 and 14 and less at days 20 and 25 after irradiation in comparison with mice irradiated and exposed to PEMF

  1. Effect of low frequency low energy pulsing electromagnetic field (PEMF) on X-ray-irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadossi, R.; Hentz, V.R.; Kipp, J.; Eiverson, R.; Ceccherelli, G.; Zucchini, P.; Emilia, G.; Torelli, G.; Franceschi, C.; Cossarizza, A.

    1989-02-01

    C3H/Km flora-defined mice were used to investigate the effect of exposure to pulsing electromagnetic field (PEMF) after total body x-ray irradiation. Prolonged exposure to PEMF had no effect on normal nonirradiated mice. When mice irradiated with different doses of x-ray (8.5 Gy, 6.8 Gy, and 6.3 Gy) were exposed to PEMF 24 h a day, we observed a more rapid decline in white blood cells (WBC) in the peripheral blood of mice exposed to PEMF at all the x-ray dosages used. No effect of exposure to PEMF was observed on the survival of the mice irradiated with 6.3 Gy and 8.5 Gy; in mice irradiated with 6.8 Gy, 2 out of 12 survived when exposed to PEMF as compared to 10 out of 12 control mice that were irradiated only. At day 4 after irradiation autoradiographic studies performed on bone marrow and spleen of 8.5-Gy-irradiated mice showed no difference between controls and mice exposed to PEMF, whereas on 6.8-Gy mice the bone marrow labeling index was lower in mice exposed to PEMF. In mice irradiated to 6.3 Gy we observed that the recovery of WBC in the peripheral blood was slowed in mice exposed to PEMF and their body weight was significantly lower than in control mice that were irradiated only. The spleen and bone marrow of the mice irradiated to 6.3 Gy and sacrificed at days 4, 14, 20, and 25 after irradiation were analyzed by autoradiography to evaluate the labeling index. Half of the spleens from mice sacrificed at day 25 after irradiation were used to evaluate the RNA content. Autoradiography showed that in the spleen and bone marrow of control mice, there were more cells labeled with (3H)thymidine at days 4 and 14 and less at days 20 and 25 after irradiation in comparison with mice irradiated and exposed to PEMF.

  2. Effects of feeding lactobacillus GG on lethal irradiation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, M.Y.; Chang, T.W.; Gorbach, S.L.

    1987-01-01

    Mice exposed to 1400 rads of total body irradiation experienced 80%-100% mortality in 2 wk. Bacteremia was demonstrated in all dead animals. Feeding Lactobacillus GG strain reduced Pseudomonas bacteremia and prolonged survival time in animals colonized with this organism. In animals not colonized with Pseudomonas, feeding Lactobacillus GG also produced some reduction in early deaths, and there was less Gram-negative bacteremia in these animals compared with controls

  3. Effects of feeding lactobacillus GG on lethal irradiation in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, M.Y.; Chang, T.W.; Gorbach, S.L.

    1987-05-01

    Mice exposed to 1400 rads of total body irradiation experienced 80%-100% mortality in 2 wk. Bacteremia was demonstrated in all dead animals. Feeding Lactobacillus GG strain reduced Pseudomonas bacteremia and prolonged survival time in animals colonized with this organism. In animals not colonized with Pseudomonas, feeding Lactobacillus GG also produced some reduction in early deaths, and there was less Gram-negative bacteremia in these animals compared with controls.

  4. Recovery and radio-resistance in mice after external irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Guillou, S.

    1965-01-01

    The author presents a literature study concerning recovery from external irradiation and an analysis of experimental data (which appear to suggest the idea of a radio-resistance in animals), as well as the hypotheses put forward for explaining this phenomenon. The author then describes an experiment carried out on mice whose LD 50/30 days increased from 1005 to 1380 rads and for which it was shown that an increase occurs in the number of certain anti-bodies circulating after a low dose of γ irradiation. (author) [fr

  5. Differential susceptibility of C57BL/6NCr and B6.Cg-Ptprca mice to commensal bacteria after whole body irradiation in translational bone marrow transplant studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toubai Tomomi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mouse is an important and widely utilized animal model for bone marrow transplant (BMT translational studies. Here, we document the course of an unexpected increase in mortality of congenic mice that underwent BMT. Methods Thirty five BMTs were analyzed for survival differences utilizing the Log Rank test. Affected animals were evaluated by physical examination, necropsy, histopathology, serology for antibodies to infectious disease, and bacterial cultures. Results Severe bacteremia was identified as the main cause of death. Gastrointestinal (GI damage was observed in histopathology. The bacteremia was most likely caused by the translocation of bacteria from the GI tract and immunosuppression caused by the myeloablative irradiation. Variability in groups of animals affected was caused by increased levels of gamma and X-ray radiation and the differing sensitivity of the two nearly genetically identical mouse strains used in the studies. Conclusion Our retrospective analysis of thirty five murine BMTs performed in three different laboratories, identified C57BL/6NCr (Ly5.1 as being more radiation sensitive than B6.Cg-Ptprca/NCr (Ly5.2. This is the first report documenting a measurable difference in radiation sensitivity and its effects between an inbred strain of mice and its congenic counterpart eventually succumbing to sepsis after BMT.

  6. Elm bark extract improves immunomodulation and ameliorates oxidative stress in irradiated mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Suk Lee

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: Our results indicate that EB extract (50 mg/kg body weight protects against radiation damage, at least in part, by improving immunomodulation and ameliorating oxidative stress in irradiated mice.

  7. Ginsan activated the antioxidant defense systems in irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jie Young; Son, Soo Jung; Ahn, Ji Yeon; Shim, Ji Young; Han, Young Soo; Jung, In Sung; Yun, Yeon Sook [KIRMS Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    Ginsan, a polysaccharide extracted from Panax ginseng, has hematopoietic activity and is also known as a good biological-response modifier. In this investigation, we studied the effects of ginsan on the {gamma}-radiation induced alterations of some antioxidant systems in spleen of Balb/c mice. There are many data that irradiation induces Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), which plays an important causative role in radiation damage of cell. The level of ROS in cells is regulated by enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant systems. The most powerful ones among them are superoxide dismutases (SODs) catalyzing the dismutation of superoxide anion radical o{sub 2} to H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, catalase deactivating h-2O{sub 2} and reduced glutathion (GSH) detoxifying H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and other ROS> At the 5{sub th} day after sublethal whole body irradiation, splenocytes of irradiated mice expressed only marginally increased levels of Mn-SOD, however, Cu/Zn-SOD, catalase, thioredoxine reductase (TR) and thioredoxine (TRX) mRNA (135% increase compared to control), however, the combination of irradiation with ginsan increased the SODs and GPX production more effectively. In addition to the above results, we obtained the similar data of protein expression. The enzyme activities of SOD, catalase, and GPX of ginsan-treated and irradiated mice were significantly enhanced by 140, 115, 126% respectively, compared with those of irradiated mice. Based on these results, we propose that the induction of antioxidant enzymes of ginsan is at least in part due to its capacity to protect against radiation.

  8. Brain fibronectin expression in prenatally irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meznarich, H.K.; McCoy, L.S.; Bale, T.L.; Stiegler, G.L.; Sikov, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    Activation of gene transcription by radiation has been recently demonstrated in vivo. However, little is known on the specificity of these alterations on gene transcription. Prenatal irradiation is a known teratogen that affects the developing mammalian central nervous system (CNS). Altered neuronal migration has been suggested as a mechanism for abnormal development of prenatally irradiated brains. Fibronectin (FN), an extracellular glycoprotein, is essential for neural crest cell migration and neural cell growth. In addition, elevated levels of FN have been found in the extracellular matrix of irradiated lung. To test whether brain FN is affected by radiation, either FN level in insoluble matrix fraction or expression of FN mRNA was examined pre- and postnatally after irradiation. Mice (CD1), at 13 d of gestation (DG), served either as controls or were irradiated with 14 DG, 17 DG, or 5,6, or 14 d postnatal. Brain and liver were collected from offspring and analyzed for either total FN protein levels or relative mRNAs for FN and tubulin. Results of prenatal irradiation on reduction of postnatal brain weight relative to whole are comparable to that reported by others. Insoluble matrix fraction (IMF) per gram of brain, liver, lung, and heart weight was not significantly different either between control and irradiated groups or between postnatal stages, suggesting that radiation did not affect the IMF. However, total amounts of FN in brain IMF at 17 DG were significantly different (p < .02) between normal (1.66 ± 0.80 μg) and irradiated brains (0.58 ± 0.22 μg). FN mRNA was detectable at 13, 14, and 17 DG, but was not detectable at 6 and 14 d postnatal, indicating that FN mRNA is developmentally regulated. 41 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Studies in mice fed a diet containing irradiated fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Three groups of mice were observed in utero and for eighty (80) weeks thereafter to study growth, food consumption, hematology, blood chemistry and survival with particular interest in carcinogenic potential. Group I received only Purina Mouse Chow, Group II received a diet composed of 45% non-irradiated fish and 55% Purina Mouse Chow, and Group III received a diet composed of 45% gamma irradiated fish and 55% Purina Mouse Chow. Differences observed in body weights between control and fish treated diets were due to the incorporation of fish into the diet and not the results of fish being treated with gamma irradiation. Differences observed in food consumption between control and fish treated diets were due to the incorporation of fish into the diet and not the result of fish being treated with gamma irradiation. No daily observations were made which could be attributed to the treatment of fish with gamma irradiation. No observations were made at any time interval for hematology which could be attributed to the treatment of fish with gamma irradiation. No observations were made at any time interval for clinical chemistry which could be attributed to the treatment of fish with gamma irradiation. Palpable mass data did not reveal any trends which could be related to the treatment of fish with gamma irradiation. Gross observations at necropsy were limited to spontaneously occurring lesions or artifacts of necropsy technique commonly associated with animals of this species and age. Organ weight data did not reveal any trends which could be related to the treatment of fish with gamma irradiation. Pathological findings were limited to spontaneously occurring lesions or artifacts of necropsy technique commonly associated with animals of this species and age. (orig.)

  10. Recovery Effect and Life Prolong Effect of Long Term Low-Dose Rate Irradiation on Type II Diabetes Model Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, T.; Makino, N.; Oda, T.; Suzuki, I.; Sakai, K

    2004-01-01

    The effects of low-dose rate gamma-irradiation were investigated on model mice for type II diabetes mellitus, C57BL/KsJ-db/db. The mice develop the type II diabetes by 10 weeks of age due to obesity and are characterized by hyperinsulinemia. Female 10-week old mice, a group of 12 mice, were irradiated at 0.65 mGy/hr from 137-Cs (370 GBq). The urine glucose levels of all of the mice were strongly positive at the beginning of the irradiation. In the irradiated group, the decrease in the glucose level was observed in 3 mice. Such recovery from the diabetes was never observed in 12 mice of non-irradiated control group. There is no systematic difference in the change of body weight, food assumption, and amount of drinking water, between the irradiated group and the non-irradiated group or between the recovered mice and the non-recovered mice. The survival was better in the irradiated group: the surviving fraction at the age of 90 weeks was 75% in the irradiated group, while 40% in the non-irradiated. Marked difference was also observed in the appearance of the coat hair, skin, and tail; better condition was kept in the irradiated group. In the irradiated mice mortality was delayed and the healthy appearance was prolonged in the irradiated mice by about 20 ? 30 weeks compared with the non-irradiated mice. These results suggest that the low-dose irradiation modified the condition of the diabetic mice, which lead not only to the recovery of the diabetes, but also to the suppression of the aging process. (Author)

  11. Radioprotective effects of Cordyceps sinensis extracts on γ-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Beong Gyu; Kim, On Joong; Kim, Jae Young

    1999-01-01

    Effect of single intraperitoneal administration of Cordyceps sinensis (Cs) extract at 24 hour before whole-body γ - irradiation on the survival ratio, body weight, organ weight changes and serum metabolites in the irradiated mice were investigated. The single pre-administration of Cs extract increased the 40-day survival ration of irradiated mice from 66.7 percent to 83.4 percent. The administration of Cs extract completely prevented weight reductions of spleen and thymus produced by γ - irradiation (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). Similar but somewhat less radioprotective effect was also found in the testis of the Cs treated mice. The administration of Cs inhibited the serum hyperglycemia produced by irradiation on the day 7th(P < 0.01). However, it did not influence the serum cholesterol and protein levels on the days examined. The present study is the first report regarding Cs which was tested and found to be radioprotective. (Author)

  12. Radioprotective effects of Cordyceps sinensis extracts on {gamma}-irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Beong Gyu [Wongwang Health Science College, Iri (Korea, Republic of); Kim, On Joong; Kim, Jae Young [Dongguk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-06-01

    Effect of single intraperitoneal administration of Cordyceps sinensis (Cs) extract at 24 hour before whole-body {gamma} - irradiation on the survival ratio, body weight, organ weight changes and serum metabolites in the irradiated mice were investigated. The single pre-administration of Cs extract increased the 40-day survival ration of irradiated mice from 66.7 percent to 83.4 percent. The administration of Cs extract completely prevented weight reductions of spleen and thymus produced by {gamma} - irradiation (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). Similar but somewhat less radioprotective effect was also found in the testis of the Cs treated mice. The administration of Cs inhibited the serum hyperglycemia produced by irradiation on the day 7th(P < 0.01). However, it did not influence the serum cholesterol and protein levels on the days examined. The present study is the first report regarding Cs which was tested and found to be radioprotective. (Author)

  13. Low Dose Total Body Irradiation Combined With Recombinant CD19-Ligand × Soluble TRAIL Fusion Protein is Highly Effective Against Radiation-resistant B-precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih M. Uckun

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In high-risk remission B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BPL patients, relapse rates have remained high post-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT even after the use of very intensive total body irradiation (TBI-based conditioning regimens, especially in patients with a high “minimal residual disease” (MRD burden. New agents capable of killing radiation-resistant BPL cells and selectively augmenting their radiation sensitivity are therefore urgently needed. We report preclinical proof-of-principle that the potency of radiation therapy against BPL can be augmented by combining radiation with recombinant human CD19-Ligand × soluble TRAIL (“CD19L–sTRAIL” fusion protein. CD19L–sTRAIL consistently killed radiation-resistant primary leukemia cells from BPL patients as well as BPL xenograft cells and their leukemia-initiating in vivo clonogenic fraction. Low dose total body irradiation (TBI combined with CD19L–sTRAIL was highly effective against (1 xenografted CD19+ radiochemotherapy-resistant human BPL in NOD/SCID (NS mice challenged with an otherwise invariably fatal dose of xenograft cells derived from relapsed BPL patients as well as (2 radiation-resistant advanced stage CD19+ murine BPL with lymphomatous features in CD22ΔE12xBCR-ABL double transgenic mice. We hypothesize that the incorporation of CD19L–sTRAIL into the pre-transplant TBI regimens of patients with very high-risk BPL will improve their survival outcome after HSCT.

  14. Radioprotection of mice by lactoferrin against irradiation with sublethal X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Yoshikazu; Homma-Takeda, Shino; Kim, Hee-Sun; Kakuta, Izuru

    2014-01-01

    The influence of a host defense protein, lactoferrin (LF), contained in exocrine secretions such as milk, on radiation disorder was investigated. A total of 25 C3H/He mice in each of two groups were maintained with 0.1% LF-added and LF-free diets, respectively, for one month. The mice were then treated with single whole-body X-ray irradiation at a sublethal dose (6.8 Gy), and the survival rate after irradiation was investigated. The survival rate at 30 d after irradiation was relatively higher in the LF group than in the control group (LF-free), (85 and 62%, respectively). The body weight 15 d after X-ray irradiation was also significantly greater in the LF group than in the control group. The hemoglobin level and hematocrit value were higher in the LF group at 5 d before X-ray irradiation. Another 52 mice underwent whole-body X-ray irradiation at the sublethal dose (6.8 Gy), and then LF was intraperitoneally injected once at 4 mg/animal to half of them. The survival rate in LF-treated mice 30 d after irradiation was 92%, significantly higher than in mice treated with saline (50%) (P = 0.0012). In addition, LF showed hydroxyl radical scavenger activity in vitro. These findings suggest that LF may inhibit radiation damage. (author)

  15. Hypolipidemic action of garlic unsaturated oils in irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, N.K.

    1988-01-01

    Adult male Swiss albino mice were injected with 74 KBq g -1 body weight of radiocalcium 45 Ca in the presence and absence of unsaturated oils of garlic, and changes in the total lipids and triglycerides contents of liver were observed at various intervals from 1 to 14 days. The results obtained indic ate that the garlic oils prevented rapid increase in hepatic total lipids and triglycerides induced by radiocalcium and the values reached normal values earlier in garlic-treated than in irradiated animals. Possible mechanism(s) underlying hypolipidemic action of garlic oil have been discussed. (author). 22 refs

  16. Radioprotection of vitamin D on mice injured by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaohui; Zhou Zhengyu; Li Bingyan; Nie Jihua; Tong Jian; Zhang Zengli

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the radioprotective effect of vitamin D against irradiation injury, the mice exposed to 60 Co γ-rays at 6 Gy was treated with preparation of vitamin D(Alfacalcidol Soft Capsules). Cell cycle and apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry (FCM) following staining of cells with propidium iodide (PI). Peripheral blood cell counts were analyzed by autoanalyzer. It has been found that vitamin D significantly increases white blood cell (WBC) counts, decreases bone marrow PEC micronucleus rate. FCM analysis shows that compared with damaged group, G2 and S phases of bone marrow cells in vitamin D protection group increases significantly at 24 h after whole body irradiation, whereas G1 phase cells decrease at the same times. So vitamin D might be a new radioprotection agent and it should be deserved further study. (authors)

  17. Whole-body irradiation technique: physical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venencia, D.; Bustos, S.; Zunino, S.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this work has been to implement a Total body irradiation technique that fulfill the following conditions: simplicity, repeatability, fast and comfortable positioning for the patient, homogeneity of the dose between 10-15 %, short times of treatments and In vivo dosimetric verifications. (Author)

  18. Radioprotective effect of chitosan in sub-lethally X-ray irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Yoshikazu; Ikota, Nobuo; Arima, Hiromi; Watanabe, Yoshito; Yukawa, Masae; Ozawa, Toshihiko [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Kim, Hee-Sun [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Corp., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Radiation Health Research Inst.; Bom, Hee-Seung; Kim, Young-Ho [Chonnam Univ., Kwangju (Korea, Republic of). Hospital

    2003-03-01

    The radioprotective effect of chitosan was studied in mice following whole-body X-ray irradiation. C3H/He mice were exposed to 7 Gy, and their survival rates were examined. The survival rates of chitosan-diet mice were about 20% higher than those of mice on a standard diet, and the rates dropped sharply to a plateau at day 10 after X-ray irradiation. The chitosan-diet mice had an increased weight ratio of spleen to body within the experimental period. The leukocyte, thrombocyte, and erythrocyte counts as well as the hematocrit and hemoglobin levels were recovered significantly and more rapidly in the chitosan-diet mice than the standard-diet mice at day 14 after irradiation. The scavenging abilities of chitosan were evaluated by the electron spin resonance (ESR) spin-trapping method. These observations suggested that chitosan led to hematopoetic activation and leuko-cytogenesis in mice after sub-lethal dose irradiation, and that the biological response might be caused by radical trapping or scavenging. (author)

  19. Protective effect of intermittent fasting on the mortality of gamma-irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozubik, A.; Pospisil, M.

    1982-12-01

    The effect of 1 to 6 weeks' adaptation to intermittent fasting (alternating periods of 24 h fasting and subsequent 24 h feeding) on the manifestations of radioresistance of mice subjected to whole-body gamma-irradiation was studied. A favourable effect of this feeding regimen on the survival of irradiated animals was observed. The optimal redioprotective effect was achieved in mice adapted to intermittent fasting for 2 to 3 weeks and irradiated after 24 h of food intake. Furthermore, it was shown that the radioresistance of the adapted organism depends on the momentary state of food intake. After renewal of the normal ad libitum feeding the adaptively induced radioresistance decreases.

  20. Protective effect of intermittent fasting on the mortality of gamma-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozubik, A.; Pospisil, M.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of 1 to 6 weeks' adaptation to intermittent fasting (alternating periods of 24 h fasting and subsequent 24 h feeding) on the manifestations of radioresistance of mice subjected to whole-body gamma-irradiation was studied. A favourable effect of this feeding regimen on the survival of irradiated animals was observed. The optimal redioprotective effect was achieved in mice adapted to intermittent fasting for 2 to 3 weeks and irradiated after 24 h of food intake. Furthermore, it was shown that the radioresistance of the adapted organism depends on the momentary state of food intake. After renewal of the normal ad libitum feeding the adaptively induced radioresistance decreases. (orig.) [de

  1. Radiation effect on mortality and some body compositions in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shebaita, M.K.; Kamar, G.A.R.; Gaber, H.; Fahmy, M.O.

    1984-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the hypothesis that deposition of fat and or protein in animals body before irradiation or using radio-protector material such as soybean oil may reduce the hazard effects of radiation on life span and body compartments. Therefore,286 mice (144 males and 142 females) after chemical maturity were used in this study. The animals were divided to 4 major groups. The first group was fed on chow diet, the second group was fed on radioprotector diet (basal diet), the third group was fed on high energy diet and the forth group was fed on high protein diet for 7 weeks before the exposure to gamma rays. At the exposure day each nutritional group was divided to 3 exposure treatments (non-irradiated, 800 and 1200 rads). The previous hypothesis was studied for 42 days after irradiation. The data showed that: 1. The male and the female of the chow diet group which were exposed to 800 and 1200 rads died within the first two weeks and the mortality percent in all the nutritional groups increased with increasing the post irradiation days and with increasing the dose level. 2. Feed additives (skim milk or starch) along with soybean oil as the radioprotector prevented the injuries effect of radiation on the life span. This because at 7 weeks after irradiation, the mortality percent was 27-40% in the dietary groups and on mortality was observed in the male basal diet group (Soybean oil) which exposed to 800 rads. 3. There was a correlation between the decrease in body weight and the percent mortality, since increasing the percent weight loss was paralleled with increasing the mortality percent. 4. The reduction in body fat as percent body weight in the male and in the female mice which were exposed to 800 rads were pronounced in the chow diet group rather than in other groups. 5. The radioprotector substance (Soybean oil) reduced the effect of radiation on the fat-free body. 6. The reduction in the fat-free body was mainly due to the reduction in

  2. Prenatal effects of ancestral irradiation in inbred mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprackling, L.E.S.

    1975-01-01

    Mice from 13 inbred strains (S, Z, E, Bab, BaB, BrR, C, K, N, Q, G, CFW, CF1) received continuous cobalt 60 irradiation at low dose rates for varying numbers of consecutive generations. Some Bab and BaB mice had received continuous irradiation for from 24 to 31 generations and the other mice had up to six generations of continuous irradiation in their ancestry. At weaning, the mice were removed from the irradiation room and were mated within strains either to sibs or nonsibs. Ancestral and direct irradiation doses were calculated. The ancestral dose was the effective accumulated dose to the progeny of the mated mice. The direct dose was the amount of irradiation received by any mated female from her conception to her weaning. Each irradiated or control female was scored as fertile or sterile and in utero litter counts were made in pregnant females that were dissected past the tenth day of pregnancy; the sum of moles, dead embryos, and live embryos was the total in utero litter size. A ratio of the living embryos to the total number of embryos in utero was determined for each litter. An increase in ancestral or direct irradiation dose significantly decreased fertility in 11 of the 13 strains. The fertility curves for the pooled data were sigmoid in the area of the doses below those that caused complete sterility. Among the controls, there were significant strain differences in total litter size and in the ratio. Strain X--Y plots, with ancestral or direct doses plotted against total litter size or ratio, revealed the tendency for litter size to decrease as dose increased. The only trend shown for ratio was for the litters with ratios of 0.50 or less to appear more frequently among the irradiated mice. The few corpora lutea counts revealed nothing of significance. Generally, there was a definite trend toward fewer mice alive in utero among the irradiated mice

  3. Effects of irradiation on hydrodynamic injection-mediated gene expression in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Guangming; Bian Shizhong; Hu Bo; Zhang Yinsheng; Zhao Lei; Liu Haiyan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effects of irradiation on hydrodynamic injection-mediated luciferase reporter gene expression in mice and evaluate the gene transfer efficiency using HGT while applied to murine hematopoietic stem cell transplantation model. Methods: The mice were divided into the irradiated group and the non-irradiated group. The PGL3-luc plasmid expressing luciferase reporter gene was injected into mice by a rapid large-volume injection. Six hours after the injection the luciferase substrate was intraperitoneal injected into mice and the initial level of gene expression was detected through in vivo imaging system. The irradiated group mice received nonmyeloablative doses (700c Gy) of total body irradiation (TBI). The level of gene expression in two groups of mice was then monitored by in vivo imaging system in real time at the 12 th, 24 th, 48 th, 72 nd, 96 th, and 120 th h after the hydrodynamic injection. Results: High expression of the transgene delivered via the tail vein was observed in the mouse liver at the sixth hour after injection and the average expression level of (3739 ± 924.8) RLU/ (sec · mg) protein was obtained. The level of transfer gene expression was similar between mice in the irradiated group and those in the non-irradiated group at various time (P>0.05) but fell to a low level three days after gene transfer. Conclusion: The irradiation after the hydrodynamic injection doesn't affect the level of transfer gene expression in mice. This new type of gene transfer methods can be applied to mouse hematopoietic stem cell transplantation model effectively. (authors)

  4. Migration of bone marrow cells to the thymus in sublethally irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varlet, Andree; Lenaerts, Patrick; Houben-Defresne, M.P.; Boniver, Jacques

    1982-01-01

    In sublethally irradiated mice, thymus repopulation is due first to the proliferation of surviving thymocytes followed by the multiplication of bone marrow derived prothymocytes. The migration of bone marrow cells to the thymus after a single sublethal whole-body X irradiation was studied by using fluorescein isothiocyanate as a cell marker. Irradiation increases the permissiveness of the thymus to the immigration of bone marrow cells. Furthermore, the post-Rx regenerating bone marrow cells exhibit migration capacities greater than the normal ones. The radiation induced changes in the bone marrow thymus interaction might play an important role in thymus regeneration after sublethal irradiation [fr

  5. Radioprotective effects of melatonin on carbon-ion and X ray irradiation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Masayoshi; Kawata, Tetsuya; Liu, C.; Sakurai, Akiko; Ito, Hisao; Ando, Koichi

    2004-01-01

    The radioprotective ability of melatonin was investigated in C3H mice irradiated to a whole-body X-ray (150 Kv, 20 mA) and carbon-ion (290 MeV/u). Mice exposed to X-ray, 13 KeV/μm and 50 KeV/μm carbon-ion dose of 7.0-7.5 Gy, 6.5-7.25 Gy and 6.0-6.5 Gy, respectively. One hour before the irradiation, mice were given an intraperitoneal injection of 0.2 ml of either solvent (soybean oil) or melatonin (250 mg/kg, uniform suspension in soybean oil). Mice were observed for mortality over a period of 30 days following irradiation. Results obtained the first year are as follows. The toxicity of melatonin (at a dose 250 mg/kg) intraperitoneal administered to mice could not be observed. A pretreatment of melatonin is effective in protecting mice from lethal damage of low-linear energy transfer (LET) irradiation (X-ray and 13 KeV/μm carbon-ion). In the high-LET irradiated mice with 50 KeV/μm carbon-ion, melatonin exhibited a slight increase in their survival. (author)

  6. Myelopoiesis in whole-body-irradiated beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, A.F.G.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of dose-rate (DR) (either 5.2 or 52 cGy/min.) on the regeneration of bone marrow (BM) myelopoietic progenitor cells was studied in beagles after exposure to whole-body-irradiation (235, 375 and 1500 cGy + autologous BM-transplantation). Myelopoietic progenitor cells were assayed as colony-forming units in agar cultures (GM-CFU), in correlation with the colony-stimulation activity (CSA) in serum. At 235 cGy, the influence of DR on the recovery of GM-CFU was insignificant. However, at 375 cGy, the recovery was critically dependent on the DR. Depletion of GM-CFU numbers elevated CSA levels above pre-irradiation values. The DR determines the regenerative ability when the dose itself is critical to survival of the least number of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) necessary for restitution. (author)

  7. [The effect of new antimicrobial preparations used in combination with complete gnotobiotic isolation on the survivability and intestinal microflora of total-body irradiated mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanchuk, L A; Elizbarashvili, D A; Ginodman, G A; Korshunov, V M

    1991-06-01

    The aim of these investigations was the study of the effect of different antimicrobial preparations on the survival rate and intestinal microflora of mice with experimental acute radiation sickness. These investigations revealed that the survival rate of the animals increased 3.1 times with the use of Supramycin, 2.4 times with the use of Tacef and 1.6 times with the use of Spizef and Pen-bristol. The study of the influence of these preparations on the intestinal microflora revealed that Spizef not only decreased the number of opportunistic microorganisms, but also led to a sharp drop in the level of lactobacteria. The use of Pen-bristol and Tacef led to practically complete elimination of enterobacteria enterococci, staphylococci, as well as lactobacteria. Supramycin essentially suppressed the number of opportunistic microorganisms and did not affect the level of lactobacteria. This was probably the cause of the highest effectiveness of Supramycin in comparison with Tacef, Spizef and Pen-bristol.

  8. Radiation-induced apoptosis in SCID mice spleen after low dose irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, A.; Kondo, N.; Inaba, H.; Uotani, K.; Kiyohara, Y.; Ohnishi, K.; Ohnishi, T.

    To assess the radioadaptive response of the whole body system in mice, we examined the temporal effect of low dose priming as an indicator of challenging irradiation-induced apoptosis through a p53 tumor suppressor protein- mediated signal transduction pathway. The p53 protein also plays an important role both in cell cycle control and DNA repair through cellular signal transduction. Using severe combined immunodeficiency mice defective in DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit, we examined the role of DNA-dependent protein kinase activity in radioadaptation induced by low dose irradiation. Specific pathogen free 5-week-old female severe combined immunodeficiency mice and the parental mice (CB-17 Icr +/ + were irradiated with X-ray at 3.0 C3y at 1, 2, 3 or 4 weeks after the conditioning irradiation at 0.15, 0.30, 0.45 or 0.60 Gy. The mice spleens were fixed for immunohistochemistry 12 h after the challenging irradiation. The p53-dependent apoptosis related Bax proteins on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections were stained by the avidin-biotin peroxidase complex method The apoptosis incidence in the sections was measured by hematoxylin-eosin staining. The frequency of Bax- and apoptosis-positive cells increased up to 12 h after the challenging irradiation in the spleen of both mice. However, these cells were not observed after a low dose irradiation at 0.15-0.60 Gy When pre-irradiation at 0.45 Gy 2 weeks before the challenging irradiation at 3.0 Gy was performed, Bax accumulation and apoptosis induced by challenging irradiation were depressed in the spleens of CB-17 Icr +/ + mice, but not in severe combined immunodeficiency mice. These data suggest that DNA-dependent protein kinase might play a major role in radioadaptation induced by pre-irradiation with a low dose in mice spleen. We expect that the present findings will provide useful information in the health care of space crews.

  9. Diagnosis of partial body radiation exposure in mice using peripheral blood gene expression profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K Meadows

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the event of a terrorist-mediated attack in the United States using radiological or improvised nuclear weapons, it is expected that hundreds of thousands of people could be exposed to life-threatening levels of ionizing radiation. We have recently shown that genome-wide expression analysis of the peripheral blood (PB can generate gene expression profiles that can predict radiation exposure and distinguish the dose level of exposure following total body irradiation (TBI. However, in the event a radiation-mass casualty scenario, many victims will have heterogeneous exposure due to partial shielding and it is unknown whether PB gene expression profiles would be useful in predicting the status of partially irradiated individuals. Here, we identified gene expression profiles in the PB that were characteristic of anterior hemibody-, posterior hemibody- and single limb-irradiation at 0.5 Gy, 2 Gy and 10 Gy in C57Bl6 mice. These PB signatures predicted the radiation status of partially irradiated mice with a high level of accuracy (range 79-100% compared to non-irradiated mice. Interestingly, PB signatures of partial body irradiation were poorly predictive of radiation status by site of injury (range 16-43%, suggesting that the PB molecular response to partial body irradiation was anatomic site specific. Importantly, PB gene signatures generated from TBI-treated mice failed completely to predict the radiation status of partially irradiated animals or non-irradiated controls. These data demonstrate that partial body irradiation, even to a single limb, generates a characteristic PB signature of radiation injury and thus may necessitate the use of multiple signatures, both partial body and total body, to accurately assess the status of an individual exposed to radiation.

  10. Reproductive function in mice exposed to ancestral and direct irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, D.J.; Sprackling, L.S.

    1978-01-01

    Reproduction was studied in 13 inbred strains of mice that had been exposed continuously to 60 Co gamma radiation for varying numbers of generations. At weaning the mice were removed from the irradiation chamber and were tested for reproductive performance. Ancestral and direct levels of irradiation were determined for each animal. Each irradiated or control female was scored as fertile or sterile, and in utero litter counts were made in pregnant females that were dissected past the 10th day of pregnancy. The number of resorptions, dead embryos, and live embryos were counted, and the ratio of living embryos to the total number of embryos was determined for each litter. The overall fertility curves were sigmoid in the range of doses below those which caused complete sterility, which indicated some sort of cumulative damage. In 11 of the 13 strains studied, an increase in ancestral and/or direct irradiation led to significant decreases in fertility. The means of the number alive in the litters for the control and irradiated mice in each strain showed a definite trend toward fewer live mice in utero after irradiation. Least-squares analyses of variance were made to detect possible effects of any of six irradiation variables (ancestral linear, ancestral quadratic, ancestral cubic, direct linear, direct quadratic, or direct cubic) or of strain differences on total litter size and on ratio. Strain effects were significant in each instance. Litter size was more likely to be affected by radiation variables than ratios were

  11. L-carnitine protects against testicular dysfunction caused by gamma irradiation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mohamed Mohamed; Ibrahim, Zein Shaban; Alkafafy, Mohamed; El-Shazly, Samir Ahmed

    2014-07-01

    This study was conducted on mice to evaluate the radioprotective role of L-carnitine against γ-ray irradiation-induced testicular damage. Adult male mice were exposed to whole body irradiation at a total dose of 1 Gy. Radiation exposure was continued 24 h a day (0.1 Gy/day) throughout the 10 days exposure period either in the absence and/or presence of L-carnitine at an i.p. dose of 10 mg/kg body weight/day. Results revealed that γ-rays irradiation suppressed the expression of ABP and CYP450SCC mRNA, whereas treatment with L-carnitine prior and throughout γ-rays irradiation exposure inhibited this suppression. Treatment with γ-ray irradiation or L-carnitine down-regulated expression of aromatase mRNA. With combined treatment, L-carnitine significantly normalized aromatase expression. γ-Ray irradiation up-regulated expression of FasL and Cyclin D2 mRNA, while L-carnitine inhibited these up-regulations. Results also showed that γ-ray-irradiation up-regulated TNF-α, IL1-β and IFN-γ mRNA expressions compared to either controls or the L-carnitine treated group. Moreover, γ-irradiation greatly reduced serum testosterone levels, while L-carnitine, either alone or in combination with irradiation, significantly increased serum testosterone levels compared to controls. In addition, γ-irradiation induced high levels of sperm abnormalities (43%) which were decreased to 12% in the presence of L-carnitine. In parallel with these findings, histological examination showed that γ-irradiation induced severe tubular degenerative changes, which were reduced by L-carnitine pre-treatment. These results clarified the immunostimulatory effects of L-carnitine and its radioprotective role against testicular injury. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Total body irradiation in chronic myeloid leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advani, S.H.; Dinshaw, K.A.; Nair, C.N.; Ramakrishnan, G.

    1983-01-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI), given as 10 rad daily for five days a week for a total dose of 150 rad has been used in an attempt to control the chronic phase of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Thirteen patients with CML received fractionated TBI leading to rapid and good control of WBC count without any adverse reaction. The chronic phase of CML could also be controlled with TBI, even in three patients who were resistant to busulfan. Following TBI, WBC count remained under control for a period of 32 weeks as compared to 40 weeks following vusulfan alone. Repeat TBI was also well tolerated with good response. It appears that TBI is an effective and safe therapy for controlling the chronic phase of CML

  13. Changes in hemopoiesis of dying and surviving mice after fractionated irradiation and repeated bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkadlecek, L.; Viklicka, S.; Hofer, M.; Karpfel, Z.

    1990-01-01

    Mice received doses of 3 Gy of 60 Co-gamma rays total body irradiation at four-day intervals up to a total dose of 24 Gy. After each dose per fraction half of the animals were injected with 10 6 bone marrow cells. At four- and nine-day intervals evaluations were made of the blood count, bone marrow and spleen cellularities, and spleen mass. In animals subjected only to irradiation the damage of hemopoietic organs was becoming deeper until the end of observation; the majority of these mice died by nine days after the irradiation with the last dose per fraction (by 37 days of the experiment). The authors consider anemia as the main cause of their death. All of the mice that were given bone marrow injections survived; nine days after the last dose of irradiation the mean cellularities of their bone marrows and spleens were 76.8% and 112.3% of the unirradiated controls respectively. In general, regeneration of erythropoiesis was quite successful, the number of thrombocytes was positively influenced, and the number of leukocytes nearly unchanged in bone marrow recipients when compared with the only irradiated mice. We observed two periods of maximum and one of minimum bone marrow and spleen regeneration, which were not synchronized. These results deny an unrepairable damage to the hemopoietic microenvironment in conditions of our experiment. This paper follows up with our preceding work describing results of an experiment which ended on day 24. (orig.) [de

  14. Radioprotective effect of cimitidine on acutely irradiated mice survival and hematopoietic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-rong WANG

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the radioprotective effect of cimetidine on survival rate and hematopoietic system in acutely irradiated mice. Methods The total body irradiation doses were 6.0Gy and 8.0Gy respectively at 1.01Gy/min rate. Sixty healthy male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into control group, model group, positive-drug (523 group and cimetidine groups (33.3mg/kg, 100mg/kg and 300mg/kg. Each group had ten mice. The mice were given intragastric administration of cimetidine for 6d before the irradiation in cimetidine groups, and 523 was administered before irradiation once a day for one day in 523 group, and at 5h after irradiation, was given again. The 30d survival rate after 8.0Gy irradiation was recorded. The peripheral blood cells, bone marrow DNA content and frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (fMNPCE were determined 30d after 6.0Gy irradiation. Results After 8.0Gy irradiation, all the mice died on 21th day in model control group. The survival rates in cimetidine groups were 50%, 20% and 30%, respectively. After 6.0Gy irradiation on 30th day, compared with control group, the peripheral white blood cells (WBC and bone marrow DNA content were decreased significantly (P<0.01, P<0.05 in model group, and fMNPCE was increased significantly (P<0.05. Compared with model group, WBC was significantly increased in 300mg/kg cimetidine group (P<0.01. In cimetidine groups, the bone marrow DNA content was increased significantly after irradiation (P<0.01 or P<0.05, and the fMNPCE was decreased significantly (P<0.01 or P<0.05and tended towards normal. Conclusion Cimetidine could improve 30d survival rate of acutely irradiated mice and has good protective effect on hematopoietic system. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.01.12

  15. Safety evaluation of the ethyl acetate extract on irradiated tea parasite: Acute toxicity study on mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendig Winarno

    2011-01-01

    Many studies of the pharmacological efficacy of tea parasite and the use of ionizing radiation for decontamination of microbes and extending shelf life have been reported, but there is no information on its safety, such as the acute toxicity. In this study, the acute toxicity of two ethyl acetate extracts from unirradiated and irradiated (irradiation dose of 10 kGy) tea parasites Scurrula atropurpurea on Swiss Webster mice have been examined. The observation was done after the treatment of a single oral dose of ethyl acetate extract in various dose groups, i.e.: control (0 g/kg of mice body weight), D1 (0.625 g/kg), D2 (1.25 g/kg), D3 (2.5 g/kg) D4 (5 g/kg), D5 (10 g/kg) by observing the effect on behavioral response (pharmacological profile), the body weight gains and mortality until the day 14 th . At the last day, the observation of vital organs has also been done. The result showed that no acute toxicity was found in mice treated with a single oral dose of ethyl acetate extract from unirradiated tea parasite and irradiated tea parasite at the dose of 10 kGy. At the dose up to 10 g/kg (equivalent to 77.6 g of extract which administered to human), the normal body weight gains were observed in mice of all dose groups, no mice deaths in any of the dose groups, and no significant change (p > 0.05) in organ weights relative to the body weight i.e.: liver, spleen, kidneys, lung, heart, testes and seminal vesicle (for male), and ovaries and uterus (for female). The approximate lethal doses for male and female mice were determined to be higher than 10 g/kg of mice body weight. It is suggested that the treatment of ethyl acetate extract from unirradiated and irradiated tea parasites until dose up to 10 g/kg of mice body weight was still safe. (author)

  16. Natural β-carotene and whole body irradiation in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Amotz, A.; Rachmilevich, B.; Greenberg, S.; Sela, M.; Weshler, Z.

    1996-01-01

    β-Carotene and other carotenoids are reported to be potent free radical quenchers, singlet oxygen scavengers, and lipid antioxidants. Whole-body irradiation is known to cause an immunosuppression effect in mammals through the possible initiation and production of reactive oxygen species. We decided to test the possible antioxidative effect against whole-body irradiation of a natural β-carotene, composed of equal amounts of the all-trans and 9-cis isomers, obtained from the unicellular alga Dunaliella bardawil. Rats were fed on ground commercial food enriched with natural β-carotene (50 mg/kg diet). On completion of 1 week with β-carotene, the rats were exposed to a single dose of 4 Gy whole-body irradiation, after which their livers and blood were removed for β-carotene and retinol analysis in comparison with control livers of animals irradiated or not, or supplemented with β-carotene after irradiation. A normal increase in body weight with no ill effects was noted in the groups of rats whose diet was supplemented by β-carotene before and after irradiation, compared with the reduction in the specific growth rate in the group of rats irradiated without β-carotene. Liver β-carotene and retinol decreased significantly after irradiation compared with the rats which were not irradiated. This decrease was not shown in rats fed β-carotene prior to irradiation, and the effect of irradiation was partially cured by supplementation with β-carotene after irradiation. High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the irradiated animals showed a selective decline in 9-cis β-carotene and in retinol over all-trans β-carotene and retinyl esters. These results suggest that 9-cis β-carotene and retinol protect in vivo against the cellular damage by free radicals induced after whole-body irradiation. (orig.). With 1 fig., 2 tabs

  17. Long term low dose rate irradiation causes recovery from type II diabetes and suppression of aging in type II diabetes-prone mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namura, T.; Oda, T.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of low dose rate gamma irradiation on model C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice with Type II diabetes mellitus was investigated. These mice develop Type II diabetes by 10 weeks of age, due to obesity, and are characterized by hyperinsulinemia. A group of 12 female 10-week old mice were irradiated at 0.65 mGy/hr in the low dose rate irradiation facility in the Low Dose Radiation Research Center. The urine glucose levels of all of the mice were strongly positive at the beginning of the irradiation. In the irradiated group, a decrease in the glucose level was observed in three mice, one in the 35th week, another in the 52nd week and the third in the 80th week. No recovery from the diabetes was observed in the 12 mice of non-irradiated control group. There was no systematic change of body weight or consumption of food and drinking water between the irradiated group and the non-irradiated group or between the recovered mice and the non-recovered mice. Survival was better in the irradiated group. The surviving fraction at the age of 90 weeks was 75 % in the irradiated group but only 40 % in the non-irradiated. A marked difference was also observed in the appearance of the coat hair, skin and tail. The irradiated group was in much better condition. Mortality was delayed and the healthy appearance was prolonged in the irradiated mice by about 20-30 weeks compared with the control mice. These results suggest that the low dose irradiation modified the condition of the diabetic mice, leading not only to recovery from diabetes, but also to suppression of the aging process

  18. Changes in lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase in serum of mice after x-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamori, Yasuhiko

    1974-01-01

    Changes in the activities of LDH and alkaline phosphatase in the serum of mice were investigated in detail from the 2nd day to the 30th day after whole-body X-irradiation of 400 R, a dose which produces 13%, 30-day-mortality. Serum LDH levels were significantly decreased during the first 6 days after irradiation, but subsequently returned to a normal range by the 14th day. Serum alkaline phosphatase levels were decreased to a minimum on the 12th day. They returned gradually to a level slightly below control level by the 22nd day. Serum LDH and alkaline phosphatase levels seem to be good indicators of radiation injury in mice during the 2-3 weeks after irradiation, even if they have been exposed to a sublethal dose. (auth.)

  19. Total body irradiation: technical and clinical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkacemi, Y.; Touboul, E.; Rio, B.

    1999-01-01

    Total-body irradiation (TBI) has an established role in many preparative regimens used before marrow transplantation (BMT) in the treatment of hematological malignancies in children and adults. Better choice in TBI techniques and dosimetry have permitted better homogeneity of dose, and therefore a significant sparing of critical tissues. Advances in treatments over the past 20 years have greatly improved survival; therefore, the evaluation of early and late complications with a sufficient follow-up, according to different conditioning regimens is important. In this article, we review and compare different TBI techniques and dosimetry, and their influence on the distribution and homogeneity of dose, and the possible relationship to the risk of complications. We also describe the acute and late effects of TBI in children and adults appearing in the first month post-BMT as veno-occlusive disease, interstitial pneumonitis, or after 3 months, i.e., endocrinal late effects and growth in children, cataracts, neurological and bone or other complications, secondary tumors and alteration in the quality of life. The responsibility of TBI in the increased rate of certain complications is difficult to assess from chemotherapy or allograft side effects (chronic graft vs. host disease) or from other associated medical treatments, such as long term steroid therapy. (authors)

  20. Total body irradiation: current indications; L`irradiation corporelle totale: les indications actuelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giraud, P.; Danhier, S.; Dubray, B.; Cosset, J.M. [Institut Curie, 75 - Paris (France)

    1998-05-01

    The choice of dose and fractionation for total body irradiation is made difficult by the large number of considerations to be taken into account. The outcome of bone marrow transplantation after total body irradiation can be understood in terms of tumor cell killing, engraftment, and normal tissue damage, each of these endpoints being influenced by irradiation-, disease-, transplant-, and patient- related factors. Interpretation of clinical data is further hampered by the overwhelming influence of logistic constraints, the small numbers of randomized studies, and the concomitant variations in total dose and fraction size or dose rate. So far, three cautious conclusions can be drawn in order to tentatively adapt the total body irradiation schedule to clinically-relevant situations. Firstly, the organs at risk for normal tissue damage (lung, liver, lens, kidney) are protected by delivering small doses per fraction at low dose rate. This suggests that, when toxicity is at stake (e.g. in children), fractionated irradiation should be preferred, provided that inter-fraction intervals are long enough. Secondly, fractionated irradiation should be avoided in case of T-cell depleted transplant, given the high risk of graft rejection in this setting. An alternative would be to increase total (or fractional) dose of fractionated total body irradiation, but this approach is likely to induce more normal tissue toxicity. Thirdly, clinical data have shown higher relapse rates in chronic myeloid leukemia after fractionated or low dose rate total body irradiation, suggesting that fractionated irradiation should not be recommended, unless total (or fractional) dose is increased. Total body irradiation-containing regimens, primarily cyclophosphamide / total body irradiation, are either equivalent to or better than the chemotherapy-only regimens, primarily busulfan / cyclophosphamide. Busulfan / cyclophosphamide certainly represents a reasonable alternative, especially in patients who

  1. The influence of Listeria monocytogenes cells on the primary immunologic response in irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borowski, J.; Jokoniuk, P.

    1977-01-01

    The influence of killed Listeria monocytogenes cells on the primary immunologic response in mice irradiated with 300 or 500 R was studied. The immunologic response of the mice to sheep red blood cells used as antigen was assessed at the cellular level (by counting PFC) and humoral level. Injection of killed Listeria monocytogenes cells before irradiation of the mice diminished the immunosuppressive effect of roentgen radiation. Injection of the cells after irradiation accelerated regeneration of immunologic reactivity in the irradiated mice. (author)

  2. Radioprotection conferred by dextran sulfate given before irradiation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, W.M.; Peeke, J.

    1986-01-01

    Dextran sulfate (DS) has been observed to cause mobilization (fivefold) of hemopoietic stem cells (HSC) and leukocytes, primarily lymphocytes, into the peripheral blood of mice within 2-3 h after intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. This effect was dose dependent and was prolonged for several hours when the high-molecular-weight version DS500 (500,000 daltons) was used. When DS500 was given 1-3 days before irradiation, hemopoietic recovery was markedly enhanced. Postirradiation injection was ineffective. By ten days after irradiation (7.0 Gy), the number of endogenous spleen colonies (CFUs) and the splenic mass were much larger if DS pretreatment had been given. This effect was dependent on the dose of DS500 and on the time administered, 60 mg/kg producing a maximal effect when given three days before irradiation. DS500 caused a transient anaphylactoid shock, however, in most mice--mild at low doses but potentially lethal at doses above 40 mg/kg (10% mortality within 1-3 days after 60 mg/kg). The following results were obtained with 50 mg/kg, a compromise dose causing minimal mortality (3%) given three days before irradiation. Reticulocyte reappearance was earlier in irradiated mice given DS500, indicating earlier erythropoietic recovery. Some of these reticulocytes were resistant to lysing agents, so their appearance could be detected using the Coulter electronic cell counter, as well as in stained blood smears. The 30-day mortality due to bone marrow failure after irradiation was significantly decreased in DS-treated mice below 9.5 Gy, and the LD50/30 was increased by 0.5 Gy. This study shows that dextran sulfate exerts a radioprotective influence on the hemopoietic system and hence survival when administered prophylactically

  3. Proton irradiation of malignant melanoma of the ciliary body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gragoudas, E.S.; Goitein, M.; Koehler, A.; Wagner, M.S.; Verhey, L.; Tepper, J.; Suit, H.D.; Schneider, R.J.; Johnson, K.N.

    1979-01-01

    This is the first case of malignant melanoma of the ciliary body treated by the authors with proton beam irradiation, a technique that they developed for irradiating choroidal melanomas. After 21 months of follow-up no growth of the tumour has been observed, and shrinkage of the tumour was noted on the follow-up photographs and by ultrasonography. The 32 Pu uptake test, which was positive before treatment, turned negative 14 months after irradiation. The described technique of proton beam irradiation might offer an alternative for the treatment of ciliary body melanomas when the present technique of iridocyclectomy cannot be applied because of the size of the lesion. (author)

  4. A radiomodifying effect of acute hypoxia on neutron-irradiated mice and dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sverdlov, A.G.; Kalmykova, G.I.; Timoshenko, S.I.; Nikanorova, N.G.

    1986-01-01

    Anoxia increased the survival of neutron irradiated mice with DMF=1.66. As to haemopoietic stem cells neutron irradiated in vivo, DMF was 1.8. With X-irradiation DMF was 2.49 and 2.94, respectively. Anoxia decreased the damage of the intestinal mucous membrane after a whole-body neutron irradiation with a dose 3.0 Gy. A protective effect of acute hypoxia was demonstrated on dogs exposed to fast neutrons (4.0 Gy). Breathing of 10% gas hypoxic mixture protected more than half of the exposed animals from death and provided the development of a light form of radiation sickness instead on a serious one. (orig.) [de

  5. Cytogenetic analysis of thymocytes during early stages after irradiation in mice with different susceptibilities to radiation-induced lymphomagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Ying; Kubo, Eiko; Sado, Toshihiko; Muto, Masahiro.

    1996-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between radiation-induced chromosomal instability and lymphomagenesis, the incidences of chromosome aberrations and of cells with abnormal chromosome complements in the thymuses of B10. Thy 1.1 and STS/A strains which have shown marked differences in susceptibility to radiation-induced lymphomagenesis were compared at an early time (12-33 days) after whole-body X-irradiation (1.61 Gy X 4). Numerical and structural aberrations of chromosome in B10. Thy 1.1 mice were higher than those in STS/A mice. The average incidence of trisomy 15 was 37.5% (12/32 mice) from 12 days to 32 days after irradiation in B10. Thy 1.1 mice, whereas none was found (0/38 mice) in STS/A mice. Frequencies of aberrations in chromosomes 11, 12, 15 of the thymocytes from irradiated B10. Thy 1.1 mice were higher than those from irradiated STS/A mice, and especially, the most frequent translocations occurred in the E-F regions of chromosome 12. Using B10. Thy 1 congenic mice, we found that in many cases (8/13), the chromosome aberrations detected in the thymocytes from B10. Thy 1.1 mice at an early time after irradiation could also be observed in the donor-type (Thy 1.1) lymphomas developed from recipient mice 4-5 months after intrathymic injection, suggesting that these chromosome aberrations have some role in lymphomagenesis. The difference of chromosome instability detected at an early time after irradiation might be due to genetic background with regard to genomic instability induced by radiation. (author)

  6. The protective effect of Sambucus ebulus against lung toxicity induced by gamma irradiation in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Karami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to investigate the potential antioxidant and lung protective activities of Sambucus ebulus (SE against toxicity induced by gamma irradiation. Hydroalcoholic extract of SE (20, 50 and 100 mg/kg was studied for its lung protective activity. Phenol and flavonoid contents of SE were determined. Male C57 mice were divided into ten groups with five mice per group. Only the first and second groups (as negative control received intraperitoneally normal saline fluid. Groups 3 to 5 received only SE extract at doses of 20 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg intraperitoneally; three groups were repeatedly injected for 15 days as chronic group. Groups 6 to 8 received a single-dose of gamma irradiation just 2 hours before irradiation as acute group. The ninth and tenth groups (as positive control received only gamma rays. Animal was exposed whole-body to 6 Gy gamma radiation. After irradiation, tissue sections of lung parenchyma were examined by light microscope for any histopathologic changes. SE at doses 50 and 100 mg/kg improved markedly histopathological changes induced by gamma irradiation in lung. Lung protective effect of SE could be due to attention of lipid peroxidation. Our study demonstrated that SE as a natural product has a protective effect against lung toxicity induced by   gamma irradiation in animal.

  7. Effect of K, Mg salts of aspartic acid on neuromuscular activity of mice following chronic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chlebovsky, O.; Chlebovska, K.; Praslicka, M.; Petrovicova, J.

    1982-01-01

    Female mice were irradiated with gamma radiation at dose rates of 2.3 Gy/day to a total dose of 16.1 Gy. In the drinking water they were given K and Mg salts of aspartic acid. The survival of mice was observed and their weight changes and viability using the test of neuromuscular coordination. At day 30 after irradiation, 89.5% of mice protected with aspartates as against 57.9% of mice unprotected and 100% of non-irradiated mice survived. The physical weight of the protected mice returned to normal by day 15 after irradiation; in unprotected mice at day 30. As concerns the viability test the protected mice were equally successful as non-irradiated, irradiated mice were less successful. (M.D.)

  8. Effect of Hippophae leaves on neurotransmitters and hematological parameters in whole body irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Vanita; Prasad, Jagdish; Madhu Bala

    2012-01-01

    Till date no approved radio-protective agent is available world over. WR-2721 had severe side effects and was behaviourally toxic even at sub-lethal doses of ionizing radiation. Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) is known for its nutraceutical and therapeutic values. Our studies demonstrated that treatment with leaves of H. rhamnoides rendered > 90% whole body radioprotection in 60 Co-g-irradiated (10 Gy) mice population in comparison to 100% death in non-Hippophae treated irradiated (10 Gy) mice population. Our studies also demonstrated that treatment with leaves of H. rhamnoides prevented conditioned taste aversion (CTA) in irradiated (2 Gy) Sprague-Dawley rats. The present study was planned to evaluate the effects of aqueous extract of Hippophae leaves on changes in levels of neurotransmitters ((acetylcholine esterase (AChE) and dopamine (DA)) in plasma and brain, haematological parameters in blood/plasma; and brain histology in Sprague-Dawley rats showing CTA after 60 Co-g-irradiation (2 Gy). The results showed that whole body 60 Co-g-irradiation (2 Gy) (i) increased the levels of Ach, Eepinephrine (E) and norepinephrine (NE); oxidative stress (MDA and NO), and (ii) decreased the levels of DA; WBC counts and RBC counts and antioxidants (GSH), in comparison to untreated control. Treatment with 12 mg/kg b.w. drug concentration, prior to irradiation significantly (p<0.05) (i) decreased the levels of AChE, E and NE, and MDA and NO levels in plasma and brain, and (ii) increased the WBC counts; RBC counts and levels of antioxidants (GSH), in comparison to radiation control group. Histological changes in brain were also recorded. The results demonstrated that Hippophae leaves extract had neuro-protective and reduced oxidative stress in brain of whole body irradiated mice and could be, thereby contributing to behavioural protection. (author)

  9. Body composition changes following the supplementation of different food additives to irradiated animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahmy, M.O.

    1980-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the hypothesis that deposition of fat and / or protein in animal's body before irradiation or using radio - protector material such as soyabean oil may reduce the hazard effects of radiation on life span, body weight and body compartments. Therefore, 286 mice ( 144 males and 142 females) after chemical maturity were used in this study. The animals were divided to 4 major groups. The first group was fed on chow diet, the second group was fed on radioprotector diet ( basel diet), the third group was fed on high energy diet and the forth group fed on high protein diet, for 7 weeks before the exposure to gamma-rays. At the exposure day each nutritional group was divided to 3 exposure treatments ( non-irradiated, 800 and 1200 rads). The previous hypothesis was studied for 42 days after irradiation

  10. Effects of low dose rate irradiation on induction of myeloid leukemia in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuse, Takeshi

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the induction of myeloid leukemia and other kinds of neoplasias in C3H male mice irradiated at several dose rate levels. We compared the incidence of neoplasias among these groups, obtained dose and dose rate effectiveness factors (DDREF) for myeloid leukemia. C3H/He male mice were exposed to whole body gamma-ray irradiation at 8 weeks of age. All mice were maintained for their entire life span and teh pathologically examined after their death. Radiation at a high dose-rate of 882 mGy/min (group H), a medium dose-rate of 95.6 mGy/min (group M), and low dose-rates of 0.298 mGy/min (group L-A), 0.067 mGy/min (group L-B) or 0.016 mGy/min (group L-C) were delivered from 137 Cs sources. The mice in group L were irradiated continuously for 22 hours daily up to total doses of 1, 2, 3, 4, 10 Gy over a period of 3 days to 200 days. As for the induction of neoplasias, myeloid leukemia developed significantly more frequently in irradiated groups than in unirradiated groups. The time distribution of mice dying from myeloid leukemia did not show a difference between groups H and L. The incidence of myeloid leukemia showed a greater increase in the high dose-rate groups than in the low and medium dose-rate groups in the dose range over 2 Gy, it also showed significant increases in the groups irradiated with 1 Gy of various dose rate, but the difference between these groups was not clear. These dose effect curves had their highest values on each curve at about 3 Gy. We obtained DDREF values of 2-3 by linear fittings for their dose response curves of dose ranges in which leukemia incidences were increasing. (author)

  11. Treatment of mice with sepsis following irradiation and trauma with antibiotics and synthetic trehalose dicorynomycolate (S-TDCM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madonna, G.S.; Ledney, G.D.; Moore, M.M.; Elliott, T.B.; Brook, I.

    1991-01-01

    Compromise of antimicrobial defenses by irradiation can result in sepsis and death. Additional trauma can further predispose patients to infection and thus increase mortality. We recently showed that injection of synthetic trehalose dicorynomycolate (S-TDCM) significantly augments resistance to infection and increases survival of mice compromised either by whole-body irradiation with gamma radiation or equal mixtures of fission neutron and gamma radiation. In this study, C3H/HeN mice were given a lethal dose of gamma radiation (8.0 Gy) and an open wound (15% total body surface area [TBSA]) 1 hr later while anesthetized. Irradiated/wounded mice became more severely leukopenic and thrombocytopenic than mice exposed to radiation alone, and died from natural wound infection and sepsis within 7 days. S-TDCM given 1 hr postirradiation increased survival of mice exposed to radiation alone. However, this treatment did not increase survival of the irradiated/wounded mice. Systemic antibiotic therapy with gentamicin or ofloxacin for 10 days significantly increased survival time compared with untreated irradiated/wounded mice (p less than 0.01). Combination therapy with topical gentamicin cream and systemic oxacillin increased survival from 0% to 100%. Treatment with S-TDCM combined with the suboptimal treatment of topical and systemic gentamicin increased survival compared with antibiotic treatment alone. These studies demonstrate that post-trauma therapy with S-TDCM and antibiotics augments resistance to infection in immunocompromised mice. The data suggest that therapies which combine stimulation of nonspecific host defense mechanisms with antibiotics may increase survival of irradiated patients inflicted with accidental or surgical trauma

  12. Radioprotective effect of Ganoderma lucidum (Leyss. ex. Fr.) Karst after X-ray irradiation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, H.Y.; Lian, S.L.; Lin, C.C.

    1990-01-01

    Six to seven week old male mice of ICR strain were exposed to 500 or 650 cGy of X-ray during experiments to determine if Ganoderma lucidum could be a factor in modification of radiation damage. Continuous intraperitoneal injection of the extract from Ganoderma lucidum before or after irradiation of 500 and 650 cGy of X-ray was found to improve the 30-day survival fractions of ICR mice, but wasn't significant by statistical analysis. The administration also enhanced the recoveries of the body weights and increased the recovery of hemograms of irradiated mice from radiation damage by injecting before or after radiation exposure, especially for the treatment of 500 cGy irradiation. The 10-day CFUs was significantly higher for Ganoderma lucidum treated groups than for untreated groups. However, the differences of radioprotective effect between the X-ray irradiated groups with Ganoderma lucidum pretreated and post-treated were not significant (p greater than 0.05)

  13. Radioprotective effect of Ganoderma lucidum (Leyss. ex. Fr. ) Karst after X-ray irradiation in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, H.Y.; Lian, S.L.; Lin, C.C. (Kaohsiung Medical College (Taiwan))

    1990-01-01

    Six to seven week old male mice of ICR strain were exposed to 500 or 650 cGy of X-ray during experiments to determine if Ganoderma lucidum could be a factor in modification of radiation damage. Continuous intraperitoneal injection of the extract from Ganoderma lucidum before or after irradiation of 500 and 650 cGy of X-ray was found to improve the 30-day survival fractions of ICR mice, but wasn't significant by statistical analysis. The administration also enhanced the recoveries of the body weights and increased the recovery of hemograms of irradiated mice from radiation damage by injecting before or after radiation exposure, especially for the treatment of 500 cGy irradiation. The 10-day CFUs was significantly higher for Ganoderma lucidum treated groups than for untreated groups. However, the differences of radioprotective effect between the X-ray irradiated groups with Ganoderma lucidum pretreated and post-treated were not significant (p greater than 0.05).

  14. Effect of whole body irradiation on different tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casati, V.; Nardino, A.; Tomassi, I.; Becciolini, A.; Rizzi, M.; Martelli, T.

    1979-01-01

    The uptake and elimination of 14 C leucine were analysed in controls and in rats irradiated 2 h before injection with 8 Gy whole-body irradiation. Plasma, small intestine, kidney and skin were assayed after homogenization for TCA soluble and insoluble activity curves. In highly differentiated tissues with poor proliferative activity and low protein turnover, the uptake and elimination of the tracer did not appear to be affected by irradiation. In the small intestine differences between control and irradiated animals seemed significant. (Auth.)

  15. The early effects in the brain after irradiation with carbon ions using mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takai, Nobuhiko; Nakamura, Saori; Ohba, Yoshihito; Uzawa, Akiko; Furusawa, Yoshiya; Koike, Sachiko; Matsumoto, Yoshitaka; Hirayama, Ryoichi

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated both early and late effects in the brain after irradiation with carbon ions using mice. The irradiation dose was set at level known to produce vascular change followed by necrosis, which appeared the late period after irradiation with 30 Gy. The whole of brain was irradiated, excluding eyes and brain stem. The mice irradiated with single dose of 30 Gy showed deficit in short-term working memory assessed at 36 hr after irradiation, whereas mice receiving carbon irradiation showed no deficit in long-term reference memory. At 16 weeks after irradiation, the irradiated mice showed marked learning impairment compared with age-matched controls and the irradiated mice showed substantial impairment of working memory. Histopathological observation revealed no abnormal finding in the irradiated brain at 36 hr after irradiation, although irradiated mice showed marked neuronal degeneration at the hippocampus within CA1 to CA3 layers at 16 weeks after irradiation. In the irradiated group, neuronal cells in the hippocampal CA1-3 areas were reduced by 30-49%. These results suggest that although irradiation-induced hippocampal degeneration is associated with learning disability, cognitive deficits may also be detected on the early stage, not associated with hippocampal degeneration. (author)

  16. The effects of gut commensal bacteria depletion on mice exposed to acute lethal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Bing; Xu Zhiwei; Zhang Chenggang

    2007-01-01

    The prevention and management of bacterial infection are the mainstays of therapies for irradiation victims. However, worries about adverse effects arise from gut commensal flora depletion owing to the broad-spectrum antibiotics treatment. In the present study, we investigated the effects of gut bacteria depletion on the mice receiving total-body irradiation (TBI) at a single dose of 12 Gy. One group of mice was merely exposed to TBI but was free of antibiotic treatment throughout the experiment, while the other two groups of mice were additionally given broad-spectrum antibiotics, either from 2 weeks before or immediately after irradiation. The survival time of each animal in each group was recorded for analysis. Results showed that the mean survival time of mice was longest in the group without antibiotic treatment and shortest in the group treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics from 2 weeks before TBI. In conclusion, our data suggested that depletion of gut commensal bacteria with broad-spectrum antibiotics seemed deleterious for mammals receiving lethal TBI. (author)

  17. Enhancement of committed hematopoietic stem cell colony formation by nandrolone decanoate after sublethal whole body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallicchio, V.S.; Chen, M.G.; Watts, T.D.

    1984-01-01

    The ability of an anabolic steroid, nandrolone decanoate, to increase committed topoietic stem cell (CFU-gm, CFU-e, and BFU-e) colony formation after sublethal irradiation was evaluated. Immediately after receiving whole body irradiation and on the next two days, each mouse was injected intraperitoneally with nandrolone decanoate (1.25 mg) in propylene glycol. Irradiated control mice received only propylene glycol. Compared to controls, drug-treated mice showed marked peripheral blood leukocytosis and more stable packed red cell volume. Drug-treated mice also demonstrated increased erythropoiesis, as CFU-e/BFU-e concentrations from both marrow (9% to 581%) and spleen (15% to 797%) were elevated. Granulopoiesis was increased similarly, as CFU-gm concentrations from marrow (38% to 685%) and spleen (9% to 373%) were elevated. These results demonstrate that nandrolone decanoate enhances hematopoietic stem cell recovery after sublethal whole body irradiation. This suggests that following hematopoietic suppression, nandrolone decanoate may stimulate the recovery of hematopoiesis at the stem cell level and in peripheral blood

  18. Enhancement of committed hematopoietic stem cell colony formation by nandrolone decanoate after sublethal whole body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallicchio, V.S.; Chen, M.G.; Watts, T.D.

    1984-11-01

    The ability of an anabolic steroid, nandrolone decanoate, to increase committed topoietic stem cell (CFU-gm, CFU-e, and BFU-e) colony formation after sublethal irradiation was evaluated. Immediately after receiving whole body irradiation and on the next two days, each mouse was injected intraperitoneally with nandrolone decanoate (1.25 mg) in propylene glycol. Irradiated control mice received only propylene glycol. Compared to controls, drug-treated mice showed marked peripheral blood leukocytosis and more stable packed red cell volume. Drug-treated mice also demonstrated increased erythropoiesis, as CFU-e/BFU-e concentrations from both marrow (9% to 581%) and spleen (15% to 797%) were elevated. Granulopoiesis was increased similarly, as CFU-gm concentrations from marrow (38% to 685%) and spleen (9% to 373%) were elevated. These results demonstrate that nandrolone decanoate enhances hematopoietic stem cell recovery after sublethal whole body irradiation. This suggests that following hematopoietic suppression, nandrolone decanoate may stimulate the recovery of hematopoiesis at the stem cell level and in peripheral blood.

  19. Transcriptome profiling of mice testes following low dose irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belling, Kirstine C.; Tanaka, Masami; Dalgaard, Marlene Danner

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy is used routinely to treat testicular cancer. Testicular cells vary in radio-sensitivity and the aim of this study was to investigate cellular and molecular changes caused by low dose irradiation of mice testis and to identify transcripts from different cell types...... in the adult testis. METHODS: Transcriptome profiling was performed on total RNA from testes sampled at various time points (n = 17) after 1 Gy of irradiation. Transcripts displaying large overall expression changes during the time series, but small expression changes between neighbouring time points were...... selected for further analysis. These transcripts were separated into clusters and their cellular origin was determined. Immunohistochemistry and in silico quantification was further used to study cellular changes post-irradiation (pi). RESULTS: We identified a subset of transcripts (n = 988) where changes...

  20. Effects of genistein following fractionated lung irradiation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Para, Andrea E.; Bezjak, Andrea; Yeung, Ivan W.T.; Van Dyk, Jake; Hill, Richard P.

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: This study investigated protection of lung injury by genistein following fractionated doses of radiation and its effect on tumor response. Material and methods: C3H/HeJ mice were irradiated (100 kVp X-rays) with 9 fractions of 3.1 Gy over 30 days (approximately equivalent to 10 Gy single dose) and were maintained on a genistein diet (∼10 mg/kg). Damage was assessed over 28 weeks in lung cells by a cytokinesis block micronucleus (MN) assay and by changes in breathing rate and histology. Tumor protection was assessed using a colony assay to determine cell survival following in situ irradiation of small lung nodules (KHT fibrosarcoma). Results: Genistein caused about a 50% reduction in the MN damage observed during the fractionated radiation treatment and this damage continued to decrease at later times to background levels by 16 weeks. In mice not receiving Genistein MN levels remained well above background out to 28 weeks after irradiation. Genistein reduced macrophage accumulation by 22% and reduced collagen deposition by 28%. There was minimal protection against increases in breathing rate or severe morbidity during pneumonitis. No tumor protection by genistein treatment was observed. Conclusions: Genistein at the dose levels used in this study partially reduced the extent of fibrosis developing in mouse lung caused by irradiation but gave minimal protection against pneumonitis. There was no evidence that genistein caused protection of small tumors growing in the lung.

  1. Mechanisms of an increased level of serum iron in gamma-irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Li-hua; Zhang, Xiao-hong; Hu, Xiao-dan; Min, Xuan-yu [Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Nanjing (China); Zhou, Qi-fu [Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Nanjing (China); Nuclear and Radiation Safety Center, Beijing (China); Zhang, Hai-qian [Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Nanjing (China); Southeast University, Jiangsu Laboratory for Biomaterials and Devices, Nanjing (China)

    2016-03-15

    The potential mechanisms underlying the increase in serum iron concentration in gamma-irradiated mice were studied. The gamma irradiation dose used was 4 Gy, and cobalt-60 ({sup 60}Co) source was used for the irradiation. The dose rate was 0.25 Gy/min. In the serum of irradiated mice, the concentration of ferrous ions decreased, whereas the serum iron concentration increased. The concentration of ferrous ions in irradiated mice returned to normal at 21 day post-exposure. The concentration of reactive oxygen species in irradiated mice increased immediately following irradiation but returned to normal at 7 day post-exposure. Serum iron concentration in gamma-irradiated mice that were pretreated with reduced glutathione was significant lower (p < 0.01) than that in mice exposed to gamma radiation only. However, the serum iron concentration was still higher than that in normal mice (p < 0.01). This change was biphasic, characterized by a maximal decrease phase occurring immediately after gamma irradiation (relative to the irradiated mice) and a recovery plateau observed during the 7th and 21st day post-irradiation, but serum iron recovery was still less than that in the gamma-irradiated mice (4 Gy). In gamma-irradiated mice, ceruloplasmin activity increased and serum copper concentration decreased immediately after irradiation, and both of them were constant during the 7th and 21st day post-irradiation. It was concluded that ferrous ions in irradiated mice were oxidized to ferric ions by ionizing radiation. Free radicals induced by gamma radiation and ceruloplasmin mutually participated in this oxidation process. The ferroxidase effect of ceruloplasmin was achieved by transfer of electrons from ferrous ions to cupric ions. (orig.)

  2. Mechanisms of an increased level of serum iron in gamma-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Li-hua; Zhang, Xiao-hong; Hu, Xiao-dan; Min, Xuan-yu; Zhou, Qi-fu; Zhang, Hai-qian

    2016-01-01

    The potential mechanisms underlying the increase in serum iron concentration in gamma-irradiated mice were studied. The gamma irradiation dose used was 4 Gy, and cobalt-60 ( 60 Co) source was used for the irradiation. The dose rate was 0.25 Gy/min. In the serum of irradiated mice, the concentration of ferrous ions decreased, whereas the serum iron concentration increased. The concentration of ferrous ions in irradiated mice returned to normal at 21 day post-exposure. The concentration of reactive oxygen species in irradiated mice increased immediately following irradiation but returned to normal at 7 day post-exposure. Serum iron concentration in gamma-irradiated mice that were pretreated with reduced glutathione was significant lower (p < 0.01) than that in mice exposed to gamma radiation only. However, the serum iron concentration was still higher than that in normal mice (p < 0.01). This change was biphasic, characterized by a maximal decrease phase occurring immediately after gamma irradiation (relative to the irradiated mice) and a recovery plateau observed during the 7th and 21st day post-irradiation, but serum iron recovery was still less than that in the gamma-irradiated mice (4 Gy). In gamma-irradiated mice, ceruloplasmin activity increased and serum copper concentration decreased immediately after irradiation, and both of them were constant during the 7th and 21st day post-irradiation. It was concluded that ferrous ions in irradiated mice were oxidized to ferric ions by ionizing radiation. Free radicals induced by gamma radiation and ceruloplasmin mutually participated in this oxidation process. The ferroxidase effect of ceruloplasmin was achieved by transfer of electrons from ferrous ions to cupric ions. (orig.)

  3. Establishment of Early Endpoints in Mouse Total-Body Irradiation Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amory Koch

    Full Text Available Acute radiation sickness (ARS following exposure to ionizing irradiation is characterized by radiation-induced multiorgan dysfunction/failure that refers to progressive dysfunction of two or more organ systems, the etiological agent being radiation damage to cells and tissues over time. Radiation sensitivity data on humans and animals has made it possible to describe the signs associated with ARS. A mouse model of total-body irradiation (TBI has previously been developed that represents the likely scenario of exposure in the human population. Herein, we present the Mouse Intervention Scoring System (MISS developed at the Veterinary Sciences Department (VSD of the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI to identify moribund mice and decrease the numbers of mice found dead, which is therefore a more humane refinement to death as the endpoint. Survival rates were compared to changes in body weights and temperatures in the mouse (CD2F1 male TBI model (6-14 Gy, 60Co γ-rays at 0.6 Gy min-1, which informed improvements to the Scoring System. Individual tracking of animals via implanted microchips allowed for assessment of criteria based on individuals rather than by group averages. From a total of 132 mice (92 irradiated, 51 mice were euthanized versus only four mice that were found dead (7% of non-survivors. In this case, all four mice were found dead after overnight periods between observations. Weight loss alone was indicative of imminent succumbing to radiation injury, however mice did not always become moribund within 24 hours while having weight loss >30%. Only one survivor had a weight loss of greater than 30%. Temperature significantly dropped only 2-4 days before death/euthanasia in 10 and 14 Gy animals. The score system demonstrates a significant refinement as compared to using subjective assessment of morbidity or death as the endpoint for these survival studies.

  4. Effects of low-dose rate irradiation on two types of type II diabetes model mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Takaji; Sakai, Kazuo

    2004-01-01

    The effects of low-dose rate gamma-irradiation were investigated in two mouse strains - C57BL/KsJ-db/db (db mouse) and AKITA (AKITA mouse)-for type II diabetes mellitus. Both strains develop the developed type II diabetes by about 8 weeks of age due to dysfunction of the insulin/insulin receptor. The db Mouse' shows obese and exhibits hyperinsulinism, and the onset of Type II diabetes like resembles that for Westerners. On the other hand, the AKITA mouse has exhibits disordered insulin secretion, and the diabetes such as resembles that of Asians. Ten-week old female mice, in groups of 8 or 12, were irradiated at 0.65 mGy/hr in the low-dose rate irradiation facility in the Low Dose Radiation Research Center. The level of urine glucose was measured with test slips. The urine glucose levels of all of the mice were highly elevated the beginning of the irradiation. In the irradiated group of db mice, three mice showed decrease in glucose level compare to the level of non-irradiated diabetes mice after 35, 52 or 80 weeks of irradiation. All had maintained a normal level thereafter. No such improvement in diabetes was ever observed in the 12 mice of in the non-irradiated control group. The AKITA mice, however, did not decrease the glucose level regardless of the irradiation. Both the db mice and AKITA mice had their lives prolonged their life by the irradiation. The survival rate of db mice at the age of 90 weeks was 75% in the irradiated group, but 50% in the non-irradiated group. The average life span was 104 weeks in the irradiated group and 87 weeks in the control group. Furthermore, a marked difference was furthermore observed in the appearance of the coat hair, skin, and tail; appearances were well preserved in the irradiated group. The average life span in the irradiated AKITA mice was also longer than that for the non-irradiated mice, 51 weeks and 41 weeks in the irradiated and non-irradiated group respectively. These results suggest that the low-dose irradiation

  5. Study of lipids and fatty acids of phospholipids in the repair tissu of cutaneous burns of irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drouet, J.; Pellat, B.; Dubos, M.; Goyffon, M.

    The influence of whole-body irradiation on the biochemical changes in skin after thermal burns in mice was studied. A decrease of total lipids and cholesterol biosynthesis was observed together with an intensification of the desaturation of fatty acids [fr

  6. Interplay of thymus and bone marrow regeneration in x-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiesche, K.-D.

    1975-01-01

    aim of the prepresent investigation was to study the modifying effects of bone marrow cells on regeneration, after X-irradiation, of thymus and bone marrow cell populations. Data are presented which indicate that the cellular composition of the thymus and, in particular, the frequency of the stem cells in the organ at the time of radiation exposure determines thymic regeneration for about two weeks after irradiation. After this period, regeneration depends on new precursors from the bone marrow which have previously seeded the thymus. In contrast to the thymus, cellular restoration of the bone marrow is already initially dependent on the number of protected or transplanted marrow cells. Two phases in the recovery of thymic PHA-reactivity after irradiation were observed: one initial phase which is independent on the number of the available bone marrow cells, and a subsequent phase during which PHA-reactivity is slightly increased in mice irradiated with partly protected bone marrow in comparison to in total body irradiated animals. During the entire observation period, PHA-reactivity remains at a low level not exeeding 50 % of that in untreated mice. In contrast the thymus is fully repopulated with regard to the number of nonreactive cells. Alternative pathways of thymocyte development within the thymus are discussed. Bone marrow X cells were shown to be as sensitive to in vitro treatment with a specific H-2 antiserum as were lymphocytes from normal bone marrow. This finding was teken to indicate that the X cells represent a particular lymphoid cell type. A xenogeneic rabbit-anti-mouse embryo antiserum was more toxic to pre-irradiated bone marrow, with high proportion of X cells, than to bone marrow from untreated mice, using in vitro cytotoxicity test. A possible embryonic character of the X cells is discussed. (author)

  7. Bone marrow cells homing to the thymus in mice after a leukemogenic split dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humblet, C.; Defresne, M.P.; Greimers, R.; Rongy, A.M.; Boniver, J.

    1987-01-01

    Fractionated whole body X-irradiation (4 x 1.75 Gy at weekly intervals) induces a high percentage of thymic lymphomas in C57Bl/Ka mice. These tumors develop after a long latency period during which the thymic lymphopoiesis is deeply altered. In the present work, we test wether those modifications are due to a lack of prothymocyte homing to preleukemic thymuses. Our results show that the preleukemic state of the thymus don't prevent the homing of normal marrow precursors grafted immediately after an irradiation of 4 Gy. Thus the alterations of thymic lymphopoiesis observed after a leukemogenic irradiation are not due to a modification in the thymus receptivity to thymocyte precursors [fr

  8. p53-dependent delayed effects of radiation vary according to time of irradiation of p53 + / - mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Ryuji; Ootsuyama, Akira

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported that in p53 (+ / -) mice that had been given a whole-body dose of 3 Gy at 8 weeks of age, p53-dependent delayed effects of radiation, as manifested in T-cell receptor (TCR) variant fractions (VF) instability in mouse splenocytes, were biphasic, namely, induction of TCR-VF mutation reappeared at 44 weeks. The manifestation of the delayed effects and the measures of biological markers varied according to the timing of irradiation. We also reported that the decrease in function of the p53 gene was related to the effects of a delayed mutation. In the present study, we investigated the functions and mutations of the p53 gene in old age for p53 (+ / -) mice following irradiation at various ages. p53 (+ / -) mice were given a whole-body dose of 3 Gy at 8, 28 or 40 weeks of age. There were significant differences for all variables tested at 8 weeks of age. This was similarly the case for mice irradiated at 28 weeks of age, in which there were also significant differences in TCR VF and the percentage of apoptosis. In mice irradiated at 40 weeks of age, there were significant differences for all considered variables except for the p53 allele. We demonstrated that the different patterns of delayed mutation of the p53 gene at 56 weeks of age depended on the age at which mice had undergone 3-Gy whole-body irradiation. Our conclusions are limited to variation in p53-dependent delayed effects according to the time of irradiation.

  9. Therapy of infections in mice irradiated in mixed neutron/photon fields and inflicted with wound trauma: a review of current work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledney, G D; Madonna, G S; Elliott, T B; Moore, M M; Jackson, W E

    1991-10-01

    When host antimicrobial defenses are severely compromised by radiation or trauma in conjunction with radiation, death from sepsis results. To evaluate therapies for sepsis in radiation casualties, we developed models of acquired and induced bacterial infections in irradiated and irradiated-wounded mice. Animals were exposed to either a mixed radiation field of equal proportions of neutrons and gamma rays (n/gamma = 1) from a TRIGA reactor or pure gamma rays from 60[Co sources. Skin wounds (15% of total body surface area) were inflicted under methoxyflurane anesthesia 1 h after irradiation. In all mice, wounding after irradiation decreased resistance to infection. Treatments with the immunomodulator synthetic trehalose dicorynomycolate (S-TDCM) before or after mixed neutron-gamma irradiation or gamma irradiation increased survival. Therapy with S-TDCM for mice irradiated with either a mixed field or gamma rays increased resistance to Klebsiella pneumoniae-induced infections. Combined therapy with S-TDCM and ceftriaxone for K. pneumoniae infections in mice exposed to a mixed radiation field or to gamma rays was more effective than single-agent therapy. In all irradiated-wounded mice, single therapy of acquired infections with an antibiotic or S-TDCM did not increase survival. Survival of irradiated-wounded mice after topical application of gentamicin sulfate cream suggested that bacteria colonizing the wound disseminated systemically in untreated irradiated mice, resulting in death from sepsis. In lethal models of acquired infections in irradiated-wounded mice, significant increases in survival were achieved when systemic treatments with S-TDCM or gentamicin were combined with topical treatments of gentamicin cream. Therapies for sepsis in all mice exposed to a mixed field were less effective than in mice exposed to gamma rays. Nonetheless, the data show a principle by which successful therapy may be provided to individuals receiving tissue trauma in conjunction with

  10. Effect of pulmonary irradiation from inhaled 90Y on immunity to Listeria monocytogenes in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, A.; Lundgren, D.L.; McClellan, R.O.

    1976-01-01

    The immunological response of mice subjected to irradiation from particles deposited in the lungs and challenged with Listeria monocytogenes was investigated. Mice, exposed by inhalation to 90 Y (a beta-emitting radionuclide) in relatively insoluble fused aluminosilicate particles, were immunized with L. monocytogenes either before or after exposure. Two additional groups of mice were either immunized or irradiated only. A group of control mice received no irradiation or immunization. The beta radiation dose absorbed by the lungs of each mouse at time of challenge averaged 10,000 rads. Fourteen days after immunization, all mice were challenged with 2 LD 50 doses of L. monocytogenes via the respiratory route. Survival of all immunized mice either with or without exposure to 90 Y varied from 90 to 100% as compared to 10 to 20% for the mice irradiated only and for control mice through 14 days after challenge. Pulmonary clearance of inhaled L. monocytogenes during the first 4 hr after challenge was suppressed in the mice irradiated only but not in those immunized only, or in the immunized and irradiated groups, and control mice. There appeared to be a suppression of proliferation of L. monocytogenes in lungs and spleen in the immunized groups 72 hr after challenge, whereas the lungs and spleens of the mice irradiated only and the control mice had extensive bacterial invasion. It was concluded that the 10,000 rads of beta radiation absorbed by the lungs did not suppress the immune mechanisms of the immunized mice

  11. Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Mitigates Hematopoietic Toxicity After Lethal Total Body Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Dunhua; Deoliveira, Divino; Kang, Yubin; Choi, Seung S. [Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Li, Zhiguo [Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Chao, Nelson J. [Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Immunology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Duke Cancer Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Chen, Benny J., E-mail: chen0032@mc.duke.edu [Duke Cancer Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate whether and how insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) mitigates hematopoietic toxicity after total body irradiation. Methods and Materials: BALB/c mice were irradiated with a lethal dose of radiation (7.5 Gy) and treated with IGF-1 at a dose of 100 μg/dose intravenously once a day for 5 consecutive days starting within 1 hour after exposure. Survival and hematopoietic recovery were monitored. The mechanisms by which IGF-1 promotes hematopoietic recovery were also studied by use of an in vitro culture system. Results: IGF-1 protected 8 of 20 mice (40%) from lethal irradiation, whereas only 2 of 20 mice (10%) in the saline control group survived for more than 100 days after irradiation. A single dose of IGF-1 (500 μg) was as effective as daily dosing for 5 days. Positive effects were noted even when the initiation of treatment was delayed as long as 6 hours after irradiation. In comparison with the saline control group, treatment with IGF-1 significantly accelerated the recovery of both platelets and red blood cells in peripheral blood, total cell numbers, hematopoietic stem cells, and progenitor cells in the bone marrow when measured at day 14 after irradiation. IGF-1 protected both hematopoietic stem cells and progenitor cells from radiation-induced apoptosis and cell death. In addition, IGF-1 was able to facilitate the proliferation and differentiation of nonirradiated and irradiated hematopoietic progenitor cells. Conclusions: IGF-1 mitigates radiation-induced hematopoietic toxicity through protecting hematopoietic stem cells and progenitor cells from apoptosis and enhancing proliferation and differentiation of the surviving hematopoietic progenitor cells.

  12. Concentration of metallothionein in mice livers after a small dose of irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitou, Mikio; Yanai, Takanori; Hasegawa, Hidenao; Otsu, Hiroshi; Sato, Fumiaki; Akata, Naofumi; Kanaiwa-Kudo, Shouko; Matsumoto, Tsuneya; Noda, Yuko

    1998-01-01

    This study was made to determine whether metallothionein (MT) is induced by a small dose (0.5 Gy) irradiation. One hundred B6C3F1/Nrs mice of each sex, 8-10 weeks old, were used in the sham study (unirradiated controls) and experimental (irradiated) groups. Eighty mice of each sex were given acute whole body irradiation with 197 Csγ-rays under SPF conditions; two doses of 0.5 and 5.0 Gy at 30 cm distance from the source at the rate of 0.563 Gy/min. Twenty mice of each sex were used in the sham study. Every ten male and female mouse was killed by cervical dislocation on days 1, 7, 14 and 21 after irradiation. The same numbers of male and female control mice were killed on days 0 and 21. Livers were removed immediately after death, and concentration of MT was examined. In both the males and females, the MT concentration of the 5 Gy-group peaked on the first day after irradiation, and there was no difference in comparison with the control values between the 7th and 21st days. In contrast, on no day did the MT concentration for the 0.5 Gy-group showed a significant difference from the control group. The time dependency patterns of the female and male mice also showed no significant differences for 5 Gy- and 0.5 Gy-groups, but the mean values of the MT concentration was lower in the males than in the females on the 1st day. Results of the direct quantitation of MT by the enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA) also showed peak MT accumulation on the 1st day for both male and female mice. These were also shown by the atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analyses. But peak heights for the males and females showed a tendency inverse to that of the AAS and ICP-MS analyses. This discrepancy is attributable to the technical problem encountered in the experiment. On the basis of our findings, MT does not seem to be related to acquired radioresistance in mice. (K.H.)

  13. Effects of Ganoderma lucidum on cellular immunocompetence in gamma-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen WangChi; Hau DouMong

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the effects on mice treated with Ganoderma lucidum (Gl) when the whole body was exposed to 400 rad gamma-irradiation. The mice were divided into five groups. Group A was the normal control; group B, the experimental control, was treated with GI; group C was the radiation control (RT); group D was treated with RT and Gl; group E was treated with Gl, RT and Gl. The results revealed that the relative spleen weight had increased significantly in groups B and E on day 7 and increased in all experimental groups on day, 28 after irradiation. The leukocyte counts decreased obviously in groups C, D and E on day 7, and recovered in groups D and E was faster than that in group C on day 28. The blastogenic response of splenocytes to LPS, Con A and PHA in groups administered GI were higher than that in group C on days 7and 28. Therefore, Gl seemed to assist the recovery of cellular immunocompetence in gamma-irradiated mice. (author)

  14. The protective effect of Royal Jelly against the hemopoiesis dysfunction in X-irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emori, Yutaka; Oka, Hideki; Ohya, Osamu; Tamaki, Hajime; Hayashi, Yoshiro [Zeria Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Konan, Saitama (Japan). Central Research Laboratories; Nomoto, Kikuo

    1998-02-01

    The protective effect of Royal Jelly (RJ) against the hemopoietic dysfunction in whole body X-irradiated C57BL/6 mice was investigated. When RJ (1.0 g/kg, po or 0.5 g/kg, ip) was administered every day beginning two weeks before X-irradiation (10 Gy), a significant increase in the number of leukocytes and erythrocytes was observed in mice treated with RJ, as compared with X-irradiated control. In addition, the number of colony forming units in culture (CFU-C) of bone marrow cells or splenocytes was significantly increased in mice treated with RJ. Therefore, when granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-3 (IL-3) in peripheral blood was measured by ELISA kit, a significant increase in the amount of GM-CSF and IL-3 was observed. These results suggest that the protective effect of RJ against hemopoietic dysfunction could be expressed through an increase in the number of hemopoietic stem cells by the induction of hemopoietic factor such as GM-CSF and IL-3. (author)

  15. Polyherbal EMSA ERITIN Promotes Erythroid Lineages and Lymphocyte Migration in Irradiated Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Mansur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiotherapy is commonly used to kill malignant cells, but it can significantly deplete hematopoietic and splenic erythroblasts. Radioprotective agents are therefore very important in clinical radiotherapy. We examined the effect of poly-herbal EMSA ERITIN on immunological responses when administered to sublethally irradiated mice with the aim of highlighting promotes erythroid lineages and lymphocytes migration in irradiated mice with the parameter are TER119+CD123+in bone marrow and SDF-1 in bone marrow and spleen organ. Normal BALB/c mice were sublethally irradiated with 600 rad. EMSA ERITIN was administered orally at different doses:(1.04, 3.125 and 9.375 mg/g body weight for 15 days. On day 16 erythroid lineages (TER-119+CD123+ were observed in bone marrow and lymphocytes migration by the production of SDF-1 in spleen and bone marrow. Lymphocytes migration was indicated by the production of SDF-1 in spleen and bone marrow using flow cytometry analysis. EMSA ERITIN increased the generation of erythroid lineage cells marked by TER119+CD123+ and promoted lymphocyte migration by increasing SDF-1 production in bone marrow and spleen. EMSA ERITIN appears to be a powerful medicinal herb with potential as a food supplement to normalize homeostasis and erythropoiesis after radiation.

  16. Effects of methylandrostenediol and a lymphostimulatory thymic factor (leucotrofin) on the reactivity of adrenal cortex of X-irradiated A2G mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, A.D.; Rusu, V.M.; Borsa, M.; Uray, Z.; Banu, C.

    1982-01-01

    Administration of methylandrostenediol alone or with Leucotrofin to whole-body irradiated A2G mice was associated with the diminuation of some enzymatic reactions in the zona fasciculata of the adrenals after 30 days on irradiation in comparison with the irradiated controls. The incorporation rate of (2- 14 C)acetate into free cholesterol and glucocorticoid, de novo synthesized in the adrenals of the protected mice, was decreased compared to the untreated animals. These data showed that late irradiation damage - caused by enhanced synthesis and secretion of catabolic corticosteroids - could be prevented by administration of anabolic steroids and lymphostimulatory thymic factors, which protect the lymphoid system from lymphotoxic agents. (author)

  17. Effects of methylandrostenediol and a lymphostimulatory thymic factor (leucotrofin) on the reactivity of adrenal cortex of X-irradiated A2G mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, A.D.; Rusu, V.M.; Borsa, M.; Uray, Z.; Banu, C. (Biological Research Centre, Cluj (Romania))

    1982-03-01

    Administration of methylandrostenediol alone or with Leucotrofin to whole-body irradiated A2G mice was associated with the diminuation of some enzymatic reactions in the zona fasciculata of the adrenals after 30 days on irradiation in comparison with the irradiated controls. The incorporation rate of (2-/sup 14/C)acetate into free cholesterol and glucocorticoid, de novo synthesized in the adrenals of the protected mice, was decreased compared to the untreated animals. These data showed that late irradiation damage - caused by enhanced synthesis and secretion of catabolic corticosteroids - could be prevented by administration of anabolic steroids and lymphostimulatory thymic factors, which protect the lymphoid system from lymphotoxic agents.

  18. Role of taurine as a treatment for oxidative damage and sperm head abnormalities in irradiated mice and their male offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Dawy, H.; Tawfik, S.S.; EI-Khafif, M.; Ragab, M.H.

    2007-01-01

    The efficiency of taurine therapy in treatment of male mice exposed to a dose of (3 Gy) whole body gamma irradiation and their male offspring was studied. Irradiated mice showed significant increase in plasma malonaldehyde (MDA) level and sperm head abnormality counts in all experiment interval times 1, 3 and 5 weeks. Administration of taurine (1% in drinking water) post-irradiation resulted in significant decrease in the effect of irradiation on MDA level and sperm head abnormalities count. The efficiency of taurine as radiotherapeutic agent is greatly dependent on its chemical properties as strong oxidants scavenger and biological activities as osmoregulator and membrane stabilizer. The probable mechanism of taurine was discussed, as it is a sulphydryl, heterocyclic-nitrogenous and pharmacological therapy

  19. Total body irradiation with a reconditioned cobalt teletherapy unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Michael D C; Larouche, Renée-Xavière; Olivares, Marina; Léger, Pierre; Larkin, Joe; Freeman, Carolyn R; Podgorsak, Ervin B

    2006-01-01

    While the current trend in radiotherapy is to replace cobalt teletherapy units with more versatile and technologically advanced linear accelerators, there remain some useful applications for older cobalt units. The expansion of our radiotherapy department involved the decommissioning of an isocentric cobalt teletherapy unit and the replacement of a column-mounted 4-MV LINAC that has been used for total body irradiation (TBI). To continue offering TBI treatments, we converted the decommissioned cobalt unit into a dedicated fixed-field total body irradiator and installed it in an existing medium-energy LINAC bunker. This article describes the logistical and dosimetric aspects of bringing a reconditioned cobalt teletherapy unit into clinical service as a total body irradiator.

  20. Multigene deletions in lung adenocarcinomas from irradiated and control mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.; Woloschak, G.E.

    1996-01-01

    K-ras codon 12 point mutations mRb and p53 gene deletions were examined in tissues from 120 normal lungs and lung adenocarcinomas that were Formalin-treated and paraffin-embedded 25 years ago. The results showed that 12 of 60 (20%) lung adenocarcinomas had mRb deletions. All lung adenocarcinomas that were initially found bearing deleted mRb had p53 deletions (15 of 15; 100%). A significantly higher mutation frequency for K-ras codon 12 point mutations was also found in the lung adenocarcinomas from mice exposed to 24 once-weekly neutron irradiation (10 of 10; 100%) compared with those exposed to 24 or 60 once-weekly γ-ray doses (5 of 10; 50%). The data suggested that p53 and K-ras gene alterations were two contributory factors responsible for the increased incidence of lung adenocarcinoma in B6CF 1 male mice exposed to protracted neutron radiation

  1. Body Temperature Measurements for Metabolic Phenotyping in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carola W. Meyer

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Endothermic organisms rely on tightly balanced energy budgets to maintain a regulated body temperature and body mass. Metabolic phenotyping of mice, therefore, often includes the recording of body temperature. Thermometry in mice is conducted at various sites, using various devices and measurement practices, ranging from single-time probing to continuous temperature imaging. Whilst there is broad agreement that body temperature data is of value, procedural considerations of body temperature measurements in the context of metabolic phenotyping are missing. Here, we provide an overview of the various methods currently available for gathering body temperature data from mice. We explore the scope and limitations of thermometry in mice, with the hope of assisting researchers in the selection of appropriate approaches, and conditions, for comprehensive mouse phenotypic analyses.

  2. Body Temperature Measurements for Metabolic Phenotyping in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Carola W.; Ootsuka, Youichirou; Romanovsky, Andrej A.

    2017-01-01

    Endothermic organisms rely on tightly balanced energy budgets to maintain a regulated body temperature and body mass. Metabolic phenotyping of mice, therefore, often includes the recording of body temperature. Thermometry in mice is conducted at various sites, using various devices and measurement practices, ranging from single-time probing to continuous temperature imaging. Whilst there is broad agreement that body temperature data is of value, procedural considerations of body temperature measurements in the context of metabolic phenotyping are missing. Here, we provide an overview of the various methods currently available for gathering body temperature data from mice. We explore the scope and limitations of thermometry in mice, with the hope of assisting researchers in the selection of appropriate approaches, and conditions, for comprehensive mouse phenotypic analyses. PMID:28824441

  3. Late effects of total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, A.; Gibson, B.

    1987-01-01

    Late effects of chemo-radiotherapy conditioning before bone marrow transplantation (BMT) are being increasingly recognised in long-term survivors, particularly children. They can be divided into two categories: those affecting hormonal status and those affecting specific organ function. All women treated develop ovarian failure with low levels of β-oestradiol and raised values of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and leutinizing hormone (LH). In males, raised FSH and LH values are found with normal testosterone levels but most patients have azoospermia. In children, puberty is usually but not invariably delayed by treatment but can be induced by appropriate hormone replacement. Compensated hypothyroidism was found in 6/30 children. Growth hormone secretion may be impaired especially if previous cranial irradiation has been given. In children, a reduction in sitting height has been observed. Cataract has occurred in 20% of children between 3 and 6 years after treatment. Two second tumours have been observed. No other major organ toxicities have been encountered. (Auth.)

  4. Micronucleus test in mice fed on irradiated whole diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, P.P.; Reddi, O.S.; Pentiah, P.R.; Rani, M.V.U.; Devi, K.R.; Goud, S.N.

    1981-01-01

    Eight week old Swiss albino male mice were fed on freshly irradiated or unirradiated whole diet for one week. (Exposure was to 75 or 200 kR γ rays from a 1000 Ci 60 Co γ source at a dose rate of 584 R/min.) On the seventh day, six hours after feeding, the mice were killed and bone marrow preparations were made by the Schmid technique. From each group three animals were taken and from each animal 2000 polychromatic and normochromatic erythrocytes were scored. It was evident from the data obtained that the irradiated whole diet failed to induce any significant increase in the incidence of micronuclei in polychromatic erythrocytes. Similarly, there was no significant increase in the frequency of micronuclei in normochromatic erythrocytes when compared with control data. The polychromatic to normochromatic ratio was also unaffected. The diet consisted of wheat flour (60%). groundnut cake (20%), fish meal (8%), Bengal gram flour (8%), dried yeast (3%), salt/mineral mixture (1%) and traces of vitamins. (U.K.)

  5. "EFFECT OF CIMETIDINE AND RANITIDINE ON LIPID PROFILE AND LIPID PEROXIDATION IN γ-IRRADIATED MICE"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kariminia2 Z.Tavakoli

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Elevated amounts of free radicals due to ionizing radiation have damaging effects on the body. H2-receptor antagonists have potential oxygen radical scavenging properties. We tried to determine the effects of two H2-receptor antagonists (cimetidine and ranitidine on lipid peroxidation (LPO and lipid profile (LP in plasma and liver of γ-irradiated (1Gy/day for 3 days BALB/c mice. The control group of mice were fed with normal food and drinks but the experiment group of mice were fed control diet and drinking water, containing cimetidine or ranitidine (1mg/lit. After 3 days of supplementation, the animals were subjected to sublethal γ-radiation, which caused a significant increase in cholesterol level in experimental group (100% increase in comparison with the control group, but the amount of phospholipids did not change. The ratio of cholesterol to phospholipid showed a slight increase. Also γ-irradiation caused a significant increase in lipid fluorescence (11-48%, conjugated dienes (33-81% in liver and increase in malondialdehyde (19-300% in serum of mice who had received 1.09-3.1 Gy for 1-3 days. Cimetidine or ranitidine supplementation was able to restore the changes of LPO and LP in mice (1 Gy-radiated for 3 days. It is therefore concluded that the mice treated with cimetidine or ranitidine were able to tolerate biomembrane damages provoked by sublethal γ-radiation. This supports the hypothesis that cimetidine or ranitidine may afford an efficient protection against ionizing radiation or diseases that are characterized by in vivo free radical-mediated oxidative stress mechanisms.

  6. Rate of lens lesion development and the age of mice at time of irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajewski, A.K.; Majewska, K.; Slowikowska, M.G.

    1976-01-01

    The rate of lens lesion development has been studied in mice irradiated at different age ranging from one day up to one year old mice. The time needed for the first appearance of lens lesion was shortest in groups of mice irradiated at the age of one, two and three days of life, and longest in groups of mice irradiated at the age of 5 days, 1 week and 2 weeks of life. The time needed for the first appearance of lens lesion for mice irradiated between the third week and one year of life was constant. It was longer than for mice irradiated during the first three days of life and shorter than for mice irradiated at 5 up to 14 days of life. In all but one irradiated groups the age at which the first lens lesion occurred differed significantly from the age at which the first senile changes occurred in the lens of control mice. The one exception was the group of mice irradiated at the age of one year. (author)

  7. Half body irradiation of malignant diseases in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gocheva, L.

    2000-01-01

    The possibilities of modern medicine make the prognosis of children with malignant diseases more optimistic, compared to adult patients. At the present stage the favourable outcome of pediatric oncological diseases varies within the limits of 50 - 80 %. Despite the good treatment results after optimal complex treatment, the rest of the ill children represent a serious therapeutical problem. The achieved good local tumor control after performed radiotherapy represents a potential for its application as a systemic therapy in patients with advanced or resistant to chemotherapy tumours. The radiobiological bases of the half body irradiation as a systemic therapy in pediatric oncology and as one of the main forms of large field irradiation are considered. The important clinical investigations have been discussed. Half body irradiation can be considered as a valuable alternative of chemotherapy and as a complementary systemic treatment in the case of advanced malignant diseases in children's age. (author)

  8. Safety of dried sambiloto Andrographis paniculata (Burm. F.) nees gamma irradiated based on acute toxicity aspect in mice swiss webster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermin Katrin; Susanto; Hendig Winarno

    2014-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata nees (Family: Acanthaceae) is a medicinal plant commonly cultivated in Asian countries. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety of gamma irradiated sambiloto against to animal test (mice) and to support the application of nuclear techniques for radiation pasteurization of sambiloto as health products without changing the properties. In the acute toxicity test was observed the effects of the tested material on behavioral changes, abnormalities in the function of several organs and body weight changes in animal test every day for 2 weeks. The results showed that the ethanol extract of unirradiated and irradiated with dose of 7.5 kGy) sambiloto were not toxic to mice. Lethal Dose 50 (DL 50 ) of ethanol extract from sambiloto unirradiated or irradiated at the dose of 7.5 kGy was > 5000 mg/kg BW. At the highest dose tested 5000 mg/kg BW mice there were no significant toxic effects and no mice that died during the experiment, therefore ethanol extracts of un irradiated and irradiated samples could be declared safe. (author)

  9. The effect of cyclophosphamide and gamma irradiation on adenosine deaminase and purine nucleoside phosphorylase in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosek, B.; Bohaecek, J.; Sikulova, J.

    1991-01-01

    Changes in ADA and PNP activities in the spleens and thymuses of mice were studied after a single administration of cyclophosphamide and after whole-body gamma irradiation, applied alone or three days after CY application, In the first days after the treatment the enzyme activities were significantly depressed with the exception of ADA in the spleen, where a high elevation in relation to controls was observed. During the regeneration period a pronounced rise of PNP activity in the spleen occurred mainly after a combined application of CY and irradiation. In the thymus the regeneration was manifested by a mild increase of both ADA and PNP activities towards control values. The findings suggest that the expressive changes of ADA and PNP activities, participating in the purine salvage pathway, may, after a cytotoxic treatment, influence the nucleotide pool and DNA synthesis in lymphoid organs

  10. Life shortening and carcinogenesis in mice irradiated at the perinatal period with gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, S.; Kasuga, T.

    1986-01-01

    This study elucidates the life-span radiation effects in mice irradiated at the perinatal period in comparison to mice irradiated at the young adult period. B6C3F 1 female mice were irradiated at 17 days of prenatal age, at 0 days of postnatal age, or as young adults at 15 weeks of age with 190, 380, or 570 rads of 137 Cs gamma rays. Mice irradiated at the late fetal period showed dose-dependent life shortening of somewhat lesser magnitude than that seen after neonatal or young adult irradiation. Mice exposed at the late fetal period were highly susceptible to induction of pituitary tumors for which the latent period was the longest of all induced neoplasms. Incidence of lung tumors in mice irradiated at the late fetal period with 190 and 380 rads was higher than in controls. Malignant lymphomas of the lymphocytic type developed in excess, after a short latent period, in mice irradiated fetally with the highest dose; susceptibility of prenatally exposed mice was lower than that of early postnatally exposed mice. Liver tumors developed more frequently in mice irradiated in utero than in controls; susceptibility to induction of this type of neoplasm was highest at the neonatal period. In general, carcinogenic response of mice exposed at the late fetal period resembled that of neonatally exposed mice but was quite different from that of young adult mice. Mice exposed as young adults have no, or low, susceptibility to induction of pituitary, lung, and liver tumors; and a higher susceptibility to induction of myeloid leukemias and Harderian gland tumors. 19 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Protective effect of Asparagus racemosus root extract against lethal total - body electron beam radiation induced damage in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharmila, K.P.; Bhandary, B. Satheesh Kumar; Suchetha Kumari, N.; Bhat, Vadish S.; Shetty, Jayaram; Peter, Alex John; Jose, Jerish M.; Fernandes, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the protective effect of Asparagus Racemosus Root ethanolic extract (ARE) in Swiss albino mice against acute lethal total - body Electron beam irradiation. Swiss Albino mice were used for the assessment of radiation induced sickness and 30 day survival analysis. Survival studies were determined using the Kaplan-Meier survival curves. The maximum survival was observed in the experimental mice pretreated with 200 mg/kg.b.wt. of ARE which also reduced the radiation sickness characteristics. This dose was considered as an optimal dose for radioprotection. Treatment of mice with ARE before irradiation delayed the onset of mortality as compared with the untreated irradiated controls. Present findings demonstrate the potential of ARE in mitigating radiation-induced mortality, which may be attributed to its free radical scavenging and increased antioxidant potential

  12. Sensory dynamics of intense microwave irradiation: A comparative study of aversive behaviors by mice and rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Justesen, D.R.

    1981-10-01

    The results of two experiments are reported, the first on 24 mice and 14 rats, all experimentally naive, that were observed for evidence of adventitious escape from faradic shock or from a potentially lethal, 2450-MHz microwave field in a multi-mode cavity. All of ten rats irradiated at a whole-body-averaged dose rate of 60 mW/g convulsed and expired, presumably from radiation-induced hyperpyrexia. Eight of ten mice irradiated at 60 mW/g survived the four sessions of irradiation, but reliable evidence of escape learning was not observed. The data of the second experiment, which was a pilot study of four rats with an extensive history of exposure to intense but intermittently applied microwave fields, revealed that the animals learned to thermoregulate behaviorally by locomoting in and out of the safe-area circle. A strong relation between dose rate (30, 60, and 120 mW/g) and proportion of time spent in the safe area was observed (r = .97). Post-exposure means of colonic temperature during three sets of sessions under the different rates of energy dosing were highly stable and averaged 39.6 deg C.

  13. 28Si total body irradiation injures bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells via induction of cellular apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jianhui; Feng, Wei; Wang, Yingying; Allen, Antiño R.; Turner, Jennifer; Stewart, Blair; Raber, Jacob; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Zhou, Daohong; Shao, Lijian

    2017-05-01

    Long-term space mission exposes astronauts to a radiation environment with potential health hazards. High-energy charged particles (HZE), including 28Si nuclei in space, have deleterious effects on cells due to their characteristics with high linear energy transfer and dense ionization. The influence of 28Si ions contributes more than 10% to the radiation dose equivalent in the space environment. Understanding the biological effects of 28Si irradiation is important to assess the potential health hazards of long-term space missions. The hematopoietic system is highly sensitive to radiation injury and bone marrow (BM) suppression is the primary life-threatening injuries after exposure to a moderate dose of radiation. Therefore, in the present study we investigated the acute effects of low doses of 28Si irradiation on the hematopoietic system in a mouse model. Specifically, 6-month-old C57BL/6 J mice were exposed to 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 Gy 28Si (600 MeV) total body irradiation (TBI). The effects of 28Si TBI on BM hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) were examined four weeks after the exposure. The results showed that exposure to 28Si TBI dramatically reduced the frequencies and numbers of HSCs in irradiated mice, compared to non-irradiated controls, in a radiation dose-dependent manner. In contrast, no significant changes were observed in BM HPCs regardless of radiation doses. Furthermore, irradiated HSCs exhibited a significant impairment in clonogenic ability. These acute effects of 28Si irradiation on HSCs may be attributable to radiation-induced apoptosis of HSCs, because HSCs, but not HPCs, from irradiated mice exhibited a significant increase in apoptosis in a radiation dose-dependent manner. However, exposure to low doses of 28Si did not result in an increased production of reactive oxygen species and DNA damage in HSCs and HPCs. These findings indicate that exposure to 28Si irradiation leads to acute HSC damage.

  14. Systematic alteration induced in mice by ultraviolet light irradiation and its relationship to ultraviolet carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, M.S.; Kripke, M.L.

    1977-01-01

    Chronic irradiation of mice with ultraviolet (uv) light produces a systemic alteration of an immunologic nature. This alteration is detectable in mice long before primary skin cancers induced by uv light begin to appear. The alteration results in the failure of uv-irradiated mice to reject highly antigenic, transplanted uv-induced tumors that are rejected by unirradiated syngeneic recipients. The immunologic aspect of this systemic alteration was demonstrated by transferring lymphoid cells from uv-irradiated mice to lethally x-irradiated recipients. These recipients were unable to resist a later challenge with a syngeneic uv-induced tumor, whereas those given lymphoid cells from normal donors were resistant to tumor growth. Parabiosis of normal mice with uv-irradiated mice, followed by tumor challenge of both parabionts with a uv-induced tumor, resulted in the growth of the challenge tumors in both uv-irradiated and unirradiated mice. Splenic lymphocytes from tumor-implanted uv-treated mice were not cytotoxic in vitro against uv-induced tumors, whereas under identical conditions cells from tumor-implanted, unirradiated mice were highly cytotoxic. Our findings suggest that repeated uv irradiation can circumvent an immunologic mechanism that might otherwise destroy nascent uv-induced primary tumors that are strongly antigenic

  15. Melatonin and sesamol protects spleenocytes against 60Co γ-irradiation induced damages in male C57BL/6 mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Shahanshah; Rizvi, Moshahid; Kumar, Arun; Kalra, Nmita; Adhikari, Jawahar; Chaudhury, Nabo; Khan, Shahanshah

    2013-01-01

    Natural antioxidants have strong potential for development of radioprotectors. In earlier studies we have shown radioprotective efficacy of melatonin/sesamol (100 mg/kg body weight) in recovery of whole-body γ-irradiated (7.5 Gy) induced damages in gastrointestinal tract and germ cells. In the present study, we report detailed studies on spleenocytes. Therefore, the first objectives of these studies, to determine the antioxidant capacity of spleen induced by melatonin/sesamol. Second, to investigate the radioprotective effect of melatonin/sesamol in spleenocytes of whole-body γ-irradiated male C57BL/6 mice. Animals (8-9 week-old) were divided into six groups e.g., control, melatonin/sesamol (100 mg/kg body weight through intra-peritoneal), radiation (7.5 Gy, 1 Gy/minute, whole-body using 60 Co Tele-therapy unit), melatonin/sesamol+radiation (100 mg/kg body weight 30 minute prior to 7.5 Gy). Mice were sacrificed at 30 minutes and their spleen homogenates (10% w/v in PBS) were used for ABTS and DPPH assays.Those mice sacrificed on 4th, 7th, 15th, 21st and 30th day post-irradiation were used for immunological investigations (Annexin-V, CD4/CD8, Cell Cycle) by flow cytometry. Relative spleen mass was determined by dividing spleen mass(mg) with body mass(gm). ABTS and DPPH assays in spleen showed higher level of antioxidant capacity in melatonin/sesamol treated groups (p<0.009) from control group at 30 minute. Melatonin/sesamol+radiation treated groups significantly reduce apoptosis (p<0.026) and recover CD4+ and CD8+ T cells populations (p<0.022) as well as their ratio onwards 4th day post-irradiation in spleen as compared to radiation group. Melatonin/sesamol+radiation treated groups also showed recovery in radiation induced cell cycle perturbation and relative spleen mass from 7th day post-irradiation as compared to radiation group. Therefore, it is concluded that a single dose of 100 mg/kg body weight of melatonin/sesamol prior to 30 minute increase the capacity

  16. Protective effects of interferon in mice previously exposed to lethal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortaldo, J.R.; McCoy, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    The radioprotective action of interferon (IF) in increasing the survival time of mice lethally irradiated 24 h previously was evaluated. A single intraperitoneal injection of 30,000 units of IF administered 1 day following a LD 100 dose of irradiation significantly prolonged the mean survival time of the animals. Multiple inoculations of IF given 1,3, and 5 days after irradiation only slightly increased the survival time over that observed in mice receiving single injections. Marked decreases in total number of splenocytes were observed in irradiated mice as well as in the mice receiving postirradiation IF therapy, whereas total peripheral white blood cell counts were not appreciably changed when evaluated 3 days after X irradiation. Natural lymphocyte killer activity of splenocytes from irradiated animals receiving IF was significantly increased, suggesting that the protective action of IF could be partially attributable to the boosting of some depressed immune functions

  17. Effect of Green Tea Extract on T cell Mediated Hypersensitivity Reaction in BALB/c Mice Exposed to Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim, A.M.; Ismail Al-kadey, M.M.I.; Shabon, M.H.; Hussien, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    Gamma radiation is widely used in the treatment of malignant neoplasms. However, it deprives the host immune function which may retard tumor rejection by the immune response. The main purpose of the present study is to test the ability of green tea dry extract to restore the T cell hypersensitivity reaction in gamma irradiated BALB/c mice. It aims also to elucidate the possible mechanism of action of ionizing radiation and green tea dry extract in the immune function. Four groups of BALB/c mice, each of ten, have been used in each experiment. The first group served as a control, the second group received green tea dry extract and the third group was exposed to 2 Gy gamma irradiation, while the fourth group received green tea dry extract before and after gamma irradiation. The following parameters were determined, the contact sensitivity reaction by the mouse ear swelling response, local dendritic cell migration, local lymph node weight, lymphocyte proliferation, spleen and thymus weight with their lymphocyte count. The effect of gamma irradiation and green tea dry extract on the elicitation phase of contact sensitivity was also determined. Data from the present study showed that gamma irradiation caused a significant decrease of the mouse ear swelling response and retarded dendritic cell migration. They also showed a significant decline in the lymphocytes proliferation in lymph node draining the contact sensitizer application. Total body exposure to 2 Gy gamma irradiation induced marked decline of thymus weight and thymocyte count, while it reduced spleen weight and spleenocyte count to a lesser extent. Exposure to gamma irradiation enhanced the elicitation phase of contact sensitivity. Administration of green tea dry extract partially preserved the contact sensitivity response to oxazolone in gamma irradiated BALB/c mice. It markedly minimized the enhancement of the elicitation phase of ear swelling. In conclusion, the present study heralds a beneficial role of

  18. Comparative study of the reciprocal translocation rate in spermatocytes after irradiation of newborn and adult mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomerantseva, M.D.

    1978-01-01

    The yield of reciprocal translocations was investigated in spermatocytes of the CBA male mice irradiated immediately after their brith or after the irradiation of the stem spermatogonia at the age of 3 months. The irradiation doses were 100, 200, 400 R X-rays 300 R gamma-rays 60 Co. The yield of translocations in both groups was the same

  19. Inhibitory mechanism of low-dose, whole-body irradiation with gamma-rays against tumor metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuhiro Ohsima; Mitsutoshi Tukimoto; Shuji Kojima

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. A lot of beneficial effects of low-dose irradiation are well known. Of them, an inhibitory effect of the radiation on lung metastasis is reported so far. It has been reported that low-dose whole-body irradiation with gamma rays enhanced cytotoxic immune response as one of the mechanisms. In our laboratory, it has been confirmed an enhancement of natural killer activity in mice irradiated with whole-body 0.5Gy gamma-rays. Metastasis is accomplished by multistep process, involving basement membrane destruction, local invasion, intravasation, survival in the bloodstream, extravasation into distant organs, and proliferation at the target site. Besides, a lot of growth factors and proteases are involved in these steps. As to mechanism of inhibition of tumor metastasis induced by low-dose whole-body irradiation, studies from the standpoint of tumor invasion have not been reported. Here, inhibitory effect of 0.5Gy whole-body gamma-ray irradiation on tumor metastasis and its mechanism were examined in pulmonary metastasis model mice injected with B16 melanoma cells. Consequently, 0.5Gy whole-body gamma ray irradiation significantly suppressed colony formation in the lungs. Expression of matrix metalloproteinase- 2 (MMP- 2), a proteinase related to metastasis, in lung tissues was suppressed by the radiation. Alteration of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP) after the gamma-ray irradiation was examined. Expression of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 mRNA in the lungs were significantly increased. In order to clarify the inhibitory effect obtained in the in vivo metastatic lung cancer model mice, we studied effects of gamma-rays on cell proliferation, alterations of mRNA and proteins related to tumor metastasis in cultured B16 melanoma cells. Proliferation of B16 melanoma cells was decreased in a dose-dependent manner. MMP-2 mRNA expression was not altered in any doses of gamma-rays. Thought expression of the protein was slightly

  20. Adrenaline and serotonin therapeutic effect on the hemopoietic system of irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnova, I.B.; Dontsova, G.V.; Rakhmanina, O.N.; Konstantinova, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    Post-irradiation effect of adrenaline and serotonin on the hemopoietic system of irradiated mice has been studied. The pharmaceuticals were injected subcutaneously 15 minutes before the X-radiation exposure at a dose of 7 Gy or immediately after it. The degree of radiation injury has been estimated from 30-day survival fraction of the animals, cell state of the bone marrow, mass of spleen, cfu quantity in the bone marrow at exo- and endocolonial growth (following implantation of bone marrow cells from mice that had been injected with these drugs to irradiated recipients). Post-irradiation effect of adrenaline turned to be weaker than that of serotonin, the latter increasing the survival rate of irradiated mice to 50%. It is stated that post-irradiation therapeutic effect of adrenaline and serotonin expressed in acceleration of the irradiated hemopoietic tissue repair can be realized under direct effect of drugs on the viable hemopoietic cells, probably, by enchancement of their proliferation

  1. Effect of prolonged continuous irradiation of humoral immunity of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirillova, E.N.; Muksinova, K.N.; Skukovskaya, T.L.

    1988-01-01

    Changes in the content and function of cell populations and subpopulations involved in the humoral response of mice to the thymus-dependent antigen were investigated. The effect was followed during a prolonged continuous exposure to 137 C gamma-emitter (total dose - 5 Gy and daily dose - 12 cGy for 22 hours) and after its termination. The data obtained give evidence for a decrease of the pool of polypotent lymphocyte precursors (CFUs), stable moderate hypoplasia of central and peripheral organs of the immune system, distinct inhibition of antibody production at the expense of reduced activity of precursors of lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes and T-helpers. In the remote post-irradiation period residual radiation damage was seen in polypotent and committed precursors of lymphocytes and T-helpers, which was responsible for the trend towards the decline of antibody production, hypoplasia in the spleen and lymph nodes being persistent

  2. Hematological changes after single large dose half-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, T.; Friedrich, S.; Jochem, I.; Eberhardt, H.J.; Koch, R.; Knorr, A.

    1981-01-01

    The determination of different peripheral blood parameters aimed at the study of side effects on the hematological cellular system following a 5 - 8 Gy single large dose half-body irradiation in 20 patients. Compared to the initial values the leukocytes between the 6. and 14., the thrombocytes between the 14. and 21. postirradiation day as well as the lymphocytes between 3 hours and 4 weeks postirradiation were significantly decreased without exhibiting complications such as hemorrhages or infections. The hemoglobin, hematocrit and reticulocyte values revealed but a slight decrease normalized within a 28 days postirradiation period. Transfusions were necessary when a tumor-caused anemia was present prior to irradiation. Changes in serum activity of aminotransferases and lactate dehydrogenase occured during the first hours after irradiation and were due to enzyme release from destroyed tumor cells

  3. Lipid metabolism and body composition in Gclm(-/-) mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendig, Eric L. [Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Center for Environmental Genetics, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Chen, Ying [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Krishan, Mansi; Johansson, Elisabet; Schneider, Scott N. [Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Genter, Mary Beth; Nebert, Daniel W. [Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Center for Environmental Genetics, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Shertzer, Howard G., E-mail: shertzhg@ucmail.uc.edu [Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Center for Environmental Genetics, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    In humans and experimental animals, high fat diets (HFD) are associated with risk factors for metabolic diseases, such as excessive weight gain and adiposity, insulin resistance and fatty liver. Mice lacking the glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit gene (Gclm(-/-)) and deficient in glutathione (GSH), are resistant to HFD-mediated weight gain. Herein, we evaluated Gclm-associated regulation of energy metabolism, oxidative stress, and glucose and lipid homeostasis. C57BL/6J Gclm(-/-) mice and littermate wild-type (WT) controls received a normal diet or an HFD for 11 weeks. HFD-fed Gclm(-/-) mice did not display a decreased respiratory quotient, suggesting that they are unable to process lipid for metabolism. Although dietary energy consumption and intestinal lipid absorption were unchanged in Gclm(-/-) mice, feeding these mice an HFD did not produce excess body weight nor fat storage. Gclm(-/-) mice displayed higher basal metabolic rates resulting from higher activities of liver mitochondrial NADH-CoQ oxidoreductase, thus elevating respiration. Although Gclm(-/-) mice exhibited strong systemic and hepatic oxidative stress responses, HFD did not promote glucose intolerance or insulin resistance. Furthermore, HFD-fed Gclm(-/-) mice did not develop fatty liver, likely resulting from very low expression levels of genes encoding lipid metabolizing enzymes. We conclude that Gclm is involved in the regulation of basal metabolic rate and the metabolism of dietary lipid. Although Gclm(-/-) mice display a strong oxidative stress response, they are protected from HFD-induced excessive weight gain and adipose deposition, insulin resistance and steatosis. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A high fat diet does not produce body weight and fat gain in Gclm(-/-) mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A high fat diet does not induce steatosis or insulin resistance in Gclm(-/-) mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gclm(-/-) mice have high basal metabolism and mitochondrial

  4. Booster irradiation to the spleen following total body irradiation. A new immunosuppressive approach for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapidot, T.; Singer, T.S.; Salomon, O.; Terenzi, A.; Schwartz, E.; Reisner, Y.

    1988-01-01

    Graft rejection presents a major obstacle for transplantation of T cell-depleted bone marrow in HLA-mismatched patients. In a primate model, after conditioning exactly as for leukemia patients, it was shown that over 99% of the residual host clonable T cells are concentrated in the spleen on day 5 after completion of cytoreduction. We have now corroborated these findings in a mouse model. After 9-Gy total body irradiation (TBI), the total number of Thy-1.2+ cells in the spleen reaches a peak between days 3 and 4 after TBI. The T cell population is composed of both L3T4 (helper) and Lyt-2 (suppressor) T cells, the former being the major subpopulation. Specific booster irradiation to the spleen (5 Gy twice) on days 2 and 4 after TBI greatly enhances production of donor-type chimera after transplantation of T cell-depleted allogeneic bone marrow. Similar enhancement can be achieved by splenectomy on day 3 or 4 after TBI but not if splenectomy is performed 1 day before TBI or 1 day after TBI, strengthening the hypothesis that, after lethal TBI in mice, the remaining host T cells migrate from the periphery to the spleen. These results suggest that a delayed booster irradiation to the spleen may be beneficial as an additional immunosuppressive agent in the conditioning of leukemia patients, in order to reduce the incidence of bone marrow allograft rejection

  5. The Role of DNA Methylation Changes in Radiation-Induced Bystander Effects in cranial irradiated Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Sun, Yeqing; Xue, Bei; Wang, Xinwen; Wang, Jiawen

    2016-07-01

    Heavy-ion radiation could lead to bystander effect in neighboring non-hit cells by signals released from directly-irradiated cells. The exact mechanisms of radiation-induced bystander effect in distant organ remain obscure, yet accumulating evidence points to the role of DNA methylation changes in bystander effect. To identify the molecular mechanism that underlies bystander effects of heavy-ion radiation, the male Balb/c and C57BL mice were cranial exposed to 40, 200, 2000mGy dose of carbon heavy-ion radiation, while the rest of the animal body was shielded. The γH2AX foci as the DNA damage biomarker in directly irradiation organ ear and the distant organ liver were detected on 0, 1, 2, 6, 12 and 24h after radiation, respectively. Methylation-sensitive amplifcation polymorphism (MSAP) was used to monitor the level of polymorphic genomic DNA methylation changed with dose and time effects. The results show that cranial irradiated mice could induce the γH2AX foci and genomic DNA methylation changes significantly in both the directly irradiation organ ear and the distant organ liver. The percent of DNA methylation changes were time-dependent and tissue-specific. Demethylation polymorphism rate were highest separately at 1 h in 200 mGy and 6 h in 2000 mGy after irradiation in ear. The global DNA methylation changes tended to occur in the CG sites. We also found that the numbers of γH2AX foci and the genomic methylation changes of heavy-ion radiation-induced bystander effect in liver could be obvious 1 h after radiation and achieved the maximum at 6 h, while the changes could recover gradually at 12 h. The results suggest that mice head exposed to heavy-ion radiation can induce damage and methylation pattern changed in both directly radiation organ ear and distant organ liver. Moreover, our findings are important to understand the molecular mechanism of radiation induced bystander effects in vivo. Keywords: Heavy-ion radiation; Bystander effect; DNA methylation; γH2

  6. The effect of thymus cells on bone marrow transplants into sublethally irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruszewski, J.A.; Szcylik, C.; Wiktor-Jedrzejczak, W.

    1984-01-01

    Bone marrow cells formed similar numbers of 10-days spleen colonies in sublethally (6 Gy) irradiated C57B1/6 mice as in lethally (7.5 Gy) irradiated mice i.e. approximately 20 per 10 5 cells. Numbers of 10 day endogenous spleen colonies in sublethally irradiated mice (0.2 to 0.6 per spleen) did not differ significantly from the numbers in lethally irradiated mice. Yet, transplants of 10 7 coisogenic marrow cells into sublethally irradiated mice resulted in predominantly endogenous recovery of granulocyte system as evidenced by utilization of ''beige'' marker for transplanted cells. Nevertheless, transplanted cells engrafted into sublethally irradiated mice were present in their hemopoietic tissues throughout the observation period of 2 months never exceeding 5 to 10% of cells. Thymus cells stimulated endogenous and exogenous spleen colony formation as well as endogenous granulopoietic recovery. Additionally, they increased both the frequency and absolute numbers of graft-derived granulocytic cells in hemopoietic organs of transplanted mice. They failed, however, to essentially change the quantitative relationships between endogenous and exogenous hemopoietic recovery. These results may suggest that spleen colony studies are not suitable for prediction of events following bone marrow transplant into sublethally irradiated mice. Simultaneously, they have strengthened the necessity for appropriate conditioning of recipients of marrow transplants. (orig.) [de

  7. The effect of X-irradiation on the fertility and the induction of meiotic chromosome rearrangements in mice and their first generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savkovic, N.; Pecevski, J.; Maric, N.; Radivojevic, D.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of whole-body and local irradiation with a dose of 600 X-rays on the induction of chromosomal translocations in Diakinesis-Metaphase I of meiosis in treated and F 1 males and their fertility have been examined. Our results showed the high percentage of mortality in whole-body irradiated mice. The percentage of fertility was 25% in whole-body, and 93,7% in locally irradiated males. The testis weight was also reduced. The percentage of chromosomal translocations in Diakinesis-Metaphase I of meiosis was greater after whole-body than after local irradiation. In F 1 males both types of irradiation induced chromosomal translocations. (orig.) [de

  8. Some genetic profiles in liver of Ehrlich ascites tumor-bearing mice under the stress of irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal I. Hassan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Radiation therapy aims to kill cancer cells with a minimum of normal tissue exposure. In an attempt to define the molecular and biochemical changes associated with exposure to radiotherapy, the objective of the present study is to explore the effect of gamma (γ irradiation on nuclear factor, erythroid 2 (NFE2, P53, stromelysin-1 (matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP3, BCL-2 and BAX genes expression in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC bearing mice. Various biochemical parameters such as liver function, H2O2, B% and T% lymphocytes, total antioxidants and MDA were investigated to evaluate their usefulness as possible during cancer treatment with radiotherapy. Rats were irradiated with a single whole body Cobalt 60-gamma radiation dose of 0.5 Gy. Sixty-four female mice, weighing 20–25 g were used in this study and divided into three main groups. The first group served as control group, while the second were injected intraperitoneally with EAC then was subdivided into two groups, II A and II B. The latter one (group II B, the animals were exposed to a single dose of 0.5 Gy whole body γ irradiation. The third main group, were irradiated with a single dose of 0.5 Gy whole body γ irradiation. Blood and liver tissue samples were collected at 4, 24 and 96 h post-irradiation. The gene expression levels in the livers of animals from each exposure group were compared individually with that of pooled sham-irradiated animals. MMP3 and NFE2 were overexpressed in liver samples of EAC group post 4, 24 and 96 h of γ irradiation (IIB. On the other hand, P53 and BCL-2 genes were downregulated by using RT-PCR analysis post 4, 24 and 96 h of γ irradiation (IIB. As well as, liver function and MDA were increased significantly in the γ - irradiation group (3rd group when compared to control mice (1st group. Gamma irradiation 3rd group revealed increase in the level of T% and B% lymphocytes. According to the obtained results, both γ rays and time period alter

  9. Studies on modulatory effect of Opuntia elatior extract in Swiss albino mice against gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poonia, Kavita; Sharma, Jaimala

    2016-01-01

    Opuntia elatior is succulent shrub and is widely grown in warmer parts of the world. Opuntia spp. have shown a variety of medicinal properties such as antiviral, antihyper-lipidemic, antioxidative, antiulcerous, immunomodulatory etc. Objective of the study was to explore radioprotective potential of this wild cactus. The cladodes of Opuntia elatior were collected and cleaned and shade-dried and powdered then hydroalcoholic extract was prepared by refluxing for 36 hrs at 40 °C then liquid extract was cooled and concentrated by evaporating its liquid contents. Mice selected for this study were divided into 5 groups of 5 animals each and administered Opuntia elatior extract dissolved in double distilled water orally with the 5, 10, 20, 40, 80 (mg./kg. body weight/day) for 30 minutes and then animals were exposed whole-body to 8 Gy gamma radiation. After irradiation, these doses were given for 30 consecutive days. Two doses 5 and 10 (mg./kg. body weight/day) were found tolerable when observed for weight, sign of sickness, morbidity, behavioral and mortality till 30 days. The optimum dose was chosen as 10 (mg./kg body weight/day) on the basis of radiation sickness and survival of mice. It will lay the foundation for the development of New, more effective and non toxic radiomodulators drugs from natural sources. (author)

  10. Effects of the SARM ACP-105 on rotorod performance and cued fear conditioning in sham-irradiated and irradiated female mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayger, Catherine; Villasana, Laura; Pfankuch, Timothy; Davis, Matthew; Raber, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    Female mice are more susceptible to radiation-induced cognitive changes than male mice. Previously, we showed that in female mice, androgens antagonize age-related cognitive decline in aged wild-type mice and androgens and selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) antagonize cognitive changes induced by human apolipoprotein E4, a risk factor for developing age-related cognitive decline. In this study, the potential effects of the SARM ACP-105 were assessed in female mice that were either sham-irradiated or irradiated with 137Cesium at a dose of 10 Gy. Behavioral testing started 2 weeks following irradiation. Irradiation impaired sensorimotor function in vehicle-treated mice but not in ACP-105-treated mice. Irradiation impaired cued fear conditioning and ACP-105 enhanced fear conditioning in sham-irradiated and irradiated mice. When immunoreactivity for microtubule-associated protein was assessed in the cortex of sham-irradiated mice, there was a brain area × ACP-105 interaction. While ACP-105 reduced MAP-2 immunoreactivity in the sensorymotor cortex, it increased MAP-2 immunoreactivity in the enthorhinal cortex. No effect on MAP-2 immunoreactivity was seen in the irradiated cortex or sham-irradiated or irradiated hippocampus. Thus, there are relatively early radiation-induced behavioral changes in female mice and reduced MAP-2 levels in the sensorimotor cortex following ACP-105 treatment might contribue to enhanced rotorod performance. PMID:21219889

  11. Whole Body Microwave Irradiation for Improved Dacarbazine Therapeutical Action in Cutaneous Melanoma Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Neagu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A cutaneous melanoma mouse model was used to test the efficacy of a new therapeutical approach that uses low doses of cytostatics in conjunction with mild whole body microwave exposure of 2.45 GHz in order to enhance cytostatics antitumoral effect. Materials and Methods. A microwave exposure system for C57BL/6 mouse whole body microwave irradiation was designed; groups of 40 mice (males and females bearing experimental tumours were subjected to a combined therapy comprising low doses of dacarbazine in combination with mild whole body irradiation. Clinical parameters and serum cytokine testing using xMAP technology were performed. Results. The group that was subjected to combined therapy, microwave and cytostatic, had the best clinical evolution in terms of overall survival, tumour volume, and metastatic potential. At day 14 the untreated group had 100% mortality, while in the combined therapy group 40% of mice were surviving. Quantifying serum IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 (p70, IFN-γ, GM-CSF, TNF-α, MIP-1α, MCP-1, and KC during tumorigenesis and therapy found that the combined experimental therapy decreases all the inflammatory cytokines, except chemokine MCP-1 that was found increased, suggesting an increase of the anti-tumoral immune response triggered by the combined therapy. The overall metastatic process is decreased in the combined therapy group.

  12. Marrow toxicity of fractionated vs. single dose total body irradiation is identical in a canine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storb, R.; Raff, R.F.; Graham, T.; Appelbaum, F.R.; Deeg, H.J.; Schuening, F.G.; Shulman, H.; Pepe, M.

    1993-01-01

    The authors explored in dogs the marrow toxicity of single dose total body irradiation delivered from two opposing 60 Co sources at a rate of 10 cGy/min and compared results to those seen with total body irradiation administered in 100 cGy fractions with minimum interfraction intervals of 6 hr. Dogs were not given marrow transplants. They found that 200 cGy single dose total body irradiation was sublethal, with 12 of 13 dogs showing hematopoietic recovery and survival. Seven of 21 dogs given 300 cGy single dose total body irradiation survived compared to 6 of 10 dogs given 300 cGy fractionated total body irradiation. One of 28 dogs given 400 cGy single dose total body irradiation survived compared to none of six given fractionated radiation. With granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF) administered from day 0-21 after 400 cGy total body irradiation, most dogs survived with hematological recovery. Because of the almost uniform success with GCSF after 400 cGy single dose total body irradiation, a study of GCSF after 400 cGy fractionated total body irradiation was deemed not to be informative and, thus, not carried out. Additional comparisons between single dose and fractionated total body irradiation were carried out with GCSF administered after 500 and 600 cGy of total body irradiation. As with lower doses of total body irradiation, no significant survival differences were seen between the two modes of total body irradiation, and only 3 of 26 dogs studied survived with complete hematological recovery. Overall, therefore, survival among dogs given single dose total body irradiation was not different from that of dogs given fractionated total body irradiation (p = .67). Similarly, the slopes of the postirradiation declines of granulocyte and platelet counts and the rates of their recovery in surviving dogs given equal total doses of single versus fractionated total body irradiation were indistinguishable. 24 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Genetic Background Modulates Gene Expression Profile Induced by Skin Irradiation in Ptch1 Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvan, Antonella; Noci, Sara; Mancuso, Mariateresa; Pazzaglia, Simonetta; Saran, Anna; Dragani, Tommaso A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Ptch1 germ-line mutations in mice predispose to radiation-induced basal cell carcinoma of the skin, with tumor incidence modulated by the genetic background. Here, we examined the possible mechanisms underlying skin response to radiation in F1 progeny of Ptch1 neo67/+ mice crossed with either skin tumor-susceptible (Car-S) or -resistant (Car-R) mice and X-irradiated (3 Gy) at 2 days of age or left untreated. Methods and Materials: We conducted a gene expression profile analysis in mRNA samples extracted from the skin of irradiated or control mice, using Affymetrix whole mouse genome expression array. Confirmation of the results was done using real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Results: Analysis of the gene expression profile of normal skin of F1 mice at 4 weeks of age revealed a similar basal profile in the nonirradiated mice, but alterations in levels of 71 transcripts in irradiated Ptch1 neo67/+ mice of the Car-R cross and modulation of only eight genes in irradiated Ptch1 neo67/+ mice of the Car-S cross. Conclusions: These results indicate that neonatal irradiation causes a persistent change in the gene expression profile of the skin. The tendency of mice genetically resistant to skin tumorigenesis to show a more complex pattern of transcriptional response to radiation than do genetically susceptible mice suggests a role for this response in genetic resistance to basal cell tumorigenesis

  14. Inhibition of DNA repair by whole body irradiation induced nitric oxide leads to higher radiation sensitivity in lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Deepak; Santosh Kumar, S.; Raghu, Rashmi; Maurya, D.K.; Sainis, K.B.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: It is well accepted that the sensitivity of mammalian cells is better following whole body irradiation (WBI) as compared to that following in vitro irradiation. However, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Following WBI, the lipid peroxidation and cell death were significantly higher in lymphocytes as compared to that in vitro irradiated lymphocytes. Further, WBI treatment of tumor bearing mice resulted in a significantly higher inhibition of EL-4 cell proliferation as compared to in vitro irradiation of EL-4 cells. The DNA repair was significantly slower in lymphocytes obtained from WBI treated mice as compared to that in the cells exposed to same dose of radiation in vitro. Generation of nitric oxide following irradiation and also its role in inhibition of DNA repair have been reported, hence, its levels were estimated under both WBI and in vitro irradiation conditions. Nitric oxide levels were significantly elevated in the plasma of WBI treated mice but not in the supernatant of in vitro irradiated cells. Addition of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a nitric oxide donor to in vitro irradiated cells inhibited the repair of DNA damage and sensitized cells to undergo cell death. It also enhanced the radiation-induced functional impairment of lymphocytes as evinced from suppression of mitogen-induced IL-2, IFN-γ and bcl-2 mRNA expression. Administration of N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl-ester(L-NAME), a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, to mice significantly protected lymphocytes against WBI-induced DNA damage and inhibited in vivo radiation-induced production of nitric oxide. Our results indicated that nitric oxide plays a role in the higher radiosensitivity of lymphocytes in vivo by inhibiting repair of DNA damage

  15. The stimulatory effect of single-dose pre-irradiation administration of indomethacin and diclofenac on haemopoietic recovery in the spleen of gamma-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozubik, A.; Pospisil, M.; Netikova, J.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the work was to examine the effect of the single-dose pre-irradiation administration of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs, i.e. indomethacin (0.15 mg/mouse) and diclofenac (0.6 mg/mouse) on the recovery of haemopoiesis in the spleen of whole-body irradiated male mice (CBA x C57BL/10)F 1 . It was shown that the administation of these substances 1-24 h prior to sublethal irradiation stimulates the recovery of the proliferation activity of the spleen and the formation of endogenous spleen colonies. These results can be explained as the inhibitory effect of the substances administered on biosynthesis of prostaglandins. (author)

  16. Effect of local x-irradiation on mice reproduction in two successive generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'nikova, N.K.; Lisenkova, L.N.

    1978-01-01

    For an experimental assessment of the biologic effectiveness of a single exposure to local irradiation exposure in simulating the conditions of exposure in X ray studies, an experiment was carried out on white mice. Mice of two successive generations were exposed to local X irradiation in the eye region. The radiation was found to bring about changes in the reproductive function (such as sterility, reduced litter size and fertility of females); these changes being dose-dependent in a nonlinear manner. The biologic effect of irradiation was greater in the second-generation mice

  17. The effects of three types of macrophages culture supernatant on CFU-GM in irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quan Hongxun; Fu Li; Zhao Fengchen; Han Fen

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of peritional macrophyge(PM), alveolar macrophage (AM), and Kupffer cell (KC) on colony forming unite granulacyte/macrophage (CFU -GM) in irradiated mice. Methods: Using techniques of hemopoietic progenitors in vitro, the authors studied the effects of three types of macrophages culture supernatant on CFU - GM. Results: It is shown that three types of macrophages culture supernatant may stimulate proliferation and differentiation of CFU-GM in irradiated mice, and KC is the best one in comparison to others. Conclusion: three types of macrophages culture supernatant may protect CFU-GM irradiated mice with KC being the best method. (authors)

  18. Investigation of wholesomeness of feeding low-irradiated diet to mice. Part of a coordinated programme on the wholesomeness of the process of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baev, I.A.

    1980-06-01

    Studies are carried out on the wholesomeness of irradiated food with special reference to gamma irradiation (0.75 kGy) maize, (1 kGy) walnuts and (2 kGy) prune-plums. These include physico-chemical changes in the food constituents as well as toxicity and mutagenic effects on animals after long-term feeding test. The results indicate an increase of the carbonyl compounds after irradiation in all studied foodstuffs, but there is not significant difference in the number of the new-formed carbonyl compounds when compared with controls. Biomedical investigation are carried out to define any toxicity, consideration being given to both direct effects in adult or growing organisms and to effect in their progeny. Effects of gamma irradiated diet, including maize, walnuts and prune-plums, exposed to the above mentioned doses fed to three consecutive generations of mice have been studied. A 35% addition of irradiated feed to standard diet is shown to produce no deleterious effects as judged by mean litter size, body weight at weaning, adult body weight and organ weight, haematological measures and some enzyme activities

  19. Influence of diethylmaleate on the survival of irradiated mice and on serum protein levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardes, E.

    1990-01-01

    Glutathione (GSH) is the major of the living plants or animal cell low molecular weight thiol compound which serves as a main endogenous cellular radioprotector. In order to improve radiotherapy, a possible approach should be to try to administrate hypoxic cell radiosensitizers altogether with glutathione intracellular depletors, for example, a binding GSH agent like diethylmaleate (DEM), in an attempt to overcome the neurotoxic side effects while maintaining their radiosensitizing properties. This study was performed to investigate whether the administration of DEM alone could modify the radioresistance of mice as measure by the 30-day-survival after irradiation and to establish whether this modification can be reflected in the murine serum protein profiles. Millimolar concentrations of DEM were dissolved alternatively in commercial peanut oil or absolute ethanol (final concentration 0.27%) and administered to male or female albino mice ip 1 h prior to 9 Gy sup(60) Cowhole-body irradiation with an average dose rate of 5.2 Gy/min. (author)

  20. Development of Schistosoma incognitum in mice upon intraperitoneal inoculation with irradiated schistosomula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhilegaonkar, N.G.; Sahasrabudhe, V.K.

    1987-01-01

    As a prelude to the study of the immunizing potential of gamma-irradiated Schistosoma incognitum schistosomula, experiments were conducted to study the effect of different doses of gamma irradiation (1,3,5 and 10 kr) on the development and survival of S. incognitum in mice, and its attendant pathology. The present experiments suggested that 3 and 5 kr irradiation doses can be safely used for irradiating schistosomula for immunization experiments in mice as the worms will not mature and therefore no harm will be caused which is mainly due to the eggs. (author). 7 refs

  1. Low Doses of Oxygen Ion Irradiation Cause Acute Damage to Hematopoietic Cells in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhui Chang

    Full Text Available One of the major health risks to astronauts is radiation on long-duration space missions. Space radiation from sun and galactic cosmic rays consists primarily of 85% protons, 14% helium nuclei and 1% high-energy high-charge (HZE particles, such as oxygen (16O, carbon, silicon, and iron ions. HZE particles exhibit dense linear tracks of ionization associated with clustered DNA damage and often high relative biological effectiveness (RBE. Therefore, new knowledge of risks from HZE particle exposures must be obtained. In the present study, we investigated the acute effects of low doses of 16O irradiation on the hematopoietic system. Specifically, we exposed C57BL/6J mice to 0.1, 0.25 and 1.0 Gy whole body 16O (600 MeV/n irradiation and examined the effects on peripheral blood (PB cells, and bone marrow (BM hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs and hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs at two weeks after the exposure. The results showed that the numbers of white blood cells, lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils and platelets were significantly decreased in PB after exposure to 1.0 Gy, but not to 0.1 or 0.25 Gy. However, both the frequency and number of HPCs and HSCs were reduced in a radiation dose-dependent manner in comparison to un-irradiated controls. Furthermore, HPCs and HSCs from irradiated mice exhibited a significant reduction in clonogenic function determined by the colony-forming and cobblestone area-forming cell assays. These acute adverse effects of 16O irradiation on HSCs coincided with an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, enhanced cell cycle entry of quiescent HSCs, and increased DNA damage. However, none of the 16O exposures induced apoptosis in HSCs. These data suggest that exposure to low doses of 16O irradiation induces acute BM injury in a dose-dependent manner primarily via increasing ROS production, cell cycling, and DNA damage in HSCs. This finding may aid in developing novel strategies in the protection of the

  2. [Induction of glutathione and activation of immune functions by low-dose, whole-body irradiation with gamma-rays].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Shuji

    2006-10-01

    We first examined the relation between the induction of glutathione and immune functions in mice after low-dose gamma-ray irradiation. Thereafter, inhibition of tumor growth by radiation was confirmed in Ehrlich solid tumor (EST)-bearing mice. The total glutathione level of the splenocytes transiently increased soon after irradiation and reached a maximum at around 4 h postirradiation. Thereafter, the level reverted to the 0 h value by 24 h postirradiation. A significantly high splenocyte proliferative response was also recognized 4 h postirradiation. Natural killer (NK) activity was also increased significantly in a similar manner. The time at which the response reached the maximum coincided well with that of maximum total glutathione levels of the splenocytes in the gamma-ray-irradiated mice. Reduced glutathione exogenously added to splenocytes obtained from normal mice enhanced the proliferative response and NK activity in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibitory effects of radiation on tumor growth was then examined in EST-bearing mice. Repeated low-dose irradiation (0.5 Gy, four times, before and within an early time after inoculation) significantly delayed the tumor growth. Finally, the effect of single low-dose (0.5 Gy), whole-body gamma-ray irradiation on immune balance was examined to elucidate the mechanism underlying the antitumor immunity. The percentage of B cells in blood lymphocytes was selectively decreased after radiation, concomitant with an increase in that of the helper T cell population. The IFN-gamma level in splenocyte culture prepared from EST-bearing mice was significantly increased 48 h after radiation, although the level of IL-4 was unchanged. IL-12 secretion from macrophages was also enhanced by radiation. These results suggest that low-dose gamma-rays induce Th1 polarization and enhance the activities of tumoricidal effector cells, leading to an inhibition of tumor growth.

  3. Pathomorphology of spleen lymphocyte apoptosis in large dose 60Co γ-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Linlu; Cui Yufang; Yang Hong; Xia Guowei; Peng Ruiyun; Gao Yabing; Wang Dewen

    2000-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the authors was to investigate the pathomorphology changes of spleen lymphocyte apoptosis after 60 Co γ-irradiation. Methods: The mice were irradiated with 6, 9, 12, 15 and 20 Gy of 60 Co γ-rays. At different times after irradiation, the mice were sacrificed and the pathological changes of spleen lymphocyte were observed by light and transmission electron microscopies. Results: Spleen lymphocyte decreased evidently and the peak of apoptosis in spleen lymphocyte was dependent on radiation dose and the time after irradiation. Conclusion: After γ-irradiation with large doses, pathological changes of spleen lymphocyte apoptosis in mice can be divided into obviously different stages. The main causes of death of spleen lymphocytes are different in different dose groups

  4. Kinetics of endogenous CFU-s in mice receiving divided-dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Yori

    1975-01-01

    The relationship between dose and survival of endogenous CFUs in mice irradiated by a single dose of 167.2 rad was similar to that in mice receiving three daily doses of 55.7 rad each. In the latter dose range, the effect of dose fractionation was not evident. For five days after divided doses of irradiation, the CFUs increased with a calculated Td of 34.6 hours. For this period, the reduction of CFUs by HU treatment reached 86%. Eleven days after the divided doses of irradiation, the reactions of the CFUs kinetics were similar to the reactions in mice without the previously divided doses of irradiation. The recovery from injury caused by divided irradiation seems to occur within 11 days. The parameter p of CFUs was 0.54 and α was 0.46 for the A cell. One may conclude, therefore, that the kinetics of endogenous CFUs is similar to that of transplanted CFUs. (author)

  5. Cross-immunity between syngeneic tumors in mice immunized with gamma-irradiated ascites tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Hajime; Waga, Takashi; Sato, Tatsusuke; Ogasawara, Masamichi; Ito, Izumi

    1980-01-01

    C3H/He mice immunized repeatedly with irradiated (13,000 rads 60 Co) MM46 or MM48, both transplantable ascites mammary carcinomas of the same strain, were subcutaneously challenged with the identical or the different tumor. In mice immunized with irradiated MM46, the growth of challenges of not only MM46 but also MM48 was inhibited. On the other hand, in mice immunized with irradiated MM48, the growth of challenges of MM48 was inhibited, but the inhibition of the growth of MM46 was not observed. Cross-immunity, therefore, was shown by immunization with MM46 but not with MM48. These findings were considered to indicate that MM46 expressed cross-immunity against MM48 because of its high resistance to the irradiation, and that MM48 did not show cross-immunity to MM46 because of its low resistance to the irradiation. (author)

  6. Radioprotective effects of Aloe vera leaf extract on skin of Swiss mice after gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehlot, Prashasnika; Saini, M.R.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Biological effects of radiation are detrimental to life. Skin being a cell-renewal system is one of the best organ for studying radiation induced effects and their modulation by antioxidants. An attempt has been made to evaluate radioprotective efficacy of Aloe vera leaf extract on skin in Swiss mice (1g/kg body wt/day). The mice selected from inbreed colony were divided into two groups. The first group was given Aloe vera extract orally for 15th consecutive days and served as experimental group while the other group received DDW (vol. equal to Aloe extract) to serve as control group. On the 15th day, after 30 min of above treatment animals of both the groups were exposed to 2 Gy gamma irradiation and autopsied on 6h 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 days. DNA as well as total protein decreases in control group as compared to the normal value. Surprisingly, in experimental group, DNA and protein increases in comparison to the control group. Thus, Aloe vera were found to have positive influence against radiation induced alterations on skin of Swiss albino mice

  7. Treatment of Irradiated Mice with High-Dose Ascorbic Acid Reduced Lethality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tomohito; Kinoshita, Manabu; Yamamoto, Tetsuo; Ito, Masataka; Nishida, Takafumi; Takeuchi, Masaru; Saitoh, Daizoh; Seki, Shuhji; Mukai, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    Ascorbic acid is an effective antioxidant and free radical scavenger. Therefore, it is expected that ascorbic acid should act as a radioprotectant. We investigated the effects of post-radiation treatment with ascorbic acid on mouse survival. Mice received whole body irradiation (WBI) followed by intraperitoneal administration of ascorbic acid. Administration of 3 g/kg of ascorbic acid immediately after exposure significantly increased mouse survival after WBI at 7 to 8 Gy. However, administration of less than 3 g/kg of ascorbic acid was ineffective, and 4 or more g/kg was harmful to the mice. Post-exposure treatment with 3 g/kg of ascorbic acid reduced radiation-induced apoptosis in bone marrow cells and restored hematopoietic function. Treatment with ascorbic acid (3 g/kg) up to 24 h (1, 6, 12, or 24 h) after WBI at 7.5 Gy effectively improved mouse survival; however, treatments beyond 36 h were ineffective. Two treatments with ascorbic acid (1.5 g/kg × 2, immediately and 24 h after radiation, 3 g/kg in total) also improved mouse survival after WBI at 7.5 Gy, accompanied with suppression of radiation-induced free radical metabolites. In conclusion, administration of high-dose ascorbic acid might reduce radiation lethality in mice even after exposure. PMID:25651298

  8. Transplantability of human lymphoid cell line, lymphoma, and leukemia in splenectomized and/or irradiated nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, S.; Shimosato, Y.; Kuroki, M.; Sato, Y.; Nakajima, T.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of splenectomy and/or whole-body irradiation of nude mice before xenotransplantation of lymphoid cell lines, lymphoma, and leukemia were studied. Transplantation after whole-body irradiation resulted in the increased ''take'' rate of three cultured cell lines (two of T-cell-derived acute lymphocytic leukemia and one of B-cell derived acute lymphocytic leukemia) and in the tumorous growth of Burkitt-derived Raji and spontaneously transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines. With splenectomy plus irradiation as a pretreatment, tumorous growth occurred in four other cell lines which were not transplantable after irradiation only (two cell lines of Epstein-Barr virus-transformed cord blood cells and one each of null acute lymphocytic leukemia and nodular lymphoma-derived cell lines). Direct transplantation of leukemia and lymphoma cells into the pretreated mice was successful in 7 of 24 cases (29%). B-cell-derived diffuse large lymphoid lymphoma was transplantable in three of seven cases (43%). However, lymphoma and leukemia of peripheral T-cell origin was difficult to transplant even with pretreatment, and only one pleomorphic T-cell lymphoma grew to a significant size (2 cm). One tumor each of B-cell-derived diffuse large lymphoid and T-cell diffuse lymphoblastic lymphoma became transplantable

  9. Effect of irradiation/bone marrow transplantation on alveolar epithelial type II cells is aggravated in surfactant protein D deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlfeld, Christian; Madsen, Jens; Mackay, Rose-Marie; Schneider, Jan Philipp; Schipke, Julia; Lutz, Dennis; Birkelbach, Bastian; Knudsen, Lars; Botto, Marina; Ochs, Matthias; Clark, Howard

    2017-01-01

    Irradiation followed by bone marrow transplantation (BM-Tx) is a frequent therapeutic intervention causing pathology to the lung. Although alveolar epithelial type II (AE2) cells are essential for lung function and are damaged by irradiation, the long-term consequences of irradiation and BM-Tx are not well characterized. In addition, it is unknown whether surfactant protein D (SP-D) influences the response of AE2 cells to the injurious events. Therefore, wildtype (WT) and SP-D -/- mice were subjected to a myeloablative whole body irradiation dose of 8 Gy and subsequent BM-Tx and compared with age- and sex-matched untreated controls. AE2 cell changes were investigated quantitatively by design-based stereology. Compared with WT, untreated SP-D -/- mice showed a higher number of larger sized AE2 cells and a greater amount of surfactant-storing lamellar bodies. Irradiation and BM-Tx induced hyperplasia and hypertrophy in WT and SP-D -/- mice as well as the formation of giant lamellar bodies. The experimentally induced alterations were more severe in the SP-D -/- than in the WT mice, particularly with respect to the surfactant-storing lamellar bodies which were sometimes extremely enlarged in SP-D -/- mice. In conclusion, irradiation and BM-Tx have profound long-term effects on AE2 cells and their lamellar bodies. These data may explain some of the clinical pulmonary consequences of this procedure. The data should also be taken into account when BM-Tx is used as an experimental procedure to investigate the impact of bone marrow-derived cells for the phenotype of a specific genotype in the mouse.

  10. Total body irradiation in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fundagul Andic

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Total body irradiation is used in conjunction with chemotherapy as a conditioning regimen in the treatment of many disease such as leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, aplastic anemia, multiple myeloma and lymphoma prior to the hematopoetic stem cell transplantation. The main purposes of the hematopoetic stem cell transplantation are eradication of the recipient bone marrow and any residual cancer cells, creation of space in the receipient bone marrow for donor hematopoetic stem cells, and immunosuppression to prevent rejection of donor stem cells in the case of an allotransplant. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2014; 23(3.000: 398-410

  11. The role of phagocytes and specific antibodies in gamma irradiated mice infected by intracellular bacterial pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovarova, H.; Stulik, J.; Ledvina, M.

    1987-01-01

    The activation of oxygen metabolism in peritoneal macrophages during the defence against Francisella tularensis infection was inhibited by gamma irradiation of mice with 4.0 Gy. The application of specific antibodies protected the irradiated mice from the lethal infection without reactivation of oxygen metabolism in mononuclear phagocytes. These results demonstrated that the protecting function of the specific antibodies in the defence system against intracellular bacterial pathogens will be mediated by the oxygen-independent mechanisms. (author)

  12. Dominant lethal mutations in male mice fed γ-irradiated diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, P.S.; Aravindakshan, M.; Aiyer, A.S.; Sundaram, K.

    1975-01-01

    Three groups of Swiss male mice were fed a stock ration of an unirradiated or irradiated (2.5 Mrad) test diet for 8 wk. After the feeding period, the males were mated with groups of untreated female mice for 4 consecutive weeks. The females were autopsied at mid-term pregnancy for evaluation of dominant lethal mutations. Numbers of dead implantations, including deciduomas and dead embryos, showed no significant differences among the different groups, thus producing no evidence of any induced post-implantation lethality in mice fed on irradiated diet. Similarly, there was no indication of preimplantation lethality, since implantation rates remained comparable among different groups. Consumption of irradiated diet did not affect the fertility of mice. Total pre- and post-implantation loss, as indicated by the numbers of live implantations remained comparable among all the groups of mice. (author)

  13. Myeloproliferative disorders in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urowitz, M.B.; Rider, W.D.

    1985-01-01

    Four patients with refractory rheumatoid arthritis were treated with total body irradiation administered in two sittings, 300 to 400 rads to each half of the body. All four patients had taken antimetabolites prior to receiving total body irradiation, and two continued to use them after total body irradiation. Two patients had taken alkylating agents before, and one had used them after total body irradiation. All patients showed clinical improvement. However, in two patients myeloproliferative disorders developed: a myelodysplastic preleukemia at 40 months after total body irradiation in one and acute myelogenous leukemia at 25 months in the other. Total body irradiation differs from total nodal irradiation in the total dose of irradiation (300 to 400 rads versus 2,000 to 3,000), and in the duration of the therapy (two sittings versus treatment over several weeks to months). Furthermore, the patients in the total body irradiation study frequently used cytotoxic drugs before and/or after irradiation, whereas in one total nodal irradiation study, azathioprine (2 mg/kg per day or less) was permitted, but no other cytotoxic agents were allowed. Rheumatologists may therefore face a binding decision when deciding to treat a patient with rheumatoid arthritis with either a cytotoxic drug or irradiation

  14. Radioprotective effect of colony-stimulating factor on mice irradiated with 60Co γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Junning; Wang Tao; Xu Changshao; Wang Hongyun

    1995-01-01

    Adult male mice were irradiated with γ-rays 6 Gy once or 3 Gy three times in 7 days and intraperitoneally injected with colony-stimulating factor (CSF) in high doses or low doses. Mice of the control group were injected with normal saline only. Within 30 days after irradiation, the survival rate of mice irradiated with 6 Gy γ-rays once and treated with high dose CSF was 9/25, while that in the control group was 2/25. The survival rate of mice irradiated with 3 Gy three times and treated with high dose CSF was 10/13, while that in the control group was 4/13. Moreover, the survival times of both irradiated groups treated with high dose CSF were much longer than the control groups (p<0.01). This experiment also showed that CSF could reduce the lowering of peripheral blood white blood cell counts and promote their recovery. The number of CFU-S in mice treated with CSF was much higher (23.8 +- 4.82) than in the control group (9.4 +- 4.39) (p<0.01). Therefore, CSF could recover and reconstruct the hematopoietic function of bone marrow, and prolong the survival of irradiated mice

  15. Endocrine dysfunction after total body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feyer, P.; Titlbach, O.; Hoffmann, F.A.; Kubel, M.; Helbig, W.; Leipzig Univ.

    1989-01-01

    Data regarding changes of endocrine parameters after total body irradiation (TBI) and bone marrow transplantation (BMT) are described. Endocrine glands are usually resistant to irradiation under morphological aspects. But new methods of determination and sensitive tests were developed in the last few years. Now it is possible to detect already small functional changes. Endocrine studies in the course of the disease were followed serially in 16 patients with TBI and BMT. Pretransplant conditioning consisted of single-dose irradiation combined with a high-dose, short-term chemotherapy. Reactions of the endocrine system showed a defined temporary order. Changes of ACTH and cortisol were in the beginning. The pituitary-adrenal cortex system responds in a different way. The pituitary-thyroid system develops a short-term 'low-T 3 -syndrome' reflecting the extreme stress of the organism. At the same time we obtained an increase of thyroxine. Testosterone and luteotropic hormone, the sexual steroids showed levels representing a primary gonadal insufficiency. The studies in the posttransplant period yielded a return to the normal range at most of the hormonal levels with the exception of the sexual steroids. Sterility is one of the late effects of TBI. A tendency towards hypothyroidism could be noticed in some cases being only subclinical forms. Reasons and possible therapy are discussed. (author)

  16. Irradiation effects on the tumor and adjacent tissues of brain tumor-bearing mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, Yoshihiko; Maki, Yutaka; Tsunemoto, Hiroshi; Koike, Sachiko; Furukawa, Shigeo.

    1979-01-01

    C 3 H mice aged 56 - 70 days, weighing 27 - 37 g were used throughout this experiment. A transplantable fibrosarcoma arising spontaneously from C 3 H mice was used. For experiment, 10 4 tumor cells suspended in 0.025 ml of saline solution were injected into the cerebral hemisphere by a 26 gauge needle with a micrometer syringe under nembutal anesthesia. Whole brain irradiation was performed at 7 days after injection of the tumor cells and the radiation doses were 2,000 and 20,000 rads, respectively. The feature of x-rays were 200 kVp, 20 mA, 0.5 mm Cu + 0.5 mm Al filtration and TSD 20 cm. The dose-rate was 340 - 360 R/min. The articles of this study were as follows: a) Determination of LD 50 values for the mice, tumor-bearing in the brain or non-tumor-bearing; and b) Observation of clinical features and gross autopsy findings of the mice following irradiation. The LD 50 values for 2,000 rad irradiation in the tumor-bearing or non-tumor-bearing mice were 10.9 and 11.4 days, respectively. LD 50 values of 3.7 days and 4.3 days were the results for the tumor-bearing and non-tumor-bearing mice irradiated by 20,000 rad, respectively. On the other hand, the LD 50 value for the control group, i.e. non-irradiated mice, was 6.7 days. At postmortem examinations, gastrointestinal bleeding was observed frequently in mice bearing tumor in the brain. Whole brain irradiation is effective to prolong the life of tumor-bearing mice. However, in some instances, deaths have occurred earlier in tumor-bearing mice compared to the control group. (author)

  17. Protection of lethally irradiated mice with allogeneic fetal liver cells: influence of irradiation dose on immunologic reconstitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulunay, O.; Good, R.A.; Yunis, E.J.

    1975-01-01

    After lethal irradiation long-lived, immunologically vigorous C3Hf mice were produced by treatment with syngeneic fetal liver cells or syngeneic newborn or adult spleen cells. Treatment of lethally irradiated mice with syngeneic or allogeneic newborn thymus cells or allogeneic newborn or adult spleen cells regularly led to fatal secondary disease or graft-versus-host reactions. Treatment of the lethally irradiated mice with fetal liver cells regularly yielded long-lived, immunologically vigorous chimeras. The introduction of the fetal liver cells into the irradiated mice appeared to be followed by development of immunological tolerance of the donor cells. The findings suggest that T-cells at an early stage of differentiation are more susceptible to tolerance induction than are T-lymphocytes at later stages of differentiation. These investigations turned up a perplexing paradox which suggests that high doses of irradiation may injure the thymic stroma, rendering it less capable of supporting certain T-cell populations in the peripheral lymphoid tissue. Alternatively, the higher and not the lower dose of irradiation may have eliminated a host cell not readily derived from fetal liver precursors which represents an important helper cell in certain cell-mediated immune functions, e.g., graft-versus-host reactions, but which is not important in others, e.g., allograft rejections. The higher dose of lethal irradiation did not permit development or maintenance of a population of spleen cells that could initiate graft-versus-host reactions but did permit the development of a population of donor cells capable of achieving vigorous allograft rejection

  18. Inhibition of artificial lung metastases in mice by pre-irradiation of abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, K.; Hunter, N.; Peters, L.J.

    1980-01-01

    A phenomenon by which pre-irradiation of the abdomen of mice reduced the lung-colony-forming efficiency of i.v.-injected tumour cells is described. The extent of lung-colony inhibition was shown to depend on both the dose and timing of abdominal irradiation. The maximum inhibitory effect was obtained when mice received 1200 rad γ-irradiation to the abdomen 5-7 days before tumour-cell challenge, but there was no effect when abdominal irradiation was given 1 or >=14 days before challenge, or when radiation doses were <600 rad. In mice less than 3 weeks old, the effect was much less marked than in adults. The target tissue which, when irradiated, exerted the inhibitory influence on lung-colony formation was located in the ventral half of the abdomen in all 4 quadrants, and was probably gut. Radioactively labelled tumour cells were arrested normally in the lungs of irradiated mice, but were cleared more rapidly without evidence of sequestration in the irradiated gut. The most plausible mechanism seems to be that irradiation of the gut induces the production of natural killer cells with anti-tumour activity, though this has not been conclusively established. (author)

  19. The effects of in utero irradiation on mutation induction and transgenerational instability in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, Ruth C.; Hardwick, Robert J.; Shanks, Morag E.; Glen, Colin D.; Mughal, Safeer K.; Voutounou, Mariel; Dubrova, Yuri E.

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that the deleterious effects of prenatal irradiation can manifest during childhood, resulting in an increased risk of leukaemia and solid cancers after birth. However, the mechanisms underlying the long-term effects of foetal irradiation remain poorly understood. This study was designed to analyse the impact of in utero irradiation on mutation rates at expanded simple tandem repeat (ESTR) DNA loci in directly exposed mice and their first-generation (F 1 ) offspring. ESTR mutation frequencies in the germline and somatic tissues of male and female mice irradiated at 12 days of gestation remained highly elevated during adulthood, which was mainly attributed to a significant increase in the frequency of singleton mutations. The prevalence of singleton mutations in directly exposed mice suggests that foetal irradiation results in genomic instability manifested both in utero and during adulthood. The frequency of ESTR mutation in the F 1 offspring of prenatally irradiated male mice was equally elevated across all tissues, which suggests that foetal exposure results in transgenerational genomic instability. In contrast, maternal in utero exposure did not affect the F 1 stability. Our data imply that the passive erasure of epigenetic marks in the maternal genome can diminish the transgenerational effects of foetal irradiation and therefore provide important clues to the still unknown mechanisms of radiation-induced genomic instability. The results of this study offer a plausible explanation for the effects of in utero irradiation on the risk of leukaemia and solid cancers after birth.

  20. Computer-based anthropometrical system for total body irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Nieto, B; Sánchez-Doblado, F; Terrón, J A; Arráns, R; Errazquin, L

    1997-05-01

    For total body irradiation (TBI) dose calculation requirements, anatomical information about the whole body is needed. Despite the fact that video image grabbing techniques are used by some treatment planning systems for standard radiotherapy, there are no such systems designed to generate anatomical parameters for TBI planning. The paper describes an anthropometrical computerised system based on video image grabbing which was purpose-built to provide anatomical data for a PC-based TBI planning system. Using software, the system controls the acquisition and digitalisation of the images (external images of the patient in treatment position) and the measurement procedure itself (on the external images or the digital CT information). An ASCII file, readable by the TBI planning system, is generated to store the required parameters of the dose calculation points, i.e. depth, backscatter tissue thickness, thickness of inhomogeneity, off-axis distance (OAD) and source to skin distance (SSD).

  1. Exercise Enhances Whole-Body Cholesterol Turnover in Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meissner, Maxi; Havinga, Rick; Boverhof, Renze; Kema, Ido; Groen, Albert K.; Kuipers, Folkert

    MEISSNER, M., R. HAVINGA, R. BOVERHOF, I. KEMA, A. K. GROEN, and F. KUIPERS. Exercise Enhances Whole-Body Cholesterol Turnover in Mice. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 42, No. 8, pp. 1460-1468, 2010. Purpose: Regular exercise reduces cardiovascular risk in humans by reducing cholesterol levels, but

  2. Transcription and activity of antioxidant proteins after ionization irradiation of radiation-resistant and radiation-sensitive mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardmeier, R.

    1998-03-01

    The involvernent of antioxidant proteins catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH px), and thioredoxin (TRX) in radiobiological processes has been described at the enzyme activity level. We were interested in examining the transcription of these proteins in a mammalian system following ionizing irradiation. In order to answer the question whether radiation effects in sensitive mice (Balb/c) (RS) showed differences at the transcriptional level from radiation effects in resistant mice (C3H) (RR). We exposed the whole body of these strains to X/rays doses of 2, 4, and 6 Gy and sacrificed the animals 5, 15, and 30 minutes after irradiation. The mRNA was isolated from liver and hybrized with probes for antioxidant enzymes and thioredoxin, β-actin was used as a housekeeping gene control. Antioxidant enzyme activities were determined by standard assays. Parameters for aromatic hydroxylation (o-Tyr) and lipid peroxidation (MDA) were determined by HPLC methods. Antioxidant transcription was unchanged in contrast to antioxidant activities. SOD and CAT activities were elevated within 15 minutes in RR animals but not in RS at all radiation doses. Glutathione peroxidase activity was not different between RR and RS mice, and was only moderately elevated after irradiation. No significant differences were found between RR and RS animals at the oxidation level, although a radiation dose-dependent increase of oxidation products was detected in both groups. Quantification of thioredoxin mRNA revealed that RR mice transcribed this protein at a significantly higher level at an earlier time point (5 minutes) than did RS mice. This delay may well be responsible for the radioresistance although no quantitative differences were found. As unchanged transcription of antioxidant enzymes could not have been responsible for the increased antioxidant enzyme activities, preformed antioxidant enzymes may have been released by irradiation. This would be in agreement

  3. Radioprotective effect of Tamarindus indica pod extract in Swiss albino mice exposed to whole body electron beam radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandini, S.; Suchetha Kumari, N.; Ganesh Sanjeev; D'sa, Prima

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the radioprotective effect of Tamarindus indica pod extract against radiation induced damage.The effect of 100 mg of hydroalcoholic extract of Tamarindus indica pod was studied in Swiss albino mice exposed to 6 Gy whole body electron beam radiation. Treatment of mice with extract for 15 days before irradiation reduced the symptoms of radiation sickness when compared with the untreated irradiated group. The irradiated animals showed an elevation in lipid peroxidation and reduction in glutathione, total antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities. Radiation induced mice has shown micronucleus in the bone marrow cells. Treatment of mice with Tamarindus indica pod extract before irradiation caused a significant reduction in lipid peroxidation followed by significant elevation in reduced glutathione, total antioxidants, glutathione peroxidase and catalase activity. It also showed a reduction in the micronucleus formation in bone marrow cells. Results indicate that the radioprotective activity of Tamarindus indica pod extract may be due to free radical scavenging attributed as a result of increased antioxidant level in mice. (author)

  4. Elevated body temperature during sleep in orexin knockout mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Takatoshi; Klerman, Elizabeth B.; Sakurai, Takeshi; Scammell, Thomas E.

    2008-01-01

    Core body temperature (Tb) is influenced by many physiological factors, including behavioral state, locomotor activity, and biological rhythms. To determine the relative roles of these factors, we examined Tb in orexin knockout (KO) mice, which have a narcolepsy-like phenotype with severe sleep-wake fragmentation. Because orexin is thought to promote heat production during wakefulness, we hypothesized that orexin KO mice would have lower Tb while awake. Surprisingly, the Tb of orexin KO mice was 0.4°C higher than wild-type (WT) littermates during the dark period. Orexin KO mice had normal diurnal variations in Tb, but the ultradian rhythms of Tb, locomotor activity, and wakefulness were markedly reduced. During sustained wakefulness, Tb was the same in both groups. During the first 15 min of spontaneous sleep, the Tb of WT mice decreased by 1.0°C, but Tb in orexin KO mice decreased only 0.4°C. Even during intense recovery sleep after 8 hr of sleep deprivation, the Tb of orexin KO mice remained 0.7°C higher than in WT mice. This blunted fall in Tb during sleep may be due to inadequate activation of heat loss mechanisms or sustained activity in heat-generating systems. These observations reveal an unexpected role for orexin in thermoregulation. In addition, because heat loss is an essential aspect of sleep, the blunted fall in Tb of orexin KO mice may provide an explanation for the fragmented sleep of narcolepsy. PMID:16556901

  5. Effects of Altered Levels of Extracellular Superoxide Dismutase and Irradiation on Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Female Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Yani; Leu, David; Chui, Jennifer; Fike, John R.; Huang, Ting-Ting

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Altered levels of extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) and cranial irradiation have been shown to affect hippocampal neurogenesis. However, previous studies were only conducted in male mice, and it was not clear if there was a difference between males and females. Therefore, female mice were studied and the results compared with those generated in male mice from an earlier study. Methods and Materials: Female wild-type, EC-SOD-null (KO), and EC-SOD bigenic mice with neuronal-specific expression of EC-SOD (OE) were subjected to a single dose of 5-Gy gamma rays to the head at 8 weeks of age. Progenitor cell proliferation, differentiation, and long-term survival of newborn neurons were determined. Results: Similar to results from male mice, EC-SOD deficiency and irradiation both resulted in significant reductions in mature newborn neurons in female mice. EC-SOD deficiency reduced long-term survival of newborn neurons whereas irradiation reduced progenitor cell proliferation. Overexpression of EC-SOD corrected the negative impacts from EC-SOD deficiency and irradiation and normalized the production of newborn neurons in OE mice. Expression of neurotrophic factors brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3 were significantly reduced by irradiation in wild-type mice, but the levels were not changed in KO and OE mice even though both cohorts started out with a lower baseline level. Conclusion: In terms of hippocampal neurogenesis, EC-SOD deficiency and irradiation have the same overall effects in males and females at the age the studies were conducted

  6. Effects of Altered Levels of Extracellular Superoxide Dismutase and Irradiation on Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Female Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Yani [Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Leu, David [Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Palo Alto Institute of Research and Education, Palo Alto, California (United States); Chui, Jennifer [Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Fike, John R. [Departments of Neurosurgery and Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States); Huang, Ting-Ting, E-mail: tthuang@stanford.edu [Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); VA Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, California (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: Altered levels of extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) and cranial irradiation have been shown to affect hippocampal neurogenesis. However, previous studies were only conducted in male mice, and it was not clear if there was a difference between males and females. Therefore, female mice were studied and the results compared with those generated in male mice from an earlier study. Methods and Materials: Female wild-type, EC-SOD-null (KO), and EC-SOD bigenic mice with neuronal-specific expression of EC-SOD (OE) were subjected to a single dose of 5-Gy gamma rays to the head at 8 weeks of age. Progenitor cell proliferation, differentiation, and long-term survival of newborn neurons were determined. Results: Similar to results from male mice, EC-SOD deficiency and irradiation both resulted in significant reductions in mature newborn neurons in female mice. EC-SOD deficiency reduced long-term survival of newborn neurons whereas irradiation reduced progenitor cell proliferation. Overexpression of EC-SOD corrected the negative impacts from EC-SOD deficiency and irradiation and normalized the production of newborn neurons in OE mice. Expression of neurotrophic factors brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3 were significantly reduced by irradiation in wild-type mice, but the levels were not changed in KO and OE mice even though both cohorts started out with a lower baseline level. Conclusion: In terms of hippocampal neurogenesis, EC-SOD deficiency and irradiation have the same overall effects in males and females at the age the studies were conducted.

  7. Modification of death rate of irradiated mice by B.C.G

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allain, P.; Chaleil, D.; Maingot, D.; Larra, F.

    1976-01-01

    Freeze-dried Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) of Institut Pasteur was given by intravenous route to mice at 1,2 and 4mg/kg before and after γ irradiation of animals by 1000 rad. B.C.G. 1 mg/kg injected the day or the day after irradiation has a protective effect (mortality reduced from 77% for controls to 58% and 50% for treated mice). B.C.G. given before irradiation in single or double doses increased mortality [fr

  8. Alkaline phosphatase role in bone marrow and spleen hemopoietic cells recovery after mouse whole-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Mouhamad, K.; Al Sheikh, F.

    2013-04-01

    Hematopoietic tissue is consisted of two distinctly different tissues, the first part is the hematopoietic stem cells and the second tissue is a mixture of many supportive cells which the most important one of them is alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-secreted-fibroblastic cells (FBCs). It was thought that FBCs play an important role in the hematopoiesis through ALP secretion. Our previous studies indicated that the ALP secretion in bone marrow (BM) increased after a whole mouse body irradiation when the BM cellular component is completely destroyed and, then it was decreased when the BM regain its cellular component. We performed some experiences to verify if there is any role to the ALP in the hematopoiesis. We irradiated three groups of mice to non-lethal dose, the first one was injected by Tetramizole (anti-ALP) 24 hours before irradiation, and the second was injected by Lisinopril (anti-hematopoiesis) 24 hours before irradiation and the third left without any injection. The fourth left as control. Many histological sections were taken from BM and spleen on 1, 3, 7 and 30 days after irradiation to perform ALP-histological detection. These experiences were repeated to count BM cells. ALP secretion level in the BM was reached the maximum 3 days after irradiation without any injection when the cell number was in minimum then, the level of ALP start to decrease and the cell number start to increase. ALP secretion delayed when the mice were injected by Tetramizole and BM cell population also delayed to return to its normal position. But, the ALP secretion increased directly after irradiation when the mice were injected by Lisinopril which, the ALP secretion, normally reached the maximum by the third day. These results may indicate a role to the ALP in BM and spleen hematopoietic cell recovery (author).

  9. Dominant lethal mutations research in mice fed with irradiated black beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Z.P.

    1982-01-01

    To evaluate the potential mutagenic effects of irradiated black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) with conservation purpose, in germ cells of mice, dominant lethal assay were employed. Three groups of albino swiss male mice (S W-55) were fed with a normal ration, or unirradiated or irradiated (0,2; 0,5; 1; 5; 10; 15 e 20 KGy) test diets for eight weeks. After the feeding period the males were mated with groups of untreated females mice for four consecutive weeks. Numbers of pregnancy rates females were observed. The females were autopsied at mid-term pregnancy for evaluation of dominant lethal mutations. (author)

  10. Studies on the superoxide dismutase activity in the cytosolic fractions of the liver and spleen of gamma-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byoung Rai; Chung, Doo Young; Yang, Jong Dai; Cha, Jong Hee

    1985-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase(SOD, superoxide:superoxide oxidoreductase, EC 1.15.1.1) is a metalloprotein ubiquitously present in all aerobic living cells. At present, three types of SOD: copper and zinc-containing (Cu, Zn-SOD), manganese-containing(Mn-SOD) and iron-containing(Fe-SOD) enzyme have been isolated from both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. As a scanvenger of euperoxide radicals in biological tissues, these metalloenzymes are undoubtedly of importance in the protection of living organisms against the effect of highly toxic superoxide radicals. A variety of biologically important processes are accompaied by formation of these radiation. The present paper report the results of experiments dealing with SOD activity in the cytosolic fraction of the liver and spleen of mice exposed to 400R whole-body irradiation. The whole-body irradiation caused a decrease in the specific activity of SOD in the both liver and spleen which persist more than 21 days.(Author)

  11. Protective effect of gingerol on leucocyte and bone marrow DNA of 60Co γ-rays irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Zhenfei; Zhou Yu; Geng Yanyan; Zeng Xianyin

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the effect of gingerol on peripheral leucocyte and bone marrow DNA of 60 Co γ-rays irradiated mice was developed., Twenty-four healthy healthy female Kunming mice were randomly divided into 4 groups: control, gingerol, irradiation and gingerol + irradiation group. Gingerol group and gingerol + irradiation group were given gingerol intragastrically once a day for five days. Irradiation group and gingerol + irradiation group were suffered from 5 Gy 60 Co γ-rays irradiation at the rate of 1.2 Gy/min on the 6 th day. Blood samples, spleens, livers and thigh bones were collected to be measured after 48 h. The results showed that, compared with irradiation group, gingerol + irradiation group had significantly higher spleen index (p 60 Co γ-rays irradiated mice. (authors)

  12. Morphological studies on the healing process of tooth extraction wounds in whole body irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosokawa, Yoichiro

    1991-01-01

    The present studies were performed to investigate the healing process of the tooth extraction wound in whole body irradiated rats and to clarify the effect of irradiation on bone metabolism. One hundred and seven Wistar rats of about 100 g body weight were used and divided into 3 groups. Whole body irradiated rats were given single exposure with a dose of 8 Gy. The region of the left upper molars of local irradiated rats as controls, was exposed to 8 Gy. On the 7th day after irradiation, the left upper first molar of each rat was extracted. The rats were sacrificed at intervals of 1 to 14 days after extraction. Non-irradiated rats were sacrificed at the same intervals after extraction. The maxillary bone including the extraction wound was evaluated, histologically, histometrically and ultrastructurally. From the histological and histometrical findings, the difference of the healing process between non-irradiated rats and locally irradiated rats is not significant. In whole body irradiated rats, the healing process especially in the socket was disturbed. The osteoblastic new bone formation following production of granulation tissue was interfered with. Ultrastructurally, the cytoplasmic organellae were poorly developed in the osteoblast and osteoid formation was reduced in the socket. But periosteal new bone formation was the same as that of the locally irradiated rats. In whole body irradiated rats, the osteoclasts in the interradicular alveolar bone were decreased and have smaller nuclei, compared with non-irradiated and locally irradiated rats. Histometrically, the amount of bone loss was decreased in whole body irradiated rats. Ultrastructurally, the cyoplasmic organellae and ruffled border were poorly developed in the osteoclasts of whole body irradiated rats. The findings suggested that irradiation induced cytological changes not only in osteoblasts but in osteoclasts and these changes resulted in the delayed healing of extraction wound. (author) 106 refs

  13. Morphological studies on the healing process of tooth extraction wounds in whole body irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosokawa, Yoichiro (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Dentistry)

    1991-06-01

    The present studies were performed to investigate the healing process of the tooth extraction wound in whole body irradiated rats and to clarify the effect of irradiation on bone metabolism. One hundred and seven Wistar rats of about 100 g body weight were used and divided into 3 groups. Whole body irradiated rats were given single exposure with a dose of 8 Gy. The region of the left upper molars of local irradiated rats as controls, was exposed to 8 Gy. On the 7th day after irradiation, the left upper first molar of each rat was extracted. The rats were sacrificed at intervals of 1 to 14 days after extraction. Non-irradiated rats were sacrificed at the same intervals after extraction. The maxillary bone including the extraction wound was evaluated, histologically, histometrically and ultrastructurally. From the histological and histometrical findings, the difference of the healing process between non-irradiated rats and locally irradiated rats is not significant. In whole body irradiated rats, the healing process especially in the socket was disturbed. The osteoblastic new bone formation following production of granulation tissue was interfered with. Ultrastructurally, the cytoplasmic organellae were poorly developed in the osteoblast and osteoid formation was reduced in the socket. But periosteal new bone formation was the same as that of the locally irradiated rats. In whole body irradiated rats, the osteoclasts in the interradicular alveolar bone were decreased and have smaller nuclei, compared with non-irradiated and locally irradiated rats. Histometrically, the amount of bone loss was decreased in whole body irradiated rats. Ultrastructurally, the cyoplasmic organellae and ruffled border were poorly developed in the osteoclasts of whole body irradiated rats. The findings suggested that irradiation induced cytological changes not only in osteoblasts but in osteoclasts and these changes resulted in the delayed healing of extraction wound. (author) 106 refs.

  14. Development of infection with Streptococcus bovis and Aspergillus sp. in irradiated mice after glycopeptide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brook, I.; Tom, S.P.; Ledney, G.D.

    1993-01-01

    The use of ofloxacin and glycopeptides was evaluated for the treatment of infections arising in C3H/HeN female mice irradiated with 8.3 Gy from a 60 Co source. The 21 day regimen began 72 h after irradiation when each of five sets of experimental animals received three antimicrobial therapy regimens and a saline-treated control group. With 40 mice in each group, 20 were used to monitor survival, 20 for the recovery of bacteria from the liver culture. Treatment groups were oral ofloxacin; oral or intramuscular vancomycin oral teicoplanin, ofloxacin and vancomycin; ofloxacin and teicoplanin; or saline. Bacteria recovered from saline treated mice were Enterobacteriaceae and Streptococcus spp. By comparison, fewer Enterobacteriaceae were isolated from ofloxacin treated mice and fewer Streptococcus spp. in both vancomycin and teicoplanin treated mice. However, glycopeptide-treated mice developed infection with Aspergillis fumigatus and glycopeptide resistant Streptococcus bovis. Mortality rates within 60 days of irradiation were 100% in all treatment and control groups with the exception of ofloxacin which was 25%-35%. These data suggest that glycopeptide therapy increases rates of systemic infection with fungi and antibiotic resistant bacteria in irradiated mice. (Author)

  15. Protective Effect of HemoHIM on Epidermal Melanocytes in Ultraviolet-B irradiated Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hae June [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Choon; Moon, Chang Jong; Kim, Sung Ho [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jung, U Hee; Park, Hae Ran; Jo, Sung Kee [Jeongeup Campus of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Jong Sik; Kim, Tae Hwan [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    We induced the activation of melanocytes in the epidermis of C57BL/6 mice by ultraviolet-B (UV-B) irradiation, and observed the effect of an herbal preparation (HemoHIM, HH) on the formation, and decrease of UV-B-induced epidermal melanocytes. C57BL/6 mice were irradiated by UV-B 80 mJ:cm{sup -2} (0.5 mW:sec{sup -1}) daily for 7 days, and HH was intraperitoneally, orally or topically applied pre- or post-irradiation. For the estimation of change of epidermal melanocytes, light microscopic observation with dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) stain was performed. Split epidermal sheets prepared from the ear of untreated mice exhibited 13∼15 melanocytes:mm{sup -2}, and one week after UV irradiation, the applied areas showed an increased number of strongly DOPA-positive melanocytes with stout dendrites. But intraperitoneal, oral or topical treatment with HH before each irradiation interrupted UV-B-induced pigmentation and resulted in a marked reduction in the number of epidermal melanocytes as compared to the number found in UV-B-irradiated, untreated control skin. The number and size of DOPA-positive epidermal melanocytes were also significantly decreased in intraperitoneally injected or topically applicated group after irradiation with HH at 3rd and 6th weeks after irradiation. The present study suggests the HH as inhibitor of UV-B-induced pigmentation, and depigmenting agent.

  16. A new Bayesian model applied to cytogenetic partial body irradiation estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higueras, Manuel; Puig, Pedro; Ainsbury, Elizabeth A.; Vinnikov, Volodymyr A.; Rothkamm, Kai

    2016-01-01

    A new zero-inflated Poisson model is introduced for the estimation of partial body irradiation dose and fraction of body irradiated. The Bayes factors are introduced as tools to help determine whether a data set of chromosomal aberrations obtained from a blood sample reflects partial or whole body irradiation. Two examples of simulated cytogenetic radiation exposure data are presented to demonstrate the usefulness of this methodology in cytogenetic biological dosimetry. (authors)

  17. A new Bayesian model applied to cytogenetic partial body irradiation estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higueras, Manuel; Puig, Pedro; Ainsbury, Elizabeth A; Vinnikov, Volodymyr A; Rothkamm, Kai

    2016-03-01

    A new zero-inflated Poisson model is introduced for the estimation of partial body irradiation dose and fraction of body irradiated. The Bayes factors are introduced as tools to help determine whether a data set of chromosomal aberrations obtained from a blood sample reflects partial or whole body irradiation. Two examples of simulated cytogenetic radiation exposure data are presented to demonstrate the usefulness of this methodology in cytogenetic biological dosimetry. © Crown copyright 2015.

  18. In vivo dosimetry with silicon diodes in total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, F.F.; Amaral, L.L.; Costa, A.M.; Netto, T.G.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is the characterization and application of silicon diode detectors for in vivo dosimetry in total body irradiation (TBI) treatments. It was evaluated the diode response with temperature, dose rate, gantry angulations and field size. A maximum response variation of 2.2% was obtained for temperature dependence. The response variation for dose rate and angular was within 1.2%. For field size dependence, the detector response increased with field until reach a saturation region, where no more primary radiation beam contributes for dose. The calibration was performed in a TBI setup. Different lateral thicknesses from one patient were simulated and then the calibration factors were determined by means of maximum depth dose readings. Subsequent to calibration, in vivo dosimetry measurements were performed. The response difference between diode readings and the prescribed dose for all treatments was below 4%. This difference is in agreement as recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU), which is ±5%. The present work to test the applicability of a silicon diode dosimetry system for performing in vivo dose measurements in TBI techniques presented good results. These measurements demonstrated the value of diode dosimetry as a treatment verification method and its applicability as a part of a quality assurance program in TBI treatments. - Highlights: ► Characterization of a silicon diode dosimetry system. ► Application of the diodes for in vivo dosimetry in total body irradiation treatments. ► Implementation of in vivo dosimetry as a part of a quality assurance program in radiotherapy

  19. Ameliorating effects of genestein: Study on mice liver glutathione and lipid peroxidation after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaur, A.

    2010-01-01

    Genistein is a soya isoflavone, which is found naturally in legumes. such as soybeans and chickpeas. Radiation-induced free radicals in turn impair the antioxidative defense mechanism, leading to an increased membrane lipid peroxidation that results in damage of the membrane bound enzyme and may lead to damage or death of cell. Hence, the lipid peroxidation is a good biomarker of damage occurs due to radiation and the inhibition of lipid peroxidation is suggestive of radioprotective action. Glutathione has been shown to protect cells against oxidative stress by reacting with peroxides and hydroperoxides and determines the inherent radiosensitivity of cells. Materials and Methods: For experimentation, healthy Swiss Albino male mice of 6-8 weeks old were selected from inbred colony. Genistein was dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide and then prepared different concentration solutions so that the volume administered intraperitoneally was 0.5 ml. Lipid peroxidation was estimated by the method of Ohkawa and GSH was estimated by the method of Moron. Results: The intraperitoneal administration of optimum dose (200 mg/kg body weight) of Genistein before 24 hours and 15 minutes of irradiation (8 Gy at a dose rate of 1.02 Gy/min)reverted the increase in lipid peroxidation (by 18.01% ± 3.05) and decrease of Glutathione (by 62.05%±21.58) caused by irradiation in liver of Swiss albino mice. Statistically analyzed survival data produced a dose reduction factor = 1.24. Conclusion: The results indicate that Genistein against radiation effect may pave way to the formulation of medicine in radiotherapy for normal tissue and possible against radiomimetic drug induced toxicity.

  20. Slow elimination of injured liver DNA bases of γ-irradiated old mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaziev, A.I.; Malakhov, L.V.; Fomenko, L.A.

    1982-01-01

    The paper presents a study of the elimination of injured bases from the liver DNA of old and young mice after their exposure to γ rays. The presented data show that if DNA from the liver of irradiated mice is treated with incision enzymes, its priming activity is increased. In the case of enzymatic treatment of DNA isolated 5 h after irradiation we find a great difference between the priming activity of the liver DNA of old and young mice. The reason for this difference is that the liver DNA of 20-month old mice 5 h after irradiation still has many unrepaired injured bases. These data indicated that the rate of incision of γ-injured DNA bases in the liver of old mice is lower than in the liver of young mice. In the liver of mice of different age the rate of restitution of DNA, single-strand breaks induced by γ rays in doses up to 100 Gy is the same. At the same time, the level of induced reparative synthesis of DNA in cells of an old organism is lower than in cells of a young organism. The obtained data suggest that reduction of the rate of elimination of modified bases from the cell DNA of 20-month old mice is due to reduction of the activity of the DNA repair enzymes or to restrictions in the chromatin in the access of these enzymes to the injured regions of DNA in the cells of old animals

  1. THE EFFECT OF DONOR LYMPHOCYTES-T AND TOTAL-BODY IRRADIATION ON HEMATOPOIETIC ENGRAFTMENT AND PULMONARY TOXICITY FOLLOWING EXPERIMENTAL ALLOGENEIC BONE-MARROW TRANSPLANTATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DOWN, JD; MAUCH, P; WARHOL, M; NEBEN, S; FERRARA, JLM

    1992-01-01

    To study the effects of donor T lymphocytes on engraftment and graft-versus-host disease in relation to recipient total-body irradiation, we have returned small numbers of T cells to T-cell-depleted bone marrow transplanted across a minor histocompatibility barrier in mice (B10.BR --> CBA).

  2. Blood coagulation and fibrinolysis of the whole-body irradiated rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hishikawa-Itoh, Youko; Ayakawa, Yoshio; Miyata, Nobuki

    1984-01-01

    To study the effects of irradiation on blood coagulation and fibrinolysis, rabbits were irradiated with 60 Co γ-rays (whole-body: 0, 100, 400, 800, 1200 rads). Clotting time, activity of plasmin and plasminogen, and fibrinogen contents of irradiated rabbit plasma were measured at 4 days before, immediately after, and at 1, 3, 7, 10, and 14 days after irradiation. Both clotting times obtained by addition of (kaolin+phospholipid) which expressed effects on the total intrinsic coagulation system, and by addition of (Ca 2+ ) which expressed effects on the total extrinsic coagulation system, were prolonged with small dose irradiation (100 rads) immediately and 3 days after irradiation. However, with high dose irradiation (400-1200 rads), these clotting times were prolonged 1 day after irradiation. The times of manifestation of irradiation effects on clotting time were different in small and high dose irradiation. Plasmin activity was decreased immediately, 1 day after and recovered 3 days after irradiation. Plasminogen activity was markedly increased in 800 and 1200 rads irradiated groups from 3 days after irradiation. Conversion of plasminogen into plasmin was impaired by irradiation. Fibrinogen contents increased rapidly in all irradiated rabbits except for 100 rads from 1 day after irradiation. These results revealed decreased coagulation and fibrinolysis activities in rabbit blood, irradiation injury of both coagulation and fibrinolysis activation systems, and accumulation of the precursors of fibrin and plasmin (i.e., fibrinogen and plasminogen). (author)

  3. Effects of ginger extract on testis enzymes of X-ray irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Shuhua; Li Jingshun; Wang Chunhua; Pan Qin; Yang Qiong

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To research the effects of extract of ginger on testis enzymes of X-ray irradiated mice. Methods: Mice were treated with three different doses of extract of ginger: high dose (9.3 mL·kg -1 ), middle dose (4.7 mL·kg -1 ), and low dose (2.3 mL·kg -1 ). All mice were irradiated once with 2.0 Gy X-ray. At the same time, the negative group (treated with vegetable oil only) and positive one (irradiated as well as extract of ginger groups after treated with vegetable oil) were set up. The changes of activities of enzymes in testes of mice were observed. Results: After irradiated, in the group of high dose the activity of G-6-PD was decreased but the activity of LDH was increased (P 0.05). In every group, SDH had no significant difference (P>0.05). Conclusion: The proper dose of extract of ginger has significant effects on stabilization of testis enzymes of X-ray irradiated mice. (authors)

  4. Recovery and radio-resistance in mice after external irradiation; Restauration et radio-resistance chez la souris apres irradiation externe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Guillou, S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    The author presents a literature study concerning recovery from external irradiation and an analysis of experimental data (which appear to suggest the idea of a radio-resistance in animals), as well as the hypotheses put forward for explaining this phenomenon. The author then describes an experiment carried out on mice whose LD 50/30 days increased from 1005 to 1380 rads and for which it was shown that an increase occurs in the number of certain anti-bodies circulating after a low dose of {gamma} irradiation. (author) [French] L'auteur presente une etude bibliographique de la restauration apres irradiation externe et une analyse des donnees experimentales qui paraissent suggerer la notion de radioresistance chez les animaux ainsi que les hypotheses cherchant a expliquer ce phenomene. Il relate ensuite une experience realisee sur des souris dont la DL 50/30 jours est passee de 1005 a 1380 rads et dans laquelle est montree l'augmentation de certains anticorps circulant apres une faible dose d'irradiation gamma. (auteur)

  5. Effect of single and fractionated x-irradiation on maze learning ability of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, Takashi; Norimura, Toshiyuki; Nakamura, Takeshi; Yoshikawa, Isao

    1976-01-01

    Fifty-six-day-old male ddk mice at the starting of the investigation were used as subjects through the experiment for 64 weeks. After 15 days' preliminary training, and 16 times of weekly trial training using complete maze, 15 mice received a single 224 rads of x-rays (S group), another 15 mice received two 112 rads spaced two weeks apart (F group) and another 15 mice were sham-irradiated (Control group). Then those mice were tested on the multiple T-maze with nine-choice points and change of performance was observed in terms of errorchoices by giving one test trial a week. We introduced the concept of ''confusional trials'' as an index for surmising to what extent mice failed to exhibit good maze learning habits. In the results, the F group showed significantly worse performance than the two other groups at early stages, opposite to it the S group exhibited the same, but at late stages after irradiation. The worse performance of F group should be considered to be due to the psychological after-effect to fractionated irradiation and that for S group could be assumed to be due to the acceleration of aging by the irradiation. (auth.)

  6. Effect of semiconductor GaAs laser irradiation on pain perception in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarkovic, N.; Manev, H.; Pericic, D.; Skala, K.; Jurin, M.; Persin, A.; Kubovic, M.

    1989-01-01

    The influence of subacute exposure (11 exposures within 16 days) of mice to the low power (GaAs) semiconductive laser-stimulated irradiation on pain perception was investigated. The pain perception was determined by the latency of foot-licking or jumping from the surface of a 53 degrees C hot plate. Repeated hot-plate testing resulted in shortening of latencies in both sham- and laser-irradiated mice. Laser treatment (wavelength, 905 nm; frequency, 256 Hz; irradiation time, 50 sec; pulse duration, 100 nsec; distance, 3 cm; peak irradiance, 50 W/cm2 in irradiated area; and total exposure, 0.41 mJ/cm2) induced further shortening of latencies, suggesting its stimulatory influence on pain perception. Administration of morphine (20 mg/kg) prolonged the latency of response to the hot plate in both sham- and laser-irradiated mice. This prolongation tended to be lesser in laser-irradiated animals. Further investigations are required to elucidate the mechanism of the observed effect of laser.

  7. Therapeutic effect of recombinant human interleukin-11 and curcumin on jejunal damage in mice after neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Gongmin; Peng Ruiyun; Gao Yabing; Wang Shuiming; Li Yang; Xu Xinping; Wang Lifeng; Dong Ji; Zhao Li

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the therapeutic effect of recombinant human interleukin (rhIL-11) and curcumin on jejunal damage in mice after neutron irradiation. Methods: 140 male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into 4 groups: 20 mice in healthy control group, 60 mice in mere irradiation group, 30 mice in IL-11 treatment group and 30 mice in curcumin treatment group. The mere irradiation group mice were wholly exposed to 3 Gy neutron irradiation. The treatment groups mice were imtraperitoneally injected with rhIL-11 at the dosage of 500 μg·kg -1 ·d -1 and ourcumin of 200 mg·kg -1 ·/ -1 through enterocoelia once a day for a d after irradiation. The mortality of the mice were observed. The mice in the control and mere irradiation groups were killed 6 h, 1, 3, and 6 d post-irradiation, respectively, and the mice of the 2 treatment groups were killed 3 and 6 d post-irradiation, respectively and the samples of jujunum were colleted. HE staining, argyrophilic of nucleolar organizer staining, Feulgen staining, and image analysis were used to observe the pathology and levels of argyrophilic proteins and DNA. Results: The mice in the mere irradiation group all died at 5 d post-irradiation, while 2 mice in the IL-11 treatment group and 3 in the curcumin group survived. Large area necrosis and exfoliation were found in the intestinal epithelial mucosa of the mere irradiated group mice since 6 h to 3 d after irradiation. Crypt cell regeneration was seen occasionally found 3 days later and much more 5 days later. Crypt cell regeneration was obviously found in the intestinal epithelial mucosa and lots of new villi were observed 5 d after irradiation in both treatment groups, however, the amounts of crypt cells and new villi of the curcumin treatment group were less than those of the IL-11 treatment group. The contents of AgNOR and DNA in the intestinal epithelial cells 5 days after irradiation of the 2 treatment groups were all significantly higher than those of the mere

  8. Induction and reversion process of molecular and cytological alterations after highly irradiated food ingestion in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo M, M.I.; Fernandez C, M.

    1984-01-01

    The molecular and cytological alterations induced in a mammal (Mus musculus) fed ad libitum with a balanced pellet diet irradiated with 50 KGy gamma radiation from weaning, for different periods, are analyzed. The transient chromosomal changes that recall tumor-like phenomena could be the expression of the damage and repair processes induced by changed molecules present in irradiated food. The reversible alterations of DNA structure and cytoplasmatic soluble proteins observed in mice fed with irradiated pellet diet could be interpreted as a result of the enhancement of the repair processes which could also explain the significant increase of the radioresistance of DNA found at 200 days after irradiated food ingestion. Finally, our results would suggest an induction of a pseudo-neoplasia due to a prolongated and exclusive ingestion of food irradiated with sterilizing gamma dose. Moreover, the maintenance of the irradiated diet induce the reversion of the observed phenomena by an eventual activation of the repair mechanisms. (Author)

  9. OK-432 reduces mortality and bacterial translocation in irradiated and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF)-treated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nose, Masako; Uzawa, Akiko; Ogyu, Toshiaki; Suzuki, Gen

    2001-01-01

    Acute radiation induces bacterial translocation from the gut, followed by systemic infection and sepsis. In order to reduce the mortality after acute whole body irradiation, it is essential to control bacterial translocation. In this study, we established a bacterial translocation assay as a sensitive method to detect minor mucosal injury by radiation. By utilizing this assay, we evaluated the adverse effects, if any, of hematopoietic reagents on the mucosal integrity in the respiratory and gastro-intestinal tracts. Bacterial translocation to the liver and spleen occurred after whole-body irradiation if the dose exceeded 6 Gy. The administration of G-CSF unexpectedly increased the bacterial translocation in 8 Gy-irradiated mice. The pharmaceutical preparation of low-virulent Streptococcus pyogenes, OK-432, significantly reduced the endotoxin levels in peripheral blood without any reduction of bacterial translocation. A combined treatment with G-CSF and OK-432 decreased bacterial translocation and prevented death. This result indicates that the early administration of G-CSF has an adverse effect on bacterial translocation, and that a combined treatment of G-CSF and OK-432 attenuates the adverse effect of G-CSF and improves the survival rate after acute irradiation. (author)

  10. OK-432 reduces mortality and bacterial translocation in irradiated and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF)-treated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nose, Masako; Uzawa, Akiko; Ogyu, Toshiaki [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Suzuki, Gen

    2001-06-01

    Acute radiation induces bacterial translocation from the gut, followed by systemic infection and sepsis. In order to reduce the mortality after acute whole body irradiation, it is essential to control bacterial translocation. In this study, we established a bacterial translocation assay as a sensitive method to detect minor mucosal injury by radiation. By utilizing this assay, we evaluated the adverse effects, if any, of hematopoietic reagents on the mucosal integrity in the respiratory and gastro-intestinal tracts. Bacterial translocation to the liver and spleen occurred after whole-body irradiation if the dose exceeded 6 Gy. The administration of G-CSF unexpectedly increased the bacterial translocation in 8 Gy-irradiated mice. The pharmaceutical preparation of low-virulent Streptococcus pyogenes, OK-432, significantly reduced the endotoxin levels in peripheral blood without any reduction of bacterial translocation. A combined treatment with G-CSF and OK-432 decreased bacterial translocation and prevented death. This result indicates that the early administration of G-CSF has an adverse effect on bacterial translocation, and that a combined treatment of G-CSF and OK-432 attenuates the adverse effect of G-CSF and improves the survival rate after acute irradiation. (author)

  11. Therapeutic effects of gingerol on hematopoietic and antioxidative damage of 60Co γ-rays irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng Yanyan; Xie Zhenfei; Zhou Yu; Zeng Xianyin

    2012-01-01

    18 female Kunming mice were chosen and randomly divided into three groups, and the therapeutic effects of gingerol on hemopoietic and antioxidative system in liver of 60 Co γ-rays irradiated mice were developed in this study. Control group was given distilled water intragastrically once a day for five days. Mice in the irradiated group and irradiated + gingerol group were both irradiated at 3 Gy of 60 Co γ-rays and were given distilled water and gingerol intragastrically within 30 min after irradiation respectively, once a day for five days. The mice were sacrificed and sampled in 48 hours after intragastric administration. Compared with control group, the relative spleen index and WBC numbers significantly decreased (P 60 Co γ-rays irradiated mice. (authors)

  12. Evaluation of the role of laser bio stimulation on skin and liver of gamma-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, E.S.

    2007-01-01

    Low level laser therapy (LLLT) is used in different medical fields due to its therapeutic effects on reparative processes, pain relief and bio stimulation (Castro-e-silva et al., 2003). The present study aimed at evaluating the therapeutic efficacy of He-Ne laser in stimulating the reparative processes after whole body irradiation of mice using a sublethal dose (5 Gy) of gamma rays. Two vital organs were studied, a radio-sensitive one (the skin) as well as a relatively radio-resistant one (the liver) . During the course of the present work, some biochemical parameters as well as histopathological changes in the skin and liver tissues induced by whole body gamma ionizing radiation were studied. Female mice (240) were used and divided into 6 groups and laser therapy was carried out using a computerized scanner emitting He-Ne(C W) with a wavelength of 632.8 nm and the fluence was 5 j/cm 2 . Experimental investigation have been carried out along two main lines: Biochemical investigations for the assessment of serum transferases and histopathological assessment of liver and skin biopsy.On the basis of the current results it could be concluded that mice exposed to whole body gamma irradiation either by the US of the shot or the fractionated sublethal dose suffered an aggravated histopathological changes in the skin and liver tissues which were associated with certain biochemical disturbances of the liver function testes. These undesirable alterations were ameliorated by the early treatment of mice by He -Ne laser immediately post exposure before being irreversibly damaged

  13. Modification of hemoglobin level and hematocrit value in the peripheral blood of mice after 45Ca internal irradiation by MPG (2-mercaptopropionylglycine)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhagat, R.M.; Kumar, A.

    1986-01-01

    Radioprotective effect of MPG has been studied on the hemoglobin level and hematocrit value of peripheral blood of Swiss albino mice against radiation-induced changes after injecting radiocalcium ( 45 Ca) at the dose level of 37 kBq/g body weight. MPG was injected 15-30 minutes before 45 Ca injection at dose of 20 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally and also MPG was injected at various repeated doses. It has been observed that MPG in repeated doses is effective in reducing the radiation-induced changes in the hemoglobin and hematocrit value of peripheral blood of Swiss albino mice following 45 Ca internal irradiation. (author)

  14. [Protective effects of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on hematopoietic organs of irradiated mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ling-Zhen; Yin, Song-Mei; Zhang, Xiao-Ling; Chen, Jia-Yu; Wei, Bo-Xiong; Zhan, Yu; Yu, Wei; Wu, Jin-Ming; Qu, Jia; Guo, Zi-Kuan

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the protective effects of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) on hematopoietic organs of irradiated mice. Human bone marrow MSC were isolated, ex vivo expanded, and identified by cell biological tests. Female BALB/c mice were irradiated with (60)Co γ-ray at a single dose of 6 Gy, and received different doses of human MSC and MSC lysates or saline via tail veins. The survival of mice was record daily, and the femurs and spleens were harvested on day 9 and 16 for pathologic examination. The histological changes were observed and the cellularity was scored. The results showed that the estimated survival time of MSC- and MSC lysate-treated mice was comparable to that of controls. The hematopoiesis in the bone marrow of mice that received high-dose (5×10(6)) of MSC or MSC lysates was partially restored on day 9 and the capacity of hemopoietic tissue and cellularity scorings were significantly elevated as compared with that of controls (P nudes were also obviously observed in the spleens of mice that received high-dose of MSC or MSC lysates on d 9 after irradiation. The histological structures of the spleen and bone marrow of the mice that received high-doses (5×10(6)) of MSC or MSC lysates were restored to normal, the cell proliferation displayed extraordinarily active. Further, the cellularity scores of the bone marrow were not significantly different between the high-dose MSC and MSC lysate-treated mice. It is concluded that the bone marrow MSC can promote the hematopoietic recovery of the irradiated mice, which probably is associated with the bioactive materials inherently existed in bone marrow cells.

  15. Evaluation of reduced allergenicity of irradiated peanut extract using splenocytes from peanut-sensitized mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Sejo; Jang, Da-In [Department of Pediatrics, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon 442-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Soo-Young [Department of Pediatrics, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon 442-749 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: jsjs87@ajou.ac.kr

    2009-07-15

    Peanut (PN) allergy is one of the most serious forms of IgE-mediated food hypersensitivity. Gamma irradiation has been widely used for the preservation of food. The results of our previous studies showed that the IgE-binding capacity to several antigens were profoundly reduced after gamma irradiation. In this study, we evaluated the changes of allergenecity and cytokine production profiles after exposure of irradiated PN extract in a PN-allergy mouse model. Mice were sensitized to PN extract by intragastric administration on days 0, 1, 2, and 7, and then challenged on day 21. Four weeks later, we evaluated the cytokine production patterns and proliferation responses of splenocytes that were stimulated with intact PN extract, compared to 10 and 50 kGy irradiated PN extract. When the cells were stimulated with 10 kGy of irradiated PN extract, a higher level of production of IFN-{gamma} and IL-10 cytokines was observed. However, stimulation with 50 kGy of irradiated PN extract resulted in a higher level of production of only IFN-{gamma} cytokines. In addition, the Th1/Th2 ratio increased in response to treatment with gamma-irradiated PNs. The results of this study show that the allergenicity of PN extracts could be reduced by gamma irradiation which caused downregulation of Th2 lymphocyte activity in the PN-sensitized mice.

  16. Evaluation of reduced allergenicity of irradiated peanut extract using splenocytes from peanut-sensitized mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Sejo; Jang, Da-In; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo; Lee, Soo-Young

    2009-01-01

    Peanut (PN) allergy is one of the most serious forms of IgE-mediated food hypersensitivity. Gamma irradiation has been widely used for the preservation of food. The results of our previous studies showed that the IgE-binding capacity to several antigens were profoundly reduced after gamma irradiation. In this study, we evaluated the changes of allergenecity and cytokine production profiles after exposure of irradiated PN extract in a PN-allergy mouse model. Mice were sensitized to PN extract by intragastric administration on days 0, 1, 2, and 7, and then challenged on day 21. Four weeks later, we evaluated the cytokine production patterns and proliferation responses of splenocytes that were stimulated with intact PN extract, compared to 10 and 50 kGy irradiated PN extract. When the cells were stimulated with 10 kGy of irradiated PN extract, a higher level of production of IFN-γ and IL-10 cytokines was observed. However, stimulation with 50 kGy of irradiated PN extract resulted in a higher level of production of only IFN-γ cytokines. In addition, the Th1/Th2 ratio increased in response to treatment with gamma-irradiated PNs. The results of this study show that the allergenicity of PN extracts could be reduced by gamma irradiation which caused downregulation of Th2 lymphocyte activity in the PN-sensitized mice.

  17. Gene Expression Changes in Mouse Intestinal Tissue Following Whole-Body Proton or Gamma-Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purgason, Ashley; Zhang, Ye; Mangala, Lingegowda; Nie, Ying; Gridley, Daila; Hamilton, Stanley R.; Seidel, Derek V.; Wu, Honglu

    2014-01-01

    Crew members face potential consequences following exposure to the space radiation environment including acute radiation syndrome and cancer. The space radiation environment is ample with protons, and numerous studies have been devoted to the understanding of the health consequences of proton exposures. In this project, C57BL/6 mice underwent whole-body exposure to 250 MeV of protons at doses of 0, 0.1, 0.5, 2 and 6 Gy and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of each animal was dissected four hours post-irradiation. Standard H&E staining methods to screen for morphologic changes in the tissue showed an increase in apoptotic lesions for even the lowest dose of 0.1 Gy, and the percentage of apoptotic cells increased with increasing dose. Results of gene expression changes showed consistent up- or down- regulation, up to 10 fold, of a number of genes across exposure doses that may play a role in proton-induced oxidative stress including Gpx2. A separate study in C57BL/6 mice using the same four hour time point but whole-body gamma-irradiation showed damage to the small intestine with lesions appearing at the smallest dose of 0.05 Gy and increasing with increasing absorbed dose. Expressions of genes associated with oxidative stress processes were analyzed at four hours and twenty-four hours after exposure to gamma rays. We saw a much greater number of genes with significant up- or down-regulation twenty-four hours post-exposure as compared to the four hour time point. At both four hours and twenty-four hours post-exposure, Duox1 and Mpo underwent up-regulation for the highest dose of 6 Gy. Both protons and gamma rays lead to significant variation in gene expressions and these changes may provide insight into the mechanism of injury seen in the GI tract following radiation exposure. We have also completed experiments using a BALB/c mouse model undergoing whole-body exposure to protons. Doses of 0, 0.1, 1 and 2 Gy were used and results will be compared to the work mentioned

  18. Protective and/or recovering effects of various kinds of chemicals and drugs to the hemopoietic injuries caused by the irradiation of 60Co γ-rays in the mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagimoto, Akio

    1987-01-01

    We have injected eleven kinds of chemical substances and drugs intraperitoneally in the male ddN mice, and studied the relative protective and/or recovering effects of them to the hemopoietic injuries caused by the whole body irradiation of 600R of 60 Co γ-rays. Good radioprotective activity on bone marrow cells in the irradiated mice was found, when we administered AET (S, 2-aminoethylisothiuronium Br. HBr) before irradiation, 5-HTP (5-hydroxytryptophane) in low dosage before irradiation, Glutathione before irradiation, or Serotonin (5-HT; 5-hydroxytryptamine) in high dosage before irradiation. Good radioprotective or recovering activity was observed on the weight of the spleen, by Serotonin in high and low dosage before irradiation, or DBCC (5,6-dimethyl benzimidazolyl cobamide coenzyme; Vitamin B 12 ) after irradiation. Positive responses of reticulocytes, erythrocytes, hemoglobin, and hematocrit were obtained in the irradiated mice, when we administered Serotonin in high dosage before irradiation, MET (S-Methyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide) before irradiation, a cocktail of Periactin (Cyproheptadine hydrochloride) and Serotonin before irradiation, MET before and after irradiation or Nucleo (a mixture of products made by degrading yeast-RNA) after irradiation respectively. A good response in leukocyte count was observed when Serotonin in high dosage before irradiation was administered, and in granulocyte count by Serotonin in high dosage before or 5-HTP in low dosage before irradiation. Lymphocyte count was protected or recovered by Serotonin in high dosage before or Nucleo after irradiation. Thrombocyte count was protected by Serotonin in high and low dosage before, Glutathione before, or AET before irradiation.(author)

  19. Optimization of total body irradiation: the match between (maximal) leukemic cell kill and (minimal) late effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harteveld, M.L. van

    2007-01-01

    Optimization of total body irradiation: the match between (maximal) leukemic cell kill and (minimal) late effects: In this thesis, cataract formation and renal dysfunction as late effects of high-dose total body irradiation (TBI) as part of the conditioning before hematological stem cell

  20. Effect of rTMP-GH recombinant fusion protein on thrombocytopoiesis in irradiation injured mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yang; Wang Junping; Chen Fang; Shen Mingqiang; Chen Mo; Wang Song; Ran Xinze; Su Yongping; Kai Li

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the in vivo effects of rTMP-GH recombinant fusion protein on thrombocytopoiesis in mice with thrombopenia inflicted by irradiation. Methods: BALB/C mice weighting around 20 g were irradiated with 5 Gy of 60 Co γ-ray irradiation to generate thrombopenia. The irradiation injured mice were injected with rTMP-GH or rhGH subcutaneously at the dose of 200 (μg ·kg -1 · d -1 for 7 days. From the 6 th day, the platelets in blood samples from vena caudalis were counted routinely, and the pathological changes of bone marrow were determined by morphological observation. Results: From the 10 th day, the levels of blood platelet in rTMP-GH treated mice were much higher than those of rhGH treatment group and normal saline (NS) control group, especially at the nadir (P < 0.01). On the 22 nd day, the platelet count has recovered up to 80% of normal level in rTMP-GH treatment group, while it has just recovered up to 30% in NS control group. Morphological observation showed that there was obvious reconstruction of bone marrow in mice treated with rTMP-GH, compared with NS group.The number of megarkaryoblasts and megakaryocytes in bone marrow of rTMP-GH treated mice (3.07 ± 0.32) was much higher than those of rhGH treatment group (2.20 ± 0.22, P < 0.05) and NS control group (0.87 ± 0.19, P <0.01). Conclusions: rTMP-GH has potent effects on the recovery of blood platelet by promoting megarkaryocytopoiesis in irradiation injuried mice. (authors)

  1. Effects of perfluorochemical emulsion on the timing of administration and irradiation in tumor bearing mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hishikawa-Itoh, Youko; Ayakawa, Yoshio; Miyata, Nobuki

    1988-01-01

    Perfluorochemical content was examined periodically, in blood, tumor and some organs using gas chromatography, after Fluosol-DA saline 20 % (FDAS) was injected into LLC bearing mice. The blood half-life of FDAS in LLC bearing mice was 3.76 hrs (5 ml/kg injection) or 6.15 hrs (20 ml/kg injection) respectively, and FDAS almost disapeared from the blood after about 2 days (5 ml/kg) and 3 days (20 ml/kg) of FDAS-injection. Most of FDAS was accumulated into spleen and the liver. FDAS accumulation into the tumor tissue was 1 ∼ 6 % of injected-FDAS dose and the peak of FDAS accumulation was 1 ∼ 3 days after injection. The timing of FDAS-injection and irradiation in tumor bearing mice determined according to the results above (half-life and accumulation of FDAS in tumor). FDAS (5, 10, 20 ml/kg) was injected to LLC-bearing mice on 3, 2, 1 and 0 day before irradiation and they were irradiated 15 Gray under oxygen-breathing, respectively. FDAS-injected groups before irradiation (3, 2, 1 day before, respectively) showed a tendency of tumor growth delay, but didn't show significant difference as compared with oxygen-breathing group without FDAS, because they had not enough effective FDAS content in the blood. Although the FDAS-injected groups just before irradiation significantly showed the delay of tumor growth. These results demonstrate that oxygen and FDAS existing in the blood injected just before irradiation effectively delay tumor growth in which the lowest effective dose is 5 ml/kg. In the case of clinical application of FDAS, FDAS may be most effective, when administrated just before irradiation in every fractionated irradiation. (author)

  2. The influence of metronidazole on free thymidine content of blood serum of irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konov, A.V.; Ryabchenko, N.I.

    1986-01-01

    The influence of a radiosensitizer, metronidazole, on the free thymidine content of blood serum of irradiated mice was studied in aerobic and hypoxic conditions. A heated metronidazole solution (1 mg/g) was administered intraperitoneally 30 min before irradiation of animals with a dose of 3 Gy. Thymidine concentration in blood serum was determined by the radioimmunological technique. The influence of metronidazole on the level of thymidinemia was only noted in the animals exposed under hypoxic conditions

  3. Reduction of allergenicity of irradiated ovalbumin in ovalbumin-allergic mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Jae-Hun [Radiation Application Research Division, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Eui-Baek [Radiation Application Research Division, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Graduate School of Biotechnology, Korea University, Yeongi 339-700 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Soo-Young [Department of Pediatrics, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon 442-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Il-Jun [Division of Life Sciences, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Myung-Woo [Radiation Application Research Division, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: mwbyun@kaeri.re.kr

    2007-11-15

    Egg allergy is one of the most serious of the immediate hypersensitivity reactions to foods. Such an allergic disorder is mediated by IgE antibodies stimulated by T-helper type 2 (Th2) lymphocytes. This study was undertaken to evaluate changes of allergenicity and cytokine profiles by exposure of irradiated ovalbumin (OVA), a major allergen of egg white, in the OVA-allergic mice model. OVA solutions (2 mg/ml in 0.01 M phosphate buffered saline (PBS) were gamma-irradiated to 50 and 100 kGy. The allergenicity in the OVA-allergy-induced mice model was remarkably reduced when challenged with irradiated OVA. Cultures of spleen cells harvested from OVA-sensitized mice showed a significant decrease in Th2 cytokine levels of ILs-4 and -5 with a concomitant increase in Th1 cytokine levels of IL-12 when co-cultured with irradiated OVA. However, IFN-{gamma} level decreased dependant on the radiation dose of co-cultured OVA. The levels of IgEs and Th2-cytokine were reduced dependant on the radiation dose. These data show that the irradiated OVA could downregulate the activity of Th2 lymphocytes in OVA-sensitized mice.

  4. Reduction of allergenicity of irradiated ovalbumin in ovalbumin-allergic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Eui-Baek; Lee, Soo-Young; Kang, Il-Jun; Byun, Myung-Woo

    2007-01-01

    Egg allergy is one of the most serious of the immediate hypersensitivity reactions to foods. Such an allergic disorder is mediated by IgE antibodies stimulated by T-helper type 2 (Th2) lymphocytes. This study was undertaken to evaluate changes of allergenicity and cytokine profiles by exposure of irradiated ovalbumin (OVA), a major allergen of egg white, in the OVA-allergic mice model. OVA solutions (2 mg/ml in 0.01 M phosphate buffered saline (PBS) were gamma-irradiated to 50 and 100 kGy. The allergenicity in the OVA-allergy-induced mice model was remarkably reduced when challenged with irradiated OVA. Cultures of spleen cells harvested from OVA-sensitized mice showed a significant decrease in Th2 cytokine levels of ILs-4 and -5 with a concomitant increase in Th1 cytokine levels of IL-12 when co-cultured with irradiated OVA. However, IFN-γ level decreased dependant on the radiation dose of co-cultured OVA. The levels of IgEs and Th2-cytokine were reduced dependant on the radiation dose. These data show that the irradiated OVA could downregulate the activity of Th2 lymphocytes in OVA-sensitized mice

  5. Neonatal irradiation nephropathy in the growing dog. I. Renal morphological and functional adaptations following neonatal, sublethal, whole-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilke, W.L.; Phemister, R.D.; Jaenke, R.S.

    1979-01-01

    Sixty beagles were used to study the effects of exposure to 330 R 60 Co γ radiation (bilateral, whole-body) at 2 days of age on renal functional and morphological development in the growing dog. A significant deficit in grams kidney per kilogram body weight was found in irradiated dogs at 50 days of age (P < 0.05), but not at 125 or 200 days of age. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) per kilogram body weight and GFR per gram kidney were not significantly different between irradiated and nonirradiated dogs at 50, 125, or 200 days of age, but blood urea nitrogen (BUN) was significantly elevated in irradiated dogs throughout this period (P < 0.05). The fractional distribution of intracortical renal blood flow, as determined by radiolabeled microspheres, to the outermost cortex was found to be reduced in irradiated animals at all ages evaluated (P < 0.05). The fractional blood flow to the outermost renal cortex was negatively correlated with BUN in both irradiated (P < 0.05) and nonirradiated (P < 0.05) animals. Based on prior demonstrations of reductions in nephron numbers following similar irradiation, these data indicate increases in mean single nephron GFR and nephronal hypertrophy in the kidneys of the neonatally irradiated dog. The renal functional and morphological adaptations are sufficient to maintain adequate renal function in growing, neonatally irradiated dogs. The BUN elevations in irradiated dogs are believed to be related to changes in intracortical renal blood flow, rather than indicating renal insufficiency. The possible importance of the functional and morphological adaptations to the subsequent development of chronic renal failure in neonatally irradiated animals is discussed

  6. Types and rate of cataract development in mice irradiated at different ages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajewski, A.K.; Majewska, K.; Slowikowska, M.G.; Chomiczewski, K.; Kulig, A.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of age on the development of radiation cataract has been investigated in an inbred A strain of mice and, as a result, the patterns of age dependence and senile mice cataract development were obtained. In general, the lenses of mice 1 to 3 days old were the most sensitive to radiation; the maximum resistance was noted in 5-day-old mice, and from this age up to 3 to 7 weeks of life there was a period of increasing sensitivity. In older animals the lens sensitivity tends to level off. The early stages of cataract occurred in all irradiated groups at a younger age than in the control group, but the late stages occurred in irradiated groups at the same age as the senile cataract occurred in the control group. Two types of cataract were observed. One was typical for young irradiated mice 1 to 5 days of age and the other was typical for all remaining irradiated groups and for a control group. Also, an attempt was made to correlate the obtained results with the cell kinetics in normal lens epithelium

  7. Survival of irradiated mice treated with WR-151327, synthetic trehalose dicorynomycolate, or ofloxacin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledney, G. D.; Elliott, T. B.; Landauer, M. R.; Vigneulle, R. M.; Henderson, P. L.; Harding, R. A.; Tom, S. P.

    1994-10-01

    Spaceflight personnel need treatment options that would enhance survival from radiation and would not disrupt task performance. Doses of prophylactic or therapeutic agents known to induce significant short-term (30-day) survival with minimal behavioral (locomotor) changes were used for 180-day survival studies. In protection studies, groups of mice were treated with the phosphorothioate WR-151327 (200 mg/kg, 25% of the LD10) or the immunomodulator, synthetic trehalose dicorynomycolate (S-TDCM; 8 mg/kg), before lethal irradiation with reactor-generated fission neutrons and γ-rays (n/γ = 1) or 60Co γ-rays. In therapy studies, groups of mice received either S-TDCM, the antimicrobial ofloxacin, or S-TDCM plus ofloxacin after irradiation. For WR-151327 treated-mice, survival at 180 days for n/γ = 1 and γ-irradiated mice was 90% and 92%, respectively; for S-TDCM (protection), 57% and 78%, respectively; for S-TDCM (therapy), 20% and 25%, respectively; for ofloxacin, 38% and 5%, respectively; for S-TDCM combined with ofloxacin, 30% and 30%, respectively; and for saline, 8% and 5%, respectively. Ofloxacin or combined ofloxacin and S-TDCM increased survival from the gram-negative bacterial sepsis that predominated in n/γ = 1) irradiated mice. The efficacies of the treatments depended on radiation quality, treatment agent and its mode of use, and microflora of the host.

  8. Comparative study of cell transplantability of various hemopoietic tissues in irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiala, J.; Viktora, L.

    1975-01-01

    The transplantation effect of cells from various hemopoietic organs was studied in 626 irradiated mice. In experimental animals, peripheral blood reticulocytosis and the spleen differential count were also examined 9 days after transplantation. The colonization effect was mainly found with the transplants of bone marrow and spleen cells, embryonic liver cells and the liver cells of adult mice, and thymus cells. No effect was observed with the transplants of lymph node cells and of heterologous material (human embryonic liver and spleen). (author)

  9. Taurine effect on cytogenetic lesions in the cornea of mice exposed to 9 Gev proton irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorozhtsova, S.V.; Yartsev, E.I.

    1989-01-01

    Possibilities of preventive measures and treatment of cytogenetic injuries in the mice cornea, subjected to proton irradiation at 9 Gev were studied. Taurine containing solution (TCS) was used as a radiomodifying agent. It is shown that TCS application enables to decrease aberrant mitoses level in cornea epithelium cells of mice. Antiactinic effect of the above agent is determined by its considerable action on mitotic delay

  10. Radioprotective effects in mice by a single dose of subcutaneous administration of cobaltous chloride post γ-rays irradiation with a sublethal dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumo, Yoshiro; Ogata, Hiromitsu

    1993-01-01

    Radioprotective effects were investigated in mice which received subcutaneously a single dose of each inorganic metal: Co, Cu, Rb, Sr, Mo and W 24 hours post irradiation of 60 Co γ-rays with a sublethal dose. The effects were observed in mice injected with Co at an optimum dosage of 20 mg/kg·body weight. Then to elucidate mechanisms of the effects, mice were injected with Co containing the radioactive tracer ( 60 Co) following the radiation exposure, measured elimination of the radioactivity for 7 days, then sacrificed and divided to some tissues and organs. The radioactivity in whole body during this period resulted in a markedly higher retention than that for mice injected with [ 60 Co] alone, as well as liver in the organs. These higher retentions appeared to be related to the radioprotective effects. (author)

  11. Secondary radiation dose during high-energy total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janiszewska, M.; Raczkowski, M. [Lower Silesian Oncology Center, Medical Physics Department, Wroclaw (Poland); Polaczek-Grelik, K. [University of Silesia, Medical Physics Department, Katowice (Poland); Szafron, B.; Konefal, A.; Zipper, W. [University of Silesia, Department of Nuclear Physics and Its Applications, Katowice (Poland)

    2014-05-15

    The goal of this work was to assess the additional dose from secondary neutrons and γ-rays generated during total body irradiation (TBI) using a medical linac X-ray beam. Nuclear reactions that occur in the accelerator construction during emission of high-energy beams in teleradiotherapy are the source of secondary radiation. Induced activity is dependent on the half-lives of the generated radionuclides, whereas neutron flux accompanies the treatment process only. The TBI procedure using a 18 MV beam (Clinac 2100) was considered. Lateral and anterior-posterior/posterior-anterior fractions were investigated during delivery of 2 Gy of therapeutic dose. Neutron and photon flux densities were measured using neutron activation analysis (NAA) and semiconductor spectrometry. The secondary dose was estimated applying the fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients. The main contribution to the secondary dose is associated with fast neutrons. The main sources of γ-radiation are the following: {sup 56}Mn in the stainless steel and {sup 187}W of the collimation system as well as positron emitters, activated via (n,γ) and (γ,n) processes, respectively. In addition to 12 Gy of therapeutic dose, the patient could receive 57.43 mSv in the studied conditions, including 4.63 μSv from activated radionuclides. Neutron dose is mainly influenced by the time of beam emission. However, it is moderated by long source-surface distances (SSD) and application of plexiglass plates covering the patient body during treatment. Secondary radiation gives the whole body a dose, which should be taken into consideration especially when one fraction of irradiation does not cover the whole body at once. (orig.) [German] Die zusaetzliche Dosis durch sekundaere Neutronen- und γ-Strahlung waehrend der Ganzkoerperbestrahlung mit Roentgenstrahlung aus medizinischen Linearbeschleunigern wurde abgeschaetzt. Bei der Emission hochenergetischer Strahlen zur Teletherapie finden hauptsaechlich im Beschleuniger

  12. [Role of the tissue antioxidant status in response to chronic irradiation of mice during early ontogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkina, L N; Zagorskaya, N G; Shevchenko, O G

    2015-01-01

    The response of the liver and blood erythrocyte lipids to the low intensity chronic γ-irradiation action of mice at the dose of 8 cGy during early ontogenesis immediately and 7 months after irradiation is studied. The maintainance of the changed structural state of the lipid component in liver and especially blood erythrocytes which are characterized by a lower antioxidant status compared with the liver lipids is revealed during a long time after the cessation of irradiation. This confirms the possibility of using blood erythrocyte lipids as a perspective model for the estimation of the effects of the weak impact of unfavorable factors on the organism.

  13. Impairment of blood lipids pattern in gamma irradiated albino mice and prophylactic role of thiols and W R-2721

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-dighidy, E.A.M.; El-Kady, M.H.R.

    1986-01-01

    The present work aims to investigate the effect of shot doses of whole body gamma irradiation at the levels, 6, 7.5, 11, 25 and 15 Gy, on the blood lipids pattern in male swiss albino mice. This has been manifested by the levels of total lipids, triglycerides, phospholipids and cholesterol. The radioprotective capacities of two sulfhydryl compounds: thiols and W R-2721, against impairment in blood lipids pattern, have been evaluated in mice received the higher shot radiation dose-level at 15 Gy. Significant increases in the levels of blood total lipid, phospholipids, triglycerides and cholesterol have been recorded on the third day post exposure under the experiment conditions, the data indicated more efficient protection of blood lipid pattern exerted by W R-2721 than in case of thiols. 2 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Fundamental and clinical studies on cancer control with total or upper half body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamoto, Kiyohiko; Hosoi, Yoshio; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Nemoto, Kenji; Takai, Yoshihiro; Kakuto, Yoshihisa; Yamada, Shogo [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). School of Medicine; Myojin, Miyako; Watabe, Nobuyuki

    1997-09-01

    The tumor control effects of total body irradiation (TBI) for tumor bearing mice and human tumor were investigated fundamentally and clinically. TBI is usually used in tissue transplantation experiment in order to prevent rejective response for transplanted tissues by immunological reaction. This kind of suppressive effect of immunological response by TBI is considered as to be caused even if very small dose of TBI. However, there are only a few data concerning the effect of low dose of TBI, and TBI of low dose level is concluded to bring about the same effect as in high dose level by back extrapolation from the data of high dose level. In present paper, firstly the effects of TBI for tumor control in murine squamous carcinoma are reported, and secondly the results of clinical trial in malignant lymphoma are demonstrated. In fundamental studies, TBI of low doses (10-15 cGy) suggests potentiating effect in cell killing in combination of TBI of 10 cGy and local irradiation given at 12 hours after TBI though TBI of 10 cGy is not able to detect any cell killing effect. TBI of 10 cGy or 15 cGy also stands for suppressive effect of distant metastasis (lung metastasis). In clinical studies, malignant lymphoma (non-Hodgikin`s lymphoma) is selected as the first disease of clinical trial, and the results are seemed to be prospective method to overcome cancers with radiotherapy, though the trial is not phase III clinical trial. (author)

  15. Total body irradiation for myasthenia gravis with thymoma: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Ki Mun; Choi, Ihl Bohng; Kim, In Ah [College of Medicine, Catholic Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-06-01

    Myasthenia Gravis (MG) is relatively rare occuring as one of important autoimmune disease to affect neuromuscular junction. This study was clinically to evaluate total body irradiation (TBI) against two patients including 33-year and 39-year females for chronic MG with thymoma who hospitalized in the St. Mary's Hospital, Catholic University since 1994 as well as who showed no response by thymectomy, immunotherapy and hormonal therapy. TBI designed by the dose of 150-180 cGy consisting of 10 cGy per fraction, three times a week, for 5-6 weeks using linear accelerator of 6 MV. During the treatment of TBI, they did complain acute side effect such as vomiting and also appear improved physical condition from 4-6 weeks after TBI. Through the follow-up period of 18 or 42 months after TBI, they did not have any symptomatic recurrence. Consequently, the results suggest that TBI can be used as an alternative tool for the patients concurrently for MG with thymoma who had been refractory to various conventional therapies like thymectomy, immunotherapy and hormonal therapy.

  16. Total body irradiation for myasthenia gravis with thymoma: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Ki Mun; Choi, Ihl Bohng; Kim, In Ah

    1999-01-01

    Myasthenia Gravis (MG) is relatively rare occuring as one of important autoimmune disease to affect neuromuscular junction. This study was clinically to evaluate total body irradiation (TBI) against two patients including 33-year and 39-year females for chronic MG with thymoma who hospitalized in the St. Mary's Hospital, Catholic University since 1994 as well as who showed no response by thymectomy, immunotherapy and hormonal therapy. TBI designed by the dose of 150-180 cGy consisting of 10 cGy per fraction, three times a week, for 5-6 weeks using linear accelerator of 6 MV. During the treatment of TBI, they did complain acute side effect such as vomiting and also appear improved physical condition from 4-6 weeks after TBI. Through the follow-up period of 18 or 42 months after TBI, they did not have any symptomatic recurrence. Consequently, the results suggest that TBI can be used as an alternative tool for the patients concurrently for MG with thymoma who had been refractory to various conventional therapies like thymectomy, immunotherapy and hormonal therapy

  17. Biochemical and hematological indicators in model of total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubner, D; Gisone, P.; Perez, M.R.; Barboza, M.; Luchetta, P.; Longoni, H.; Sorrentino, M.; Robison, A.

    1998-01-01

    With the purpose of evaluating the applicability of several biological indicators in accidental overexposures a study was carried out in 20 patients undergoing therapeutical total body irradiation (TBI). The following parameters were evaluated: a) Oxidative stress indicators: erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity (CAT), lipo peroxyde levels (TBARS) and total plasma antioxidant activity (TAA). b) Haematological indicators: reticulocyte maturity index (RMI) and charges in lymphocyte subpopulations. Non significant changes in SOD and CAT activity were observed. Significant higher TBARS levels were found in patients with unfavorable post-BTM course without any significant correlation with TAA. RMI decreased early and dropped to zero in most of the patients and rose several days prior to reticulocyte, neutrophils and platelets counts. A significant decrease in absolute counts of all lymphocyte subpopulations was observed during TBI, particularly for B lymphocytes. A subpopulation of natural killer (NK) cells (CD16+/ CD 56 +) showed a relative higher radioresistance. Cytotoxic activity was significantly decreased after TBI. These data suggest that TBARS could provide an useful evolutive indicator in accidental over exposure d patients and RMI is an early indicator of bone marrow recovery after radioinduced aplasia. The implications of the different radiosensitivities within the NK subsets remains unanswered. (author) [es

  18. Thrombopoietin Receptor Agonist Mitigates Hematopoietic Radiation Syndrome and Improves Survival after Whole-Body Ionizing Irradiation Followed by Wound Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliann G. Kiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ionizing radiation combined with trauma tissue injury (combined injury, CI results in greater mortality and H-ARS than radiation alone (radiation injury, RI, which includes thrombocytopenia. The aim of this study was to determine whether increases in numbers of thrombocytes would improve survival and mitigate H-ARS after CI. We observed in mice that WBC and platelets remained very low in surviving RI animals that were given 9.5 Gy 60Co-γ-photon radiation, whereas only lymphocytes and basophils remained low in surviving CI mice that were irradiated and then given skin wounds. Numbers of RBC and platelets, hemoglobin concentrations, and hematocrit values remained low in surviving RI and CI mice. CI induced 30-day mortality higher than RI. Radiation delayed wound healing by approximately 14 days. Treatment with a thrombopoietin receptor agonist, Alxn4100TPO, after CI improved survival, mitigated body-weight loss, and reduced water consumption. Though this therapy delayed wound-healing rate more than in vehicle groups, it greatly increased numbers of platelets in sham, wounded, RI, and CI mice; it significantly mitigated decreases in WBC, spleen weights, and splenocytes in CI mice and decreases in RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit values, and splenocytes and splenomegaly in RI mice. The results suggest that Alxn4100TPO is effective in mitigating CI.

  19. Some mechanisms of disturbances and recovery of T-lymphocyte migratory properties in irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anokhin, G.N.; Yarilin, A.A.

    1984-01-01

    Migration of 51 Cr-labelled T cells from irradiated mice into lymph nodes of syngeneic unirradiated recipients decreased in a dose-dependent fashion. Influx of labelled T cells between 4 and 24 hr after injection (secondary migration) is more radiosensitive than lymph-node migration of T cells in the first 4 hr (primary migration). Treatment of T cells from irradiated mice in vitro with Con A or with trypsin does not enhance radiation-induced alteration of their migratory properties, but irradiation enhances the effects of Con A and trypsin on T-cell migration. Recovery of primary migration of irradiated T cells is completed 3 months after irradiation; it is probably caused by T-cell renewal. The defect of T-cell secondary migration is more stable: it remains 6 months after irradiation in a dose of 4 gy. Post-irradiation defects of the T-cell differentiation process as a cause of long-lasting alteration of T-cell secondary migration are discussed. (author)

  20. Identification of Possible Candidate Biomarkers for Local or Whole Body Radiation Exposure in C57BL/6 Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hae-June; Lee, Minyoung; Kang, Chang-Mo; Jeoung, Dooil; Bae, Sangwoo; Cho, Chul-Koo; Lee, Yun-Sil

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Specific genes expressed as a result of whole body exposure to γ-radiation have been previously identified. In this study, we examined the genes further as possible biomarkers for the blood lymphocytes of C57BL/6 mice after whole body or local irradiation of the thorax, abdomen, and left subphrenic area. Methods and Materials: We performed reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis of genes encoding platelet membrane glycoprotein IIb, protein tyrosine kinase, sialyltransferase, and Cu/ZnSOD in blood lymphocytes, lung tissue, spleen, and intestines. The protein expression in blood lymphocytes was confirmed by Western blot analysis. Results: The expression of platelet membrane glycoprotein IIb, protein tyrosine kinase, sialyltransferase, and Cu/ZnSOD was significantly greater after 3 days as a result of 1 Gy of whole body irradiation. Moreover, local irradiation to the thorax, abdomen, or left subphrenic area, which are frequently exposed to therapeutic radiation doses, showed a tendency toward radiation-induced increased expression of these genes in both the blood and the locally irradiated organs. Western blot analysis also corroborated these results. Conclusion: Platelet membrane glycoprotein IIb, protein tyrosine kinase, sialyltransferase, and Cu/ZnSOD might be candidates for biomarkers of radiation exposure. However, additional experiments are required to reveal the relationship between the expression levels and the prognostic effects after irradiation

  1. Restoring the secretory function of irradiation-damaged salivary gland by administrating deferoxamine in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junye Zhang

    Full Text Available One of the major side effects of radiotherapy for treatments of the head and neck cancer is the radiation-induced dysfunction of salivary glands. The aim of the present study is to investigate the efficacy of deferoxamine (DFO to restore the secretory function of radiation-damaged salivary glands in mice.DFO (50 mg/kg/d was administered intraperitoneally in C57BL/6 mice for 3 days before and/or after point-fixed irradiation (18 Gy of submandibular glands. The total 55 mice were randomly divided into: (1 Normal group: mice received no treatment (n = 5; (2 Irradiation group (IR: mice only received irradiation (n = 5; (3 Pre-DFO group (D+IR (n = 10; (4 Pre+Post DFO group (D+IR+D (n = 10; (5 Post-DFO group (IR+D (n = 10; (6 For each DFO-treated group, the mice were intraperitoneally injected with 0.1 ml sterilized water alone (by which DFO was dissolved for 3 days before and/or after irradiation, and served as control. Sham1: Pre-sterilized water group (n = 5; sham2: Pre+Post sterilized water group (n = 5; sham3: Post-sterilized water group (n = 5. The salivary flow rate (SFR was assessed at 30th, 60th and 90th day after irradiation, respectively. After 90 days, all mice were sacrificed and their submandibular glands were removed for further examinations.The salivary glands showed remarkable dysfunction and tissue damage after irradiation. DFO restored SFR in the irradiated glands to a level comparable to that in normal glands and angiogenesis in damaged tissue was greatly increased. DFO also increased the expression levels of HIF-1α and VEGF while reduced apoptotic cells. Furthermore, Sca-1+cells were preserved in the salivary glands treated with DFO before IR.Our results indicate DFO could prevent the radiation-induced dysfunction of salivary glands in mice. The mechanism of this protective effect may involve increased angiogenesis, reduced apoptosis of acinar cells and more preserved stem cells.

  2. Experimental iodine-125 seed irradiation of intracerebral brain tumors in nude mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haveman Jaap

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-dose radiotherapy is standard treatment for patients with brain cancer. However, in preclinical research external beam radiotherapy is limited to heterotopic murine models– high-dose radiotherapy to the murine head is fatal due to radiation toxicity. Therefore, we developed a stereotactic brachytherapy mouse model for high-dose focal irradiation of experimental intracerebral (orthotopic brain tumors. Methods Twenty-one nude mice received a hollow guide-screw implanted in the skull. After three weeks, 5 × 105 U251-NG2 human glioblastoma cells were injected. Five days later, a 2 mCi iodine-125 brachytherapy seed was inserted through the guide-screw in 11 randomly selected mice; 10 mice received a sham seed. Mice were euthanized when severe neurological or physical symptoms occurred. The cumulative irradiation dose 5 mm below the active iodine-125 seeds was 23.0 Gy after 13 weeks (BEDtumor = 30.6 Gy. Results In the sham group, 9/10 animals (90% showed signs of lethal tumor progression within 6 weeks. In the experimental group, 2/11 mice (18% died of tumor progression within 13 weeks. Acute side effects in terms of weight loss or neurological symptoms were not observed in the irradiated animals. Conclusion The intracerebral implantation of an iodine-125 brachytherapy seed through a stereotactic guide-screw in the skull of mice with implanted brain tumors resulted in a significantly prolonged survival, caused by high-dose irradiation of the brain tumor that is biologically comparable to high-dose fractionated radiotherapy– without fatal irradiation toxicity. This is an excellent mouse model for testing orthotopic brain tumor therapies in combination with radiation therapy.

  3. Experimental iodine-125 seed irradiation of intracerebral brain tumors in nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhoeff, Joost JC; Stalpers, Lukas JA; Coumou, Annet W; Koedooder, Kees; Lavini, Cristina; Van Noorden, Cornelis JF; Haveman, Jaap; Vandertop, William P; Furth, Wouter R van

    2007-01-01

    High-dose radiotherapy is standard treatment for patients with brain cancer. However, in preclinical research external beam radiotherapy is limited to heterotopic murine models– high-dose radiotherapy to the murine head is fatal due to radiation toxicity. Therefore, we developed a stereotactic brachytherapy mouse model for high-dose focal irradiation of experimental intracerebral (orthotopic) brain tumors. Twenty-one nude mice received a hollow guide-screw implanted in the skull. After three weeks, 5 × 10 5 U251-NG2 human glioblastoma cells were injected. Five days later, a 2 mCi iodine-125 brachytherapy seed was inserted through the guide-screw in 11 randomly selected mice; 10 mice received a sham seed. Mice were euthanized when severe neurological or physical symptoms occurred. The cumulative irradiation dose 5 mm below the active iodine-125 seeds was 23.0 Gy after 13 weeks (BED tumor = 30.6 Gy). In the sham group, 9/10 animals (90%) showed signs of lethal tumor progression within 6 weeks. In the experimental group, 2/11 mice (18%) died of tumor progression within 13 weeks. Acute side effects in terms of weight loss or neurological symptoms were not observed in the irradiated animals. The intracerebral implantation of an iodine-125 brachytherapy seed through a stereotactic guide-screw in the skull of mice with implanted brain tumors resulted in a significantly prolonged survival, caused by high-dose irradiation of the brain tumor that is biologically comparable to high-dose fractionated radiotherapy– without fatal irradiation toxicity. This is an excellent mouse model for testing orthotopic brain tumor therapies in combination with radiation therapy

  4. Differential effects of whole-body {gamma}-irradiation on antinociception induced by morphine and {beta}-endorphin administered intracerebroventricularly in the mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Chung, K.M.; Park, T.W.

    2000-05-01

    Two separate lines of evidence suggested the present study. First, intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administered morphine (a {mu}-opioid receptor agonist) and {beta}-endorphin (an {epsilon}-opioid receptor agonist) produce antinociception by activating different descending pain inhibitory systems. Second, {gamma}-irradiation attenuates the acute antinociceptive action of i.c.v. injected morphine, but not DPLPE (a {delta}-opioid receptor agonist), in mice. These findings prompted us to investigate the effect of {gamma}-irradiation on the antinociception produced by i.c.v. injected morphine and {beta}-endorphin in male ICR mice. In one group, mice were exposed to whole-body irradiation at a dose of 5 Gy from a {sup 60}Co {gamma}-source and the antinociceptive effects were tested 5, 30, 60,90 and 180 min after irradiation using the 1% acetic acid-induced writhing test (10 ml/kg). The antinociceptive effect was produced time-dependently and reached its maximum at 90 min after irradiation. Thus, time was fixed in the following studies. In another group, mice were irradiated with 5 Gy and tested 90 minutes later for antinociception produced by i.c.v. administration of morphine (50 and 100 ng/mouse) or {beta}-endorphin (31 ng/mouse). Irradiation significantly potentiated the antinociception produced by {beta}-endorphin. However, the antinociception produced by morphine was not affected by irradiation. These results demonstrate a differential sensitivity of {mu}- and {epsilon}-opioid receptors to {gamma}-irradiation, in addition, support the hypothesis that morphine and {beta}-endorphin administered supraspinally produce antinociception by different neuronal mechanisms. (author)

  5. Differential effects of whole-body γ-irradiation on antinociception induced by morphine and β-endorphin administered intracerebroventricularly in the mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.K.; Chung, K.M.; Park, T.W.

    2000-01-01

    Two separate lines of evidence suggested the present study. First, intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administered morphine (a μ-opioid receptor agonist) and β-endorphin (an ε-opioid receptor agonist) produce antinociception by activating different descending pain inhibitory systems. Second, γ-irradiation attenuates the acute antinociceptive action of i.c.v. injected morphine, but not DPLPE (a δ-opioid receptor agonist), in mice. These findings prompted us to investigate the effect of γ-irradiation on the antinociception produced by i.c.v. injected morphine and β-endorphin in male ICR mice. In one group, mice were exposed to whole-body irradiation at a dose of 5 Gy from a 60 Co γ-source and the antinociceptive effects were tested 5, 30, 60,90 and 180 min after irradiation using the 1% acetic acid-induced writhing test (10 ml/kg). The antinociceptive effect was produced time-dependently and reached its maximum at 90 min after irradiation. Thus, time was fixed in the following studies. In another group, mice were irradiated with 5 Gy and tested 90 minutes later for antinociception produced by i.c.v. administration of morphine (50 and 100 ng/mouse) or β-endorphin (31 ng/mouse). Irradiation significantly potentiated the antinociception produced by β-endorphin. However, the antinociception produced by morphine was not affected by irradiation. These results demonstrate a differential sensitivity of μ- and ε-opioid receptors to γ-irradiation, in addition, support the hypothesis that morphine and β-endorphin administered supraspinally produce antinociception by different neuronal mechanisms. (author)

  6. Assessment of simulated high-dose partial-body irradiation by PCC-R assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Ivonne; García, Omar; Lamadrid, Ana I; Gregoire, Eric; González, Jorge E; Morales, Wilfredo; Martin, Cécile; Barquinero, Joan-Francesc; Voisin, Philippe

    2013-09-01

    The estimation of the dose and the irradiated fraction of the body is important information in the primary medical response in case of a radiological accident. The PCC-R assay has been developed for high-dose estimations, but little attention has been given to its applicability for partial-body irradiations. In the present work we estimated the doses and the percentage of the irradiated fraction in simulated partial-body radiation exposures at high doses using the PCC-R assay. Peripheral whole blood of three healthy donors was exposed to doses from 0-20 Gy, with ⁶⁰Co gamma radiation. To simulate partial body irradiations, irradiated and non-irradiated blood was mixed to obtain proportions of irradiated blood from 10-90%. Lymphocyte cultures were treated with Colcemid and Calyculin-A before harvest. Conventional and triage scores were performed for each dose, proportion of irradiated blood and donor. The Papworth's u test was used to evaluate the PCC-R distribution per cell. A dose-response relationship was fitted according to the maximum likelihood method using the frequencies of PCC-R obtained from 100% irradiated blood. The dose to the partially irradiated blood was estimated using the Contaminated Poisson method. A new D₀ value of 10.9 Gy was calculated and used to estimate the initial fraction of irradiated cells. The results presented here indicate that by PCC-R it is possible to distinguish between simulated partial- and whole-body irradiations by the u-test, and to accurately estimate the dose from 10-20 Gy, and the initial fraction of irradiated cells in the interval from 10-90%.

  7. Late effects of chronic irradiation by low dose-rate γ-rays on mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Onodera, Junichi; Sasagawa, Sumiko; Ichinohe, Kazuaki; Otsu, Hiroshi; Sato, Fumiaki

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate late biological effects of chronic low dose-rate radiation, mice were continuously irradiated with γ-rays for 400 days after which the life span and pathological changes were evaluated. Two hundred (100 male and 100 female) specific-pathogen-free (SPF) B6C3F 1 mice at six weeks of age were purchased every month. After a 2-week quarantine, they were divided into 4 groups (1 unirradiated control and 3 irradiated). Irradiation was performed using 137 Cs γ-rays at dose-rates of 20 mGy (22 h-day) -1 , 1 mGy (22 h-day) -1 and 0.05 mGy (22 h-day) -1 with equivalent accumulated doses of 8,000 mGy, 400 mGy and 20 mGy, respectively. All mice were kept until they had died a natural death. The results of the monthly microbiological examinations confirmed that the mice were maintained under SPF-conditions throughout the experimental period. A total of 4,000 mice have been admitted into the experiment since it started in February 1996, 1,000 of which were admitted during the period between July and December 1998. Data on the 20 mGy (22 h-day) -1 group of both sexes suggested a shortening of the life span and an increase of tumor incidence. The most common lethal neoplasmas in pooled data of unirradiated control and irradiated male mice were malignant lymphomas, hepatocellular carcinomas, lung carcinomas, and myeloid leukemias. By contrast in female mice, malignant lymphomas, myeloid leukemias, thymic lymphomas, and fibrosarcomas were common. (author)

  8. Late effects of chronic irradiation by low dose-rate {gamma}-rays on mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Onodera, Junichi; Sasagawa, Sumiko; Ichinohe, Kazuaki; Otsu, Hiroshi; Sato, Fumiaki [Institute for Environmental Sciences, Department of Radiobiology, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    To evaluate late biological effects of chronic low dose-rate radiation, mice were continuously irradiated with {gamma}-rays for 400 days after which the life span and pathological changes were evaluated. Two hundred (100 male and 100 female) specific-pathogen-free (SPF) B6C3F{sub 1} mice at six weeks of age were purchased every month. After a 2-week quarantine, they were divided into 4 groups (1 unirradiated control and 3 irradiated). Irradiation was performed using {sup 137}Cs {gamma}-rays at dose-rates of 20 mGy (22 h-day){sup -1}, 1 mGy (22 h-day){sup -1} and 0.05 mGy (22 h-day){sup -1} with equivalent accumulated doses of 8,000 mGy, 400 mGy and 20 mGy, respectively. All mice were kept until they had died a natural death. The results of the monthly microbiological examinations confirmed that the mice were maintained under SPF-conditions throughout the experimental period. A total of 4,000 mice have been admitted into the experiment since it started in February 1996, 1,000 of which were admitted during the period between July and December 1998. Data on the 20 mGy (22 h-day){sup -1} group of both sexes suggested a shortening of the life span and an increase of tumor incidence. The most common lethal neoplasmas in pooled data of unirradiated control and irradiated male mice were malignant lymphomas, hepatocellular carcinomas, lung carcinomas, and myeloid leukemias. By contrast in female mice, malignant lymphomas, myeloid leukemias, thymic lymphomas, and fibrosarcomas were common. (author)

  9. Radiation therapy in leukemia (total body irradiation excluded)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peiffert, D.; Hoffstetter, S.

    1999-01-01

    Radiation techniques and indications in leukemias have been described in detail, yet prophylactic cranial irradiation in acute leukemia still has few indications. Cerebrospinal and testicular irradiation are reserved for relapsing disease. Radiation usually results in rapid functional improvement when used in neurologic emergencies and symptomatic neurologic or gross tumors relapses. Nevertheless, the improvements recently obtained by systemic chemotherapy have resulted in the reduction in the use of irradiation, especially in children, where it was considered deleterious with neuropsychological sequelae. Splenic irradiation remains useful for symptomatic myelo-proliferative syndrome. (authors)

  10. Normalizing effect of immunoglobulins in the treatment of endogenous infection and intestinal dysbacteriosis in irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemparskaya, N.N.; Pinegin, B.V.; Shal'nova, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    It was shown in experiments in 2160 CBA mice and mice of mixed breed, irradiated with LD 90/30 , that therapeutical administration (subcutaneous or intraperitoneal) of immunoglobulins - homologous (polyglobulin, IgG, IgM) or heterologous - polyglobulin, IgG (from human, equine, canine blood) repeated three times, i.e., 2, 24 and 48 hours after irradiation, not only induced longer survival, but also showed a normalizing effect on the commonly developing dysbacteriosis and increased the amount of intestinal microflora and, in addition, led to the suppression of postirradiation endogenous infection. Enterobacteria, enterococci, staphylococci and yeasts disappeared from the small intestine or their quantity decreased substantially in the treated irradiated mice in contrast to the untreated irradiated mice. In the large intestine, the number of these organisms decreased considerably while the content of lactobacteria increased; no microbes could be found in the internal organs and in the blood (or their content was small). Other conditions being equal, homologous immunoglobulins are more efficient in comparison with heterologous ones, this applying also to preparations containing normal antibodies to tissues. (author). 2 tabs., 14 refs

  11. Augmentation of transfer of experimental autoimmune thyroiditis (EAT) in mice by irradiation of recipients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, W.V.; Kyriakos, M.; Sharp, G.C.; Braley-Mullen, H.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune thyroiditis (EAT) can be adoptively transferred to normal syngeneic recipients using spleen cells from susceptible strains of mice primed in vivo with mouse thyroglobulin (MTg) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) following in vitro activation of spleen cells by culture with MTg. Irradiation of recipient animals markedly augments the severity of thyroiditis induced in this system. Irradiation of recipients does not alter the time course of the development of thyroiditis, nor does it alter the requirement for both in vivo priming and in vitro activation of spleen cells for the development of EAT. Spleen cells from EAT-resistant strains of mice (e.g., Balb/c) do not induce EAT in irradiated recipients. Irradiated recipients develop significant levels of anti-MTg antibodies while unirradiated recipients have little detectable antibody response. The augmenting effect of irradiation can be substantially reversed by transferring naive spleen cells to recipients prior to the transfer of MTg/LPS-primed in vitro-activated spleen cells. In addition athymic CBA/Tufts nude mice develop more severe EAT than CBA/Tufts nude/+ littermates following transfer of activated CBA/J spleen cells. These data suggest that natural suppressor cells may regulate the development of EAT at the effector cell level

  12. Induction of external abnormalities in offspring of male mice irradiated with 252Cf neutron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurishita, Akihiro; Ono, Tetsuya; Mori, Yuriko; Okada, Shigefumi; Sawada, Syozo

    1992-01-01

    To assess the genetic effects of fission neutron, the induction of external malformations was studied in F 1 fetuses after F 0 male mice were irradiated. Male mice of the ICR:MCH strain were irradiated with 252 Cf neutron at doses of 0.238, 0.475, 0.95 and 1.9 Gy. They were mated with non-irradiated female mice at 71-120 days after irradiation. Pregnant females were autopsied on day 18 of gestation and their fetuses were examined for deaths and external abnormalities. No increases of pre- and post-implantation losses were noted at any dose. External abnormalities were observed at rates of 1.40% in the 0.238 Gy, 2.23% in the 0.475 Gy, 3.36% in the 0.95 and 3.26% in the 1.9 Gy groups; the rate in the control group was 1.65%. The dose-response curve was linear up to 0.95 Gy, and then flattened out; the induction rate of external abnormalities was 2.7x10 -4 /gamete/cGy based on the linear regression. These results indicated that fission neutron effectively induces external abnormalities in F 1 fetuses after spermatogonial irradiation. (author). 29 refs.; 1 fig.; 2 tabs

  13. Influence of whole-body irradiation on calcium and phosphate homeostasis in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pento, J.T.; Kenny, A.D.

    1975-01-01

    Previous irradiation studies have revealed marked alterations in calcium metabolism. Moreover, the maintenance of calcium homeostasis with parathyroid hormone or calcium salts has been reported to reduce radiation lethality. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the influence of irradiation on calcium homeostasis in the rat. Nine hundred rad of whole-body irradiation produced a significant depression of both plasma calcium and phosphate at 4 days postirradiation. This effect of irradiation was observed to be dose-dependent over a range of 600 to 1200 rad, and possibly related to irradiation-induced anorexia. The physiological significance of these observations is discussed

  14. Recombinant human manganese superoxide dismutase (rMnSOD): a positive effect on the immunohematological state of mice irradiated with protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambesi-Impiombato, Francesco Saverio; Belov, Oleg; Bulinina, Taisia; Ivanov, Alexander; Mancini, Aldo; Borrelli, Antonella; Krasavin, Eugene A.

    Protons represent the largest component of space radiation. In this regard screening of radioprotective drugs capable of increasing radioresistance of astronauts obligatory includes studying these compounds using proton radiation injury models. The recombinant human manganese superoxide dismutase (rMnSOD) had previously demonstrated its efficacy on an in vivo X-ray induced injury model, when multiple intraperitoneal treatments allowed the survival of mice irradiated with doses which were lethal for the control animals (Borrelli A et al. “A recombinant MnSOD is radioprotective for normal cells and radiosensitizing for tumor cells”. Free Radic Biol Med. 2009, 46, 110-6). Using the model of sublethal whole-body irradiation with protons available at Phasotron of Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna, Russia), we reconstruct the bone-marrow form of the acute radiation sickness to test the radioprotective effect of rMnSOD. Male (CBAxC57Bl6) F1 hybrid SPF mice weighting approximately 24 g were exposed to 171 MeV protons at the dose of 4 Gy. After irradiation, the sixfold daily subcutaneous treatment with rMnSOD has provided a statistically significant acceleration of the recovery of thymus and spleen mass and of the number of leukocytes in mice peripheral blood. In the control, untreated and irradiated mice, these positive effects were not observed even on day 7 after exposure. The number of karyocytes in bone marrow of irradiated mice has even exceeded its basal level in the control group 7 days after irradiation. The rMnSOD-treated group has thus demonstrated a significant hyper-restoration of this characteristic. In the presentation, several possibilities of using of rMnSOD in space medicine will be discussed, taking into account various biomedically relevant effects of this enzyme.

  15. Differentiation of strains of yellow fever virus in γ-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzgeorge, R.; Bradish, C.J.

    1980-01-01

    The mouse sensitized by optimal, sub-lethal γ-irradiation has been used for the differentiation of strains of yellow fever virus and for the resolution of their immunogenicity and pathogenicity as distinct characteristics. For different strains of yellow fever virus, the patterns of antibody-synthesis, regulatory immunity (pre-challenge) and protective immunity (post-challenge) are differentially sensitive to γ-irradiation. These critical differentiations of strains of yellow fever virus in γ-irradiated mice have been compared with those shown in normal athymic and immature mice in order to elucidate the range of quantifiable in vivo characteristics and the course of the virus-host interaction. This is discussed as a basis for the comparisons of the responses of model and principal hosts to vaccines and pathogens. (author)

  16. Effects of local and whole body irradiation on appearance of osteoclasts during wound healing of tooth extraction sockets in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosokawa, Yoichiro; Sakakura, Yasunori; Tanaka, Likinobu; Okumura, Kazuhiko; Yajima, Toshihiko; Kaneko, Masayuki

    2007-01-01

    We examined effects of local and whole body irradiation before tooth extraction on appearance and differentiation of osteoclasts in the alveolar bone of rat maxillary first molars. Wistar rats weighting 100 g were divided into three groups: non-irradiation group, local irradiation group, and whole body irradiation group. In the local irradiation group, a field made with lead blocks was placed over the maxillary left first molar tooth. In the whole body irradiation group, the animals were irradiated in cages. Both groups were irradiated at 8 Gy. The number of osteoclasts around the interradicular alveolar bone showed chronological changes common to non-irradiated and irradiated animals. Several osteoclasts appeared one day after tooth extraction, and the maximal peak was observed 3 days after extraction. Local irradiation had no difference from non-irradiated controls. In animals receiving whole body irradiation, tooth extraction one day after irradiation caused smaller number of osteoclasts than that 7 day after irradiation during the experimental period. Whole body-irradiated rats had small osteoclasts with only a few nuclei and narrow resorption lacunae, indicating deficiency of radioresistant osteoclast precursor cells. Injection of intact bone marrow cells to whole body-irradiated animals immediately after tooth extraction recovered to some content the number of osteoclasts. These findings suggest that bone resorption in the wound healing of alveolar socket requires radioresistant, postmitotic osteoclast precursor cells from hematopoietic organs, but not from local sources around the alveolar socket, at the initial phase of wound healing. (author)

  17. Effects of local and whole body irradiation on appearance of osteoclasts during wound healing of tooth extraction sockets in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Yoichiro; Sakakura, Yasunori; Tanaka, Likinobu; Okumura, Kazuhiko; Yajima, Toshihiko; Kaneko, Masayuki

    2007-07-01

    We examined effects of local and whole body irradiation before tooth extraction on appearance and differentiation of osteoclasts in the alveolar bone of rat maxillary first molars. Wistar rats weighting 100 g were divided into three groups: non-irradiation group, local irradiation group, and whole body irradiation group. In the local irradiation group, a field made with lead blocks was placed over the maxillary left first molar tooth. In the whole body irradiation group, the animals were irradiated in cages. Both groups were irradiated at 8 Gy. The number of osteoclasts around the interradicular alveolar bone showed chronological changes common to non-irradiated and irradiated animals. Several osteoclasts appeared one day after tooth extraction, and the maximal peak was observed 3 days after extraction. Local irradiation had no difference from non-irradiated controls. In animals receiving whole body irradiation, tooth extraction one day after irradiation caused smaller number of osteoclasts than that 7 day after irradiation during the experimental period. Whole body-irradiated rats had small osteoclasts with only a few nuclei and narrow resorption lacunae, indicating deficiency of radioresistant osteoclast precursor cells. Injection of intact bone marrow cells to whole body-irradiated animals immediately after tooth extraction recovered to some content the number of osteoclasts. These findings suggest that bone resorption in the wound healing of alveolar socket requires radioresistant, postmitotic osteoclast precursor cells from hematopoietic organs, but not from local sources around the alveolar socket, at the initial phase of wound healing.

  18. Cellular and behavioral effects of cranial irradiation of the subventricular zone in adult mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Lazarini

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, new neurons are added to the olfactory bulb (OB throughout life. Most of these new neurons, granule and periglomerular cells originate from the subventricular zone (SVZ lining the lateral ventricles and migrate via the rostral migratory stream toward the OB. Thousands of new neurons appear each day, but the function of this ongoing neurogenesis remains unclear.In this study, we irradiated adult mice to impair constitutive OB neurogenesis, and explored the functional impacts of this irradiation on the sense of smell. We found that focal irradiation of the SVZ greatly decreased the rate of production of new OB neurons, leaving other brain areas intact. This effect persisted for up to seven months after exposure to 15 Gray. Despite this robust impairment, the thresholds for detecting pure odorant molecules and short-term olfactory memory were not affected by irradiation. Similarly, the ability to distinguish between odorant molecules and the odorant-guided social behavior of irradiated mice were not affected by the decrease in the number of new neurons. Only long-term olfactory memory was found to be sensitive to SVZ irradiation.These findings suggest that the continuous production of adult-generated neurons is involved in consolidating or restituting long-lasting olfactory traces.

  19. Cellular and Behavioral Effects of Cranial Irradiation of the Subventricular Zone in Adult Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarini, Françoise; Mouthon, Marc-André; Gheusi, Gilles; de Chaumont, Fabrice; Olivo-Marin, Jean-Christophe; Lamarque, Stéphanie; Abrous, Djoher Nora; Boussin, François D.; Lledo, Pierre-Marie

    2009-01-01

    Background In mammals, new neurons are added to the olfactory bulb (OB) throughout life. Most of these new neurons, granule and periglomerular cells originate from the subventricular zone (SVZ) lining the lateral ventricles and migrate via the rostral migratory stream toward the OB. Thousands of new neurons appear each day, but the function of this ongoing neurogenesis remains unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we irradiated adult mice to impair constitutive OB neurogenesis, and explored the functional impacts of this irradiation on the sense of smell. We found that focal irradiation of the SVZ greatly decreased the rate of production of new OB neurons, leaving other brain areas intact. This effect persisted for up to seven months after exposure to 15 Gray. Despite this robust impairment, the thresholds for detecting pure odorant molecules and short-term olfactory memory were not affected by irradiation. Similarly, the ability to distinguish between odorant molecules and the odorant-guided social behavior of irradiated mice were not affected by the decrease in the number of new neurons. Only long-term olfactory memory was found to be sensitive to SVZ irradiation. Conclusion/Significance These findings suggest that the continuous production of adult-generated neurons is involved in consolidating or restituting long-lasting olfactory traces. PMID:19753118

  20. [Effect of electromagnetic pulse irradiation on structure and function of Leydig cells in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shui-Ming; Wang, De-Wen; Peng, Rui-Yun; Gao, Ya-Bing; Yang, Yi; Hu, Wen-Hua; Chen, Hao-Yu; Zhang, You-Ren; Gao, Yan

    2003-08-01

    To explore the effect of electromagnetic pulse (EMP) irradiation on structure and function of Leydig cells in mice. One hundred and fourteen male Kunming mice were randomly divided into irradiated and control group, the former radiated generally by 8 x 10(3) V/m, 2 x 10(4) V/m and 6 x 10(4) V/m EMP respectively five times within two minutes. Pathological changes of Leydig cells were observed by light and electron microscope. Serum testosterone (T), luteinizing hormone (LH) and estradiol (E2) were measured dynamically by radioimmunoassay at 6 h, 1 d, 3 d, 7 d, 14 d and 28 d after irradiation. Main pathological changes were edema and vacuolation, swelling of cytoplasmic mitochondria, reduce of lipid droplets, pale staining of most of lipid droplets, and partial or complete cavitation of lipid droplets in Leydig cells within 28 days after EMP radiation. Compared with normal controls, serum T decreased in all in different degrees within 28 days, and dropped significantly at 6 h-14 d, 6 h-7 d and 1 d-28 d after 8 x 10(3) V/m, 2 x 10(4) V/m and 6 x 10(4) V/m EMP irradiation(P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). EMP irradiation caused no significant changes in serum LH and E2. Leydig cells are among those that are the most susceptible to EMP irradiation. EMP irradiation may cause significant injury in structure and function of Leydig cells in mice, whose earlier and continuous effect is bound to affect sexual function and sperm production.

  1. Relationship between chromosomal aberration of bone marrow cells and dosage of irradiation after 46Sc internal pollution and external low dose X-irradiation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guofu; Li Zhang; Wu Yin

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between chromosomal aberration of bone marrow cells and dosage in mice 24 h after 46 Sc internal pollution combined with external low dose whole body X-irradiation was quantiatively studied. The results showed that the relationship between chromosomal aberration and dosage was expressed in a linear regression equation. The chromosomal aberration rate was lower in the combined exposure than that of the sum of internal and external exposures, but higher than that of either the internal or external exposure singly. The relationship between chromosomal aberration and time was expressed in the following three phase exponential function: Y(t) = 2.9078 exp 0.27668t + 2.9371 exp -0.0778t + 2.3786 -0.01788t . By means of fit test, there was no significant difference between the determined and the theoretical values. The 90% theoretical values got from all the equations distributed over the determined values

  2. On the recovery of the DNA-synthesis after X-irradiation in the spleen of mice and its modification by the NAD-metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streffer, C.

    1974-01-01

    The incorporation of tritium-labelled thymidine into the DNA of mice spleen cells after whole body irradiation with X-rays was measured in order to study the decrease of DNA synthesis is decreased for several hours after irradiation with low doses. Recovery effects become operative after six hours. The radiation effect on the NAD metabolism, known to be related to DNA synthesis, was also investigated. The rate of NAD synthesis is influenced via the extremely radiosensitive metabolic process in the nucleus. Conversely, inhibition of DNA synthesis by injection of NAD enhances the recovery of DNA synthesis after irradiaton. (G.G.)

  3. Lethal effect after whole-body irradiation on mouse with various photon radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohda, Shizuo

    1976-01-01

    The dependence of mortality on the quality of radiation was investigated in ICR mice after wholebody irradiation with 200 kV x-ray, 60 Co γ-ray, or 10 MV x-ray. With respect to the 30 day mortality, LD 50 values were estimated as 606 rad for 200 kV x-ray and as 713 rad both for 60 Co γ-ray and for 10 MV x-ray. Hence, the value of relative biological effectiveness (RBE) to that for 200 kV x-ray was 0.850, while the value decreased with increasing the mortality rate. The value extrapolated to 100% mortality was estimated as 0.6. These results were valid for either 7 or 8 week mice, but the life span of 7 week mice after the irradiation was 3 days shorter than that of 8 week mice. These findings resulted in following conclusions: 1) There are no qualitative differences between 10 MV x-ray and 60 Co γ-ray irradiations. 2) The biological effects after 10 MV x-ray and 60 Co γ-ray irradiations are reduced with increased killing rate, compared with that after 200 kV x-ray irradiations. (Evans, J.)

  4. Neurogenic Effects of Low-Dose Whole-Body HZE (Fe) Ion and Gamma Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Tara B; Hurley, Sean D; Wu, Michael D; Olschowka, John A; Williams, Jacqueline P; O'Banion, M Kerry

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the dose-toxicity profile of radiation is critical when evaluating potential health risks associated with natural and man-made sources in our environment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of low-dose whole-body high-energy charged (HZE) iron (Fe) ions and low-energy gamma exposure on proliferation and differentiation of adult-born neurons within the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, cells deemed to play a critical role in memory regulation. To determine the dose-response characteristics of the brain to whole-body Fe-ion vs. gamma-radiation exposure, C57BL/6J mice were irradiated with 1 GeV/n Fe ions or a static 137 Cs source (0.662 MeV) at doses ranging from 0 to 300 cGy. The neurogenesis was analyzed at 48 h and one month postirradiation. These experiments revealed that whole-body exposure to either Fe ions or gamma radiation leads to: 1. An acute decrease in cell division within the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, detected at doses as low as 30 and 100 cGy for Fe ions and gamma radiation, respectively; and 2. A reduction in newly differentiated neurons (DCX immunoreactivity) at one month postirradiation, with significant decreases detected at doses as low as 100 cGy for both Fe ions and gamma rays. The data presented here contribute to our understanding of brain responses to whole-body Fe ions and gamma rays and may help inform health-risk evaluations related to systemic exposure during a medical or radiologic/nuclear event or as a result of prolonged space travel.

  5. Mutagenicity assayed by dominant lethality testing in mice fed a combined gamma-irradiated diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rupova, I.; Katsarova, Ts.; Bajrakova, A.; Baev, I.; Tencheva, S.

    1980-01-01

    Mice fed a combined gamma-irradiated diet were examined for a mutagenic effect using the dominant lethality test. Their feed contained the following irradiated ingredients: 20% maize, 10% dried plums, and 5% walnut kernels. Taking into account cycle duration in spermatogenesis and oogenesis, males were fed this special diet throughout 56 days, and females throughout 21 days. The experiments involved three animal groups: (1) fed the special diet containing irradiated ingredients; (2) fed the special diet but with the ingredients nonirradiated; and (3) fed standard vivarium diet. Matings to provide the first generation were between one parent fed the special diet and a partner fed standard diet. With an adequate number of implants examined on day 16 of gestation, embryonic death rate was not found to be increased; hence, induction of dominant lethality from consumption of irradiated diet failed to be demonstrated

  6. Effects of low dose rate irradiation on life span prolongation of human premature-aging syndrome model mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Takaharu

    2006-01-01

    We previously showed that Type II diabetes model mice prolonged of their life span by life long low dose rate irradiation. We also found that antioxidant function in variety tissues of some strain of mice were enhancement after low dose/low dose rate irradiation. The prolongation of life span might depend on certain damaged level of reactive oxygen species. We thought the effect of the prolongation was due to the enhancement of the antioxidant activities after irradiation. We investigated whether the enhancement of antioxidant activities after low dose rate irradiation had an effect on life span prolongation. Four-week-old female human premature-aging syndrome model mice, kl/kl (klotho) mice, which the life span of this model mouse is about 65 days, were irradiated with gamma rays at 0.35, 0.70 or 1.2 mGy/hr. The 0.70 mGy/hr-irradiated group remarkably effected on the prolongation of their life span. Some mice of the group were extremely survived for about and more 100 days. Antioxidant activities in the irradiated groups were enhancement by low dose rate irradiation, however the dependence of the dose rates were not clearly difference. These results suggest that the antioxidant activities in this model mouse were enhanced by the low dose rate irradiation, and may make it possible to prolong the life span of this mouse. (author)

  7. Effects of Eaf2 gene knockout on cataract induced by ultraviolet irradiation in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Hua Jiang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To evaluate the effects of Eaf2 gene knockout on cataract in mice induced by ultraviolet irradiation.METHODS:Fifteen wild type mice were used as the control group, and 10 Eaf2 KO mice were used as the experimental group. The 14-week mice were taken as the research objects in the two groups. So the subgroups were: WT -nonUV, WT -UV, Eaf2 KO-nonUV and Eaf2 KO-UV, a total of 4 groups. Observe the lens of mice in vivo with slit lamp microscope, grade the lens opacity with Lens Opacities Classification System II(LOCSII. Then the mice were sacrificed by breaking the neck, the lens were removed and were observed by dark field microscopy. According to the captured images, the proportion of cataract region was analyzed using Image J software. The data of the two groups were statistically analyzed.RESULTS: The results detected by the two methods were similar. In WT-UV group and Eaf2 KO-UV group, the degree of lens opacity was significantly higher than those of WT-nonUV group and Eaf2 KO-nonUV group. The lens opacity of WT-UV group was significantly higher than that in Eaf2 KO-UV group, and the difference was statistically significant(PCONCLUSION: Ultraviolet radiation can lead to the formation of cataract in mice. Eaf2 protein can promote the formation of cataract in mice caused by ultraviolet.

  8. Sorption of carbohydrates following the whole-body irradiation and irradiation of the abdominal cavity (Experimental investigation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumeister, K.; Koch, F.; Mehlgorn, G.; Panndorf, H.; Iohannsen, U.

    1974-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the effect of fractionated irradiation of the abdominal cavity and the whole body on carbohydrate absorption. It was found that enhanced D-xylose absorption is a function of dose. The relationship between impairment of absorption and the severity of clinical, pathomorphological and roentgenological changes was noted. (V.A.P.)

  9. Gastrointestinal decontamination of dogs treated with total body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriesendorp, H.M.; Heidt, P.J.; Zurcher, C.

    1981-01-01

    Procedures for total and selective gastrointestinal decontamination of dogs are described. The selective procedure removed only Gram negative aerobic bacteria, yeast and fungi. Dogs receiving total decontamination were less susceptible to the GI syndrome following total body irradiation (TBI) than

  10. Total body irradiation as a form of preparation for bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Toshihiko

    1987-01-01

    The history of total body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation is surprisingly old. Following the success of Thomas et al. in the 1970s, bone marrow transplantation appeared to be the sole curative treatment modality for high-risk leukemia. A supralethal dose of total body irradiation was widely accepted as a form of preparation for bone marrow transplantation. In this paper, I described the present status of bone marrow transplantation for leukemia patients in Japan based on the IVth national survey. Since interstitial pneumonitis was one of the most life threatening complications after bone marrow transplantation, I mentioned the dose, dose-rate and fraction of total body irradiation in more detail. In addition, I dealt with some problems of the total body irradiation, such as dose prescription, compensating contour as well as inhomogeneity, and shielding for the highrisk organs. (author) 82 refs

  11. Recovery of haemopoietic stem cells of W/W sup(v) mice after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, K.J.; Miyanomae, Takeshi; Kumagai, Keiko; Seto, Akira; Kitamura, Yukihiko.

    1981-01-01

    The growth kinetics of haemopoietic cells after irradiation was compared between the normal (+/+) and the genetically anemic W/W sup(v) mice both in vivo and in vitro. The parameters studied were the total cellularity and the number of granulocyte/macrophage precursor cells (CFUc). The onset of haemopoiesis in vivo after irradiation with 150 R of X-rays was significantly delayed in W/W sup(v) mice compared to that in +/+ littermates. In the culture of W/W sup(v) marrow, haemopoietic cells could recover after 50 R-irradiation with more than 100 R, whereas the +/+ marrow culture restored normal haemopoiesis soon after irradiation. The number and concentration of CFUc within the W/W sup(v) marrow culture showed a temporary increase after irradiation, followed by a gradual decrease which preceded the depletion of differentiated cells in suspension. These results suggest that the differentiation potency of W/W sup(v) stem cell is normal but the capacity for self-renewal is defective. (author)

  12. Involvement of immune system in enhanced tumor rejection in mice by chronic low dose-rate irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshi, Yuko

    2006-01-01

    In the previous study, I found that low dose-rate radiation, under certain irradiation conditions, enhanced the rejective response against tumor cells in irradiated C57BL/6N mice. To elucidate the involvement of immune system, I studied the rejective response against taking tumor cells in C57BL/6 mice and scid mice. The C57BL/6N mice have normal immune system, but the scid mice lack a functional immune system. The rejective response was analyzed by applying methods of TD50 assay. TD50 is the abbreviation for tumor dose 50 and indicates the number of cells required for successful transplantation to 50% of injected sites in the recipient animals. I transplanted the tumor cells prepared from a Methylcholanthrene-induced tumor (fibrosarcoma) in mice. The increase in the TD50 value suggests an enhancement of the rejective response against taking tumor cells. The TD50 in non-irradiated scid mice was smaller than that of non-irradiated C57BL/6N mice and the values were 7.6 x 10 2 and 1.01 x 10 4 , respectively. Furthermore, the TD50 value in C57BL/6N mice irradiated with 250 mGy increased to 3.5 x 10 4 . On the other hand, that in scid mice irradiated with the same total dose remained at low level and did riot change. These results suggest that the increase in TD50 value in mice by irradiation with 250 mGy needs normal immune system. The immune system is stimulated by transplantated tumor cells and induced the enhancement of the rejective response against taking tumor cells. (author)

  13. Possible Effect of 5, 6- Dimethyl -4 Isothiocyanate Thieno [2, 3-d] Pyrimidine and I or Irradiation on Ehrlich Carcinoma in Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, S.Z.; Anis, L.M.

    2010-01-01

    Considerable attention has been devoted to the construction of new derivatives of [2,3-d] pyrimidines on the account of their reported biological activities. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the antitumour activity of 5, 6- dimethyl -4- isothiocyanate- thieno [2,3-d] pyrimidine (DMITCTP) in solid Ehrlich carcinoma (SEC) bearing mice. DMITCTP was administered on the 10th day after tumor inoculation at a dose of 150 mg/kg BW, day after day, during a period of 3 weeks. Whole body exposure to one dose of 2Gy gamma irradiation was carried out two weeks after DMITCTP administration. Biochemical analysis in the blood of solid Ehrlich carcinoma (SEC) bearing mice showed significant increase in MDA content and GSH-Px activity level a significant decrease in GSH content and SOD activity level, IL 10 concentration and TNF- α concentration was detected associated with significant alteration in kidney and liver functions, as compared to control. Administration of DMITCTP alone or in combination with gamma-irradiation has significantly decrease MDA content and GSH-Px activity level associated with significant increase in GSH content, SOD activity level, IL-10 concentration and TNF-a concentration, compared to SEC bearing mice. These results supported by significant improvement in liver and kidney functions. Treatment solid Ehrlich carcinoma (SEC) bearing mice with gamma-irradiation or DMITCTP combined with y-irradiation showed significant increase in MDA content, GSH-Px and GST activities levels and in amount of metabolites of CYP450 and significant decrease in GSH content, and SOD activity level, as compared to SEC bearing mice. Administration of DMITCTP alone or combined with gamma- irradiation has significantly decreased tumor volume

  14. Studies on the migration of micronucleated erythrocytes from bone marrow to the peripheral blood in irradiated Swiss mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaubey, R.C.; Bhilwade, H.N.; Chauhan, P.S.

    1993-01-01

    Micronucleated polychromatic (mn-PCE) and normochromatic erythrocytes (nm-NCE) were enumerated in the bone marrow and peripheral blood of Swiss male mice at different time intervals following whole-body (1.0 Gy) γ-irradiation. Polychromatic cells migrated to the peripheral blood soon after their formation in the bone marrow and nm-PCE achieved a frequency close to that of the bone marrow with a delay of about 12 h. The optimal time for peripheral sampling was found to be about 36 h after radiation exposure. The frequency of mn-NCE in bone marrow and peripheral blood showed only a moderate and gradual increase till 60 h, and was much lower in the latter. In another experiment, mice irradiated with 0.42 Gy γ-rays (0.21 Gy/h) once a day for 5, 10 or 15 days (5 days per week) showed a cumulative dose-dependent increase in the levels of mn-NCE in the peripheral blood, sampled at 7 or 21 days after the last exposure. (author)

  15. Release and retention of labelled DNA in the thymus and spleen of irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suciu, D.; Uray, Z.; Abraham, A.D.

    1976-01-01

    The process of release and retention of labelled DNA in thymus and spleen of normal and irradiated ( 06 Co) mice has been studied after administration of 3 H-thymidine. The results indicate that the dividing fraction of lymphoid cells is more resistant to radiation than the fraction of nondividing lymphoytes. The time courses of the specific activities of DNA in thymus and spleen were different especially after irradiation with lethal doses. It is suggested that the process of depletion in the lymphoid series is probably similar for both thymus and spleen but, the different cellular composition of these organs led to apparently unrelated results. (orig.) [de

  16. Megakaryocytopoiesis and the number of thrombocytes after bone marrow cell transplantation in lethally irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viktora, L.; Hermanova, E.; Zoubkova, M.

    1977-01-01

    Changes were studied in the number of thrombocytes in the peripheral blood and megakaryocytes in the bone marrow and spleen in lethally irradiated mice after the transplantation of bone marrow cells. It was found that the thrombocytes increased in dependence on time after transplantation with the maximal values around the 20th day. An increased megakaryocytopoiesis was observed not only in the bone marrow but also in the spleen. These ascertainments suggest the importance of the transplantation of bone marrow cells and the role of thrombocytes for the survival of the organism after irradiation. (author)

  17. Long-term feeding studies in mice fed a diet containing irradiated fish. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, H.G.; Miller, T.J.; Gottschalk, H.M.; Elias, P.S.

    1980-01-01

    Three groups of mice (Fsub(2b) generation of Part I study) were fed for 90 days, either stock ration or diets containing 45% fish, either non-irradiated or irradiated with 1.75 kGy. Equal amounts of cod and redfish (ocean perch) constituted the fish portion of the diet. Haematological and clinical chemical examinations revealed no treatment-related effects. There were no untoward terminal gross or histopathological changes. An initial lag in weight gain of males fed fish diets was attibuted to reduced food consumption, due to the difference in texture of the fish diets compared with the stock ration. (Auth.)

  18. Rb and p53 gene deletions in lung adenocarcinomas from irradiated and control mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.; Woloschak, G.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Center for Mechanistic Biology and Biotechnology

    1997-08-01

    This study was conducted on mouse lung adenocarcinoma tissues that were formalin-treated and paraffin-embedded 25 years ago to investigate the large gene deletions of mRb and p53 in B6CF{sub 1} male mice. A total of 80 lung tissue samples from irradiated mice and 40 lung samples from nonirradiated controls were randomly selected and examined in the mRb portion of this study. The results showed a significant (P < 0.05) higher percentage of mRb deletions in lung adenocarcinomas from mice exposed to 60 once-weekly {gamma}-ray doses than those from mice receiving 24 once-weekly {gamma}-ray doses at low doses and low dose rates; however, the percentage was not significantly different (P > 0.05) from that for spontaneous lung adenocarcinomas or lung adenocarcinomas from mice exposed to single-dose {gamma} irradiation at a similar total dose. mRb fragments 3 (71%) and 5 (67%), the parts of the gene that encoded the pocket binding region of Rb protein to adenovirus E1A and SV40 T-antigen, were the most frequently deleted fragments. p53 gene deletion analysis was carried out on normal lungs and lung adenocarcinomas that were initially found to bear mRb deletions. Exons 1,4,5,6, and 9 were chosen to be analyzed.

  19. Chronic induction of senescence marker in gamma-irradiation mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seol, Min A; Jung, U Hee; Eom, Hyeon Soo; Kim, Seol Hwa; Park, Hae Ran; Jo, Sung Kee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Aging or senescence occurs at organ level as well as cell level. Most senescent cells are characterized by morphological changes into large, flat, and multinucleated phenotypes. Also senescence cells show a stable and long-term loss of proliferative capacity although viability and metabolic activity are maintained. The in vivo senescence or aging has been studied using various animal models. However, until now, the mechanisms of senescence or aging in vivo. Ionizing radiation (IR) is a well-known inducer of oxidative stress and DNA damage, which is one of the important causes of aging process. Therefore, in this study, we wanted to find out whether IR can induce or accelerate aging process in mice by investigating the long-term effects of IR on the various senescence markers in the tissues

  20. In vitro gamma irradiation Medical Center of leukemic cells in mice, rats, and guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, L.; Dreyfuss, Y.; Ehrenreich, T.; Feldman, D.; Limbert, L.M.

    1980-01-01

    In vitro gamma irradiation of virus-induced (Gross) mouse leukemia cells at doses of 350 to 1600 rads (1 rad = 0.01 gray) had no effect on their ability to induce leukemia, usually within 2 weeks, after transplantation into syngeneic mice. However, when cells irradiated at doses of 2000-20,000 rads were transplanted, they induced leukemia after a latency period exceeding 2.5 months, similar to the results observed in mice inoculated with filtered mouse leukemia extracts. Similar results were also obtained after irradiation of leukemic cells derived from rats in which leukemia had been induced by rat-adapted mouse leukemia virus. Apparently, gamma irradiation at a dose of, or exceeding, 2000 rads, inhibits the ability of mouse and rat leukemic cells to induce leukemia after transplantation into syngeneic hosts; however, it does not inactivate the virus carried by such cells nor prevent it from inducing leukemia. [In previous experiments, doses of more than 4,500,000 rads were needed to inactivate the passage A (Gross) leukemia virus carried in either mouse or rat leukemic cells.] In vitro gamma irradiation of L2C guinea pig leukemic cells at doses of 750 to 2500 rads had no apparent effect on their ability to induce leukemia after transplantation into strain 2 guinea pigs. However, irradiation at doses of 3250 to 20,000 rads inactivated their ability to do so. The morphology of mouse, rat, and guinea pig leukemic cells and the virus particles present in such cells was not affected by irradiation at doses of 20,000 rads

  1. Effect of chronic irradiation combined with other damaging factors on some morphological systems of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponomareva, T.V.; Merkushev, G.N.; Pil'shchuk, E.M.; Bikkulov, R.I.

    1978-01-01

    A model experiment on mice is carried out to study morphofunctional changes that occur in mammals chronically exposed to radiation in doses close to those in occupational exposures of a man. Mice have been exposed to gamma-radiation at dose rates of 6, 16, 40, 120, and 300 mr/day from the time of birth onward throughout lifetime. It is concluded that, where a chronic purulent infection is present, chronic irradiation at the above dose rates, with the exception of 6 mr/day, accelerates the onset of irreversible pathologic changes, in particular of amyloidosis, in immunocompetent organs

  2. Palatal shelf epithelium: a morphologic and histochemical study in X-irradiated and normal mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gartner, L.P.; Hiatt, J.L.; Provenza, D.V.

    1978-01-01

    The palatal shelf epithelium of normal and irradiated mice was examined morphologically and histochemically, utilizing the periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) technique for the demonstration of the basement membrane and the Nitro BT method for succinate dehydrogenase activity in order to demonstrate the metabolic competence of its cells. The 'programmed cell death theory' was not supported by the present investigation, since the cells of the medial ridge epithelium retained their structural and metabolic integrity even subsequent to the formation of cell nests. Additionally, the medial ridge epithelium of mice with radiation-induced cleft palates demonstrated normal structural and metabolic integrity long past the prospective time of fusion. (author)

  3. Administration of saccharin to neonatal mice influences body composition of adult males and reduces body weight of females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlee, Sebastian D; Simon, Becky R; Scheller, Erica L; Alejandro, Emilyn U; Learman, Brian S; Krishnan, Venkatesh; Bernal-Mizrachi, Ernesto; MacDougald, Ormond A

    2014-04-01

    Nutritional or pharmacological perturbations during perinatal growth can cause persistent effects on the function of white adipose tissue, altering susceptibility to obesity later in life. Previous studies have established that saccharin, a nonnutritive sweetener, inhibits lipolysis in mature adipocytes and stimulates adipogenesis. Thus, the current study tested whether neonatal exposure to saccharin via maternal lactation increased susceptibility of mice to diet-induced obesity. Saccharin decreased body weight of female mice beginning postnatal week 3. Decreased liver weights on week 14 corroborated this diminished body weight. Initially, saccharin also reduced male mouse body weight. By week 5, weights transiently rebounded above controls, and by week 14, male body weights did not differ. Body composition analysis revealed that saccharin increased lean and decreased fat mass of male mice, the latter due to decreased adipocyte size and epididymal, perirenal, and sc adipose weights. A mild improvement in glucose tolerance without a change in insulin sensitivity or secretion aligned with this leaner phenotype. Interestingly, microcomputed tomography analysis indicated that saccharin also increased cortical and trabecular bone mass of male mice and modified cortical bone alone in female mice. A modest increase in circulating testosterone may contribute to the leaner phenotype in male mice. Accordingly, the current study established a developmental period in which saccharin at high concentrations reduces adiposity and increases lean and bone mass in male mice while decreasing generalized growth in female mice.

  4. Gamma-irradiated scrub typhus immunogens: development of cell-mediated immunity after vaccination of inbred mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerrells, T.R.; Palmer, B.A.; Osterman, J.V.

    1983-01-01

    Mice immunized with three injections of gamma-irradiated Karp strain of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi were evaluated for the presence of cell-mediated immunity by using delayed-type hypersensitivity, antigen-induced lymphocyte proliferation, and antigen-induced lymphokine production. These animals also were evaluated for levels of circulating antibody after immunization as well as for the presence of rickettsemia after intraperitoneal challenge with viable Karp rickettsiae. After immunization with irradiated Karp rickettsiae, a demonstrable cell-mediated immunity was present as evidenced by delayed-type hypersensitivity responsiveness, lymphocyte proliferation, and production of migration inhibition factor and interferon by immune spleen lymphocytes. Also, a reduction in circulating rickettsiae was seen in mice immunized with irradiated rickettsiae after challenge with 1,000 50% mouse lethal doses of viable, homologous rickettsiae. All responses except antibody titer and reduction of rickettsemia were similar to the responses noted in mice immunized with viable organisms. Antibody levels were lower in mice immunized with irradiated rickettsiae than in mice immunized with viable rickettsiae. Furthermore, mice that were immunized with viable rickettsiae demonstrated markedly lower levels of rickettsemia after intraperitoneal challenge compared with either mice immunized with irradiated rickettsiae or nonimmunized mice

  5. Immunization of mice with gamma-irradiated intramuscularly injected schistosomula of Schistosoma mansoni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickle, Q.D.; Taylor, M.G.; Doenhoff, M.J.; Nelson, G.S.

    1979-01-01

    The parameters involved in the induction of resistance against Schistosoma mansoni by injection of irradiated, artificially transformed schistosomula were studied in mice. Single intramuscular injections of 500 schistosomula exposed to radiation doses in the range 2.3 to 160 krad. resulted in significant protection ( in the range 20 to 50% as assessed by reduced worm burdens) against a challenge infection administered at intervals from 3 to 24 weeks post-vaccination. However, schistosomular irradiated with 20 krad. consistently resulted in better protection than those exposed to either higher or lower radiation doses despite the persistence of stunted adults from the infections irradiated with 2.3 krad. Vaccination with 40 krad. schistosomula resulted in significant protection in terms of reduced worm and tissue egg burdens and increased survival following lethal challenge. Varying the number of irradiated schistosomula, the frequency and route of their administration, the site of challenge and the strain of host all failed to enhance the level of resistance. However, percutaneously applied, irradiated cercariae were found to be more effective in stimulating resistance (60%) than intramuscularly injected, irradiated schistosomula (40%). (author)

  6. Radioprotective effects of chlorogenic acid against mortality induced by gamma irradiation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyed Jalal Hosseinimehr; Amirhossein Ahmadi; Shahram Akhlaghpoor; Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The radioprotective effects of the naturally occurring compound chlorogenic acid has been investigated against mortality induced by gamma irradiation in mice. Chlorogenic acid administrated at single doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg 1 and 24 h prior to lethal dose of gamma irradiation (8.5 Gy). At 30 days after treatment, the percentage of animal survival in each group was: control, 20%; 100 mg/kg, 20% and 15%; 200 mg/kg, 45% and 15%; 400 mg/kg, 25% and 35% for 1 h and 24 h treatment prior gamma irradiation, respectively. Percentage of survival increased in animal treated with this agent at 200 mg/kg at 1 h statistically compared with irradiated alone group. Other doses of chlorogenic acid have not showed any enhanced survival at 1 and 24 h before irradiation. Chlorogenic acid exhibited concentration-dependent activity on 1, 1-diphenyl 2-picrylhydrazyl free radical to show strong antioxidant activity. It appeared that chlorogenic acid with antioxidant activity reduced mortality induced by gamma irradiation.

  7. Lethality and teratogenesis in F{sub 1} offspring mice following paternal fission neutron irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoji, Shuneki [Hiroshima Univ., Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    Studies were conducted to determine whether following genetic damage at germ cell stages induced by paternal exposure to {sup 252}Cf fission neutron could lead to teratogenesis in the offspring. Seven-week-old C3H male mice were irradiated with graded doses of {sup 252}Cf fission neutrons and then were mated with nine-week-old C57BL females two weeks after the exposure. Three weeks later, it was found that testis and epididymal weight losses as well as the proportions of caudal epididymal sperm abnormalities in irradiated males were significantly greater than those in non-irradiated groups. Pregnant dams were sacrificed on day 18 of gestation and their fetuses were examined for the number of resorptions, intrauterine deaths and teratogenesis in F{sub 1} surviving offspring. Embryo lethality among the F{sub 1} offspring was found to be significantly higher in the irradiated group than in the non-irradiated group (p < 0.01), while the incidence of congenital malformations among the F{sub 1} offspring significantly increased in the irradiated groups. These results suggest that the paternal radiation exposure may have caused genetic transmission of DNA damage and genetic instability, which is in line with findings that show increases in incidence of teratogenesis in B{sub 6}C{sub 3}F{sub 1}. (author)

  8. The pupal body temperature and inner space temperature of cocoon under microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagawa, T.

    1996-01-01

    The temperature of pupal surface,body and inner space of cocoon on cocoon drying of microwave irradiation was investigated to make clear the effect of temperature with pupa and cocoon shell. After pupal surface temperature and body temperature were risen rapidly in early irradiation and slowly thereafter, these were done fast again. Then these rising degrees fell. The variation of inner space temperature consists three terms: as the first stage of rapidly rising on early irradiation, the second stage of slowly doing and the third stage of fast doing again in temperature. In the first stage and the second stage, the higher the temperature of sending air during irradiation was, the shorter the term was and the higher the reached temperature was. The surface, pupal body and inner space have reached higher temperature than the sending air before cocoon drying was over

  9. Influence of conditioned psychological stress on immunological recovery in mice exposed to low-dose x irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, K.; Flood, J.F.; Makinodan, T.

    1984-01-01

    A study was initiated to determine the effects of psychological stress on the immune response in BALB/c mice recovering from exposure to a low dose of ionizing radiation. Mice were first subjected to conditioning training for 12 days, then exposed to 200 R, subjected to psychological stress for 14 days, and assessed for peak anti-sheep RBC response. The seven treatment groups included two unirradiated groups and five irradiated groups. Mice exposed to 200 R and then subjected to conditioned psychological stress responded less vigorously to antigenic stimulation than those of the other irradiated groups. The psychological stress imposed upon these mice did not influence the antibody-forming capacity of unirradiated mice. These results indicate that a psychological stress which did not affect the immunological activity of unirradiated mice can curtail the immunological recovery of mice exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation

  10. Cellular and Behavioral Effects of Cranial Irradiation of the Subventricular Zone in Adult Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Lazarini, Fran?oise; Mouthon, Marc-Andr?; Gheusi, Gilles; de Chaumont, Fabrice; Olivo-Marin, Jean-Christophe; Lamarque, St?phanie; Abrous, Djoher Nora; Boussin, Fran?ois D.; Lledo, Pierre-Marie

    2009-01-01

    International audience; BACKGROUND: In mammals, new neurons are added to the olfactory bulb (OB) throughout life. Most of these new neurons, granule and periglomerular cells originate from the subventricular zone (SVZ) lining the lateral ventricles and migrate via the rostral migratory stream toward the OB. Thousands of new neurons appear each day, but the function of this ongoing neurogenesis remains unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we irradiated adult mice to impair c...

  11. Early changes in vascular reactivity in response to 56Fe irradiation in ApoE-/- mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, C. Roger; Yu, Tao; Gupta, Kiran; Babitz, Stephen K.; Black, Leland L.; Kabarowski, Janusz H.; Kucik, Dennis F.

    2015-03-01

    Epidemiological studies have established that radiation from a number of terrestrial sources increases the risk of atherosclerosis. The accelerated heavy ions in the galacto-cosmic radiation (GCR) that astronauts will encounter on in space, however, interact very differently with tissues than most types of terrestrial radiation, so the health consequences of exposure on deep-space missions are not clear. We demonstrated earlier that 56Fe, an important component of cosmic radiation, accelerates atherosclerotic plaque development. In the present study, we examined an earlier, pro-atherogenic event that might be predictive of later atherosclerotic disease. Decreased endothelium-dependent vasodilation is a prominent manifestation of vascular dysfunction that is thought to predispose humans to the development of structural vascular changes that precede the development of atherosclerotic plaques. To test the effect of heavy-ion radiation on endothelium-dependent vasodilation, we used the same ApoE-/- mouse model in which we previously demonstrated the pro-atherogenic effect of 56Fe on plaque development. Ten week old male ApoE mice (an age at which there is little atherosclerotic plaque in the descending aorta) were exposed to 2.6 Gy 56Fe. The mice were then fed a normal diet and housed under standard conditions. At 4-5 weeks post-irradiation, aortic rings were isolated and endothelial-dependent relaxation was measured. Relaxation in response to acetylcholine was significantly impaired in irradiated mice compared to age-matched, un-irradiated mice. This decrease in vascular reactivity following 56Fe irradiation occurred eight weeks prior to the development of statistically significant exacerbation of aortic plaque formation and may contribute to the formation of later atherosclerotic lesions.

  12. Reticuloendothelial neoplasms in C57 black mice after fast-neutron irradiation at low dosage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mewissen, D.J.; Rust, J.H.

    1976-01-01

    In many inbred strains of mice the modulation of the basic control tumor pattern by ionizing radiation is operative primarily on the reticular tissue. This phenomenon seems more productive with high linear energy transfer radiation, particularly neutrons. The results reported in this paper are based on a total of 1963 C57 Black mice, subline 6, of either sex. From each litter animals were randomly assigned to control and treatment groups and were neutron-irradiated at 3.2, 4.5, 6.3, 8.8, and 12.3 rads of single exposure. In male and female irradiation groups, incidence rates for lymphocytic lymphomas were sharply decreased by neutron irradiation at all dose levels. In reticulum-cell sarcomas an interesting contrast was observed. First, the tumor type shifted almost entirely from type A to type B. Second, all specific incidence rates were markedly increased by radiation, both for male and female mice at all dose levels. Our data suggest the existence of an intercompetitive process triggered or accelerated by radiation

  13. Effect of low molecular fraction of thymus humoral factor on blood formation processes of irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolyarova, T.V.; Skobel'tsyna, E.S.; Grinberg, S.M.; Kruglikov, I.L.; Korotaev, G.K.; Tepelina, O.M.; Il'ina, T.I.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of low-molecular fraction of thymus humoral factor on blood formation in mice irradiated at 4 Gy was studied. It is shown that injection of low-molecular fraction of thymus hymoral factor to irradiated animals affects proliferative processes in spleen and bone marrow, however the degree of the effect depends on the injection scheme of the preparation. Application of mathematical planning methods of the experiment enables to analyze various injection schemes of low-molecular fraction of thymus humoral factor on the investigated indices. The optimal scheme of preparation injection is determined: 1st injection with the dose of 10 mkg/kg following 4 hour after irradiation, 2d injection - with the same dose in 7-21 days

  14. Alternative types of duodenal ulcer induced in mice by partial X irradiation of the thorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalowski, A.; Uehara, S.; Yin, W.B.; Burgin, J.; Silvester, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    The present study extends our earlier observations on gastrointestinal pathology in thorax-irradiated female CFLP mice. It shows that exposure of the lower mediastinum to single doses of 14-30 Gy X rays results in the formation of the proximal duodenal ulcer accompanied frequently by erosion of the antral gastric mucosa. X irradiation of the lateral thoracic fields is responsible for single ulcers in the proximity of duodenal papilla, often associated with a circumscribed area of degeneration of the fundic mucosa of the stomach. In view of the small amount of radiation received by the subdiaphragmatic parts of the alimentary tract, these gastro-duodenal lesions represent abscopal effects of thoracic irradiation

  15. Therapeutic effect of Aloe vera and silver nanoparticles on acid-induced oral ulcer in gamma-irradiated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Batal, Ahmed Ibrahim; Ahmed, Salwa Farid

    2018-02-05

    Radiation combined injury, a life-threatening condition, has higher mortality than simple radiation injury. The aim of the present study was to analyze the efficiency of Aloe vera and silver nanoparticles in improving the healing of ulcerated oral mucosa after irradiation. Thirty male Albino mice were divided into five groups: control, radiation, Aloe vera (AV), silver nanoparticles (NS), and AV+NS. The mice were exposed to whole body 6Gy gamma-radiation. After one hour, 20% acetic acid was injected into the submucosal layer of the lower lip for ulcer induction. The animals received topical treatment with the assigned substances for 5 days. Lip specimens were subjected to hematoxylin and eosin and anti alpha-smooth muscle actin immunohistochemical staining. Results demonstrated occurance of ulcer three days post irradiation in all groups except in the AV+NS group where only epithelial detachment was developed. After seven days, data revealed persistent ulcer in radiation group, and almost normal epithelium in the AV+NS group. A significant reduction of epithelial thickness was detected in all groups at the third day as compared to control. At the seventh day, only the AV+NS group restored the epithelial thickness. Area percent of alpha-smooth muscle actin expression was significantly decreased in radiation group at the third day followed by significant increase at the seventh day. However, all treatment groups showed significant increase in alpha-smooth muscle actin at the third day, which decreased to normal level at the seventh day. Our study demonstrated the efficiency of Aloe vera and silver nanoparticles in enhancing ulcer healing after irradiation.

  16. The Preventive Effect of Coffee Compounds on Dermatitis and Epidermal Pigmentation after Ultraviolet Irradiation in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamate, Yurika; Hiramoto, Keiichi; Sato, Eisuke F

    2017-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation is well known to promote inflammation and pigmentation of skin. UVB mainly affects dermatitis and pigmentation. Coffee contains a number of polyphenols, such as caffeic acid (CA) and chlorogenic acid (CGA) but their in vivo bioactivity for photobiology remains unclear. C57BL/6j male mice were irradiated with UVB (1.0 kJ/m2/day) for 3 days. Five days after the final session of UVB irradiation, the dorsal skin, ear epidermis, and blood samples were analyzed to investigate the inflammatory factors, melanogenesis factors and related hormones. After the oral administration of CA (100 mg/day) or CGA (100 mg/day) for 8 days, only CA was found to inhibit dermatitis and pigmentation. The pathway by which CA inhibits dermatitis is related to the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK)1/2/cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) pathway. Otherwise, the pathway by which CA inhibits pigmentation is related to the activation of the β-endorphin-μ-opioid receptor and suppresses the cAMP-microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) pathway. It is suggested that the oral administration of CA prevented dermatitis and pigmentation after UVB irradiation in mice. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. SU-E-T-522: Investigation of Underdosage of Total Body Irradiation with Bilateral Irradiation Scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, T; Eldib, A; Hossain, M; Price, R; Ma, C

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Patient in-vivo measurements report lower readings than those predicted from TMR-based treatment planning on TBI patient knees and ankles where rice was placed to fill the gap between patient’s legs. This study is to understand and correct the under dosage of Total Body Irradiation(TBI) with rice tissue equivalent bolus placement at TBI treatment patient setup. Methods: Bilateral TBI scheme was investigated with rice bags bolus placing between patient’s two legs acting as missing tissue. In-house TMR based treatment planning system was commissioned with measurements under TBI condition at 10MV, i.e. source-to-reference distance 383.4cm with 40×40cm field size with 1cm thickness Lucite. Predictions of patient specific dose points are reported at different sites with 200cGy prescription at patient umbilicus point. Solid water and rice bag phantoms are used at TBI conditions for the attenuation factor verification and CT scanned to verify the CT number and electron density. Results: We found that the rice bag bolus overall density is 11% lower than the water; however, the attenuation factor of rice bags could become 15% lower than that of water at TBI condition. This overestimate of rice bag electron density could cause the lack of lateral scatter and the lack of backscatter. This could Result in an overestimate of dose at in-vivo dosimeter measurement points with TMR-based treatment planning systems. Observations of patient specific optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters(OSLDs) were used to confirm this overestimation. Measurements of setups with increasing the rice bag filled patient leg separation were performed to demonstrate eliminating the overdose issue. Conclusion: Rice bolus has a lower electron density than water does(11%) but results in 15% lower in attenuation factor at TBI condition. This effect was observed in patient delivery with OSLD measurements and can be corrected by increasing the filling rice bolus thickness with 15% longer of

  18. Histological and stereological analysis of some endocrine and lymphatic organs of mice after whole-body irradiaton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalisnik, M.; Vraspir-Porenta, O.; Lejko, T.; Logonder-Mlinsek, M.; Rus, A.; Zorc, M.; Skrk, J.; Klemencic, E.; Jutersek, A.

    1978-01-01

    This investigation was carried out on 24 mice of the CBA strain with a mean age of 1.5 months. When 2.5 months old, group 1 was sacrificed, and group 2 was subjected to whole-body gamma irradiaton with 20 successive daily doses of 50 rads, the total dosage applied being 1000 rads; group 3 consisted of non-irradiated controls. The following organs were selected for histological and systematic stereological analyses: adrenal, thyroid gland, ovary, testis and thymus. The animals of groups 2 and 3 were sacrificed at the age of 8.5 months. The iradiated mice showed the following significant differences: the adrenal cortex was thicker and smoother outside, the fascicular zone rate augmented on account of other zones, vacuolization of the cytoplasm in it being considerably poorer. The thyroid follicles were bigger, more wrinkled and had a thinner epithelium. The ovaries were smaller and smoother, the functional parenchyma rate was smaller, all oocytes and follicles including the atretic ones were missing. The yellow bodies were changed, the interstitial cells being hypertrophic and hyperplastic. The inner surface of the seminiferous epithelium was slightly rougher, but testes showed no other signifcant alterations. The thymus was smaller in most cases, and revealed a less clearly delineated cortex and medulla. Volume, surface and vascularization of the medulla were reduced. There was a broad spectrum of different late effects entailed by the sublethal fractionated whole-body irradiation on different organs

  19. Image-guided microbeam irradiation to brain tumour bearing mice using a carbon nanotube x-ray source array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Yuan, Hong; Burk, Laurel M.; Inscoe, Christy R.; Hadsell, Michael J.; Chtcheprov, Pavel; Lee, Yueh Z.; Lu, Jianping; Chang, Sha; Zhou, Otto

    2014-03-01

    Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is a promising experimental and preclinical radiotherapy method for cancer treatment. Synchrotron based MRT experiments have shown that spatially fractionated microbeam radiation has the unique capability of preferentially eradicating tumour cells while sparing normal tissue in brain tumour bearing animal models. We recently demonstrated the feasibility of generating orthovoltage microbeam radiation with an adjustable microbeam width using a carbon nanotube based x-ray source array. Here we report the preliminary results from our efforts in developing an image guidance procedure for the targeted delivery of the narrow microbeams to the small tumour region in the mouse brain. Magnetic resonance imaging was used for tumour identification, and on-board x-ray radiography was used for imaging of landmarks without contrast agents. The two images were aligned using 2D rigid body image registration to determine the relative position of the tumour with respect to a landmark. The targeting accuracy and consistency were evaluated by first irradiating a group of mice inoculated with U87 human glioma brain tumours using the present protocol and then determining the locations of the microbeam radiation tracks using γ-H2AX immunofluorescence staining. The histology results showed that among 14 mice irradiated, 11 received the prescribed number of microbeams on the targeted tumour, with an average localization accuracy of 454 µm measured directly from the histology (537 µm if measured from the registered histological images). Two mice received one of the three prescribed microbeams on the tumour site. One mouse was excluded from the analysis due to tissue staining errors.

  20. Decreased tumor uptake of gallium-67 in animals after whole-body irradiation. [Gamma radiation, rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, W.P.; Alderson, P.O.; Eckelman, W.C.; Hamilton, R.G.; Weiss, J.F.

    1978-02-01

    The mechanism of decreased Ga-67 citrate retention and serum binding after whole-body irradiation is unknown. To investigate this mechanism and to determine the effects of prior irradiation on tumor uptake of Ga-67, Sprague-Dawley rats bearing a subcutaneous Walker-256 carcinosarcoma were exposed to whole-body Co-60 irradiations of 250-1000 rads. Each animal received 10 ..mu..Ci of Ga-67 citrate intravenously 24 hr after exposure. Control animals received Ga-67 but were not irradiated. Animals were killed at 48 hr and the uptakes (percentage ID/g) in the tumor and other tissues were determined. A blood sample was also obtained to determine the serum iron, unsaturated iron-binding capacity (UIBC) and transferrin level. Tumor uptake and serum UIBC were decreased in irradiated animals, whereas serum iron levels and Ga-67 urinary excretion were increased. There was a significant correlation between the UIBC and the Ga-67 tumor uptake (r = 0.78, p < 0.001, n = 49). Transferrin levels in the irradiated group were not different from control values. The results indicate that the decreased Ga-67 retention and tumor uptake seen after whole-body irradiation are related--at least in part--to the saturation of transferrin by increased levels of circulating iron.

  1. Study of the influence of homologous serum globulin preparations on the intestinal automicroflora in irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinegin, B.V.; Klemparskaya, N.N.; Mal' tsev, V.N.; Korshunov, G.A.; Shal' nova, G.A.; Kuz' mina, T.D.

    1984-09-01

    In spite of considerable experience of practical use of serum globulin preparations, their effect on automicroflora wasn't studied. The favorable effect of therapeutic injection of homologous serum globulin preparations on automicroflora of small and large intestine of mices was established for the model of acute radiation sickness caused by /sup 60/Co irradiation with 700 R dose. The effect of injecting two types of globulin preparations was studied: ones prepared of blood of intact and hemostimulated mices (to increase the content of normal antitissue antibodies in the serum). Besides the general globulin fraction isolated by ammonium sulfate precipitation a study was made on the effect of purified IgG and IgM preparations. Threefold subcutaneous or intraperitoneal globulin in ection of 1 ..mu..g dose in a mice prevented after 2, 24, 48 h after irradiation the development of bacteriosis, typical for radiation injury - decreased accumulation of putrefactive bacteria and reduced the suppression of lactobacilli content. Globulin preparations and fractions of hemostimulated mice serum, enriched by normal antitissue antibodies are the most effective ones.

  2. Changes in Serum Zinc, Copper and Ceruloplasmin Levels of Whole Body Gamma Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.I.; Shaban, H.A.; El Gohary, M.I.

    2011-01-01

    Rats are whole body irradiated with different Gamma radiation doses. Zinc and Copper, two important trace elements in the biological processes and Ceruloplasmin, a protein which carries more than 95% of serum Cu and has important roles in many vital processes are followed up in the irradiated rat sera. This work aimed to determine the changes in the serum levels of the three parameters (Zinc, Copper and Ceruloplasmin) through eight weeks follow up period (1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 6th, and 8th week) post whole body gamma irradiation with three sub-lethal doses (2, 3.5 and 5 Gy) of rats. All the experimental animals did not receive any medical treatment. Zinc and Copper were measured using discrete nebulization flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Ceruloplasmin was measured using a colorimetric method. The statistical analyses of the results show that the Zinc levels of the irradiated groups decreased significantly post irradiation and then were recovered at the 6th week post irradiation. The Copper levels of the irradiated groups increased significantly and then were recovered at 6th week post irradiation. The levels of Ceruloplasmin in the same groups increased significantly throughout the whole follow up period. The conclusion is that, Zinc, Copper and Ceruloplasmin levels changed significantly in the irradiated groups compared to the control group with a maximum effect noted in the groups irradiated with the higher doses and that the lower dose irradiated groups recover earlier than the higher ones. Also the correlation between Copper and Zinc is reversible at different doses and that between Copper and Ceruloplasmin is direct

  3. Cell proliferation and thymocyte subset reconstitution in sublethally irradiated mice: Compared kinetics of endogenous and intrathymically transferred progenitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penit, C.; Ezine, S.

    1989-01-01

    After sublethal (6 Gy) whole-body irradiation, the C57BL/Ba (Thy-1.1) murine thymus regenerated in two waves, on days 3-10 and 25-32, separated by a severe relapse. The second phase of depletion-reconstitution reproduced the first one, in a less synchronous manner. The depletion affected all cell subsets, but CD4+ CD8- cells decreased later than immature cells. Cell proliferation, measured by BrdUrd incorporation, started on day 3 after irradiation and concerned CD4- CD8-, CD4- CD8+, and CD4+ CD8+ cells, sequentially. CD4+ CD8- cells never represented a significant percentage of cycling cells. When irradiation was immediately followed by an intrathymic injection of 10(5) C57BL/Ka (Thy-1.2) bone marrow cells, the relapse in thymus reconstitution was no longer observed. Detected with anti-Thy-1.2 antibodies, donor cells started cycling on day 14 and showed only one wave of proliferation. In these chimeras, recipient thymocytes behave exactly like thymocytes of solely irradiated mice. Intrathymically transferred CD4- CD8- thymocytes 10(5) showed the same proliferation kinetics as endogenous cells, with a peak in number on day 10 but completely disappeared from the thymus on days 14-21. These data reflect maturational differences between intrathymic and bone marrow precursor cells and suggest different radiosensitivities not linked to proliferative status. The resting state of the thymus immigrants was shown by the absence of Thy-1 acquisition by bone marrow cells continuously labeled for 10 days with BrdUrd in vivo before intrathymic transfer. When such labeled bone marrow cells were injected in the thymus, only the minor BrdUrd- subset gave rise to Thy-1+ cells

  4. Immunological assessment of mice hyperimmunized with native and Cobalt-60-irradiated Bothrops venoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira Junior, R.S.; Meira, D.A.; Martinez, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    ELISA was used to evaluate, accompany, and compare the humoral immune response of Swiss mice during hyperimmunization with native and Cobalt-60-irradiated ( 60 Co) venoms of Bothrops jararaca, Bothrops jararacussu and Bothrops moojeni. Potency and neutralization were evaluated by in vitro challenges. After hyperimmunization, immunity was observed by in vivo challenge, and the side effects were assessed. The animals immunization with one LD50 of each venom occurred on days 1, 15, 21, 30, and 45, when blood samples were collected; challenges happened on the 60th day. Results showed that ELISA was efficient in evaluating, accompanying and comparing mouse immune response during hyperimmunization. Serum titers produced with natural venom were similar to those produced with irradiated venom. Immunogenic capacity was maintained after 60 Co-irradiation. The sera produced with native venom showed neutralizing potency and capacity similar to those of the sera produced with irradiated venom. All antibodies were able to neutralize five LD50 from these venoms. Clinical alterations were minimum during hyperimmunization with irradiated venom, however, necrosis and death occurred in animals inoculated with native venom. (author)

  5. Comparative nephrotoxicity of native or Co-60 gamma rays irradiated crotoxin in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Andre Moreira; Alves, Glaucie J.; Aires, Raquel da Silva; Turibio, Thompson O.; Thomazi, Gabriela O. Coelho; Spencer, Patrick J.; Nascimento, Nanci do, E-mail: andrerocha@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Nascimento-Rocha, Josefa M.; Magalhaes Filho, Asterio Souza, E-mail: 0304@prof.itpacporto.com.br [Instituto Tocantinense Presidente Antonio Carlos Porto (ITPAC), Porto Nacional, TO (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Snake venoms are complex mixtures of proteins and peptides with a wide spectrum of physiological targets such as the blood coagulation and cardiovascular systems and the motor end plate among others. Acute renal failure is a common complication in accidents with the South American rattlesnake. The toxin involved in this pathology is the crotoxin, a major component of the venom in terms of concentration and toxicity. Snake venoms, when irradiated with {sup 60}Co gamma rays present a significant decrease in toxicity while the immunogenic properties of its components are preserved. The use of irradiated venom is an attractive alternative for antisera production since it might reduce the appearance of renal lesions improving the welfare and lifespan of those animals employed on antivenom production. At the present work, we have compared the effects of native and irradiated crotoxin on the mice renal function. Tubular lesions were observed in all the samples from the animal group injected with native crotoxin. Animals injected with the irradiated toxin presented alteration only after 30 minutes and 1 hour after injection. These data suggest that the onset of the renal lesions is delayed and that the severity of the lesions might be lower when using irradiated crotoxin. (author)

  6. The effects of maternal irradiation during adulthood on mutation induction and transgenerational instability in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abouzeid Ali, Hamdy E.; Barber, Ruth C.; Dubrova, Yuri E.

    2012-01-01

    The long-term genetic effects of maternal irradiation remain poorly understood. To establish the effects of radiation exposure on mutation induction in the germline of directly exposed females and the possibility of transgenerational effects in their non-exposed offspring, adult female BALB/c and CBA/Ca mice were given 1 Gy of acute X-rays and mated with control males. The frequency of mutation at expanded simple tandem repeat (ESTR) loci in the germline of directly exposed females did not differ from that of controls. Using a single-molecule PCR approach, ESTR mutation frequency was also established for both germline and somatic tissues in the first-generation offspring of irradiated parents. While the frequency of ESTR mutation in the offspring of irradiated males was significantly elevated, maternal irradiation did not affect stability in their F 1 offspring. Considering these data and the results of our previous study, we propose that, in sharp contrast to paternal exposure to ionising radiation, the transgenerational effects of maternal high-dose acute irradiation are likely to be negligible.

  7. Comparative nephrotoxicity of native or Co-60 gamma rays irradiated crotoxin in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Andre Moreira; Alves, Glaucie J.; Aires, Raquel da Silva; Turibio, Thompson O.; Thomazi, Gabriela O. Coelho; Spencer, Patrick J.; Nascimento, Nanci do; Nascimento-Rocha, Josefa M.; Magalhaes Filho, Asterio Souza

    2015-01-01

    Snake venoms are complex mixtures of proteins and peptides with a wide spectrum of physiological targets such as the blood coagulation and cardiovascular systems and the motor end plate among others. Acute renal failure is a common complication in accidents with the South American rattlesnake. The toxin involved in this pathology is the crotoxin, a major component of the venom in terms of concentration and toxicity. Snake venoms, when irradiated with 60 Co gamma rays present a significant decrease in toxicity while the immunogenic properties of its components are preserved. The use of irradiated venom is an attractive alternative for antisera production since it might reduce the appearance of renal lesions improving the welfare and lifespan of those animals employed on antivenom production. At the present work, we have compared the effects of native and irradiated crotoxin on the mice renal function. Tubular lesions were observed in all the samples from the animal group injected with native crotoxin. Animals injected with the irradiated toxin presented alteration only after 30 minutes and 1 hour after injection. These data suggest that the onset of the renal lesions is delayed and that the severity of the lesions might be lower when using irradiated crotoxin. (author)

  8. Facilitation of nodal metastasis from a non-immunogenic murine carcinoma by previous whole-body irradiation of tumour recipients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewitt, H.B.; Blake, E.R.

    1977-01-01

    Of 193 CBA mice kept under prolonged observation after excision of small intradermal transplants of a non-immunogenic tumour (CBA Carcinoma NT), 27 (14%) presented with local recurrence, 19 (10%) with regional lymphnodal metastasis (RNM) and 72 (37%), with pulmonary metastasis +- other systemic metastases. When mice were exposed to sublethal whole-body irradiation (WBI) before tumour transplantation, the incidence of RNM rose to approximately 80% and the latent period was reduced from approximately 60 days to approximately 40 days after tumour transplantation. This enhancement of RNM by WBI was undiminished when the interval between WBI and tumour transplantation was increased from 1 to 90 days. An explanation for this effect in terms of immunosuppression by the WBI is unlikely for the following reasons: the tumour was non-immunogenic by standard quantitative tests; the effect persisted long after the expected time for recovery of immune reactivity; and i.v. injection of normal marrow and lymphoid cells after WBI failed to reduce the effect. That the effect was systemic was proved by failure of local pre-irradiation of the tumour bed or regional node to enhance RNM. The effect was not observed when WBI was given 4 days after excision of tumours. These and other experiments failed to indicate the mechanism of the effect of WBI, but its long persistence suggests that it may relate to stored lethal radiation damage in migrating cells of slow turnover tissues. (author)

  9. Effects of ancestral x irradiation followed by random mating on body weight of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gianola, D.; Chapman, A.B.; Rutledge, J.J.

    1977-01-01

    Effects of nine generations of 450R per generation of ancestral spermatogonial x irradiation of inbred rats on body weight were examined. After six generations of random mating (avoiding inbreeding) following the termination of irradiation, descendants of irradiated males (R) were significantly lighter than their controls (C) at 3 and 6 weeks, but not at 10 weeks of age. However, differences in growth between R and C populations were small. Among-litter and within-litter variance estimates were generally larger in the R lines than in the C lines, suggesting that selection responses would be greater in R than in C lines. In conjunction with previous evidence--obtained during the irradiation phase of the experiment--this suggested that more rapid response to selection for 6-week body weight, in particular, might accrue in the R lines

  10. Effects of cadmium on haemopoiesis in irradiated and non-irradiated mice: 2. Relationship to the number of circulating blood cells and haemopoiesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackova, N.O.; Lenikova, S.; Fedorocko, P.; Brezani, P.; Fedorockova, A.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of administration of cadmium alone in non-irradiated mice as well as the effect of pre-irradiation administration of cadmium on the reparation processes were investigated in mice irradiated with a dose of 7.5 Gy. The pre-irradiation administration of cadmium accelerated the reparation process in the bone marrow and spleen as well as the number of leukocytes and thrombocytes in the peripheral blood. The administration of cadmium alone caused a temporary weight decrease of the thymus and reduced the number of erythrocytes, reticulocytes, and the haemoglobin values in the peripheral blood. The temporary rapid increase in the number of leukocytes on the 21st day after cadmium administration was investigated. 3 figs., 28 refs

  11. Expanding the body mass range: associations between BMR and tissue morphology in wild type and mutant dwarf mice (David mice).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Carola W; Neubronner, Juliane; Rozman, Jan; Stumm, Gabi; Osanger, Andreas; Stoeger, Claudia; Augustin, Martin; Grosse, Johannes; Klingenspor, Martin; Heldmaier, Gerhard

    2007-02-01

    We sought to identify associations of basal metabolic rate (BMR) with morphological traits in laboratory mice. In order to expand the body mass (BM) range at the intra-strain level, and to minimize relevant genetic variation, we used male and female wild type mice (C3HeB/FeJ) and previously unpublished ENU-induced dwarf mutant littermates (David mice), covering a body mass range from 13.5 g through 32.3 g. BMR was measured at 30 degrees C, mice were killed by means of CO(2 )overdose, and body composition (fat mass and lean mass) was subsequently analyzed by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), after which mice were dissected into 12 (males) and 10 (females) components, respectively. Across the 44 individuals, 43% of the variation in the basal rates of metabolism was associated with BM. The latter explained 47% to 98% of the variability in morphology of the different tissues. Our results demonstrate that sex is a major determinant of body composition and BMR in mice: when adjusted for BM, females contained many larger organs, more fat mass, and less lean mass compared to males. This could be associated with a higher mass adjusted BMR in females. Once the dominant effects of sex and BM on BMR and tissue mass were removed, and after accounting for multiple comparisons, no further significant association between individual variation in BMR and tissue mass emerged.

  12. Effects of whole-body gamma irradiation on oxygen transport by rat erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiriot, Christian; Kergonou, J.F.; Rocquet, Guy; Allary, Michel; Saint-Blancard, Jacques

    1982-01-01

    In this work, we studied the influence of whole-body gamma irradiation (8 Gy) upon oxygen transport by erythrocytes, through the erythrocyte count and related parameters, and through the factors affecting the oxygen affinity of hemoglobin. The oxygen affinity of hemoglobin is increased from day D + 5 after irradiation, and a severe erythropenia develops from day D + 8. These modifications probably result in tissue hypoxia via diminished oxygen transport from lungs to tissues, and decreased oxygen release from oxyhemoglobin in tissues

  13. Prospective randomized comparison of single-dose versus hyperfractionated total-body irradiation in patients with hematologic malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girinsky, T.; Benhamou, E.; Bourhis, J.H.; Dhermain, F.; Guillot-Valls, D.; Ganansia, V.; Luboinski, M.; Perez, A.; Cosset, J.M.; Socie, G.; Baume, D.; Bouaouina, N.; Briot, E.; Baudre, A.; Bridier, A.; Pico, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    The efficiency of the two irradiation modes are similar, but the hyperfractionated irradiation seems superior in term of global and specific survival. The incidence rates of pneumopathies are not different between the two groups but the incidence rate of the liver vein-occlusive illness is superior in the group treated by non fractionated whole body irradiation. The cost of the hyperfractionated whole body irradiation is superior to this one of the non fractionated whole body irradiation around a thousand dollars. (N.C.)

  14. Two-year body composition analyses of long-lived GHR null mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Darlene E; List, Edward O; Palmer, Amanda J; Chung, Min-Yu; Wright-Piekarski, Jacob; Lubbers, Ellen; O'Connor, Patrick; Okada, Shigeru; Kopchick, John J

    2010-01-01

    Growth hormone receptor gene-disrupted (GHR-/-) mice exhibit increased life span and adipose tissue mass. Although this obese phenotype has been reported extensively for young adult male GHR-/- mice, data for females and for other ages in either gender are lacking. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate body composition longitudinally in both male and female GHR-/- mice. Results show that GHR-/- mice have a greater percent fat mass with no significant difference in absolute fat mass throughout life. Lean mass shows an opposite trend with percent lean mass not significantly different between genotypes but absolute mass reduced in GHR-/- mice. Differences in body composition are more pronounced in male than in female mice, and both genders of GHR-/- mice show specific enlargement of the subcutaneous adipose depot. Along with previously published data, these results suggest a consistent and intriguing protective effect of excess fat mass in the subcutaneous region.

  15. Recovery Profiles of T-Cell Subsets Following Low-Dose Total Body Irradiation and Improvement With Cinnamon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Xiaodan [Key Laboratory for Tumor Immunology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Immunology, Institute of Basic Medicine, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan (China); School of Medicine and Life Science, University of Jinan-Shandong Academy of Medical Science, Jinan (China); Guo, Yuqi [Key Laboratory for Tumor Immunology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Immunology, Institute of Basic Medicine, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan (China); Wang, Lei [Second Affiliated Hospital of Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan (China); Zhang, Honghai [Key Laboratory for Tumor Immunology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Immunology, Institute of Basic Medicine, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan (China); Wang, Shaobo [Shandong University, Jinan (China); Wang, Li [Key Laboratory for Tumor Immunology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Immunology, Institute of Basic Medicine, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan (China); An, Lei [Key Laboratory for Tumor Immunology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Immunology, Institute of Basic Medicine, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan (China); School of Medicine and Life Science, University of Jinan-Shandong Academy of Medical Science, Jinan (China); Zhou, Xianbin; Li, Xia [Key Laboratory for Tumor Immunology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Immunology, Institute of Basic Medicine, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan (China); Yao, Chengfang, E-mail: yaocf9941@163.com [Key Laboratory for Tumor Immunology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Immunology, Institute of Basic Medicine, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan (China)

    2015-12-01

    Purpose: Inefficient T-cell reconstitution from x-ray–induced immune damage reduces antitumor response. To understand the profile of T-cell reconstitution after irradiation will overcome the barrier of antitumor immunity. This study aimed to identify the recovery profile of T-cell subsets following x-ray irradiation and to highlight the role of cinnamon on efficient T-cell restoration postexposure in the antitumor response. Methods and Materials: CD3{sup +}, CD8{sup +}, and CD4{sup +} T cells and Th1, Th2, Th17, and regulatory T (Treg) cells were evaluated at different time points after single low-dose total body irradiation (SLTBI) with or without cinnamon treatments. T-bet, GATA3, RORγt, and Foxp3 signaling specific for Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg were also analyzed by RT-PCR assay. The effects of cinnamon on efficient T-cell subset reconstitution was confirmed in a lung melanoma model in irradiated mice. Results: Reconstitution of CD4{sup +} T cells was delayed more than that of CD8{sup +} T cells in T-cell restoration after SLTBI. The production of IFNγ by Th1 or Tc1 cells was sharply decreased and was accompanied by reduced T-bet mRNA, even when total T-cell numbers had recovered; the frequencies of Th17 and Treg cells and their specific transcription factors (RORγt and Foxp3, respectively) were obviously increased. Irradiation-induced inefficient T-cell reconstitution impaired the antitumor capacities in the lung melanoma model. Pretreatment with cinnamon in irradiated mice accelerated the generation of Th1 and reduced the differentiation of Treg cells by activating T-bet and limiting transcriptions of Foxp3. Improvement resulting from cinnamon pretreatment on the efficient T-cell recovery profile from SLTBI promoted antitumor immunity in the lung melanoma model. Conclusions: T-cell reconstitution from SLTBI was characterized by impaired Th1 and elevated Th17 and Treg cells. Cinnamon effectively improved the imbalance of T-cell subsets by promoting the

  16. Recovery Profiles of T-Cell Subsets Following Low-Dose Total Body Irradiation and Improvement With Cinnamon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Xiaodan; Guo, Yuqi; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Honghai; Wang, Shaobo; Wang, Li; An, Lei; Zhou, Xianbin; Li, Xia; Yao, Chengfang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Inefficient T-cell reconstitution from x-ray–induced immune damage reduces antitumor response. To understand the profile of T-cell reconstitution after irradiation will overcome the barrier of antitumor immunity. This study aimed to identify the recovery profile of T-cell subsets following x-ray irradiation and to highlight the role of cinnamon on efficient T-cell restoration postexposure in the antitumor response. Methods and Materials: CD3 + , CD8 + , and CD4 + T cells and Th1, Th2, Th17, and regulatory T (Treg) cells were evaluated at different time points after single low-dose total body irradiation (SLTBI) with or without cinnamon treatments. T-bet, GATA3, RORγt, and Foxp3 signaling specific for Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg were also analyzed by RT-PCR assay. The effects of cinnamon on efficient T-cell subset reconstitution was confirmed in a lung melanoma model in irradiated mice. Results: Reconstitution of CD4 + T cells was delayed more than that of CD8 + T cells in T-cell restoration after SLTBI. The production of IFNγ by Th1 or Tc1 cells was sharply decreased and was accompanied by reduced T-bet mRNA, even when total T-cell numbers had recovered; the frequencies of Th17 and Treg cells and their specific transcription factors (RORγt and Foxp3, respectively) were obviously increased. Irradiation-induced inefficient T-cell reconstitution impaired the antitumor capacities in the lung melanoma model. Pretreatment with cinnamon in irradiated mice accelerated the generation of Th1 and reduced the differentiation of Treg cells by activating T-bet and limiting transcriptions of Foxp3. Improvement resulting from cinnamon pretreatment on the efficient T-cell recovery profile from SLTBI promoted antitumor immunity in the lung melanoma model. Conclusions: T-cell reconstitution from SLTBI was characterized by impaired Th1 and elevated Th17 and Treg cells. Cinnamon effectively improved the imbalance of T-cell subsets by promoting the proliferation of Th1 and

  17. Local regulation of haemopoietic stem cell proliferation in mice following irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.M.; Riches, A.C.; Wright, E.G.

    1989-01-01

    Changes in the kinetic state of pluripotent haemopoietic spleen colony forming cells (CFU-S) and of the CFU-S proliferation stimulator have been studied following whole-body X-irradiation. Rapid recruitment of CFU-S into cell cycle by 30 min after irradiation was observed following low doses (0.5 Gy) but a delay of 6 h occurred after higher doses (1.5 and 4.5 Gy). These changes in proliferative state correlated with the presence of the CFU-S proliferation stimulator. CFU-S irradiated in vitro in bone marrow plugs were also recruited into cycle illustrating directly the local nature of the feedback mechanism. CFU-S removed from 1.5 Gy irradiated recipients at a time when they were not in cycle were not responsive to the CFU-S proliferation stimulator. The CFU-S proliferation stimulator was produced by Ia positive cells in the irradiated bone marrow. The regulation changes occurring shortly after irradiation cannot simply be controlled by the size of the CFU-S compartment. (author)

  18. The effect of natural hot environment on survival and peripheral blood lymphocytes in γ-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Meijuan; Zheng Li; Ding Zhenhua

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of natural hot environment (NHE) on survival and peripheral blood lymphocytes in γ-irradiated in mice. Methods: After γ-irradiation at the dosage of 6.5 or 9.0 Gy, the mice were exposed to NHE for 0, 3, 6, 9 h or 30 days. After exposure to NHE, mice of the 6 h and 9 h groups, were then bred at room temperature. The survival and peripheral blood lymphocytes were observed for 30 days. Results: There were obvious differences in survival time between the groups that were exposed to NHE for 9 h and 30 d and that of the 0 h group, the mice of these three groups having been irradiated with 6.5 Gy. For 9.0 Gy-irradiated mice, the survival times of the 6, 9 h and 30 d groups were all significantly shorter than that of the 0 h group. The descending rate of peripheral blood lymphocytes in 0 h group is smaller than that of all NHE groups. There was no lymphocyte fluctuate resuscitation in all NHE groups as seen in the 0 h group. Conclusion: There is a significant decrease of survival indexes and a faster descending rate of peripheral blood lymphocytes in mice exposed to after γ-irradiation. (authors)

  19. Schistosoma mansoni: vaccination of mice with 10-krad-irradiated, cryopreserved schistosomules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, F.A.; Stirewalt, M.A.; Leef, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    Protection against a Schistosoma mansoni cercarial challenge was evaluated in mice immunized with a vaccine composed of 10-krad-irradiated, cryopreserved schistosomules. The level of resistance induced in C57B1/6 or NMRI (CV) mice increased with the number of schistosomules injected. Up to 83% reduction in challenge worm burden was achieved when 5000 schistosomules were injected per mouse. Intramuscular injection of the vaccine was superior to subcutaneous. Multiple immunizations, up to 3 at 4-week intervals, did not increase the resistance induced by a single immunization. A high level of protection developed in as little as 2 weeks and was maintained through at least 12 weeks postimmunization. The vaccine irradiated with 10 krad from either a 60-cobalt or 137-cesium source induced equivalent levels of resistance, and no differences were found in the immunogenicity of vaccines comprised of organisms irradiated as cercariae or as 1- to 3-hr-old schistosomules. These findings are basic to the development of a cryopreserved, live vaccine against schistosomiasis of humans or domestic animals

  20. Life-shortening and carcinogenesis in mice irradiated neonatally with x rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, S.; Kasuga, T.

    1981-01-01

    The characteristics of life-shortening and carcinogenesis were investigated in x-irradiated neonatal B6WFr mice. Animals were irradiated with 24 hr after birth and allowed to complete their normal life span. Mean life span was shortened linearly with doses at a rate of 9.1% per 100 R for females and 9.8% for males. The spectrum of neoplastic diseases was apparently modulated by x irradiation, showing neonatal B6WFr mice to be highly susceptible to the induction of thymic lymphoma, liver tumor, and pituitary tumor. The dose-response relationship for thymice lymphoma could be described by a linear-quadratic model, and linearity could be rejected. Thymic lymphoma developed after a short latent period, resulting in death between 100 and 450 days of age. Liver and pituitary tumors increased with increasing dose up to 400 R and decreased thereafter. The latent period for liver tumor development was apparently shortened with increasing doses. Pituitary tumor developed in excess only in females after a long latent period

  1. B-lymphocyte differentiation in lethally irradiated and reconstituted mice. II. Recovery of humoral immune responsiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozing, J.; Brons, N.H.C.; Benner, R.

    1977-01-01

    The recovery of humoral immune responsiveness was studied in lethally irradiated, fetal liver-reconstituted mice. By means of both membrane fluorescence and antibody formation to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) as a functional assay, the rate of recovery of the compartments of B and T lymphocytes was determined in various lymphoid organs. The recovery of the immunoglobulin-positive (B) cell compartment after irradiation and reconstitution started in the spleen. This organ was also found to be the first in which the recovery of the B-cell population was completed. The interval between the recovery of the B-cell population in the spleen and that in the other organs tested was found to increase when the irradiated mice were reconstituted with spleen colony cells instead of fetal liver cells. This proved to be caused by the number and nature of the reconstituting hemopoietic stem cells. The immunoglobulin-positive (B) cells were found to appear before SRBC-reactive B cells could be demonstrated in spleen, lymph nodes, and Peyer's patches. The appearance of T lymphocytes in the various lymphoid organs required even more time. By means of cell transfer experiments, a sequential appearance of the precursors of anti-SRBC IgM-, IgG-, and IgA-plaque-forming cells could be demonstrated in spleen, bone marrow, lymph nodes, and Peyer's patches

  2. Activation of immune functions via induction of glutathione of lymphocytes by low-dose, whole-body irradiation with gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuji Kojima; Hisatake Hayase; Mareyuki Takahashi

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. We have recently found that low doses of radiation, unlike higher doses, do not always cause a decrease of cellular glutathione, but they can increase it, leading to an elevation of Con A-induced proliferation of splenocytes. In this study, we first examined whether the increase of glutathione level induced by low-dose gamma-ray irradiation is involved in the appearance of enhanced natural killer (NK) activity and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), leading to delayed tumor growth in Ehrlich solid tumor (EST)-bearing mice. NK activity in ICR mouse splenocytes was significantly increased from 4 h to 6 h after a single whole-body gamma-ray irradiation at 0.5 Gy, and thereafter decreased almost to the zero-time level by 24 h post-irradiation. ADCC was also increased significantly in a similar way. Reduced glutathione exogenously added to splenocytes obtained from normal mice enhanced both NK activity and ADCC in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibitory effect of the radiation on tumor growth was then examined in EST-bearing mice. Repeated low-dose irradiation (0.5 Gy, four times, before and within an early time after the inoculation) significantly delayed the tumor growth. Finally, the effect of single low-dose (0.5 Gy), whole-body gamma-ray irradiation on immune balance (Th1/Th2) was examined in order to elucidate the mechanism underlying the anti-tumor immunity. Recent studies indicate that Th1/Th2 balance plays an important role in the immune responses involved in anti-tumor immunity. The activity of NK is hallmarks of cell-mediated immunity, and play key roles in anti-tumor immunity. The percentage of B cells in blood lymphocytes was selectively decreased after the radiation, concomitantly with an increase in that of helper T cell population, favoring Th1 polarization. The IFN-gamma level in splenocyte culture prepared from EST-bearing mice was significantly increased 48 h after the radiation, though the level of

  3. Effects of Mirazid Treatment and Vaccination with Irradiated Cercariae in Experimentally Schistosoma mansoni Infected Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayad, M.E.; Moawad, M.A.; Abd El-Fattah, N.Se.

    2006-01-01

    Schistosomiasis Tops all the endemic parasitic diseases particularly in Egypt. This study was performed on 4 groups of mice, each group formed of 25 mice. Group 1 (control group) infected with Schistosoma mansoni cercariae, group 2 (vaccinated group) vaccinated with irradiated cercariae, group 3 (treated group) infected with living cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni, then treated with Mirazid in the day post infection and group 4 (vaccinated and treated group) vaccinated with irradiated cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni then challenged and treated with Mirazid in the day post infection. By comparing the results of group 4 (vaccinated and treated group) with respective control there was a highly significant difference in all parameters. The worm burden reduction was 100 % and the percentage reduction of the eggs in the liver was 96.6 % and in the intestine was 89.76 %. Also, there were marked reduction in the size and number of granulomas with preservation of the liver architecture and absence of areas of degeneration and necrosis. So, this study shown that resistance to schistosomiasis can be consistently induced in mice by combining drug therapy with vaccination

  4. Rb and p53 gene deletions in lung adenocarcinomas from irradiated and control mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.; Woloschak, G.E.

    1997-01-01

    This study was conducted on mouse lung adenocarcinoma tissues that were formalin-treated and paraffin-embedded 25 years ago to investigate the large gene deletions of mRb and p53 in B6CF 1 male mice. A total of 80 lung tissue samples from irradiated mice and 40 lung samples from nonirradiated controls were randomly selected and examined in the mRb portion of this study. The results showed a significant (P 0.05) from that for spontaneous lung adenocarcinomas or lung adenocarcinomas from mice exposed to single-dose γ irradiation at a similar total dose. mRb fragments 3 (71%) and 5 (67%), the parts of the gene that encoded the pocket binding region of Rb protein to adenovirus E1A and SV40 T-antigen, were the most frequently deleted fragments. p53 gene deletion analysis was carried out on normal lungs and lung adenocarcinomas that were initially found to bear mRb deletions. Exons 1,4,5,6, and 9 were chosen to be analyzed

  5. Growth hormone mitigates against lethal irradiation and enhances hematologic and immune recovery in mice and nonhuman primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny J Chen

    Full Text Available Medications that can mitigate against radiation injury are limited. In this study, we investigated the ability of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH to mitigate against radiation injury in mice and nonhuman primates. BALB/c mice were irradiated with 7.5 Gy and treated post-irradiation with rhGH intravenously at a once daily dose of 20 microg/dose for 35 days. rhGH protected 17 out of 28 mice (60.7% from lethal irradiation while only 3 out of 28 mice (10.7% survived in the saline control group. A shorter course of 5 days of rhGH post-irradiation produced similar results. Compared with the saline control group, treatment with rhGH on irradiated BALB/c mice significantly accelerated overall hematopoietic recovery. Specifically, the recovery of total white cells, CD4 and CD8 T cell subsets, B cells, NK cells and especially platelets post radiation exposure were significantly accelerated in the rhGH-treated mice. Moreover, treatment with rhGH increased the frequency of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells as measured by flow cytometry and colony forming unit assays in bone marrow harvested at day 14 after irradiation, suggesting the effects of rhGH are at the hematopoietic stem/progenitor level. rhGH mediated the hematopoietic effects primarily through their niches. Similar data with rhGH were also observed following 2 Gy sublethal irradiation of nonhuman primates. Our data demonstrate that rhGH promotes hematopoietic engraftment and immune recovery post the exposure of ionizing radiation and mitigates against the mortality from lethal irradiation even when administered after exposure.

  6. Four cases of protracted whole body irradiation (Algerian accident 1978)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jammet, H.; Gongora, R.; Pouillart, P.; Le Go, R.; Parmentier, N.

    1979-01-01

    A 25 Ci iridium-192 source accidentally lost was introduced in a room where among others four young female patients (14 - 20 years old) one of them pregnant were irradiated during 4/5 weeks, 6/8 hours daily, cumulating skin doses in the range of 2500r and mean medullary doses in the range of 1250r. They developed a very protracted infections and haemorragic syndrome during which they were treated successfully by haematologic compensatory therapy with enormous quantities of packed isolated blood cells (R.B.C., W.B.C., platelets) and massive antibiotic, antimycotic and hydro-electrolytic therapy. The dosimetric (physical and biological) problems are discussed and the clinical and biological data are given in detail

  7. Immunity in the spleen and blood of mice immunized with irradiated Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorgi, Nahiara Esteves; Galisteo, Andrés Jimenez; Sato, Maria Notomi; do Nascimento, Nanci; de Andrade, Heitor Franco

    2016-08-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infection induces a strong and long-lasting immune response that is able to prevent most reinfections but allows tissue cysts. Irradiated, sterilized T. gondii tachyzoites are an interesting vaccine, and they induce immunity that is similar to infection, but without cysts. In this study, we evaluated the cellular immune response in the blood and spleen of mice immunized with this preparation by mouth (v.o.) or intraperitoneally (i.p.) and analyzed the protection after challenge with viable parasites. BALB/c mice were immunized with three i.p. or v.o. doses of irradiated T. gondii tachyzoites. Oral challenge with ten cysts of the ME-49 or VEG strain at 90 days after the last dose resulted in high levels of protection with low parasite burden in the immunized animals. There were higher levels of specific IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies in the serum, and the i.p. immunized mice had higher levels of the high-affinity IgG and IgM antibodies than the orally immunized mice, which had more high-affinity IgA antibodies. B cells (CD19(+)), plasma cells (CD138(+)) and the CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell populations were increased in both the blood and spleen. Cells from the spleen of the i.p. immunized mice also showed antigen-induced production of interleukin-10 (IL-10), interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin 4 (IL-4). The CD4(+) T cells, B cells and likely CD8(+) T cells from the spleens of the i.p. immunized mice proliferated with a specific antigen. The protection was correlated with the spleen and blood CD8(+) T cell, high-affinity IgG and IgM and antigen-induced IL-10 and IL-4 production. Immunization with irradiated T. gondii tachyzoites induces an immune response that is mediated by B cells and CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, with increased humoral and cellular immune responses that are necessary for host protection after infection. The vaccine is similar to natural infection, but free of tissue cysts; this immunity restrains infection at challenge and can be an

  8. Role of lower half body irradiation (LHBI) in palliative treatment of disseminated skeletal metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyas, R.K.; Baboo, H.A.; Suresh, P.

    1993-01-01

    Half body irradiation (HBI) is a new and simple approach for palliative radiotherapy of disseminated skeletal metastasis. It has very good palliative effect with manageable side effects when given as low dose rate treatment. 15 patients with wide spread bony secondaries were treated with Lower Half body Irradiation (LHBI) at a dose rate of 80-90 c Gy/min at our institute. Pain relief was observed in all patients. Of these 50% cases had significant relief of pain. Performance status improved and dependence on analgesic drugs had also reduced. (author). 6 refs., 3 tabs

  9. Radiation nephritis following total-body irradiation and cyclophosphamide in preparation for bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstein, J.; Andreoli, S.P.; Provisor, A.J.; Yum, M.

    1986-01-01

    Two children prepared for bone marrow transplantation with total-body irradiation and cyclophosphamide developed hypertension, microscopic hematuria, proteinuria, diminished renal function, and anemia six months after transplantation. Light microscopy of the kidneys revealed mesangial expansion, glomerular capillary wall thickening, and lumenal thrombosis. Electron microscopy demonstrated widening of the subendothelial space due to the deposition of amorphous fluffy material. In one patient, immunofluorescence microscopy revealed glomerular capillary wall deposition of fibrin and immunoglobulins. The clinical and histologic findings support the diagnosis of radiation nephritis. Patients prepared for bone marrow transplantation with total-body irradiation and cyclophosphamide should be followed closely after transplantation for the development of hypertension, proteinuria, and renal insufficiency

  10. Quinine controls body weight gain without affecting food intake in male C57BL6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cettour-Rose, Philippe; Bezençon, Carole; Darimont, Christian; le Coutre, Johannes; Damak, Sami

    2013-02-08

    Quinine is a natural molecule commonly used as a flavouring agent in tonic water. Diet supplementation with quinine leads to decreased body weight and food intake in rats. Quinine is an in vitro inhibitor of Trpm5, a cation channel expressed in taste bud cells, the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. The objective of this work is to determine the effect of diet supplementation with quinine on body weight and body composition in male mice, to investigate its mechanism of action, and whether the effect is mediated through Trpm5. Compared with mice consuming AIN, a regular balanced diet, mice consuming AIN diet supplemented with 0.1% quinine gained less weight (2.89 ± 0.30 g vs 5.39 ± 0.50 g) and less fat mass (2.22 ± 0.26 g vs 4.33 ± 0.43 g) after 13 weeks of diet, and had lower blood glucose and plasma triglycerides. There was no difference in food intake between the mice consuming quinine supplemented diet and those consuming control diet. Trpm5 knockout mice gained less fat mass than wild-type mice. There was a trend for a diet-genotype interaction for body weight and body weight gain, with the effect of quinine less pronounced in the Trpm5 KO than in the WT background. Faecal weight, energy and lipid contents were higher in quinine fed mice compared to regular AIN fed mice and in Trpm5 KO mice compared to wild type mice. Quinine contributes to weight control in male C57BL6 mice without affecting food intake. A partial contribution of Trpm5 to quinine dependent body weight control is suggested.

  11. Quinine controls body weight gain without affecting food intake in male C57BL6 mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Quinine is a natural molecule commonly used as a flavouring agent in tonic water. Diet supplementation with quinine leads to decreased body weight and food intake in rats. Quinine is an in vitro inhibitor of Trpm5, a cation channel expressed in taste bud cells, the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. The objective of this work is to determine the effect of diet supplementation with quinine on body weight and body composition in male mice, to investigate its mechanism of action, and whether the effect is mediated through Trpm5. Results Compared with mice consuming AIN, a regular balanced diet, mice consuming AIN diet supplemented with 0.1% quinine gained less weight (2.89 ± 0.30 g vs 5.39 ± 0.50 g) and less fat mass (2.22 ± 0.26 g vs 4.33 ± 0.43 g) after 13 weeks of diet, and had lower blood glucose and plasma triglycerides. There was no difference in food intake between the mice consuming quinine supplemented diet and those consuming control diet. Trpm5 knockout mice gained less fat mass than wild-type mice. There was a trend for a diet-genotype interaction for body weight and body weight gain, with the effect of quinine less pronounced in the Trpm5 KO than in the WT background. Faecal weight, energy and lipid contents were higher in quinine fed mice compared to regular AIN fed mice and in Trpm5 KO mice compared to wild type mice. Conclusion Quinine contributes to weight control in male C57BL6 mice without affecting food intake. A partial contribution of Trpm5 to quinine dependent body weight control is suggested. PMID:23394313

  12. Quinine controls body weight gain without affecting food intake in male C57BL6 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cettour-Rose Philippe

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quinine is a natural molecule commonly used as a flavouring agent in tonic water. Diet supplementation with quinine leads to decreased body weight and food intake in rats. Quinine is an in vitro inhibitor of Trpm5, a cation channel expressed in taste bud cells, the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. The objective of this work is to determine the effect of diet supplementation with quinine on body weight and body composition in male mice, to investigate its mechanism of action, and whether the effect is mediated through Trpm5. Results Compared with mice consuming AIN, a regular balanced diet, mice consuming AIN diet supplemented with 0.1% quinine gained less weight (2.89 ± 0.30 g vs 5.39 ± 0.50 g and less fat mass (2.22 ± 0.26 g vs 4.33 ± 0.43 g after 13 weeks of diet, and had lower blood glucose and plasma triglycerides. There was no difference in food intake between the mice consuming quinine supplemented diet and those consuming control diet. Trpm5 knockout mice gained less fat mass than wild-type mice. There was a trend for a diet-genotype interaction for body weight and body weight gain, with the effect of quinine less pronounced in the Trpm5 KO than in the WT background. Faecal weight, energy and lipid contents were higher in quinine fed mice compared to regular AIN fed mice and in Trpm5 KO mice compared to wild type mice. Conclusion Quinine contributes to weight control in male C57BL6 mice without affecting food intake. A partial contribution of Trpm5 to quinine dependent body weight control is suggested.

  13. Differential expression profiles of microRNAs in liver of 60Co γ-ray irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xiujin; Cui Fengmei; Huang Chengcheng; Hu Mingjiang; Wang Daojin; Tu Yu

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the differential expression profiles of microRNAs in the liver of 60 Co γ-ray irradiated mice using microRNA microarray and to explore their main functions by bioinformatic analysis. Methods: After SPF C57BL/6J mice expose to 4 Gy-single whole body radiation,total number of peripheral WBC and the fMNPCE were measured at 3 d.The differentially expressed miRNAs in mouse liver were detected with miRNA microarray, miRNA-124 and miR-34a were confirmed by real time RT-PCR assay. Bioinformatic analysis was applied to explore target genes and the main functions of the differential expressed miRNAs. Results: Compared with control group, the total number of peripheral WBC decreased (t=2.87, P<0.05), while the fMNPCE in bone marrow increased (t=-2.91, P<0.05) after 4 Gy γ-ray irradiation.miRNA microarray revealed that 17 miRNAs were differentially expressed, in which 9 up-regulated, 8 down-regulated. The expression levels of miR-124 and miR-34a were coincident with the result of real time RT-PCR. GO analysis showed that some pathways including adherens junction and cell cycle were suppressed, while some immune-related pathways were activated. Conclusions: miR-34a and miR-194 were involved in the regulation of acute radiation damage, some other miRNAs including miR-124, miR-382 and miR-92a * also played important roles in radiation process. (authors)

  14. X-irradiation of mice in the early fetal period. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriegel, H.; Weber, L.; Schmahl, W.

    1979-01-01

    Pregnant NMRI mice were X-irradiated with 50, 100 and 200 R, respectively, on the twelfth gestational day. The brains of their offspring were weighed and examined for acetylcholinesterase and Na,K-ATPase activities from birth until the 64th postnatal day. The postnatal brain weights were influenced by the prenatal irradiation in a dose-dependent manner. At birth the brains of the treated animals weighed less than those of the controls. After a limited period of restitution (postnatal days 3 to 10), weights fell again, as compared to the controls, and persisted at subnormal levels. This was assumed to be a sequel of surplus neuron cell formation and their speedy degradation as soon as neuronal function had been established. The curves of the activites (per gram of brain tissue) of acetylcholinesterase as well as Na,K-ATPase showed oscillating compensatory responses to the prenatal irradiation. Activities were preferentially found at supernormal levels, the oscillation lasting as long as the restitution period of the brain weights. With the 50 R and 100 R groups, enzyme activities were steadily above the control levels from the 16th until the 48th day after birth. On the 64th postnatal day all enzyme activities but one (200 R, Na,K-ATPase) had returned to the control levels. Oscillating responses to prenatal X-irradiation have been described for the DNA-synthesis in livers and brains of mice during the first three postnatal weeks. From this perspective, our results are discussed as the outcome of radiation-induced alterations in genome activity. (orig.) [de

  15. Mitigating the Effects of Xuebijing Injection on Hematopoietic Cell Injury Induced by Total Body Irradiation with γ rays by Decreasing Reactive Oxygen Species Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deguan Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic injury is the most common side effect of radiotherapy. However, the methods available for the mitigating of radiation injury remain limited. Xuebijing injection (XBJ is a traditional Chinese medicine used to treat sepsis in the clinic. In this study, we investigated the effects of XBJ on the survival rate in mice with hematopoietic injury induced by γ ray ionizing radiation (IR. Mice were intraperitoneally injected with XBJ daily for seven days after total body irradiation (TBI. Our results showed that XBJ (0.4 mL/kg significantly increased 30-day survival rates in mice exposed to 7.5 Gy TBI. This effect may be attributable to improved preservation of white blood cells (WBCs and hematopoietic cells, given that bone marrow (BM cells from XBJ-treated mice produced more granulocyte-macrophage colony forming units (CFU-GM than that in the 2 Gy/TBI group. XBJ also decreased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS by increasing glutathione (GSH and superoxide dismutase (SOD levels in serum and attenuated the increased BM cell apoptosis caused by 2 Gy/TBI. In conclusion, these findings suggest that XBJ enhances the survival rate of irradiated mice and attenuates the effects of radiation on hematopoietic injury by decreasing ROS production in BM cells, indicating that XBJ may be a promising therapeutic candidate for reducing hematopoietic radiation injury.

  16. Fluid and sodium loss in whole-body-irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraci, J.P.; Jackson, K.L.; Mariano, M.S.

    1987-09-01

    Whole-body and organ fluid compartment sizes and plasma sodium concentrations were measured in conventional, GI decontaminated, bile duct ligated, and choledochostomized rats at different times after various doses of gamma radiation. In addition, sodium excretion was measured in rats receiving lethal intestinal radiation injury. After doses which were sublethal for 3-5 day intestinal death, transient decreases occurred in all the fluid compartments measured (i.e., total body water, extracellular fluid space, plasma volume). No recovery of these fluid compartments was observed in rats destined to die from intestinal radiation injury. The magnitude of the decreases in fluid compartment sizes was dose dependent and correlated temporally with the breakdown and recovery of the intestinal mucosa but was independent of the presence or absence of enteric bacteria or bile acids. Associated with the loss of fluid was an excess excretion of 0.83 meq of sodium between 48 and 84 h postirradiation. This represents approximately 60% of the sodium lost from the extracellular fluid space in these animals during this time. The remaining extracellular sodium loss was due to redistribution of sodium to other spaces. It is concluded that radiation-induced breakdown of the intestinal mucosa results in lethal losses of fluid and sodium as evidenced by significant decreases in total body water, extracellular fluid space, plasma volume, and plasma sodium concentration, with hemoconcentration. These changes are sufficient to reduce tissue perfusion leading to irreversible hypovolemic shock and death.

  17. Effects of imidazole derivatives in the survival of 60Co irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.; Mastro, N.L. del.

    1988-07-01

    The presence of hypoxic and radioresistant cells is considered the main reason of failure in radiotherapy of neoplasms. Hypoxic cell radiosensitizers, as nitroimidazole derivatives, have an advantage over other alternative methods for improving the effects of radiotherapy since hypoxic cells exist in considerable concentration in tumours and only in small concentration in normal tissues. Its show also a direct cytotoxicity over the hypoxic cell population. In this work, studies on combining ip administered drugs and single dose radiation treatments in healthy albino mice are presented. It was compared the action of 2-nitroimidazole, levamisole and cysteine, the latest considered as radioprotector for several biological systems. The results showed some radioprotective action for 2 - nitroimidazole (MISO), sensitizer capacity for levamisole and in those conditions, cysteine failed to produce any effects on the survival of 9 Gy 60 Co irradiated mice. (author) [pt

  18. Melatonin, a potential effective protector in whole body γ-irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawfik, S.S; El-Nashar, D.E; Ahmed, M.M; Hanafy, Z.E

    2010-01-01

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine), the chief hormone of pineal gland, is widely distributed in animal kingdom. It is claimed for its antioxidant and free radical properties. The present study aimed to examine the radio protective potentiality and efficacy of melatonin against damages induced in whole body γ-irradiated rats. Animals received melatonin (10 mg/ kg body wt/ day) for 10 successive days pre-exposure to 3 Gy of γ-radiation (acute dose). Rats sacrificed at 10 and 20 days post the irradiation time. The results revealed that the prolonged administration of melatonin has ameliorated the radiation- induced depletion in brain, testis and serum glutathione (GSH) level and a decrease in serum glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity when compared with their matched values in irradiated rats. In addition, remarkable decreases in the concentration of lipid peroxidation (LPO) product; malondialdhyde (MDA) was observed in brain, testis and serum of rats received melatonin pre-radiation exposure. As well as, significant decreases in disulphide glutathione (GSSG) were observed in serum.Histopathological examination of brain and testis showed that administration of melatonin pre-irradiation according to the present regimen has attenuated radiation induced tissue damages and improved tissue architecture. Cytogenetically, the chromosomal aberration (CA) assay in bone marrow pointed out a significant difference between rats received melatonin pre-irradiation and γ-irradiated rats in most CA types. Accordingly, it could be postulated the tissue diversity and cytogenetic impact of the administrated melatonin against acute ion syndrome in rat model.

  19. Acute effects of whole body gamma irradiation on exocrine pancreatic secretion in the pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monti, P.; Scanff, P.; Joubert, C.; Vergnet, M.; Grison, S.; Griffiths, N.

    2004-01-01

    Reports on radiation damage to the pancreas deal essentially with long-term morphological changes with few data on pancreatic exocrine function. The aim of this work was to study the acute effects of whole body irradiation on volume and enzyme activities in the pancreatic juice. A whole body gamma irradiation (6 Gy) was investigated in pigs with continuous sampling of pancreatic juice before and after exposure via an indwelling catheter in the pancreatic duct. For each sample collected, total protein concentration and enzyme activities of trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, lipase and amylase were determined. Pancreatic juice volume was monitored during all periods of collection. The volume of pancreatic juice secreted daily decreased one day after irradiation and remained lower than the control values over the experimental period. Total proteins secreted in the pancreatic juice and total activities of pancreatic enzymes were reduced similarly. On the other hand, only specific activities of elastase and lipase were affected by irradiation. Whole body gamma irradiation resulted in a rapid and marked decrease of exocrine pancreatic secretion, in terms of volume as well as secreted enzymes. This may contribute in part to the intestinal manifestations of the acute and/or late radiation syndrome. (author)

  20. The effect of total-body γ-irradiation on pigeons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadhia, P.K.; Shah, V.C.; Desai, R.

    1979-01-01

    A study of the effects of total-body 60 Coγ radiation (200 to 2000 rad) on the common pigeon (Columba livia) has indicated a LD 50/30 of 950 +- 50 rad. There were no deaths before 6 days and the peak frequency in average deaths occurred 9 days after irradiation. Most of the birds showed small changes in activity or behaviour in the first five days. A histopathological study was made of femoral bone marrow from irradiated (1000 rad) pigeons sacrificed 1 to 18 days post-irradiation. Slight aplasia was observed on the first day after irradiation, moderately marked on the third day and extensive on the fourth and fifth days. At the end of the second week regeneration was observed as the primitive lymphocyte-like cells were differentiating into granulocytes and erythrocytes. (UK)

  1. Clinical aspects of accidents resulting in acute total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronkite, E.P.

    1988-01-01

    That the management of whole body radiation injury involves: (1) watchful waiting, (2) observation of the hematologic parameters, (3) use of antibiotics, platelet red cell and possibly granulocyte transfusions, (4) administration of hemopoietic molecular regulators of granulopoiesis, and (5) bone marrow transplantation as the last line of defense. The clinical indication for the preceding will not be discussed, since this will be a subject of later speakers in this conference. Certainly, if a radiation casualty is fortunate enough to have an identical twin, a marrow transplant may be lifesaving and certainly can do no harm to the patient, and there is little risk to the donor

  2. Clinical aspects of accidents resulting in acute total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronkite, E.P.

    1988-01-01

    That the management of whole body radiation injury involves: (1) watchful waiting, (2) observation of the hematologic parameters, (3) use of antibiotics, platelet red cell and possibly granulocyte transfusions, (4) administration of hemopoietic molecular regulators of granulopoiesis, and (5) bone marrow transplantation as the last line of defense. The clinical indication for the preceding will not be discussed, since this will be a subject of later speakers in this conference. Certainly, if a radiation casualty is fortunate enough to have an identical twin, a marrow transplant may be lifesaving and certainly can do no harm to the patient, and there is little risk to the donor.

  3. Effects of whole body UV-irradiation on oxygen delivery from the erythrocyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humpeler, E.; Mairbaeurl, H.; Hoenigsmann, H.

    1982-01-01

    In 16 healthy caucasian volunteers (mean age: 22.2 years) the influence of whole body UV-irradiation on the oxygen transport properties of erythrocytes was investigated. Four hours after irradiation with UV (using the minimal erythema dose, MED) no variation of haemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, pH or standard bicarbonate could be found, whereas inorganic plasma phosphate (Psub(i)), calcium, the intraerythrocytic 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG), the activity of erythrocytic phosphofructokinase (PFK) and pyruvatekinase (PK) increased significantly. The half saturation tension of oxygen (P 50 -value) tended to increase. The increase of Psub(i) causes - via a stimulation of the glycolytic pathway - an increase in 2,3-DPG concentration and thus results in a shift of the oxygen dissociation curve. It is therefore possible to enhance tissue oxygenation by whole body UV-irradiation. (orig.)

  4. Effect of dietary poly unsaturated fatty acids on total brain lipid concentration and anxiety levels of electron beam irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchetha Kumari; Bekal, Mahesh

    2013-01-01

    The whole brain irradiation causes injury to the nervous system at various levels. Omega-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids are very much essential for the growth and development of nervous system. Dietary supplementation of these nutrients will promote the development of injured neuronal cells. Therefore this study was undertaken to establish the role of Omega-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids on total brain lipid concentration, lipid peroxidation and anxiety levels in the irradiated mice. The effect of Electron Beam Radiation (EBR) on total brain lipid concentration, lipid peroxidation and anxiety level were investigated in male Swiss albino mice. The study groups were subjected to a sub-lethal dose of EBR and also the flax seed extract and fish oil were given orally to the irradiated mice. Irradiated groups show significant elevation in anxiety levels when compared to control group, indicating the acute radiation effects on the central nervous system. But the oral supplementation of dietary PUFA source decrees the anxiety level in the irradiated group. The analysis of lipid peroxidation showed a significant level of changes when compared between control and radiation groups. Dietary PUFA supplementation showed a significant level of decrease in the lipid peroxidation in the irradiated groups. The observation of total lipids in brain shows decrease in concentration in the irradiated groups, the differences in the variables follow the similar patterns as of that the MDA levels. This study suggests that the dietary intake of PUFAs may help in prevention and recovery of the oxidative stress caused by radiation. (author)

  5. A Comparison of Molecular and Histopathological Changes in Mouse Intestinal Tissue Following Whole-Body Proton- or Gamma-Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purgason, Ashley; Mangala, Lingegowda; Zhang, Ye; Hamilton, Stanley; Wu, Honglu

    2010-01-01

    There are many consequences following exposure to the space radiation environment which can adversely affect the health of a crew member. Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) involving nausea and vomiting, damage to radio-sensitive tissue such as the blood forming organs and gastrointestinal tract, and cancer are some of these negative effects. The space radiation environment is ample with protons and contains gamma rays as well. Little knowledge exists to this point, however, regarding the effects of protons on mammalian systems; conversely several studies have been performed observing the effects of gamma rays on different animal models. For the research presented here, we wish to compare our previous work looking at whole-body exposure to protons using a mouse model to our studies of mice experiencing whole-body exposure to gamma rays as part of the radio-adaptive response. Radio-adaptation is a well-documented phenomenon in which cells exposed to a priming low dose of radiation prior to a higher dose display a reduction in endpoints like chromosomal aberrations, cell death, micronucleus formation, and more when compared to their counterparts receiving high dose-irradiation only. Our group has recently completed a radio-adaptive experiment with C57BL/6 mice. For both this study and the preceding proton research, the gastrointestinal tract of each animal was dissected four hours post-irradiation and the isolated small intestinal tissue was fixed in formalin for histopathological examination or snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen for RNA isolation. Histopathologic observation of the tissue using standard H&E staining methods to screen for morphologic changes showed an increase in apoptotic lesions for even the lowest doses of 0.1 Gy of protons and 0.05 Gy of gamma rays, and the percentage of apoptotic cells increased with increasing dose. A smaller percentage of crypts showed 3 or more apoptotic lesions in animals that received 6 Gy of gamma-irradiation compared to mice

  6. Blood changes in humans following total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantril, S.T.; Jacobson, L.O.; Schwartz, S.; Nickson, J.J.

    1947-06-02

    A major problem encountered in the Manhattan Project was the protection of workers against damage resulting from acute or chronic exposure to external radiation. The problem of how to detect evidence of damage following exposure to total body radiation led to this study. These studies were conducted between January, 1942 and November, 1945. Three groups of persons were employed in this study. The first group of eight individuals harboring incurable neoplasms which was not extensive enough to influence general health, these patients were treated with 400 KV x-radiation while sitting in a wooden chair, doses were 27, 60, and 120r. Three persons having generalized illnesses chronic in nature were given total body radiation using 200 KV X-rays in multiple exposures totaling 100, 300, and 500r. A third group of normal volunteers from personnel of the Metallurgical Laboratory were treated with 200 KV x-rays in three divided doses totaling 21 r. Changes in peripheral blood in the fourteen individuals is reported. In group 1 the most persistent abnormality noted was a diminution in the number of lymphocytes after completion of the treatment. In group 2 a depression in the lymphocytes was also the most marked single change. In group 3 no alterations in peripheral blood was observed.

  7. Low-dose irradiation affects expression of inflammatory markers in the heart of ApoE -/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Daniel; Mitchel, Ronald E J; Barclay, Mirela; Wyatt, Heather; Bugden, Michelle; Priest, Nicholas D; Whitman, Stewart C; Scholz, Markus; Hildebrandt, Guido; Kamprad, Manja; Glasow, Annegret

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate long-term risks of ionizing radiation on the heart, even at moderate doses. In this study, we investigated the inflammatory, thrombotic and fibrotic late responses of the heart after low-dose irradiation (IR) with specific emphasize on the dose rate. Hypercholesterolemic ApoE-deficient mice were sacrificed 3 and 6 months after total body irradiation (TBI) with 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 or 2 Gy at low (1 mGy/min) or high dose rate (150 mGy/min). The expression of inflammatory and thrombotic markers was quantified in frozen heart sections (CD31, E-selectin, thrombomodulin, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, collagen IV, Thy-1, and CD45) and in plasma samples (IL6, KC, MCP-1, TNFα, INFγ, IL-1β, TGFβ, INFγ, IL-10, sICAM-1, sE-selectin, sVCAM-1 and fibrinogen) by fluorescence analysis and ELISA. We found that even very low irradiation doses induced adaptive late responses, such as increases of capillary density and changes in collagen IV and Thy-1 levels indicating compensatory regulation. Slight decreases of ICAM-1 levels and reduction of Thy 1 expression at 0.025-0.5 Gy indicate anti-inflammatory effects, whereas at the highest dose (2 Gy) increased VCAM-1 levels on the endocardium may represent a switch to a pro-inflammatory response. Plasma samples partially confirmed this pattern, showing a decrease of proinflammatory markers (sVCAM, sICAM) at 0.025-2.0 Gy. In contrast, an enhancement of MCP-1, TNFα and fibrinogen at 0.05-2.0 Gy indicated a proinflammatory and prothrombotic systemic response. Multivariate analysis also revealed significant age-dependent increases (KC, MCP-1, fibrinogen) and decreases (sICAM, sVCAM, sE-selectin) of plasma markers. This paper represents local and systemic effects of low-dose irradiation, including also age- and dose rate-dependent responses in the ApoE-/- mouse model. These insights in the multiple inflammatory/thrombotic effects caused by low-dose irradiation might facilitate an individual evaluation and intervention

  8. Cataract after total body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation: degree of visual impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kempen-Harteveld, M. Loes; Struikmans, Henk; Kal, Henk B.; van der Tweel, Ingeborg; Mourits, Maarten P.; Verdonck, Leo F.; Schipper, Jan; Battermann, Jan J.

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the degree of visual impairment as a result of cataract formation after total body irradiation (TBI) for bone marrow transplantation. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The data from 93 patients who received TBI in 1 or 2 fractions as a part of their conditioning regimen for bone marrow

  9. Dosimetry for total body irradiation of rhesus monkeys with 300 kV X- rays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoetelief, J.; Wagemaker, G.; Broerse, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain more accurate information on the dose distribution in rhesus monkeys for total body irradiation with orthovoltage X-rays. Materials and methods: Dose measurements were performed with an ionization chamber inside homogeneous cylindrical and rectangular phantoms of various

  10. Modelling and validation for total body irradiation using a 3D planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, Madhav; Bezak, Eva; Nicolls, Ralph; Byas, Kurt; Nixon, Rogr

    2001-01-01

    Pinnacle treatment planning system has been successfully commissioned for total body irradiation and will be used for patient treatments in near future. The actual dose delivered to patients will be monitored with TLDs and diode array and the agreement with the prescribed dose will be further investigated

  11. Development of fibrosis in dogs as a late consequence of whole-body X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo, W.; Fliedner, T.M.; Steinbach, I.; Alcober, V.; Nothdurft, W.; Fache, I.

    1978-01-01

    Dogs wre whole-body irradiated with a single mid-line dose of 1200 R at 300 kV. This high dose will kill non-treated animals within a few days. To save these animals, leukocytes were previously collected during a four-hour leukapheresis using a continuous-flow centrifuge and were stored under liquid nitrogen. Shortly after the whole-body irradiation each dog received its own cryopreserved cells thawed immediately beforehand. The dogs received between 0.32x10 9 and 1.63x10 9 mononuclear blood cells per kilogram of body weight. The number of colony-forming cells contained in the transfusate ranged between 0.19x10 5 and 1.38x10 5 per kilogram of body weight. This blood stem transfusion, together with general supportive therapy, enabled the dogs to overcome the acute radiation syndrome and to recover. The dogs were subsequently sacrificed in two groups after observation for about 260 days or 700-898 days respectively. Pathological findings are described. A particular situation existed in the marrow, whre non-irradiated stem cells had colonized bone cavities containing irradiated stroma. Progressive fibrosis developed in the endosteal areas of the bone cavities in most of the animals. (author)

  12. Mitochondrial monoaminoxidase activity and serotonin content in rat brain after whole-body γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savitskij, I.V.; Tsybul'skij, V.V.; Grivtsev, B.A.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that γ-irradiation of albino rats with a dose of 30 Gy leads to pronounced phase changes in monoaminoxidase activity and serotonin content in rat brain at early times after whole-body exposure. These is a similar direction of changes in the activity of the enzyme and in the content of the substrate adequate to the latter

  13. Whole-body irradiation technique: physical aspects; Tecnica de irradiacion corporal total: aspectos fisicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venencia, D.; Bustos, S.; Zunino, S. [Instituto Privado de Radioterapia. Obispo Oro 425. Cordoba 5000 (Argentina)

    1998-12-31

    The objective of this work has been to implement a Total body irradiation technique that fulfill the following conditions: simplicity, repeatability, fast and comfortable positioning for the patient, homogeneity of the dose between 10-15 %, short times of treatments and In vivo dosimetric verifications. (Author)

  14. Recovery of the proliferative and functional integrity of mouse bone marrow in long-term cultures established after whole-body irradiation at different doses and dose rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierkens, J.G.; Hendry, J.H.; Testa, N.G. (Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, Manchester (England))

    1991-02-01

    Injury inflicted upon the bone marrow stroma following whole-body irradiation and its repair over a 1-year period has been assessed in murine long-term bone marrow cultures established at increasing time intervals after irradiation. Different doses at different dose rates (10 Gy at 0.05 cGy/min, 4.5 Gy and 10 Gy at 1.6 cGy/min, and 4 x 4.5 Gy (3 weeks between doses) at 60 cGy/min) were chosen so as to maximize differences in effect in the stroma. The cellularity of the adherent layer in long-term cultures established 1 month after irradiation was reduced by 40%-90% depending on the dose and dose rate. Simultaneous with the poor ability of the marrow to form adherent layers, the cumulative spleen colony-forming unit (CFU-S) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming cell (GM-CFC) production over a 7-week period was reduced to 0% and 30% of control cultures, respectively. The slow recovery of the adherent layer was paralleled by an increase in the numbers of CFU-S and GM-CFC in the supernatant. Cultures established from repeatedly irradiated mice performed poorly over the entire 1-year period. Whereas the regeneration of the stroma was near complete 1 year after irradiation, the CFU-S and GM-CFC levels reached only between 50% and 80% of control cultures, respectively. Also, the concentration of CFU-S and GM-CFC in the supernatant remained persistently lower in cultures established from irradiated mice as compared to control cultures. The levels of sulfated glycosaminoglycans, which have been implicated in the establishment of the functional integrity of the microenvironment, were not reduced in the adherent layers at any time after irradiation. These results indicate that the regeneration of the stroma is accompanied by an incomplete recovery of active hemopoiesis in vitro.

  15. Protein restriction does not affect body temperature pattern in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Goro A; Shichijo, Hiroki; Takahashi, Toshihiro; Shinohara, Akio; Morita, Tetsuo; Koshimoto, Chihiro

    2017-10-30

    Daily torpor is a physiological adaptation in mammals and birds characterized by a controlled reduction of metabolic rate and body temperature during the resting phase of circadian rhythms. In laboratory mice, daily torpor is induced by dietary caloric restriction. However, it is not known which nutrients are related to daily torpor expression. To determine whether dietary protein is a key factor in inducing daily torpor in mice, we fed mice a protein-restricted (PR) diet that included only one-quarter of the amount of protein but the same caloric level as a control (C) diet. We assigned six non-pregnant female ICR mice to each group and recorded their body weights and core body temperatures for 4 weeks. Body weights in the C group increased, but those in the PR group remained steady or decreased. Mice in both groups did not show daily torpor, but most mice in a food-restricted group (n=6) supplied with 80% of the calories given to the C group exhibited decreased body weights and frequently displayed daily torpor. This suggests that protein restriction is not a trigger of daily torpor; torpid animals can conserve their internal energy, but torpor may not play a significant role in conserving internal protein. Thus, opportunistic daily torpor in mice may function in energy conservation rather than protein saving.

  16. Response of mesenchymal stem cells in mice to 3.5 Gy X-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Wenxia; Liu Huimin; Chen Yonghong; Zeng Wen; Liu Wenli; Sun Hanying

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the response of mesenchymal stem cells in mice to medium-dose X-ray irradiation in vitro. Methods: The mouse mesenchymal stem cell line C3H10T1/2 was submitted to 3.5 Gy X-ray irradiation. Hoechst33258 staining of adherent cells and Annexin V-FITC staining and flow cytometry analysis of suspension cells were performed respectively to assess cellular apoptosis at 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 h and 1 week after irradiation. SA-β-gal staining was performed to analyze the cellular senescence at 24, 48, 72 h and 1 week after irradiation. The mRNA level of both Fas with its ligand FasL and p53 with its downstream target p21 WAF1 were measured by Real-Time PCR analysis. The expression of Fas protein was determined by immunofluorescence staining. Results: An increased apoptosis was observed at 3 h after irradiation with apoptosis rate 11.72% ± 1.61% (t=9.01, P<0.01), the apoptosis rate reached the peak level at 12 h 20.52% ± 1.96% (t=16.27, P<0.01), and then declined progressively to normal level at 48 h 4.93% ±0.46% (t=2.26, P>0.05). The SA-β-gal positive rate of post-radiation cells at 72 h was 53.33% ± 5.62%, significantly higher than that of normal control 3.24% ± 0.39% (t=17.77, P<0.01). The level of Fas, FasL mRNA was found to be elevated 3 h after irradiation with a peak at 12 h, and no differences were found l week later. The level of Fas protein was observed to reach the peak at 12 h after irradiation. The occurrence of peak level of Fas/FasL mRNA and protein was consistent with that of apoptosis of C3H10T1/2 cell. A transient up-regulation of p53, p21 WAF1 mRNA expression was found at 12 h after irradiation followed by a significant increase later at 72 h after irradiation. The occurrence of the two peaks of p53, p21 WAF1 mRNA expression were coincident with that of cellular apoptosis and senescence, respectively. The levels of p53, p21 WAF1 mRNA in senescence group were significantly higher than those of apoptosis group (t=17.85, 13

  17. Molecular characterization of non-thymic lymphomas in mice exposed to continuous low-dose-rate g-ray irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takabatake, T.; Fujikawa, K.; Nakamura, S.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, I.; Tanaka-Braga III, I.; Sunaga, Y.; Ichinoche, K.; Sato, F.; Tanaka, K.; Matsumoto, T.

    2004-07-01

    To investigate the effects of continuous low-dose-rate irradiation on life span and neoplasm incidence, SPE B6C3 F1 mice were irradiated with 137Cs-ray at dose-rates of 20, 1 and 0.05 mGy/day with accumulated doses equivalent to 8000, 40 and 20 mGy, respectively. Examination of a total of 3,000 irradiated and 1,000 non-irradiated control mice showed that the life spans of the both sexes irradiated at 20 mGy/day, respectively. Examination of a total of 3,000 irradiated and 1,000 non-irradiated control mice showed that the life spans of the both sexes irradiated at 20 mGy/day were significantly shorter than that of the non-irradiated group. No significant difference in the cause of death and mortality rates was found between the groups. However, non-thymic lymphomas, the most common lethal neoplasm, showed a tendency to develop at an earlier age in mice irradiated with 20 mGy/day, regardless of sex. to obtain clues on the molecular mechanisms underlying the earlier development of non-thymic lymphomas in 20 mGy/day irradiated group, detailed molecular characterizations of non-thymic lymphomas with respect to B-cell or T-cell origin was done by detecting rearrangements in immunoglobulin heavy gene and in T-cell receptor b-and g chain genes by Southem hybridization method. to determine whether the early development of non-thymic lymphomas in 20 mGy/day irradiated group is associated wi the any recurrent chromosomal imbalance such as deletions and amplifications, the genome-wide scanning is also currently in progress by both LOH and array CGH methods. Present data obtained by LOH method show that deletions in parts of chromosomes 11 and 12 were more frequent than in chromosomes 2, 4 and 14 in both the non-irradiated control and 20 mGy/day irradiated groups. this work is supported by grants from Aomori Prefecture, Japan. (Author)

  18. Molecular characterization of non-thymic lymphomas in mice exposed to continuous low-dose-rate g-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takabatake, T.; Fujikawa, K.; Nakamura, S.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, I.; Tanaka-Braga III, I.; Sunaga, Y.; Ichinoche, K.; Sato, F.; Tanaka, K.; Matsumoto, T.

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the effects of continuous low-dose-rate irradiation on life span and neoplasm incidence, SPE B6C3 F1 mice were irradiated with 137Cs-ray at dose-rates of 20, 1 and 0.05 mGy/day with accumulated doses equivalent to 8000, 40 and 20 mGy, respectively. Examination of a total of 3,000 irradiated and 1,000 non-irradiated control mice showed that the life spans of the both sexes irradiated at 20 mGy/day, respectively. Examination of a total of 3,000 irradiated and 1,000 non-irradiated control mice showed that the life spans of the both sexes irradiated at 20 mGy/day were significantly shorter than that of the non-irradiated group. No significant difference in the cause of death and mortality rates was found between the groups. However, non-thymic lymphomas, the most common lethal neoplasm, showed a tendency to develop at an earlier age in mice irradiated with 20 mGy/day, regardless of sex. to obtain clues on the molecular mechanisms underlying the earlier development of non-thymic lymphomas in 20 mGy/day irradiated group, detailed molecular characterizations of non-thymic lymphomas with respect to B-cell or T-cell origin was done by detecting rearrangements in immunoglobulin heavy gene and in T-cell receptor b-and g chain genes by Southem hybridization method. to determine whether the early development of non-thymic lymphomas in 20 mGy/day irradiated group is associated wi the any recurrent chromosomal imbalance such as deletions and amplifications, the genome-wide scanning is also currently in progress by both LOH and array CGH methods. Present data obtained by LOH method show that deletions in parts of chromosomes 11 and 12 were more frequent than in chromosomes 2, 4 and 14 in both the non-irradiated control and 20 mGy/day irradiated groups. this work is supported by grants from Aomori Prefecture, Japan. (Author)

  19. Development of intraepithelial T lymphocytes in the intestine of irradiated SCID mice by adult liver hematopoietic stem cells from normal mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagiwa, Satoshi; Seki, Shuhji; Shirai, Katsuaki; Yoshida, Yuhei; Miyaji, Chikako; Watanabe, Hisami; Abo, Toru

    1999-01-01

    Background/Aims: We recently reported the adult mouse liver to contain c-kit + stem cells that can give rise to multilineage leukocytes. This study was designed to determine whether or not adult mouse liver stem cells can generate intraepithelial T cells in the intestine as well as to examine the possibility that adult liver c-kit + stem cells originate from the fetal liver. Methods: Adult liver mononuclear cells, bone marrow (BM) cells, liver c-kit + cells or bone BM c-kit + cells of BALB/c mice were i.v. transferred into 4 Gy irradiated CB17/-SCID mice. In other experiments, fetal liver cells from Ly5.1 C57BL/6 mice and T cell depleted adult BM cells from Ly5.2 C57BL/6 mice were simultaneously transferred into irradiated C57BL/6 SCID mice (Ly5.2). At 1 to 8 weeks after cell transfer, the SCID mice were examined. Results: Not only BM cells and BM c-kit + cells but also liver mononuclear cells and liver c-kit + cells reconstituted γδT cells, CD4 + CD8 + double-positive T cells and CDiα + β - T cells of intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes of SCID mice. Injection of a mixture of fetal liver cells from Ly5.1 C57BL/6 mice and adult BM cells from Ly5.2 C57BL/6 mice into Ly5.2 C57BL/6 SCID mice induced both Ly5.1 and Ly5.2 T cells, while also generating c-kit + cells of both Ly5.1 and Ly5.2 origins in the liver. Conclusions: Adult mouse liver stem cells were able to generate intestinal intraepithelial T cells of the SCID mice, and it is thus suggested that some adult liver stem cells may indeed be derived from the fetal liver. (au)

  20. Prenatal irradiation and spatial memory in mice: investigation of dose-response relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sienkiewicz, Z.J.; Haylock, R.G.E.; Saunders, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    Pregnant CD1 mice were exposed on gestational day 18 to 250 kV X-rays at 0.1, 0.25, 0.35 and 0.5 Gy. The performances of 10 adult male offspring from each exposure condition were investigated on a spatial discrimination learning task in a radial arm maze. An impairment in the performance of this task was found which showed a correlation with dose. Compared with sham exposed control mice, performance was not significantly affected with irradiation at 0.1 Gy and was slightly but non-significantly reduced at 0.25 Gy. Irradiation at 0.35 Gy caused a significant impairment in performance, and exposure at 0.5 Gy resulted in a still larger impairment. The overall association between dose and behavioural impairment was best described by a linear relationship without a threshold, although at doses lower than about 0.25 Gy any impairment would appear to be too small to be detectable. (Author)

  1. Chloroquine Engages the Immune System to Eradicate Irradiated Breast Tumors in Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratikan, Josephine Anna [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California (United States); Sayre, James William [Public Health Biostatistics/Radiology at UCLA, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California (United States); Schaue, Dörthe, E-mail: dschaue@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: This study used chloroquine to direct radiation-induced tumor cell death pathways to harness the antitumor activity of the immune system. Methods and Materials: Chloroquine given immediately after tumor irradiation increased the cure rate of MCaK breast cancer in C3H mice. Chloroquine blocked radiation-induced autophagy and drove MCaK cells into a more rapid apoptotic and more immunogenic form of cell death. Results: Chloroquine treatment made irradiated tumor vaccines superior at inducing strong interferon gamma-associated immune responses in vivo and protecting mice from further tumor challenge. In vitro, chloroquine slowed antigen uptake and degradation by dendritic cells, although T-cell stimulation was unaffected. Conclusions: This study illustrates a novel approach to improve the efficacy of breast cancer radiation therapy by blocking endosomal pathways, which enhances radiation-induced cell death within the field and drives antitumor immunity to assist therapeutic cure. The study illuminates and merges seemingly disparate concepts regarding the importance of autophagy in cancer therapy.

  2. Associations between tumor types in irradiated BALB/c female mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storer, J.B.

    1982-01-01

    Associations between pairs of 12 different tumor types were estimated for a population of over 3800 irradiated BALB/c female mice. The associations were adjusted for age and radiation dose. Of the 66 pairs of tumor types, 21 showed significant positive or negative associations. Of these, 8 were considered to be spurious, principally because one or both of the tumors was rapidly lethal, leading to an apparent negative association. Six of the remaining 13 significant associations involed tumors of endocrine organs or tumors known to be endocrine related. Six others involved associations between lung, vascular tissue, or reticular tissue tumors, and tumors of endocrine organs. The remaining and highly negative association was between reticulum cell sarcomas and other lymphomas and leukemias. It was concluded that in irradiated female mice of this strain, at least, tumors are not independent and that alterations in host factors (principally endocrine) lead to animals developing both tumors (positive associations) or to one tumor but not the other (negative associations)

  3. Chloroquine Engages the Immune System to Eradicate Irradiated Breast Tumors in Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratikan, Josephine Anna; Sayre, James William; Schaue, Dörthe

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study used chloroquine to direct radiation-induced tumor cell death pathways to harness the antitumor activity of the immune system. Methods and Materials: Chloroquine given immediately after tumor irradiation increased the cure rate of MCaK breast cancer in C3H mice. Chloroquine blocked radiation-induced autophagy and drove MCaK cells into a more rapid apoptotic and more immunogenic form of cell death. Results: Chloroquine treatment made irradiated tumor vaccines superior at inducing strong interferon gamma-associated immune responses in vivo and protecting mice from further tumor challenge. In vitro, chloroquine slowed antigen uptake and degradation by dendritic cells, although T-cell stimulation was unaffected. Conclusions: This study illustrates a novel approach to improve the efficacy of breast cancer radiation therapy by blocking endosomal pathways, which enhances radiation-induced cell death within the field and drives antitumor immunity to assist therapeutic cure. The study illuminates and merges seemingly disparate concepts regarding the importance of autophagy in cancer therapy

  4. Depletion and repopulation of lymphocytes in Peyer's patches of mice after total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermak, T.H.; Steger, H.J.; Owen, R.L.; Strober, S.

    1988-01-01

    The depletion and repopulation of lymphocytes in specific cellular domains of mouse Peyer's patches were examined following total lymphoid irradiation (TLI). BALB/c mice 5-months-old were given 17 fractionated doses of irradiation to a total of 3400 to 4250 rads over a 4-week period, and Peyer's patches were examined by immunohistochemistry at 1 to 4 days and 1 to 4 weeks after TLI. Cryostat sections were labeled with monoclonal antibodies directed against B220 (B cells), Thy-1.2 (all T cells), L3T4 (helper T cells), and Ly-2 (cytotoxic/suppressor T cells). In depleted mice, Peyer's patches were greatly reduced in size in comparison to controls, although the structural framework of follicles, domes, and interfollicular areas was still present. B cells in follicles were reduced to a small core of B220+ cells interspersed with nonlymphocytic cells. T cells were virtually eliminated from the patch except for a small population of Thy-1.2+ cells that were neither L3T4+ nor Ly-2+ in follicle domes. During early stages of repopulation at 1 to 2 weeks after TLI, follicles increased in size and were populated by helper T cells but Peyer's patches lacked discrete interfollicular T cell regions. At 3 to 4 weeks after TLI, T cell regions were found in interfollicular areas. The results indicate that morphologically distinct cellular domains are maintained in Peyer's patches after TLI which are sequentially repopulated by immigrating lymphocytes

  5. Impact of Whole Body Irradiation on the Intestinal Microbiome- Considerations for Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karouia, Fathi; Santos, Orlando; Valdivia-Silva, Julio E.; Jones, Jeffrey; Greenberger, Joel S.; Epperly, Michael W.

    Human space travelers experience a unique environment that affects homeostasis and physiologic adaptation. Spaceflight-related changes have been reported in the musculo-skeletal, cardiovascular, neurovestibular, endocrine, and immune systems to just name a few. However, to date, radiation exposure is one of the main limiting factors for long duration space exploration missions and especially a mission to Mars. Over the past few years through advances in technology, the characterization of the microbiome has revealed a large and complex community of microorganisms living in symbiosis with the human host. However, heterogeneity of the intestinal microbial spectrum in humans has been associated with a variety of diseases and susceptibility to infectious and toxic agents. Limited information is known about the influence of space environment in general and radiation in particular on the microbiome. Furthermore, multiple spaceflight and simulated microgravity experiments have shown changes in phenotypic microbial characteristics such as microbial growth, morphology, metabolism, genetic transfer, antibiotic and stress susceptibility, and an increase in virulence factors. We now report a study of the bacterial composition of the intestine in C57BL/6NTAC mice and the types of microbes entering the body at two time points after the LD 50/30 dose of total body irradiation using microarray-based assay, G3 PhyloChip 16S rRNA, and bioinformatics methods. Bacteria and archaea taxon richness was determined at the genus level and ranged from 2 to 107 and 0 to 3 respectively. As expected, pre-exposure blood samples exhibited less bacterial and archaeal genus richness compared to all other samples. However, the study shows a significant shift in the mouse gut microbial speciation in several bacterial families, with increases in the Turicibacteraceae and Enterobacteriaceae and decreases in the Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae families. The findings most relevant to occupational

  6. Production of humoral factors that stimulate spleen colony-forming units in mice irradiated with moderate doses of X rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grande, T.; Gonzalez, J.; Tejero, C.; Maganto, G.; Bueren, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    The production of humoral factors that stimulate spleen colony-forming units (CFU-S) has been studied in irradiated mice using an in vivo diffusion chamber assay. The experiments show that a significant release of factors that stimulate CFU-S takes place in the first few days after irradiation with moderate doses of 1.5 or 5 Gy. In contrast, the release of significant amounts of these humoral factors was not seen in animals irradiated with either low (0.75 Gy) or high (10 Gy) doses of X rays. The correlation observed between the production of factors that stimulate the CFU-S and the hemopoietic regeneration kinetics of the irradiated mice suggests that these factors represent part of the physiological regulators controlling the proliferation of CFU-S

  7. Reflective inserts to reduce heat strain in body armor: tests with and without irradiance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadarette, Bruce S; Santee, William R; Robinson, Scott B; Sawka, Michael N

    2007-08-01

    This study evaluated adding reflective thermal inserts (RTI) to reduce the physiological strain during exercise-heat stress with a radiant load. RTI were used with a U.S. Army desert battle dress uniform, body armor, and helmet. Four male volunteers attempted four trials (10 min rest followed by 100 min walking at 1.56 m x s(-1)). All trials were at 40.0 degrees C dry bulb (Tdb), 12.4 degrees C dew point (Tdp), 20% RH, and 1.0 m x s(-1) wind speed. On 2 d, there was supplementary irradiance (+1) with globe temperature (Tbg) = 56.5 degrees C and on 2 d there was no supplementary irradiance (-I) with Tbg approximately Tdb. Trial conditions were: 1) RTI and armor with supplementary irradiance (RA+I); 2) plain armor with supplementary irradiance (PA+I); 3) RTI and armor with no supplementary irradiance (RA-I); and 4) plain armor with no supplementary irradiance (PA-I). Endurance times were not significantly different among trials. With one exception, armor and helmet interior and exterior surface temperatures were not significantly different between either RA+I and PA+I or RA-I and PA-I. Temperature on the inside of the helmet in RA+I (47.1 +/- 1.4 degrees C) was significantly lower than in PA+I (49.5 +/- 2.6 degrees C). There were no differences for any physiological measure (core temperature, heart rate, mean weighted skin temperature, forehead skin temperature, sweating rate, evaporative cooling, rate of heat storage) between either RA+I and PA+L or RA-I and PA-I. Results showed no evidence that wearing RTI with body armor and helmet reduces physiological strain during exercise-heat stress with either high or low irradiance.

  8. Study of food intake dynamics in rats following acute whole-body irradiation with X rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smajda, B.; Ahlers, I.; Datelinka, I.

    1987-01-01

    The effects were studied of whole-body X-irradiation with sublethal (2.39 Gy) and medium lethal (5.74 Gy) doses on food intake by rats. The lower dose caused a temporary decrease in food intake, with a minimum of 63.3% of the control level on the 2nd day after irradiation. The decrease was statistically significant up to the 4th day after irradiation. No substantial changes were observed in the parameters of the circadian rhythm in food intake with the maximum on the 3rd day after irradiation, with only 8% of the initial value. The food intake was reduced until the 9th day after irradiation. The daily thythm of food intake was strongly disturbed during the first three days after irradiation, then restoring gradually and on the 9th day showing the original phasing and shape. The results obtained were in agreement with the assumed neural regulation mechanism of food intake and its circadian rhythm in the rat. (author). 5 figs., 12 refs

  9. Chromosome aberrations and micronucleus in continuously irradiated mice for a low dose rate of 137Cs γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumi, Jun; Yanai, Takanori; Shirata, Katsutoshi; Tanaka, Kimio; Sato, Fumiaki

    2002-01-01

    Delayed chromosomal instability is developed by radiation after several cell divisions in cultured rodent and human cells. The genetic instability might be related to cancer development and it has been mainly found in cultured rodent and human cells irradiated at high dose rate. It has not been well studied whether the genetic instability is induced by prolonged irradiation with low dose rate in vivo or not. Mice irradiated with 20 mGy/day for 5-8 Gy were analyzed by FISH to estimate the chromosome aberration rate and micronucleus incidence in spleen and bone marrow cells. Spleen cells in mice exposed to 8 Gy have higher incidence of monosomy and trisomy than non-exposed mice. The number of cells with 2-4 micronuclei in 10,000 scored spleen cells is also higher in 5-8 Gy exposed mice. These numerical chromosome aberrations are not induced directly by radiation exposure. These results indicate that prolonged 137 Cs γ ray-irradiation with low dose rates of 20 mGy/day induces delayed chromosome instability in mice. (author)

  10. Low Dietary Protein Status Potentiating Risk of Health Hazard in Whole Body Gamma Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Gawish, M.A.M.; Yousri, R.M.; Roushdy, H.M.; Abdel-Reheem, K.A.; Al-Mossallamy, N.A.

    1998-01-01

    Investigations were planned to assess the changes in certain biochemical parameters as affected by the synergistic effect of exposure to fractionated doses of rays and / or feeding on different protein levels. The date showed that animals kept on normal or low protein diet exhibited a significant decrease in serum total protein and glucose. Also , a significant increase was recorded in insulin level in rats exposed at the radiation dose level of 20 Gy. Exposure to cumulative doses of irradiation has aggrevated the hyperglycemic effect of high protein diet with a significant and marked increase of insulin at all the applied doses. Animals fed normal high or low protein diet were found to exert significant decreases in T3, T4 while a significant increase in TSH of high protein group occurred as a result of exposure to cumulative doses of gamma-irradiation. Rats kept on low protein diet exhibited losses in body weight, hypercholesterolemia, low levels of phospholipids and triglycerides as compared with the normal protein diet group. In contrast high protein diet group showed no serious effects. Irradiation has potentiated body weight losses, hypotriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia in animal group fed low protein diet with a significant increase in serum phospholipids due to the higher radiation dose of 20 Gy. Protein deficiency acted synergistically with gamma irradiation and increased the susceptibility of body organs to radiation damage. Such findings contributed to the knowledge which stimulated the decrease of the internationally recognized occupational dose limits from 50 down to 20 m Sv (ICRP 1991)

  11. Radiological protection in a patient during a total body irradiation procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez O, J. O.; Hinojosa G, J.; Gomez M, E.; Balam de la Vega, J. A.; Deheza V, J. C.

    2010-09-01

    A technique used in the Service of Radiotherapy of the Cancer Center of the American British Cowdray Medical Center (ABC) for the bone marrow transplantation, is the total body irradiation. It is known that the dose calculation, for this irradiation type, is old, since the dosimetric calculation is carried out by hand and they exist infinity of techniques for the patients irradiation and different forms of protecting organs of risk, as well as a great uncertainty in the given dose. In the Cancer Center of the ABC Medical Center, was carried out an irradiation procedure to total body with the following methodology: Computerized tomography of the patient total body (two vacuum mattresses in the following positions: dorsal and lateral decubitus), where is combined the two treatment techniques anterior-posterior and bilateral, skin delineate and reference volumes, dose calculation with the planning system Xi O of CMS, dose determination using an ionization chamber and a lung phantom IMRT Thorax Phantom of the mark CIRS and dosimetry in vivo. In this work is presented the used treatment technique, the results, statistics and the actualization of the patient clinical state. (Author)

  12. Evaluation of Protection against Schistosoma mansoni Infection in Mice Vaccinated with Irradiated Cercariae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    The Present study was designed to evaluate the biological changes in mice vaccinated with irradiated Schistosoma mansoni cercariae (40 krad) in comparison with infected non-vaccinated group. The degree of resistance was assessed by parasitological, biochemical, immunological, histopathological as well as scanning electron microscopy studies. The results of the present study revealed a significant reduction in worm burden and ova count in both liver and intestine of the immunized group. In addition, a moderate amelioration was recorded in the liver functions; gamma glutamyltransferase (gamma-GT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine and aspartate transaminase (ALT and AST). Assessment of tissue nuclear factor-a (TNF-a) and Interleukin -10 (IL-IO) in sera of the experimental groups showed significant protection changes. Histopathological examination of vaccinated mice livers showed protection against parasite maturation and liver damage after challenged as compared to mice infected only without vaccination. Also, scanning electron microscopy of whole worm revealed severe degree of surface tegumental disruption and intensive stunted of the worms as well as loss of the dorsal tegumental spines, On the other hand, there were severe deformations in both the anterior and ventral suckers as a result of the immunization

  13. Rejection of normal and neoplastic hemopoietic cells by lethally irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afifi, M.S.H.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of rejection of normal and neoplastic hemopoietic cells by lethally irradiated mice, in part by investigating the hypothesis that two or more cell types are involved in recognition and rejection of hemopoietic cells. Interferon (IFN) was used as a tool for investigating such mechanisms. IFN alpha/beta stimulated the rejection of normal hemopoietic marrow cell grafts in Fl hybrid and in allogeneic host mice but did not affect the growth of cells in syngeneic mice. IFN alpha/beta was effective in hosts pretreated with silica but not in hosts pretreated with cyclophosphamide (Cy) or with anti-asialoGMI serum. Rabbit anti-IFN alpha/beta, but not anti-IFN gamma, serum inhibited genetic resistance to bone marrow cells. These results indicated that IFN alpha/beta was acting indirectly during the rejection of normal hemopoietic cells. It is proposed that four events occur in succession: a host cell recognizes the hemopoietic histocompatibility (Hh) antigens expressed on the surface of incompatible stem cells; this recognition leads to secretion of IFN; IFN activates natural killer (NK) cells; NK cells lyse donor stem cells. Silica interrupts one or both of the first two events. i.e., recognition and/or interrupts one or both of the first two events, i.e. recognition and/or IGN secretion.

  14. Age-related changes in body composition of bovine growth hormone transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Amanda J; Chung, Min-Yu; List, Edward O; Walker, Jennifer; Okada, Shigeru; Kopchick, John J; Berryman, Darlene E

    2009-03-01

    GH has a significant impact on body composition due to distinct anabolic and catabolic effects on lean and fat mass, respectively. Several studies have assessed body composition in mice expressing a GH transgene. Whereas all studies report enhanced growth of transgenic mice as compared with littermate controls, there are inconsistencies in terms of the relative proportion of lean mass to fat mass in these animals. The purpose of this study was to characterize the accumulation of adipose and lean mass with age and according to gender in a bovine (b) GH transgenic mouse line. Weight and body composition measurements were assessed in male and female bGH mice with corresponding littermate controls in the C57BL/6J genetic background. Body composition measurements began at 6 wk and continued through 1 yr of age. At the conclusion of the study, tissue weights were determined and triglyceride content was quantified in liver and kidney. Although body weights for bGH mice were significantly greater than their corresponding littermate controls at all time points, body composition measurements revealed an unexpected transition midway through analyses. That is, younger bGH mice had relatively more fat mass than nontransgenic littermates, whereas bGH mice became significantly leaner than controls by 4 months in males and 6 months in females. These results reveal the importance in timing and gender when conducting studies related to body composition or lean and fat tissue in GH transgenic mice or in other genetically manipulated mouse strains in which body composition may be impacted.

  15. The carcinogenic risk of high dose total body irradiation in non-human primates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broerse, J.J.; Bartstra, R.W.; Bekkum, D.W. van; Hage, M.H. van der; Zurcher, C.; Zwieten, M.J. van; Hollander, C.F.

    2000-01-01

    High dose total body irradiation (TBI) in combination with chemotherapy, followed by rescue with bone marrow transplantation (BMT), is increasingly used for the treatment of haematological malignancies. With the increasing success of this treatment and its current introduction for treating refractory autoimmune diseases the risk of radiation carcinogenesis is of growing concern. Studies on turnout induction in non-human primates are of relevance in this context since the response of this species to radiation does not differ much from that in man. Since the early sixties, studies have been performed on acute effects in Rhesus monkeys and the protective action of bone marrow transplantation after irradiation with X-rays (average total body dose 6.8 Gy) and fission neutrons (average dose 3.4 Gy). Of those monkeys, which were irradiated and reconstituted with autologous bone marrow, 20 animals in the X-irradiated group and nine animals in the neutron group survived more than 3 years. A group of 21 non-irradiated Rhesus monkeys of a comparable age distribution served as controls. All animals were regularly screened for the occurrence of neoplasms. Complete necropsies were performed after natural death or euthanasia. At post-irradiation intervals of 4-21 years an appreciable number of tumours was observed. In the neutron irradiated group eight out of nine animals died with one or more malignant tumours. In the X-irradiated group this fraction was 10 out of 20. The tumours in the control group, in seven out of the 21 animals, appeared at much older a-e compared with those in the irradiated cohorts. The histogenesis of the tumours was diverse with a preponderance of renal carcinoma, sarcomas among which osteosarcormas, and malignant glomus tumours in the irradiated groups. When corrected for competing risks, the carcinogenic risk of TBI in the Rhesus monkeys is similar to that derived from the studies of the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. The increase of the risk by a

  16. Testing photobiomodulatory effects of laser irradiation on wound healing: development of an improved model for dressing wounds in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Tzu-Yun; Peplow, Philip V; Baxter, G David

    2010-10-01

    To develop a suitable method for dressing skin wounds in BKS.Cg-m(+)/(+)Lepr(db) mice for subsequent use in laser irradiation of wounds. The healing of nonirradiated wounds (controls) was examined histologically to provide essential reference data. Dressing excisional skin wounds in mice has many advantages. However, previous studies using dressings such as Tegaderm W or OpSite, with or without adhesives, have shown that this is not easily achieved. In a pilot study, a full-thickness wound was made on the left flank in six diabetic and six nondiabetic mice, and five different methods were tried for dressing the wounds with Tegaderm HP to develop an optimized procedure. The optimized procedure was used in subsequent studies, with a total of 23 diabetic and 13 nondiabetic mice being controls for laser-irradiated mice. Measurements of healing outcomes from histologic sections of controls were statistically analyzed. The optimized procedure used Tegaderm HP with Cavilon and Fixomull Stretch strips for the first dressing, and with Mastisol for subsequent dressings. Wound closure by contraction was retarded in a large proportion of diabetic mice (approximately 80%) and a small proportion of nondiabetic mice. These wounds, described as "splinted," healed mainly by epithelial regeneration and granulation tissue formation. A simple, easy-to-perform procedure was developed for dressing wounds in diabetic and nondiabetic mice. It was found to cause splinting with wound healing mimicking that in human patients. This model is suitable for examining the effects of different therapies on wound healing, including lasers.

  17. Study of uptake and endocytosis of gamma rays-irradiated crotoxin by mice peritoneal macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardi, Bruno Andrade

    1999-01-01

    The purpose was to investigate the uptake and endocytosis of 2000 Gy 60 Co irradiated crotoxin through mouse peritoneal macrophages, correlating with native one and another non related protein, the ovalbumin. Native (CTXN) or 2000 Gy 60 Co γ-rays (dose rate 540 Gy/hour) irradiated crotoxin (CTXI) or ovalbumin processed of same manner (OVAN - OVAI) were offered to mouse peritoneal macrophages and their uptake was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and quantitative in situ ELISA. The involvement of scavenger receptors (ScvR) was evaluated by using blockers drugs (Probuco-PBC or Dextran Sulfate - SD) or with nonspecific blocking using fetal calf serum (FBS). The morphology and viability of macrophages were preserved during the experiments. CTXI showed irradiation-induced aggregates and formation of oxidative changing were observed on this protein after gamma rays treatment. By immunohistochemistry we could observe heavy stained phagocytic vacuole on macrophages incubated with CTXI, as compared with CTXN. Quantitatively by in situ ELISA, the sema pattern was observed, displaying a 2-fold CTXI incorporation. In presence of PBC or SD we could find a significant decrease of CTXI uptake but not of CTXN. However the CTXN uptake was depressed by FBS, not observed with CTXI. OVA, after gamma rays treatment, underwent a high degradation suffering a potent incorporation and metabolism by macrophages, with a major uptake of OVAI in longer incubation (120 minutes). Gamma rays ( 60 Co) produced oxidative changes on CTX molecule, leading to a uptake by ScvR-mice peritoneal macrophages, suggesting that the relation antigen-presenting cells and gamma rays-modified proteins are responsible for the better immune response presented by irradiated antigens. (author)

  18. Synergistic effect of cisplatin and synchrotron irradiation on F98 gliomas growing in nude mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricard, Clement; Fernandez, Manuel [Grenoble Institut des Neurosciences, Grenoble (France); Université Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France); Requardt, Herwig [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); Wion, Didier [Grenoble Institut des Neurosciences, Grenoble (France); Université Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France); Vial, Jean-Claude [Université Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France); Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire de Physique, St Martin d’Hères (France); Segebarth, Christoph; Sanden, Boudewijn van der, E-mail: boudewijn.vandersanden@ujf-grenoble.fr [Grenoble Institut des Neurosciences, Grenoble (France); Université Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France)

    2013-09-01

    Synchrotron photoactivation therapy of cisplatin relies on a synergistic effect of synchrotron X-rays and platinum and leads to tumor-cell-killing effects and reduction of the tumor blood perfusion. Among brain tumors, glioblastoma multiforme appears as one of the most aggressive forms of cancer with poor prognosis and no curative treatment available. Recently, a new kind of radio-chemotherapy has been developed using synchrotron irradiation for the photoactivation of molecules with high-Z elements such as cisplatin (PAT-Plat). This protocol showed a cure of 33% of rats bearing the F98 glioma but the efficiency of the treatment was only measured in terms of overall survival. Here, characterization of the effects of the PAT-Plat on tumor volume and tumor blood perfusion are proposed. Changes in these parameters may predict the overall survival. Firstly, changes in tumor growth of the F98 glioma implanted in the hindlimb of nude mice after the PAT-Plat treatment and its different modalities have been characterized. Secondly, the effects of the treatment on tumor blood perfusion have been observed by intravital two-photon microscopy. Cisplatin alone had no detectable effect on the tumor volume. A reduction of tumor growth was measured after a 15 Gy synchrotron irradiation, but the whole therapy (15 Gy irradiation + cisplatin) showed the largest decrease in tumor growth, indicating a synergistic effect of both synchrotron irradiation and cisplatin treatment. A high number of unperfused vessels (52%) were observed in the peritumoral area in comparison with untreated controls. In the PAT-Plat protocol the transient tumor growth reduction may be due to synergistic interactions of tumor-cell-killing effects and reduction of the tumor blood perfusion.

  19. Synergistic effect of cisplatin and synchrotron irradiation on F98 gliomas growing in nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricard, Clement; Fernandez, Manuel; Requardt, Herwig; Wion, Didier; Vial, Jean-Claude; Segebarth, Christoph; Sanden, Boudewijn van der

    2013-01-01

    Synchrotron photoactivation therapy of cisplatin relies on a synergistic effect of synchrotron X-rays and platinum and leads to tumor-cell-killing effects and reduction of the tumor blood perfusion. Among brain tumors, glioblastoma multiforme appears as one of the most aggressive forms of cancer with poor prognosis and no curative treatment available. Recently, a new kind of radio-chemotherapy has been developed using synchrotron irradiation for the photoactivation of molecules with high-Z elements such as cisplatin (PAT-Plat). This protocol showed a cure of 33% of rats bearing the F98 glioma but the efficiency of the treatment was only measured in terms of overall survival. Here, characterization of the effects of the PAT-Plat on tumor volume and tumor blood perfusion are proposed. Changes in these parameters may predict the overall survival. Firstly, changes in tumor growth of the F98 glioma implanted in the hindlimb of nude mice after the PAT-Plat treatment and its different modalities have been characterized. Secondly, the effects of the treatment on tumor blood perfusion have been observed by intravital two-photon microscopy. Cisplatin alone had no detectable effect on the tumor volume. A reduction of tumor growth was measured after a 15 Gy synchrotron irradiation, but the whole therapy (15 Gy irradiation + cisplatin) showed the largest decrease in tumor growth, indicating a synergistic effect of both synchrotron irradiation and cisplatin treatment. A high number of unperfused vessels (52%) were observed in the peritumoral area in comparison with untreated controls. In the PAT-Plat protocol the transient tumor growth reduction may be due to synergistic interactions of tumor-cell-killing effects and reduction of the tumor blood perfusion

  20. Sex- and dose-dependent effects of calcium ion irradiation on behavioral performance of B6D2F1 mice during contextual fear conditioning training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raber, Jacob; Weber, Sydney J.; Kronenberg, Amy; Turker, Mitchell S.

    2016-06-01

    The space radiation environment includes energetic charged particles that may impact behavioral and cognitive performance. The relationship between the dose and the ionization density of the various types of charged particles (expressed as linear energy transfer or LET), and cognitive performance is complex. In our earlier work, whole body exposure to 28Si ions (263 MeV/n, LET = 78keV / μ m ; 1.6 Gy) affected contextual fear memory in C57BL/6J × DBA2/J F1 (B6D2F1) mice three months following irradiation but this was not the case following exposure to 48Ti ions (1 GeV/n, LET = 107keV / μ m ; 0.2 or 0.4 Gy). As an increased understanding of the impact of charged particle exposures is critical for assessment of risk to the CNS of astronauts during and following missions, in this study we used 40Ca ion beams (942 MeV/n, LET = 90keV / μm) to determine the behavioral and cognitive effects for the LET region between that of Si ions and Ti ions. 40Ca ion exposure reduced baseline activity in a novel environment in a dose-dependent manner, which suggests reduced motivation to explore and/or a diminished level of curiosity in a novel environment. In addition, exposure to 40Ca ions had sex-dependent effects on response to shock. 40Ca ion irradiation reduced the response to shock in female, but not male, mice. In contrast, 40Ca ion irradiation did not affect fear learning, memory, or extinction of fear memory for either gender at the doses employed in this study. Thus 40Ca ion irradiation affected behavioral, but not cognitive, performance. The effects of 40Ca ion irradiation on behavioral performance are relevant, as a combination of novelty and aversive environmental stimuli is pertinent to conditions experienced by astronauts during and following space missions.

  1. Adaptive hormetic response of pre-exposure of mouse brain with low-dose 12C 6+ ion or 60Co γ-ray on growth hormone (GH) and body weight induced by subsequent high-dose irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Xie, Yi; Zhou, Qingming; Liu, Bing; Li, Wenjian; Li, Xiaoda; Duan, Xin; Yuan, Zhigang; Zhou, Guangming; Min, Fengling

    2006-01-01

    The brain of the Kun-Ming strain mice were irradiated with 0.05 Gy of 12C 6+ ion or 60Co γ-ray as the pre-exposure dose, and were then irradiated with 2 Gy of 12C 6+ ion or 60Co γ-ray as challenging irradiation dose at 4 h after per-exposure. Body weight and serum growth hormone (GH) concentration were measured at 35th day after irradiation. The results showed that irradiation of mouse brain with 2 Gy of 12C 6+ ion or 60Co γ-ray significantly diminished mouse body weight and level of serum GH. The relative biological effectiveness values of a 2 Gy dose of 12C 6+ ion calculated with respect to 60Co γ-ray were 1.47 and 1.34 for body weight and serum GH concentration, respectively. Pre-exposure with a low-dose (0.05 Gy) of 12C 6+ ion or 60Co γ-ray significantly alleviated reductions of mouse body weight and level of serum GH induced by a subsequent high-dose (2 Gy) irradiation. The data suggested that low-dose ionizing irradiation can induce adaptive hormetic responses to the harmful effects of pituitary by subsequent high-dose exposure.

  2. Revisiting Biomarkers of Total-Body and Partial-Body Exposure in a Baboon Model of Irradiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Valente

    Full Text Available In case of a mass casualty radiation event, there is a need to distinguish total-body irradiation (TBI and partial-body irradiation (PBI to concentrate overwhelmed medical resources to the individuals that would develop an acute radiation syndrome (ARS and need hematologic support (i.e., mostly TBI victims. To improve the identification and medical care of TBI versus PBI individuals, reliable biomarkers of exposure could be very useful. To investigate this issue, pairs of baboons (n = 18 were exposed to different situations of TBI and PBI corresponding to an equivalent of either 5 Gy 60Co gamma irradiation (5 Gy TBI; 7.5 Gy left hemibody/2.5 right hemibody TBI; 5.55 Gy 90% PBI; 6.25 Gy 80% PBI; 10 Gy 50% PBI, 15 Gy 30% PBI or 2.5 Gy (2.5 Gy TBI; 5 Gy 50% PBI. More than fifty parameters were evaluated before and after irradiation at several time points up to 200 days. A partial least square discriminant analysis showed a good distinction of TBI from PBI situations that were equivalent to 5 Gy. Furthermore, all the animals were pooled in two groups, TBI (n = 6 and PBI (n = 12, for comparison using a logistic regression and a non parametric statistical test. Nine plasmatic biochemical markers and most of hematological parameters turned out to discriminate between TBI and PBI animals during the prodromal phase and the manifest illness phase. The most significant biomarkers were aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, lactico dehydrogenase, urea, Flt3-ligand, iron, C-reactive protein, absolute neutrophil count and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio for the early period, and Flt3-ligand, iron, platelet count, hemoglobin, monocyte count, absolute neutrophil count and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio for the ARS phase. These results suggest that heterogeneity could be distinguished within a range of 2.5 to 5 Gy TBI.

  3. Effects of gamma irradiation on protocorm-like bodies of cattleya alliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thammasiri, K.

    1996-01-01

    Induced mutations by gamma irradiation can be one of the promising methods for orchid breeding. Protocorm - like bodies (PLBs) of Brassolaeliocattleya (Blc.) Alma kee and Blc. Greenwich were established from in vitro apical and axillary buds of young shoots in Vacin and Went (1949) liquid medium supplemented with 150 ml/l coconut water. PLBs were irradiated with gamma rays at 0, 20, 60, 80, 110 and 130 Gray (Gy). Doses between 80 and 110 Gy were suitable to apply for induced mutations in both cultivars. Another experiment with more samples was conducted. Gamma rays were applied at 0, 70, 100 and 130 Gy. The results showed that irradiated PLBs of both cultivars had slow growth rate and some PLBs turned brown and died. A dose of 70 Gy was suitable for induced mutation. More severe effects were observed when higher doses had been applied

  4. Practical implications of backscatter from outside the patient on the dose distribution during total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dam, J.; Rijnders, A.; Vanuytsel, L.; Zhang, H.-Z.

    1988-01-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI) sometimes requires the set-up of the patient very close to the wall of the treatment room in order to obtain sufficiently large irradiation fields. Under these conditions, backscattered electrons can become clinically important. In the present study, an attempt was made to quantify the dose contribution to the patient from these electrons. Measurements were performed both in experimental conditions and on patients during their TBI treatment. It is concluded that, with the patient close to the wall, backscattered electrons constitute a significant (up to 20% of the dose obtained under electronic equilibrium at the exit port of the beam) radiation dose which can (under certain conditions) influence measurements of exit dose leading to an overestimation of the midline dose and contribute a suuperficial irradiation of the patient without therapeutic benefit. This problem can be solved by interposing a 2 cm thick low-Z absorber between wall and patient. 9 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 table

  5. Gene expression in skin tumors induced in hairless mice by chronic exposure to ultraviolet B irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hiromi; Tanaka, Misao; Kobayashi, Shizuko; Suzuki, Junko S.; Ogiso, Manabu; Tohyama, Chiharu

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the expressions of c-Ha-ras, c-jun, c-fos, c-myc genes and p53 protein in the development of skin tumours induced by chronic exposure to UVB without a photosensitizer using hairless mice. When mice were exposed to UVB at a dose of 2 kJ/m 2 three times a week, increased c-Ha-ras and c-myc transcripts were detected after only 5 weeks of exposure, while no tumour appeared on the exposed skin. The increase in gene expression continued until 25 weeks, when tumours, identified pathologically as mainly squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), developed in the dorsal skin. In these SCC, overexpression of c-fos mRNA was also observed along with the increases in c-Ha-ras and c-myc. A single dose of UVB (2 kJ/m 2 ) applied to the backs of hairless mice transiently induced overexpression of the early event genes c-fos, c-jun and c-myc, but not c-Ha-ras, in the exposed area of skin. Accumulation of p53 protein was determined by Western blotting analysis of immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibodies PAb 240 or 246, which recognize mutant or wide type, respectively. In the SCC, a mutant p53 protein accumulated in the cytoplasm and nucleus. After single-dose irradiation, the increased wild-type p53 protein was observed in the nuclei of epidermal cells. The present results suggest that overexpression of the c-fos, c-myc and c-Ha-ras genes, and the mutational changes in p53 protein might be associated with skin photocarcinogenesis. Moreover, overexpression of the c-Ha-ras and c-myc genes might be an early event in the development of UVB-induced skin tumors in mice. (author)

  6. Dietary nucleosides and nucleotides do not affect tumor incidence but reduce amyloidosis incidence in B6C3F1 mice irradiated with californium-252.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Hiroomi; Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Hiromitsu

    2004-04-01

    We investigated the effects of a dietary mixture of nucleosides and nucleotides (NS) on the systemic incidence rates of postirradiation carcinogenesis and non-neoplastic lesions in mice. Five-week-old male B6C3F1 mice were fed AIN-76B Purified Diet supplemented with NS for 1 wk and 13 mo before and after irradiation of neutron with californium-252 ((252)Cf); specifically NS was added to the AIN-76B Purified Diet (without nucleotide) to obtain a final concentration of 0%, 0.5%, or 2.5% NS. A commercial stock diet was also given to mice, and half of the mice were irradiated. Both irradiated and non-irradiated mice were used for reference controls. The incidence of liver tumors in each NS group was lower than that in the reference control group (P 252)Cf irradiation.

  7. Asymptotic weight and maturing rate in mice selected for body conformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Masso Ricardo J.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth patterns of four lines of mice selected for body conformation were analyzed with the logistic function, in order to provide baseline information about the relationship between asymptotic weight and maturing rate of body weight. Two lines were divergently selected favoring the phenotypic correlation between body weight and tail length (agonistic selection: CBi+, high body weight and long tail; CBi-, low body weight and short tail, whereas the other two lines were generated by a disruptive selection performed against the correlation between the aforementioned traits (antagonistic selection: CBi/C, high body weight and short tail; CBi/L, low body weight and long tail. The logistic parameters A (asymptotic weight and k (maturing rate behaved in CBi/C and CBi- mice and in CBi+ females as expected in terms of the negative genetic relationship between mature size and earliness of maturing. An altered growth pattern was found in CBi/L mice and in CBi+ males, because in the former genotype, selected for low body weight, the time taken to mature increased, whereas in the latter, selected for high body weight, there was a non-significant increase in the same trait. In accordance with the selective criterion, different sources of genetic variation for body weight could be exploited: one inversely associated with earliness of maturing (agonistic selection, and the other independent of maturing rate (antagonistic selection, showing that genetic variation of A is partly independent of k.

  8. Dose and dose rate effects of whole-body gamma-irradiation: II. Hematological variables and cytokines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gridley, D. S.; Pecaut, M. J.; Miller, G. M.; Moyers, M. F.; Nelson, G. A.

    2001-01-01

    The goal of part II of this study was to evaluate the effects of gamma-radiation on circulating blood cells, functional characteristics of splenocytes, and cytokine expression after whole-body irradiation at varying total doses and at low- and high-dose-rates (LDR, HDR). Young adult C57BL/6 mice (n = 75) were irradiated with either 1 cGy/min or 80 cGy/min photons from a 60Co source to cumulative doses of 0.5, 1.5, and 3.0 Gy. The animals were euthanized at 4 days post-exposure for in vitro assays. Significant dose- (but not dose-rate-) dependent decreases were observed in erythrocyte and blood leukocyte counts, hemoglobin, hematocrit, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced 3H-thymidine incorporation, and interleukin-2 (IL-2) secretion by activated spleen cells when compared to sham-irradiated controls (p < 0.05). Basal proliferation of leukocytes in the blood and spleen increased significantly with increasing dose (p < 0.05). Significant dose rate effects were observed only in thrombocyte counts. Plasma levels of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) and splenocyte secretion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) were not affected by either the dose or dose rate of radiation. The data demonstrate that the responses of blood and spleen were largely dependent upon the total dose of radiation employed and that an 80-fold difference in the dose rate was not a significant factor in the great majority of measurements.

  9. CALHM1 Deletion in Mice Affects Glossopharyngeal Taste Responses, Food Intake, Body Weight, and Life Span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellekant, Göran; Schmolling, Jared; Marambaud, Philippe; Rose-Hellekant, Teresa A

    2015-07-01

    Stimulation of Type II taste receptor cells (TRCs) with T1R taste receptors causes sweet or umami taste, whereas T2Rs elicit bitter taste. Type II TRCs contain the calcium channel, calcium homeostasis modulator protein 1 (CALHM1), which releases adenosine triphosphate (ATP) transmitter to taste fibers. We have previously demonstrated with chorda tympani nerve recordings and two-bottle preference (TBP) tests that mice with genetically deleted Calhm1 (knockout [KO]) have severely impaired perception of sweet, bitter, and umami compounds, whereas their sour and salty tasting ability is unaltered. Here, we present data from KO mice of effects on glossopharyngeal (NG) nerve responses, TBP, food intake, body weight, and life span. KO mice have no NG response to sweet and a suppressed response to bitter compared with control (wild-type [WT]) mice. KO mice showed some NG response to umami, suggesting that umami taste involves both CALHM1- and non-CALHM1-modulated signals. NG responses to sour and salty were not significantly different between KO and WT mice. Behavioral data conformed in general with the NG data. Adult KO mice consumed less food, weighed significantly less, and lived almost a year longer than WT mice. Taken together, these data demonstrate that sweet taste majorly influences food intake, body weight, and life span. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Modulator Effect of Turmeric on Oxidative Damage in Whole Body Gamma Irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, H.H.; Abdou, M.I.

    2012-01-01

    Because of its penetrating power and its ability to travel great distances, gamma rays are considered the primary hazard to the population during most radiological emergencies. So, there is a need to develop medical countermeasures to protect the first responders and remediation workers from biomedical effect of ionizing radiation. Turmeric has been reported to have many beneficial health effects, including a strong anti-oxidant effect, anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial properties. In the present study, turmeric was investigated as a therapeutic agent against hazards induced by ionizing radiation on kidney, liver, urinary and serum calcium levels and blood counts. A daily dose of 0.5 g/kg body weight was used in whole body gamma irradiated female rats with 3 Gy. Radiation effects were followed up for four weeks post irradiation. The results revealed that the administration of turmeric post-irradiation resulted in a significant inhibition in the frequency of radiation induced oxidative damage. It could be concluded that definite turmeric dose exerts a vital modulator role against gamma irradiation hazard

  11. Hyperfractionated total body irradiation for bone marrow transplantation: early results in leukemia patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shank, B.; Hopfan, S.; Kim, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    Bone marrow transplantation following cytoreduction with total body irradiation and cyclophosphamide has previously been shown to be of value in treating refractory leukemias. Major problems, however, have been fatal interstitial pneumonitis and leukemic relapse. In an attempt to minimize these problems, we initiated a new hyperfractionated regimen for total body irradiation, with partial lung sparing. From May 1979 through July 1980, we treated 48 leukemia patients according to this regimen, varying in age from 1.5 to 42 years old (mean age: 18 y). Analysis in September 1980, with follow-up from 2 to 16 months, showed that we have a significantly reduced incidence of interstitial pneumonitis compared with single dose (1000 rad) irradiation (33 vs 70%), as well as decreased deaths attributable to interstitial pneumonitis (23 vs 50%). This is reflected in the survival curves, with loss of the early drop in survival previously observed with single dose irradiation. One year actuarial survival was 65% for acute lymphocytic leukemia (n = 16) and 72% for actue non-lymphocytic leukemia (n = 29). This compares with only 17% for acute non-lymphocytic leukemia patients (n = 12) on our previous single dose regimen. Age was also found to be an important parameter for both survival and interstitial pneumonitis

  12. DNA damage focus analysis in blood samples of minipigs reveals acute partial body irradiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Lamkowski

    Full Text Available Radiation accidents frequently involve acute high dose partial body irradiation leading to victims with radiation sickness and cutaneous radiation syndrome that implements radiation-induced cell death. Cells that are not lethally hit seek to repair ionizing radiation (IR induced damage, albeit at the expense of an increased risk of mutation and tumor formation due to misrepair of IR-induced DNA double strand breaks (DSBs. The response to DNA damage includes phosphorylation of histone H2AX in the vicinity of DSBs, creating foci in the nucleus whose enumeration can serve as a radiation biodosimeter. Here, we investigated γH2AX and DNA repair foci in peripheral blood lymphocytes of Göttingen minipigs that experienced acute partial body irradiation (PBI with 49 Gy (± 6% Co-60 γ-rays of the upper lumbar region. Blood samples taken 4, 24 and 168 hours post PBI were subjected to γ-H2AX, 53BP1 and MRE11 focus enumeration. Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL of 49 Gy partial body irradiated minipigs were found to display 1-8 DNA damage foci/cell. These PBL values significantly deceed the high foci numbers observed in keratinocyte nuclei of the directly γ-irradiated minipig skin regions, indicating a limited resident time of PBL in the exposed tissue volume. Nonetheless, PBL samples obtained 4 h post IR in average contained 2.2% of cells displaying a pan-γH2AX signal, suggesting that these received a higher IR dose. Moreover, dispersion analysis indicated partial body irradiation for all 13 minipigs at 4 h post IR. While dose reconstruction using γH2AX DNA repair foci in lymphocytes after in vivo PBI represents a challenge, the DNA damage focus assay may serve as a rapid, first line indicator of radiation exposure. The occurrence of PBLs with pan-γH2AX staining and of cells with relatively high foci numbers that skew a Poisson distribution may be taken as indicator of acute high dose partial body irradiation, particularly when samples are available

  13. Protective value of piroxicam on the enhanced inflammatory response after whole body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    el-Ghazaly, M.; Saleh, S.; Kenawy, S.; Roushdy, H.M.; Khayyal, M.T.

    1986-06-01

    The anti-inflammatory activity of piroxicam was assessed after whole body irradiation in rats. Two models of inflammation, the carrageenan-induced edema and the adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats have been utilised. Piroxicam at doses of 1, 5 and 10 mg kg-1 i.p. was effective in inhibiting the paw edema produced in both models of inflammation. The inflammatory response in irradiated was significantly higher than that produced in normal animals and was dependent on the radiation dose level used (0.5-2 Gy). The effect of piroxicam on the late inflammatory response produced by exposure to 2 Gy was studied by measuring the carrageenan-induced edema 4 h after irradiation and on the third and seventh day thereafter. The increase in paw volume was significantly suppressed in animals receiving the drug. Administration of piroxicam (5 mg kg-1) one hour before irradiation of animals at 0.5 Gy, produced inhibition to the exaggerated inflammatory response in irradiated animals. This suggests that piroxicam possibly owes its protective value to prevention of the increase in cellular permeability induced by radiation. Alternatively, the drug may exert this effect by inhibiting PG synthesis, thereby reducing their potentiating influence on the other mediators of inflammation. Furthermore, the inhibition of lysosomal enzyme release possibly induced by the drug may contribute to the probable reduction in the release of inflammatory mediators.

  14. Chromosomal aberrations induced in mice bone marrow by treating with cisplatin and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuerschmidt, F.; Molls, M.; Bardenheuer, M.J.; Mueller, W.U.

    2000-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to quantify the combined effect of cisplatin and radiation on chromosomal damage with emphasis on the time interval between cisplatin and radiation. Methods and materials: Bone marrow of female NMRI-nu(+)mice was taken as a model system for a highly proliferative tissue irradiated with cobalt-60 (1 to 4 Gy). Cisplatin was injected intraperitoneally (ip) at 1.1 to 36 mg/kg. Cisplatin was given at various time intervals before and after radiation. Bone marrow and metaphases were prepared according to standard procedures. Results: The percentage of aberrant metaphases after radiation or cisplatin alone increased in a dose-dependent manner (sigmoidal dose-response curve). Combining both modalities led to additive values at all time points for the percentage of aberrant metaphases. Borderline significant (p [de

  15. Changes of proliferation kinetics after X-irradiation of a human malignant melanoma grown in nude mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spang-Thomsen, M; Vindeløv, L L

    1984-01-01

    A human malignant melanoma grown in nude mice was exposed to single-dose X-irradiation and the effect on the proliferation kinetics was investigated by two methods. Flow cytometric DNA analysis was performed on tumour tissue obtained by sequential fine-needle aspirations after the treatment...

  16. Cactus cladodes (Opuntia humifusa) extract minimizes the effects of UV irradiation on keratinocytes and hairless mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyungmi; Choi, Hyeon-Son; Hong, Yang Hee; Jung, Eun Young; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2017-12-01

    Cactus cladodes [Opuntia humifusa (Raf.) Raf. (Cactaceae)] is one of the cactus genera, which has long been used as a folk medicine for skin disorders. This study investigated the skincare potential of cactus cladodes extract (OHE), including its ability to regulate ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced hyaluronic acid (HA) production. Gene expression levels of hyaluronic acid synthases (HASs) and hyaluronidase (HYAL) were measured in UVB-irradiated HaCaT cells with OHE treatment (10, 25, 50, 100 μg/mL) by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The HA content was analyzed in hairless mice (SKH-1, male, 6 weeks old) treated with OHE for 10 weeks by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and immunohistological staining were performed to examine epidermal thickness and levels of CD44 and hyaluronic acid-binding protein (HABP). HA synthases (HAS,1 HAS2, HAS3) mRNA levels were increased by 1.9-, 2.2- and 1.6-fold, respectively, with OHE treatment (100 μg/mL), while UVB-induced increase of hyaluronidase mRNA significantly decreased by 35%. HA content in animal was decreased from 42.9 to 27.1 ng/mL by OHE treatment. HAS mRNA levels were decreased by 39%, but HYAL mRNA was increased by 50% in OHE group. CD44 and HABP levels, which were greatly increased by UVB-irradiation, were reduced by 64 and 60%, respectively. Epidermal thickness, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), and erythema formation was also decreased by 45 (45.7 to 24.2 μm), 48 (48.8 to 25 g/h/m 2 ) and 33%, respectively. OHE protects skin from UVB-induced skin degeneration in HaCaT cells and hairless mice.

  17. Mechanisms of taurine hyperexcretion after whole-body irradiation of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beskrovnaya, L.A.; Lapteva, T.A.; Dokshina, G.A.; Baranova, M.I.

    1976-01-01

    Mechanisms of postirradiation hyperexcretion of taurine with urine have been investigated. In the course of three days after a whole-body exposure of rats (700 rads), the excretion of taurine increases. The experiments in vitro have demonstrated that taurine synthesis decreases in the thymus and liver of irradiated animals. The experiments conducted have shown that the postirradiation hyperexcretion of taurine is partly due to its release from the lymohoid tissue (thymus)

  18. Half body irradiation of patients with multiple bone metastases: a phase II trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Randi S; Yilmaz, Mette K; Høyer, Morten

    2009-01-01

    AIM OF STUDY: The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of half-body irradiation (HBI) on pain and quality of life in cancer patients with multiple bone metastases. The secondary aim was to evaluate side effects of the treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 44 patients receive...... on the patients' global quality of life. CONCLUSION: Single fraction HBI is safe and effective providing long lasting pain reduction in 76% of patients with multiple bone metastases....

  19. Prenatal deaths and external malformations caused by x-irradiation during the preimplantation period of ddy mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ro, Hee Jeong; Choi, Ihl Bhong; Gu, Yeun Wha

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of x-irradiation on prenatal deaths, i.e., preimplantation deaths. embryonic deaths, and fetal deaths, and on external malformations in precompacted preimplantation ddy mice. Pregnant mice (n=85), obtained by limiting the mating time to from 6 to 9 A.M., were segregated into 11 groups, The first five groups (n=26) were irradiated with X-ray doses of 0.1, 0.5, 0.75, 1.5, and 3 Gy, respectively, at 24 h post conception (p.c.) of the preimplantation period. The second five (n=27) groups were irradiated at the same X-ray doses, respectively, but at 48 h p.c. of the preimplantation period. The last group (n=32) was the control group. The uterine contents were examined on the 18th day of gestation for prenatal deaths and external malformations. 1) A statistically significant increase in preimplantation deaths with increasing dose was observed in the experimental groups irradiated at 24 h p.c. and in the groups irradiated at 48 h p.c., as compared to the control group. The threshold dose was close to 0.05 Gy and 0.075 Gy for the irradiations at 24 h p.c. and 48 h p.c. respectively. 2) A statistically significant increase in embryonic deaths with increasing dose was observed in all irradiation groups, except the group irradiated with a dose of 0,1 Gy at 48 h p.c.. 3) No fetal deaths were found in any experimental group. 4) In the experimental groups irradiated at 24 h p.c., anomalies increased with statistical significance, as compared with the control group: 2 exencephalies, 2 open eyelids,' 3 anophthalmias, 2 cleft palates. 2 gastroschisis, 1 abdominal wall defect. 1 leg defect, and 2 short tail anomalies; the threshold dose for external malformations was close to 0.2 Gy at 24 h p.c.. In the groups irradiated at 48 h p.c., 1 open eyelid and 2 short tail anomalies were observed, but there was no statistical significance in those malformations. The results of this study reveal that x-irradiation of precompacted preimplantation ddy mice causes not

  20. Chronic High Dose Zinc Supplementation Induces Visceral Adipose Tissue Hypertrophy without Altering Body Weight in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaohua; Jiang, Dandan; Zhu, Yingguo; Fang, Zhengfeng; Che, Lianqiang; Lin, Yan; Xu, Shengyu; Li, Jian; Huang, Chao; Zou, Yuanfeng; Li, Lixia; Wu, De; Feng, Bin

    2017-10-18

    The trace element zinc plays an important role in human life. Zinc deficiency impairs growth, reproduction, metabolism and immunity in both human and animals. Thus, zinc supplementation is recommended in daily life. However, the effect of long-term chronic zinc supplementation on adipose homeostasis has not been well elucidated. In the current study, mice were supplemented with zinc sulfate in the drinking water for 20 weeks. The results suggested that chronic zinc supplementation impaired systemic glucose clearance after exogenous insulin or glucose challenges, as compared to the control mice. Further study revealed that chronic zinc supplementation made no difference to body weight, but increased visceral adipose tissue weight and adipocyte size. In addition, gene expression of leptin and IL6 in the visceral adipose tissue of zinc-supplemented mice were higher than those of control mice. Moreover, serum level of leptin of the zinc-supplemented mice was twice as high as that of the control mice. Besides, phosphorylation level of AKT T308 was attenuated in the perirenal adipose tissue of zinc-supplemented mice. In comparison, the expression of macrophage marker genes and lipogenic genes were not affected by chronic zinc supplementation, but the protein levels of FAS and SCD1 decreased or tended to decrease in the perirenal adipose tissue of zinc-supplemented mice, as compared to the control mice. Our findings suggest that chronic high dose zinc supplementation induces visceral adipose tissue hypertrophy and impairs AKT signaling in perirenal adipose tissue.

  1. Chronic High Dose Zinc Supplementation Induces Visceral Adipose Tissue Hypertrophy without Altering Body Weight in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Huang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The trace element zinc plays an important role in human life. Zinc deficiency impairs growth, reproduction, metabolism and immunity in both human and animals. Thus, zinc supplementation is recommended in daily life. However, the effect of long-term chronic zinc supplementation on adipose homeostasis has not been well elucidated. In the current study, mice were supplemented with zinc sulfate in the drinking water for 20 weeks. The results suggested that chronic zinc supplementation impaired systemic glucose clearance after exogenous insulin or glucose challenges, as compared to the control mice. Further study revealed that chronic zinc supplementation made no difference to body weight, but increased visceral adipose tissue weight and adipocyte size. In addition, gene expression of leptin and IL6 in the visceral adipose tissue of zinc-supplemented mice were higher than those of control mice. Moreover, serum level of leptin of the zinc-supplemented mice was twice as high as that of the control mice. Besides, phosphorylation level of AKT T308 was attenuated in the perirenal adipose tissue of zinc-supplemented mice. In comparison, the expression of macrophage marker genes and lipogenic genes were not affected by chronic zinc supplementation, but the protein levels of FAS and SCD1 decreased or tended to decrease in the perirenal adipose tissue of zinc-supplemented mice, as compared to the control mice. Our findings suggest that chronic high dose zinc supplementation induces visceral adipose tissue hypertrophy and impairs AKT signaling in perirenal adipose tissue.

  2. Chronic High Dose Zinc Supplementation Induces Visceral Adipose Tissue Hypertrophy without Altering Body Weight in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaohua; Jiang, Dandan; Zhu, Yingguo; Fang, Zhengfeng; Che, Lianqiang; Lin, Yan; Xu, Shengyu; Li, Jian; Huang, Chao; Li, Lixia; Wu, De

    2017-01-01

    The trace element zinc plays an important role in human life. Zinc deficiency impairs growth, reproduction, metabolism and immunity in both human and animals. Thus, zinc supplementation is recommended in daily life. However, the effect of long-term chronic zinc supplementation on adipose homeostasis has not been well elucidated. In the current study, mice were supplemented with zinc sulfate in the drinking water for 20 weeks. The results suggested that chronic zinc supplementation impaired systemic glucose clearance after exogenous insulin or glucose challenges, as compared to the control mice. Further study revealed that chronic zinc supplementation made no difference to body weight, but increased visceral adipose tissue weight and adipocyte size. In addition, gene expression of leptin and IL6 in the visceral adipose tissue of zinc-supplemented mice were higher than those of control mice. Moreover, serum level of leptin of the zinc-supplemented mice was twice as high as that of the control mice. Besides, phosphorylation level of AKT T308 was attenuated in the perirenal adipose tissue of zinc-supplemented mice. In comparison, the expression of macrophage marker genes and lipogenic genes were not affected by chronic zinc supplementation, but the protein levels of FAS and SCD1 decreased or tended to decrease in the perirenal adipose tissue of zinc-supplemented mice, as compared to the control mice. Our findings suggest that chronic high dose zinc supplementation induces visceral adipose tissue hypertrophy and impairs AKT signaling in perirenal adipose tissue. PMID:29057818

  3. Late effects on gonadal function of cyclophosphamide, total-body irradiation, and marrow transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, J.E.; Buckner, C.D.; Leonard, J.M.; Sullivan, K.M.; Witherspoon, R.P.; Deeg, H.J.; Storb, R.; Thomas, E.D.

    1983-09-01

    One hundred thirty-seven patients had gonadal function evaluated 1-11 years after marrow transplantation. All 15 women less than age 26 and three of nine older than age 26 who were treated with 200 mg/kg cyclophosphamide recovered normal gonadotropin levels and menstruation. Five have had five pregnancies resulting in three live births, one spontaneous abortion, and one elective abortion. Three of 38 women who were prepared with 120 mg/kg cyclophosphamide and 920-1200 rad total-body irradiation had normal gonadotropin levels and menstruation. Two had pregnancies resulting in one spontaneous and one elective abortion. Of 31 men prepared with 200 mg/kg cyclophosphamide, 30 had normal luteinizing hormone levels, 20 had normal follicle-stimulating hormone levels, and 10 of 15 had spermatogenesis. Four have fathered five normal children. Thirty-six of 41 men prepared with 120 mg/kg cyclophosphamide and 920-1750 rad total-body irradiation had normal luteinizing hormone levels, ten had normal follicle-stimulating hormone levels, and 2 of 32 studied had spermatogenesis. One has fathered two normal children. It was concluded that cyclophosphamide does not prevent return of normal gonadal function in younger women and in most men. Total-body irradiation prevents return of normal gonadal function in the majority of patients.

  4. Topical Administration of Manuka Oil Prevents UV-B Irradiation-Induced Cutaneous Photoaging in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh Sook Kwon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Manuka tree is indigenous to New Zealand, and its essential oil has been used as a traditional medicine to treat wounds, fever, and pain. Although there is a growing interest in the use of manuka oil for antiaging skin care products, little is known about its bioactivity. Solar ultraviolet (UV radiation is the primary environmental factor causing skin damage and consequently premature aging. Therefore, we evaluated manuka oil for its effects against photoaging in UV-B-irradiated hairless mice. Topical application of manuka oil suppressed the UV-B-induced increase in skin thickness and wrinkle grading in a dose-dependent manner. Application of 10% manuka oil reduced the average length, depth, and % area of wrinkles significantly, and this was correlated with inhibition of loss of collagen fiber content and epidermal hyperplasia. Furthermore, we observed that manuka oil could suppress UV-B-induced skin inflammation by inhibiting the production of inflammatory cytokines. Taken together, this study provides evidence that manuka oil indeed possesses antiphotoaging activity, and this is associated with its inhibitory activity against skin inflammation induced by UV irradiation.

  5. Locomotor behavior in mice following exposure to fission-neutron irradiation and trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landauer, M.R.; Ledney, G.D.; Davis, H.D.

    1987-01-01

    Locomotor activity, body weights, and food and water consumption were monitored in female mice for 35 d following a sublethal wound (W), burn (B), exposure to 3 Gray fission neutron radiation (R), or combination of these injuries: radiation-wound (RW) and radiation-burn (RB). Activity in groups W and RW was depressed immediately after injury, with recovery to control levels after 5 and 14 d, respectively. Mice that received radiation alone showed a biphasic response with decrements in activity on days 0-4 and 9-11. Groups B and RB exhibited depressed activity levels that differed significantly from control levels until day 17. Food intake was reduced for about 6 d in groups R, W, RW, and RB. Body weights decreased for 4 d in groups R, W, RW, and RB, but returned to control levels by the end of the experiment. Animals in group B did not show significant reduction in food intake or body weight. Water consumption was reduced for 5-6 d in groups R and RB and was increased in groups W, RW, and B. The data suggest that behavioral responses to fission-neutron radiation are exacerbated by tissue trauma

  6. Study of antioxidative effects and anti-inflammatory effects in mice due to low-dose X-irradiation or radon inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Takahiro

    2013-01-01

    Low-dose irradiation induces various stimulating effects, especially activation of the biological defense system including antioxidative and immune functions. Oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) can cause cell damage and death and can induce many types of diseases. This paper reviews new insights into inhibition of ROS-related diseases with low-dose irradiation or radon inhalation. X-irradiation (0.5 Gy) before or after carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) treatment inhibits hepatopathy in mice. X-irradiation (0.5 Gy) before ischemia-reperfusion injury or cold-induced brain injury also inhibits edema. These findings suggest that low-dose X-irradiation has antioxidative effects due to blocking the damage induced by free radicals or ROS. Moreover, radon inhalation increases superoxide dismutase activity in many organs and inhibits CCl4-induced hepatic and renal damage and streptozotocin-induced type I diabetes. These findings suggest that radon inhalation also has antioxidative effects. This antioxidative effect against CCl4-induced hepatopathy is comparable to treatment with ascorbic acid (vitamin C) at a dose of 500 mg/kg weight, or α-tocopherol (vitamin E) treatment at a dose of 300 mg/kg weight, and is due to activation of antioxidative functions. In addition, radon inhalation inhibits carrageenan-induced inflammatory paw edema, suggesting that radon inhalation has anti-inflammatory effects. Furthermore, radon inhalation inhibits formalin-induced inflammatory pain and chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain, suggesting that radon inhalation relieves pain. Thus, low-dose irradiation very likely activates the defense systems in the body, and therefore, contributes to preventing or reducing ROS-related injuries, which are thought to involve peroxidation. PMID:23420683

  7. Chromosome aberrations of the peripheral lymphocytes in rabbits exposed to single and fractionated whole-body x-irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Hiroaki; Sakurai, Masaharu; Sugahara, Tsutomu.

    1978-01-01

    The changes in the frequency of peripheral lymphocytes with chromosome aberrations were observed during or after irradiation of rabbits exposed to fractionated or single whole-body irradiations. In rabbits given daily fractionated whole-body irradiations the incidence of the aberrations showed a linear increase in the first week; however, the incidence decreased thereafter though exposures were repeated. The lymphocyte count tended to decrease as the number of irradiations increased. In rabbits exposed to a single dose of 250 R or 500 R the incidence of aberrations rapidly decreased over a period of 10 days following irradiation, and then showed a little change thereafter. The lymphocyte count in the peripheral blood reached a nadir 2 - 5 days after irradiation, and then started to increase gradually. It was speculated that there are two types of lymphocytes, long-lived and short-lived, in the peripheral blood of rabbits, both of which are PHA-committed. (auth.)

  8. Radioprotective properties of certain nitrogenous compounds heterocyclic on the serum proteins of irradiated mice; Proprietes radioprotectrices de certains heterocycles azotes sur les proteines seriques de souris irradiees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierotti, T.; Roushdy, H.; Polverelli, M.; Mazza, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    The results obtained from this study suggest the following: the concentration of total serum proteins in mice is very little changed during all the treatments carried out, while protein fractions showed significant alterations. The concentrations of various serum proteins remain almost constant under normal conditions. Intraperitoneal administration of imidazole or benzimidazole at the mentioned doses induces rapid quantitative changes in the serum which are recovered in about 3 days Whole-body X-irradiation at 750 roentgens creates slow but progressive and persisting serious changes in a concentration of serum protein fractions which end by death of animals at the 8 - 10. day after irradiation. Whole-body X-irradiation of imidazole or benzimidazole protected animals results in quantitative rapid changes in concentration of serum protein fractions, for about four days after which a slow but steady restoration begins. The concentration approaches the normal levels towards the 10. day after irradiation. Imidazole and benzimidazole were proved to be good radio-protectants against the effects of radiation on serum protein fractions. Benzimidazole seems to surpass imidazole. (authors) [French] L'action radioprotectrice de l'imidazole et du benzimidazole a ete mise en evidence dans des travaux anterieurs. Dans ce travail cette action est etudiee au niveau des proteines seriques de souris irradiees. Les resultats obtenus sont les suivants: pas de variation notable de la concentration des proteines totales quel que soit le traitement applique, mais variations importantes de chaque fraction proteinique. Apres injection intraperitoneale des radioprotecteurs on assiste a de brusques variations de la concentration des proteines du serum, variations qui s'estompent trois jours apres l'injection. L'irradiation in toto a 750 roentgens entraine aussi de profonds changements de concentration des proteines du serum que l'on observe du jour de l'irradiation

  9. Effects of chronic restraint stress on body weight, food intake, and hypothalamic gene expressions in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Joo Yeon; Lee, Dong Hoon; Kang, Sang Soo

    2013-12-01

    Stress affects body weight and food intake, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. We evaluated the changes in body weight and food intake of ICR male mice subjected to daily 2 hours restraint stress for 15 days. Hypothalamic gene expression profiling was analyzed by cDNA microarray. Daily body weight and food intake measurements revealed that both parameters decreased rapidly after initiating daily restraint stress. Body weights of stressed mice then remained significantly lower than the control body weights, even though food intake slowly recovered to 90% of the control intake at the end of the experiment. cDNA microarray analysis revealed that chronic restraint stress affects the expression of hypothalamic genes possibly related to body weight control. Since decreases of daily food intake and body weight were remarkable in days 1 to 4 of restraint, we examined the expression of food intake-related genes in the hypothalamus. During these periods, the expressions of ghrelin and pro-opiomelanocortin mRNA were significantly changed in mice undergoing restraint stress. Moreover, daily serum corticosterone levels gradually increased, while leptin levels significantly decreased. The present study demonstrates that restraint stress affects body weight and food intake by initially modifying canonical food intake-related genes and then later modifying other genes involved in energy metabolism. These genetic changes appear to be mediated, at least in part, by corticosterone.

  10. Changes of lymphocytes in spleen and liver by local irradiation to the maxilla in mice. Th1/Th2 balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamazawa, Ken; Satoh, Daigo; Yosue, Takashi

    2001-01-01

    This study was to examine changes in cell-mediated immunity by local irradiation, in particular focusing on the Th1/Th2 balance. We investigated influence due to local irradiation (10 Gy) of a portion of the maxilla in mice. The wet-weight of spleen, the percentage and the absolute numbers of the lymphocytes in spleen, wet-weight of the liver, the percentage of lymphocytes in liver were measured using a flow cytometer and values were compared with those obtained from non-irradiated animals. Furthermore, we analysed the percentage and absolute numbers of T helper 1 (Th1) cells, T cytotoxic 1 (Tc1) cells by the intracellular cytokine. The following results were obtained: Wet-weight of the spleen showed a significant decrease one and three days after irradiation. Wet-weight of the liver did not show any significant change after irradiation. In spleen, the percentage of Th1-like cells showed a significant increase one and three days after irradiation, and one of the Th2-like cells showed a significant decrease one day after irradiation. The ratio of the Th1-like cells to Th2-like cells showed an extreme increase one and three days after irradiation. The absolute numbers of the Th1-like cells and the Th2-like cells showed a significant decrease one and three days after irradiation. In liver, the percentage of the Th1-like cells showed a significant increase one and three days after irradiation, and the percentage of the Th2-like cells did not show any significant change after irradiation. The ratio of the Th1-like cells to Th2-like cells showed a significant increase one day after irradiation. In spleen, the percentage of the Th1 cells and Tc1 cells showed a significant increase one and three days after irradiation, but neither of the absolute numbers showed any significant change after irradiation. These results indicated that the characteristic changes of Th1/Th2 balance shifted to a Th1-dominant status by irradiation, and the ability from irradiation therapy to the

  11. Influence of radioprotectors on total body weight evolution and on oxygen consumption in lethal dose irradiated animals. (Preliminary study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatome, M.; Martine, G.; Bargy, E.; Andrieu, L.

    Comparison of total body weight evolution and oxygen consumption in lethal dose irradiated animals, protected by various well known radioprotective substances, isolated or in mixture, with evolution and consumption of non protected animals irradiated at the same dose and with these of check animals [fr

  12. Whole body UVA irradiation lowers systemic blood pressure by release of nitric oxide from intracutaneous photolabile nitric oxide derivates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opländer, C.; Volkmar, C.M.; Paunel-Görgülü, A.; van Faassen, E.E.H.; Heiss, C.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale: Human skin contains photolabile nitric oxide derivates like nitrite and S-nitroso thiols, which after UVA irradiation, decompose and lead to the formation of vasoactive NO. Objective: Here, we investigated whether whole body UVA irradiation influences the blood pressure of healthy

  13. TNF, IL-1 and IL-6 in circulating blood after total-body and localized irradiation in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveman, J.; Geerdink, A. G.; Rodermond, H. M.

    1998-01-01

    The levels of TNF, IL-1 and IL-6 in circulating blood of female WAG/Rij rats were assessed both after total-body irradiation (TBI) and localized irradiation of the right hind leg. The results show that enhanced levels of IL-1 in the circulation reflect a stress situation presumably resulting from

  14. Mice Lacking EGR1 Have Impaired Clock Gene (BMAL1) Oscillation, Locomotor Activity, and Body Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Casper Schwartz; Georg, Birgitte; Jørgensen, Henrik L; Hannibal, Jens; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Early growth response transcription factor 1 (EGR1) is expressed in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) after light stimulation. We used EGR1-deficient mice to address the role of EGR1 in the clock function and light-induced resetting of the clock. The diurnal rhythms of expression of the clock genes BMAL1 and PER1 in the SCN were evaluated by semi-quantitative in situ hybridization. We found no difference in the expression of PER1 mRNA between wildtype and EGR1-deficient mice; however, the daily rhythm of BMAL1 mRNA was completely abolished in the EGR1-deficient mice. In addition, we evaluated the circadian running wheel activity, telemetric locomotor activity, and core body temperature of the mice. Loss of EGR1 neither altered light-induced phase shifts at subjective night nor affected negative masking. Overall, circadian light entrainment was found in EGR1-deficient mice but they displayed a reduced locomotor activity and an altered temperature regulation compared to wild type mice. When placed in running wheels, a subpopulation of EGR1-deficient mice displayed a more disrupted activity rhythm with no measurable endogenous period length (tau). In conclusion, the present study provides the first evidence that the circadian clock in the SCN is disturbed in mice deficient of EGR1.

  15. Influence of whole-body γ-irradiation upon rat erythrocyte: lipid peroxidation and osmotic fragility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kergonou, J.F.; Thiriot, C.; Braquet, M.; Ducousso, R.; Rocquet, G.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of whole-body γ-irradiation of rats (8Gy) on erythrocyte enzymes and biochemical components involved in lipid peroxidation were studied. Decreased superoxide dismustase and glutathione reductase activities, and lowered concentrations of reduced glutathione, were found to be the main factors responsible for observed increase in lipid peroxidation in the erythrocytes of irradiated rats. This increased lipid peroxidation did not result in the greater tendency to hemolysis in hypotonic media; on the contrary, the mean osmotic fragility was decreased at days D + 1 and D + 3 after irradiation. The behavior of the erythrocyte polulations towards hemolysis in hypotonic media appeared to be most homogeneous at days D + 4 and D + 8 after irradiation, which correspond to maxima of malonic dialdehyde concentrations in erythrocytes. Such a synchrony of variations suggests that crosslinking of primary amino groups of proteins or phospholipids by malonic dialdehyde might produce a rigidification in erythrocyte membranes, possibly leading to a more homogeneous behavior of the erythrocyte populations towards hemolysis in hypotonic media

  16. Ciliary body and choroidal melanomas treated by proton beam irradiation. Histopathologic study of eyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seddon, J.M.; Gragoudas, E.S.; Albert, D.M.

    1983-01-01

    Proton beam irradiation resulted in clinical and/or histopathological regression of large ciliary body and choroidal melanomas in three eyes. Enucleations were performed 6 1/2 weeks, five months, and 11 months after irradiation for angle-closure glaucoma from total retinal detachment, increase in retinal detachment, and neovascular glaucoma, respectively. A direct relationship was found between the length of the interval from irradiation to enucleation and the degree of histologic changes. Vascular changes in the tumors included endothelial cell swelling and decreased lumen size, basement membrane thickening, collapse of sinusoidal vessels, and thrombosis of vessels. Although apparently unaltered tumor cells remained, degenerative changes occurred in some melanoma cells, including lipid vacuoles in cytoplasm, pyknotic nuclei, and balloon cell formation. Patchy areas of necrosis and proteinaceous exudate were present. Pigment-laden macrophages were found near tumor vessels and all had a substantial chronic inflammatory infiltrate. The effect of proton beam irradiation on tumor vessels probably plays an important role in uveal melanoma regression

  17. Ciliary body and choroidal melanomas treated by proton beam irradiation. Histopathologic study of eyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seddon, J.M.; Gragoudas, E.S.; Albert, D.M.

    1983-09-01

    Proton beam irradiation resulted in clinical and/or histopathological regression of large ciliary body and choroidal melanomas in three eyes. Enucleations were performed 6 1/2 weeks, five months, and 11 months after irradiation for angle-closure glaucoma from total retinal detachment, increase in retinal detachment, and neovascular glaucoma, respectively. A direct relationship was found between the length of the interval from irradiation to enucleation and the degree of histologic changes. Vascular changes in the tumors included endothelial cell swelling and decreased lumen size, basement membrane thickening, collapse of sinusoidal vessels, and thrombosis of vessels. Although apparently unaltered tumor cells remained, degenerative changes occurred in some melanoma cells, including lipid vacuoles in cytoplasm, pyknotic nuclei, and balloon cell formation. Patchy areas of necrosis and proteinaceous exudate were present. Pigment-laden macrophages were found near tumor vessels and all had a substantial chronic inflammatory infiltrate. The effect of proton beam irradiation on tumor vessels probably plays an important role in uveal melanoma regression.

  18. Optimized total body irradiation for induction of renal allograft tolerance through mixed chimerism in cynomolgus monkeys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimikawa, Masaaki; Kawai, Tatsuo; Ota, Kazuo [Tokyo Women`s Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1996-12-01

    We previously demonstrated that a nonmyeloablative preparative regimen can induce mixed chimerism and renal allograft tolerance between MHC-disparate non-human primates. The basic regimen includes anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG), total body irradiation (TBI, 300 cGy), thymic irradiation (TI, 700 cGy), splenectomy, donor bone marrow (DBM) infusion, and posttransplant cyclosporine therapy (CYA, discontinued after 4 weeks). To evaluate the importance and to minimize the toxicity of irradiation, kidney allografts were transplanted with various manipulations of the irradiation protocol. Monkeys treated with the basic protocol without TBI and TI did not develop chimerism or long-term allograft survival. In monkeys treated with the full protocol, all six monkeys treated with two fractionated dose of 150 cGy developed chimerism and five monkeys appeared tolerant. In contrast, only two of the four monkeys treated with fractionated doses of 125 cGy developed chimerism and only one monkey survived long term. The degree of lymphocyte depletion in all recipients was proportional to the TBI dose. The fractionated TBI regimen of 150 cGy appears to be the most consistently effective regimen for establishing donor bone marrow cell engraftment and allograft tolerance. (author)

  19. Clinical analysis of hematopoiesis reconstruction after total body irradiation in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Tong; Gao Hong; Sun Baojing; Chen Li

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the clinical outcome of total body irradiation in hematopoiesis reconstruction after autologous and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Methods: 35 patients received autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (ASCT group) and 35 patients received allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (Allo-HSCT group) were enrolled in this study. And their hematopoiesis reconstruction were observed and analyzed. Results: The recovery time of ANC were 14 and 16 d, respectively, and the recovery time of PLT were 23 and 27 d, respectively, the difference were not significant (P>0.05) in ASCT group and Allo-HSCT group. But for both group, hematopoiesis reconstruction were faster in peripheral blood stem cell transplant than those in bone marrow transplant (P<0.05). The recovery time of PLT with the patients of total body irradiation dose ≥ 10 Gy were longer than those of < 10 Gy. Conclusions: At the same doses, the clinical outcome of hematopoiesis reconstruction of ASCT is similar to that of Allo-HSCT. But the recovery time in peripheral blood stem cell transplantation is faster than that in bone marrow transplant. The recovery time of PLT has relation with the irradiation dose. (authors)

  20. The Rubber Tail Illusion as Evidence of Body Ownership in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Makoto; Takano, Kouji; Ora, Hiroki; Ide, Masakazu; Kansaku, Kenji

    2016-10-26

    The ownership of one's body parts represents a fundamental aspect of self-consciousness. Accumulating empirical evidence supports the existence of this concept in humans and nonhuman primates, but it is unclear whether nonprimate mammals experience similar feelings. Therefore, the present study used rubber tails to investigate body ownership in rodents. When the real tails and rubber tails were synchronously stroked, the mice responded as if their own tails were touched when the rubber tails were grasped. In contrast, when the stimuli were delivered asynchronously, there was a significantly lower mean response rate when the rubber tail was grasped. These findings suggest that mice may experience body ownership of their tails, suggestive of the rubber hand illusion in humans. To explore the manner in which the ownership of body parts is experienced, this study specifically used the rubber hand illusion (RHI), in which self-consciousness can be extended out of one's own body. Accumulating empirical evidence supports the existence of this concept in humans and nonhuman primates, but it remains unclear whether nonprimate mammals experience similar feelings. This study demonstrated for the first time that mice may experience body ownership of their tails, which is suggestive of the RHI in humans and provides evidence that may highlight how humans experience the ownership of body parts. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/3611133-05$15.00/0.

  1. Acute tolerance of hyperfractionated accelerated total body irradiation; Akuttoleranz bei der hyperfraktionierten akzelerierten Ganzkoerperbestrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latz, D. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg (Germany). Abt. Klinische Radiologie; Schraube, P. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg (Germany). Abt. Klinische Radiologie; Wannenmacher, M. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg (Germany). Abt. Klinische Radiologie

    1996-12-01

    Background: Acute side effects of total body irradiation lead to intense molestations of the patients. Therefore, it is desirable to take measures to reduce these side effects. In a retrospective study the frequency on acute side effects of a hyperfractionated accelerated total body irradiation was assessed and compared to frequencies of other exposure schedules published in the literature. Additionally the influence of ondansetron on the frequency of nausea and vormiting was investigated. Patients and Method: From 1989 to 1992, 76 patients (47 male, 29 female; median age 38 years) underwent total body irradiation before autologeous bone marrow transplantation. They received 3 daily doses of 1.20 Gy each every 4 h on 4 successive days to a total dose of 14,40 Gy. Thirty-nine patients received 3x8 mg (daily, intravenous or per os) ondansetron during the whole course of irradiation. Results: The most relevant side effects were nausea and vomiting. Patients, who did not receive ondansetron (n=37) showed a nausea and emesis rate of 73%. With ondansetron (n=39) nausea and emesis were reduced to 38%. Also the grade of severity of these side effects was reduced. Conclusions: Ondansetron proved to be an effective medicament for relieving nausea and vormiting during total body irradiation. The results obtained are in concordance with those published in the literature. (orig.) [Deutsch] Hintergrund: Die Akutnebenwirkungen der Ganzkoerperbestrahlung fuehren zu starken Belastungen der Patienten. Massnahmen zur Reduktion dieser Nebenwirkungen sind daher notwendig. In einer retrospektiven Analyse wurde die Haeufigkeit von Akutnebenwirkungen bei einer hyperfraktionierten akzelerierten Granzkoerperbestrahlung untersucht und mit den Auftretenshaeufigkeiten anderer in der Literatur aufgefuehrter Fraktionierungsschemata verglichen. Zusaetzlich wurde der Einfluss des Serotoninantagonisten Ondansetron auf die Haeufigkeit von Uebelkeit und Erbrechen untersucht. Patienten und Methode

  2. Effect of antimicrobial therapy on the gastrointestinal bacterial flora, infection and mortality in mice exposed to different doses of irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brook, I.; Ledney, G.D.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of antimicrobial therapy on gut flora, sepsis, and mortality was investigated in C 3 H/HeN female mice irradiated with 7.0, 8.0 or 8.5 Gy or 60 Co. The antimicrobial agents tested were metronidazole, penicillin, imipenem, gentamicin and ofloxacin. In control mice, the greatest reduction of lactose fermenting organisms (1.7-2.8 logs) occurred on day 8 after irradiation and were related directly to radiation doses. After day 8 lactose fermenting organism levels increased and the increases were associated with mortality due to Enterobacteriaceae sepsis. Irradiation reduced the populations of strict anaerobic bacteria in control mice by 2-8 logs, and these remained at low levels. Treatment with either metronidazole or penicillin resulted in greater reductions of strict anaerobic bacteria than occurred in the controls and induced earlier and greater increases in lactose fermenting organisms and associated mortality. Therapies with either gentamicin or ofloxacin resulted in lesser reductions of strict anaerobic bacteria (1.1-2.2 logs) than occurred in controls, and caused greater decreases in lactose fermenting organisms and mortality. The changes in the bacterial flora and mortality following imipenem treatment were similar to controls. These data demonstrate that in animals exposed to irradiation, antimicrobial agents effective against strict anaerobic bacteria can be deleterious, but antimicrobial agents effective against lactose fermenting organsims may be beneficial. (Author)

  3. Inhibitory effects of prior low-dose X-ray irradiation on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatopathy in acatalasemic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaoka, Kiyonori; Kataoka, Takahiro; Taguchi, Takehito; Wang, Da-Hong; Mori, Shuji; Hanamoto, Katsumi; Kira, Shohei; Nomura, Takaharu

    2004-01-01

    The catalase activities in blood and organs of the acatalasemic (C3H/AnLCs b Cs b ) mouse of C3H strain are lower than those of the normal (C3H/AnLCs a Cs a ) mouse. We examined the effects of prior low-dose (0.5 Gy) X-ray irradiation, which reduced the oxidative damage under carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatopathy in the acatalasemic or normal mice. The acatalasemic mice showed a significantly lower catalase activity and a significantly higher glutathione peroxidase activity compared with those in the normal mice. Moreover, low-dose irradiation increased the catalase activity in the acatalasemic mouse liver to a level similar to that of the normal mouse liver. Pathological examinations and analyses of blood glutamic oxaloacetic and glutamic pyruvic transaminase activity and lipid peroxide levels showed that carbon tetrachloride induced hepatopathy was inhibited by low-dose irradiation. These findings may indicate that the free radical reaction induced by the lack of catalase and the administration of carbon tetrachloride is more properly neutralized by high glutathione peroxidase activity and low-dose irradiation in the acatalasemic mouse liver. (author)

  4. Toxoplasma gondii vs ionizing radiation: intestinal immunity induced in C57bl/6j mice by irradiated tachyzoites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galisteo Junior, Andres Jimenez.

    2004-01-01

    We study the oral route for the development of a vaccine for toxoplasmosis, using parasites irradiated with 60 Cobalt, as an alternative for vaccine development to this worldwide parasitic infection. We evaluated the development of immunity at serum or mucosal levels, and their efficiency in protect the mice against challenge with oral cysts of the Me-49 strain. C57Bl/6j isogenic mice were immunized by oral route with 107 255 Gy irradiated tachyzoites from RH strain, at several protocols using milk as anti-peptic adjuvant and alum hydroxide as antacid. The preparations of irradiated tachyzoites induced production of serum IgG and IgA in immunized mice, as determined by ELISA, with IgG2a as the dominant subclass, similar to chronic infection. Their use with adjuvant allowed the excretion of significant amounts of IgA in stools also IgG, despite a lesser extent. There are suggestion of tolerance induction at mucosal level, with lower antigen induced proliferation and lower in vitro antibody production by spleen and gut lymphocytes, with the latter doses, specially when milk was used as adjuvant. All oral preparations induced some quantitative protection against challenge, which was similar to the parenteral route only isolated alum hydroxide was used as adjuvant. All these data support the possibility of the development of an oral vaccine against toxoplasmosis, using irradiated tachyzoites, which would be possible tool in near future for use in field baits, for immunizing either domestic or wild felines. (author)

  5. Influence of vaccination with Bordetella pertussis cells on haemopoiesis in sublethally irradiated mice and their radiation lethality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiek, S.; Bitny-Szlachto, S.

    1978-01-01

    Post-irradiation lethality of CFW