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Sample records for body irradiated baboons

  1. Revisiting Biomarkers of Total-Body and Partial-Body Exposure in a Baboon Model of Irradiation.

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    Marco Valente

    Full Text Available In case of a mass casualty radiation event, there is a need to distinguish total-body irradiation (TBI and partial-body irradiation (PBI to concentrate overwhelmed medical resources to the individuals that would develop an acute radiation syndrome (ARS and need hematologic support (i.e., mostly TBI victims. To improve the identification and medical care of TBI versus PBI individuals, reliable biomarkers of exposure could be very useful. To investigate this issue, pairs of baboons (n = 18 were exposed to different situations of TBI and PBI corresponding to an equivalent of either 5 Gy 60Co gamma irradiation (5 Gy TBI; 7.5 Gy left hemibody/2.5 right hemibody TBI; 5.55 Gy 90% PBI; 6.25 Gy 80% PBI; 10 Gy 50% PBI, 15 Gy 30% PBI or 2.5 Gy (2.5 Gy TBI; 5 Gy 50% PBI. More than fifty parameters were evaluated before and after irradiation at several time points up to 200 days. A partial least square discriminant analysis showed a good distinction of TBI from PBI situations that were equivalent to 5 Gy. Furthermore, all the animals were pooled in two groups, TBI (n = 6 and PBI (n = 12, for comparison using a logistic regression and a non parametric statistical test. Nine plasmatic biochemical markers and most of hematological parameters turned out to discriminate between TBI and PBI animals during the prodromal phase and the manifest illness phase. The most significant biomarkers were aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, lactico dehydrogenase, urea, Flt3-ligand, iron, C-reactive protein, absolute neutrophil count and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio for the early period, and Flt3-ligand, iron, platelet count, hemoglobin, monocyte count, absolute neutrophil count and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio for the ARS phase. These results suggest that heterogeneity could be distinguished within a range of 2.5 to 5 Gy TBI.

  2. The recovery of bone marrow derived GM-CFU in baboons unilaterally exposed to a total body LD50/30d mixed neutron-gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herodin, F.; Orfeuvre, H.; Janodet, D.; Mestries, J.C.; Fatome, M.

    1990-01-01

    The unilateral exposure of baboons to a total body LD 50/30d mixed neutron/gamma irradiation was characterized to be non uniform in dose distribution. The pattern of recovery of granulocyte-macrophage progenitors in bone marrow samples collected from entrance and exit sides respectively is consistent with this observed heterogeneity [fr

  3. Whole body and tissue cholesterol turnover in the baboon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dell, R.B.; Mott, G.E.; Jackson, E.M.; Ramakrishnan, R.; Carey, K.D.; McGill, H.C. Jr.; Goodman, D.S.

    1985-01-01

    Cholesterol turnover was studied in four baboons by injecting [ 14 C]cholesterol 186 days and [ 3 H]cholesterol 4 days before necropsy, and fitting a two- or three-pool model to the resulting specific activity-time data. At necropsy, cholesterol mass and specific activity were determined for the total body and for many tissues. The principal aim of this study was to estimate the extent of cholesterol synthesis in the side pools of the model, by computing the amount of side pool synthesis needed to equal the measured total body cholesterol. Central pool synthesis varied from 61 to 89% of the total cholesterol production rate. Moreover, the finding that the measured total body cholesterol fell within the range obtained from the kinetic analysis by using reasonable assumptions, provides evidence for the physiological validity of the model. A second aim of this study was to explore cholesterol turnover in various tissues. A pool model predicts that rapidly turning over tissues will have higher specific activities at early times and lower specific activities at later times after injection of tracer relative to slowly turning over tissues, except where significant synthesis occurs. Results in all four baboons were similar. Turnover rates for the different tissues loosely fell into three groups which were turning over at fast, intermediate, and slow rates. Finally, the magnitude of variation of cholesterol specific activity was moderate for several distributed tissues (fat, muscle, arteries, and the alimentary tract), but was small for liver. Cholesterol turnover in serial biopsies of skin, muscle, and fat could, however, be fitted with a single pool to estimate tissue turnover rates

  4. Schistosoma mansoni: parasitology and immunology of baboons vaccinated with irradiated cryopreserved schistosomula

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    Damian, R.T.; Powell, M.R.; Roberts, M.L. (Georgia Univ., Athens (USA). Dept. of Zoology); Clark, J.D. (Georgia Univ., Athens (USA). Lab. Animal Medicine); Stirewalt, M.A.; Lewis, F.A. (Biomedical Research Inst., Rockville, MD (USA))

    1985-06-01

    Young baboons (Papio cynocephalus) were vaccinated with ..gamma..-irradiated (500 Gy) cryopreserved Puerto Rican strain schistosomula of S. mansoni. Protection against heterologous, normal Kenyan Strain S. mansoni challenge infection was erratic and partial; and two putative correlates of immunity, reduced worm fecundity and change in worm location (anterior shift) were not observed. However, immunization of baboons with this vaccine resulted in a stimulated immune system. Both cellular and humoral anamnesis were demonstrable in vaccinated-challenged baboons. Schistosome infection-associated IgM hypergammaglobulinemia was also greatly reduced in vaccinated-challenged baboons. However IgG antibodies to adult, egg, and cercarial antigens were increased after challenge infection in preimmunized baboons. Vaccination appears to have resulted in a redirection of the immune system into anti-parasite channels, but this more specific immune response was insufficient to confer good protection against challenge infection in this experiment. The dampening effect of the vaccine on the hypergammaglobulinemia of schistosomiasis is another candidate for a possible ''anti-pathogenesis'' effect of irradiated schistosome larval vaccines.

  5. Schistosoma mansoni: parasitology and immunology of baboons vaccinated with irradiated cryopreserved schistosomula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damian, R.T.; Powell, M.R.; Roberts, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    Young baboons (Papio cynocephalus) were vaccinated with γ-irradiated (500 Gy) cryopreserved Puerto Rican strain schistosomula of S. mansoni. Protection against heterologous, normal Kenyan Strain S. mansoni challenge infection was erratic and partial; and two putative correlates of immunity, reduced worm fecundity and change in worm location (anterior shift) were not observed. However, immunization of baboons with this vaccine resulted in a stimulated immune system. Both cellular and humoral anamnesis were demonstrable in vaccinated-challenged baboons. Schistosome infection-associated IgM hypergammaglobulinemia was also greatly reduced in vaccinated-challenged baboons. However IgG antibodies to adult, egg, and cercarial antigens were increased after challenge infection in preimmunized baboons. Vaccination appears to have resulted in a redirection of the immune system into anti-parasite channels, but this more specific immune response was insufficient to confer good protection against challenge infection in this experiment. The dampening effect of the vaccine on the hypergammaglobulinemia of schistosomiasis is another candidate for a possible ''anti-pathogenesis'' effect of irradiated schistosome larval vaccines. (author)

  6. Half body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartelink, H.; Battermann, J.; Hart, G.

    1980-01-01

    Twenty-one patients with complaints of severe pain from disseminated breast cancer were treated with half body irradiation with a single dose of 600 to 800 rad. All of them had a relief of pain for periods ranging from 14 to 280 days, with a median duration of 101 days. The objective effects of a single radiation dose was studied in 15 patients with lung metastases. The growth delay observed in these patients was of the same order as the period of pain relief observed in breast cancer patients after half body irradiation. In general a longer lasting palliation was obtained in patients with slowly growing tumors

  7. Whole body [{sup 11}C]-dihydrotetrabenazine imaging of baboons: biodistribution and human radiation dosimetry estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murthy, Rajan [Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Department of Psychiatry, New York, NY (United States); New York State Psychiatric Institute, Department of Neuroscience, Division of Brain Imaging, New York, NY (United States); Harris, Paul; Leibel, Rudolph [Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Department of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Simpson, Norman; Parsey, Ramin [Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Department of Psychiatry, New York, NY (United States); Van Heertum, Ronald [Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); New York State Psychiatric Institute, Department of Neuroscience, Division of Brain Imaging, New York, NY (United States); Mann, J.J. [Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Department of Psychiatry, New York, NY (United States); Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); New York State Psychiatric Institute, Department of Neuroscience, Division of Brain Imaging, New York, NY (United States)

    2008-04-15

    Vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 abundance quantified using the radiotracer [{sup 11}C]-dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ) has been used to study diagnosis and pathogenesis of dementia and psychiatric disorders in humans. In addition, it may be a surrogate marker for insulin-producing pancreatic beta cell mass, useful for longitudinal measurements using positron emission tomography to track progression of autoimmune diabetes. To support the feasibility of long-term repeated administrations, we estimate the biodistribution and dosimetry of [{sup 11}C]-DTBZ in humans. Five baboon studies were acquired using a Siemens ECAT camera. After transmission scanning, 165-210 MBq of [{sup 11}C]-DTBZ were injected, and dynamic whole body emission scans were conducted. Time-activity data were used to obtain residence times and estimate absorbed radiation dose according to the MIRD model. Most of the injected tracer localized to the liver and the lungs, followed by the intestines, brain, and kidneys. The highest estimated absorbed radiation dose was in the stomach wall. The largest radiation dose from [{sup 11}C]-DTBZ is to the stomach wall. This dose estimate, as well as the radiation dose to other radiosensitive organs, must be considered in evaluating the risks of multiple administrations. (orig.)

  8. Total body irradiation: current indications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, P.; Danhier, S.; Dubray, B.; Cosset, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The choice of dose and fractionation for total body irradiation is made difficult by the large number of considerations to be taken into account. The outcome of bone marrow transplantation after total body irradiation can be understood in terms of tumor cell killing, engraftment, and normal tissue damage, each of these endpoints being influenced by irradiation-, disease-, transplant-, and patient- related factors. Interpretation of clinical data is further hampered by the overwhelming influence of logistic constraints, the small numbers of randomized studies, and the concomitant variations in total dose and fraction size or dose rate. So far, three cautious conclusions can be drawn in order to tentatively adapt the total body irradiation schedule to clinically-relevant situations. Firstly, the organs at risk for normal tissue damage (lung, liver, lens, kidney) are protected by delivering small doses per fraction at low dose rate. This suggests that, when toxicity is at stake (e.g. in children), fractionated irradiation should be preferred, provided that inter-fraction intervals are long enough. Secondly, fractionated irradiation should be avoided in case of T-cell depleted transplant, given the high risk of graft rejection in this setting. An alternative would be to increase total (or fractional) dose of fractionated total body irradiation, but this approach is likely to induce more normal tissue toxicity. Thirdly, clinical data have shown higher relapse rates in chronic myeloid leukemia after fractionated or low dose rate total body irradiation, suggesting that fractionated irradiation should not be recommended, unless total (or fractional) dose is increased. Total body irradiation-containing regimens, primarily cyclophosphamide / total body irradiation, are either equivalent to or better than the chemotherapy-only regimens, primarily busulfan / cyclophosphamide. Busulfan / cyclophosphamide certainly represents a reasonable alternative, especially in patients who

  9. Investigation of the retention and distribution of americium-241 in the baboon and the enhanced removal of americium-241 from the body by diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilmette, R.A.; Cohen, N.; Wrenn, M.E.

    1975-01-01

    Experiments were performed to study the metabolism and distribution of intravenously administered 241 Am in the adult and juvenile baboon; in addition, decorporation therapy using Na 3 -CaDTPA was performed on selected baboons to assess the efficacy of this drug in removing systemic burdens of 241 Am from this primate species. Determination of the kinetics of 241 Am was accomplished principally by in vivo methodologies and by radiochemical analysis of 241 Am activity of biological material. The use of Na 3 -CaDTPA as a therapeutic agent for the removal of 241 Am from the body proved to be an effective form of treatment in the case of early administration. (U.S.)

  10. Total body irradiation: what schedule(s)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosset, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    In this article, the author explains why a whole-body irradiation is still an essential step before a bone marrow graft. He presents irradiation protocols for acute myeloid leukemia and chronic myeloid leukemia. 14 refs

  11. Effect of body mass distribution on the ontogeny of positional behaviors in non-human primates: Longitudinal follow-up of infant captive olive baboons (Papio anubis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druelle, François; Aerts, Peter; Berillon, Gilles

    2016-11-01

    The diversity of primates' positional capabilities is unique among mammals. Indeed, they exhibit a daily repertoire composed of various locomotor and postural modes that may be linked to their particular morphological pattern. Because ontogeny undergoes parallel behavioral and morphological modifications, it may be useful to investigate the biomechanical consequences of the changing body shape. We, therefore, collected accurate quantitative and longitudinal data on positional behaviors, body mass distribution patterns, activities, and environment on a sample of six infant olive baboons, Papio anubis. These baboons are kept at the Primatology Station of the CNRS, France, where they live within the same social group. Individual behaviors were quantified using the focal sampling method. The body mass distribution was estimated according to a geometric model based on direct external measurements. Multivariate analysis enabled us to analyze the interactions between the data. Our results show that body mass distribution changes together with the ontogenetic changes in positional behaviors. At an early age, individuals have distally heavy segment masses in the limbs and an important fraction of the behavioral repertoire involves efficient grasping abilities. At the end of infancy, the same individuals have relatively more mass in proximal segments of the limbs and the proportion of quadrupedal walking is significantly higher while other climbing and suspensory behaviors decreased substantially. The present study experimentally confirms the association between body mass distribution and the positional repertoire of primates. These relationships, when interpreted in the context of basic biomechanical concepts, may improve our understanding of primate locomotion. We discuss further the implications of these functional relationships when modeling the evolutionary pathway of primates. Am. J. Primatol. 78:1201-1221, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley

  12. Whole-body irradiation technique: physical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venencia, D.; Bustos, S.; Zunino, S.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this work has been to implement a Total body irradiation technique that fulfill the following conditions: simplicity, repeatability, fast and comfortable positioning for the patient, homogeneity of the dose between 10-15 %, short times of treatments and In vivo dosimetric verifications. (Author)

  13. Trichobezoars in baboons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejido, Diana C.P.; Dick, Edward J.; Williams, Priscilla C.; Sharp, R. Mark; Andrade, Marcia C.R.; DiCarlo, C.D.; Hubbard, Gene B.

    2009-01-01

    Background There is little information available concerning trichobezoars in the nonhuman primate literature. Methods We evaluated 118 cases of trichobezoar in baboons over a 29 year period at the Southwest National Primate Research Center. Results The anatomic locations affected in decreasing order were the stomach, small intestine, cecum, esophagus, and colon. The most common clinical history was weight loss. The most frequent associated pathology included gastrointestinal inflammation and ulceration, emaciation, peritonitis, intussusception, pneumonia, and aspiration. Trichobezoars were the cause of death in 9 baboons and the reason for euthanasia in 12. Females were 2.14 times more likely than males to be affected. The greater the percentage of group housing time, the more likely the baboon was to develop trichobezoars. Conclusions The baboon may present a useful model to evaluate the etiology, genetic predisposition, physiopathology, neurobiology, and treatment response of trichobezoars. PMID:19457157

  14. Effects of ferumoxytol on quantitative PET measurements in simultaneous PET/MR whole-body imaging: a pilot study in a baboon model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borra, Ronald Jh; Cho, Hoon-Sung; Bowen, Spencer L; Attenberger, Ulrike; Arabasz, Grae; Catana, Ciprian; Josephson, Lee; Rosen, Bruce R; Guimaraes, Alexander R; Hooker, Jacob M

    2015-12-01

    Simultaneous PET/MR imaging depends on MR-derived attenuation maps (mu-maps) for accurate attenuation correction of PET data. Currently, these maps are derived from gradient-echo-based MR sequences, which are sensitive to susceptibility changes. Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles have been used in the measurement of blood volume, tumor microvasculature, tumor-associated macrophages, and characterizing lymph nodes. Our aim in this study was to assess whether the susceptibility effects associated with iron oxide nanoparticles can potentially affect measured (18)F-FDG PET standardized uptake values (SUV) through effects on MR-derived attenuation maps. The study protocol was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Using a Siemens Biograph mMR PET/MR scanner, we evaluated the effects of increasing concentrations of ferumoxytol and ferumoxytol aggregates on MR-derived mu-maps using an agarose phantom. In addition, we performed a baboon experiment evaluating the effects of a single i.v. ferumoxytol dose (10 mg/kg) on the liver, spleen, and pancreas (18)F-FDG SUV at baseline (ferumoxytol-naïve), within the first hour and at 1, 3, 5, and 11 weeks. Phantom experiments showed mu-map artifacts starting at ferumoxytol aggregate concentrations of 10 to 20 mg/kg. The in vivo baboon data demonstrated a 53% decrease of observed (18)F-FDG SUV compared to baseline within the first hour in the liver, persisting at least 11 weeks. A single ferumoxytol dose can affect measured SUV for at least 3 months, which should be taken into account when administrating ferumoxytol in patients needing sequential PET/MR scans. Advances in knowledge 1. Ferumoxytol aggregates, but not ferumoxytol alone, produce significant artifacts in MR-derived attenuation correction maps at approximate clinical dose levels of 10 mg/kg. 2. When performing simultaneous whole-body (18)F-FDG PET/MR, a single dose of ferumoxytol can result in observed SUV decreases up to 53%, depending on the

  15. Myelopoiesis in whole-body-irradiated beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, A.F.G.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of dose-rate (DR) (either 5.2 or 52 cGy/min.) on the regeneration of bone marrow (BM) myelopoietic progenitor cells was studied in beagles after exposure to whole-body-irradiation (235, 375 and 1500 cGy + autologous BM-transplantation). Myelopoietic progenitor cells were assayed as colony-forming units in agar cultures (GM-CFU), in correlation with the colony-stimulation activity (CSA) in serum. At 235 cGy, the influence of DR on the recovery of GM-CFU was insignificant. However, at 375 cGy, the recovery was critically dependent on the DR. Depletion of GM-CFU numbers elevated CSA levels above pre-irradiation values. The DR determines the regenerative ability when the dose itself is critical to survival of the least number of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) necessary for restitution. (author)

  16. The baboon syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Hjorth, N; Menné, T

    1984-01-01

    The catchword "baboon syndrome" is used to denote a characteristic distribution pattern of systemic allergic contact dermatitis. Diffuse erythema of the buttocks, upper inner surface of the thighs, and axillae are characteristic features. We describe 3 cases provoked by ampicillin, nickel...

  17. Total body irradiation in chronic myeloid leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advani, S.H.; Dinshaw, K.A.; Nair, C.N.; Ramakrishnan, G.

    1983-01-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI), given as 10 rad daily for five days a week for a total dose of 150 rad has been used in an attempt to control the chronic phase of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Thirteen patients with CML received fractionated TBI leading to rapid and good control of WBC count without any adverse reaction. The chronic phase of CML could also be controlled with TBI, even in three patients who were resistant to busulfan. Following TBI, WBC count remained under control for a period of 32 weeks as compared to 40 weeks following vusulfan alone. Repeat TBI was also well tolerated with good response. It appears that TBI is an effective and safe therapy for controlling the chronic phase of CML

  18. Tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) in a pregnant baboon (Papio cynocephalus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, M; Hubbard, G B; Schlabritz-Loutsevitch, N

    2007-04-01

    Old World monkeys are considered more susceptible to tuberculosis (TB) than New World monkeys. Several cases of TB in baboons are described in the literature. The data regarding baboon reaction to the tuberculin skin test (TST) are controversial. Some authors described anergy in this species, while the others documented a positive reaction. An 8-year-old clinically healthy pregnant female baboon (Papio cynocephalus anubis) developed positive TST after 3 years of negative tests in captivity while not pregnant. Thoracic radiographs demonstrated three nodular densities in the lung. Histological examination of tracheobronchial lymph nodes revealed multiple coalescing pyogranulomas filled with caseonecrotic debris and mineralized foci with numerous large foreign body-type and Langhans-type multinucleated giant cells. The bacterial culture contained a slow growing Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. We describe, to the best of our knowledge, the first case of a positive TST in a wild caught, pregnant baboon with latent infection after 3 years in captivity.

  19. Natural β-carotene and whole body irradiation in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Amotz, A.; Rachmilevich, B.; Greenberg, S.; Sela, M.; Weshler, Z.

    1996-01-01

    β-Carotene and other carotenoids are reported to be potent free radical quenchers, singlet oxygen scavengers, and lipid antioxidants. Whole-body irradiation is known to cause an immunosuppression effect in mammals through the possible initiation and production of reactive oxygen species. We decided to test the possible antioxidative effect against whole-body irradiation of a natural β-carotene, composed of equal amounts of the all-trans and 9-cis isomers, obtained from the unicellular alga Dunaliella bardawil. Rats were fed on ground commercial food enriched with natural β-carotene (50 mg/kg diet). On completion of 1 week with β-carotene, the rats were exposed to a single dose of 4 Gy whole-body irradiation, after which their livers and blood were removed for β-carotene and retinol analysis in comparison with control livers of animals irradiated or not, or supplemented with β-carotene after irradiation. A normal increase in body weight with no ill effects was noted in the groups of rats whose diet was supplemented by β-carotene before and after irradiation, compared with the reduction in the specific growth rate in the group of rats irradiated without β-carotene. Liver β-carotene and retinol decreased significantly after irradiation compared with the rats which were not irradiated. This decrease was not shown in rats fed β-carotene prior to irradiation, and the effect of irradiation was partially cured by supplementation with β-carotene after irradiation. High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the irradiated animals showed a selective decline in 9-cis β-carotene and in retinol over all-trans β-carotene and retinyl esters. These results suggest that 9-cis β-carotene and retinol protect in vivo against the cellular damage by free radicals induced after whole-body irradiation. (orig.). With 1 fig., 2 tabs

  20. Validating Baboon Ex Vivo and In Vivo Radiation-Related Gene Expression with Corresponding Human Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Port, M; Majewski, M; Herodin, F; Valente, M; Drouet, M; Forcheron, F; Tichy, A; Sirak, I; Zavrelova, A; Malkova, A; Becker, B V; Veit, D A; Waldeck, S; Badie, C; O'Brien, G; Christiansen, H; Wichmann, J; Eder, M; Beutel, G; Vachelova, J; Doucha-Senf, S; Abend, M

    2018-01-26

    The research for high-throughput diagnostic tests for victims of radio/nuclear incidents remains ongoing. In this context, we have previously identified candidate genes that predict risk of late-occurring hematologic acute radiation syndrome (HARS) in a baboon model. The goal of the current study was to validate these genes after radiation exposure in humans. We also examined ex vivo relative to in vivo measurements in both species and describe dose-response relationships. Eighteen baboons were irradiated in vivo to simulate different patterns of partial- or total-body irradiation (TBI), corresponding to an equivalent dose of 2.5 or 5 Sv. Human in vivo blood samples were obtained from patients exposed to different dose ranges: diagnostic computerized tomography (CT; 0.004-0.018 Sv); radiotherapy for prostate cancer (0.25-0.3 Sv); and TBI of leukemia patients (2 × 1.5 or 2 × 2 Sv, five patients each). Peripheral whole blood of another five baboons and human samples from five healthy donors were cultivated ex vivo and irradiated with 0-4 Sv. RNA was isolated pairwise before and 24 h after irradiation and converted into cDNA. Gene expression of six promising candidate genes found previously by us in a baboon model ( WNT3, POU2AF1, CCR7, ARG2, CD177, WLS), as well as three genes commonly used in ex vivo whole blood experiments ( FDXR, PCNA, DDB2) was measured using qRT-PCR. We confirmed the six baboon candidate genes in leukemia patients. However, expression for the candidate gene FDXR showed an inverse relationship, as it was downregulated in baboons and upregulated in human samples. Comparisons among the in vivo and ex vivo experiments revealed the same pattern in both species and indicated peripheral blood cells to represent the radiation-responsive targets causing WNT3 and POU2AF1 gene expression changes. CCR7, ARG2, CD177 and WLS appeared to be altered due to radiation-responsive targets other than the whole blood cells. Linear dose-response relationships of

  1. Total body irradiation: technical and clinical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkacemi, Y.; Touboul, E.; Rio, B.

    1999-01-01

    Total-body irradiation (TBI) has an established role in many preparative regimens used before marrow transplantation (BMT) in the treatment of hematological malignancies in children and adults. Better choice in TBI techniques and dosimetry have permitted better homogeneity of dose, and therefore a significant sparing of critical tissues. Advances in treatments over the past 20 years have greatly improved survival; therefore, the evaluation of early and late complications with a sufficient follow-up, according to different conditioning regimens is important. In this article, we review and compare different TBI techniques and dosimetry, and their influence on the distribution and homogeneity of dose, and the possible relationship to the risk of complications. We also describe the acute and late effects of TBI in children and adults appearing in the first month post-BMT as veno-occlusive disease, interstitial pneumonitis, or after 3 months, i.e., endocrinal late effects and growth in children, cataracts, neurological and bone or other complications, secondary tumors and alteration in the quality of life. The responsibility of TBI in the increased rate of certain complications is difficult to assess from chemotherapy or allograft side effects (chronic graft vs. host disease) or from other associated medical treatments, such as long term steroid therapy. (authors)

  2. Total body irradiation: current indications; L`irradiation corporelle totale: les indications actuelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giraud, P.; Danhier, S.; Dubray, B.; Cosset, J.M. [Institut Curie, 75 - Paris (France)

    1998-05-01

    The choice of dose and fractionation for total body irradiation is made difficult by the large number of considerations to be taken into account. The outcome of bone marrow transplantation after total body irradiation can be understood in terms of tumor cell killing, engraftment, and normal tissue damage, each of these endpoints being influenced by irradiation-, disease-, transplant-, and patient- related factors. Interpretation of clinical data is further hampered by the overwhelming influence of logistic constraints, the small numbers of randomized studies, and the concomitant variations in total dose and fraction size or dose rate. So far, three cautious conclusions can be drawn in order to tentatively adapt the total body irradiation schedule to clinically-relevant situations. Firstly, the organs at risk for normal tissue damage (lung, liver, lens, kidney) are protected by delivering small doses per fraction at low dose rate. This suggests that, when toxicity is at stake (e.g. in children), fractionated irradiation should be preferred, provided that inter-fraction intervals are long enough. Secondly, fractionated irradiation should be avoided in case of T-cell depleted transplant, given the high risk of graft rejection in this setting. An alternative would be to increase total (or fractional) dose of fractionated total body irradiation, but this approach is likely to induce more normal tissue toxicity. Thirdly, clinical data have shown higher relapse rates in chronic myeloid leukemia after fractionated or low dose rate total body irradiation, suggesting that fractionated irradiation should not be recommended, unless total (or fractional) dose is increased. Total body irradiation-containing regimens, primarily cyclophosphamide / total body irradiation, are either equivalent to or better than the chemotherapy-only regimens, primarily busulfan / cyclophosphamide. Busulfan / cyclophosphamide certainly represents a reasonable alternative, especially in patients who

  3. Proton irradiation of malignant melanoma of the ciliary body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gragoudas, E.S.; Goitein, M.; Koehler, A.; Wagner, M.S.; Verhey, L.; Tepper, J.; Suit, H.D.; Schneider, R.J.; Johnson, K.N.

    1979-01-01

    This is the first case of malignant melanoma of the ciliary body treated by the authors with proton beam irradiation, a technique that they developed for irradiating choroidal melanomas. After 21 months of follow-up no growth of the tumour has been observed, and shrinkage of the tumour was noted on the follow-up photographs and by ultrasonography. The 32 Pu uptake test, which was positive before treatment, turned negative 14 months after irradiation. The described technique of proton beam irradiation might offer an alternative for the treatment of ciliary body melanomas when the present technique of iridocyclectomy cannot be applied because of the size of the lesion. (author)

  4. Effect of whole body irradiation on different tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casati, V.; Nardino, A.; Tomassi, I.; Becciolini, A.; Rizzi, M.; Martelli, T.

    1979-01-01

    The uptake and elimination of 14 C leucine were analysed in controls and in rats irradiated 2 h before injection with 8 Gy whole-body irradiation. Plasma, small intestine, kidney and skin were assayed after homogenization for TCA soluble and insoluble activity curves. In highly differentiated tissues with poor proliferative activity and low protein turnover, the uptake and elimination of the tracer did not appear to be affected by irradiation. In the small intestine differences between control and irradiated animals seemed significant. (Auth.)

  5. Total body irradiation with a reconditioned cobalt teletherapy unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Michael D C; Larouche, Renée-Xavière; Olivares, Marina; Léger, Pierre; Larkin, Joe; Freeman, Carolyn R; Podgorsak, Ervin B

    2006-01-01

    While the current trend in radiotherapy is to replace cobalt teletherapy units with more versatile and technologically advanced linear accelerators, there remain some useful applications for older cobalt units. The expansion of our radiotherapy department involved the decommissioning of an isocentric cobalt teletherapy unit and the replacement of a column-mounted 4-MV LINAC that has been used for total body irradiation (TBI). To continue offering TBI treatments, we converted the decommissioned cobalt unit into a dedicated fixed-field total body irradiator and installed it in an existing medium-energy LINAC bunker. This article describes the logistical and dosimetric aspects of bringing a reconditioned cobalt teletherapy unit into clinical service as a total body irradiator.

  6. Trade-offs in skillacquisition and time allocation among juvenile chacma baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sara E; Bock, John

    2004-03-01

    We hypothesize that juvenile baboons are less efficient foragers than adult baboons owing to their small size, lower level of knowledge and skill, and/or lesser ability to maintain access to resources. We predict that as resources are more difficult to extract, juvenile baboons will demonstrate lower efficiency than adults will because of their lower levels of experience. In addition, we hypothesize that juvenile baboons will be more likely to allocate foraging time to easier-to-extract resources owing to their greater efficiency in acquiring those resources.We use feeding efficiency and time allocation data collected on a wild, free-ranging, non-provisioned population of chacma baboons (Papio hamadryas ursinus) in the Moremi Wildlife Reserve, Okavango Delta, Botswana to test these hypotheses. The major findings of this study are:1. Juvenile baboons are significantly less efficient foragers than adult baboons primarily for difficult-to-extract resources.We propose that this age-dependent variation in efficiency is due to differences in memory and other cognitive functions related to locating food resources, as is indicated by the greater amount of time juvenile baboons spend searching for food. There is no evidence that smaller body size or competitive disruption influences the differences in return rates found between adult and juvenile baboons in this study.2. An individual baboon's feeding efficiency for a given resource can be used to predict the duration of its foraging bouts for that resource.These results contribute both to our understanding of the ontogeny of behavioral development in nonhuman primates, especially regarding foraging ability, and to current debate within the field of human behavioral ecology regarding the evolution of the juvenile period in primates and humans.

  7. Late effects of total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, A.; Gibson, B.

    1987-01-01

    Late effects of chemo-radiotherapy conditioning before bone marrow transplantation (BMT) are being increasingly recognised in long-term survivors, particularly children. They can be divided into two categories: those affecting hormonal status and those affecting specific organ function. All women treated develop ovarian failure with low levels of β-oestradiol and raised values of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and leutinizing hormone (LH). In males, raised FSH and LH values are found with normal testosterone levels but most patients have azoospermia. In children, puberty is usually but not invariably delayed by treatment but can be induced by appropriate hormone replacement. Compensated hypothyroidism was found in 6/30 children. Growth hormone secretion may be impaired especially if previous cranial irradiation has been given. In children, a reduction in sitting height has been observed. Cataract has occurred in 20% of children between 3 and 6 years after treatment. Two second tumours have been observed. No other major organ toxicities have been encountered. (Auth.)

  8. Half body irradiation of malignant diseases in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gocheva, L.

    2000-01-01

    The possibilities of modern medicine make the prognosis of children with malignant diseases more optimistic, compared to adult patients. At the present stage the favourable outcome of pediatric oncological diseases varies within the limits of 50 - 80 %. Despite the good treatment results after optimal complex treatment, the rest of the ill children represent a serious therapeutical problem. The achieved good local tumor control after performed radiotherapy represents a potential for its application as a systemic therapy in patients with advanced or resistant to chemotherapy tumours. The radiobiological bases of the half body irradiation as a systemic therapy in pediatric oncology and as one of the main forms of large field irradiation are considered. The important clinical investigations have been discussed. Half body irradiation can be considered as a valuable alternative of chemotherapy and as a complementary systemic treatment in the case of advanced malignant diseases in children's age. (author)

  9. Hematological changes after single large dose half-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, T.; Friedrich, S.; Jochem, I.; Eberhardt, H.J.; Koch, R.; Knorr, A.

    1981-01-01

    The determination of different peripheral blood parameters aimed at the study of side effects on the hematological cellular system following a 5 - 8 Gy single large dose half-body irradiation in 20 patients. Compared to the initial values the leukocytes between the 6. and 14., the thrombocytes between the 14. and 21. postirradiation day as well as the lymphocytes between 3 hours and 4 weeks postirradiation were significantly decreased without exhibiting complications such as hemorrhages or infections. The hemoglobin, hematocrit and reticulocyte values revealed but a slight decrease normalized within a 28 days postirradiation period. Transfusions were necessary when a tumor-caused anemia was present prior to irradiation. Changes in serum activity of aminotransferases and lactate dehydrogenase occured during the first hours after irradiation and were due to enzyme release from destroyed tumor cells

  10. Marrow toxicity of fractionated vs. single dose total body irradiation is identical in a canine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storb, R.; Raff, R.F.; Graham, T.; Appelbaum, F.R.; Deeg, H.J.; Schuening, F.G.; Shulman, H.; Pepe, M.

    1993-01-01

    The authors explored in dogs the marrow toxicity of single dose total body irradiation delivered from two opposing 60 Co sources at a rate of 10 cGy/min and compared results to those seen with total body irradiation administered in 100 cGy fractions with minimum interfraction intervals of 6 hr. Dogs were not given marrow transplants. They found that 200 cGy single dose total body irradiation was sublethal, with 12 of 13 dogs showing hematopoietic recovery and survival. Seven of 21 dogs given 300 cGy single dose total body irradiation survived compared to 6 of 10 dogs given 300 cGy fractionated total body irradiation. One of 28 dogs given 400 cGy single dose total body irradiation survived compared to none of six given fractionated radiation. With granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF) administered from day 0-21 after 400 cGy total body irradiation, most dogs survived with hematological recovery. Because of the almost uniform success with GCSF after 400 cGy single dose total body irradiation, a study of GCSF after 400 cGy fractionated total body irradiation was deemed not to be informative and, thus, not carried out. Additional comparisons between single dose and fractionated total body irradiation were carried out with GCSF administered after 500 and 600 cGy of total body irradiation. As with lower doses of total body irradiation, no significant survival differences were seen between the two modes of total body irradiation, and only 3 of 26 dogs studied survived with complete hematological recovery. Overall, therefore, survival among dogs given single dose total body irradiation was not different from that of dogs given fractionated total body irradiation (p = .67). Similarly, the slopes of the postirradiation declines of granulocyte and platelet counts and the rates of their recovery in surviving dogs given equal total doses of single versus fractionated total body irradiation were indistinguishable. 24 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Total body irradiation in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fundagul Andic

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Total body irradiation is used in conjunction with chemotherapy as a conditioning regimen in the treatment of many disease such as leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, aplastic anemia, multiple myeloma and lymphoma prior to the hematopoetic stem cell transplantation. The main purposes of the hematopoetic stem cell transplantation are eradication of the recipient bone marrow and any residual cancer cells, creation of space in the receipient bone marrow for donor hematopoetic stem cells, and immunosuppression to prevent rejection of donor stem cells in the case of an allotransplant. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2014; 23(3.000: 398-410

  12. Myeloproliferative disorders in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urowitz, M.B.; Rider, W.D.

    1985-01-01

    Four patients with refractory rheumatoid arthritis were treated with total body irradiation administered in two sittings, 300 to 400 rads to each half of the body. All four patients had taken antimetabolites prior to receiving total body irradiation, and two continued to use them after total body irradiation. Two patients had taken alkylating agents before, and one had used them after total body irradiation. All patients showed clinical improvement. However, in two patients myeloproliferative disorders developed: a myelodysplastic preleukemia at 40 months after total body irradiation in one and acute myelogenous leukemia at 25 months in the other. Total body irradiation differs from total nodal irradiation in the total dose of irradiation (300 to 400 rads versus 2,000 to 3,000), and in the duration of the therapy (two sittings versus treatment over several weeks to months). Furthermore, the patients in the total body irradiation study frequently used cytotoxic drugs before and/or after irradiation, whereas in one total nodal irradiation study, azathioprine (2 mg/kg per day or less) was permitted, but no other cytotoxic agents were allowed. Rheumatologists may therefore face a binding decision when deciding to treat a patient with rheumatoid arthritis with either a cytotoxic drug or irradiation

  13. vaginal histological changes of the baboon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-04-04

    Apr 4, 2009 ... and endogenous (normal circulating hormones) on vaginal histology. In this study, we evaluated the vaginal histological changes in the baboon during the menstrual cycle. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Animal selection: Nine healthy adult female baboons. (Papio anubis) (mean±SD [15.2±2.03 Kg], range ...

  14. Endocrine dysfunction after total body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feyer, P.; Titlbach, O.; Hoffmann, F.A.; Kubel, M.; Helbig, W.; Leipzig Univ.

    1989-01-01

    Data regarding changes of endocrine parameters after total body irradiation (TBI) and bone marrow transplantation (BMT) are described. Endocrine glands are usually resistant to irradiation under morphological aspects. But new methods of determination and sensitive tests were developed in the last few years. Now it is possible to detect already small functional changes. Endocrine studies in the course of the disease were followed serially in 16 patients with TBI and BMT. Pretransplant conditioning consisted of single-dose irradiation combined with a high-dose, short-term chemotherapy. Reactions of the endocrine system showed a defined temporary order. Changes of ACTH and cortisol were in the beginning. The pituitary-adrenal cortex system responds in a different way. The pituitary-thyroid system develops a short-term 'low-T 3 -syndrome' reflecting the extreme stress of the organism. At the same time we obtained an increase of thyroxine. Testosterone and luteotropic hormone, the sexual steroids showed levels representing a primary gonadal insufficiency. The studies in the posttransplant period yielded a return to the normal range at most of the hormonal levels with the exception of the sexual steroids. Sterility is one of the late effects of TBI. A tendency towards hypothyroidism could be noticed in some cases being only subclinical forms. Reasons and possible therapy are discussed. (author)

  15. Computer-based anthropometrical system for total body irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Nieto, B; Sánchez-Doblado, F; Terrón, J A; Arráns, R; Errazquin, L

    1997-05-01

    For total body irradiation (TBI) dose calculation requirements, anatomical information about the whole body is needed. Despite the fact that video image grabbing techniques are used by some treatment planning systems for standard radiotherapy, there are no such systems designed to generate anatomical parameters for TBI planning. The paper describes an anthropometrical computerised system based on video image grabbing which was purpose-built to provide anatomical data for a PC-based TBI planning system. Using software, the system controls the acquisition and digitalisation of the images (external images of the patient in treatment position) and the measurement procedure itself (on the external images or the digital CT information). An ASCII file, readable by the TBI planning system, is generated to store the required parameters of the dose calculation points, i.e. depth, backscatter tissue thickness, thickness of inhomogeneity, off-axis distance (OAD) and source to skin distance (SSD).

  16. Morphological studies on the healing process of tooth extraction wounds in whole body irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosokawa, Yoichiro

    1991-01-01

    The present studies were performed to investigate the healing process of the tooth extraction wound in whole body irradiated rats and to clarify the effect of irradiation on bone metabolism. One hundred and seven Wistar rats of about 100 g body weight were used and divided into 3 groups. Whole body irradiated rats were given single exposure with a dose of 8 Gy. The region of the left upper molars of local irradiated rats as controls, was exposed to 8 Gy. On the 7th day after irradiation, the left upper first molar of each rat was extracted. The rats were sacrificed at intervals of 1 to 14 days after extraction. Non-irradiated rats were sacrificed at the same intervals after extraction. The maxillary bone including the extraction wound was evaluated, histologically, histometrically and ultrastructurally. From the histological and histometrical findings, the difference of the healing process between non-irradiated rats and locally irradiated rats is not significant. In whole body irradiated rats, the healing process especially in the socket was disturbed. The osteoblastic new bone formation following production of granulation tissue was interfered with. Ultrastructurally, the cytoplasmic organellae were poorly developed in the osteoblast and osteoid formation was reduced in the socket. But periosteal new bone formation was the same as that of the locally irradiated rats. In whole body irradiated rats, the osteoclasts in the interradicular alveolar bone were decreased and have smaller nuclei, compared with non-irradiated and locally irradiated rats. Histometrically, the amount of bone loss was decreased in whole body irradiated rats. Ultrastructurally, the cyoplasmic organellae and ruffled border were poorly developed in the osteoclasts of whole body irradiated rats. The findings suggested that irradiation induced cytological changes not only in osteoblasts but in osteoclasts and these changes resulted in the delayed healing of extraction wound. (author) 106 refs

  17. Morphological studies on the healing process of tooth extraction wounds in whole body irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosokawa, Yoichiro (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Dentistry)

    1991-06-01

    The present studies were performed to investigate the healing process of the tooth extraction wound in whole body irradiated rats and to clarify the effect of irradiation on bone metabolism. One hundred and seven Wistar rats of about 100 g body weight were used and divided into 3 groups. Whole body irradiated rats were given single exposure with a dose of 8 Gy. The region of the left upper molars of local irradiated rats as controls, was exposed to 8 Gy. On the 7th day after irradiation, the left upper first molar of each rat was extracted. The rats were sacrificed at intervals of 1 to 14 days after extraction. Non-irradiated rats were sacrificed at the same intervals after extraction. The maxillary bone including the extraction wound was evaluated, histologically, histometrically and ultrastructurally. From the histological and histometrical findings, the difference of the healing process between non-irradiated rats and locally irradiated rats is not significant. In whole body irradiated rats, the healing process especially in the socket was disturbed. The osteoblastic new bone formation following production of granulation tissue was interfered with. Ultrastructurally, the cytoplasmic organellae were poorly developed in the osteoblast and osteoid formation was reduced in the socket. But periosteal new bone formation was the same as that of the locally irradiated rats. In whole body irradiated rats, the osteoclasts in the interradicular alveolar bone were decreased and have smaller nuclei, compared with non-irradiated and locally irradiated rats. Histometrically, the amount of bone loss was decreased in whole body irradiated rats. Ultrastructurally, the cyoplasmic organellae and ruffled border were poorly developed in the osteoclasts of whole body irradiated rats. The findings suggested that irradiation induced cytological changes not only in osteoblasts but in osteoclasts and these changes resulted in the delayed healing of extraction wound. (author) 106 refs.

  18. Baboon feeding ecology informs the dietary niche of Paranthropus boisei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele A Macho

    Full Text Available Hominins are generally considered eclectic omnivores like baboons, but recent isotope studies call into question the generalist status of some hominins. Paranthropus boisei and Australopithecus bahrelghazali derived 75%-80% of their tissues' δ(13C from C4 sources, i.e. mainly low-quality foods like grasses and sedges. Here I consider the energetics of P. boisei and the nutritional value of C4 foods, taking into account scaling issues between the volume of food consumed and body mass, and P. boisei's food preference as inferred from dento-cranial morphology. Underlying the models are empirical data for Papio cynocephalus dietary ecology. Paranthropus boisei only needed to spend some 37%-42% of its daily feeding time (conservative estimate on C4 sources to meet 80% of its daily requirements of calories, and all its requirements for protein. The energetic requirements of 2-4 times the basal metabolic rate (BMR common to mammals could therefore have been met within a 6-hour feeding/foraging day. The findings highlight the high nutritional yield of many C4 foods eaten by baboons (and presumably hominins, explain the evolutionary success of P. boisei, and indicate that P. boisei was probably a generalist like other hominins. The diet proposed is consistent with the species' derived morphology and unique microwear textures. Finally, the results highlight the importance of baboon/hominin hand in food acquisition and preparation.

  19. Baboon feeding ecology informs the dietary niche of Paranthropus boisei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macho, Gabriele A

    2014-01-01

    Hominins are generally considered eclectic omnivores like baboons, but recent isotope studies call into question the generalist status of some hominins. Paranthropus boisei and Australopithecus bahrelghazali derived 75%-80% of their tissues' δ(13)C from C4 sources, i.e. mainly low-quality foods like grasses and sedges. Here I consider the energetics of P. boisei and the nutritional value of C4 foods, taking into account scaling issues between the volume of food consumed and body mass, and P. boisei's food preference as inferred from dento-cranial morphology. Underlying the models are empirical data for Papio cynocephalus dietary ecology. Paranthropus boisei only needed to spend some 37%-42% of its daily feeding time (conservative estimate) on C4 sources to meet 80% of its daily requirements of calories, and all its requirements for protein. The energetic requirements of 2-4 times the basal metabolic rate (BMR) common to mammals could therefore have been met within a 6-hour feeding/foraging day. The findings highlight the high nutritional yield of many C4 foods eaten by baboons (and presumably hominins), explain the evolutionary success of P. boisei, and indicate that P. boisei was probably a generalist like other hominins. The diet proposed is consistent with the species' derived morphology and unique microwear textures. Finally, the results highlight the importance of baboon/hominin hand in food acquisition and preparation.

  20. A new Bayesian model applied to cytogenetic partial body irradiation estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higueras, Manuel; Puig, Pedro; Ainsbury, Elizabeth A.; Vinnikov, Volodymyr A.; Rothkamm, Kai

    2016-01-01

    A new zero-inflated Poisson model is introduced for the estimation of partial body irradiation dose and fraction of body irradiated. The Bayes factors are introduced as tools to help determine whether a data set of chromosomal aberrations obtained from a blood sample reflects partial or whole body irradiation. Two examples of simulated cytogenetic radiation exposure data are presented to demonstrate the usefulness of this methodology in cytogenetic biological dosimetry. (authors)

  1. A new Bayesian model applied to cytogenetic partial body irradiation estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higueras, Manuel; Puig, Pedro; Ainsbury, Elizabeth A; Vinnikov, Volodymyr A; Rothkamm, Kai

    2016-03-01

    A new zero-inflated Poisson model is introduced for the estimation of partial body irradiation dose and fraction of body irradiated. The Bayes factors are introduced as tools to help determine whether a data set of chromosomal aberrations obtained from a blood sample reflects partial or whole body irradiation. Two examples of simulated cytogenetic radiation exposure data are presented to demonstrate the usefulness of this methodology in cytogenetic biological dosimetry. © Crown copyright 2015.

  2. Biophysical study of mice blood after whole body irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad El Din, Alsha A.; Desouky, Omar S.; El Behay, Amin Z.; El Sayed, Anwar A.

    1996-05-01

    The immediate of whole body fractionated doses of 137Cs gamma rays totalling 13 Gy on mice as well as the late effects of accumulative dose of 10 Gy (8 days after exposure) were studied. Changes due to gamma irradiation in hemoglobin conductivity and buffer capacity indicate the appearance of hydrophobic groups and changes in hydrophilic/hydrophobic ratio. These changes demonstrate different degrees of unfolding and refolding of the hemoglobin molecule. The viscosity coefficient of hemoglobin is found to increase at fractionated doses of 7 and 13 Gy. Such effect seems to be due to aggregation of the protein part of hemoglobin. The fractionated dose of 13 Gy causes changes in the electronic state of oxyhemoglobin indicated by an increase in methemoglobin which reduces biological activity.

  3. In vivo dosimetry with silicon diodes in total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, F.F.; Amaral, L.L.; Costa, A.M.; Netto, T.G.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is the characterization and application of silicon diode detectors for in vivo dosimetry in total body irradiation (TBI) treatments. It was evaluated the diode response with temperature, dose rate, gantry angulations and field size. A maximum response variation of 2.2% was obtained for temperature dependence. The response variation for dose rate and angular was within 1.2%. For field size dependence, the detector response increased with field until reach a saturation region, where no more primary radiation beam contributes for dose. The calibration was performed in a TBI setup. Different lateral thicknesses from one patient were simulated and then the calibration factors were determined by means of maximum depth dose readings. Subsequent to calibration, in vivo dosimetry measurements were performed. The response difference between diode readings and the prescribed dose for all treatments was below 4%. This difference is in agreement as recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU), which is ±5%. The present work to test the applicability of a silicon diode dosimetry system for performing in vivo dose measurements in TBI techniques presented good results. These measurements demonstrated the value of diode dosimetry as a treatment verification method and its applicability as a part of a quality assurance program in TBI treatments. - Highlights: ► Characterization of a silicon diode dosimetry system. ► Application of the diodes for in vivo dosimetry in total body irradiation treatments. ► Implementation of in vivo dosimetry as a part of a quality assurance program in radiotherapy

  4. Blood coagulation and fibrinolysis of the whole-body irradiated rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hishikawa-Itoh, Youko; Ayakawa, Yoshio; Miyata, Nobuki

    1984-01-01

    To study the effects of irradiation on blood coagulation and fibrinolysis, rabbits were irradiated with 60 Co γ-rays (whole-body: 0, 100, 400, 800, 1200 rads). Clotting time, activity of plasmin and plasminogen, and fibrinogen contents of irradiated rabbit plasma were measured at 4 days before, immediately after, and at 1, 3, 7, 10, and 14 days after irradiation. Both clotting times obtained by addition of (kaolin+phospholipid) which expressed effects on the total intrinsic coagulation system, and by addition of (Ca 2+ ) which expressed effects on the total extrinsic coagulation system, were prolonged with small dose irradiation (100 rads) immediately and 3 days after irradiation. However, with high dose irradiation (400-1200 rads), these clotting times were prolonged 1 day after irradiation. The times of manifestation of irradiation effects on clotting time were different in small and high dose irradiation. Plasmin activity was decreased immediately, 1 day after and recovered 3 days after irradiation. Plasminogen activity was markedly increased in 800 and 1200 rads irradiated groups from 3 days after irradiation. Conversion of plasminogen into plasmin was impaired by irradiation. Fibrinogen contents increased rapidly in all irradiated rabbits except for 100 rads from 1 day after irradiation. These results revealed decreased coagulation and fibrinolysis activities in rabbit blood, irradiation injury of both coagulation and fibrinolysis activation systems, and accumulation of the precursors of fibrin and plasmin (i.e., fibrinogen and plasminogen). (author)

  5. Optimization of total body irradiation: the match between (maximal) leukemic cell kill and (minimal) late effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harteveld, M.L. van

    2007-01-01

    Optimization of total body irradiation: the match between (maximal) leukemic cell kill and (minimal) late effects: In this thesis, cataract formation and renal dysfunction as late effects of high-dose total body irradiation (TBI) as part of the conditioning before hematological stem cell

  6. Neonatal irradiation nephropathy in the growing dog. I. Renal morphological and functional adaptations following neonatal, sublethal, whole-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilke, W.L.; Phemister, R.D.; Jaenke, R.S.

    1979-01-01

    Sixty beagles were used to study the effects of exposure to 330 R 60 Co γ radiation (bilateral, whole-body) at 2 days of age on renal functional and morphological development in the growing dog. A significant deficit in grams kidney per kilogram body weight was found in irradiated dogs at 50 days of age (P < 0.05), but not at 125 or 200 days of age. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) per kilogram body weight and GFR per gram kidney were not significantly different between irradiated and nonirradiated dogs at 50, 125, or 200 days of age, but blood urea nitrogen (BUN) was significantly elevated in irradiated dogs throughout this period (P < 0.05). The fractional distribution of intracortical renal blood flow, as determined by radiolabeled microspheres, to the outermost cortex was found to be reduced in irradiated animals at all ages evaluated (P < 0.05). The fractional blood flow to the outermost renal cortex was negatively correlated with BUN in both irradiated (P < 0.05) and nonirradiated (P < 0.05) animals. Based on prior demonstrations of reductions in nephron numbers following similar irradiation, these data indicate increases in mean single nephron GFR and nephronal hypertrophy in the kidneys of the neonatally irradiated dog. The renal functional and morphological adaptations are sufficient to maintain adequate renal function in growing, neonatally irradiated dogs. The BUN elevations in irradiated dogs are believed to be related to changes in intracortical renal blood flow, rather than indicating renal insufficiency. The possible importance of the functional and morphological adaptations to the subsequent development of chronic renal failure in neonatally irradiated animals is discussed

  7. Secondary radiation dose during high-energy total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janiszewska, M.; Raczkowski, M. [Lower Silesian Oncology Center, Medical Physics Department, Wroclaw (Poland); Polaczek-Grelik, K. [University of Silesia, Medical Physics Department, Katowice (Poland); Szafron, B.; Konefal, A.; Zipper, W. [University of Silesia, Department of Nuclear Physics and Its Applications, Katowice (Poland)

    2014-05-15

    The goal of this work was to assess the additional dose from secondary neutrons and γ-rays generated during total body irradiation (TBI) using a medical linac X-ray beam. Nuclear reactions that occur in the accelerator construction during emission of high-energy beams in teleradiotherapy are the source of secondary radiation. Induced activity is dependent on the half-lives of the generated radionuclides, whereas neutron flux accompanies the treatment process only. The TBI procedure using a 18 MV beam (Clinac 2100) was considered. Lateral and anterior-posterior/posterior-anterior fractions were investigated during delivery of 2 Gy of therapeutic dose. Neutron and photon flux densities were measured using neutron activation analysis (NAA) and semiconductor spectrometry. The secondary dose was estimated applying the fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients. The main contribution to the secondary dose is associated with fast neutrons. The main sources of γ-radiation are the following: {sup 56}Mn in the stainless steel and {sup 187}W of the collimation system as well as positron emitters, activated via (n,γ) and (γ,n) processes, respectively. In addition to 12 Gy of therapeutic dose, the patient could receive 57.43 mSv in the studied conditions, including 4.63 μSv from activated radionuclides. Neutron dose is mainly influenced by the time of beam emission. However, it is moderated by long source-surface distances (SSD) and application of plexiglass plates covering the patient body during treatment. Secondary radiation gives the whole body a dose, which should be taken into consideration especially when one fraction of irradiation does not cover the whole body at once. (orig.) [German] Die zusaetzliche Dosis durch sekundaere Neutronen- und γ-Strahlung waehrend der Ganzkoerperbestrahlung mit Roentgenstrahlung aus medizinischen Linearbeschleunigern wurde abgeschaetzt. Bei der Emission hochenergetischer Strahlen zur Teletherapie finden hauptsaechlich im Beschleuniger

  8. Total body irradiation for myasthenia gravis with thymoma: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Ki Mun; Choi, Ihl Bohng; Kim, In Ah [College of Medicine, Catholic Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-06-01

    Myasthenia Gravis (MG) is relatively rare occuring as one of important autoimmune disease to affect neuromuscular junction. This study was clinically to evaluate total body irradiation (TBI) against two patients including 33-year and 39-year females for chronic MG with thymoma who hospitalized in the St. Mary's Hospital, Catholic University since 1994 as well as who showed no response by thymectomy, immunotherapy and hormonal therapy. TBI designed by the dose of 150-180 cGy consisting of 10 cGy per fraction, three times a week, for 5-6 weeks using linear accelerator of 6 MV. During the treatment of TBI, they did complain acute side effect such as vomiting and also appear improved physical condition from 4-6 weeks after TBI. Through the follow-up period of 18 or 42 months after TBI, they did not have any symptomatic recurrence. Consequently, the results suggest that TBI can be used as an alternative tool for the patients concurrently for MG with thymoma who had been refractory to various conventional therapies like thymectomy, immunotherapy and hormonal therapy.

  9. Total body irradiation for myasthenia gravis with thymoma: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Ki Mun; Choi, Ihl Bohng; Kim, In Ah

    1999-01-01

    Myasthenia Gravis (MG) is relatively rare occuring as one of important autoimmune disease to affect neuromuscular junction. This study was clinically to evaluate total body irradiation (TBI) against two patients including 33-year and 39-year females for chronic MG with thymoma who hospitalized in the St. Mary's Hospital, Catholic University since 1994 as well as who showed no response by thymectomy, immunotherapy and hormonal therapy. TBI designed by the dose of 150-180 cGy consisting of 10 cGy per fraction, three times a week, for 5-6 weeks using linear accelerator of 6 MV. During the treatment of TBI, they did complain acute side effect such as vomiting and also appear improved physical condition from 4-6 weeks after TBI. Through the follow-up period of 18 or 42 months after TBI, they did not have any symptomatic recurrence. Consequently, the results suggest that TBI can be used as an alternative tool for the patients concurrently for MG with thymoma who had been refractory to various conventional therapies like thymectomy, immunotherapy and hormonal therapy

  10. Biochemical and hematological indicators in model of total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubner, D; Gisone, P.; Perez, M.R.; Barboza, M.; Luchetta, P.; Longoni, H.; Sorrentino, M.; Robison, A.

    1998-01-01

    With the purpose of evaluating the applicability of several biological indicators in accidental overexposures a study was carried out in 20 patients undergoing therapeutical total body irradiation (TBI). The following parameters were evaluated: a) Oxidative stress indicators: erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity (CAT), lipo peroxyde levels (TBARS) and total plasma antioxidant activity (TAA). b) Haematological indicators: reticulocyte maturity index (RMI) and charges in lymphocyte subpopulations. Non significant changes in SOD and CAT activity were observed. Significant higher TBARS levels were found in patients with unfavorable post-BTM course without any significant correlation with TAA. RMI decreased early and dropped to zero in most of the patients and rose several days prior to reticulocyte, neutrophils and platelets counts. A significant decrease in absolute counts of all lymphocyte subpopulations was observed during TBI, particularly for B lymphocytes. A subpopulation of natural killer (NK) cells (CD16+/ CD 56 +) showed a relative higher radioresistance. Cytotoxic activity was significantly decreased after TBI. These data suggest that TBARS could provide an useful evolutive indicator in accidental over exposure d patients and RMI is an early indicator of bone marrow recovery after radioinduced aplasia. The implications of the different radiosensitivities within the NK subsets remains unanswered. (author) [es

  11. Baboon Feeding Ecology Informs the Dietary Niche of Paranthropus boisei

    OpenAIRE

    Macho, Gabriele A.

    2014-01-01

    Hominins are generally considered eclectic omnivores like baboons, but recent isotope studies call into question the generalist status of some hominins. Paranthropus boisei and Australopithecus bahrelghazali derived 75%-80% of their tissues' δ(13)C from C4 sources, i.e. mainly low-quality foods like grasses and sedges. Here I consider the energetics of P. boisei and the nutritional value of C4 foods, taking into account scaling issues between the volume of food consumed and body mass, and P. ...

  12. Assessment of simulated high-dose partial-body irradiation by PCC-R assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Ivonne; García, Omar; Lamadrid, Ana I; Gregoire, Eric; González, Jorge E; Morales, Wilfredo; Martin, Cécile; Barquinero, Joan-Francesc; Voisin, Philippe

    2013-09-01

    The estimation of the dose and the irradiated fraction of the body is important information in the primary medical response in case of a radiological accident. The PCC-R assay has been developed for high-dose estimations, but little attention has been given to its applicability for partial-body irradiations. In the present work we estimated the doses and the percentage of the irradiated fraction in simulated partial-body radiation exposures at high doses using the PCC-R assay. Peripheral whole blood of three healthy donors was exposed to doses from 0-20 Gy, with ⁶⁰Co gamma radiation. To simulate partial body irradiations, irradiated and non-irradiated blood was mixed to obtain proportions of irradiated blood from 10-90%. Lymphocyte cultures were treated with Colcemid and Calyculin-A before harvest. Conventional and triage scores were performed for each dose, proportion of irradiated blood and donor. The Papworth's u test was used to evaluate the PCC-R distribution per cell. A dose-response relationship was fitted according to the maximum likelihood method using the frequencies of PCC-R obtained from 100% irradiated blood. The dose to the partially irradiated blood was estimated using the Contaminated Poisson method. A new D₀ value of 10.9 Gy was calculated and used to estimate the initial fraction of irradiated cells. The results presented here indicate that by PCC-R it is possible to distinguish between simulated partial- and whole-body irradiations by the u-test, and to accurately estimate the dose from 10-20 Gy, and the initial fraction of irradiated cells in the interval from 10-90%.

  13. Radiation therapy in leukemia (total body irradiation excluded)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peiffert, D.; Hoffstetter, S.

    1999-01-01

    Radiation techniques and indications in leukemias have been described in detail, yet prophylactic cranial irradiation in acute leukemia still has few indications. Cerebrospinal and testicular irradiation are reserved for relapsing disease. Radiation usually results in rapid functional improvement when used in neurologic emergencies and symptomatic neurologic or gross tumors relapses. Nevertheless, the improvements recently obtained by systemic chemotherapy have resulted in the reduction in the use of irradiation, especially in children, where it was considered deleterious with neuropsychological sequelae. Splenic irradiation remains useful for symptomatic myelo-proliferative syndrome. (authors)

  14. Influence of whole-body irradiation on calcium and phosphate homeostasis in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pento, J.T.; Kenny, A.D.

    1975-01-01

    Previous irradiation studies have revealed marked alterations in calcium metabolism. Moreover, the maintenance of calcium homeostasis with parathyroid hormone or calcium salts has been reported to reduce radiation lethality. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the influence of irradiation on calcium homeostasis in the rat. Nine hundred rad of whole-body irradiation produced a significant depression of both plasma calcium and phosphate at 4 days postirradiation. This effect of irradiation was observed to be dose-dependent over a range of 600 to 1200 rad, and possibly related to irradiation-induced anorexia. The physiological significance of these observations is discussed

  15. Distribution of mitochondrial clades and morphotypes of baboons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recent genetic studies, using maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA, indicate a complex evolutionary history for baboons Papio spp. in general, and for eastern African baboons in particular. To further address this topic and to improve our understanding of phylogeographic patterns of baboons in eastern Africa, ...

  16. Effects of local and whole body irradiation on appearance of osteoclasts during wound healing of tooth extraction sockets in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosokawa, Yoichiro; Sakakura, Yasunori; Tanaka, Likinobu; Okumura, Kazuhiko; Yajima, Toshihiko; Kaneko, Masayuki

    2007-01-01

    We examined effects of local and whole body irradiation before tooth extraction on appearance and differentiation of osteoclasts in the alveolar bone of rat maxillary first molars. Wistar rats weighting 100 g were divided into three groups: non-irradiation group, local irradiation group, and whole body irradiation group. In the local irradiation group, a field made with lead blocks was placed over the maxillary left first molar tooth. In the whole body irradiation group, the animals were irradiated in cages. Both groups were irradiated at 8 Gy. The number of osteoclasts around the interradicular alveolar bone showed chronological changes common to non-irradiated and irradiated animals. Several osteoclasts appeared one day after tooth extraction, and the maximal peak was observed 3 days after extraction. Local irradiation had no difference from non-irradiated controls. In animals receiving whole body irradiation, tooth extraction one day after irradiation caused smaller number of osteoclasts than that 7 day after irradiation during the experimental period. Whole body-irradiated rats had small osteoclasts with only a few nuclei and narrow resorption lacunae, indicating deficiency of radioresistant osteoclast precursor cells. Injection of intact bone marrow cells to whole body-irradiated animals immediately after tooth extraction recovered to some content the number of osteoclasts. These findings suggest that bone resorption in the wound healing of alveolar socket requires radioresistant, postmitotic osteoclast precursor cells from hematopoietic organs, but not from local sources around the alveolar socket, at the initial phase of wound healing. (author)

  17. Effects of local and whole body irradiation on appearance of osteoclasts during wound healing of tooth extraction sockets in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Yoichiro; Sakakura, Yasunori; Tanaka, Likinobu; Okumura, Kazuhiko; Yajima, Toshihiko; Kaneko, Masayuki

    2007-07-01

    We examined effects of local and whole body irradiation before tooth extraction on appearance and differentiation of osteoclasts in the alveolar bone of rat maxillary first molars. Wistar rats weighting 100 g were divided into three groups: non-irradiation group, local irradiation group, and whole body irradiation group. In the local irradiation group, a field made with lead blocks was placed over the maxillary left first molar tooth. In the whole body irradiation group, the animals were irradiated in cages. Both groups were irradiated at 8 Gy. The number of osteoclasts around the interradicular alveolar bone showed chronological changes common to non-irradiated and irradiated animals. Several osteoclasts appeared one day after tooth extraction, and the maximal peak was observed 3 days after extraction. Local irradiation had no difference from non-irradiated controls. In animals receiving whole body irradiation, tooth extraction one day after irradiation caused smaller number of osteoclasts than that 7 day after irradiation during the experimental period. Whole body-irradiated rats had small osteoclasts with only a few nuclei and narrow resorption lacunae, indicating deficiency of radioresistant osteoclast precursor cells. Injection of intact bone marrow cells to whole body-irradiated animals immediately after tooth extraction recovered to some content the number of osteoclasts. These findings suggest that bone resorption in the wound healing of alveolar socket requires radioresistant, postmitotic osteoclast precursor cells from hematopoietic organs, but not from local sources around the alveolar socket, at the initial phase of wound healing.

  18. Mitochondrial phylogeny and systematics of baboons (Papio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Timothy K; Jolly, Clifford J; Rogers, Jeffrey

    2004-05-01

    Baboons (Papio, s.s.) comprise a series of parapatric allotaxa (subspecies or closely related species) widely distributed in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite extensive studies of their ecology, morphology, and behavior, disagreement about their phylogenetic relationships continues, as expressed in the current coexistence of at least three major, competing taxonomic treatments. To help resolve this situation, we sequenced approximately 900 bases of mitochondrial DNA of 40 individuals from five of the widely recognized "major" allotaxa. Total sequence diversity (>5%) is high compared to most primate species. Major mitochondrial clades correspond to recognized allotaxa, with the important exception that haplotypes from yellow and olive baboons form a single, monophyletic clade within which the two allotaxa do not comprise mutually exclusive clusters. The major clades fall unambiguously into the pattern: (chacma (Guinea (hamadryas (yellow + olive)))). This phylogeny does not support taxonomies that oppose hamadryas to all other baboons ("desert" vs. "savanna"), but is compatible with the view that all definable allotaxa should be recognized as coordinates, either as "phylogenetic" species or "biological" subspecies. The close relationship and unsegregated distribution of haplotypes from Kenyan and Tanzanian yellow and olive baboons are unexplained, but may reflect introgression across the documented hybrid zone. The overall phylogeny, when combined with paleontological data, suggests a southern African origin for extant Papio baboons, with all extant lineages sharing a common mitochondrial ancestor at approximately 1.8 Ma. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Behavioral implications of ontogenetic changes in intrinsic hand and foot proportions in olive baboons (Papio Anubis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druelle, François; Young, Jesse; Berillon, Gilles

    2018-01-01

    Relatively long digits are considered to enhance grasping performance in primates. We tested whether growth-related changes in intrinsic hand and foot proportions may have behavioral implications for growing animals, by examining whether ontogenetic changes in digital proportions are related to variation in voluntary grasping behaviors in baboons. Longitudinal morphological and behavioral data were collected on 6 captive olive baboons (Papio anubis) as they aged from 5 to 22 months. The length of digits and metapodials, measured from radiographs, were used to calculate phalangeal indices (i.e., PIs: summed length of non-distal phalanges relative to corresponding metapodial length). We also examined the allometric scaling of digital bones relative to body mass. We observed baboon positional behaviors over a 15-day period following the radiographic sessions, quantifying the frequency of forelimb and hindlimb grasping behaviors. PIs for all digits declined during growth, a result of the differential scaling of metapodials (which scaled to body mass with isometry) versus phalanges (which scaled with negative allometry). The incidence of forelimb and hindlimb grasping behaviors declined with age. Though we found no relationship between forelimb grasping and hand proportions, the incidence of hindlimb grasping was directly correlated with postaxial digit PIs. Only changes in the intrinsic proportions of the pedal digits are associated with variation in grasping activity in growing baboons. This finding accords previous biomechanical and neuroanatomical studies showing distinct functional roles for the hands and feet during primate locomotion, and has important implications for reconstructing primate locomotor evolution. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Change in the mineralization of the healing bone callus after whole-body irradiation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drouet, J.; Pleinard, J.F.; Nguyen, T.L.; Goyffon, M.

    The delayed consolidation of diaphysial long-bone fractures in mice subjected to whole-body X-irradiation is expressed biochemically by a faulty mineralization of the repair callus. This deficiency is proportional to the irradiation intensity and is not corrected by previous administration of cycteamine [fr

  1. Sorption of carbohydrates following the whole-body irradiation and irradiation of the abdominal cavity (Experimental investigation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumeister, K.; Koch, F.; Mehlgorn, G.; Panndorf, H.; Iohannsen, U.

    1974-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the effect of fractionated irradiation of the abdominal cavity and the whole body on carbohydrate absorption. It was found that enhanced D-xylose absorption is a function of dose. The relationship between impairment of absorption and the severity of clinical, pathomorphological and roentgenological changes was noted. (V.A.P.)

  2. Gastrointestinal decontamination of dogs treated with total body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriesendorp, H.M.; Heidt, P.J.; Zurcher, C.

    1981-01-01

    Procedures for total and selective gastrointestinal decontamination of dogs are described. The selective procedure removed only Gram negative aerobic bacteria, yeast and fungi. Dogs receiving total decontamination were less susceptible to the GI syndrome following total body irradiation (TBI) than

  3. Total body irradiation as a form of preparation for bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Toshihiko

    1987-01-01

    The history of total body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation is surprisingly old. Following the success of Thomas et al. in the 1970s, bone marrow transplantation appeared to be the sole curative treatment modality for high-risk leukemia. A supralethal dose of total body irradiation was widely accepted as a form of preparation for bone marrow transplantation. In this paper, I described the present status of bone marrow transplantation for leukemia patients in Japan based on the IVth national survey. Since interstitial pneumonitis was one of the most life threatening complications after bone marrow transplantation, I mentioned the dose, dose-rate and fraction of total body irradiation in more detail. In addition, I dealt with some problems of the total body irradiation, such as dose prescription, compensating contour as well as inhomogeneity, and shielding for the highrisk organs. (author) 82 refs

  4. The effect of whole body irradiation on the action of strong analgesics of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvetkovicj, M.; Milovanovicj, A.; Tanasijevicj, D.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of whole body irradiation of male mice with single doses of 3 and 7 Gy ( 60 Co source) on analgesic action of three morphine-like drugs was studied. Over the first 6 days after irradiation, the analgesic effect of alfentanil and fentanyl was significantly less pronounced in irradiated animals than in control ones. During the subsequent period of 24 days till the end of experiment, the analgesic effect in irradiated animals gradually increased reaching and exceeding the control values. On the contrary, the analgesic effect of butorphanole was less pronounced in irradiated animals than in control ones, although the difference was not significantly. The difference between butorphanole and other two drugs are probably due to chemical structure and the metabolic fate in the body. (author) 8 refs.; 2 figs

  5. The pupal body temperature and inner space temperature of cocoon under microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagawa, T.

    1996-01-01

    The temperature of pupal surface,body and inner space of cocoon on cocoon drying of microwave irradiation was investigated to make clear the effect of temperature with pupa and cocoon shell. After pupal surface temperature and body temperature were risen rapidly in early irradiation and slowly thereafter, these were done fast again. Then these rising degrees fell. The variation of inner space temperature consists three terms: as the first stage of rapidly rising on early irradiation, the second stage of slowly doing and the third stage of fast doing again in temperature. In the first stage and the second stage, the higher the temperature of sending air during irradiation was, the shorter the term was and the higher the reached temperature was. The surface, pupal body and inner space have reached higher temperature than the sending air before cocoon drying was over

  6. Baboon endogenous virus evolution and ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kuyl, A. C.; Dekker, J. T.; Goudsmit, J.

    1996-01-01

    Cross-species transmission of retroviruses among primates has recently been recognized as the source of the current epidemics of HIV-1, HIV-2 and human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1). The distribution of baboon endogenous virus among non-human primates resembles that of exogenous viruses and

  7. vaginal histological changes of the baboon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-04-04

    Apr 4, 2009 ... the changes on the perineal sex skin which has led to easier follow up of baboon menstrual cycle (1,5). ... of vaginal epithelial histological changes during the menstrual cycle and perineal sex skin changes. ..... In normally cycling women, Patton et al (7) showed that the thickness of the ectocervical and.

  8. 60 ASSESSMENT OF FEEDING BEHAVIOUR OF BABOONS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of 16 food plants, 4 invertebrates (millipedes, earthworms, grasshopper and crabs); 2 vertebrates (goats and sheep) and 4 crop plants (groundnuts, guinea corn, maize and beans) were observed to be eaten by baboons in the study area. Wet season food plant species include. Annona senegalensis Parkia biglobosa, Ficus ...

  9. SU-E-T-522: Investigation of Underdosage of Total Body Irradiation with Bilateral Irradiation Scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, T; Eldib, A; Hossain, M; Price, R; Ma, C

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Patient in-vivo measurements report lower readings than those predicted from TMR-based treatment planning on TBI patient knees and ankles where rice was placed to fill the gap between patient’s legs. This study is to understand and correct the under dosage of Total Body Irradiation(TBI) with rice tissue equivalent bolus placement at TBI treatment patient setup. Methods: Bilateral TBI scheme was investigated with rice bags bolus placing between patient’s two legs acting as missing tissue. In-house TMR based treatment planning system was commissioned with measurements under TBI condition at 10MV, i.e. source-to-reference distance 383.4cm with 40×40cm field size with 1cm thickness Lucite. Predictions of patient specific dose points are reported at different sites with 200cGy prescription at patient umbilicus point. Solid water and rice bag phantoms are used at TBI conditions for the attenuation factor verification and CT scanned to verify the CT number and electron density. Results: We found that the rice bag bolus overall density is 11% lower than the water; however, the attenuation factor of rice bags could become 15% lower than that of water at TBI condition. This overestimate of rice bag electron density could cause the lack of lateral scatter and the lack of backscatter. This could Result in an overestimate of dose at in-vivo dosimeter measurement points with TMR-based treatment planning systems. Observations of patient specific optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters(OSLDs) were used to confirm this overestimation. Measurements of setups with increasing the rice bag filled patient leg separation were performed to demonstrate eliminating the overdose issue. Conclusion: Rice bolus has a lower electron density than water does(11%) but results in 15% lower in attenuation factor at TBI condition. This effect was observed in patient delivery with OSLD measurements and can be corrected by increasing the filling rice bolus thickness with 15% longer of

  10. Decreased tumor uptake of gallium-67 in animals after whole-body irradiation. [Gamma radiation, rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, W.P.; Alderson, P.O.; Eckelman, W.C.; Hamilton, R.G.; Weiss, J.F.

    1978-02-01

    The mechanism of decreased Ga-67 citrate retention and serum binding after whole-body irradiation is unknown. To investigate this mechanism and to determine the effects of prior irradiation on tumor uptake of Ga-67, Sprague-Dawley rats bearing a subcutaneous Walker-256 carcinosarcoma were exposed to whole-body Co-60 irradiations of 250-1000 rads. Each animal received 10 ..mu..Ci of Ga-67 citrate intravenously 24 hr after exposure. Control animals received Ga-67 but were not irradiated. Animals were killed at 48 hr and the uptakes (percentage ID/g) in the tumor and other tissues were determined. A blood sample was also obtained to determine the serum iron, unsaturated iron-binding capacity (UIBC) and transferrin level. Tumor uptake and serum UIBC were decreased in irradiated animals, whereas serum iron levels and Ga-67 urinary excretion were increased. There was a significant correlation between the UIBC and the Ga-67 tumor uptake (r = 0.78, p < 0.001, n = 49). Transferrin levels in the irradiated group were not different from control values. The results indicate that the decreased Ga-67 retention and tumor uptake seen after whole-body irradiation are related--at least in part--to the saturation of transferrin by increased levels of circulating iron.

  11. Changes in Serum Zinc, Copper and Ceruloplasmin Levels of Whole Body Gamma Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.I.; Shaban, H.A.; El Gohary, M.I.

    2011-01-01

    Rats are whole body irradiated with different Gamma radiation doses. Zinc and Copper, two important trace elements in the biological processes and Ceruloplasmin, a protein which carries more than 95% of serum Cu and has important roles in many vital processes are followed up in the irradiated rat sera. This work aimed to determine the changes in the serum levels of the three parameters (Zinc, Copper and Ceruloplasmin) through eight weeks follow up period (1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 6th, and 8th week) post whole body gamma irradiation with three sub-lethal doses (2, 3.5 and 5 Gy) of rats. All the experimental animals did not receive any medical treatment. Zinc and Copper were measured using discrete nebulization flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Ceruloplasmin was measured using a colorimetric method. The statistical analyses of the results show that the Zinc levels of the irradiated groups decreased significantly post irradiation and then were recovered at the 6th week post irradiation. The Copper levels of the irradiated groups increased significantly and then were recovered at 6th week post irradiation. The levels of Ceruloplasmin in the same groups increased significantly throughout the whole follow up period. The conclusion is that, Zinc, Copper and Ceruloplasmin levels changed significantly in the irradiated groups compared to the control group with a maximum effect noted in the groups irradiated with the higher doses and that the lower dose irradiated groups recover earlier than the higher ones. Also the correlation between Copper and Zinc is reversible at different doses and that between Copper and Ceruloplasmin is direct

  12. Effects of ancestral x irradiation followed by random mating on body weight of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gianola, D.; Chapman, A.B.; Rutledge, J.J.

    1977-01-01

    Effects of nine generations of 450R per generation of ancestral spermatogonial x irradiation of inbred rats on body weight were examined. After six generations of random mating (avoiding inbreeding) following the termination of irradiation, descendants of irradiated males (R) were significantly lighter than their controls (C) at 3 and 6 weeks, but not at 10 weeks of age. However, differences in growth between R and C populations were small. Among-litter and within-litter variance estimates were generally larger in the R lines than in the C lines, suggesting that selection responses would be greater in R than in C lines. In conjunction with previous evidence--obtained during the irradiation phase of the experiment--this suggested that more rapid response to selection for 6-week body weight, in particular, might accrue in the R lines

  13. Effects of whole-body gamma irradiation on oxygen transport by rat erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiriot, Christian; Kergonou, J.F.; Rocquet, Guy; Allary, Michel; Saint-Blancard, Jacques

    1982-01-01

    In this work, we studied the influence of whole-body gamma irradiation (8 Gy) upon oxygen transport by erythrocytes, through the erythrocyte count and related parameters, and through the factors affecting the oxygen affinity of hemoglobin. The oxygen affinity of hemoglobin is increased from day D + 5 after irradiation, and a severe erythropenia develops from day D + 8. These modifications probably result in tissue hypoxia via diminished oxygen transport from lungs to tissues, and decreased oxygen release from oxyhemoglobin in tissues

  14. Prospective randomized comparison of single-dose versus hyperfractionated total-body irradiation in patients with hematologic malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girinsky, T.; Benhamou, E.; Bourhis, J.H.; Dhermain, F.; Guillot-Valls, D.; Ganansia, V.; Luboinski, M.; Perez, A.; Cosset, J.M.; Socie, G.; Baume, D.; Bouaouina, N.; Briot, E.; Baudre, A.; Bridier, A.; Pico, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    The efficiency of the two irradiation modes are similar, but the hyperfractionated irradiation seems superior in term of global and specific survival. The incidence rates of pneumopathies are not different between the two groups but the incidence rate of the liver vein-occlusive illness is superior in the group treated by non fractionated whole body irradiation. The cost of the hyperfractionated whole body irradiation is superior to this one of the non fractionated whole body irradiation around a thousand dollars. (N.C.)

  15. Body composition changes following the supplementation of different food additives to irradiated animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahmy, M.O.

    1980-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the hypothesis that deposition of fat and / or protein in animal's body before irradiation or using radio - protector material such as soyabean oil may reduce the hazard effects of radiation on life span, body weight and body compartments. Therefore, 286 mice ( 144 males and 142 females) after chemical maturity were used in this study. The animals were divided to 4 major groups. The first group was fed on chow diet, the second group was fed on radioprotector diet ( basel diet), the third group was fed on high energy diet and the forth group fed on high protein diet, for 7 weeks before the exposure to gamma-rays. At the exposure day each nutritional group was divided to 3 exposure treatments ( non-irradiated, 800 and 1200 rads). The previous hypothesis was studied for 42 days after irradiation

  16. Production of anti-SRBC antibodies after DDC administration in whole-body irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kautska, J.; Hosek, B.; Misustova, J.

    1990-01-01

    Production of antibody-forming cells (PFC) was studied in mice subjected to a single whole-body radiation dose of 3.8 Gy following an injection of sodium diethyl dithiocarbamate (DDC, 800 mg/kg) 30 min before irradiation. The animals were immunized (1% SRBC) 4 hours and 5 and 10 days after irradiation, and the number of PFC was determined by a modified Jerne plaque technique on days 4, 7 and 10 after immunization. After irradiation alone, the PFC levels were markedly reduced at all time intervals in comparison with unirradiated controls. Upon immunization of animals on day 10 after irradiation the peak PFC levels were observed on day 7 after immunization in the irradiated only group and in the group irradiated after DDC administration (in controls on day 4 after immunization). The administration of DDC entirely eliminated the unfavourable effect of radiation if immunization was performed 4 h after irradiation, in terms of the number and the peak level of PFC. Upon immunization of animals on day 5 and day 10 after irradiation the PFC levels were not markedly influenced by DDC injection. (author). 3 figs., 25 refs

  17. Four cases of protracted whole body irradiation (Algerian accident 1978)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jammet, H.; Gongora, R.; Pouillart, P.; Le Go, R.; Parmentier, N.

    1979-01-01

    A 25 Ci iridium-192 source accidentally lost was introduced in a room where among others four young female patients (14 - 20 years old) one of them pregnant were irradiated during 4/5 weeks, 6/8 hours daily, cumulating skin doses in the range of 2500r and mean medullary doses in the range of 1250r. They developed a very protracted infections and haemorragic syndrome during which they were treated successfully by haematologic compensatory therapy with enormous quantities of packed isolated blood cells (R.B.C., W.B.C., platelets) and massive antibiotic, antimycotic and hydro-electrolytic therapy. The dosimetric (physical and biological) problems are discussed and the clinical and biological data are given in detail

  18. Deep learning of orthographic representations in baboons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hannagan

    Full Text Available What is the origin of our ability to learn orthographic knowledge? We use deep convolutional networks to emulate the primate's ventral visual stream and explore the recent finding that baboons can be trained to discriminate English words from nonwords. The networks were exposed to the exact same sequence of stimuli and reinforcement signals as the baboons in the experiment, and learned to map real visual inputs (pixels of letter strings onto binary word/nonword responses. We show that the networks' highest levels of representations were indeed sensitive to letter combinations as postulated in our previous research. The model also captured the key empirical findings, such as generalization to novel words, along with some intriguing inter-individual differences. The present work shows the merits of deep learning networks that can simulate the whole processing chain all the way from the visual input to the response while allowing researchers to analyze the complex representations that emerge during the learning process.

  19. Role of lower half body irradiation (LHBI) in palliative treatment of disseminated skeletal metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyas, R.K.; Baboo, H.A.; Suresh, P.

    1993-01-01

    Half body irradiation (HBI) is a new and simple approach for palliative radiotherapy of disseminated skeletal metastasis. It has very good palliative effect with manageable side effects when given as low dose rate treatment. 15 patients with wide spread bony secondaries were treated with Lower Half body Irradiation (LHBI) at a dose rate of 80-90 c Gy/min at our institute. Pain relief was observed in all patients. Of these 50% cases had significant relief of pain. Performance status improved and dependence on analgesic drugs had also reduced. (author). 6 refs., 3 tabs

  20. Radiation nephritis following total-body irradiation and cyclophosphamide in preparation for bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstein, J.; Andreoli, S.P.; Provisor, A.J.; Yum, M.

    1986-01-01

    Two children prepared for bone marrow transplantation with total-body irradiation and cyclophosphamide developed hypertension, microscopic hematuria, proteinuria, diminished renal function, and anemia six months after transplantation. Light microscopy of the kidneys revealed mesangial expansion, glomerular capillary wall thickening, and lumenal thrombosis. Electron microscopy demonstrated widening of the subendothelial space due to the deposition of amorphous fluffy material. In one patient, immunofluorescence microscopy revealed glomerular capillary wall deposition of fibrin and immunoglobulins. The clinical and histologic findings support the diagnosis of radiation nephritis. Patients prepared for bone marrow transplantation with total-body irradiation and cyclophosphamide should be followed closely after transplantation for the development of hypertension, proteinuria, and renal insufficiency

  1. Are baboons learning "orthographic" representations? Probably not.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Linke

    Full Text Available The ability of Baboons (papio papio to distinguish between English words and nonwords has been modeled using a deep learning convolutional network model that simulates a ventral pathway in which lexical representations of different granularity develop. However, given that pigeons (columba livia, whose brain morphology is drastically different, can also be trained to distinguish between English words and nonwords, it appears that a less species-specific learning algorithm may be required to explain this behavior. Accordingly, we examined whether the learning model of Rescorla and Wagner, which has proved to be amazingly fruitful in understanding animal and human learning could account for these data. We show that a discrimination learning network using gradient orientation features as input units and word and nonword units as outputs succeeds in predicting baboon lexical decision behavior-including key lexical similarity effects and the ups and downs in accuracy as learning unfolds-with surprising precision. The models performance, in which words are not explicitly represented, is remarkable because it is usually assumed that lexicality decisions, including the decisions made by baboons and pigeons, are mediated by explicit lexical representations. By contrast, our results suggest that in learning to perform lexical decision tasks, baboons and pigeons do not construct a hierarchy of lexical units. Rather, they make optimal use of low-level information obtained through the massively parallel processing of gradient orientation features. Accordingly, we suggest that reading in humans first involves initially learning a high-level system building on letter representations acquired from explicit instruction in literacy, which is then integrated into a conventionalized oral communication system, and that like the latter, fluent reading involves the massively parallel processing of the low-level features encoding semantic contrasts.

  2. Fluid and sodium loss in whole-body-irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraci, J.P.; Jackson, K.L.; Mariano, M.S.

    1987-09-01

    Whole-body and organ fluid compartment sizes and plasma sodium concentrations were measured in conventional, GI decontaminated, bile duct ligated, and choledochostomized rats at different times after various doses of gamma radiation. In addition, sodium excretion was measured in rats receiving lethal intestinal radiation injury. After doses which were sublethal for 3-5 day intestinal death, transient decreases occurred in all the fluid compartments measured (i.e., total body water, extracellular fluid space, plasma volume). No recovery of these fluid compartments was observed in rats destined to die from intestinal radiation injury. The magnitude of the decreases in fluid compartment sizes was dose dependent and correlated temporally with the breakdown and recovery of the intestinal mucosa but was independent of the presence or absence of enteric bacteria or bile acids. Associated with the loss of fluid was an excess excretion of 0.83 meq of sodium between 48 and 84 h postirradiation. This represents approximately 60% of the sodium lost from the extracellular fluid space in these animals during this time. The remaining extracellular sodium loss was due to redistribution of sodium to other spaces. It is concluded that radiation-induced breakdown of the intestinal mucosa results in lethal losses of fluid and sodium as evidenced by significant decreases in total body water, extracellular fluid space, plasma volume, and plasma sodium concentration, with hemoconcentration. These changes are sufficient to reduce tissue perfusion leading to irreversible hypovolemic shock and death.

  3. Melatonin, a potential effective protector in whole body γ-irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawfik, S.S; El-Nashar, D.E; Ahmed, M.M; Hanafy, Z.E

    2010-01-01

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine), the chief hormone of pineal gland, is widely distributed in animal kingdom. It is claimed for its antioxidant and free radical properties. The present study aimed to examine the radio protective potentiality and efficacy of melatonin against damages induced in whole body γ-irradiated rats. Animals received melatonin (10 mg/ kg body wt/ day) for 10 successive days pre-exposure to 3 Gy of γ-radiation (acute dose). Rats sacrificed at 10 and 20 days post the irradiation time. The results revealed that the prolonged administration of melatonin has ameliorated the radiation- induced depletion in brain, testis and serum glutathione (GSH) level and a decrease in serum glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity when compared with their matched values in irradiated rats. In addition, remarkable decreases in the concentration of lipid peroxidation (LPO) product; malondialdhyde (MDA) was observed in brain, testis and serum of rats received melatonin pre-radiation exposure. As well as, significant decreases in disulphide glutathione (GSSG) were observed in serum.Histopathological examination of brain and testis showed that administration of melatonin pre-irradiation according to the present regimen has attenuated radiation induced tissue damages and improved tissue architecture. Cytogenetically, the chromosomal aberration (CA) assay in bone marrow pointed out a significant difference between rats received melatonin pre-irradiation and γ-irradiated rats in most CA types. Accordingly, it could be postulated the tissue diversity and cytogenetic impact of the administrated melatonin against acute ion syndrome in rat model.

  4. Acute effects of whole body gamma irradiation on exocrine pancreatic secretion in the pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monti, P.; Scanff, P.; Joubert, C.; Vergnet, M.; Grison, S.; Griffiths, N.

    2004-01-01

    Reports on radiation damage to the pancreas deal essentially with long-term morphological changes with few data on pancreatic exocrine function. The aim of this work was to study the acute effects of whole body irradiation on volume and enzyme activities in the pancreatic juice. A whole body gamma irradiation (6 Gy) was investigated in pigs with continuous sampling of pancreatic juice before and after exposure via an indwelling catheter in the pancreatic duct. For each sample collected, total protein concentration and enzyme activities of trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, lipase and amylase were determined. Pancreatic juice volume was monitored during all periods of collection. The volume of pancreatic juice secreted daily decreased one day after irradiation and remained lower than the control values over the experimental period. Total proteins secreted in the pancreatic juice and total activities of pancreatic enzymes were reduced similarly. On the other hand, only specific activities of elastase and lipase were affected by irradiation. Whole body gamma irradiation resulted in a rapid and marked decrease of exocrine pancreatic secretion, in terms of volume as well as secreted enzymes. This may contribute in part to the intestinal manifestations of the acute and/or late radiation syndrome. (author)

  5. The effect of total-body γ-irradiation on pigeons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadhia, P.K.; Shah, V.C.; Desai, R.

    1979-01-01

    A study of the effects of total-body 60 Coγ radiation (200 to 2000 rad) on the common pigeon (Columba livia) has indicated a LD 50/30 of 950 +- 50 rad. There were no deaths before 6 days and the peak frequency in average deaths occurred 9 days after irradiation. Most of the birds showed small changes in activity or behaviour in the first five days. A histopathological study was made of femoral bone marrow from irradiated (1000 rad) pigeons sacrificed 1 to 18 days post-irradiation. Slight aplasia was observed on the first day after irradiation, moderately marked on the third day and extensive on the fourth and fifth days. At the end of the second week regeneration was observed as the primitive lymphocyte-like cells were differentiating into granulocytes and erythrocytes. (UK)

  6. Clinical aspects of accidents resulting in acute total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronkite, E.P.

    1988-01-01

    That the management of whole body radiation injury involves: (1) watchful waiting, (2) observation of the hematologic parameters, (3) use of antibiotics, platelet red cell and possibly granulocyte transfusions, (4) administration of hemopoietic molecular regulators of granulopoiesis, and (5) bone marrow transplantation as the last line of defense. The clinical indication for the preceding will not be discussed, since this will be a subject of later speakers in this conference. Certainly, if a radiation casualty is fortunate enough to have an identical twin, a marrow transplant may be lifesaving and certainly can do no harm to the patient, and there is little risk to the donor

  7. Clinical aspects of accidents resulting in acute total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronkite, E.P.

    1988-01-01

    That the management of whole body radiation injury involves: (1) watchful waiting, (2) observation of the hematologic parameters, (3) use of antibiotics, platelet red cell and possibly granulocyte transfusions, (4) administration of hemopoietic molecular regulators of granulopoiesis, and (5) bone marrow transplantation as the last line of defense. The clinical indication for the preceding will not be discussed, since this will be a subject of later speakers in this conference. Certainly, if a radiation casualty is fortunate enough to have an identical twin, a marrow transplant may be lifesaving and certainly can do no harm to the patient, and there is little risk to the donor.

  8. Effect of Hippophae leaves on neurotransmitters and hematological parameters in whole body irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Vanita; Prasad, Jagdish; Madhu Bala

    2012-01-01

    Till date no approved radio-protective agent is available world over. WR-2721 had severe side effects and was behaviourally toxic even at sub-lethal doses of ionizing radiation. Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) is known for its nutraceutical and therapeutic values. Our studies demonstrated that treatment with leaves of H. rhamnoides rendered > 90% whole body radioprotection in 60 Co-g-irradiated (10 Gy) mice population in comparison to 100% death in non-Hippophae treated irradiated (10 Gy) mice population. Our studies also demonstrated that treatment with leaves of H. rhamnoides prevented conditioned taste aversion (CTA) in irradiated (2 Gy) Sprague-Dawley rats. The present study was planned to evaluate the effects of aqueous extract of Hippophae leaves on changes in levels of neurotransmitters ((acetylcholine esterase (AChE) and dopamine (DA)) in plasma and brain, haematological parameters in blood/plasma; and brain histology in Sprague-Dawley rats showing CTA after 60 Co-g-irradiation (2 Gy). The results showed that whole body 60 Co-g-irradiation (2 Gy) (i) increased the levels of Ach, Eepinephrine (E) and norepinephrine (NE); oxidative stress (MDA and NO), and (ii) decreased the levels of DA; WBC counts and RBC counts and antioxidants (GSH), in comparison to untreated control. Treatment with 12 mg/kg b.w. drug concentration, prior to irradiation significantly (p<0.05) (i) decreased the levels of AChE, E and NE, and MDA and NO levels in plasma and brain, and (ii) increased the WBC counts; RBC counts and levels of antioxidants (GSH), in comparison to radiation control group. Histological changes in brain were also recorded. The results demonstrated that Hippophae leaves extract had neuro-protective and reduced oxidative stress in brain of whole body irradiated mice and could be, thereby contributing to behavioural protection. (author)

  9. Effects of whole body UV-irradiation on oxygen delivery from the erythrocyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humpeler, E.; Mairbaeurl, H.; Hoenigsmann, H.

    1982-01-01

    In 16 healthy caucasian volunteers (mean age: 22.2 years) the influence of whole body UV-irradiation on the oxygen transport properties of erythrocytes was investigated. Four hours after irradiation with UV (using the minimal erythema dose, MED) no variation of haemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, pH or standard bicarbonate could be found, whereas inorganic plasma phosphate (Psub(i)), calcium, the intraerythrocytic 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG), the activity of erythrocytic phosphofructokinase (PFK) and pyruvatekinase (PK) increased significantly. The half saturation tension of oxygen (P 50 -value) tended to increase. The increase of Psub(i) causes - via a stimulation of the glycolytic pathway - an increase in 2,3-DPG concentration and thus results in a shift of the oxygen dissociation curve. It is therefore possible to enhance tissue oxygenation by whole body UV-irradiation. (orig.)

  10. Blood changes in humans following total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantril, S.T.; Jacobson, L.O.; Schwartz, S.; Nickson, J.J.

    1947-06-02

    A major problem encountered in the Manhattan Project was the protection of workers against damage resulting from acute or chronic exposure to external radiation. The problem of how to detect evidence of damage following exposure to total body radiation led to this study. These studies were conducted between January, 1942 and November, 1945. Three groups of persons were employed in this study. The first group of eight individuals harboring incurable neoplasms which was not extensive enough to influence general health, these patients were treated with 400 KV x-radiation while sitting in a wooden chair, doses were 27, 60, and 120r. Three persons having generalized illnesses chronic in nature were given total body radiation using 200 KV X-rays in multiple exposures totaling 100, 300, and 500r. A third group of normal volunteers from personnel of the Metallurgical Laboratory were treated with 200 KV x-rays in three divided doses totaling 21 r. Changes in peripheral blood in the fourteen individuals is reported. In group 1 the most persistent abnormality noted was a diminution in the number of lymphocytes after completion of the treatment. In group 2 a depression in the lymphocytes was also the most marked single change. In group 3 no alterations in peripheral blood was observed.

  11. Assessment of Feeding Behaviour of Baboons ( Papio Anubis ) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to assess the feeding behaviour of baboons of Hong hills. Direct observation method was used for the study. Data was collected for a period of eight months. The results indicate high diversity and abundance of food items for baboons in the study area. A total of 16 food plants, 4 invertebrates ...

  12. Activity budgets on social and reproductive behaviour of olive baboons

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to investigate the activity budgets on social interactions and reproductive behaviour of olive baboon (Papio anubis) at Gashaka Gumti ... Results of polyspecific association shows that the baboons spent 14.29% of the time in association with red flanked duikers, 14.29% with black-and-white ...

  13. Vaginal Histological Changes Of The Baboon During The Normal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the histological changes in baboon vagina associated with cyclic variations during normal menstrual cycle. Setting: The experiments were carried out at Institute of Primate Research (IPR), Karen, Nairobi, Kenya. Subjects: Nine adult healthy female olive baboons were used in this study.

  14. Crop-raiding Baboons (Papio anubis) and Defensive Farmers: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Baboons are often reported as the worst crop-raiders in Africa, but there has been little observation of the actual behavioural-ecology of their crop-raiding, especially in West Africa. The paper examines the crop-raiding behaviour of a group of habituated baboons (Gamgam group) near the village of Gashaka on the ...

  15. Behavioural Patterns of a Troop of Olive Baboons ( Papio Anubis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Olive baboons forage viciously on agricultural crops causing huge losses of farm produce to farmers. In this study, behavioural pattern of a troop of crop raiding olive baboons, Papio anubis which dwell at the periphery of Gashaka Gumti National Park and forage on crops were studied as they raided maize farms. Successful ...

  16. Cataract after total body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation: degree of visual impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kempen-Harteveld, M. Loes; Struikmans, Henk; Kal, Henk B.; van der Tweel, Ingeborg; Mourits, Maarten P.; Verdonck, Leo F.; Schipper, Jan; Battermann, Jan J.

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the degree of visual impairment as a result of cataract formation after total body irradiation (TBI) for bone marrow transplantation. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The data from 93 patients who received TBI in 1 or 2 fractions as a part of their conditioning regimen for bone marrow

  17. Dosimetry for total body irradiation of rhesus monkeys with 300 kV X- rays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoetelief, J.; Wagemaker, G.; Broerse, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain more accurate information on the dose distribution in rhesus monkeys for total body irradiation with orthovoltage X-rays. Materials and methods: Dose measurements were performed with an ionization chamber inside homogeneous cylindrical and rectangular phantoms of various

  18. Modelling and validation for total body irradiation using a 3D planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, Madhav; Bezak, Eva; Nicolls, Ralph; Byas, Kurt; Nixon, Rogr

    2001-01-01

    Pinnacle treatment planning system has been successfully commissioned for total body irradiation and will be used for patient treatments in near future. The actual dose delivered to patients will be monitored with TLDs and diode array and the agreement with the prescribed dose will be further investigated

  19. Development of fibrosis in dogs as a late consequence of whole-body X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo, W.; Fliedner, T.M.; Steinbach, I.; Alcober, V.; Nothdurft, W.; Fache, I.

    1978-01-01

    Dogs wre whole-body irradiated with a single mid-line dose of 1200 R at 300 kV. This high dose will kill non-treated animals within a few days. To save these animals, leukocytes were previously collected during a four-hour leukapheresis using a continuous-flow centrifuge and were stored under liquid nitrogen. Shortly after the whole-body irradiation each dog received its own cryopreserved cells thawed immediately beforehand. The dogs received between 0.32x10 9 and 1.63x10 9 mononuclear blood cells per kilogram of body weight. The number of colony-forming cells contained in the transfusate ranged between 0.19x10 5 and 1.38x10 5 per kilogram of body weight. This blood stem transfusion, together with general supportive therapy, enabled the dogs to overcome the acute radiation syndrome and to recover. The dogs were subsequently sacrificed in two groups after observation for about 260 days or 700-898 days respectively. Pathological findings are described. A particular situation existed in the marrow, whre non-irradiated stem cells had colonized bone cavities containing irradiated stroma. Progressive fibrosis developed in the endosteal areas of the bone cavities in most of the animals. (author)

  20. Mitochondrial monoaminoxidase activity and serotonin content in rat brain after whole-body γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savitskij, I.V.; Tsybul'skij, V.V.; Grivtsev, B.A.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that γ-irradiation of albino rats with a dose of 30 Gy leads to pronounced phase changes in monoaminoxidase activity and serotonin content in rat brain at early times after whole-body exposure. These is a similar direction of changes in the activity of the enzyme and in the content of the substrate adequate to the latter

  1. Whole-body irradiation technique: physical aspects; Tecnica de irradiacion corporal total: aspectos fisicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venencia, D.; Bustos, S.; Zunino, S. [Instituto Privado de Radioterapia. Obispo Oro 425. Cordoba 5000 (Argentina)

    1998-12-31

    The objective of this work has been to implement a Total body irradiation technique that fulfill the following conditions: simplicity, repeatability, fast and comfortable positioning for the patient, homogeneity of the dose between 10-15 %, short times of treatments and In vivo dosimetric verifications. (Author)

  2. Booster irradiation to the spleen following total body irradiation. A new immunosuppressive approach for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapidot, T.; Singer, T.S.; Salomon, O.; Terenzi, A.; Schwartz, E.; Reisner, Y.

    1988-01-01

    Graft rejection presents a major obstacle for transplantation of T cell-depleted bone marrow in HLA-mismatched patients. In a primate model, after conditioning exactly as for leukemia patients, it was shown that over 99% of the residual host clonable T cells are concentrated in the spleen on day 5 after completion of cytoreduction. We have now corroborated these findings in a mouse model. After 9-Gy total body irradiation (TBI), the total number of Thy-1.2+ cells in the spleen reaches a peak between days 3 and 4 after TBI. The T cell population is composed of both L3T4 (helper) and Lyt-2 (suppressor) T cells, the former being the major subpopulation. Specific booster irradiation to the spleen (5 Gy twice) on days 2 and 4 after TBI greatly enhances production of donor-type chimera after transplantation of T cell-depleted allogeneic bone marrow. Similar enhancement can be achieved by splenectomy on day 3 or 4 after TBI but not if splenectomy is performed 1 day before TBI or 1 day after TBI, strengthening the hypothesis that, after lethal TBI in mice, the remaining host T cells migrate from the periphery to the spleen. These results suggest that a delayed booster irradiation to the spleen may be beneficial as an additional immunosuppressive agent in the conditioning of leukemia patients, in order to reduce the incidence of bone marrow allograft rejection

  3. Reflective inserts to reduce heat strain in body armor: tests with and without irradiance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadarette, Bruce S; Santee, William R; Robinson, Scott B; Sawka, Michael N

    2007-08-01

    This study evaluated adding reflective thermal inserts (RTI) to reduce the physiological strain during exercise-heat stress with a radiant load. RTI were used with a U.S. Army desert battle dress uniform, body armor, and helmet. Four male volunteers attempted four trials (10 min rest followed by 100 min walking at 1.56 m x s(-1)). All trials were at 40.0 degrees C dry bulb (Tdb), 12.4 degrees C dew point (Tdp), 20% RH, and 1.0 m x s(-1) wind speed. On 2 d, there was supplementary irradiance (+1) with globe temperature (Tbg) = 56.5 degrees C and on 2 d there was no supplementary irradiance (-I) with Tbg approximately Tdb. Trial conditions were: 1) RTI and armor with supplementary irradiance (RA+I); 2) plain armor with supplementary irradiance (PA+I); 3) RTI and armor with no supplementary irradiance (RA-I); and 4) plain armor with no supplementary irradiance (PA-I). Endurance times were not significantly different among trials. With one exception, armor and helmet interior and exterior surface temperatures were not significantly different between either RA+I and PA+I or RA-I and PA-I. Temperature on the inside of the helmet in RA+I (47.1 +/- 1.4 degrees C) was significantly lower than in PA+I (49.5 +/- 2.6 degrees C). There were no differences for any physiological measure (core temperature, heart rate, mean weighted skin temperature, forehead skin temperature, sweating rate, evaporative cooling, rate of heat storage) between either RA+I and PA+L or RA-I and PA-I. Results showed no evidence that wearing RTI with body armor and helmet reduces physiological strain during exercise-heat stress with either high or low irradiance.

  4. Study of food intake dynamics in rats following acute whole-body irradiation with X rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smajda, B.; Ahlers, I.; Datelinka, I.

    1987-01-01

    The effects were studied of whole-body X-irradiation with sublethal (2.39 Gy) and medium lethal (5.74 Gy) doses on food intake by rats. The lower dose caused a temporary decrease in food intake, with a minimum of 63.3% of the control level on the 2nd day after irradiation. The decrease was statistically significant up to the 4th day after irradiation. No substantial changes were observed in the parameters of the circadian rhythm in food intake with the maximum on the 3rd day after irradiation, with only 8% of the initial value. The food intake was reduced until the 9th day after irradiation. The daily thythm of food intake was strongly disturbed during the first three days after irradiation, then restoring gradually and on the 9th day showing the original phasing and shape. The results obtained were in agreement with the assumed neural regulation mechanism of food intake and its circadian rhythm in the rat. (author). 5 figs., 12 refs

  5. Effects of whole-body irradiation on neonatally thymectomized mice. Incidence of benign and malignant tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.E.; Howarth, J.L.; Troup, G.M.

    1978-01-01

    The individual and combined effects of neonatal thymectomy and whole-body irradiation on the prevalence of benign and malignant tumors in germ-free female mice of the Charles Rivers line were studied to determine if a portion of the tumorigenic effects of irradiation can be attributed to injury of the thymic-dependent component of the immune response. Neonatal thymectomy increased (a) the incidence of benign and malignant tumors and (b) the prevalence of multiple primary neoplasms in an individual mouse. Whole-body exposure to 700 rad at 6 weeks of age further increased the incidence of tumors, but the relative magnitude of this increase was less pronounced than in sham-operated controls. Thus, the cumulative effects of thymectomy plus irradiation are less pronounced than the sum of the individual effects. One of several possible explanations for this observation is that a portion of the carcinogenic effects of whole-body irradiation is mediated by suppression of the thymic-dependent component of the immune response

  6. Low Dietary Protein Status Potentiating Risk of Health Hazard in Whole Body Gamma Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Gawish, M.A.M.; Yousri, R.M.; Roushdy, H.M.; Abdel-Reheem, K.A.; Al-Mossallamy, N.A.

    1998-01-01

    Investigations were planned to assess the changes in certain biochemical parameters as affected by the synergistic effect of exposure to fractionated doses of rays and / or feeding on different protein levels. The date showed that animals kept on normal or low protein diet exhibited a significant decrease in serum total protein and glucose. Also , a significant increase was recorded in insulin level in rats exposed at the radiation dose level of 20 Gy. Exposure to cumulative doses of irradiation has aggrevated the hyperglycemic effect of high protein diet with a significant and marked increase of insulin at all the applied doses. Animals fed normal high or low protein diet were found to exert significant decreases in T3, T4 while a significant increase in TSH of high protein group occurred as a result of exposure to cumulative doses of gamma-irradiation. Rats kept on low protein diet exhibited losses in body weight, hypercholesterolemia, low levels of phospholipids and triglycerides as compared with the normal protein diet group. In contrast high protein diet group showed no serious effects. Irradiation has potentiated body weight losses, hypotriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia in animal group fed low protein diet with a significant increase in serum phospholipids due to the higher radiation dose of 20 Gy. Protein deficiency acted synergistically with gamma irradiation and increased the susceptibility of body organs to radiation damage. Such findings contributed to the knowledge which stimulated the decrease of the internationally recognized occupational dose limits from 50 down to 20 m Sv (ICRP 1991)

  7. Radiological protection in a patient during a total body irradiation procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez O, J. O.; Hinojosa G, J.; Gomez M, E.; Balam de la Vega, J. A.; Deheza V, J. C.

    2010-09-01

    A technique used in the Service of Radiotherapy of the Cancer Center of the American British Cowdray Medical Center (ABC) for the bone marrow transplantation, is the total body irradiation. It is known that the dose calculation, for this irradiation type, is old, since the dosimetric calculation is carried out by hand and they exist infinity of techniques for the patients irradiation and different forms of protecting organs of risk, as well as a great uncertainty in the given dose. In the Cancer Center of the ABC Medical Center, was carried out an irradiation procedure to total body with the following methodology: Computerized tomography of the patient total body (two vacuum mattresses in the following positions: dorsal and lateral decubitus), where is combined the two treatment techniques anterior-posterior and bilateral, skin delineate and reference volumes, dose calculation with the planning system Xi O of CMS, dose determination using an ionization chamber and a lung phantom IMRT Thorax Phantom of the mark CIRS and dosimetry in vivo. In this work is presented the used treatment technique, the results, statistics and the actualization of the patient clinical state. (Author)

  8. The carcinogenic risk of high dose total body irradiation in non-human primates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broerse, J.J.; Bartstra, R.W.; Bekkum, D.W. van; Hage, M.H. van der; Zurcher, C.; Zwieten, M.J. van; Hollander, C.F.

    2000-01-01

    High dose total body irradiation (TBI) in combination with chemotherapy, followed by rescue with bone marrow transplantation (BMT), is increasingly used for the treatment of haematological malignancies. With the increasing success of this treatment and its current introduction for treating refractory autoimmune diseases the risk of radiation carcinogenesis is of growing concern. Studies on turnout induction in non-human primates are of relevance in this context since the response of this species to radiation does not differ much from that in man. Since the early sixties, studies have been performed on acute effects in Rhesus monkeys and the protective action of bone marrow transplantation after irradiation with X-rays (average total body dose 6.8 Gy) and fission neutrons (average dose 3.4 Gy). Of those monkeys, which were irradiated and reconstituted with autologous bone marrow, 20 animals in the X-irradiated group and nine animals in the neutron group survived more than 3 years. A group of 21 non-irradiated Rhesus monkeys of a comparable age distribution served as controls. All animals were regularly screened for the occurrence of neoplasms. Complete necropsies were performed after natural death or euthanasia. At post-irradiation intervals of 4-21 years an appreciable number of tumours was observed. In the neutron irradiated group eight out of nine animals died with one or more malignant tumours. In the X-irradiated group this fraction was 10 out of 20. The tumours in the control group, in seven out of the 21 animals, appeared at much older a-e compared with those in the irradiated cohorts. The histogenesis of the tumours was diverse with a preponderance of renal carcinoma, sarcomas among which osteosarcormas, and malignant glomus tumours in the irradiated groups. When corrected for competing risks, the carcinogenic risk of TBI in the Rhesus monkeys is similar to that derived from the studies of the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. The increase of the risk by a

  9. Taxonomy Icon Data: Guinea baboon [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Guinea baboon Papio papio Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Primate Papio_papio_L.png Papio_papi...o_NL.png Papio_papio_S.png Papio_papio_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papio+papi...o&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papio+papio&t=NL http://bioscien...cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papio+papio&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papio+papio&t=NS ...

  10. Taxonomy Icon Data: hamadryas baboon [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hamadryas baboon Papio hamadryas Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Primate Papio_ham...adryas_L.png Papio_hamadryas_NL.png Papio_hamadryas_S.png Papio_hamadryas_NS.png http://bioscien...cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papio+hamadryas&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papio+ham...adryas&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papio+hamadryas&...t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papio+hamadryas&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=186 ...

  11. Thymic nurse cells and thymic repopulation after whole body sublethal irradiation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houben-Defresne, M.P.; Varlet, A.; Boniver, J.

    1984-01-01

    Thymic Nurse Cells (TNCs) are lymphoepithelial complexes which are thought to play a role in the early stages of the intrathymic differentiation pathway. Their repopulation kinetics were analyzed in mice after sublethal whole-body irradiation. Changes of the number of TNCs per thymus were parallel with the evolution of the whole thymocyte population. Particularly, a first wave of TNCs restoration was followed by a secondary depletion and a final recovery. This suggests that TNCs restoration is related to the proliferating progeny of intrathymic radioresistant thymocytes. When normal bone marrow cells were grafted intravenously after irradiation, no secondary depletion was found. This pattern of restoration was obviously related to thymic repopulation by cells which were derived from the inoculated bone marrow. Homing studies with FITC labelled bone marrow cells showed that inoculated bone marrow cells did not penetrate TNCs early after irradiation. Later on, when immigrant cells started to proliferate, they were found preferentially within TNCs before spreading in the whole thymus. (Auth.)

  12. Effects of gamma irradiation on protocorm-like bodies of cattleya alliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thammasiri, K.

    1996-01-01

    Induced mutations by gamma irradiation can be one of the promising methods for orchid breeding. Protocorm - like bodies (PLBs) of Brassolaeliocattleya (Blc.) Alma kee and Blc. Greenwich were established from in vitro apical and axillary buds of young shoots in Vacin and Went (1949) liquid medium supplemented with 150 ml/l coconut water. PLBs were irradiated with gamma rays at 0, 20, 60, 80, 110 and 130 Gray (Gy). Doses between 80 and 110 Gy were suitable to apply for induced mutations in both cultivars. Another experiment with more samples was conducted. Gamma rays were applied at 0, 70, 100 and 130 Gy. The results showed that irradiated PLBs of both cultivars had slow growth rate and some PLBs turned brown and died. A dose of 70 Gy was suitable for induced mutation. More severe effects were observed when higher doses had been applied

  13. Practical implications of backscatter from outside the patient on the dose distribution during total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dam, J.; Rijnders, A.; Vanuytsel, L.; Zhang, H.-Z.

    1988-01-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI) sometimes requires the set-up of the patient very close to the wall of the treatment room in order to obtain sufficiently large irradiation fields. Under these conditions, backscattered electrons can become clinically important. In the present study, an attempt was made to quantify the dose contribution to the patient from these electrons. Measurements were performed both in experimental conditions and on patients during their TBI treatment. It is concluded that, with the patient close to the wall, backscattered electrons constitute a significant (up to 20% of the dose obtained under electronic equilibrium at the exit port of the beam) radiation dose which can (under certain conditions) influence measurements of exit dose leading to an overestimation of the midline dose and contribute a suuperficial irradiation of the patient without therapeutic benefit. This problem can be solved by interposing a 2 cm thick low-Z absorber between wall and patient. 9 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 table

  14. The effect of gamma-rays on the hemoglobin of whole-body irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashry, H.A.; Selim, N.S.; El-Behay, A.Z.

    1994-01-01

    Changes in the UV-visible absorption spectrum of mouse hemoglobin as a result of whole body irradiation were studied. White albino adult mice were exposed to a Cs-137 γ-source at a dose rate of 47.5 Gy/h to different absorbed dose values ranging from 1 to 8 Gy. Blood specimens were taken 24 h after irradiation. The UV-visible absorption spectra of hemoglobin of irradiated and control mice were measured in the wavelength range from 200 to 700 nm. The obtained results showed significant changes in the bands measured at 340 nm, in the Soret band measured at 410 nm, also, the α- and β-bands measured at 537 and 572 nm showed significant decrease in intensity with the absorbed dose increase. The absorbance measured at 630 nm showed no significant changes. The radiation effect on the animal hemoglobin was discussed on the basis of the obtained results. (Author)

  15. Metabolism and gastrointestinal absorption of neptunium and protactinium in adult baboons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ralston, L.G.; Cohen, N.; Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Larsen, R.P.; Ayres, L.; Oldham, R.D.; Moretti, E.S.

    1985-01-01

    The metabolism of neptunium and protactinium was studied in adult female baboons following intravenous injection and intragastric intubation. Immediately following intravenous injection (10 -1 to 10 -10 mg Np per kg body wt), neptunium cleared rapidly from blood, deposited primarily in the skeleton (54 +- 5%) and liver (3 +- 0.2%), and was excreted predominantly via urine (40 +- 3%). For the first year post injection, neptunium was retained with a biological half-time of approx.100 days in liver and 1.5 +- 0.2 yr in bone. In comparison, injected protactinium (10 -9 mg/kg) was retained in blood in higher concentrations and was initially eliminated in urine to a lesser extent (6 +- 3%). In vivo measurements indicated that protactinium was retained in bone (65 +- 0.3%) with a half-time of 3.5 +- 0.6 yr. Differences in the physicochemical states of the neptunium or protactinium solutions injected did not alter the metabolic behavior of these nuclides. The gastrointestinal absorption value for neptunium in two fasted baboons, sacrificed at 1 day post administration, was determined to be 0.92 +- 0.04%. Of the total amount of neptunium absorbed, 52 +- 3% was retained in bone, 6 +- 2% was in liver, and 42 +- 0.1% was excreted in urine. A method was developed to estimate GI absorption values for both nuclides in baboons which were not sacrificed. Absorption values calculated by this method for neptunium and protactinium in fasted baboons were 1.8 +- 0.8% and 0.65 +- 0.01%, respectively. Values for fed animals were 1 to 2 orders of magnitude less than those for fasted animals. 14 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs. (DT)

  16. Metabolism and gastrointestinal absorption of neptunium and protactinium in adult baboons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ralston, L.G.; Cohen, N.; Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Larsen, R.P.; Ayres, L.; Oldham, R.D.; Moretti, E.S.

    1985-01-01

    The metabolism of neptunium and protactinium was studied in adult female baboons following intravenous injection and intragastric intubation. Immediately following intravenous injection (10/sup -1/ to 10/sup -10/ mg Np per kg body wt), neptunium cleared rapidly from blood, deposited primarily in the skeleton (54 +- 5%) and liver (3 +- 0.2%), and was excreted predominantly via urine (40 +- 3%). For the first year post injection, neptunium was retained with a biological half-time of approx.100 days in liver and 1.5 +- 0.2 yr in bone. In comparison, injected protactinium (10/sup -9/ mg/kg) was retained in blood in higher concentrations and was initially eliminated in urine to a lesser extent (6 +- 3%). In vivo measurements indicated that protactinium was retained in bone (65 +- 0.3%) with a half-time of 3.5 +- 0.6 yr. Differences in the physicochemical states of the neptunium or protactinium solutions injected did not alter the metabolic behavior of these nuclides. The gastrointestinal absorption value for neptunium in two fasted baboons, sacrificed at 1 day post administration, was determined to be 0.92 +- 0.04%. Of the total amount of neptunium absorbed, 52 +- 3% was retained in bone, 6 +- 2% was in liver, and 42 +- 0.1% was excreted in urine. A method was developed to estimate GI absorption values for both nuclides in baboons which were not sacrificed. Absorption values calculated by this method for neptunium and protactinium in fasted baboons were 1.8 +- 0.8% and 0.65 +- 0.01%, respectively. Values for fed animals were 1 to 2 orders of magnitude less than those for fasted animals. 14 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs. (DT)

  17. Sesamol attenuates cytogenetic damages in bone marrow cells of whole body gamma irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Arun; Tamizh Selvan, G.; Adhikari, Jawahar S.; Chaudhury, N.K.

    2014-01-01

    Whole body radiation exposure cause damages to all vital organs and bone marrow is the most sensitive. Pre-treatment with antioxidant as single prophylactic dose is expected to lower induction of damages in bone marrow. In the present study we have focused on sesamol, a dietary antioxidant mediated radioprotection in bone marrow cells of gamma irradiated mice and compared with melatonin. Male C57BL/6 mice were intraperitoneally administered with sesamol (10 and 20 mg/kg body) and after 30 minutes exposed to whole body gamma radiation using 60 Co Teletherapy unit. Mice were injected with 0.2 ml of a metaphase arresting agent (0.05% colchicine) intra-peritoneally 3 hours prior to sacrifice (24 hrs. post-irradiation). Bone marrow cells were flushed out from femurs of each animal and processed for chromosomal aberration assay. Another set of experiment without colchicine injection was performed to access the DNA damage in bone marrow using alkaline comet assay. At least 100 metaphases per animal were scored under light microscope to record various aberrations and total chromosomal aberrations (TCA) was calculated. Similar measurements were performed with melatonin for comparing the efficacy of sesamol. Gamma irradiation has increased the chromatid type aberrations (break formation, fragment) and chromosomal type aberrations (ring formation, acentric) in bone marrow cells. The results have shown significant (p< 0.001) increase in TCA of irradiated mice than control. While pre-treatment of sesamol and melatonin 10 mg/kg significantly (p<0.05) reduced the TCA. The extend of protection has increased at 20 mg/kg significantly (p<0.001) as evident from the reduced TCA compared to irradiated group. Interestingly, sesamol and melatonin have shown similar extent of reduction of TCA. Thus sesamol has demonstrated strong ability to protect bone marrow at low dosage. These investigations on sesamol mediated protection in bone marrow are likely to benefit development of

  18. Antibiotic radioprotection of mice exposed to supralethal whole-body irradiation independent of antibacterial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastromarino, A.; Wilson, R.

    1976-01-01

    Oral administration of streptomycin, kanamycin, neomycin, or gentamicin to specific pathogen-free C57 x Af mice in their drinking water (4 mg/ml) for 2 weeks before supralethal whole-body irradiation very significantly prolonged their mean survival times (8.2 to 8.9 days vs 6.9 for controls) to values which exceed those reported for germ-free mice (7.3 days). The total fecal concentrations of aerobes and anaerobes were reduced by kanamycin, neomycin, and gentamicin. Streptomycin reduced the anaerobes significantly, but not the aerobes. Unlike germ-free mice, these antibiotic-treated mice did excrete free bile acids, products of bacterial action. Oral antibiotic treatment was ineffective in altering the transit time of the intestinal mucosal cells. Previously reported studies had indicated a correlation between decreased transit time and increased survival after irradiation. No significant correlation between mean survival time after irradiation and mucosal transit time was observed. The data demonstrate that certain antibiotics alter the character of the intestinal bacterial flora and increase protection against supralethal doses of whole-body irradiation. It is concluded that the mechanisms of radioresistance in antibiotic-treated mice and germ-free mice are different and that in both groups radioresistance is the result of more than elimination of postirradiation infection

  19. Enhancement of committed hematopoietic stem cell colony formation by nandrolone decanoate after sublethal whole body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallicchio, V.S.; Chen, M.G.; Watts, T.D.

    1984-01-01

    The ability of an anabolic steroid, nandrolone decanoate, to increase committed topoietic stem cell (CFU-gm, CFU-e, and BFU-e) colony formation after sublethal irradiation was evaluated. Immediately after receiving whole body irradiation and on the next two days, each mouse was injected intraperitoneally with nandrolone decanoate (1.25 mg) in propylene glycol. Irradiated control mice received only propylene glycol. Compared to controls, drug-treated mice showed marked peripheral blood leukocytosis and more stable packed red cell volume. Drug-treated mice also demonstrated increased erythropoiesis, as CFU-e/BFU-e concentrations from both marrow (9% to 581%) and spleen (15% to 797%) were elevated. Granulopoiesis was increased similarly, as CFU-gm concentrations from marrow (38% to 685%) and spleen (9% to 373%) were elevated. These results demonstrate that nandrolone decanoate enhances hematopoietic stem cell recovery after sublethal whole body irradiation. This suggests that following hematopoietic suppression, nandrolone decanoate may stimulate the recovery of hematopoiesis at the stem cell level and in peripheral blood

  20. Enhancement of committed hematopoietic stem cell colony formation by nandrolone decanoate after sublethal whole body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallicchio, V.S.; Chen, M.G.; Watts, T.D.

    1984-11-01

    The ability of an anabolic steroid, nandrolone decanoate, to increase committed topoietic stem cell (CFU-gm, CFU-e, and BFU-e) colony formation after sublethal irradiation was evaluated. Immediately after receiving whole body irradiation and on the next two days, each mouse was injected intraperitoneally with nandrolone decanoate (1.25 mg) in propylene glycol. Irradiated control mice received only propylene glycol. Compared to controls, drug-treated mice showed marked peripheral blood leukocytosis and more stable packed red cell volume. Drug-treated mice also demonstrated increased erythropoiesis, as CFU-e/BFU-e concentrations from both marrow (9% to 581%) and spleen (15% to 797%) were elevated. Granulopoiesis was increased similarly, as CFU-gm concentrations from marrow (38% to 685%) and spleen (9% to 373%) were elevated. These results demonstrate that nandrolone decanoate enhances hematopoietic stem cell recovery after sublethal whole body irradiation. This suggests that following hematopoietic suppression, nandrolone decanoate may stimulate the recovery of hematopoiesis at the stem cell level and in peripheral blood.

  1. Expression of IL-1{beta} mRNA in mice after whole body X-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemoto, Kumie; Ishihara, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Izumi; Suzuki, Gen; Tsuneoka, Kazuko; Yoshida, Kazuko; Ohtsu, Hiroshi [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1995-06-01

    IL-1{beta} is a stimulator of hematopoietic and inflammatory systems, and also acts as a radioprotector. After whole-body exposure to sublethal doses of ionizing radiation, the IL-1{beta} mRNA level in spleen cells increases for a short time prior to regeneration of the spleen. We analyzed spleen cells of C3H/He mice after whole-body irradiation with 3 Gy x-rays to determine the cause of this short-term increase in the transcription level. An increase in the level of the message in spleen cells, found by Northern blot hybridization, reached its peak 5 to 7 days after irradiation. There was a low correlation between the curves of the mRNA level and the ratio of monocyte/macrophage lineage cells; a typical source of the message. Spleen macrophages that produce a large amount of the message were found 7 days after irradiation in an in situ hybridization experiment in which heterogeneous spleen cell populations were used. In contrast, spleen cells had no detectable levels of macrophages rich in IL-1{beta} mRNA before and 17 days after irradiation. Additionally, the population of message-rich cells was 9.4% of the total number of monocytes/macrophages in the spleen. These results suggest that the short-term increase in IL-1{beta} mRNA is a result of the heterogeneous differentiation of a subpopulation of spleen macrophages before regeneration of the spleen. (author).

  2. Modulator Effect of Turmeric on Oxidative Damage in Whole Body Gamma Irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, H.H.; Abdou, M.I.

    2012-01-01

    Because of its penetrating power and its ability to travel great distances, gamma rays are considered the primary hazard to the population during most radiological emergencies. So, there is a need to develop medical countermeasures to protect the first responders and remediation workers from biomedical effect of ionizing radiation. Turmeric has been reported to have many beneficial health effects, including a strong anti-oxidant effect, anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial properties. In the present study, turmeric was investigated as a therapeutic agent against hazards induced by ionizing radiation on kidney, liver, urinary and serum calcium levels and blood counts. A daily dose of 0.5 g/kg body weight was used in whole body gamma irradiated female rats with 3 Gy. Radiation effects were followed up for four weeks post irradiation. The results revealed that the administration of turmeric post-irradiation resulted in a significant inhibition in the frequency of radiation induced oxidative damage. It could be concluded that definite turmeric dose exerts a vital modulator role against gamma irradiation hazard

  3. Hyperfractionated total body irradiation for bone marrow transplantation: early results in leukemia patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shank, B.; Hopfan, S.; Kim, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    Bone marrow transplantation following cytoreduction with total body irradiation and cyclophosphamide has previously been shown to be of value in treating refractory leukemias. Major problems, however, have been fatal interstitial pneumonitis and leukemic relapse. In an attempt to minimize these problems, we initiated a new hyperfractionated regimen for total body irradiation, with partial lung sparing. From May 1979 through July 1980, we treated 48 leukemia patients according to this regimen, varying in age from 1.5 to 42 years old (mean age: 18 y). Analysis in September 1980, with follow-up from 2 to 16 months, showed that we have a significantly reduced incidence of interstitial pneumonitis compared with single dose (1000 rad) irradiation (33 vs 70%), as well as decreased deaths attributable to interstitial pneumonitis (23 vs 50%). This is reflected in the survival curves, with loss of the early drop in survival previously observed with single dose irradiation. One year actuarial survival was 65% for acute lymphocytic leukemia (n = 16) and 72% for actue non-lymphocytic leukemia (n = 29). This compares with only 17% for acute non-lymphocytic leukemia patients (n = 12) on our previous single dose regimen. Age was also found to be an important parameter for both survival and interstitial pneumonitis

  4. Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Mitigates Hematopoietic Toxicity After Lethal Total Body Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Dunhua; Deoliveira, Divino; Kang, Yubin; Choi, Seung S. [Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Li, Zhiguo [Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Chao, Nelson J. [Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Immunology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Duke Cancer Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Chen, Benny J., E-mail: chen0032@mc.duke.edu [Duke Cancer Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate whether and how insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) mitigates hematopoietic toxicity after total body irradiation. Methods and Materials: BALB/c mice were irradiated with a lethal dose of radiation (7.5 Gy) and treated with IGF-1 at a dose of 100 μg/dose intravenously once a day for 5 consecutive days starting within 1 hour after exposure. Survival and hematopoietic recovery were monitored. The mechanisms by which IGF-1 promotes hematopoietic recovery were also studied by use of an in vitro culture system. Results: IGF-1 protected 8 of 20 mice (40%) from lethal irradiation, whereas only 2 of 20 mice (10%) in the saline control group survived for more than 100 days after irradiation. A single dose of IGF-1 (500 μg) was as effective as daily dosing for 5 days. Positive effects were noted even when the initiation of treatment was delayed as long as 6 hours after irradiation. In comparison with the saline control group, treatment with IGF-1 significantly accelerated the recovery of both platelets and red blood cells in peripheral blood, total cell numbers, hematopoietic stem cells, and progenitor cells in the bone marrow when measured at day 14 after irradiation. IGF-1 protected both hematopoietic stem cells and progenitor cells from radiation-induced apoptosis and cell death. In addition, IGF-1 was able to facilitate the proliferation and differentiation of nonirradiated and irradiated hematopoietic progenitor cells. Conclusions: IGF-1 mitigates radiation-induced hematopoietic toxicity through protecting hematopoietic stem cells and progenitor cells from apoptosis and enhancing proliferation and differentiation of the surviving hematopoietic progenitor cells.

  5. DNA damage focus analysis in blood samples of minipigs reveals acute partial body irradiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Lamkowski

    Full Text Available Radiation accidents frequently involve acute high dose partial body irradiation leading to victims with radiation sickness and cutaneous radiation syndrome that implements radiation-induced cell death. Cells that are not lethally hit seek to repair ionizing radiation (IR induced damage, albeit at the expense of an increased risk of mutation and tumor formation due to misrepair of IR-induced DNA double strand breaks (DSBs. The response to DNA damage includes phosphorylation of histone H2AX in the vicinity of DSBs, creating foci in the nucleus whose enumeration can serve as a radiation biodosimeter. Here, we investigated γH2AX and DNA repair foci in peripheral blood lymphocytes of Göttingen minipigs that experienced acute partial body irradiation (PBI with 49 Gy (± 6% Co-60 γ-rays of the upper lumbar region. Blood samples taken 4, 24 and 168 hours post PBI were subjected to γ-H2AX, 53BP1 and MRE11 focus enumeration. Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL of 49 Gy partial body irradiated minipigs were found to display 1-8 DNA damage foci/cell. These PBL values significantly deceed the high foci numbers observed in keratinocyte nuclei of the directly γ-irradiated minipig skin regions, indicating a limited resident time of PBL in the exposed tissue volume. Nonetheless, PBL samples obtained 4 h post IR in average contained 2.2% of cells displaying a pan-γH2AX signal, suggesting that these received a higher IR dose. Moreover, dispersion analysis indicated partial body irradiation for all 13 minipigs at 4 h post IR. While dose reconstruction using γH2AX DNA repair foci in lymphocytes after in vivo PBI represents a challenge, the DNA damage focus assay may serve as a rapid, first line indicator of radiation exposure. The occurrence of PBLs with pan-γH2AX staining and of cells with relatively high foci numbers that skew a Poisson distribution may be taken as indicator of acute high dose partial body irradiation, particularly when samples are available

  6. Protective value of piroxicam on the enhanced inflammatory response after whole body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    el-Ghazaly, M.; Saleh, S.; Kenawy, S.; Roushdy, H.M.; Khayyal, M.T.

    1986-06-01

    The anti-inflammatory activity of piroxicam was assessed after whole body irradiation in rats. Two models of inflammation, the carrageenan-induced edema and the adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats have been utilised. Piroxicam at doses of 1, 5 and 10 mg kg-1 i.p. was effective in inhibiting the paw edema produced in both models of inflammation. The inflammatory response in irradiated was significantly higher than that produced in normal animals and was dependent on the radiation dose level used (0.5-2 Gy). The effect of piroxicam on the late inflammatory response produced by exposure to 2 Gy was studied by measuring the carrageenan-induced edema 4 h after irradiation and on the third and seventh day thereafter. The increase in paw volume was significantly suppressed in animals receiving the drug. Administration of piroxicam (5 mg kg-1) one hour before irradiation of animals at 0.5 Gy, produced inhibition to the exaggerated inflammatory response in irradiated animals. This suggests that piroxicam possibly owes its protective value to prevention of the increase in cellular permeability induced by radiation. Alternatively, the drug may exert this effect by inhibiting PG synthesis, thereby reducing their potentiating influence on the other mediators of inflammation. Furthermore, the inhibition of lysosomal enzyme release possibly induced by the drug may contribute to the probable reduction in the release of inflammatory mediators.

  7. Cognitive control under social influence in baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguet, Pascal; Barbet, Isabelle; Belletier, Clément; Monteil, Jean-Marc; Fagot, Joël

    2014-12-01

    From cockroaches to human beings, the presence of other members of the same species typically facilitates dominant (habitual/well-learned) responses regardless of their contextual relevance. This social facilitation requires special attention in animal species such as primates, given their evolved cognitive control mechanisms. Here we tested baboons who freely engaged in (computer-based) conflict response tasks requiring cognitive control for successful performance, and discovered that social presence does not only enhance dominant responses but also consumes cognitive control resources. Under social presence, the baboons experienced greater cognitive conflicts, were less able to inhibit a learned action in favor of a new one, and were also less able to take advantage of previous experience with response conflict, compared with isolation. These findings explain why inappropriate behaviors are not easily suppressed in primates acting in social contexts, and indicate a greater demand for cognitive control in social groups. This extra demand might represent a major evolutionary drive of human intelligence. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Mechanisms of taurine hyperexcretion after whole-body irradiation of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beskrovnaya, L.A.; Lapteva, T.A.; Dokshina, G.A.; Baranova, M.I.

    1976-01-01

    Mechanisms of postirradiation hyperexcretion of taurine with urine have been investigated. In the course of three days after a whole-body exposure of rats (700 rads), the excretion of taurine increases. The experiments in vitro have demonstrated that taurine synthesis decreases in the thymus and liver of irradiated animals. The experiments conducted have shown that the postirradiation hyperexcretion of taurine is partly due to its release from the lymohoid tissue (thymus)

  9. Half body irradiation of patients with multiple bone metastases: a phase II trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Randi S; Yilmaz, Mette K; Høyer, Morten

    2009-01-01

    AIM OF STUDY: The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of half-body irradiation (HBI) on pain and quality of life in cancer patients with multiple bone metastases. The secondary aim was to evaluate side effects of the treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 44 patients receive...... on the patients' global quality of life. CONCLUSION: Single fraction HBI is safe and effective providing long lasting pain reduction in 76% of patients with multiple bone metastases....

  10. Late effects on gonadal function of cyclophosphamide, total-body irradiation, and marrow transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, J.E.; Buckner, C.D.; Leonard, J.M.; Sullivan, K.M.; Witherspoon, R.P.; Deeg, H.J.; Storb, R.; Thomas, E.D.

    1983-09-01

    One hundred thirty-seven patients had gonadal function evaluated 1-11 years after marrow transplantation. All 15 women less than age 26 and three of nine older than age 26 who were treated with 200 mg/kg cyclophosphamide recovered normal gonadotropin levels and menstruation. Five have had five pregnancies resulting in three live births, one spontaneous abortion, and one elective abortion. Three of 38 women who were prepared with 120 mg/kg cyclophosphamide and 920-1200 rad total-body irradiation had normal gonadotropin levels and menstruation. Two had pregnancies resulting in one spontaneous and one elective abortion. Of 31 men prepared with 200 mg/kg cyclophosphamide, 30 had normal luteinizing hormone levels, 20 had normal follicle-stimulating hormone levels, and 10 of 15 had spermatogenesis. Four have fathered five normal children. Thirty-six of 41 men prepared with 120 mg/kg cyclophosphamide and 920-1750 rad total-body irradiation had normal luteinizing hormone levels, ten had normal follicle-stimulating hormone levels, and 2 of 32 studied had spermatogenesis. One has fathered two normal children. It was concluded that cyclophosphamide does not prevent return of normal gonadal function in younger women and in most men. Total-body irradiation prevents return of normal gonadal function in the majority of patients.

  11. Chromosome aberrations of the peripheral lymphocytes in rabbits exposed to single and fractionated whole-body x-irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Hiroaki; Sakurai, Masaharu; Sugahara, Tsutomu.

    1978-01-01

    The changes in the frequency of peripheral lymphocytes with chromosome aberrations were observed during or after irradiation of rabbits exposed to fractionated or single whole-body irradiations. In rabbits given daily fractionated whole-body irradiations the incidence of the aberrations showed a linear increase in the first week; however, the incidence decreased thereafter though exposures were repeated. The lymphocyte count tended to decrease as the number of irradiations increased. In rabbits exposed to a single dose of 250 R or 500 R the incidence of aberrations rapidly decreased over a period of 10 days following irradiation, and then showed a little change thereafter. The lymphocyte count in the peripheral blood reached a nadir 2 - 5 days after irradiation, and then started to increase gradually. It was speculated that there are two types of lymphocytes, long-lived and short-lived, in the peripheral blood of rabbits, both of which are PHA-committed. (auth.)

  12. 28Si total body irradiation injures bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells via induction of cellular apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jianhui; Feng, Wei; Wang, Yingying; Allen, Antiño R.; Turner, Jennifer; Stewart, Blair; Raber, Jacob; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Zhou, Daohong; Shao, Lijian

    2017-05-01

    Long-term space mission exposes astronauts to a radiation environment with potential health hazards. High-energy charged particles (HZE), including 28Si nuclei in space, have deleterious effects on cells due to their characteristics with high linear energy transfer and dense ionization. The influence of 28Si ions contributes more than 10% to the radiation dose equivalent in the space environment. Understanding the biological effects of 28Si irradiation is important to assess the potential health hazards of long-term space missions. The hematopoietic system is highly sensitive to radiation injury and bone marrow (BM) suppression is the primary life-threatening injuries after exposure to a moderate dose of radiation. Therefore, in the present study we investigated the acute effects of low doses of 28Si irradiation on the hematopoietic system in a mouse model. Specifically, 6-month-old C57BL/6 J mice were exposed to 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 Gy 28Si (600 MeV) total body irradiation (TBI). The effects of 28Si TBI on BM hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) were examined four weeks after the exposure. The results showed that exposure to 28Si TBI dramatically reduced the frequencies and numbers of HSCs in irradiated mice, compared to non-irradiated controls, in a radiation dose-dependent manner. In contrast, no significant changes were observed in BM HPCs regardless of radiation doses. Furthermore, irradiated HSCs exhibited a significant impairment in clonogenic ability. These acute effects of 28Si irradiation on HSCs may be attributable to radiation-induced apoptosis of HSCs, because HSCs, but not HPCs, from irradiated mice exhibited a significant increase in apoptosis in a radiation dose-dependent manner. However, exposure to low doses of 28Si did not result in an increased production of reactive oxygen species and DNA damage in HSCs and HPCs. These findings indicate that exposure to 28Si irradiation leads to acute HSC damage.

  13. Influence of radioprotectors on total body weight evolution and on oxygen consumption in lethal dose irradiated animals. (Preliminary study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatome, M.; Martine, G.; Bargy, E.; Andrieu, L.

    Comparison of total body weight evolution and oxygen consumption in lethal dose irradiated animals, protected by various well known radioprotective substances, isolated or in mixture, with evolution and consumption of non protected animals irradiated at the same dose and with these of check animals [fr

  14. Whole body UVA irradiation lowers systemic blood pressure by release of nitric oxide from intracutaneous photolabile nitric oxide derivates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opländer, C.; Volkmar, C.M.; Paunel-Görgülü, A.; van Faassen, E.E.H.; Heiss, C.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale: Human skin contains photolabile nitric oxide derivates like nitrite and S-nitroso thiols, which after UVA irradiation, decompose and lead to the formation of vasoactive NO. Objective: Here, we investigated whether whole body UVA irradiation influences the blood pressure of healthy

  15. TNF, IL-1 and IL-6 in circulating blood after total-body and localized irradiation in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveman, J.; Geerdink, A. G.; Rodermond, H. M.

    1998-01-01

    The levels of TNF, IL-1 and IL-6 in circulating blood of female WAG/Rij rats were assessed both after total-body irradiation (TBI) and localized irradiation of the right hind leg. The results show that enhanced levels of IL-1 in the circulation reflect a stress situation presumably resulting from

  16. Influence of whole-body γ-irradiation upon rat erythrocyte: lipid peroxidation and osmotic fragility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kergonou, J.F.; Thiriot, C.; Braquet, M.; Ducousso, R.; Rocquet, G.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of whole-body γ-irradiation of rats (8Gy) on erythrocyte enzymes and biochemical components involved in lipid peroxidation were studied. Decreased superoxide dismustase and glutathione reductase activities, and lowered concentrations of reduced glutathione, were found to be the main factors responsible for observed increase in lipid peroxidation in the erythrocytes of irradiated rats. This increased lipid peroxidation did not result in the greater tendency to hemolysis in hypotonic media; on the contrary, the mean osmotic fragility was decreased at days D + 1 and D + 3 after irradiation. The behavior of the erythrocyte polulations towards hemolysis in hypotonic media appeared to be most homogeneous at days D + 4 and D + 8 after irradiation, which correspond to maxima of malonic dialdehyde concentrations in erythrocytes. Such a synchrony of variations suggests that crosslinking of primary amino groups of proteins or phospholipids by malonic dialdehyde might produce a rigidification in erythrocyte membranes, possibly leading to a more homogeneous behavior of the erythrocyte populations towards hemolysis in hypotonic media

  17. Ciliary body and choroidal melanomas treated by proton beam irradiation. Histopathologic study of eyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seddon, J.M.; Gragoudas, E.S.; Albert, D.M.

    1983-01-01

    Proton beam irradiation resulted in clinical and/or histopathological regression of large ciliary body and choroidal melanomas in three eyes. Enucleations were performed 6 1/2 weeks, five months, and 11 months after irradiation for angle-closure glaucoma from total retinal detachment, increase in retinal detachment, and neovascular glaucoma, respectively. A direct relationship was found between the length of the interval from irradiation to enucleation and the degree of histologic changes. Vascular changes in the tumors included endothelial cell swelling and decreased lumen size, basement membrane thickening, collapse of sinusoidal vessels, and thrombosis of vessels. Although apparently unaltered tumor cells remained, degenerative changes occurred in some melanoma cells, including lipid vacuoles in cytoplasm, pyknotic nuclei, and balloon cell formation. Patchy areas of necrosis and proteinaceous exudate were present. Pigment-laden macrophages were found near tumor vessels and all had a substantial chronic inflammatory infiltrate. The effect of proton beam irradiation on tumor vessels probably plays an important role in uveal melanoma regression

  18. Ciliary body and choroidal melanomas treated by proton beam irradiation. Histopathologic study of eyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seddon, J.M.; Gragoudas, E.S.; Albert, D.M.

    1983-09-01

    Proton beam irradiation resulted in clinical and/or histopathological regression of large ciliary body and choroidal melanomas in three eyes. Enucleations were performed 6 1/2 weeks, five months, and 11 months after irradiation for angle-closure glaucoma from total retinal detachment, increase in retinal detachment, and neovascular glaucoma, respectively. A direct relationship was found between the length of the interval from irradiation to enucleation and the degree of histologic changes. Vascular changes in the tumors included endothelial cell swelling and decreased lumen size, basement membrane thickening, collapse of sinusoidal vessels, and thrombosis of vessels. Although apparently unaltered tumor cells remained, degenerative changes occurred in some melanoma cells, including lipid vacuoles in cytoplasm, pyknotic nuclei, and balloon cell formation. Patchy areas of necrosis and proteinaceous exudate were present. Pigment-laden macrophages were found near tumor vessels and all had a substantial chronic inflammatory infiltrate. The effect of proton beam irradiation on tumor vessels probably plays an important role in uveal melanoma regression.

  19. Optimized total body irradiation for induction of renal allograft tolerance through mixed chimerism in cynomolgus monkeys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimikawa, Masaaki; Kawai, Tatsuo; Ota, Kazuo [Tokyo Women`s Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1996-12-01

    We previously demonstrated that a nonmyeloablative preparative regimen can induce mixed chimerism and renal allograft tolerance between MHC-disparate non-human primates. The basic regimen includes anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG), total body irradiation (TBI, 300 cGy), thymic irradiation (TI, 700 cGy), splenectomy, donor bone marrow (DBM) infusion, and posttransplant cyclosporine therapy (CYA, discontinued after 4 weeks). To evaluate the importance and to minimize the toxicity of irradiation, kidney allografts were transplanted with various manipulations of the irradiation protocol. Monkeys treated with the basic protocol without TBI and TI did not develop chimerism or long-term allograft survival. In monkeys treated with the full protocol, all six monkeys treated with two fractionated dose of 150 cGy developed chimerism and five monkeys appeared tolerant. In contrast, only two of the four monkeys treated with fractionated doses of 125 cGy developed chimerism and only one monkey survived long term. The degree of lymphocyte depletion in all recipients was proportional to the TBI dose. The fractionated TBI regimen of 150 cGy appears to be the most consistently effective regimen for establishing donor bone marrow cell engraftment and allograft tolerance. (author)

  20. Clinical analysis of hematopoiesis reconstruction after total body irradiation in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Tong; Gao Hong; Sun Baojing; Chen Li

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the clinical outcome of total body irradiation in hematopoiesis reconstruction after autologous and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Methods: 35 patients received autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (ASCT group) and 35 patients received allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (Allo-HSCT group) were enrolled in this study. And their hematopoiesis reconstruction were observed and analyzed. Results: The recovery time of ANC were 14 and 16 d, respectively, and the recovery time of PLT were 23 and 27 d, respectively, the difference were not significant (P>0.05) in ASCT group and Allo-HSCT group. But for both group, hematopoiesis reconstruction were faster in peripheral blood stem cell transplant than those in bone marrow transplant (P<0.05). The recovery time of PLT with the patients of total body irradiation dose ≥ 10 Gy were longer than those of < 10 Gy. Conclusions: At the same doses, the clinical outcome of hematopoiesis reconstruction of ASCT is similar to that of Allo-HSCT. But the recovery time in peripheral blood stem cell transplantation is faster than that in bone marrow transplant. The recovery time of PLT has relation with the irradiation dose. (authors)

  1. Acute tolerance of hyperfractionated accelerated total body irradiation; Akuttoleranz bei der hyperfraktionierten akzelerierten Ganzkoerperbestrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latz, D. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg (Germany). Abt. Klinische Radiologie; Schraube, P. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg (Germany). Abt. Klinische Radiologie; Wannenmacher, M. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg (Germany). Abt. Klinische Radiologie

    1996-12-01

    Background: Acute side effects of total body irradiation lead to intense molestations of the patients. Therefore, it is desirable to take measures to reduce these side effects. In a retrospective study the frequency on acute side effects of a hyperfractionated accelerated total body irradiation was assessed and compared to frequencies of other exposure schedules published in the literature. Additionally the influence of ondansetron on the frequency of nausea and vormiting was investigated. Patients and Method: From 1989 to 1992, 76 patients (47 male, 29 female; median age 38 years) underwent total body irradiation before autologeous bone marrow transplantation. They received 3 daily doses of 1.20 Gy each every 4 h on 4 successive days to a total dose of 14,40 Gy. Thirty-nine patients received 3x8 mg (daily, intravenous or per os) ondansetron during the whole course of irradiation. Results: The most relevant side effects were nausea and vomiting. Patients, who did not receive ondansetron (n=37) showed a nausea and emesis rate of 73%. With ondansetron (n=39) nausea and emesis were reduced to 38%. Also the grade of severity of these side effects was reduced. Conclusions: Ondansetron proved to be an effective medicament for relieving nausea and vormiting during total body irradiation. The results obtained are in concordance with those published in the literature. (orig.) [Deutsch] Hintergrund: Die Akutnebenwirkungen der Ganzkoerperbestrahlung fuehren zu starken Belastungen der Patienten. Massnahmen zur Reduktion dieser Nebenwirkungen sind daher notwendig. In einer retrospektiven Analyse wurde die Haeufigkeit von Akutnebenwirkungen bei einer hyperfraktionierten akzelerierten Granzkoerperbestrahlung untersucht und mit den Auftretenshaeufigkeiten anderer in der Literatur aufgefuehrter Fraktionierungsschemata verglichen. Zusaetzlich wurde der Einfluss des Serotoninantagonisten Ondansetron auf die Haeufigkeit von Uebelkeit und Erbrechen untersucht. Patienten und Methode

  2. [Grooming and group structure in hamadryas baboons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    The results of 3-year observation on coral living hamadryas baboons transported from natural habitat in Tuapse reservation have been presented. Despite of the fact that grooming between males and females accounted for 73% of total cases of grooming in adult individual pairs, only the relationships of males with high-ranked females of their harems fully corresponded to a star-shaped sociogram. The high-ranked females were not different from all the other females either according to a total number of grooming cases with their female partners or according to a proportion of a performed and received grooming. Grooming between the related females was noted predominantly in the cases when they belonged to the same harem. Grooming between the related males accounted for 59% of all the cases of grooming between the male partners.

  3. Elevation of blood levels of zinc protoporphyrin in mice following whole-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walden, T.L. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Elevation of zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels in the blood has served as an indicator of lead poisoning and iron deficiency anemia for many years. The author has discovered that sublethal doses of whole body irradiation with X-rays also elevates ZPP two- to three-fold over normal levels. The ZPP level does not begin to increase until days 12 to 14 post-irradiation and peaks between days 18 to 20 before returning to normal levels between days 28 to 35. Increasing the radiation dose delays the onset of the rise in ZPP but does not affect the magnitude of the elevation. At lethal doses, ZPP elevation is not observed. Neither of the two previously described mechanisms which cause elevations of ZPP, namely iron deficiency and inhibition of ferrochelatase, are responsible for the radiation induced elevation of ZPP. The elevation of ZPP appears to be correlated with the recovery of the hematopoietic system from radiation injury

  4. Alterations of blood platelet functional tests in whole-body irradiated rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zitko, M.; Pospisil, J.; Klir, P.; Dienstbier, Z.

    1983-01-01

    With a selected spectrum of coagulation tests the functional capacity of thrombocytes was investigated in rabbits exposed to a whole-body irradiation by means of 60 Co radiation with a LD 5/30. A reduced retraction could be proved for postirradiation days 5, 8, 11, 21, 35, and 56. A reduced formation of malondialdehyde could be identified in thrombocytes on the 8th and 21st day after irradiation. No changes could be found in determining adhesiveness, platelet aggregation caused by ADP, and PF 3 A and PF 3 F tests. In the course of additional investigations (coagulation time in unprepared and siliconized glass tubes, thromboelastogram, activated partial thromboplastine time), significant changes of coagulation time could be observed in siliconized glass tubes on the 8th, 11th, 21st, and 56th postirradiation days. (author)

  5. Accumulation of lipid peroxidation products in eye structures of mice subjected to whole-body X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakina, N.L.; Dontsov, A.E.; Afanas'ev, G.G.; Ostrovskij, M.A.; Pelevina, I.I.

    1990-01-01

    In studying the effect of whole-body X-irradiation on the accumulation of lipid peroxidation products (conjugated dienes, TBA-active products, and Sciff bases) in retina and retinal pigmented epithelium of pigmented and nonpigmented mice it was shown that irradiation of dark-pigmented mice does not cause even a slight accumulation of lipid peroxidation products as compared to that in the controls. Albino mice exhibited a marked increase in the level of lipid peroxidation products which was manifested soon after irradiation and persisted for at least 3 months after irradiation. Melanine is suggested to participate in protecting eye structures against pro-oxidizing action of ionizing radiation

  6. Estimates of genetic parameters of body weight in descendants of x-irradiated rat spermatogonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gianola, D.; Chapman, A.B.; Rutledge, J.J.

    1977-01-01

    Effects of nine generations of 450 R per generation of ancestral spermatogonial x irradiation of inbred rats on genetic parameters of body weight at 3, 6 and 10 weeks of age and of weight gains between these periods were studied. Covariances among relatives were estimated by mixed model and regression techniques in randomly selected lines with (R) and without (C) radiation history. Analyses of the data were based on five linear genetic models combining additive direct, additive indirect (maternal), dominance and environmental effects. Parameters in these models were estimated by generalized least-squares. A model including direct and indirect genetic effects fit more closely to the data in both R and C lines. Overdominance of induced mutations did not seem to be present. Ancestral irradiation increased maternal additive genetic variances of body weights and gains but not direct genetic variances. Theoretically, due to a negative direct-maternal genetic correlation, within full-sib family selection would be ineffective in increasing body weight at six weeks in both R and C lines. However, progress from mass selection would be expected to be faster in the R lines

  7. Whole Body Microwave Irradiation for Improved Dacarbazine Therapeutical Action in Cutaneous Melanoma Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Neagu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A cutaneous melanoma mouse model was used to test the efficacy of a new therapeutical approach that uses low doses of cytostatics in conjunction with mild whole body microwave exposure of 2.45 GHz in order to enhance cytostatics antitumoral effect. Materials and Methods. A microwave exposure system for C57BL/6 mouse whole body microwave irradiation was designed; groups of 40 mice (males and females bearing experimental tumours were subjected to a combined therapy comprising low doses of dacarbazine in combination with mild whole body irradiation. Clinical parameters and serum cytokine testing using xMAP technology were performed. Results. The group that was subjected to combined therapy, microwave and cytostatic, had the best clinical evolution in terms of overall survival, tumour volume, and metastatic potential. At day 14 the untreated group had 100% mortality, while in the combined therapy group 40% of mice were surviving. Quantifying serum IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 (p70, IFN-γ, GM-CSF, TNF-α, MIP-1α, MCP-1, and KC during tumorigenesis and therapy found that the combined experimental therapy decreases all the inflammatory cytokines, except chemokine MCP-1 that was found increased, suggesting an increase of the anti-tumoral immune response triggered by the combined therapy. The overall metastatic process is decreased in the combined therapy group.

  8. Catecholamine levels in sheep hypothalamus, hypophysis and adrenals following whole-body gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastorova, B.; Arendarcik, J.; Molnarova, M.

    1985-01-01

    Changes were studied in the levels of catecholamines and L-DOPA in the control system of the reproduction cycle (hypothalamus, hypophysis) and in the adrenal glands of sheep after whole-body irradiation with 60 Co at a total dose of 6.7 Gy for seven days. The output of the radiation source was 0.039 Gy/h. The catecholamines (noradrenaline, dopamine and adrenaline) and L-DOPA were determined after separation from the tissues by the method of spectral fluorometry. After whole-body exposure to gamma radiation, noradrenaline dropped in the hypothalamus in comparison with the control group, most significantly in the rostral (by 74.2%) and caudal (by 40%) parts. A similar drop was also observed in dopamine, the concentrations of which decreased in the rostral hypothalamus by 60%. Adrenaline showed a drop in the hypothalamus, most significant in the caudal region (by 62%). Consequently, the level of the precursor of the synthesis of catecholamines and L-DOPA changed and showed in the studied regions of the hypothalamus significantly lower levels than in the control group. As regards the hypophysis, after irradiation no significant changes in the levels of noradrenaline and adrenaline were recorded, however, dopamine and L-DOPA dropped significantly (P<0.01). The exposure to gamma radiation also causes a decrease in the concentrations of catecholamines and L-DOPA in the adrenal glands of sheep, most significantly in noradrenaline (by 61%). It was thus found that whole-body irradiation of sheep with a dose of 6.7 Gy results in a significant decrease in the level of catecholamines in the hypothalamus, hypophysis and adrenal glands, which is probably in relation to the failure of synthesis and degradation of catecholamines and to the total organism injury

  9. Renal toxicity in children undergoing total body irradiation for bone marrow transplant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esiashvili, Natia; Chiang, K.-Y.; Hasselle, Michael D.; Bryant, Cynthia; Riffenburgh, Robert H.; Paulino, Arnold C.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Contribution of total body irradiation (TBI) to renal toxicity in children undergoing the bone marrow transplant (BMT) remains controversial. We report our institutional retrospective study that evaluates the frequency of acute and chronic renal dysfunction in children after using total body irradiation (TBI) conditioning regimens. Materials and methods: Between 1995 and 2003, 60 children with hematological malignancies underwent TBI as part of a conditioning regimen before allogeneic BMT. Patients received 4-14 Gy at 1.75-2 Gy/fraction in six-eight fractions. Lung shielding was used in all patients to limit lung dose to less than 10 Gy; renal shielding was not utilized. All patients had baseline renal function assessment and renal dysfunction post-BM was mainly evaluated on the basis of persistent serum creatinine elevation at acute (0-90 days) and chronic (>90 days) intervals after completion of BMT. Results: Acute renal dysfunction (ARD) was documented in 27 patients (45%); the majority had concurrent diagnosis of veno-occlusive disease (VOD) or graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and other potential causes (sepsis, antibiotic). The risk for delayed renal dysfunction (DRD) at 1 year approached 25% for surviving patients. The ARD was strongly linked with the risk of the DRD. There was no statistically significant relationship between ARD, DRD and underlying diagnosis, GVHD, VOD or TBI doses with both univariate and multivariate analyses. The younger age (<5 years) had significantly increased risk for the development of ARD (p = 0.011). Conclusion: Our analysis validates high incidence of renal dysfunction in the pediatric BMT population. In contrast to other reports we did not find total body irradiation dose to be a risk factor for renal dysfunction. Future prospective studies are needed to assess risk factors and interventions for this serious toxicity in children following allogeneic BM

  10. The behaviour of the endocrinological parameters cortisol, testosterone, growth hormone and prolactin after UVA and UVB whole-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicke, M.

    1986-01-01

    With two groups, each with 8 healthy subjects UV whole-body irradiation was carried out with uniformly 30 J/cm 2 UVA or respectively UVB at the level of the individual minimal erythema dose. Every subject received serial irradiations once a day for four days. The determination of the serum hormone level was accomplished by means of radioimmunoassays. The results show a weakly significant decline of cortisol 4 and 24 hours after 2 serial UVB irradiations. 3,5 and 7 days after the end of the irradiation series the cortisol values have increased, but by the seventh day statistically only weakly significant. With UVA irradiation there was also a weakly significant increase in cortisol levels three days after the end of the irradiation series. The serum levels of the other hormones showed no statistically significant changes. (orig./MG) [de

  11. Total body irradiation for pediatric patients of hematological malignancies. Fraction and oral-pharyngeal mucosal reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Tomoki; Kashiwado, Kozo; Ueno, Toshihiro; Nakashige, Aya; Toda, Hiroyuki; Mori, Masaki; Hamamoto, Kazuko [Hiroshima Red Cross Hospital and Atomic-bomb Survivors Hospital (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    Twenty one pediatric patients of hematological malignancies received bone marrow transplantation (BMT) using total body irradiation (TBI). We discussed its acute toxicity. Especially in children, reduction of acute toxicity is important to keep the quality of treatment. Our routine TBI schedule was 12 Gy/4 frac.. But in one patient who recently treated by 13.6 Gy/8 frac., oral-pharyngeal mucosal reaction was apparently mild. So we changed the routine treatment schedule of TBI from 12 Gy/4 frac. to 12.6 Gy/6 frac.. (author)

  12. An Acute Transverse Myelitis Attack after Total Body Irradiation: A Rare Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer Keklik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Total body irradiation (TBI combined with chemotherapy is widely used as a pretreatment regimen of bone marrow transplantation (BMT in hematologic disorders. Late complications related to TBI as part of the conditioning regimen for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation have been revealed. Acute transverse myelitis (ATM is a neurological syndrome characterized by disorder of motor, sensorial, and autonomic nerves, and tracts at medulla spinalis, which is resulted from involvement of spinal cord. In this paper, we presented an ATM attack developed after TBI in a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL as it is a rarely seen case.

  13. Uptake of carbon monoxide by C3H mice following X irradiation of lung only or total-body irradiation with 60Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rappaport, D.S.; Niewoehner, D.E.; Kim, T.H.; Song, C.W.; Levitt, S.H.

    1983-01-01

    Carbon monoxide uptake (V/sub co/) and ventilation rate (VR) of C3H mice were determined at 14 weeks following either X irradiation of lungs only or total-body irradiation with 60 Co at different dose rates. Following localized X irradiation of lung at 97 /sub c/Gy/min there was a reduction in V/sub co/, which was inversely related to radiation dose, with a small reduction below control levels being detected at 7 Gy, the lowest dose tested. An increase in VR could be detected only at doses of 11 Gy, or more. Another group of animals received 11.5 Gy total-body irradiation at either 26.2 or 4.85 /sub c/Gy/min fllowed by transplantation with syngeneic bone marrow. Following total-body irradiation, V/sub co/ was significantly reduced by about 37% at the higher dose rate and 23% at the lower dose rate. In contrast, a trend toward elevated VR was detected only at the higher dose rate.The results indicate that V/sub co/ is a sensitive indicator of radiation-induced lung injury and that under the experimental conditions used V/sub co/ is a more sensitive indicator of radiation-induced lung injury in C3H mice than VR

  14. Therapeutic effect of bone marrow transplantation plue previous blood transfusion on rats with total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Yongtang; Ran Xinze; Wei Shuqing

    1988-01-01

    Therapeutic effect of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and blood transfusion on different groups of rats subjected to various doses of total body irradiation (TBI) was studied. In the control group, 80 rats that received TBI of 8,9,10,11 and 12 Gy died between 3∼14 days. In the second group, 67 rats that received the same doses of irradiation were treated with BMT. Except that 8 rats died from lung hemorrhages at 4∼6 days after TBI. 85% of these animals (500/59) showed hemopoietic engraftment. The survival rates of 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 Gy subgroups at 90 days after BMT were 90%, 56%, 56%, 25% and 0% respectively. In the third group, 82 rats receive TBI and blood transfusion prior to BMT. Except that 8 rats subjected to 11∼12 Gy irradiation died from lung hemorrhage at 4∼6 days after BMT, 97% of these animals (72/74) showed hemopoietic engraftment. The 90-day survival rates of 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 Gy subgroups were 93%, 80%, 80%, 60% and 6% respectively. The 90-day survival rate of 50 rats subjected to 9∼11 Gy TBI and treated with blood transfusion and BMT, was 72%, while that 47 rats treated simply with BMT was only 42%. These results showed clearly that previous blood transfusion could increase the rate of hemopoietic engraftment, reduce the incidence if rejection, and raise the survival rate

  15. Protective Effect Of Avocado Oil Against Biochemical And Histological Changes In Whole Body Gamma Irradiation In Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Rahman, N.A.; Abd El Azime, A.SH.; Sherif, N.H.

    2013-01-01

    Avocado oil, extracted from the pulp of the fruit, is rich in poly-unsaturated fatty acids, linoleic, linolenic, oleic acids and the monounsaturated fatty acid. It also contains B-sitosterol, B-carotene, lecithin, minerals and vitamins A, C, D and E. Avocado oil lowers the blood levels of serum lipids and has antioxidant properties as a free radical scavenger. Male albino rats were divided into 5 groups. 1- Control group: rats not subjected to any treatment, 2- Avocado treated group: rats received avocado oil (0.1 ml/kg/day) via intraperitoneal injection during 21 days, 3- Irradiated group: rats were whole body gamma irradiated with 7 Gy, 4- Avocado + irradiated group: rats received avocado oil for 21 days then exposed to whole body gamma irradiation with 7 Gy and 5- Radiation + avocado group: rats were exposed to 7 Gy whole body gamma irradiation then received avocado oil for 21 days. Avocado oil (0.1 ml/kg/day) was given to rats, receiving a standard diet, for 21 days before exposure to 7 Gy whole body gamma irradiation then the treatment was continued for 10 days after irradiation. Several investigations were carried out such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), lipid profile and blood sugar. High significant increase in MDA was observed and treatment with avocado before irradiation caused significant increase in GSH, CAT and SOD and significant decrease in MDA as compared to the irradiated groups. The results also showed that treatment with avocado oil significantly diminished the radiation-induced alterations observed in the levels of lipid profile and glucose. The results demonstrated that whole body gamma irradiated rats showed significant increase in alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate amino-transferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and glucose. By studying the lipid profile, significant increases in cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-C levels were recorded while significant decrease was

  16. Metabolism of endogenous surfactant in premature baboons and effect of prenatal corticosteroids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunt, JEH; Carnielli, VP; Seidner, [No Value; Ikegami, M; Wattimena, JLD; Sauer, PJJ; Jobe, AH; Zimmermann, LJI

    1999-01-01

    We studied the synthesis of surfactant and the effect of prenatal betamethasone treatment in vivo in very preterm baboons. Ten pregnant baboons were randomized to receive either betamethasone (beta) or saline (control) 48 and 24 h before preterm delivery. The newborn baboons were intubated, treated

  17. Effect of BCNU combined with total body irradiation or cyclophosphamide on survival of dogs after autologous marrow grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paterson, A.H.G.; English, D.

    1979-01-01

    Dogs were treated with either: (1) 750 rad total body irradiation; (2) BCNU 2 or 4 mg/kg IV 48 hours prior to 750 rad total body irradiation; or (3) BCNU 4 mg/kg IV plus cyclophosphamide 30 mg/kg IV. Results showed that of 11 dogs who received 750 rad total body irradiation and did not receive cryopreserved autologous bone marrow cells, none survived, compared to an 88% survival (31 of 35 dogs) after 750 rad total body irradiation if the dogs received stored autologous bone marrow cells. However, when the dogs were treated with BCNU 2 or 4 mg/kg prior to 750 rad total body irradiation the survival rate, despite infusion of autologous bone marrow cells, dropped to 25% (3 of 12 dogs) for BCNU 2 mg/kg, and 17% (2 of 12 dogs) for BCNU 4 mg/kg. This effect did not seem to be due to direct serum inhibition of hemopoietic cell proliferation since serum obtained at various intervals after BCNU administrations failed to inhibit CFU growth in vitro. The dogs died from hemorrhage and infection; at autopsy there was hemorrhagic pneumonitis and intestinal ulcerations with petechial hemorrhages, suggesting that the combination of BCNU and total body irradiation may have synergistic toxicity on the canine gastro-intestinal tract. When BCNU was combined with cyclophosphamide, reversal of marrow toxicity occurred in 54% (6 of 11 dogs) with stored autologous bone marrow cells compared to no survival (0 of 8 dogs) with stored autologous bone marrow cells. Thus while autologous bone marrow grafts are useful for reversal of marrow toxicity due to many therapeutic protocols, such grafts alone may not provide protection against toxicity due to the combination of high dosage BCNU and total body irradiation

  18. Lung autophagic response following exposure of mice to whole body irradiation, with and without amifostine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zois, Christos E.; Giatromanolaki, Alexandra; Kainulainen, Heikki; Botaitis, Sotirios; Torvinen, Sira; Simopoulos, Constantinos; Kortsaris, Alexandros; Sivridis, Efthimios; Koukourakis, Michael I.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We investigated the effect 6 Gy of WBI on the autophagic machinery of normal mouse lung. → Irradiation induces dysfunction of the autophagic machinery in normal lung, characterized by decreased transcription of the LC3A/Beclin-1 mRNA and accumulation of the LC3A, and p62 proteins. → The membrane bound LC3A-II protein levels increased in the cytosolic fraction (not in the pellet), contrasting the patterns noted after starvation-induced autophagy. → Administration of amifostine, reversed all the LC3A and p62 findings, suggesting protection of the normal autophagic function. -- Abstract: Purpose: The effect of ionizing irradiation on the autophagic response of normal tissues is largely unexplored. Abnormal autophagic function may interfere the protein quality control leading to cell degeneration and dysfunction. This study investigates its effect on the autophagic machinery of normal mouse lung. Methods and materials: Mice were exposed to 6 Gy of whole body γ-radiation and sacrificed at various time points. The expression of MAP1LC3A/LC3A/Atg8, beclin-1, p62/sequestosome-1 and of the Bnip3 proteins was analyzed. Results: Following irradiation, the LC3A-I and LC3A-II protein levels increased significantly at 72 h and 7 days. Strikingly, LC3A-II protein was increased (5.6-fold at 7 days; p < 0.001) only in the cytosolic fraction, but remained unchanged in the membrane fraction. The p62 protein, was significantly increased in both supernatant and pellet fraction (p < 0.001), suggesting an autophagosome turnover deregulation. These findings contrast the patterns of starvation-induced autophagy up-regulation. Beclin-1 levels remained unchanged. The Bnip3 protein was significantly increased at 8 h, but it sharply decreased at 72 h (p < 0.05). Administration of amifostine (200 mg/kg), 30 min before irradiation, reversed all the LC3A and p62 findings on blots, suggesting restoration of the normal autophagic function. The LC3A and Beclin1 m

  19. Effectiveness of ancestral irradiation on the direct and correlated responses to selection for body weight in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gianola, D.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of ancestral irradiation of rat spermatogonia (a cumulative total of 4050 r of x-rays) were studied in a highly inbred line of rats to explore the feasibility of using irradiation to enhance the effectiveness of selection. Six generations after irradiation was terminated, a selection experiment for body weight at six weeks of age was started in both ancestrally irradiated and non-irradiated populations. There were two non-contemporaneous replicates in each of the populations. Within each of the ancestral treatment-replicate combinations one line was selected for high, one for low body weight at six weeks of age, and a third line was maintained by random selection. In each line, avoidance of mating of animals with grandparents in common was attempted. Data on the first ten progeny generations of selection were included in this study. Five types of covariances among relatives were used to estimate causal components of variance for five different genetic models within the ''non-irradiated'' and ''irradiated'' randomly selected models. The parameters in the genetic models were estimated by generalized least-squares. This analysis suggested that a genetic model including direct genetic and maternal genetic effects was adequate to describe the body weights at 3, 6 and 10 weeks of age and the weight gains between these ages. Ancestral irradiation seemed to have enhanced the maternal genetic variance and the covariance between the direct genetic and the maternal genetic effects. On the basis of the above analysis, it was deduced that mass selection should have been more effective in the descendants of irradiated males than in those of the non-irradiated males as a consequence of greater phenotypic variability in their progeny and an enhancement in the regression of the genetic value on the selection criterion

  20. Cryogenic Irradiation of Bacillus Atrophaeus spores to understand microbial survival on Icy Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerby, C. J.; Noell, A. C.; Hodyss, R. P.; Johnson, P. V.; Ponce, A.

    2017-12-01

    Bacterial Spores are useful indicator organisms for studying the survival of microbes and degradation of biomolecules on the surface of planetary icy bodies. To predict the limits of life's proliferation in space, specifically on icy bodies, it is essential to understand the ability of microbes to withstand photon and particle irradiation at cryogenic temperatures. Bacillus Atrophaeus spores were transferred onto stainless steel coupons by varied processes and subsequently frozen at Europan temperatures (16oK—273oK) in a vacuum at 8.7x10-8 Torr. An argon lamp bombarded the spore-containing coupons with a solar-like radiation spectra for a variety of times, and spores were removed from the coupons and enumerated in culture. To date, (n=43) coupons have been analyzed for spore kill-rates with regards to ice temperature and radiation exposure time. Results will be presented on the effect of cryogenic temperatures in improving radiation resistance of bacterial spores. This works also details methodology improvements by comparing different spore deposition and recovery methods before and after cryogenic irradiation.

  1. High-dose melphalan total body irradiation with bone marrow transplantation for refractory malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitzer, G.; Jagannath, S.; Dicke, K.A.; Nebraska Univ., Omaha

    1986-01-01

    Nineteen adult patients with relapsed disease, 15 of them having hematologic malignancies, were treated with high-dose melphalan (100 mg/m 2 -140 mg/m 2 ) divided over 2 consecutive days followed by a rest period of 4 days before receiving total body irradiation, 850 rad administered in five fractionated doses over 3 days. Subsequently 11 patients received autologous, seven allogeneic and one syngeneic, bone marrow transplantation. All patients had severe myelosuppression and the major extramedullary toxicity was mucositis. There were three early deaths, two related to septicemia and one to graft-versus-host disease with associated cytomegalovirus pneumonitis. All patients were heavily pretreated, and 16 were demonstrating progressive disease on alternative salvage therapies at the time of bone marrow transplantation. Two of the 16 evaluable patients (12.5%) achieved complete remissions, and 10 (63%) achieved partial remissions for a total response rate of 75%. One patient is a long-term disease-free survivor (over 1 yr). The combination of melphalan, an alternative alkylating agent to cyclophosphamide and total body irradiation are associated with moderate gastrointestinal toxicity in heavily pretreated adult patients. (author)

  2. Establishment of Early Endpoints in Mouse Total-Body Irradiation Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amory Koch

    Full Text Available Acute radiation sickness (ARS following exposure to ionizing irradiation is characterized by radiation-induced multiorgan dysfunction/failure that refers to progressive dysfunction of two or more organ systems, the etiological agent being radiation damage to cells and tissues over time. Radiation sensitivity data on humans and animals has made it possible to describe the signs associated with ARS. A mouse model of total-body irradiation (TBI has previously been developed that represents the likely scenario of exposure in the human population. Herein, we present the Mouse Intervention Scoring System (MISS developed at the Veterinary Sciences Department (VSD of the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI to identify moribund mice and decrease the numbers of mice found dead, which is therefore a more humane refinement to death as the endpoint. Survival rates were compared to changes in body weights and temperatures in the mouse (CD2F1 male TBI model (6-14 Gy, 60Co γ-rays at 0.6 Gy min-1, which informed improvements to the Scoring System. Individual tracking of animals via implanted microchips allowed for assessment of criteria based on individuals rather than by group averages. From a total of 132 mice (92 irradiated, 51 mice were euthanized versus only four mice that were found dead (7% of non-survivors. In this case, all four mice were found dead after overnight periods between observations. Weight loss alone was indicative of imminent succumbing to radiation injury, however mice did not always become moribund within 24 hours while having weight loss >30%. Only one survivor had a weight loss of greater than 30%. Temperature significantly dropped only 2-4 days before death/euthanasia in 10 and 14 Gy animals. The score system demonstrates a significant refinement as compared to using subjective assessment of morbidity or death as the endpoint for these survival studies.

  3. Maternal and neonatal vaccination protects newborn baboons from pertussis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warfel, Jason M; Papin, James F; Wolf, Roman F; Zimmerman, Lindsey I; Merkel, Tod J

    2014-08-15

    The United States is experiencing a pertussis resurgence that resulted in a 60-year high of 48 000 cases in 2012. The majority of hospitalizations and deaths occur in infants too young to be vaccinated. Neonatal and maternal vaccination have been proposed to protect newborns until the first vaccination, currently recommended at 2 months of age. These interventions result in elevated anti-Bordetella pertussis titers, but there have been no studies demonstrating that these measures confer protection. Baboons were vaccinated with acellular pertussis vaccine at 2 days of age or at 2 and 28 days of age. To model maternal vaccination, adult female baboons primed with acellular pertussis vaccine were boosted in the third trimester of pregnancy. Neonatally vaccinated infants, infants born to vaccinated mothers, and naive infants born to unvaccinated mothers were infected with B. pertussis at 5 weeks of age. Naive infant baboons developed severe disease when challenged with B. pertussis at 5 weeks of age. Baboons receiving acellular pertussis vaccine and infants born to mothers vaccinated at the beginning of their third trimester were protected. Our results demonstrate that neonatal vaccination and maternal vaccination confer protection in the baboon model and support further study of these strategies for protection of newborns from pertussis. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2013. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  4. Bronchial neuroendocrine elements in late post-radiation stage in humans after total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilmane, M.; Luts, A.; Sundler, F.; Kjoerell, U.; Forsgren, S.

    1998-01-01

    It is not known how long-term total body irradiation affects the neuroendocrine cells (Nc) and peptidergic innervation in the bronchial wall. This study examined, by immunohistochemical and radioimmunoassay (RIA) techniques, the distribution of NC and neuropeptide-containing nerve fibres in the large bronchi of Chernobyl nuclear accident cleanup workers displaying pulmonary fibrosis and metaplastic epithelium. Bronchial mucous and submucous layers from 16 Chernobyl patients and 6 control subjects were examined by conventional light microscopy and immunohistochemical techniques for determination of protein gene product 9.5 (PGP), chromogranin A, chromogranin A and B (CAB), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), calcitonin, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), helospectin I, neuropeptide Y (NPY), pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP), serotonin (5-hydroxyltryptamine, 5-HT), and substance P (SP). Additionally, bronchial biopsies from 6 Chernobyl cleanup workers and 3 control patients were examined by RIA for VIP and NPY/peptideYY-Ievels. The Chernobyl patients were examined 10 years after exposure during the cleanup works in the Chernobyl Atomic Electric Power Station. PGP immunoreactive nerve fibres appeared to be more frequent in the bronchial wall after long term irradiation as compared with controls. However, no specific alterations in the amounts of NPY-, PACAP-, helospectin-, SP- and CGRP-immunoreactive nerve fibres were seen in bronchi of control and Chernobyl patients. 5-HT -immunoreactive NC appeared to be more numerous in normal bronchial epithelium adjacent to metaplastic epithelium, in which numerous CAB- immunoreactive NC were seen in Chernobyl patients. RIA for VIP and NPY/PYY showed individual variations in the levels of these peptides in the bronchial tissue. In two cases (one Chernobyl patient and one control patient) there was a high concentration of VIP in parallel with a high concentration of NPY

  5. Presence of interleukin 6 at the cutaneous level after in vivo neutron irradiation; Presence d`interleukine 6 au niveau cutane apres irradiation neutronique in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agay, D.; Pradeau, P.; Edgard, L.; Van Uye, A.; Mestries, J.C.

    1994-12-31

    In this study we investigated the in situ localization of IL-6 in mixed neutron-gamma irradiated baboons belly skin. Using immunohistochemical methods, we demonstrated the presence of IL-6 as early as the first day after the irradiation day. However experimental conditions did not allow us to conclude to a causality relation between irradiation and IL-6 cutaneous presence. (author). 4 refs.

  6. Timing of Captopril Administration Determines Radiation Protection or Radiation Sensitization in a Murine Model of Total Body Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Hematology and Stem Cells. High-dose total body irradiation (TBI) as the result of a nuclear accident , terrorist event, or as a clinical therapy for cancer...critical to understand the effects of these drugs on radiation-induced hematopoietic injury because radiotherapy is a common therapeutic modality for...Herodin F, Drouet M. Cytokine-based treatment of accidentally irradi- ated victims and new approaches. Exp Hematol. 2005;33:1071–1080. 10. Stroth U

  7. Effect of liposome entrapped Cu/Zn bovine superoxide dismutase in rat after total body (neutron-gamma) irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamproglou, I.; Martin, S.; Lambert, F.; Fontanille, P.; Fessi, H.; Puisieux, F.; Colas-Linhart, N.; Bok, B.; Fatome, M.; Martin, C.

    1998-01-01

    Our purpose was, to study in rat the effects of (neutron-gamma) exposure and of LIPSOD treatment (liposomal Cu/Zn super-oxide dismutase) on cognitive functions. Our data demonstrate that whole-body irradiation induces in Sprague-Dawley rats some cognitive dysfunction. Treatment using LIPSOD corrects in a significantly way this trend. Moreover, in sham-irradiated rats, this treatment shows an inhibitory effect. (authors)

  8. White monkey syndrome in infant baboons (Papio species).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, P A; Hubbard, G B; Dammann, M J; Snider, C L; Moore, C M; Hodara, V L; Giavedoni, L D; Rohwer, R; Mahaney, M C; Butler, T M; Cummins, L B; McDonald, T J; Nathanielsz, P W; Schlabritz-Loutsevitch, N E

    2004-08-01

    Over 23 months, zinc toxicosis was diagnosed in 35 baboons aged 5-12 months in one galvanized metal and concrete cage complex with conditions that led to excessive exposure to environmental zinc. Clinical signs included reduced pigmentation of hair, skin, and mucous membranes (whiteness), alopecia, dehydration, emaciation, cachexia, dermatitis, diarrhea and, in six cases, severe gangrenous dermatitis of extremities. The syndrome was characterized by pancytopenia, elevated zinc and low copper serum concentrations, low vitamin D and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase levels, and atypical myelomonocytic proliferation of bone marrow. This syndrome emphasizes the importance of proper husbandry and cage design and indicates the potential of infant baboons as a model to study the effects of excessive zinc on development. This is the first report describing the epidemiologic and clinical presentation of zinc toxicosis in infant baboons in captivity.

  9. Clinical responses after total body irradiation by over permissible dose of γ-rays in one time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Benrong; Wang Guilin; Liu Huilan; Tang Xingsheng; Ai Huisheng

    1990-01-01

    The clinical responses of patients after total body over permissilbe dose γ-ray irradiation were observed and analysed. The results showed: when the dose was above 5 cGy, there was some immunological depression, but no significant change in hematopoietic functions. 5 cases showed some transient changes of ECG, perhaps due to vagotonia caused by psychological imbalance, One case vomitted 3-4 times after 28 cGy irradiation, this suggested that a few times of vomitting had no significance in the estimation of the irradiated dose and the whole clinical manifestations must be concretely analysed

  10. Progesterone--specific binding sites in the kidney of the female baboon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaker, F.J.; Herbert, D.C.; Sheridan, P.J.

    1984-01-01

    The uptake and retention of a radiolabeled synthetic progestin, ORG 2058, was studied in the urinary tract of the female baboon. Four estrogen-primed baboons were injected intravenously with 2.5 micrograms./kg. body weight of 3H-ORG 2058. One animal, which served as a control, received an additional injection of 2.5 mg./kg. body weight of unlabeled progesterone. One hour after the injections, the animals were killed and the kidneys, ureters and urinary bladder were removed and processed for autoradiography. Localization of progestin was observed in the nuclei of the convoluted and straight segments of the distal tubule, the ascending thick limb of the loop of Henle and both cortical and medullary collecting tubules. Connective tissue cells were also labeled in the medulla and cortex of the kidney. An absence of silver grains was noted in the renal corpuscle, all segments of the proximal tubule and the thin loop of Henle. Concentration of the tritiated steroid was not observed in either the ureter or bladder or in any portions of the urinary tract of the control animal. This study suggests that progesterone has a direct effect via a progesterone specific receptor on the various target cells that sequestered the 3H-ORG 2058

  11. A Cross-Sectional Study of Ageing and Cardiovascular Function over the Baboon Lifespan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen R Yeung

    Full Text Available Ageing is associated with changes at the molecular and cellular level that can alter cardiovascular function and ultimately lead to disease. The baboon is an ideal model for studying ageing due to the similarities in genetic, anatomical, physiological and biochemical characteristics with humans. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the changes in cardiovascular profile of baboons over the course of their lifespan.Data were collected from 109 healthy baboons (Papio hamadryas at the Australian National Baboon Colony. A linear regression model, adjusting for sex, was used to analyse the association between age and markers of ageing with P 12 years had significantly shorter telomeres when compared to younger (<3 years baboons (P = 0.001.This study is the first to demonstrate that cardiovascular function alters with age in the baboon. This research identifies similarities within cardiovascular parameters between humans and baboon even though the length of life differs between the two species.

  12. Comparison of /sup 32/P therapy and sequential hemibody irradiation (HBI) for bony metastases as methods of whole body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, H.; Choi, K.; Sohn, C.; Yaes, R.; Rotman, M.

    1986-06-01

    We report a retrospective study of 15 patients with prostate carcinoma and diffuse bone metastases treated with sodium /sup 32/P for palliation of pain at Downstate Medical Center and Kings County Hospital from 1973 to 1978. The response rates, duration of response, and toxicities are compared with those of other series of patients treated with /sup 32/P and with sequential hemibody irradiation. The response rates and duration of response are similar with both modalities ranging from 58 to 95% with a duration of 3.3 to 6 months with /sup 32/P and from 75 to 86% with a median duration of 5.5 months with hemibody irradiation. There are significant differences in the patterns of response and in the toxicities of the two treatment methods. Both methods cause significant bone marrow depression. Acute radiation syndrome, radiation pneumonitis, and alopecia are seen with sequential hemibody irradiation and not with /sup 32/P, but their incidence can be reduced by careful treatment planning. Hemibody irradiation can provide pain relief within 24 to 48 h, while /sup 32/P may produce an initial exacerbation of pain. Lower hemibody irradiation alone is less toxic than either upper hemibody irradiation or /sup 32/P treatment.

  13. Patterns of Relapse in High-Risk Neuroblastoma Patients Treated With and Without Total Body Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Richard; Polishchuk, Alexei; DuBois, Steven; Hawkins, Randall; Lee, Stephanie W.; Bagatell, Rochelle; Shusterman, Suzanne; Hill-Kayser, Christine; Al-Sayegh, Hasan; Diller, Lisa; Haas-Kogan, Daphne A.; Matthay, Katherine K.; London, Wendy B.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: External beam radiation therapy to initial sites of disease may influence relapse patterns in high-risk neuroblastoma. However, the effect of systemic irradiation by use of total body irradiation (TBI) on anatomic patterns of relapse has not previously been investigated. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed patients receiving definitive treatment of high-risk neuroblastoma with subsequent relapse in bony metastatic sites, with a date of relapse between January 1, 1997, and December 31, 2012. Anatomic sites of disease, defined by metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) avidity, were compared at diagnosis and at first relapse. The Fisher exact test was performed to compare relapse in initially involved sites between patients treated with and without TBI. Results: Seventy-four patients with a median age at diagnosis of 3.5 years (range, 0.3-15.3 years) had relapse in 227 sites of MIBG-avid metastatic disease, with a median time to relapse of 1.8 years. Of the 227 sites of first relapse, 154 sites (68%) were involved at diagnosis. When we compared relapse patterns in patients treated with and without TBI, 12 of 23 patients (52%) treated with TBI had relapse in ≥1 previously MIBG-avid site of disease whereas 40 of 51 patients (78%) treated without TBI had relapse in ≥1 previously MIBG-avid site of disease (P=.03). Conclusions: Patients treated with systemic irradiation in the form of TBI were significantly less likely to have relapse in prior sites of disease. These findings support further investigation into the role of radiopharmaceutical therapies in curative multimodality therapy.

  14. Patterns of Relapse in High-Risk Neuroblastoma Patients Treated With and Without Total Body Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Richard [Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Polishchuk, Alexei [School of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); DuBois, Steven [Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Dana-Farber/Boston Children' s Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Hawkins, Randall [School of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Lee, Stephanie W. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Bagatell, Rochelle [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Shusterman, Suzanne [Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Dana-Farber/Boston Children' s Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Hill-Kayser, Christine [Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Al-Sayegh, Hasan [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Dana-Farber/Boston Children' s Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Diller, Lisa [Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Dana-Farber/Boston Children' s Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Haas-Kogan, Daphne A. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Dana-Farber/Boston Children' s Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Matthay, Katherine K. [School of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); London, Wendy B. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Dana-Farber/Boston Children' s Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); and others

    2017-02-01

    Purpose: External beam radiation therapy to initial sites of disease may influence relapse patterns in high-risk neuroblastoma. However, the effect of systemic irradiation by use of total body irradiation (TBI) on anatomic patterns of relapse has not previously been investigated. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed patients receiving definitive treatment of high-risk neuroblastoma with subsequent relapse in bony metastatic sites, with a date of relapse between January 1, 1997, and December 31, 2012. Anatomic sites of disease, defined by metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) avidity, were compared at diagnosis and at first relapse. The Fisher exact test was performed to compare relapse in initially involved sites between patients treated with and without TBI. Results: Seventy-four patients with a median age at diagnosis of 3.5 years (range, 0.3-15.3 years) had relapse in 227 sites of MIBG-avid metastatic disease, with a median time to relapse of 1.8 years. Of the 227 sites of first relapse, 154 sites (68%) were involved at diagnosis. When we compared relapse patterns in patients treated with and without TBI, 12 of 23 patients (52%) treated with TBI had relapse in ≥1 previously MIBG-avid site of disease whereas 40 of 51 patients (78%) treated without TBI had relapse in ≥1 previously MIBG-avid site of disease (P=.03). Conclusions: Patients treated with systemic irradiation in the form of TBI were significantly less likely to have relapse in prior sites of disease. These findings support further investigation into the role of radiopharmaceutical therapies in curative multimodality therapy.

  15. Dose-response relationships for chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes after whole- and partial-body irradiations. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liniecki, J.; Bajerska, A.; Wyszynska, K.

    1983-01-01

    Dose-response relationships were established for yield of dicentrics and for a fraction of damaged metaphases in lymphocytes after γ-irradiation of rabbits' whole blood in vitro. These relationships were based on the scoring of cells only in their first post-stimulation division and they served as a reference system for comparison with results of 60 Co γ-irradiation in vivo, either of the whole or of predetermined parts of an animal's body. There was a statistically acceptable agreement between dose-response data established for dicentric yield after whole-body irradiation in vivo and the reference dose-response curve derived from exposure of rabbit's blood in vitro. For partial-body (1/2) irradiations there was a satisfactory agreement between the dose-response curves in vitro for dicentric yield and fraction of metaphases damaged on the one hand and the response in vivo when the latter was related to mean doses to circulating blood. However, there was a drastic disagreement with the dose responses in vitro when measured cytogenetic quantities were plotted versus mean doses to body mass. When the latter were substituted for by comparable doses to circulating blood the in vivo-in vitro agreement was acceptable after irradiation. (orig.)

  16. In pediatric leukemia, dose evaluation according to the type of compensators in total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Yeon [Dongnam Inst. of Radiological and Medical science, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chang Soo; Kim, Jung Hoon [Dept. of Radiological Science, College of Health Science, Catholic University of Busan, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Total body irradiation (TBI) and chemotherapy are the pre-treatment method of a stem cell transplantations of the childhood leukemia. in this study, we evaluate the Quantitative human body dose prior to the treatment. The MCNPX simulation program evaluated by changing the material of the tissue compensators with imitation material of pediatric exposure in a virtual space. As a result, first, the average skin dose with the material of the tissue compensators of Plexiglass tissue compensators is 74.60 mGy/min, Al is 73.96 mGy/min, Cu is 72.26 mGy/min and Pb 67.90 mGy/min respectively. Second, regardless of the tissue compensators material that organ dose were thyroid, gentile, digestive system, brain, lungs, kidneys higher in order. Finally, the ideal distance between body compensator and the patient were 50 cm aparting each other. In conclusion, tissue compensators Al, Cu, Pb are able to replace of the currently used in Plexiglass materials.

  17. In vivo induction of apoptosis in human lymphocytes by therapeutic fractionated total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delic, J.; Magdelenat, H.; Barbaroux, C.; Chaillet, M.-P.; Dubray, B.; Fourquet, A.; Cosset, J.-M.; Gluckman, E.; Girinsky, T.

    1995-01-01

    Ionizing radiations have been reported as an in vitro apoptosis initiating stimulus in human lymphocytes. As the cytotoxicity of ionizing radiations and chemotherapeutic agents appears to be dependent on the efficacy of cell death induction, the manipulation of apoptosis initiation might be used as a means to suppress some pathological process. In the present study the in vivo induction of γ-ray mediated programmed cell death in humans is reported. The in vivo induction of apoptosis in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) by ionizing radiations was investigated in 33 patients after each of two sessions (2 Gy and 4 Gy) of fractionated total body irradiation (FTBI) as part of their conditioning regimen before bone marrow transplantation. PBL committed to apoptosis were scored before irradiation (S1), 4 h (S2) and 24 h after 2 Gy (S3, 14-17 h after the second 2 Gy fraction). Nuclear morphology and chromatin-DNA were analysed by fluorescence microscopy immediately after blood sample withdrawal (I) and after 24 h in cell culture medium (II). (author)

  18. Anti-tumor effect of total body irradiation of low doses on WHT/Ht mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Miyako; Sakamoto, Kiyohiko

    1987-01-01

    The effect of low dose (0.05 - 1.0 Gy) of total body irradiation (TBI) on non-tumor bearing and tumor bearing mice were investigated. Mice received TBI of 0.1 Gy during 6 - 12 hours before tumor cell inoculation demonstrated to need larger number of tumor cells (approximately 2.5 times) for 50 per cent tumor incidence, compared to recipient mice not to receive TBI. On the other hand, in tumor bearing mice given 0.1 Gy of TBI only tumor cell killing effect was not detected, however enhancement of tumor cell killing effect and prolonged growth delay were observed when tumor bearing mice were treated with 0.1 Gy of TBI in combined with local irradiation on tumors, especially cell killing effect was remarkable in dose range over 6 Gy of local exposure. The mechanism of the effect of 0.1 Gy TBI is considered to be host mediated reactions from the other our experimental results. (author)

  19. Radioresistance of intermediate TCR cells and their localization in the body of mice revealed by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Motohiko; Watanabe, Hisami; Ohtsuka, Kazuo; Iiai, Tsuneo; Tsuchida, Masanori; Sato, Shotaro; Abo, Toru

    1993-01-01

    Extrathymic generation of T cells in the liver and in the intestine was recently demonstrated. We investigated herein whether such T cells, especially those in the liver, are present in other organs of mice. This investigation is possible employing our recently introduced method with which even a minor proportion of extrathymic, intermediate T-cell receptor (TCR) cells in organs other than the liver can be identified. Intermediate TCR cells expressed higher levels of IL-2Rβ and lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) than bright TCR cells (i.e., T cells of thymic origin) as revealed by two-color staining. Although intermediate TCR cells were present at a small proportion in the spleen and thymus, they predominated in these organs after irradiation (9 Gy) and bone marrow reconstitution, or after low dose irradiation (6 Gy). This was due to that intermediate TCR cells were relatively radioresistant, whereas bright TCR cells were radiosensitive. Microscopic observation and immunochemical staining showed that intermediate TCR cells in the spleen localized in the red pulp and those in the thymus localized in the medulla. These intermediate TCR cells displayed a large light scatter, similar to such cells in the liver. The present results suggest that intermediate TCR cells may proliferate at multiple sites in the body. (author)

  20. Fundamental and clinical studies on cancer control with total or upper half body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamoto, Kiyohiko; Hosoi, Yoshio; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Nemoto, Kenji; Takai, Yoshihiro; Kakuto, Yoshihisa; Yamada, Shogo [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). School of Medicine; Myojin, Miyako; Watabe, Nobuyuki

    1997-09-01

    The tumor control effects of total body irradiation (TBI) for tumor bearing mice and human tumor were investigated fundamentally and clinically. TBI is usually used in tissue transplantation experiment in order to prevent rejective response for transplanted tissues by immunological reaction. This kind of suppressive effect of immunological response by TBI is considered as to be caused even if very small dose of TBI. However, there are only a few data concerning the effect of low dose of TBI, and TBI of low dose level is concluded to bring about the same effect as in high dose level by back extrapolation from the data of high dose level. In present paper, firstly the effects of TBI for tumor control in murine squamous carcinoma are reported, and secondly the results of clinical trial in malignant lymphoma are demonstrated. In fundamental studies, TBI of low doses (10-15 cGy) suggests potentiating effect in cell killing in combination of TBI of 10 cGy and local irradiation given at 12 hours after TBI though TBI of 10 cGy is not able to detect any cell killing effect. TBI of 10 cGy or 15 cGy also stands for suppressive effect of distant metastasis (lung metastasis). In clinical studies, malignant lymphoma (non-Hodgikin`s lymphoma) is selected as the first disease of clinical trial, and the results are seemed to be prospective method to overcome cancers with radiotherapy, though the trial is not phase III clinical trial. (author)

  1. Dosimetry and verification of 60Co total body irradiation with human phantom and semiconductor diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allahverdi Mahmoud

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Total Body Irradiation (TBI is a form of radiotherapy used for patients prior to bone marrow or stem cell transplant to destroy any undetectable cancer cells. The dosimetry characteristics of a 60 Co unit for TBI were studied and a simple method for the calculation of the prescribed dose for TBI is presented. Dose homogeneity was verified in a human phantom. Dose measurements were made in water phantom (30 x 30 x 30 cm 3 , using farmer ionization chamber (0.6 cc, TM30010, PTW and a parallel plate ionization chamber (TM23343, PTW. Point dose measurements for AP/PA irradiation were measured in a human phantom using silicon diodes (T60010L, PTW. The lung dose was measured with an ionization chamber (0.3 cc, TM31013. The validity of the proposed algorithm was checked at TBI distance using the human phantom. The accuracy of the proposed algorithm was within 3.5%. The dose delivered to the mid-lobe of the lung was 14.14 Gy and it has been reduced to 8.16 Gy by applying the proper shield. Dose homogeneity was within ±7% for all measured points. The results indicate that a good agreement between the total prescribed and calculated midplane doses can be achieved using this method. Therefore, it could be possible to use calculated data for TBI treatments.

  2. Fragmentation of chromatin DNA in mouse thymus cells after whole body γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Kang; Liu Xueying; Zhu Xuefen

    1984-01-01

    The characteristics of soluble chromatin in mouse thymus nuclei after whole body γ-irradiation were investigated by means of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. After deproteinization and electrophoresis eight regular DNA bands were revealed. The molecular weights of these bands were estimated by comparing their migration rates with those of the standard fragments obtained from PBR 322 digested completely by restrictive endonuclease Hae III. The molecular weight of the first band was calculated to be 186 base pairs corresponding approximately to the size of DNA fragment from a single nucleosome, and those of other bands appeared to be its multiples. The results suggested that the disintegration of chromatin DNA after γ-irradiation might have occurred at the linkage regions of chromatin. The autolysis product of normal thymus chromatin under sterile condition were also analyzed and its electrophoretic pattern was found to be just the same as that of the postirradiation product. It seems, therefore, that the endonuclease existing in normal tissues might be responsible for the postirradiation chromatin degradation. The mechanism of this kind of enzymatic digestion remains to be elucidated in further investigation. (author)

  3. Total Body Irradiation for Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation in Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Su Mi; Choi, Ihl Bohng; Kang, Ki Mun; Kim, In Ah; Shinn, Kyung Sub; Kim, Choon Choo; Kim, Dong Jip [Catholic University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-06-15

    Between July 1987 and December 1992, we treated 22 patients with chromic myelogenous leukemia; 14 in the chronic phase and 8 with more advanced disease. All were received with allogeneic bone marrow transplantation from HLA-identical sibling donors after a total body irradiation (TBI) cyclophosphamide conditioning regimen. Patients were non-randomly assigned to either 1200 cGy/6 fractions/3 days (6 patients) or 1320 cGy/8 fractions/4 days (16 patients) by dose of TBI. Of the 22 patients, 8 were prepared with cyclophosphamide alone, 14 were conditioned with additional adriamycin or daunorubicin. To prevent graft versus host disease, cyclosporine was given either alone or in conjunction with methotrexate. The actuarial survival and leukemic-free survival at four years were 58.5% and 41.2%, respectively, and the relapse rate was 36% among 22 patients. There was a statistically significant difference in survival between the patients in chronic phase and more advanced phase (76% vs 33%, p=0.05). The relapse rate of patients receiving splenectomy was higher than that of patients receiving splenic irradiation (50% vs 0%, p=0.04). We conclude that the probability of cure is highest if transplantation is performed while the patient remains in the chronic phase.

  4. Cobalt-60 total body irradiation dosimetry at 220 cm source-axis distance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasgow, G.P.; Mill, W.B.

    1980-01-01

    Adults with acute leukemia are treated with cyclophosphamide and total body irradiation (TBI) followed by autologous marrow transplants. For TBI, patients seated in a stand angled 45 0 above the floor are treated for about 2 hours at 220 cm source-axis distance (SAD) with sequential right and left lateral 87 cm x 87 cm fields to a 900 rad mid-pelvic dose at about 8 rad/min using a 5000 Ci cobalt unit. Maximum (lateral) to minimum (mid-plane) dose ratios are: hips--1.15, shoulders--1.30, and head--1.05, which is shielded by a compensator filter. Organ doses are small intestine, liver and kidneys--1100 rad, lung--1100 to 1200 rad, and heart--1300 rad. Verification dosimetry reveals the prescribed dose is delivered to within +-5%. Details of the dosimetry of this treatment are presented

  5. Abscopal regression in lymphoma: a mechanism in common with total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, G.J.G.

    1981-01-01

    The hospital records of 895 patients presenting to this centre with a diagnosis of Hodgkin's or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma have been reviewed. In the records of 26 patients there was evidence for or against the occurrence of abscopal regression with radiotherapy. Attention is drawn to inevitable inaccuracy in a retrospective study of this type. Evidence of abscopal regression was seen in the records of 10 patients, four with Hodgkin's and six with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. It appears to be associated with a more favourable prognosis in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. It is suggested that this phenomenon is elicitable in more patients than is commonly recognised, and that together with response to low dose total body irradiation, could be explained by radiation damage to normal lymphocytes. (author)

  6. Pilot production of the wedge filter for the TBI (total body irradiation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikezaki, Hiromi; Ikeda, Ikuo; Maruyama, Yasushi; Nako, Yasunobu; Tonari, Ayako; Kusuda, Junko; Takayama, Makoto

    2007-01-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI) is performed by various methods, such as a long SSD method and a translational couch method. For patient safety in carrying out TBI, the patient should be placed on the supine position and prone position near the floor. TBI is performed from 2 opposite ports (AP/PA) with a linear accelerator (10 MV X-ray). We experimented with a wedge filter for TBI created by us, which makes dose distribution to a floor uniform. The wedge filter, made of iron alloy, was attached to the linear accelerator. In designing the wedge filter, thickness of the lead-made wedge filter can be calculated numerically from the ratio of linear attenuation coefficient of iron alloy and lead. In measuring the dose profile for a phantom of 20 cm thick, dose homogeneity less than 10% was proved by the wedge filter for TBI. (author)

  7. The elevation of blood levels of zinc protoporphyrin in mice following whole body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walden, T.L.; Draganac, P.S.; Farkas, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    Elevation of zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels in the blood has served as an indicator of lead poisoning and iron deficiency anemia for many years. We have discovered that sublethal doses of whole body irradiation with x-rays also elevates ZPP 2-3-fold over normal levels. The ZPP level does not begin to increase until days 12-14 postirradiation and peaks between days 18 and 20 before returning to normal levels between days 28 and 35. Increasing the radiation dose delays the onset of the rise in ZPP, but does not affect the magnitude of the elevation. At lethal doses, ZPP elevation is not observed. Neither of the two previously described mechanisms that cause elevations of ZPP, namely iron deficiency and inhibition of ferrochelatase, are responsible for the radiation-induced elevation of ZPP. The elevation of ZPP appears to be correlated with the recovery of the hematopoietic system from radiation injury

  8. Cytogenetic studies on recipients of allogeneic bone marrow transplants after fractionated total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, N.; Goedde-Salz, E.; Loeffler, H.

    1985-01-01

    Cytogenetic findings from the bone marrow (BM) and the peripheral blood (PB) of nine consecutive patients after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for acute or chronic myelogenous leukaemia are reported. After a conditioning regimen consisting of cyclophosphamide and fractionated total body irradiation (TBI) given in five or six fractions of 2 Gy, persistence of host cells was detected in four out of seven cases with permanent engraftment. While one of these patients relapsed 4 months after host cells had been found in BM and PB, the other patients stayed relapse-free 124, 257 and 347 d after grafting. Before transplantation, the leukaemic cells in all three cases carried unique cytogenetic abnormalities giving the opportunity to distinguish the leukaemic population from chromosomally non-aberrant cells thought to represent residual normal host cells. As the persisting host cells after BMT lacked any cytogenetic abnormalities, it is suggested that they were members of residual normal clones not involved in the leukaemic process. (author)

  9. Inhibitory mechanism of low-dose, whole-body irradiation with gamma-rays against tumor metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuhiro Ohsima; Mitsutoshi Tukimoto; Shuji Kojima

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. A lot of beneficial effects of low-dose irradiation are well known. Of them, an inhibitory effect of the radiation on lung metastasis is reported so far. It has been reported that low-dose whole-body irradiation with gamma rays enhanced cytotoxic immune response as one of the mechanisms. In our laboratory, it has been confirmed an enhancement of natural killer activity in mice irradiated with whole-body 0.5Gy gamma-rays. Metastasis is accomplished by multistep process, involving basement membrane destruction, local invasion, intravasation, survival in the bloodstream, extravasation into distant organs, and proliferation at the target site. Besides, a lot of growth factors and proteases are involved in these steps. As to mechanism of inhibition of tumor metastasis induced by low-dose whole-body irradiation, studies from the standpoint of tumor invasion have not been reported. Here, inhibitory effect of 0.5Gy whole-body gamma-ray irradiation on tumor metastasis and its mechanism were examined in pulmonary metastasis model mice injected with B16 melanoma cells. Consequently, 0.5Gy whole-body gamma ray irradiation significantly suppressed colony formation in the lungs. Expression of matrix metalloproteinase- 2 (MMP- 2), a proteinase related to metastasis, in lung tissues was suppressed by the radiation. Alteration of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP) after the gamma-ray irradiation was examined. Expression of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 mRNA in the lungs were significantly increased. In order to clarify the inhibitory effect obtained in the in vivo metastatic lung cancer model mice, we studied effects of gamma-rays on cell proliferation, alterations of mRNA and proteins related to tumor metastasis in cultured B16 melanoma cells. Proliferation of B16 melanoma cells was decreased in a dose-dependent manner. MMP-2 mRNA expression was not altered in any doses of gamma-rays. Thought expression of the protein was slightly

  10. γ-ray induced chromosome aberration in rabbit peripheral blood lymphocytes irradiated in partial and whole body and decline of aberration rate with time post-exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lianzhen; Deng Zhicheng; Wang Haiyan

    1997-01-01

    Te author presents the results of study on 60 Co γ-ray induced chromosome aberration in rabbits peripheral blood lymphocytes irradiated in partial and whole body and the aberration rate decrease with the time of post-exposure. The experiments included 5 groups, it was whole-body exposure group, partial-body exposure (abdomen and pelvic cavity) group, blood irradiation group in vitro and control group respectively. Radiation dose was 3.0 Gy delivered at rate of 0.5 Gy/min. The results show that it was no significant differences between whole body and in blood irradiation group. The chromosome aberration yield in whole body exposure group was higher than that in partial-body group and in the abdomen exposure group was higher than in that in the pelvic cavity irradiation; The chromosome aberration rate decreased with the time of post-exposure in partial and whole body by γ-ray irradiation

  11. Presence of interleukin 6 at the cutaneous level after in vivo neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agay, D.; Pradeau, P.; Edgard, L.; Van Uye, A.; Mestries, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    In this study we investigated the in situ localization of IL-6 in mixed neutron-gamma irradiated baboons belly skin. Using immunohistochemical methods, we demonstrated the presence of IL-6 as early as the first day after the irradiation day. However experimental conditions did not allow us to conclude to a causality relation between irradiation and IL-6 cutaneous presence. (author)

  12. Experimental acute thrombotic stroke in baboons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Zoppo, G.J.; Copeland, B.R.; Harker, L.A.; Waltz, T.A.; Zyroff, J.; Hanson, S.R.; Battenberg, E.

    1986-01-01

    To study the effects of antithrombotic therapy in experimental stroke, we have characterized a baboon model of acute cerebrovascular thrombosis. In this model an inflatable silastic balloon cuff has been implanted by transorbital approach around the right middle cerebral artery (MCA), proximal to the take-off of the lenticulostriate arteries (LSA). Inflation of the balloon for 3 hours in six animals produced a stereotypic sustained stroke syndrome characterized by contralateral hemiparesis. An infarction volume of 3.2 +/- 1.5 cm3 in the ipsilateral corpus striatum was documented by computerized tomographic (CT) scanning at 10 days following stroke induction and 3.9 +/- 1.9 cm3 (n = 4) at 14 days by morphometric neuropathologic determinations of brain specimens fixed in situ by pressure-perfusion with 10% buffered formalin. Immediate pressure-perfusion fixation following deflation of the balloon was performed in 16 additional animals given Evans blue dye intravenously prior to the 3 hour MCA balloon occlusion. Light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy consistently confirmed the presence of thrombotic material occluding microcirculatory branches of the right LSA in the region of Evans blue stain, but not those of the contralateral corpus striatum. When autologous 111In-platelets were infused intravenously in four animals from the above group prior to the transient 3 hour occlusion of the right MCA, gamma scintillation camera imaging of each perfused-fixed whole brain demonstrated the presence of a single residual focus of 111In-platelet activity involving only the Evans blue-stained right corpus striatum. Focal right hemispheric activity was equivalent to 0.55 +/- 0.49 ml of whole blood, and the occlusion score derived from histologic examination of the microcirculation of the Evans blue-stained corpus striatum averaged 34.8 +/- 2.8

  13. Experimental acute thrombotic stroke in baboons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Zoppo, G.J.; Copeland, B.R.; Harker, L.A.; Waltz, T.A.; Zyroff, J.; Hanson, S.R.; Battenberg, E.

    1986-11-01

    To study the effects of antithrombotic therapy in experimental stroke, we have characterized a baboon model of acute cerebrovascular thrombosis. In this model an inflatable silastic balloon cuff has been implanted by transorbital approach around the right middle cerebral artery (MCA), proximal to the take-off of the lenticulostriate arteries (LSA). Inflation of the balloon for 3 hours in six animals produced a stereotypic sustained stroke syndrome characterized by contralateral hemiparesis. An infarction volume of 3.2 +/- 1.5 cm3 in the ipsilateral corpus striatum was documented by computerized tomographic (CT) scanning at 10 days following stroke induction and 3.9 +/- 1.9 cm3 (n = 4) at 14 days by morphometric neuropathologic determinations of brain specimens fixed in situ by pressure-perfusion with 10% buffered formalin. Immediate pressure-perfusion fixation following deflation of the balloon was performed in 16 additional animals given Evans blue dye intravenously prior to the 3 hour MCA balloon occlusion. Light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy consistently confirmed the presence of thrombotic material occluding microcirculatory branches of the right LSA in the region of Evans blue stain, but not those of the contralateral corpus striatum. When autologous 111In-platelets were infused intravenously in four animals from the above group prior to the transient 3 hour occlusion of the right MCA, gamma scintillation camera imaging of each perfused-fixed whole brain demonstrated the presence of a single residual focus of 111In-platelet activity involving only the Evans blue-stained right corpus striatum. Focal right hemispheric activity was equivalent to 0.55 +/- 0.49 ml of whole blood, and the occlusion score derived from histologic examination of the microcirculation of the Evans blue-stained corpus striatum averaged 34.8 +/- 2.8.

  14. Neurogenic Effects of Low-Dose Whole-Body HZE (Fe) Ion and Gamma Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Tara B; Hurley, Sean D; Wu, Michael D; Olschowka, John A; Williams, Jacqueline P; O'Banion, M Kerry

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the dose-toxicity profile of radiation is critical when evaluating potential health risks associated with natural and man-made sources in our environment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of low-dose whole-body high-energy charged (HZE) iron (Fe) ions and low-energy gamma exposure on proliferation and differentiation of adult-born neurons within the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, cells deemed to play a critical role in memory regulation. To determine the dose-response characteristics of the brain to whole-body Fe-ion vs. gamma-radiation exposure, C57BL/6J mice were irradiated with 1 GeV/n Fe ions or a static 137 Cs source (0.662 MeV) at doses ranging from 0 to 300 cGy. The neurogenesis was analyzed at 48 h and one month postirradiation. These experiments revealed that whole-body exposure to either Fe ions or gamma radiation leads to: 1. An acute decrease in cell division within the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, detected at doses as low as 30 and 100 cGy for Fe ions and gamma radiation, respectively; and 2. A reduction in newly differentiated neurons (DCX immunoreactivity) at one month postirradiation, with significant decreases detected at doses as low as 100 cGy for both Fe ions and gamma rays. The data presented here contribute to our understanding of brain responses to whole-body Fe ions and gamma rays and may help inform health-risk evaluations related to systemic exposure during a medical or radiologic/nuclear event or as a result of prolonged space travel.

  15. Caffeine and Aspirin Protecting Albino Rats A gainst Biochemical and Histological Disorders Induced by Whole Body Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Rahman, N.A.; Sherif, N.H.

    2015-01-01

    Caffeine is an alkaloid (purine derivative) that contains flavonoids, where as aspirin, natural component of mammalian tissue ( acetylsalicylic acid) is one of the most commonly used non steroidal anti - inflammatory , and it is a necessary factor in the utilization of long - chain fatty acids to produce energy. Furthermore, it has been shown to protect cells from per oxidative stress. Th e objective of the present study is to evaluate the efficacy of caffeine (1,3,7 - trimethyl xanthine) 80 mg/kg b.wt. a nd aspirin ( acetylsalicylic acid) in the amelioration of the physiological and histological changes in stomach and intestine of rats exposed to gamma irradiation . Male albino rats were divided into 8 groups. 1 - Control group: rats not subject to any treatment, 2 - Caffeine group: rats received caffeine ( 80 ml/Kg body weight )via intraperitoneal injection for 21 days, 3 - Aspirin group: rats received aspirin (150 mg / kg body) via intraperitoneal injection for 21 days , 4 - Caffeine + Aspirin group: rats received caffeine a nd aspirin treatment, 5 - Radiation groups: rats were whole body gamma irradiated at 8 Gy , 6 - Caffeine + Radiation group: rats received caffeine for 21 days before whole body gamma irradiation at 8 Gy, 7 - Aspirin + Radiation group: rats received aspirin during 21 days before w hole body gamma irradiation , 8 - Caffeine + Aspirin + Radiation group: rats received caffeine parallel to aspirin for 21 days before whole body gamma irradiation. Animals were sacrificed 24 hrs post irradiation. The results demonstrated that rats exposed to whole body gamma irradiation showed a significant increase in alanine amino transferase (AL ) , aspartate amino transferase ( AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, and a significant decrease in total protein indicating liver injury. A significant increase in urea, creatinine, Na + ,and K + were recorded indicating kidney damage. Alteration of liver and kidney functions was accompanied by a significant

  16. Biochemical and histological changes in whole body gamma-irradiated rats feed on wheat, barely and corn bran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, S.M.; Hassan, A.A.; Ragab, E.A.

    2003-01-01

    The present work aims to study the effect of adding 3 different of dietary fibers (wheat, barley or corn bran) to normal balanced diet on liver function, blood, cholesterol, triglycerides and blood glucose level to counteract their elevation in whole body gamma irradiation rats. The experimental diets (balanced diet + fibre additive) were fed for 4 weeks. Samples (blood and tissue) were collected at intervals of times 7, 14 and 28 days post exposure to single dose (7 Gy) gamma irradiation. The control group consumed a fibre diet for 4 weeks, but not irradiated. The minimum aspartate amino-transferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities and the lowest blood total cholestrol, triglycerides and blood glucose were observed in rats (irradiated and non-irradiated rats) fed on wheat bran experimental diet (barley or corn bran). It could be concluded that wheat fibers were more effective, as compared with other fibers contained in balanced diet, in improving the investigated parameters observed after whole body gamma irradiation exposure

  17. Melatonin prevents inflammation and oxidative stress caused by abdominopelvic and total body irradiation of rat small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guney, Y; Hicsonmez, A; Uluoglu, C; Guney, H Z; Ozel Turkcu, U; Take, G; Yucel, B; Caglar, G; Bilgihan, A; Erdogan, D; Nalca Andrieu, M; Kurtman, C; Zengil, H

    2007-10-01

    We investigated the day-night differences in intestinal oxidative-injury and the inflammatory response following total body (TB) or abdominopelvic (AP) irradiation, and the influence of melatonin administration on tissue injury induced by radiation. Rats (male Wistar, weighing 220-280 g) in the irradiated groups were exposed to a dose of 8 Gy to the TB or AP region in the morning (resting period - 1 h after light onset) or evening (activity span - 13 h after light onset). Vehicle or melatonin was administered immediately before, immediately after and 24 h after irradiation (10, 2.0 and 10 mg/kg, ip, respectively) to the irradiated rats. AP (P < 0.05) and TB (P < 0.05) irradiation applied in the morning caused a significant increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels. Melatonin treatment in the morning (P < 0.05) or evening (P < 0.05) decreased TBARS levels after TB irradiation. After AP irradiation, melatonin treatment only in the morning caused a significant decrease in TBARS levels (P < 0.05). Although we have confirmed the development of inflammation after radiotherapy by histological findings, neither AP nor TB irradiation caused any marked changes in myeloperoxidase activity in the morning or evening. Our results indicate that oxidative damage is more prominent in rats receiving TB and AP irradiation in the morning and melatonin appears to have beneficial effects on oxidative damage irrespective of the time of administration. Increased neutrophil accumulation indicates that melatonin administration exerts a protective effect on AP irradiation-induced tissue oxidative injury, especially in the morning.

  18. Melatonin prevents inflammation and oxidative stress caused by abdominopelvic and total body irradiation of rat small intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Guney

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the day-night differences in intestinal oxidative-injury and the inflammatory response following total body (TB or abdominopelvic (AP irradiation, and the influence of melatonin administration on tissue injury induced by radiation. Rats (male Wistar, weighing 220-280 g in the irradiated groups were exposed to a dose of 8 Gy to the TB or AP region in the morning (resting period - 1 h after light onset or evening (activity span - 13 h after light onset. Vehicle or melatonin was administered immediately before, immediately after and 24 h after irradiation (10, 2.0 and 10 mg/kg, ip, respectively to the irradiated rats. AP (P < 0.05 and TB (P < 0.05 irradiation applied in the morning caused a significant increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS levels. Melatonin treatment in the morning (P < 0.05 or evening (P < 0.05 decreased TBARS levels after TB irradiation. After AP irradiation, melatonin treatment only in the morning caused a significant decrease in TBARS levels (P < 0.05. Although we have confirmed the development of inflammation after radiotherapy by histological findings, neither AP nor TB irradiation caused any marked changes in myeloperoxidase activity in the morning or evening. Our results indicate that oxidative damage is more prominent in rats receiving TB and AP irradiation in the morning and melatonin appears to have beneficial effects on oxidative damage irrespective of the time of administration. Increased neutrophil accumulation indicates that melatonin administration exerts a protective effect on AP irradiation-induced tissue oxidative injury, especially in the morning.

  19. Effect of whole body gamma irradiation and the role of cysteamine as a radioprotector on the kidney of albino rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waer, H.F.

    1998-01-01

    The present work was designed to investigate the morphological effects of gamma irradiation on rat kidney using the electron microscope, five days after exposure. Our investigation was also devoted to study the curative effect of cysteamine as a radioprotective agent injected at a dose rate of 150 mg/kg body weight pre-irradiation. It was found that the ultrastructure of the cells of the renal proximal convoluted tubules of rats, examined 5 days post-irradiation, were severely affected, the cytoplasm was disorganized and the nuclei showed necrotic changes. However, the cells of the proximal convoluted tubules of rats injected with cysteamine pre-irradiation and examined 3 and 5 days after treatment showed curative effect of cysteamine, which seemed to enhance the recovery of the kidney proximal tubules. The cytoplasm was well organized and the nuclei appeared normal

  20. Radiation Effect on Body Weight and Hematological Changes of Hybrid Mice by Conventional Fraction, Large Abdominal Field Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sung Heon; Shin, Sei One; Kim, Myung Se

    1985-01-01

    Radiation effect on mammals, especially on hematologic changes, has been studied since discovery of x-ray. Various experimental animals were tried for radiobiological studies. 72 hybrid mice with conventional fraction (5X/week), large abdominal field (2 x 3cm, from symphysis pubic to xyphoid process) were used. Body weight was declined gradually by increasing irradiation doses, nadir was about 29.7% in male ; 30.4% in female at 6000 rad irradiation group. Hemoglobin value was nearly normal throughout entire treatment. Significant dropping of WBC count was noted to 40-50% of pretreatment values by only 1000 rad irradiation. Change of differential count was interesting; lymphocyte proportion showed gradual reduction, instead of gradual increasing of segmented neutrophil. Those proportion were reversed after 6000 rad irradiation. Urinary protein tests showed + - +++, showing no correlation with dosage. Application. of our study in clinical combination therapy (radiation + chemotherapy) was discussed

  1. Serum immunoglobulin levels in humans exposed to therapeutic total-body gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaskes, S.; Kingdon, G.C.; Balish, E.

    1975-01-01

    Reduced serum immunoglobulin (IgA, IgG, IgM) levels developed in the majority of 27 patients with hematologic disorders after treatment with 100 to 350 R total-body gamma-ray exposures at a dose rate of either 1.5 R/min to 1.5 R/hr. A reduction in IgA of 20 percent or more was found in 66 percent of the cases, while 56 percent showed an IgM decrease, and 49 percent an IgG decrease of 20 percent. The severity of immunoglobulin depression was influenced by the total radiation dose and the patient's primary disease. The occurrence of IgG and IgM depression was greater when the radiation was given at 1.5 R/hr than when the dose rate was 1.5 R/min. Substantial but incomplete recovery toward preirradiation immunoglobulin levels was found for most patients by 7 wk after total-body irradiation (TBI). (U.S.)

  2. Radio-modifying effects of amifostine analogues in whole body gamma irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soni, Ravi; Arora, Aastha; Singh, Saurabh; Bhuria, Vikas; Sharma, Anjali; Bhatt, A.N.; Dwarakanath, B.S.; Pathak, Uma; Mathur, Shweta; Sandhir, Rajat

    2014-01-01

    Damage to hematopoietic and gastro-intestinal systems contribute mainly to acute effects (mortality) following exposures to moderate doses of ionizing radiation. The aminothiol, amifostine (WR2721, a FDA approved pro-drug) has been well established protector of normal tissues against radiation damage and chemo-therapeutic drugs induced toxicity. A number of amifostine analogues (DRDE-07, DRDE-30 and DRDE-35) have been recently synthesized that afford protection against Sulfur Mustard (SM) when administered orally. Since, the mechanisms underlying toxicity by SM share a great deal with ionizing radiation and certain anti-cancer drugs, we investigated the potential of DRDE analogues in reducing the acute effects of radiation in whole body irradiated mice. Animal survival, body weight, changes in haematological parameters and CFU-S as well as morphology of GI was studied. DRDE analogues significantly enhanced the animal survival and reduced the radiation sickness (loss of weight) in a dose dependent manner when administered 30 min. before irradiation; optimal doses were 125 mg/kg body weight for DRDE-07; 220 mg/kg for DRDE-30 and 200 mg/kg for DRDE-35. All three analogues were orally effective unlike amifostine, albeit to different extents. The order of radio-protective efficacy in C57BL/6 mice when administered orally was DRDE-35 (60%) > DRDE-07 (50%) > DRDE-30 (40%), while it was DRDE-07 (58%) > DRDE-30 (44%) > DRDE-35 (40%) following intra-peritoneal administration. These analogues enhanced the recovery from radiation-induced hematopoietic damage (peripheral blood counts and improvement in endogenous spleen colony forming units) and gastrointestinal injury (improved structural integrity of GI, increase in villi height, regenerating crypts and mitotic figures) that correlated with the increase in survival. There were no survivors in the radiation group after 35 days of exposure and the values for the analyzed parameters were comparable to the control group. These

  3. Gene Expression Changes in Mouse Intestinal Tissue Following Whole-Body Proton or Gamma-Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purgason, Ashley; Zhang, Ye; Mangala, Lingegowda; Nie, Ying; Gridley, Daila; Hamilton, Stanley R.; Seidel, Derek V.; Wu, Honglu

    2014-01-01

    Crew members face potential consequences following exposure to the space radiation environment including acute radiation syndrome and cancer. The space radiation environment is ample with protons, and numerous studies have been devoted to the understanding of the health consequences of proton exposures. In this project, C57BL/6 mice underwent whole-body exposure to 250 MeV of protons at doses of 0, 0.1, 0.5, 2 and 6 Gy and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of each animal was dissected four hours post-irradiation. Standard H&E staining methods to screen for morphologic changes in the tissue showed an increase in apoptotic lesions for even the lowest dose of 0.1 Gy, and the percentage of apoptotic cells increased with increasing dose. Results of gene expression changes showed consistent up- or down- regulation, up to 10 fold, of a number of genes across exposure doses that may play a role in proton-induced oxidative stress including Gpx2. A separate study in C57BL/6 mice using the same four hour time point but whole-body gamma-irradiation showed damage to the small intestine with lesions appearing at the smallest dose of 0.05 Gy and increasing with increasing absorbed dose. Expressions of genes associated with oxidative stress processes were analyzed at four hours and twenty-four hours after exposure to gamma rays. We saw a much greater number of genes with significant up- or down-regulation twenty-four hours post-exposure as compared to the four hour time point. At both four hours and twenty-four hours post-exposure, Duox1 and Mpo underwent up-regulation for the highest dose of 6 Gy. Both protons and gamma rays lead to significant variation in gene expressions and these changes may provide insight into the mechanism of injury seen in the GI tract following radiation exposure. We have also completed experiments using a BALB/c mouse model undergoing whole-body exposure to protons. Doses of 0, 0.1, 1 and 2 Gy were used and results will be compared to the work mentioned

  4. A survey of gastrointestinal helminths in Baboons ( Papio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The species identified were Strongyloides (63.3%), Oesophagostomum (16.7%) and Trichostrongylus (10.0%). The observed high worm burden in yellow baboons and warthogs of SANAPA show that wild animals are the resevoirs of gastrointestinal parasites and could serve as potential sources of infestations to domestic ...

  5. Anaesthesia for Baboons – Practical and ethical considerations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    Animal research is still a cornerstone of modern scientific discovery. A practical approach to anaesthetising Chacma baboons (Papio ursinus) undergoing experimental cardiac surgery is described. This physiological model has many similarities to human physiology. Subtle differences exist which could influence outcome.

  6. Problem animals, indigeneity and land: the chacma baboon in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The apparently opposing images found throughout colonial writing of the baboon as trespasser and as original inhabitant – exemplified in the works of Percy Fitzpatrick, WC Scully, C R Prance, Stuart Cloete, Perceval Gibbon, and F W Fitzsimons – are revealed to be mutually implicated in the territorial anxieties of the ...

  7. Baboons as potential reservoirs of zoonotic gastrointestinal parasite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    contaminated food, water and hands10. They are known to be the most common causative agents of debilitating diarrhoea in humans. However, it should be noted that although baboons at YNP showed natural infections with eggs and cysts of helminth, nematode and protozoan parasites that are morphologically similar to ...

  8. ECOLOGY OF BABOONS (PAPIO URSINUSj AT CAPE POINT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-04-17

    Apr 17, 2015 ... Invertebrates (ants, grasshoppers, marine shellfish) were also taken. Daily distance (3-14 km) covered by the troop while foraging was greatest in summer. Female baboons had menstrual cycles and copulated throughout the year. The calculated reproductive rate (12%) was roughly 80% of those reported ...

  9. Ecology of baboons ( Papio ursinus ) at Cape Point | Davidge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Invertebrates (ants, grasshoppers, marine shellfish) were also taken. Daily distance (3-14 km) covered by the troop while foraging was greatest in summer. Female baboons had menstrual cycles and copulated throughout the year. The calculated reproductive rate (12%) was roughly 80% of those reported for congeners ...

  10. Microcirculatory alterations after orthotopic pig-to-baboon heart transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Andreas; Renz, Vivian; Baschnegger, Heiko; Abicht, Jan-Michael; Beiras-Fernandez, Andres; Brenner, Paolo; Thein, Eckart; Schmoeckel, Michael; Reichart, Bruno; Christ, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Whilst macrohemodynamic function of porcine xenografts transplanted into baboons has been assessed perioperatively, the ability of the xenograft to maintain systemic microcirculatory perfusion has not been investigated after pig-to-baboon xenotransplantation so far. We investigated the sublingual microcirculation of six baboons undergoing orthotopic transplantation of hCD46-transgenic pig hearts using orthogonal polarization spectral imaging. Microvascular measurements were performed after induction of anesthesia, in the early phase of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), during reperfusion of the porcine heart and 1 h after the xenograft had resumed its life-supporting function. Microvascular blood flow was analyzed semiquantitatively and the number of visualized cell-to-cell interactions was counted. The proportion of continuously perfused microvessels was 97 (96 to 97) % at baseline and 95 (94 to 97) % in the early phase of CPB. It decreased significantly (P pig-to-baboon heart transplantation, despite systemic hemodynamic parameters being well maintained by the porcine xenograft. These changes are moderate but persist after termination of CPB. Further studies need to elucidate whether these changes are transient or add to the mortality associated with cardiac xenotransplantation. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. ECOLOGY OF BABOONS (PAPIO URSINUSj AT CAPE POINT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-04-17

    Apr 17, 2015 ... The baboons' diet included 95% vegetable matter (grass, seeds, fruit, leaves). Invertebrates (ants, grasshoppers, marine shellfish) were also taken. Daily distance (3-14 km) covered by the ... The climate of the area is "mediterranean", unlike most of sub-saharan Africa, with wet cool winters and warm dry ...

  12. Success Stories in Radiotherapy Development Projects: Optimizing Total Body Irradiation for Bone Marrow Transplants in Bulgaria. Chapter 28.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenblatt, E.; Gocheva-Petkova, L.

    2017-01-01

    Each year, hundreds of cancer patients in Bulgaria receive bone marrow transplants as treatment for haematological malignancies such as leukaemia, lymphoma and multiple myeloma, or for solid tumours such as neuroblastoma, one of the more common cancers in infancy. To undergo a bone marrow transplant, patients must first go through a preparatory process that conditions the body for the transplant. This involves a special radiotherapy technique called total body irradiation (TBI). TBI helps to make space for the transplanted marrow, destroys any malignant cells that may be left in the bone marrow after chemotherapy and suppresses the immune system to help prevent rejection of the transplant. To avoid complications, patients must also receive irradiated cellular blood components during the preparatory process. The IAEA assisted medical professionals in Bulgaria in optimizing bone marrow transplants by providing the equipment and building the capabilities necessary to carry out TBI. The IAEA also offered very specialized radiotherapy training to the medical staff, including blood irradiation.

  13. The effects of whole-body irradiation on the serum levels and kinetics of thyroid hormones in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of a single whole-body dose of X-rays on the serum levels and kinetics of thyroid hormones in rats were studied. The influence of radiation-induced anorexia was monitored by using pair fed control groups. A dose of 800 rad caused a reduction in T 4 levels and 750 rad had a similar effect on T 3 ; in each case the control group showed a smaller reduction. The kinetic results indicated that, in the control groups, the early reduction in hormone concentrations was caused by decreased production, whereas, in the irradiated groups, it was caused by a change in the distribution of the hormone; however the continuing reduction in hormone levels in the irradiated rats appeared to result from decreased production. The results suggest that the thyroid system may play an active part in the early metabolic changes which follow whole-body irradiation. (author)

  14. The Effect of A Single Sub-Lethal Dose of Whole Body Irradiation on the Small Intestine of Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ramli, M. A.; Kubba, M. A.; Al-Bassam, L. S.; Belhaj, K.; Al-shawish, N. M.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of whole body radiation with a single sub-lethal dose at 4 Gy on rat small intestine was studied histologically and quantitatively. Irradiated animals were euthanized at 24 hours, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post- irradiation. Crypts of Leiberkuhn and peyer's patches were especially targeted by irradiation. The crypts showed severe cellular fragmentation in the germinal cellular compartments twenty Four hours after irradiation resulting in partial denudation of villi especially at their Tips. At three days, these cells resumed their proliferative activity with the appearance of unusually large numbers of mitotic figures. Cellular regeneration in the crypts and on the villous surface showed improvement with advancing time till day 28 when the villi had complete epithelial covering and the proliferative activity of the germinal cryptic cells returned to normal. The quantitative study included the measurement of about fifty villi at each time after irradiation. A significant decrease in villous length was noticed at twenty four hours post-irradiation compared to the control values. The length of villi plateaued at about this level till day twenty one when it slightly increased to reach a sub normal mean length on day 28. We concluded that whole body irradiation with a single dose at 4 Gy was enough to induce cryptic cellular necrosis with sloughing of epithelial villous columnar covering. This cellular damage was, however, sub- total since quick regenerative cellular activity was noticed three days post-irradiation. The decrease in the villous length paralleled the cryptic cellular damage whereas full recovery was not achieved despite obvious cellular regeneration.

  15. Growth hormone (GH) secretion and response to GH therapy after total body irradiation and haematopoietic stem cell transplantation during childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, B.; Oostdijk, W.; Geskus, R. B.; Stokvis-Brantsma, W. H.; Vossen, J. M.; Wit, J. M.

    2007-01-01

    In January 1997 we introduced a protocol for the treatment with GH of children with impaired growth after unfractionated total body irradiation (TBI). This study is an evaluation of that protocol. Between January 1997 and July 2005, 66 patients (48 male) treated for haematological malignancies had

  16. Development and clinical application of a length-adjustable water phantom for total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z. W.; Yao, S. Y.; Zhang, T. N.; Zhu, Z. H.; Hu, Z. K.; Lu, X.

    2008-01-01

    A new type of water phantom which would be specialised for the absorbed dose measurement in total body irradiation (TBI) treatment is developed. Ten millimetres of thick Plexiglas plates were arranged to form a square cube with 300 mm of edge length. An appropriate sleeve-type piston was installed on the side wall, and a tabular Plexiglas piston was positioned inside the sleeve. By pushing and pulling the piston, the length of the self-made water phantom could be varied to meet the required patients' physical sizes. To compare the international standard water phantom with the length-adjustable and the Plexiglas phantoms, absorbed dose for 6-MV X ray was measured by an ionisation chamber at different depths in three kinds of phantoms. In 70 cases with TBI, midplane doses were metered using the length-adjustable and the Plexiglas phantoms for simulating human dimensions, and dose validation was synchronously carried out. There were no significant statistical differences, p > 0.05, through statistical processing of data from the international standard water phantom and the self-designed one. There were significant statistical differences, p < 0.05, between the two sets of data from the standard and the Plexiglas one. In addition, the absolute difference had a positive correlation with the varied depth of the detector in the Plexiglas phantom. Comparing the data of clinical treatment, the differences were all <1 % among the prescription doses and the validation data collected from the self-design water phantom. However, the differences collected from the Plexiglas phantom were increasing gradually from +0.77 to +2.30 % along with increasing body width. Obviously, the difference had a positive correlation with the body width. The results proved that the new length-adjustable water phantom is more accurate for simulating human dimensions than Plexiglas phantom. (authors)

  17. Neurobehavioral toxicity of total body irradiation: a follow-up in long-term survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peper, Martin; Steinvorth, Sarah; Schraube, Peter; Fruehauf, Stefan; Haas, Rainer; Kimmig, Bernhard N.; Lohr, Frank; Wenz, Frederik; Wannenmacher, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Total body irradiation (TBI) in preparation for bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is a routine treatment of hematological malignancy. A retrospective and a prospective group study of long-term cerebral side effects was performed, with a special emphasis on neurobehavioral toxicity effects. Methods and Materials: Twenty disease-free patients treated with hyperfractionated TBI (14.4 Gy, 12 x 1.2 Gy, 4 days), 50 mg/kg cyclophosphamide, and autologous BMT (mean age 38 years, range 17-52 years; age at TBI 35 years, 16-50 years; follow-up time 32 months, 9-65 months) participated in a neuropsychological, neuroradiological, and neurological examination. Data were compared to 14 patients who were investigated prior to TBI. Eleven patients with renal insufficiencies matched for sex and age (38 years, 20-52 years) served as controls. In a longitudinal approach, neuropsychological follow-up data were assessed in 12 long-term survivors (45 years, 23-59 years; follow-up time 8.8 years, 7-10.8 years; time since diagnosis 10.1 years, 7.5-14.2 years). Results: No evidence of neurological deficits was found in post-TBI patients except one case of peripheral movement disorder of unknown origin. Some patients showed moderate brain atrophy. Neuropsychological assessment showed a subtle reduction of memory performance of about one standard deviation. Cognitive decline in individual patients appeared to be associated with pretreatment (brain irradiation, intrathecal methotrexate). Ten-years post disease onset, survivors without pretreatment showed behavioral improvement up to the premorbid level. Conclusion: The incidence of long-term neurobehavioral toxicity was very low for the present TBI/BMT regimen

  18. Influence of whole-body irradiation on immune reactions after antitetanus vaccination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Servant, P.; Topcha, M.; Pasquier, C.

    The effect of gamma irradiation (450, 550 and 650 rads) on the circulating antibodies resulting from the injection of antitetanus vaccine in rabbits, were studied for different time interval between irradiation and antigen injection. An analysis of the results obtained exhibited that the increase in antibodies formation appeared only one weak after the beginning of irradiation and for a dose of 650 rads [fr

  19. Full-length proviruses of baboon endogenous virus (BaEV) and dispersed BaEV reverse transcriptase retroelements in the genome of baboon species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kuyl, A. C.; Dekker, J. T.; Goudsmit, J.

    1995-01-01

    Baboon endogenous virus (BaEV) is present in multiple copies in many Old World monkey species. BaEV proviruses may contain open reading frames for all major genes, as is indicated by the rescue of infectious virus particles from baboon and gelada tissues after cocultivation with permissive cells. We

  20. Dosimetric analysis for photon and electron beams in Whole body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurtado G, M.

    1998-01-01

    To initiate the Whole body irradiation as an alternative for the treatment of the hematological diseases, leukemia and assistant for the osseous marrow transplantation, it may be taken account the application of International Protocols about control and quality assurance. It is established the intercomparison by the different dosimetric methods: cylindrical ionization chambers and parallel plane, radiographic emulsion film, semiconductor diodes (Mosfet transistors) and TLD-100 thermoluminescent crystals, obtained measurements for 140 x 140 cm 2 fields and large distances 340 cm respect conventional fields in Radiotherapy. The in vitro dosimetry was realized at the Universal Anthropomorphic puppet Alderson Rando basically with the cylindrical crystals (1 mm diameter) of TLD-100 lithium fluoride. It was obtained the dose value with a 0.6 cm 3 cylindrical ionization chamber and the Farmer electrometer for Whole body irradiation (ICT) with photons for electrons and were obtained values with the Markus plane parallel camera. Knowing the dose rate value to the source-surface distance DFS= 80 cm, it was calibrated the crystals with the reference radiation beam of 60 Co for obtaining the response curve: Dose vs. Tl lecture. It was characterized the 10 % of the total population for 300 crystals for applying the statistics corresponding. The luminescence curve obtained of Gaussian form was considered satisfactory by its stability during the pre-anneal lecture and anneal process, getting the main peak lecture at 300 Centigrade according to assigned parameters at lecture equipment TLD Harshaw model 4500. The results indicate the functional dependence with the distance DFS= 340 cm for the following depth PPD, the relations TMR and TPR, the TAR is not calculated by the increment of the dispersion in air. The penumbra increment indicates an increase of the radiation field respect of luminous field. The dispersion angle q 1 respect at the field central axis was determined and was

  1. Effects of a whole body gamma irradiation on GABA repartition in infant rats cerebellum and hippocampal formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menetrier, F.; Vernois, Y.; Court, L.

    1992-01-01

    'Full-Text:' Thirteen-day-old rats were exposed to a single dose of 4 or 0,5 Gy of gamma at a dose rate of 0,25 Gy/min and were killed about 5h after. Fixation was achieved in situ using glutaraldehyde. For GABA immunocytochemistry transversal sections were incubated with antiserum against GABA, then with PAP and revealed with diaminobenzidine. Proliferative layers are still observed in the infant rat cerebellum (external granular layer) and hippocampal formation (subgranular layer of the dentate gyrus). When irradiation occurs a high percent of these two layers cells are pycnotic. In the normal cerebellum, no immunostaining is observed in external granular layer cell bodies. The only labelled structures are few cytoplasmic expansions coming from subjacent layers. When irradiated, a strong GABA staining appears around pycnotic cells as a network with labelled meshes. GABA staining and pycnotic cells were more especially important when the irradiation increases. Further studies are needed to specify the nature of labelled meshes. In the normal hippocampal formation, subgranular cells are not GABA stained. Staining occurs in cells which are not granule cells. They are scattered throughout cell layers of the dentate gyrus with predominance in the hilus. After irradiation, GABA repartition is not modified. After a 4 Gy whole body gamma irradiation, the inhibitory GABA system is not injured. Other amino-acid neurotransmitters such as Glutamate could be modified. (author)

  2. Evaluation of circulating endothelial cells in the rat after acute and fractionated whole-body gamma irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Massarani Ghassan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Damage to vascular endothelial cells is a well recognised complication of the irradiation. Our objective was to determine the gamma-irradiation effect on the rat circulating endothelial cells (CEC. Material and methods: Eight-week old rats were divided into four groups: group 1 - rats were exposed to acute whole- -body gamma irradiation with a wide range of single doses (0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8 Gy, group 2 - rats were exposed to fractionated low doses of irradiation (0.1, 0.5 and 1 Gy every three days for two months, group 3 as group 2, but followed by two months of rest, group 4 were control animals. CEC (CD146 positive cells in group 1 were counted following CD146-based immuno-magnetic separation after one day and one week, as well as at the end of experiment in the other groups. Results: Quantified CEC showed that there was a dose-dependent reduction in CEC count in group 1 (one week after irradiation and group 2. A partial re-population of CEC was observed at the end of experiment in both group 1 and group 2 compared to control group. Group 3 showed a significant increase in CEC levels as compared with group 2 without reaching the control level. Conclusion: The number of CEC (CD146 positive cells in rats exposed to whole-body gamma irradiation was reduced in a dose-dependent manner and it partly recovered during the two-month interval after irradiation. We suggest that CEC count may be an indicator of the radiation-induced vascular damage.

  3. Repopulated antigen presenting cells induced an imbalanced differentiation of the helper T cells in whole body gamma irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hae Ran; Jo, Sung Kee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Paik, Sang Kee [Chungnam National University, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Therapeutic irradiation of cancer patients, although it may be protected by several antioxidant agents against free radicals, often induces chronic sequelae such as inflammation (allergic inflammation). This is a limiting factor for radiotherapy. Following radiotherapy, the inflammation or injury can occur in any organ with a high radiosensitivity such as the lung, bladder, kidney, liver, stomach and intestine. The mechanism by which ionizing radiation initiates inflammation is, however, poorly understood. In recent studies, it was suggested that a factor for irradiation-induced inflammation might be the over production of IL-4 that enhances fibroblast proliferation and collagen synthesis. During the early stages after irradiation, type 2 of the helper T cells might be the major source of IL-4, and later on there seems to be an activation of the other IL-4 producing cell types, e.q. macrophages or mast cells. This is interesting because inflammation is classically seen to be dominated by Th1 cells secreting IFN-{gamma}. In the previous study, we were interested in the enhancement of the IL-4 and the IgE production during the development of immune cells after {gamma}-irradiation. We were able to deduce that IL-4 production was increased because of the shifted differentiation of the naive Th cells by the repopulated antigen presenting cells after irradiation. The aim of the present study was to precisely define whether antigen-presenting cells (APCs) of whole body irradiation-treated mice could influence the shifted differentiation of the Th cells. This view can be demonstrated by confirming that the shifted functional status of the Th cells is induced by the altered function of the repopulated macrophages after whole body irradiation (WBI)

  4. Effect of whole body X-irradiation on the NP-SH level of blood in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Soo Jhi; Woo, Won Hyung

    1972-01-01

    In hope to elucidate possible changes in blood NP-SH levels when X-irradiation is made in single or fractionate dose, a whole body X-irradiation was done to rabbits either in single dose of 900 r or in fractionated dose of 300 r per day for three days. The NP-SH was measured at 1, 3, 5, 24 and 48 post-irradiation hours, and the results were compared with the normal value of the blood NP-SH. The results obtained are as follows: 1. The normal value of blood NP-SH in the rabbit was 2.11 ± 0.40 μmol/ml. 2. In the single X-irradiation group, the blood NP-SH decreased most prominently at five hours after-irradiation, and a tendency of recovery to the normal level was observed thereafter. 3. In the fractionated group, the blood NP-SH levels were higher, than in the single irradiation group throughout the experiment, and the levels were also higher than the normal in general

  5. Whole body proton irradiation causes acute damage to bone marrow hematopoietic progenitor and stem cells in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jianhui; Wang, Yingying; Pathak, Rupak; Sridharan, Vijayalakshmi; Jones, Tamako; Mao, Xiao Wen; Nelson, Gregory; Boerma, Marjan; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Zhou, Daohong; Shao, Lijian

    2017-12-01

    Exposure to proton irradiation during missions in deep space can lead to bone marrow injury. The acute effects of proton irradiation on hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells remain undefined and thus were investigated. We exposed male C57BL/6 mice to 0.5 and 1.0 Gy proton total body irradiation (proton-TBI, 150 MeV) and examined changes in peripheral blood cells and bone marrow (BM) progenitors and LSK cells 2 weeks after exposure. 1.0 Gy proton-TBI significantly reduced the numbers of peripheral blood cells compared to 0.5 Gy proton-TBI and unirradiated animals, while the numbers of peripheral blood cell counts were comparable between 0.5 Gy proton-TBI and unirradiated mice. The frequencies and numbers of LSK cells and CMPs in BM of 0.5 and 1.0 Gy irradiated mice were decreased in comparison to those of normal controls. LSK cells and CMPs and their progeny exhibited a radiation-induced impairment in clonogenic function. Exposure to 1.0 Gy increased cellular apoptosis but not the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in CMPs two weeks after irradiation. LSK cells from irradiated mice exhibited an increase in ROS production and apoptosis. Exposure to proton-TBI can induce acute damage to BM progenitors and LSK cells.

  6. Hippophae leaf extract (SBL-1) countered radiation induced dysbiosis in jejunum of total body 60Cobalt gamma - irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beniwal, C.S.; Madhu Bala

    2014-01-01

    Single dose of SBL-1 administered at the rate 30 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) 30 min prior to whole body 60 Co-gamma-irradiation at lethal dose (10 Gy), rendered >90% survival in comparison to zero survival in the non-SBL-1 treated 60 Co-gamma-irradiated (10 Gy) mice population (J Herbs Spices Med Plants, 2009; 15(2): 203-215). Present study investigated the effect of SBL-1 on jejunal microbiota in lethally irradiated mice. Study was performed with inbred Swiss albino Strain 'A' male mice (age 9 weeks) weighing 28±2 g. The animals were maintained under controlled environment at 26±2℃; 12 h light/dark cycle and offered standard animal food (Golden feed, Delhi) as well as tap water ad libitum. Metagenomic DNA was extracted, purified and quantified from jejunum of the mice. Universal primers (27f and 1492r) were used to amplify the 16S rRNA DNA from the metagenomic DNA. Amplicons were sequenced, vector contamination and chimeras were removed. The sequences (GenBank Accession No: KF681283 to KF681351) were taxonomically classified by using Sequence Match program, Ribosomal Database Project as well as by nucleotide-BLAST (E-value: 10, database: 16S rRNA gene sequences, Bacteria and Archea). Phylogenetic Tree was prepared using MEGA 5.2 package, using maximum likelihood algorithm after sequence alignment by MUSCLE. Thermus aquaticus was used as out-group to construct rooted tree. Branch stability was assessed by bootstrap analysis. Untreated animals and the animals treated with SBL-1 had 100% Lactobacillus; 60 Co gamma-irradiated animals had 55% Cohaesibacter (Alphaproteobacteria); 27% Mycoplasma (Tenericutes) and only 18% Lactobacillus; animals treated with SBL-1 prior to irradiation had 89% Lactobacillus and 11% Clostridium. This study demonstrated that treatment with SBL-1 at radioprotective doses before total body irradiation with lethal dose (10 Gy) countered the jejunal dysbiosis. (author)

  7. Rapid decrease in brain enkephalin content after low-dose whole-body X-irradiation of the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyachi, Yukihisa (Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Komae, Tokyo (Japan). Komae Research Lab.); Ogawa, Norio; Mori, Akitane

    1992-03-01

    Methionine-eckephalin (ME) contents in the hypothalamus and other rat brain structures were measured immediately after 10 or 20 cGy whole-body X-irradiation. The ME contents of homogenates of the striatum, hypothalamus, midbrain + thalamus, hindbrain and pituitary were assayed radioimmunologically with {sup 125}I. The contents of all the structure, except the pituitary, decreased significantly after 20 cGy irradiation. The reduction in the hypothalamus was transient, ME content gradually recovering with time. These results suggest that the central nervous system of mammals is one of the most radiosensitive organs as judged by changes in stress-induced mediators such as ME. (author).

  8. Translating bed total body irradiation lung shielding and dose optimization using asymmetric MLC apertures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shahbaz; Brown, Derek; Ahmed, Saad B. S.; Kakakhel, Muhammad B.; Muhammad, Wazir

    2016-01-01

    A revised translating bed total body irradiation (TBI) technique is developed for shielding organs at risk (lungs) to tolerance dose limits, and optimizing dose distribution in three dimensions (3D) using an asymmetrically‐adjusted, dynamic multileaf collimator. We present a dosimetric comparison of this technique with a previously developed symmetric MLC‐based TBI technique. An anthropomorphic RANDO phantom is CT scanned with 3 mm slice thickness. Radiological depths (RD) are calculated on individual CT slices along the divergent ray lines. Asymmetric MLC apertures are defined every 9 mm over the phantom length in the craniocaudal direction. Individual asymmetric MLC leaf positions are optimized based on RD values of all slices for uniform dose distributions. Dose calculations are performed in the Eclipse treatment planning system over these optimized MLC apertures. Dose uniformity along midline of the RANDO phantom is within the confidence limit (CL) of 2.1% (with a confidence probability p=0.065). The issue of over‐ and underdose at the interfaces that is observed when symmetric MLC apertures are used is reduced from more than ±4% to less than ±1.5% with asymmetric MLC apertures. Lungs are shielded by 20%, 30%, and 40% of the prescribed dose by adjusting the MLC apertures. Dose‐volume histogram analysis confirms that the revised technique provides effective lung shielding, as well as a homogeneous dose coverage to the whole body. The asymmetric technique also reduces hot and cold spots at lung‐tissue interfaces compared to previous symmetric MLC‐based TBI technique. MLC‐based shielding of OARs eliminates the need to fabricate and setup cumbersome patient‐specific physical blocks. PACS number(s): 87.55.‐x, 87.55.de, 87.55.D‐ PMID:27074477

  9. Inhibition of DNA repair by whole body irradiation induced nitric oxide leads to higher radiation sensitivity in lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Deepak; Santosh Kumar, S.; Raghu, Rashmi; Maurya, D.K.; Sainis, K.B.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: It is well accepted that the sensitivity of mammalian cells is better following whole body irradiation (WBI) as compared to that following in vitro irradiation. However, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Following WBI, the lipid peroxidation and cell death were significantly higher in lymphocytes as compared to that in vitro irradiated lymphocytes. Further, WBI treatment of tumor bearing mice resulted in a significantly higher inhibition of EL-4 cell proliferation as compared to in vitro irradiation of EL-4 cells. The DNA repair was significantly slower in lymphocytes obtained from WBI treated mice as compared to that in the cells exposed to same dose of radiation in vitro. Generation of nitric oxide following irradiation and also its role in inhibition of DNA repair have been reported, hence, its levels were estimated under both WBI and in vitro irradiation conditions. Nitric oxide levels were significantly elevated in the plasma of WBI treated mice but not in the supernatant of in vitro irradiated cells. Addition of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a nitric oxide donor to in vitro irradiated cells inhibited the repair of DNA damage and sensitized cells to undergo cell death. It also enhanced the radiation-induced functional impairment of lymphocytes as evinced from suppression of mitogen-induced IL-2, IFN-γ and bcl-2 mRNA expression. Administration of N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl-ester(L-NAME), a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, to mice significantly protected lymphocytes against WBI-induced DNA damage and inhibited in vivo radiation-induced production of nitric oxide. Our results indicated that nitric oxide plays a role in the higher radiosensitivity of lymphocytes in vivo by inhibiting repair of DNA damage

  10. Immunoglobulin levels in dogs after total-body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vriesendorp, H.M.; Halliwell, R.E.; Johnson, P.M.; Fey, T.A.; McDonough, C.M.

    1985-06-01

    The influence of total-body irradiation (TBI) and autologous or allogeneic bone marrow transplantation on serum immunoglobulin subclasses was determined in a dog model. Only IgG1 levels decreased after low-dose (+/- 4.5 Gy) TBI, but levels of all immunoglobulin classes fell after high-dose TBI (8.5 GyX1 or 2X6.0 Gy). After autologous bone marrow transplantation IgM levels were the first and IgE levels were the last to return to normal. After successful allogeneic bone marrow transplantation prolonged low IgM and IgE levels were found but IgA levels increased rapidly to over 150% of pretreatment values. A comparison of dogs with or without clinical signs or graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), revealed no differences in IgM levels. Dogs with GVHD had higher IgA but lower IgE levels. Dogs that rejected their allogeneic bone marrow cells showed significant early rises in IgE and IgA levels in comparison with dogs with GVHD. These results differ from the observations made on Ig levels in human bone marrow transplant patients. No significant differences in phytohemagglutinin stimulation tests were found between dogs with or without GVHD or dogs receiving an autologous transplant for the first four months after TBI and transplantation. An early primary or secondary involvement of humoral immunity in GVHD and graft rejection in dogs is postulated.

  11. Marrow transplantation for leukemia following fractionated total body irradiation. A comparative trial of methotrexate and cyclosporine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irle, C.; Deeg, H.J.; Buckner, C.D.; Swedish Hospital Medical Center, Seattle, WA; Veterans Administration Hospital, Seattle, WA; Washington Univ., Seattle

    1985-01-01

    Fifty-six patients, 30-47 yr of age, with leukemia in relapse received allogeneic marrow transplants from HLA-identical siblings. All patients were treated with cyclophosphamide (120 mg/kg) and 7 daily fractions of 2.25 Gy of total body irradiation (TBI) for seven consecutive days. Nine patients (16%) are currently alive, free of disease, 324-845 days from transplantation. Actuarial relapse and survival rates at 2 yr were 56% and 9.5% respectively. These data were not remarkably different from those in previous studies using 10 Gy of TBI administered as a single dose. Thirty patients were randomized to receive methotrexate (MTX) and 26 to receive cyclosporine (CSP) as postgrafting prophylaxis for acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Probability of developing significant acute GVHD by day 100 post-transplant was 71% for patients in the MTX group and 45% for patients in the CSP group (p<0.05). Probability of relapse was 37% for patients in the MTX group and 70% for patients in the CSP group (p<0.05). Transplant-related deaths were more frequent in the MTX group and leukemic deaths more frequent in the CSP group although this may have been related to an uneven distribution of high-risk patients. Long term disease-free survival was comparable. (author)

  12. Severe Pulmonary Toxicity After Myeloablative Conditioning Using Total Body Irradiation: An Assessment of Risk Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelsey, Chris R.; Horwitz, Mitchell E.; Chino, Junzo P.; Craciunescu, Oana; Steffey, Beverly; Folz, Rodney J.; Chao, Nelson J.; Rizzieri, David A.; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To assess factors associated with severe pulmonary toxicity after myeloablative conditioning using total body irradiation (TBI) followed by allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Methods and Materials: A total of 101 adult patients who underwent TBI-based myeloablative conditioning for hematologic malignancies at Duke University between 1998 and 2008 were reviewed. TBI was combined with high-dose cyclophosphamide, melphalan, fludarabine, or etoposide, depending on the underlying disease. Acute pulmonary toxicity, occurring within 90 days of transplantation, was scored using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. Actuarial overall survival and the cumulative incidence of acute pulmonary toxicity were calculated via the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using a log-rank test. A binary logistic regression analysis was performed to assess factors independently associated with acute severe pulmonary toxicity. Results: The 90-day actuarial risk of developing severe (Grade 3-5) pulmonary toxicity was 33%. Actuarial survival at 90 days was 49% in patients with severe pulmonary toxicity vs. 94% in patients without (p < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, the number of prior chemotherapy regimens was the only factor independently associated with development of severe pulmonary toxicity (odds ratio, 2.7 per regimen). Conclusions: Severe acute pulmonary toxicity is prevalent after TBI-based myeloablative conditioning regimens, occurring in approximately 33% of patients. The number of prior chemotherapy regimens appears to be an important risk factor.

  13. Immunoglobulin levels in dogs after total-body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vriesendorp, H.M.; Halliwell, R.E.; Johnson, P.M.; Fey, T.A.; McDonough, C.M.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of total-body irradiation (TBI) and autologous or allogeneic bone marrow transplantation on serum immunoglobulin subclasses was determined in a dog model. Only IgG1 levels decreased after low-dose (+/- 4.5 Gy) TBI, but levels of all immunoglobulin classes fell after high-dose TBI (8.5 GyX1 or 2X6.0 Gy). After autologous bone marrow transplantation IgM levels were the first and IgE levels were the last to return to normal. After successful allogeneic bone marrow transplantation prolonged low IgM and IgE levels were found but IgA levels increased rapidly to over 150% of pretreatment values. A comparison of dogs with or without clinical signs or graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), revealed no differences in IgM levels. Dogs with GVHD had higher IgA but lower IgE levels. Dogs that rejected their allogeneic bone marrow cells showed significant early rises in IgE and IgA levels in comparison with dogs with GVHD. These results differ from the observations made on Ig levels in human bone marrow transplant patients. No significant differences in phytohemagglutinin stimulation tests were found between dogs with or without GVHD or dogs receiving an autologous transplant for the first four months after TBI and transplantation. An early primary or secondary involvement of humoral immunity in GVHD and graft rejection in dogs is postulated

  14. Factors associated with pulmonary toxicity after myeloablative conditioning using fractionated total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Hwa Kyung; Yoon, Hong In; Cho, Jae Ho [Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2017-09-15

    Pulmonary toxicities, including infectious pneumonia (IP) and idiopathic pneumonia syndrome (IPS), are serious side effects of total body irradiation (TBI) used for myeloablative conditioning. This study aimed to evaluate clinical factors associated with IP and IPS following TBI. Fifty-eight patients with hematologic malignancies who underwent TBI before allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation between 2005 and 2014 were reviewed. Most patients (91%) received 12 Gy in 1.5 Gy fractions twice a day. Pulmonary toxicities were diagnosed based on either radiographic evidence or reduced pulmonary function, and were subdivided into IP and IPS based on the presence or absence of concurrent infection. Pulmonary toxicities developed in 36 patients (62%); 16 (28%) had IP and 20 (34%) had IPS. IP was significantly associated with increased treatment-related mortality (p = 0.028) and decreased survival (p = 0.039). Multivariate analysis revealed that the risk of developing IPS was significantly higher in patients who received stem cells from a matched unrelated donor than from a matched sibling donor (p = 0.021; hazard ratio [HR] = 12.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.46–110.30). Combining other conditioning agents with cyclophosphamide produced a higher tendency to develop IP (p = 0.064; HR = 6.19; 95% CI, 0.90–42.56). IP and IPS involve different risk factors and distinct pathogeneses that should be considered when planning treatments before and after TBI.

  15. Lung damage following bone marrow transplantation after hyperfractionated total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latini, Paolo; Aristei, Cynthia; Checcaglini, Franco; Maranzano, Ernesto; Panizza, B.M.; Perrucci, Elisabetta; Aversa, Franco; Martelli, M.F.; Raymondi, Carlo

    1991-01-01

    From July 1985 to December 1989, 72 evaluable patients aged 6-51 (median age 27) suffering from hematological malignancies received allo-geneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) depleted of T-lymphocytes to reduce risks of graft-versus-host-disease (GvHD); 57 were matched and 15 mis-matched. Three different conditioning regiments were used in an effort to enhance cytoreduction without increase extramedullary toxicity. Mis-matched patients were treated with more immunosuppressive regimens. Total body irradiation (TBI) was given in 3 doses/day, 5 h apart over 4 days for a total of 12 fractions. The dose to the lungs was 14.4, 15.6 and 9 Gy according to the conditioning regimen. The incidence of inter-stitial pneumonia (IP) was 12.3 percent in matched and 46.7 in mis-matched patients. The results seem to indicate that lung toxicity is correlated with the intensity of the conditioning regimen, the stage of disease and, in mismatched patients, with the degree of human leucocyte antigen (HLA) disparity and the poor post-BMT reconstitution, rather than the radiotherapy dose delivered to the lungs. On the contrary, the hyperfractionated scheme adopted, the absence of GvHD and, perhaps, the post-TBI administration of cyclophosphamide all seem to have contributed to the low incidence of IP in the matched patients. (author). 30 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 tab

  16. Total body irradiation in the bone marrow transplantation in leukemia:an experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapatero, A.; Martin de Vidales, C.; Pinar, B.; Marin, A.; Cerezo, L.; Dominguez, P.; Perez, A.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to evaluate long-term survival and morbidity of fractioned total body irradiation (TBI) prior to allogeneicbone marrow transplantation (BMT) for leukemia. From June 1985 to May 1992, 94 patients with acute leukemia and chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), were treated with high dose cyclophosphamide(CY) and fractionated TBI to a total dose of 12 Gy in six fractions prior to allogeneic BMT. The Kaplan-Meier 5-year overall survival and disease-free survival were 53% +-6 and 48%+- respectively for patients with standard risk disease (first remission of acute leukemia and first chronic phase of CML), and 24%+-7 and 21%+-6 for patients with more advanced disease (p=3D0.01). The incidence of interstitial pneumonitis (IP), venoocclusive disease of the liver (VOD) and grade=3D>II acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) were respectively 15%, 29% and 51%. Fractionated TBI combined with high dose CY before allogeneic BMT for leukemia is an effective treatment in prolonging relapse-free survival witha low incidence of lung toxicity. (Author) 13 refs

  17. Prospective evaluation of delayed central nervous system (CNS) toxicity of hyperfractionated total body irradiation (TBI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenz, Frederik; Steinvorth, Sarah; Lohr, Frank; Fruehauf, Stefan; Wildermuth, Susanne; Kampen, Michael van; Wannenmacher, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Prospective evaluation of chronic radiation effects on the healthy adult brain using neuropsychological testing of intelligence, attention, and memory. Methods and Materials: 58 patients (43 ± 10 yr) undergoing hyperfractionated total body irradiation (TBI) (TBI, 14.4 Gy, 12 x 1.2 Gy in 4 days) before bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cell transplantation were prospectively included. Twenty-one recurrence-free long-term survivors were re-examined 6-36 months (median 27 months) after completion of TBI. Neuropsychological testing included assessment of general intelligence, attention, and memory using normative, standardized psychometric tests. Mood status was controlled, as well. Test results are given as IQ scores (population mean 100) or percentiles for attention and memory (population mean 50). Results: The 21 patients showed normal baseline test results of IQ (101 ± 13) and attention (53 ± 28), with memory test scores below average (35 ± 21). Test results of IQ (98 ± 17), attention (58 ± 27), and memory (43 ± 28) showed no signs of clinically measurable radiation damage to higher CNS (central nervous system) functions during the follow-up. The mood status was improved. Conclusion: The investigation of CNS toxicity after hyperfractionated TBI showed no deterioration of test results in adult recurrence-free patients with tumor-free CNS. The median follow-up of 27 months will be extended.

  18. Factors associated with pulmonary toxicity after myeloablative conditioning using fractionated total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Hwa Kyung; Yoon, Hong In; Cho, Jae Ho

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary toxicities, including infectious pneumonia (IP) and idiopathic pneumonia syndrome (IPS), are serious side effects of total body irradiation (TBI) used for myeloablative conditioning. This study aimed to evaluate clinical factors associated with IP and IPS following TBI. Fifty-eight patients with hematologic malignancies who underwent TBI before allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation between 2005 and 2014 were reviewed. Most patients (91%) received 12 Gy in 1.5 Gy fractions twice a day. Pulmonary toxicities were diagnosed based on either radiographic evidence or reduced pulmonary function, and were subdivided into IP and IPS based on the presence or absence of concurrent infection. Pulmonary toxicities developed in 36 patients (62%); 16 (28%) had IP and 20 (34%) had IPS. IP was significantly associated with increased treatment-related mortality (p = 0.028) and decreased survival (p = 0.039). Multivariate analysis revealed that the risk of developing IPS was significantly higher in patients who received stem cells from a matched unrelated donor than from a matched sibling donor (p = 0.021; hazard ratio [HR] = 12.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.46–110.30). Combining other conditioning agents with cyclophosphamide produced a higher tendency to develop IP (p = 0.064; HR = 6.19; 95% CI, 0.90–42.56). IP and IPS involve different risk factors and distinct pathogeneses that should be considered when planning treatments before and after TBI

  19. Fractionated half body irradiation for palliation of multiple symptomatic bone metastases from solid tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekiguchi, Kenji; Hayashi, Shinya; Sunagawa, Yoshimitsu; Sougawa, Mitsuharu; Nakazawa, Masanori; Yamashita, Takashi (Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan). Hospital)

    1992-06-01

    This was a phase I-II nonrandomized study that explored the toxicity and response of fractionated half-body irradiation (F-HBI) in patients with multiple symptomatic osseous metastases. The patients had no premedication and received 10 Gy in 5 fractions with a dose rate of 15 cGy/min. At the Cancer Institute Hospital, 9 patients were treated by this technique (1 upper and lower F-HBI, 6 upper F-HBI, 2 lower F-HBI). All patients were female and had adenocarcinomas (8 breast and 1 lung). Adverse effects were myelosuppression, vomiting and partial alopecia. But hematologic toxicity was treated with blood transfusion or G-CSF. All toxicity was transient, and no pneumonitis nor radiation-related deaths occurred. When given as palliation, F-HBI was found to relieve pain in 80% of the patients. In 10% of the patients the pain relief was complete. The mean time to achieve pain relief in responders after F-HBI was 9 days. The pain relief was long-lasting and continued without need of reirradiation for 40% of the remaining patient's life. This treatment modality appears to be well tolerated and effective in patients with multiple symptomatic osseous metastases. The optimal indications, dose and fractionation for F-HBI should be further explored in randomized trials. (author).

  20. Liver dysfunction following whole-body Co-60 irradiation in gerbil (Meriones hurrianae Jerdon) and house rat (Rattus rattus rufescens)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, V.P.; Agrawal, M.; Gupta, C.

    1976-01-01

    Liver dysfunction following whole-body Co-60 irradiation has been studied in domestic and desert rat species. A significant elevation in the serum transaminases activity was noticed both in gerbil and house rat. Alkaline phosphatase and plasma cholesterol levels were also increased indicating an early radiation impairment of the liver tissue, which was later confirmed by histological studies. A steady fall in liver glycogen in irradiated gerbils was strikingly in contrast to an increase in irradiated house rat. Drastic depletion in liver glycogen, changes in the serum enzyme levels and the severity of the hepatic necrosis in gerbils point out that desert mammalian species are much more sensitive to radiation hazard as compared with domestic ones. (orig.) [de

  1. Statistical analysis of dose heterogeneity in circulating blood: Implications for sequential methods of total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molloy, Janelle A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Improvements in delivery techniques for total body irradiation (TBI) using Tomotherapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy have been proven feasible. Despite the promise of improved dose conformality, the application of these ''sequential'' techniques has been hampered by concerns over dose heterogeneity to circulating blood. The present study was conducted to provide quantitative evidence regarding the potential clinical impact of this heterogeneity. Methods: Blood perfusion was modeled analytically as possessing linear, sinusoidal motion in the craniocaudal dimension. The average perfusion period for human circulation was estimated to be approximately 78 s. Sequential treatment delivery was modeled as a Gaussian-shaped dose cloud with a 10 cm length that traversed a 183 cm patient length at a uniform speed. Total dose to circulating blood voxels was calculated via numerical integration and normalized to 2 Gy per fraction. Dose statistics and equivalent uniform dose (EUD) were calculated for relevant treatment times, radiobiological parameters, blood perfusion rates, and fractionation schemes. The model was then refined to account for random dispersion superimposed onto the underlying periodic blood flow. Finally, a fully stochastic model was developed using binomial and trinomial probability distributions. These models allowed for the analysis of nonlinear sequential treatment modalities and treatment designs that incorporate deliberate organ sparing. Results: The dose received by individual blood voxels exhibited asymmetric behavior that depended on the coherence among the blood velocity, circulation phase, and the spatiotemporal characteristics of the irradiation beam. Heterogeneity increased with the perfusion period and decreased with the treatment time. Notwithstanding, heterogeneity was less than ±10% for perfusion periods less than 150 s. The EUD was compromised for radiosensitive cells, long perfusion periods, and short treatment times

  2. Statistical analysis of dose heterogeneity in circulating blood: implications for sequential methods of total body irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Janelle A

    2010-11-01

    Improvements in delivery techniques for total body irradiation (TBI) using Tomotherapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy have been proven feasible. Despite the promise of improved dose conformality, the application of these "sequential" techniques has been hampered by concerns over dose heterogeneity to circulating blood. The present study was conducted to provide quantitative evidence regarding the potential clinical impact of this heterogeneity. Blood perfusion was modeled analytically as possessing linear, sinusoidal motion in the craniocaudal dimension. The average perfusion period for human circulation was estimated to be approximately 78 s. Sequential treatment delivery was modeled as a Gaussian-shaped dose cloud with a 10 cm length that traversed a 183 cm patient length at a uniform speed. Total dose to circulating blood voxels was calculated via numerical integration and normalized to 2 Gy per fraction. Dose statistics and equivalent uniform dose (EUD) were calculated for relevant treatment times, radiobiological parameters, blood perfusion rates, and fractionation schemes. The model was then refined to account for random dispersion superimposed onto the underlying periodic blood flow. Finally, a fully stochastic model was developed using binomial and trinomial probability distributions. These models allowed for the analysis of nonlinear sequential treatment modalities and treatment designs that incorporate deliberate organ sparing. The dose received by individual blood voxels exhibited asymmetric behavior that depended on the coherence among the blood velocity, circulation phase, and the spatiotemporal characteristics of the irradiation beam. Heterogeneity increased with the perfusion period and decreased with the treatment time. Notwithstanding, heterogeneity was less than +/- 10% for perfusion periods less than 150 s. The EUD was compromised for radiosensitive cells, long perfusion periods, and short treatment times. However, the EUD was

  3. Effect of alcohol on internally deposited Am-241 in the baboon: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, N.; Antonelli, R.; LoSasso, T.

    1977-01-01

    The efficacy of ethyl alcohol in enhancing the excretion of Am-241 from the baboon has been tested. Alcohol enhances Am-241 excretion via the fecal route by a factor of about 2.5. However, there is a corresponding increase in fecal volume, and no significant change in the concentration of the nuclide in the feces. Other cathartics tested caused increased fecal volumes with no change in amount of activity excreted leading to a decreased concentration of the nuclide in the feces. Alcohol is not as effective as DTPA in removing Am-241 from the body. Preliminary results suggest that alcohol has little or no enhancement effect on the decorporation capability of DTPA

  4. Aspirin decreases platelet uptake on Dacron vascular grafts in baboons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, W.C.; Connolly, R.J.; Callow, A.D.

    1984-01-01

    The influence of a single dose of aspirin (5.4-7.4 mg/kg) on platelet uptake on 4-mm Dacron interposition grafts was studied in a baboon model using gamma camera scanning for 111-Indium labeled platelets. In vitro assessment of platelet function after aspirin administration revealed that in the baboon, as in the human, aspirin abolished arachidonic acid-induced platelet aggregation, prolonged the lag time between exposure to collagen and aggregation, and decreased plasma thromboxane B2 levels. Aspirin also prolonged the template bleeding time. Scans for 111-Indium labeled platelets revealed that pretreatment with a single dose of aspirin decreased platelet uptake on 4-mm Dacron carotid interposition grafts. This decrease in platelet uptake was associated with a significant improvement in 2-hour graft patency and with a trend toward improved 2-week patency

  5. Alkaline phosphatase role in bone marrow and spleen hemopoietic cells recovery after mouse whole-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Mouhamad, K.; Al Sheikh, F.

    2013-04-01

    Hematopoietic tissue is consisted of two distinctly different tissues, the first part is the hematopoietic stem cells and the second tissue is a mixture of many supportive cells which the most important one of them is alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-secreted-fibroblastic cells (FBCs). It was thought that FBCs play an important role in the hematopoiesis through ALP secretion. Our previous studies indicated that the ALP secretion in bone marrow (BM) increased after a whole mouse body irradiation when the BM cellular component is completely destroyed and, then it was decreased when the BM regain its cellular component. We performed some experiences to verify if there is any role to the ALP in the hematopoiesis. We irradiated three groups of mice to non-lethal dose, the first one was injected by Tetramizole (anti-ALP) 24 hours before irradiation, and the second was injected by Lisinopril (anti-hematopoiesis) 24 hours before irradiation and the third left without any injection. The fourth left as control. Many histological sections were taken from BM and spleen on 1, 3, 7 and 30 days after irradiation to perform ALP-histological detection. These experiences were repeated to count BM cells. ALP secretion level in the BM was reached the maximum 3 days after irradiation without any injection when the cell number was in minimum then, the level of ALP start to decrease and the cell number start to increase. ALP secretion delayed when the mice were injected by Tetramizole and BM cell population also delayed to return to its normal position. But, the ALP secretion increased directly after irradiation when the mice were injected by Lisinopril which, the ALP secretion, normally reached the maximum by the third day. These results may indicate a role to the ALP in BM and spleen hematopoietic cell recovery (author).

  6. A review of 105 necropsies in captive baboons (Papio cynocephalus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J C; Kalter, S S

    1975-07-01

    In contrast to the findings in newly caught babboons in Africa, the leading cause of death in captivity in America was a pneumonia and enteritis complex. Bacterial species such as Proteus morgani, Proteus mirabilis, Clostridium sp., Pseudomonas paracolon, pathogenic Escherichia coli and cocci have been isolated in association with a pneumoenteric syndrome of 35 newborn baboons, including neonates. The majority of these animals died with pulmonary factors such as anoxia and pneumonia.

  7. An economic analysis of "demand" for food in baboons.

    OpenAIRE

    Foltin, R W

    1991-01-01

    Responding of 6 adult male baboons (Papio c. anubis) was maintained under a fixed-ratio schedule of food reinforcement during daily 22-hr experimental sessions. Completion of the ratio requirement resulted in the delivery of a single 1-g food pellet; supplemental feeding was limited to a daily fruit ration. Ratio values were increased on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays according to the following schedule: 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 96, 128. Responding under each ratio value was examined four times...

  8. Stereotactic body radiation therapy in the re-irradiation situation – a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantel, Frederick; Flentje, Michael; Guckenberger, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Although locoregional relapse is frequent after definitive radiotherapy (RT) or multimodal treatments, re-irradiation is only performed in few patients even in palliative settings like e.g. vertebral metastasis. This is most due to concern about potentially severe complications, especially when large volumes are exposed to re-irradiation. With technological advancements in treatment planning the interest in re-irradiation as a local treatment approach has been reinforced. Recently, several studies reported re-irradiation for spinal metastases using SBRT with promising local and symptom control rates and simultaneously low rates of toxicity. These early data consistently indicate that SBRT is a safe and effective treatment modality in this clinical situation, where other treatment alternatives are rare. Similarly, good results have been shown for SBRT in the re-irradiation of head and neck tumors. Despite severe late adverse effects were reported in several studies, especially after single fraction doses >10 Gy, they appear less frequently compared to conventional radiotherapy. Few studies with small patient numbers have been published on SBRT re-irradiation for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Overall survival (OS) is limited by systemic progression and seems to depend particularly on patient selection. SBRT re-irradiation after primary SBRT should not be practiced in centrally located tumors due to high risk of severe toxicity. Only limited data is available for SBRT re-irradiation of pelvic tumors: feasibility and acceptable toxicity has been described, suggesting SBRT as a complementary treatment modality for local symptom control

  9. [Protective activity of different concentration of tea polyphenols and its major compound EGCG against whole body irradiation-induced injury in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shaolai; Hu, Yuan; Liu, Ping; Wang, Yuyu; Guo, Daihong; Wang, Dongxiao; Liao, Hongho

    2010-05-01

    To evaluate the different concentrate of tea polyphenols (TP) and its compound for irradiation-protection and investigate its mechanism. To evaluate the radioprotective activity, mice were exposed to whole body gamma irradiation. TP 80 and TP 50 (50, 10 mg x kg(-1)) and its major constituent epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) (50, 10 mg x kg(-1)) were administered after irradiation to examine its inhibition against irradiation-induced injury. This study indicate that in comparison with non-irradiated controls, irradiation resulted in a significant reduction the spleen index (spleen weight/body weight 100), haematological parameters (RBC, WBC and PLT), activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), and increase of malondialdehde (MDA) level in 28 days. Oral administration of TP (50 mg x kg(-1)) shown the best effect on reducing the irradiation-induced injury on mice studied, and showed a protective effect against irradiation-induced haematological parameters (RBC, WBC and PLT), the spleen index and MDA level significant reduction, and antioxidase activity (SOD) decrease. The results suggest that TP 50 mg x kg(-1) and EGCG have in vivo antioxidant potential and radioprotective activity against whole body gamma irradiation in mice. It may be concluded that TP (50% EGCG) possess good irradiation-protective and antioxidant effect.

  10. Neoplasia in beagles that received whole-body irradiation during prenatal or postnatal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, S.A.; Angleton, G.M.; Lee, A.C.; Saunders, W.J.; Miller, G.K.; Jaenke, R.S.; Brewster, R.D.; Long, R.I.

    1986-01-01

    Sensitivity to radiation carcinogenesis is being studied in 1680 beagle dogs that received whole-body 60 Co gamma radiation exposures during development. Eight treatment groups of 120 dogs each received 0.16 or 0.83 Gy at one of three prenatal (8, 28, or 55 days postcoitus) ages or at one postnatal (2 days postpartum) age. One treatment group of 120 dogs received 0.83 Gy as juveniles at 70 days postpartum, and one treatment group of 240 young adult dogs received 0.83 Gy at 365 days postpartum. Three-hundred-sixty control dogs were sham irradiated. Of the 1680 dogs, 1058 are dead. Approximately 25% of these deaths were related to malignant neoplasia. The age-related incidence of neoplasia is being evaluated. While the incidence of all neoplasms is being studied, particular emphasis is being placed on types of cancer with known susceptibility to induction by radiation such as those of breast, thyroid, and hematopoietic tissues. Neoplasms are classed as (1) incidental, i.e., those found at necropsy in dogs that died of an unrelated cause; (2) mortality independent, i.e., those seen in live dogs and removed surgically, or (3) fatal, i.e., those directly or indirectly responsible for death. Analyses of incidental tumors are done by a prevalence method, whereas analyses of mortality-independent and fatal tumors use an onset-rate or death-rate method. The results of these methods are then combined to give a composite age-related incidence of specific neoplasms. Analyses also are done on disease subgroups to attempt to delineate the effect of intercurrent disease on tumor incidence. The results of such analyses support the concept that age at exposure is an important factor in radiation carcinogenesis. 28 refs., 7 tabs

  11. Retrospective, monocentric analysis of late effects after total body irradiation (TBI) in adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boelling, Tobias [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Paracelsus Clinic Osnabrueck (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Kreuziger, David Christoph; Ernst, Iris; Elsayed, Hassan; Willich, Normann [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy

    2011-05-15

    Purpose: Total body irradiation (TBI) is a standard treatment modality within the multidisciplinary approach for allogeneous stem cell or bone marrow transplantation. However, surviving patients are at risk for developing a variety of late sequelae. This analysis aimed to retrospectively characterize late effects after TBI in adults treated in a single center. Patients and Methods: Patients {>=} 18 years treated with fractionated TBI (4-12 Gy) between 1996 and 2008 were included in this study. Treatment data were collected retrospectively from the treating departments. Late effects were evaluated using the clinic charts and/or were obtained from the general practitioners using a standardized questionnaire. Analyses were performed by calculation of the cumulative incidences using the Kaplan-Meier method and the log rank test. Results: A total of 308 patients {>=} 18 years were treated including a TBI of whom 78 patients were excluded from further analysis due to death within less than 1 year after TBI. Patients suffered from leukemia in most cases. Late toxicity follow-up was available in 120 patients (mean age 46.1 years; range, 18-70 years) after a mean follow-up of 23 months (range, 12-96 months). The cumulative incidences (CI) at 3 years were 28% for pulmonary event, 8% for pulmonary toxicity, 25% for kidney toxicity, 8% for cataract, 17% for bone toxicity, and 10% for secondary malignancy. The CI of bone toxicity was higher in female than in male patients (p = 0.019). Conclusion: Late effects after TBI in the context of allogeneous stem cell or bone marrow transplantation can frequently be observed. Regular follow-up examinations are advised for the early registration and treatment of adverse effects. (orig.)

  12. One hundred patients with acute leukemia treated by chemotherapy, total body irradiation, and allogeneic marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, E.D.; Buckner, C.D.; Banaji, M.

    1977-01-01

    One hundred patients, 54 with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and 46 with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), considered to be in the end stages of their disease, after combination chemotherapy were treated by marrow transplantation. All patients were given a marrow graft from an HLA-identical sibling after receiving 1000-rad total body irradiation (TBI). One group of 43 patients was given cyclophosphamide (CY), 60 mg/kg on each of 2 days, 5 and 4 days before TBI. In a second group of 31 patients, additional chemotherapy was given before CY and TBI. In a third group of 19 patients, BCNU was given before CY and TBI. A fourth group of 7 patients received other chemotherapy regimens before TBI. Six patients died 3 to 17 days after marrow infusion without evidence of engraftment. Ninety-four patients were engrafted rejected and only one patient rejected the graft. Thirteen patients are alive with a marrow graft, on no maintenance antileukemic therapy, and without recurrent leukemia 1--4 1 / 2 yr after transplantation. Three have chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). The relapse rate appeared to be relatively constant over the first 2 yr and was extremely low after that time. Neither survival nor leukemic relapse appeared to be influenced by the type of leukemia nor by the preparative chemotherapy regimen given before TBI. Patients in fair clinical condition at the time of transplantation showed significantly longer survival times than patients in poor condition (p = 0.001). This observation, coupled with the observation that some patients may be cured of their disease, indicates that marrow transplantation should now be undertaken earlier in the management of patients with acute leukemia who have an HLA-matched sibling marrow donor

  13. Cataract after total body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation degree of visual impairment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempen-Harteveld, M. Loes van; Struikmans, Henk; Kal, Henk B.; Tweel, Ingeborg van der; Mourits, Maarten P.; Verdonck, Leo F.; Schipper, Jan; Battermann, Jan J.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the degree of visual impairment as a result of cataract formation after total body irradiation (TBI) for bone marrow transplantation. Methods and Materials: The data from 93 patients who received TBI in 1 or 2 fractions as a part of their conditioning regimen for bone marrow transplantation were analyzed with respect to the degree of visual impairment as a result of cataract formation. The probability to develop severe visual impairment (SVI) was determined for all patients, and the degree of visual impairment was assessed for 56 patients with stabilized cataract, using three categories: no, mild, or severe. Results: For all 93 patients, the probability of developing a cataract causing SVI was 0.44. For allogeneic patients, it was 0.33 without and 0.71 with steroid treatment (p<0.001). All SVI-free probability curves reached a plateau distinct from the cataract-free curves. Apparently, cataracts developing late in the follow-up period rarely cause SVI. Of the patients with stabilized cataract, 32% had no visual impairment, 16% had mild, and 52% severe impairment. No or mild visual impairment was present in 61% of all patients with stable cataract and no steroid treatment compared with only 13% of the patients treated with steroids (p=0.035). Conclusion: SVI occurs in only some of the patients (52%) with stable cataract after TBI for bone marrow transplantation in 1 or 2 fractions. Steroid treatment markedly increases the probability of developing visual problems as result of a cataract after TBI

  14. Prospective neurodevelopmental studies of two children treated with total body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation for acute leukemia in infancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaleita, T.; Tesler, A.; Feig, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    Five-year neurodevelopmental studies of two infants with acute leukemia are presented. Both patients underwent bone marrow transplantation (BMT) after conditioning with cyclophosphamide and total body irradiation (TBI). Neither patient was treated with intrathecal chemotherapy. Their outcome is remarkable for normal development of intelligence, language, perception, and motor coordination. These results suggest that TBI and BMT should be considered in future therapeutic studies of infants with acute leukemia, who are at great risk for failure of conventional therapy

  15. Impact of Whole Body Irradiation on the Intestinal Microbiome- Considerations for Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karouia, Fathi; Santos, Orlando; Valdivia-Silva, Julio E.; Jones, Jeffrey; Greenberger, Joel S.; Epperly, Michael W.

    Human space travelers experience a unique environment that affects homeostasis and physiologic adaptation. Spaceflight-related changes have been reported in the musculo-skeletal, cardiovascular, neurovestibular, endocrine, and immune systems to just name a few. However, to date, radiation exposure is one of the main limiting factors for long duration space exploration missions and especially a mission to Mars. Over the past few years through advances in technology, the characterization of the microbiome has revealed a large and complex community of microorganisms living in symbiosis with the human host. However, heterogeneity of the intestinal microbial spectrum in humans has been associated with a variety of diseases and susceptibility to infectious and toxic agents. Limited information is known about the influence of space environment in general and radiation in particular on the microbiome. Furthermore, multiple spaceflight and simulated microgravity experiments have shown changes in phenotypic microbial characteristics such as microbial growth, morphology, metabolism, genetic transfer, antibiotic and stress susceptibility, and an increase in virulence factors. We now report a study of the bacterial composition of the intestine in C57BL/6NTAC mice and the types of microbes entering the body at two time points after the LD 50/30 dose of total body irradiation using microarray-based assay, G3 PhyloChip 16S rRNA, and bioinformatics methods. Bacteria and archaea taxon richness was determined at the genus level and ranged from 2 to 107 and 0 to 3 respectively. As expected, pre-exposure blood samples exhibited less bacterial and archaeal genus richness compared to all other samples. However, the study shows a significant shift in the mouse gut microbial speciation in several bacterial families, with increases in the Turicibacteraceae and Enterobacteriaceae and decreases in the Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae families. The findings most relevant to occupational

  16. Effects of local and whole body irradiation on the appearance of osteoblasts during wound healing in tooth extraction sockets in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosokawa, Yoichiro; Kudo, Kohsei; Kashiwakura, Ikuo; Sakakura, Yasunori; Irie, Kazuharu

    2010-01-01

    Irradiation before tooth extraction delays wound healing in the alveolar socket. This study examined the influences of local and whole body irradiation before tooth extraction on appearance of osteoblasts in the alveolar bone of rat maxillary first molars because bone formation is observed at the initial phase of wound healing. Several osteoblasts were generated 3 days after tooth extraction, and the number of cells increased day by day. Morphological studies showed there were little differences between local irradiation and non-irradiated controls. In contrast, the extraction wound in the whole body irradiation group showed delayed healing, and there was poor granulation tissue and very few osteoblasts at the bottom of the socket. An ultrastructural study showed that the osteoblasts in the extraction socket of whole body irradiation rats were smaller, and had poorly developed organelles. Injection of bone marrow cells to whole body-irradiated animals immediately after tooth extraction partially restored the number of osteoblasts. New periosteal bone formations outside of sockets showed little delay in the whole body irradiation group. These findings suggest that bone formation in the wound healing of extraction socket requires bone marrow cells from hematopoietic organs such as the bone marrow as well as local sources around the alveolar socket, during the initial phase of wound healing. (author)

  17. Effects of local and whole body irradiation on the appearance of osteoblasts during wound healing in tooth extraction sockets in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Yoichiro; Sakakura, Yasunori; Irie, Kazuharu; Kudo, Kohsei; Kashiwakura, Ikuo

    2010-01-01

    Irradiation before tooth extraction delays wound healing in the alveolar socket. This study examined the influences of local and whole body irradiation before tooth extraction on appearance of osteoblasts in the alveolar bone of rat maxillary first molars because bone formation is observed at the initial phase of wound healing. Several osteoblasts were generated 3 days after tooth extraction, and the number of cells increased day by day. Morphological studies showed there were little differences between local irradiation and non-irradiated controls. In contrast, the extraction wound in the whole body irradiation group showed delayed healing, and there was poor granulation tissue and very few osteoblasts at the bottom of the socket. An ultrastructural study showed that the osteoblasts in the extraction socket of whole body irradiation rats were smaller, and had poorly developed organelles. Injection of bone marrow cells to whole body-irradiated animals immediately after tooth extraction partially restored the number of osteoblasts. New periosteal bone formations outside of sockets showed little delay in the whole body irradiation group. These findings suggest that bone formation in the wound healing of extraction socket requires bone marrow cells from hematopoietic organs such as the bone marrow as well as local sources around the alveolar socket, during the initial phase of wound healing.

  18. A COMPARISON OF THE EFFECTS ON THE SHWARTZMAN PHENOMENON OF LEUKOPENIA PRODUCED BY NITROGEN MUSTARD AND BY WHOLE BODY IRRADIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Douglas E.; Howland, Joe W.

    1958-01-01

    The effect of leukopenia on the susceptibility of rabbits to the localized Shwartzman reaction was studied in those receiving whole body irradiation and nitrogen mustard respectively. Of animals receiving nitrogen mustard in which the total polymorphonuclear leukocyte count was less than 100 cells/c.mm. only 17 per cent developed positive local Shwartzman reactions whereas 75 per cent of irradiated animals with total polymorphonuclear leukocyte counts less than 100 cells/c.mm. had positive reactions. A local Shwartzman reaction occurred in 60 of 71 control rabbits (85 per cent). Animals of both the treated groups showed positive Shwartzman reactions at a time when their total polymorphonuclear leukocyte counts were less than 500 cells/c.mm. From the findings, it is concluded (a) that the presence of normal numbers of circulating polymorphonuclear leukocytes is not an obligatory prerequisite condition to the localized hemorrhagic necrosis of the Shwartzman phenomenon, and (b) the mechanisms of action of nitrogen mustard and whole body irradiation on body tissues differ in relation to the Shwartzman reaction. PMID:13575676

  19. Treatment verification and in vivo dosimetry for total body irradiation using thermoluminescent and semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, F.F.; Amaral, L.L.; Costa, A.M.; Netto, T.G.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work is the characterization of thermoluminescent and semiconductor detectors and their applications in treatment verification and in vivo dosimetry for total body irradiation (TBI) technique. Dose measurements of TBI treatment simulation performed with thermoluminescent detectors inserted in the holes of a “Rando anthropomorphic phantom” showed agreement with the prescribed dose. For regions of the upper and lower chest where thermoluminescent detectors received higher doses it was recommended the use of compensating dose in clinic. The results of in vivo entrance dose measurements for three patients are presented. The maximum percentual deviation between the measurements and the prescribed dose was 3.6%, which is consistent with the action level recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU), i.e., ±5%. The present work to test the applicability of a thermoluminescent dosimetric system and of a semiconductor dosimetric system for performing treatment verification and in vivo dose measurements in TBI techniques demonstrated the value of these methods and the applicability as a part of a quality assurance program in TBI treatments. - Highlights: • Characterization of a semiconductor dosimetric system. • Characterization of a thermoluminescent dosimetric system. • Application of the TLDs for treatment verification in total body irradiation treatments. • Application of semiconductor detectors for in vivo dosimetry in total body irradiation treatments. • Implementation of in vivo dosimetry as a part of a quality assurance program in radiotherapy

  20. Pre-Exposure Gene Expression in Baboons with and without Pancytopenia after Radiation Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Port

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Radiosensitivity differs in humans and likely among primates. The reasons are not well known. We examined pre-exposure gene expression in baboons (n = 17 who developed haematologic acute radiation syndrome (HARS without pancytopenia or a more aggravated HARS with pancytopenia after irradiation. We evaluated gene expression in a two stage study design where stage I comprised a whole genome screen for messenger RNAs (mRNA (microarray and detection of 667 microRNAs (miRNA (real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR platform. Twenty candidate mRNAs and nine miRNAs were selected for validation in stage II (qRT-PCR. None of the mRNA species could be confirmed during the validation step, but six of the nine selected candidate miRNA remained significantly different during validation. In particular, miR-425-5p (receiver operating characteristic = 0.98; p = 0.0003 showed nearly complete discrimination between HARS groups with and without pancytopenia. Target gene searches of miR-425-5p identified new potential mRNAs and associated biological processes linked with radiosensitivity. We found that one miRNA species examined in pre-exposure blood samples was associated with HARS characterized by pancytopenia and identified new target mRNAs that might reflect differences in radiosensitivity of irradiated normal tissue.

  1. Possible ameliorative effects of kolaviron against reproductive toxicity in sub-lethally whole body gamma-irradiated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adaramoye, Oluwatosin A; Adedara, Isaac A; Farombi, E Olatunde

    2012-05-01

    Ionizing radiation is one of the environmental factors that may contribute to reproductive dysfunction by a mechanism involving oxidative stress. We investigated the possible ameliorative effects of kolaviron (KV) (a biflavonoid from the seeds of Garcinia kola) on sperm characteristics, testicular lipid peroxidation (LPO) and antioxidant status after a whole body γ-irradiation in Wistar rats. Vitamin C (VC) served as standard antioxidant in this study. The study consists of four groups of 6 rats each. Group I received corn oil, whereas group II received a single dose of γ-radiation (5 Gy). The animals in groups III and IV were pretreated with KV (250 mg/kg) and VC (250 mg/kg) by oral gavage five times in a week, respectively, for 6 weeks prior to and 8 weeks after exposure to γ-radiation. Gamma-irradiation resulted in a significant (pin body weight and relative testes weight. Also, γ-irradiation significantly (pin the serum and testes. Irradiated rats showed testicular degeneration with concomitant decrease in sperm motility and viability. Although sperm abnormalities significantly increased, it has no effect on the epididymal sperm count. KV and VC significantly (prats. Furthermore, supplementation of KV and VC ameliorated radiation-induced toxicity by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes, decreased LPO and abrogated testicular degeneration. Taken together, γ-irradiation caused reproductive dysfunction by depleting the antioxidant defence system in the rats, while administration of KV or VC ameliorated the radiation-induced testicular toxicity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Hemi body irradiation: An economical way of palliation of pain in bone metastasis in advanced cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santanu Pal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The primary aim of this prospective non-randomized study was to evaluate the effect of hemi-body irradiation (HBI on pain and quality of life in cancer patients with extensive bone metastases. The secondary aim was to evaluate side-effects and cost-effectiveness of the treatment. Materials and Methods: Between March 2008 and December 2010, a total of 23 (male = 14, female = 9, median age = 60 years diagnosed cases of metastatic cancer patients (prostate = 11, breast = 6, and lung = 6 received HBI, which was delivered as lower (n = 7 (dose = 8 Gy, upper (n = 8 (dose = 6 Gy, or sequential HBI (n = 8 with a Telecobalt unit (Theratron 780C. Among them, one lung cancer patient died at 2 months and one prostate cancer patient defaulted after the second follow-up. Thus, 21 patients (male = 13, female = 8, median age = 65 years (prostatic cancer = 10, breast cancer = 6, and lung cancer = 5 were followed up for a minimum of 6 months. Evaluations were performed before and at 2, 4, 8, 16, and 24 weeks after treatment. Pain evaluation was done by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS, Verbal Rating Scale (VRS, Percentage of Pain Relief (PRR, and Global Pain Score (GPS. Toxicity was assessed by CTC v-3 toxicity scores in the medical record. Assessment of oral morphine consumption was done before and after radiation using paired t-test, and correlation analysis was also done with decrease of morphine consumption and reduction of pain score using statistical analysis. Results: Response (control of pain was partial (PR in 67% and complete (CR in 22% of patients. For most patients, the pain control lasted throughout the follow-up period (6 months. From 66.66% patients requiring 13 or more Morphine (10 mg tablets per day prior to HBI, none of the patients required to consume 13 or more Morphine (10 mg tablets per day following HBI, which was correlated with significant reduction in various pain scores (P < 0.05. One way ANOVA with Dunnett′s Multiple Comparison

  3. Upper limit of cerebral blood flow autoregulation in experimental renovascular hypertension in the baboon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandgaard, S; Jones, J V; MacKenzie, E T

    1975-01-01

    The effect of arterial hypertension on cerebral blood flow was studied by the intracarotid 133Xe clearance method in baboons. The arterial blood pressure was raised in gradual steps with angiotensin. Baboons with renal hypertension of 8-12 weeks duration were studied along with normotensive baboo...

  4. Activity budgets of olive baboon ( Papio anubis f.) at Gashaka Gumti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results obtained indicated that the baboons spent 34.14% of their time feeding, 35.83% resting, 9.08% grooming, 4.47% handling infants, 11.19% travelling and 0.28% playing. Generally, activity budgets did not differ significantly ( p > 0.05) across months. Olive baboon food habit showed that food items mostly eaten were ...

  5. Hepatic catalase activity after whole-body irradiation of the mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neveux, Y.; Drouet, J.; Guillouzo, A.; Rault, H.; Picard, G.

    Using biochemical techniques, the effect of irradiation on catalase rate of different tissues is studied. With cytochemistry, the decrease of catalase activity is studied in situ, after exposure to great ionizing radiation doses [fr

  6. Affecting mortality of whole-body gamma-irradiated Beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dostal, M.; Kuna, P.; Neruda, O.; Petyrek, P.; Simsa, J.; Vavrova, J.; Skopec, F.

    1982-01-01

    The efficacy is compared of radioprotection and the complex treatment of acute radiation syndrome in laboratory dogs. One group of dogs was administered an injection of radioprotectives, the other was a control group. The treated group was administered vitamins and antibiotics in injections after the irradiation. It was found that complex treatment between days 1 and 28 after irradiation is relatively effective. In the treated dogs radioprotection does not significantly influence survival or even reduces survival. (M.D.)

  7. Pathomorphological and pathogenetic studies of the radiation syndrome in calfs and heifers after whole-body irradiation with X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johannsen, U.; Koch, E.; Mehlhorn, G.; Panndorf, H.

    1978-01-01

    27 calfs were exposed to whole-body X-ray doses of 170 R and 150 R, respectively. 14 animals which died between the 17th and 27th day after irradiation were examined. The most important pathomorphological findings were: hematopoietic disorders, hemorrhagic diatheses together with pneumonia, liver degeneration, damage to the intestine (only in animals irradiated with 170 R), and malnutrition

  8. Evaluation of the analgesic activity and safety of ketorolac in whole body fractionated gamma irradiated animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Aly

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to evaluate the analgesic activity and the toxicity of ketorolac in normal and fractionated (1.5 Gy/day/4 days γ-irradiated animals. Determination of brain serotonin content and serum prostaglandin level were also undertaken. The analgesic activity was tested using formalin test, at three dose levels (15, 30 and 60 mg/kg after 1 and 7 days post radiation exposure. LD50 determinations and assessment of liver and kidney function tests were performed. Our results indicated marked analgesic effects on the early and late phases of nociception. Double treatment with ketorolac and irradiation increased brain serotonin content. The acute LD50 of ketorolac was decreased in irradiated animals as compared to the LD50 of normal animals. Double treatment with ketorolac and irradiation induced an elevation of gastric mucin content, urea and BUN levels on the 1st day post irradiation, whereas, albumin level was lowered and globulin level was elevated after 7 days post irradiation. Depending on this study the dose of ketorolac used for treating cancer patients addressed to radiotherapy should be reduced, however, this requires further clinical confirmation.

  9. Transition pattern and mechanism of B-lymphocyte precursors in regenerated mouse bone marrow after subtotal body irradiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deping Han

    Full Text Available Little is known about the effects of ionizing radiation on the transition and the related signal transduction of progenitor B cells in the bone marrow. Thus, using an NIH Swiss mouse model, we explored the impact of ionizing radiation on the early stage of B-cell development via an examination of the transition of CLP to pro-B to pre-B cells within bone marrow as a function of radiation doses and times. Our results showed that while the total number of bone marrow lymphoid cells at different stages were greatly reduced by subtotal body irradiation (sub-TBI, the surviving cells continued to transition from common lymphoid progenitors to pro-B and then to pre-B in a reproducible temporal pattern. The rearrangement of the immunoglobulin heavy chain increased significantly 1-2 weeks after irradiation, but no change occurred after 3-4 weeks. The rearrangement of the immunoglobulin light chain decreased significantly 1-2 weeks after sub-TBI but increased dramatically after 3-4 weeks. In addition, several key transcription factors and signaling pathways were involved in B-precursor transitions after sub-TBI. The data indicate that week 2 after irradiation is a critical time for the transition from pro-B cells to pre-B cells, reflecting that the functional processes for different B-cell stages are well preserved even after high-dose irradiation.

  10. Toxicities of total-body irradiation for pediatric bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Rachel H.; Wong, Garrett B.; Kramer, Joel H.; Wara, Diane W.; Matthay, Katherine K.; Crittenden, Mary R.; Swift, Patrick S.; Cowan, Morton J.; Wara, William M.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the acute and late effects, including cognitive function, of total body irradiation (TBI) and chemotherapy for bone marrow transplant (BMT) in children with immunodeficiency or hematologic disorders. Methods and Materials: At UCSF, 15 children with immunodeficiency disorders and 58 children with leukemia received chemoradiotherapy between July 1982 and November 1993 and were evaluated for toxicity. Patients with severe combined immunodeficiency disorder (SCID) received 7 Gy TBI while leukemia patients received 12 Gy TBI. Results: Eight immunodeficient patients (53%) are alive at 4 months to 11 years posttransplant. Acute toxicity was limited and treatment well tolerated. Most patients developed mild nausea and vomiting, skin rash, or erythema. Transient fever/chills, oral mucositis, and alopecia were noted in approximately 50% of patients. Seventy-three percent of patients demonstrated acute liver dysfunction, but only four (27%) developed veno-occlusive disease. All children had decreased growth velocity but normal growth hormone levels. Other endocrinologic evaluations including adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, and thyroid hormones were normal. Only one evaluable girl had delayed puberty with late onset of secondary sexual characteristics. Neuropsychological testing demonstrated an intelligence quotient (IQ) reduction between the baseline and 1 year post-BMT, with some recovery at 3 years. Only one patient developed a clinically significant cataract. Thirteen percent of patients had chronic interstitial lung disease. Four children developed exostosis. Only 1 of the 15 children developed a second malignancy (acute myelogenous leukemia) at age 5, 51 months posttransplant for SCID. For patients with leukemia, similar toxicities were observed. Twenty-nine percent disease-free survival was noted with a mean follow-up of 4.7 years. Twenty-two percent had chronic interstitial lung disease and two patients were diagnosed with cataracts

  11. Long-term results of total body irradiation in adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marnitz, Simone; Zich, Alexander; Budach, Volker; Jahn, Ulrich; Neumann, Oliver; Martus, Peter; Arnold, Renate

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this chart review of adult patients treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with total body irradiation (TBI) was to evaluate early and late toxicity and long-term outcome. A total of 110 adult patients (34 ± 12 years) with ALL underwent TBI (6 fractions of 2 Gy for a total of 12 Gy) as a part of the treatment regimen before transplantation. Treatment-related toxicity, mortality, and hematologic outcome are reported. Mean follow-up was 70 months. The 2- and 5-year leukemia-free survival rates were 78 and 72 %, respectively. In all, 29 % (32/110) patients suffered from medullary recurrence after a median time of 7 months. Gender was the only statistically significant prognostic factor in terms of overall survival in favor of female patients. Treatment-related mortality and overall survival after 2 and 5 years were 16 and 22 %, and 60 and 52.7 %, respectively. The most frequent late reaction wascGVHD of the skin (n = 33, 30 %). In addition, 15.5 % (17/110 patients) suffered pulmonary symptoms, and 6 patients developed lung fibrosis. Eyes were frequently affected by the radiation (31/110 = 28 %); 12 of 110 patients (11 %) presented with symptoms from osteoporosis, 5 of 110 patients (4.5 %) developed hypothyreosis and 2 patients diabetes mellitus. Of the male patients, 11 % reported erectile dysfunction or loss of libido, while 2 of 36 women reported menopausal syndrome at the mean time of 28 months after treatment with requirement for substitution. No women became pregnant after treatment. No acute or late cardiac toxicities were documented in our patients. No secondary malignancies were documented. Although hematologic outcome was in the upper range of that reported in the literature, treatment-related mortality (TRM) and medullary recurrences remain a challenge. Sophisticated radiation techniques allow for decreasing toxicity to certain organs and/or dose escalation to the bone marrow in highly selected patients in order to improve therapeutic

  12. Total body irradiation prior to bone marrow transplantation; some aspects of fifty year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gocheva, L

    2004-01-01

    There has been a remarkable growth in the use of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) in the past 30 years. The rapid expansion of BMT reflects its increasingly important role in the treatment of several life-threatening diseases of the hemopoietic system. The first BMT in human patients was performed after conditioning with total body irradiation (TBI). As an important part of BMT protocols, TBI has an established role in many preparative regimens used before BMT in the treatment of hematological diseases. Historically, TBI schedules varied during the last 30-year period with regard to different radiation source used, treatment technique, beam modifiers, actually delivered total dose, dose rate, and fractionation schedule. The aim of this review article is to discuss the 50- year experience in the field of TBI, as well as radiobiological, technical and dosimetric requirements and especially effects of total dose, dose rate and fractionation schedules on the prognosis of transplanted patients. The radiobiological and radio-oncological requirements demand special TBI treatment techniques quite different from usual radiotherapy. The technique needed depends extremely on the prescribed values of treatment parameters and on the local technical possibilities. TBI dosimetry has to account for the physical situation of treatment with very large field sizes at extended distances and should be performed under TBI conditions close to the real treatment situation. The effects of total dose, dose rate, fractionation schedule on the leukemia cell killing, immunosuppression, and sparing of normal tissues are considered in detail. Their effects on overall survival, leukemia recurrence, acute and chronic graft versus host disease (GvHD), late radiation-induced injuries to normal tissues or organs as well as incidence of interstitial pneumonitis, renal dysfunction and cataract development are analyzed. The definition of currently used TBI procedures is so different in different

  13. Endothelial reconstitution by CD34+ progenitors derived from baboon embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qiang; Schatten, Gerald; Hodara, Vida; Simerly, Calvin; VandeBerg, John L

    2013-02-01

    In this study, we used a large non-human primate model, the baboon, to establish a step-wise protocol to generate CD34+ endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and to demonstrate their reparative effects. Baboon ESCs were sequentially differentiated from embryoid body cultures for 9 days and then were specified into EPCs by culturing them in monolayer for 12 days. The resulting EPCs expressed CD34, CXCR4 and UEA-1, but neither CD31 nor CD117. The EPCs were able to form intact lumen structures when seeded on Matrigel, took up Dil-LDL, and responded to TNF-α. Angioblasts specified in EGM-2 medium and ECGS medium had 6.41 ± 1.16% (n = 3) and 9.32 ± 3.73% CD34+ cells (n = 3). The efficiency of generating CD34+ EPCs did not differ significantly from ECGS to EGM-2 culture media, however, angioblasts specified in ECGS medium expressed a higher percentage of CD34+/CXCR4+ cells (3.49 ± 1.32%, n = 3) than those specified in EGM-2 medium (0.49 ± 0.52%, n = 3). To observe their reparative capacity, we purified CD34+ progenitors after specification by EGM-2 medium; inoculated fluorescently labelled CD34+ EPCs into an arterial segment denuded of endothelium in an ex vivo system. After 14 days of ex vivo culture, the grafted cells had attached and integrated to the denuded surface; in addition, they had matured further and expressed terminally differentiated endothelial markers including CD31 and CD146. In conclusion, we have proved that specified CD34+ EPCs are promising therapeutic agents for repairing damaged vasculature. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine/Blackwell Publishing Ltd. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  14. Determination of conversion factors between body doses and relevant radiation quantities for external X-ray and gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, R.

    1979-02-01

    With particular consideration of ICRP-26 conversion factors between body doses and relevant radiation quantities for external X- and gamma radiation were assessed. Determination of these conversion factors included all areas of professional, medical, and environmental exposures. There was used a mathematical exposure model being essentially defined by application of a Monte Carlo photon transport calculation in a mathematical human phantom. Body doses were estimated for a reference man in relation to the relevant raditon quantities for different angles of incidence as a function of photon energy. The effective whole body dose defining the risk assessment of stochastic radiation effects was evaluated for the first time. There was also calculated the equivalent dose index which, with respect to radiation protection, is of special importance among the quantities characterizing radiation. The calculations indicated that for different irradiation directions in the energy range between 0.025 and 10 MeV the equivalent dose index gives a conservative estimation for the effective whole body dose. For X-ray diagnostic examinations in the body area the tissue surface dose may be regarded as an upper limit for body doses in the useful beam. The standard energy dose and the equivalent dose index are a conservative measure for important body doses in case of terrestrial radiation and fresh fall-out radiation from the ground. (orig./HP) [de

  15. Beta-glucosidase activity of ER-bodies in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings under clinorotation and after X-ray irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanchuk, Svitlana

    Realization of long-term space flight requires the life support bioregenerative systems, an indispensable component of which are plants as a source of oxygen, water and food. Although it is well known now that plants adopt to spaceflight factors, in particular to microgravity, by changing some their patterns at the cellular, physiological, biochemical and molecular levels, many questions on cause and effect of these changes are still open. In addition, it is necessary to find the plant species which will be the most suited to the conditions in a space craft cabin. Plants of the family Brassicaceae are known to be resistant to a variety of abiotic stresses, including irradiation. Among them there are many cultivated plants with which we encounter every day: cabbage, radish, mustard, rapeseed, etc., and Arabidopsis thaliana - a convenient model object. The family Brassicaceae to be characterized by the presence of ER-bodies in plant cells, which are derivative of granular endoplasmic reticulum. Earlier, an enzyme beta-glucosidase (beta-D-glucoside glucohydrolase; EC 3.2.1.21) with an ER retention signal has been shown to accumulate selectively in such bodies in response to different unfavorable factors. Recently, we reported that formation of ER-bodies in A. thaliana seedling roots is sensitive to the clinorotation and X-ray irradiation, as their quantity and size in creased under the influence of these factors in comparison with control.begin{itemize} Therefore, we determined the beta-glucosidase activity in A. thaliana (line Columbia) seedlings grown in the stationary conditions and under clinorotation (a); and after X-ray irradiation (b): a) 3- and 7-day-old seedlings grown on a slow horizontal clinostat (2rpm); b) 3-day-old seedlings were treated with X-ray radiation dose of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0, 10 and 12 Gray. For the first time, an increase in beta-glucosidase activity, which is the main component of the ER-bodies in A. thaliana seedlings, were found

  16. Long-term results of total body irradiation in adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marnitz, Simone; Zich, Alexander; Budach, Volker; Jahn, Ulrich; Neumann, Oliver [Charite University Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Berlin (Germany); Martus, Peter [University Tuebingen, Institute of Clinical Epidemiology and Applied Biostatistics, Tuebingen (Germany); Arnold, Renate [Charite University Medicine, Campus CVK, Department of Hematology and Oncology, Bone Marrow Transplant Unit, Berlin (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    The aim of this chart review of adult patients treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with total body irradiation (TBI) was to evaluate early and late toxicity and long-term outcome. A total of 110 adult patients (34 ± 12 years) with ALL underwent TBI (6 fractions of 2 Gy for a total of 12 Gy) as a part of the treatment regimen before transplantation. Treatment-related toxicity, mortality, and hematologic outcome are reported. Mean follow-up was 70 months. The 2- and 5-year leukemia-free survival rates were 78 and 72 %, respectively. In all, 29 % (32/110) patients suffered from medullary recurrence after a median time of 7 months. Gender was the only statistically significant prognostic factor in terms of overall survival in favor of female patients. Treatment-related mortality and overall survival after 2 and 5 years were 16 and 22 %, and 60 and 52.7 %, respectively. The most frequent late reaction wascGVHD of the skin (n = 33, 30 %). In addition, 15.5 % (17/110 patients) suffered pulmonary symptoms, and 6 patients developed lung fibrosis. Eyes were frequently affected by the radiation (31/110 = 28 %); 12 of 110 patients (11 %) presented with symptoms from osteoporosis, 5 of 110 patients (4.5 %) developed hypothyreosis and 2 patients diabetes mellitus. Of the male patients, 11 % reported erectile dysfunction or loss of libido, while 2 of 36 women reported menopausal syndrome at the mean time of 28 months after treatment with requirement for substitution. No women became pregnant after treatment. No acute or late cardiac toxicities were documented in our patients. No secondary malignancies were documented. Although hematologic outcome was in the upper range of that reported in the literature, treatment-related mortality (TRM) and medullary recurrences remain a challenge. Sophisticated radiation techniques allow for decreasing toxicity to certain organs and/or dose escalation to the bone marrow in highly selected patients in order to improve therapeutic

  17. Lethal effect after whole-body irradiation on mouse with various photon radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohda, Shizuo

    1976-01-01

    The dependence of mortality on the quality of radiation was investigated in ICR mice after wholebody irradiation with 200 kV x-ray, 60 Co γ-ray, or 10 MV x-ray. With respect to the 30 day mortality, LD 50 values were estimated as 606 rad for 200 kV x-ray and as 713 rad both for 60 Co γ-ray and for 10 MV x-ray. Hence, the value of relative biological effectiveness (RBE) to that for 200 kV x-ray was 0.850, while the value decreased with increasing the mortality rate. The value extrapolated to 100% mortality was estimated as 0.6. These results were valid for either 7 or 8 week mice, but the life span of 7 week mice after the irradiation was 3 days shorter than that of 8 week mice. These findings resulted in following conclusions: 1) There are no qualitative differences between 10 MV x-ray and 60 Co γ-ray irradiations. 2) The biological effects after 10 MV x-ray and 60 Co γ-ray irradiations are reduced with increased killing rate, compared with that after 200 kV x-ray irradiations. (Evans, J.)

  18. Effect of whole-body irradiation of mice on the number of background plaque-forming cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.E.; Lefkovits, I.; Soeederberg, A.

    1983-01-01

    Mice were exposed in whole-body fashion to several doses of radiation and killed at various times thereafter for a determination of the number of background plaque-forming cells (PFCs) as assayed on either sheep erythrocytes or bromelain-treated autologous mouse erythrocytes. Increased numbers of both types of PFC were found in the irradiated groups. These increases were dependent on radiation dose and time after exposure. They did not appear to be caused by a disruption of normal lymphocyte traffic or a switch in immunoglobulin isotype. An increased number of PFCs on bromelain-treated mouse RBCs but not on sheep RBCs were found in irradiated congenitally athymic nude mice. On the basis of this and related observations, background PFCs on bromelain-treated mouse RBCs and on sheep RBCs appear to fall under different forms of homeostatic control

  19. Space Weathering of airless bodies in the Solar System - Combining hypervelocity dust impacts with energetic irradiation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiege, K.; Bennett, C.; Guglielmino, M.; Orlando, T. M.; Trieloff, M.; Srama, R.

    2015-12-01

    The chemical and mineralogical characterization of meteorites and their parent asteroids provides us with information about the processes and conditions during the formation of the inner Solar System. However, linking meteorites to their parent bodies is problematic. Astronomical observations aim to reconstruct the surface properties of these bodies primarily by visible and infrared spectra, but space weathering severely modifies the optical, compositional and physical properties of thin surface layers and thus precludes proper identification of chemistry and mineralogy. The effects of space weathering have been experimentally studied mainly with respect to ion bombardment and sputtering. Other studies aimed to simulate the influence of micrometeoroid bombardment by using laser ablation techniques. However, there is sufficient evidence that laser ablation does not realistically lead to the same effects as produced during real micrometeorite impacts. We performed micrometeorite bombardment using a 2MV dust accelerator at the Institute for Space Systems at University of Stuttgart, Germany, capable of generating impact speeds up to 100 km s-1. These results are combined with energetic irradiation experiments at the Electron and Photon Induced Chemistry on Surfaces (EPICS) laboratory at Georgia Institute of Technology, USA. By simulating highly realistic irradiation conditions, we are able to investigate the processes of particle and solar wind irradiation on solid planetary surfaces and study the formation of e.g., nanophase iron in minerals, the effects on hydrous minerals regarding their volatile budgets, or possible OH-formation in nominally anhydrous minerals and relate these to their optical properties. Using a variety of minerals, this work aims to contribute to a better understanding of the general alteration mechanisms in space environments in dependence of weathering agent and available material. We here present the results of initial comparison analysis and

  20. [Induction of glutathione and activation of immune functions by low-dose, whole-body irradiation with gamma-rays].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Shuji

    2006-10-01

    We first examined the relation between the induction of glutathione and immune functions in mice after low-dose gamma-ray irradiation. Thereafter, inhibition of tumor growth by radiation was confirmed in Ehrlich solid tumor (EST)-bearing mice. The total glutathione level of the splenocytes transiently increased soon after irradiation and reached a maximum at around 4 h postirradiation. Thereafter, the level reverted to the 0 h value by 24 h postirradiation. A significantly high splenocyte proliferative response was also recognized 4 h postirradiation. Natural killer (NK) activity was also increased significantly in a similar manner. The time at which the response reached the maximum coincided well with that of maximum total glutathione levels of the splenocytes in the gamma-ray-irradiated mice. Reduced glutathione exogenously added to splenocytes obtained from normal mice enhanced the proliferative response and NK activity in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibitory effects of radiation on tumor growth was then examined in EST-bearing mice. Repeated low-dose irradiation (0.5 Gy, four times, before and within an early time after inoculation) significantly delayed the tumor growth. Finally, the effect of single low-dose (0.5 Gy), whole-body gamma-ray irradiation on immune balance was examined to elucidate the mechanism underlying the antitumor immunity. The percentage of B cells in blood lymphocytes was selectively decreased after radiation, concomitant with an increase in that of the helper T cell population. The IFN-gamma level in splenocyte culture prepared from EST-bearing mice was significantly increased 48 h after radiation, although the level of IL-4 was unchanged. IL-12 secretion from macrophages was also enhanced by radiation. These results suggest that low-dose gamma-rays induce Th1 polarization and enhance the activities of tumoricidal effector cells, leading to an inhibition of tumor growth.

  1. Thyroid neoplasia in beagles receiving whole-body irradiation during development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, L.C.; Norrdin, R.W.; Hargis, A.M.; Benjamin, S.A.

    1979-01-01

    Twenty malignant and 17 benign thyroid neoplasms have been diagnosed in 37 Segment III beagles. Nine males and 8 females had follicular adenomas, and 7 males and 13 females had thyroid carcinomas. The dogs ranged in age from 5.16 to 10.66 years. Twenty-nine of the 37 dogs (78.4 percent) were hypothyroid. Twenty-six (70.3 percent) dogs were irradiated. Of the 26 irradiated dogs 15 had malignant tumors. Fourteen (37.8 percent) of the 37 dogs had the same sire

  2. Total body irradiation with a compensator fabricated using a 3D optical scanner and a 3D printer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, So-Yeon; Kim, Jung-In; Joo, Yoon Ha; Lee, Jung Chan; Park, Jong Min

    2017-05-07

    We propose bilateral total body irradiation (TBI) utilizing a 3D printer and a 3D optical scanner. We acquired surface information of an anthropomorphic phantom with the 3D scanner and fabricated the 3D compensator with the 3D printer, which could continuously compensate for the lateral missing tissue of an entire body from the beam's eye view. To test the system's performance, we measured doses with optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters (OSLDs) as well as EBT3 films with the anthropomorphic phantom during TBI without a compensator, conventional bilateral TBI, and TBI with the 3D compensator (3D TBI). The 3D TBI showed the most uniform dose delivery to the phantom. From the OSLD measurements of the 3D TBI, the deviations between the measured doses and the prescription dose ranged from  -6.7% to 2.4% inside the phantom and from  -2.3% to 0.6% on the phantom's surface. From the EBT3 film measurements, the prescription dose could be delivered to the entire body of the phantom within  ±10% accuracy, except for the chest region, where tissue heterogeneity is extreme. The 3D TBI doses were much more uniform than those of the other irradiation techniques, especially in the anterior-to-posterior direction. The 3D TBI was advantageous, owing to its uniform dose delivery as well as its efficient treatment procedure.

  3. Survival and Neurocognitive Outcomes After Cranial or Craniospinal Irradiation Plus Total-Body Irradiation Before Stem Cell Transplantation in Pediatric Leukemia Patients With Central Nervous System Involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiniker, Susan M.; Agarwal, Rajni; Modlin, Leslie A.; Gray, Christine C.; Harris, Jeremy P.; Million, Lynn; Kiamanesh, Eileen F.; Donaldson, Sarah S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate survival and neurocognitive outcomes in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients with central nervous system (CNS) involvement treated according to an institutional protocol with stem cell transplantation (SCT) and a component of craniospinal irradiation (CSI) in addition to total-body irradiation (TBI) as preparative regimen. Methods and Materials: Forty-one pediatric ALL patients underwent SCT with TBI and received additional cranial irradiation or CSI because of CNS leukemic involvement. Prospective neurocognitive testing was performed before and after SCT in a subset of patients. Cox regression models were used to determine associations of patient and disease characteristics and treatment methods with outcomes. Results: All patients received a cranial radiation boost; median total cranial dose was 24 Gy. Eighteen patients (44%) received a spinal boost; median total spinal dose for these patients was 18 Gy. Five-year disease-free survival (DFS) for all patients was 67%. Those receiving CSI had a trend toward superior DFS compared with those receiving a cranial boost alone (hazard ratio 3.23, P=.14). Patients with isolated CNS disease before SCT had a trend toward superior DFS (hazard ratio 3.64, P=.11, 5-year DFS 74%) compared with those with combined CNS and bone marrow disease (5-year DFS 59%). Neurocognitive testing revealed a mean post-SCT overall intelligence quotient of 103.7 at 4.4 years. Relative deficiencies in processing speed and/or working memory were noted in 6 of 16 tested patients (38%). Pre- and post-SCT neurocognitive testing revealed no significant change in intelligence quotient (mean increase +4.7 points). At a mean of 12.5 years after transplant, 11 of 13 long-term survivors (85%) had completed at least some coursework at a 2- or 4-year college. Conclusion: The addition of CSI to TBI before SCT in pediatric ALL with CNS involvement is effective and well-tolerated. Craniospinal irradiation plus TBI is worthy

  4. Survival and Neurocognitive Outcomes After Cranial or Craniospinal Irradiation Plus Total-Body Irradiation Before Stem Cell Transplantation in Pediatric Leukemia Patients With Central Nervous System Involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiniker, Susan M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Agarwal, Rajni [Section of Stem Cell Transplantation, Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Modlin, Leslie A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Gray, Christine C. [Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Harris, Jeremy P.; Million, Lynn [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Kiamanesh, Eileen F. [Cancer Clinical Trials Office, Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Donaldson, Sarah S., E-mail: sarah2@stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate survival and neurocognitive outcomes in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients with central nervous system (CNS) involvement treated according to an institutional protocol with stem cell transplantation (SCT) and a component of craniospinal irradiation (CSI) in addition to total-body irradiation (TBI) as preparative regimen. Methods and Materials: Forty-one pediatric ALL patients underwent SCT with TBI and received additional cranial irradiation or CSI because of CNS leukemic involvement. Prospective neurocognitive testing was performed before and after SCT in a subset of patients. Cox regression models were used to determine associations of patient and disease characteristics and treatment methods with outcomes. Results: All patients received a cranial radiation boost; median total cranial dose was 24 Gy. Eighteen patients (44%) received a spinal boost; median total spinal dose for these patients was 18 Gy. Five-year disease-free survival (DFS) for all patients was 67%. Those receiving CSI had a trend toward superior DFS compared with those receiving a cranial boost alone (hazard ratio 3.23, P=.14). Patients with isolated CNS disease before SCT had a trend toward superior DFS (hazard ratio 3.64, P=.11, 5-year DFS 74%) compared with those with combined CNS and bone marrow disease (5-year DFS 59%). Neurocognitive testing revealed a mean post-SCT overall intelligence quotient of 103.7 at 4.4 years. Relative deficiencies in processing speed and/or working memory were noted in 6 of 16 tested patients (38%). Pre- and post-SCT neurocognitive testing revealed no significant change in intelligence quotient (mean increase +4.7 points). At a mean of 12.5 years after transplant, 11 of 13 long-term survivors (85%) had completed at least some coursework at a 2- or 4-year college. Conclusion: The addition of CSI to TBI before SCT in pediatric ALL with CNS involvement is effective and well-tolerated. Craniospinal irradiation plus TBI is worthy

  5. Successful vitrification and autografting of baboon (Papio anubis) ovarian tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Christiani A; Jacobs, Sophie; Devireddy, Ram V; Van Langendonckt, Anne; Vanacker, Julie; Jaeger, Jonathan; Luyckx, Valérie; Donnez, Jacques; Dolmans, Marie-Madeleine

    2013-08-01

    Can a vitrification protocol using an ethylene glycol/dimethyl sulphoxide-based solution and a cryopin successfully cryopreserve baboon ovarian tissue? Our results show that baboon ovarian tissue can be successfully cryopreserved with our vitrification protocol. Non-human primates have already been used as an animal model to test vitrification protocols for human ovarian tissue cryopreservation. Ovarian biopsies from five adult baboons were vitrified, warmed and autografted for 5 months. After grafting, follicle survival, growth and function and also the quality of stromal tissue were assessed histologically and by immunohistochemistry. The influence of the vitrification procedure on the cooling rate was evaluated by a computer model. After vitrification, warming and long-term grafting, follicles were able to grow and maintain their function, as illustrated by Ki67, anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF-9) immunostaining. Corpora lutea were also observed, evidencing successful ovulation in all the animals. Stromal tissue quality did not appear to be negatively affected by our cryopreservation procedure, as demonstrated by vascularization and proportions of fibrotic areas, which were similar to those found in fresh ungrafted ovarian tissue. Despite our promising findings, before applying this technique in a clinical setting, we need to validate it by achieving pregnancies. In addition to encouraging results obtained with our vitrification procedure for non-human ovarian tissue, this study also showed, for the first time, expression of AMH and GDF-9 in ovarian follicles. This study was supported by grants from the Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique de Belgique (grant Télévie No. 7.4507.10, grant 3.4.590.08 awarded to Marie-Madeleine Dolmans), Fonds Spéciaux de Recherche, Fondation St Luc, Foundation Against Cancer, and Department of Mechanical Engineering at Louisiana State University (support to Ram Devireddy), and

  6. Etoposide in combination with cyclophosphamide and total body irradiation or busulfan as conditioning for marrow transplantation in adults and children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitzer, T.R.; Ortlieb, M.; Tefft, M.C.; Torrisi, J.; Cahill, R.; Deeg, H.J. (Georgetown Univ. Hospital, Washington, DC (United States)); Peters, C.; Gadner, H. (St. Anna' s Kinderspital, Wien (Austria)); Urban, C. (Univ. Children' s Hospital, Graz (Austria))

    1994-04-30

    In an attempt to intensify conditioning therapy for bone marrow transplantation of hematologic malignancies, a retrospective three center evaluation of escalating doses of etoposide added to cyclophosphamide and either total body irradiation or busulfan was undertaken. Seventy-six patients who received etoposide (25-65 mg/kg) added to cyclophosphamide (60-120 mg/kg) and either total body irradiation (12.0-13.2 Gy) or busulfan (12-16 mg/kg) were evaluable for toxicity. Fifty-one of the evaluable patients received allogeneic transplants, while twenty-six received autologous transplants. A comparative analysis of toxicities according to conditioning regimen, donor source and etoposide dose was made. Similar toxicities were observed among the treatment groups with the exception of more frequent skin (p = 0.03) and life threatening hepatic toxicities (p = 0.01) in the busulfan treated patients. Life threatening or fatal toxicities were not influenced by donor source, either when analyzed by treatment group or etoposide dose. Etoposide at a dose of 60-65 mg/kg in combination with TBI and cyclophosphamide was associated with a significantly increased incidence of life threatening or fatal toxicities compared with a combination using a dose of 25-50 mg/kg (15 of 24 vs. 5 of 20; p = 0.013). The maximally tolerated dose of etoposide in combination with busulfan and cyclophosphamide cannot be definitively established in this analysis in part due to the heterogeneity of the patient population and treatment schemes. Although toxicities with bone marrow transplant preparative regimens containing etoposide in combination with cyclophosphamide and total body irradiation or busulfan were frequently severe, treatment related mortality risk was believed to be acceptably low. 27 refs., 3 tabs.

  7. Pulmonary complications of bone marrow transplantation: a comparison of total body irradiation and cyclophosphamide to busulfan and cyclophosphamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartsell, William F.; Czyzewski, E. Ann; Ghalie, Richard; Kaizer, Herbert

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively compare the acute and long-term pulmonary toxicities of total body irradiation and busulfan in bone marrow transplantation. Methods and Materials: From March 1984 through February 1991, 144 patients received high-dose therapy with cyclophosphamide plus either total body irradiation (TBI-CY) or busulfan (BU-CY) followed by bone marrow rescue. Treatment protocols were based on disease type. Cyclophosphamide dose was 120-200 mg/kg, given in 2-4 days. Total body irradiation was given as 12 Gy in four fractions over 4 days, or 14.4 Gy in eight fractions over 4 days. Busulfan dose was 16 mg/kg given over 4 days. Results: Seventy-nine patients were treated with TBI-CY and 65 patients with BU-CY. More patients in the TBI group had allogeneic transplants (40 vs. 18). Pulmonary events occurred in 48 patients, 19 in BU-CY and 29 in TBI-CY. Of the 58 patients with allogeneic transplants, 21 (36%) developed chronic graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD), and 10 of those patients developed pulmonary complications (including 2 with obliterative bronchitis and 1 with asthma). Interstitial pneumonitis (IP) occurred in 14 patients, 12 in the TBI-CY group and 2 in the BU-CY group. Cytomegalovirus and pneumocystis infections were associated with IP in 11 of those patients. Fatal idiopathic IP occurred in one patient in each of the TBI-CY and BU-CY groups. Multivariate analysis showed that only chronic GVHD and prior bleomycin use were significant predictors of interstitial pneumonitis; no difference was seen between TBI-CY and BU-CY. Conclusions: Pulmonary complications were most commonly associated with GVHD and prior bleomycin use. The incidence of cytomegalovirus or pneumocystis carinii pneumonitis was greater in the patients receiving the TBI regimen; fatal pulmonary complications were not significantly different between TBI and nonTBI regimens

  8. Blood androgen levels in male baboons throughout the year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taranov, A.G.; Goncharov, N.P.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a study of possible dependence of the androgen level in male baboons on the time of year. Plasma was obtained by centrifugation of the blood at 3000 rpm and the following androgens were determined by radioimmunoassay, using chromatographic separation of the steroids on columns with celite: testosterone, 5s-dihydrotestosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone. Plasma steriod concentrations were calculated and the results were subjected to statistical analysis by Students test. Seasonal change in the concentration of steroids in the animals' blood plasma were discovered. The results of androgen assay throughout the year and determination of their mean annual concentrations are shown

  9. Reflective Inserts to Reduce Heat Strain in Body Armor: Tests With and Without Irradiance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cadarette, Bruce S; Santee, William R; Robinson, Scott B; Sawka, Michael N

    2007-01-01

    ... (10 min rest followed by 100 min walking at 1.56 m s 1). All trials were at 40.0 C dry bulb (Tdb), 12.4 C dew point (Tdp), 20% RH, and 1.0 m s 1 wind speed. On 2 d, there was supplementary irradiance...

  10. Effect of acute whole-body neutron gamma irradiation on the dopamine neuronal uptake-sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, C.; Mahfoudi, H.; Lambert, F.; Burckhart, M.F.; Fatome, M.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of (neutron-gamma) irradiation on the dopamine uptake sites distribution were investigated, using quantitative autoradiography. Brain ares examined are striatum, lateral septum, substantia nigra, gyrus dentatus, ventral tegmental area, interfascicular nu and antero-ventral thalamic nu. Three hours after exposure at the dose of 4 Gy, a decrease (- 33 %) of dopamine uptake sites was observed in the gyrus dentatus. (authors)

  11. C-fos protein expression in central nervous system. Effects of acute whole-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, C.; Chollat, S.; Mahfoudi, H.; Lambert, F.; Baille Le Crom, V.; Fatome, M.

    1995-01-01

    Study of c-Fos protein expression in the rat striatum after gamma or (neutron-gamma) irradiation was carried on. c-Fos protein is expressed one hour after gamma exposure at the dose of 15 Gy but specificity of the response must be verified. (author)

  12. SU-F-T-82: Dosimetric Evaluation of a Shield Used for Hemi-Body Skin Electron Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivers, C; Singh, A; AlDahlawi, I; Wang, I; Podgorsak, M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We had several mycosis fungoides patients with a limited disease to about half of the skin surface. A custom-made plywood shield was used to protect the non-targeted skin region with our total skin electron irradiation (TSEI) technique. We report a dosimetric evaluation for our “hemi-body” skin electron irradiation technique. Methods: The technique is similar to our clinical total skin electron irradiation (TSEI), performed with a six-pair dual field (Stanford technique) at an extended source-to-skin distance (SSD) of 377 cm, with the addition of a plywood shield placed 50 cm from the patient. The shield is made of three layers of standard 5/8″ thick plywood (total thickness of 4.75 cm) that are clamped securely on an adjustable-height stand. Gafchromic EBT3 films were used in assessing the shield’s transmission factor and the extend of the dose penumbra region. To verify the dose delivered for hemi-body skin radiation in a real patient treatment, in-vivo dosimetry using Gafchromic EBT3 films were performed. Film pieces were taped on the patient skin to measure the dose received during the first two fractions, placed on the forehead and upper body (shielded region); and also at the level of pelvic area, left thigh, and left ankle. Results: The shield transmission factor was found to be 10%, and the width of the penumbra (80-to-20% dose fall-off) was about 12 cm. In-vivo dosimetry of a real case confirmed the expected shielded area dose. Conclusion: Hemi-Body skin electron irradiation at an extended SSD is feasible with the addition of a plywood shield at a distance from patient skin. The penumbra dose region and the shield’s transmission factor should be evaluated prior to clinical use. We have treated several hemi-body skin patients with our custom-made plywood shield, the current patient measurements are representative of these for other patients as well.

  13. SU-F-T-82: Dosimetric Evaluation of a Shield Used for Hemi-Body Skin Electron Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivers, C; Singh, A [Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States); AlDahlawi, I; Wang, I; Podgorsak, M [Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States); State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: We had several mycosis fungoides patients with a limited disease to about half of the skin surface. A custom-made plywood shield was used to protect the non-targeted skin region with our total skin electron irradiation (TSEI) technique. We report a dosimetric evaluation for our “hemi-body” skin electron irradiation technique. Methods: The technique is similar to our clinical total skin electron irradiation (TSEI), performed with a six-pair dual field (Stanford technique) at an extended source-to-skin distance (SSD) of 377 cm, with the addition of a plywood shield placed 50 cm from the patient. The shield is made of three layers of standard 5/8″ thick plywood (total thickness of 4.75 cm) that are clamped securely on an adjustable-height stand. Gafchromic EBT3 films were used in assessing the shield’s transmission factor and the extend of the dose penumbra region. To verify the dose delivered for hemi-body skin radiation in a real patient treatment, in-vivo dosimetry using Gafchromic EBT3 films were performed. Film pieces were taped on the patient skin to measure the dose received during the first two fractions, placed on the forehead and upper body (shielded region); and also at the level of pelvic area, left thigh, and left ankle. Results: The shield transmission factor was found to be 10%, and the width of the penumbra (80-to-20% dose fall-off) was about 12 cm. In-vivo dosimetry of a real case confirmed the expected shielded area dose. Conclusion: Hemi-Body skin electron irradiation at an extended SSD is feasible with the addition of a plywood shield at a distance from patient skin. The penumbra dose region and the shield’s transmission factor should be evaluated prior to clinical use. We have treated several hemi-body skin patients with our custom-made plywood shield, the current patient measurements are representative of these for other patients as well.

  14. Clinical relevance of the baboon as a model for the study of endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Hooghe, T M

    1997-10-01

    To review the value of the baboon as a model for the study of endometriosis. Studies performed at the Institute of Primate Research in Nairobi, Kenya (1990-1994), and published in peer-reviewed journals. Spontaneous endometriosis was found in about 25% of the baboons, and its prevalence increased with the duration of captivity. The laparoscopic appearance, pelvic localization, and microscopic aspects of the disease were similar to endometriosis in women. Microscopic endometriosis in macroscopically normal peritoneum was rare. Sampson's hypothesis (i.e., retrograde menstruation causes endometriosis) was supported by the increased incidence of retrograde menstruation in baboons with spontaneous endometriosis, the observation that cervical occlusion could cause retrograde menstruation and endometriosis, and the finding that intrapelvic injection of menstrual endometrium caused experimental moderate to severe endometriosis similar to the spontaneous disease. During follow-up of more than 2 years, endometriosis in baboons appeared to be a progressive disease, with active remodeling between several types of lesions. Progression was stimulated by high-dose immunosuppression. Fertility was normal in baboons with minimal disease but was reduced in baboons with mild, moderate, or severe endometriosis, possibly related to an increased incidence and recurrence of the luteinized unruptured follicle syndrome. The baboon is a good model for the study of endometriosis.

  15. Immuno-enhancement in tumor-bearing mice induced by whole body X-irradiation with 75 mGy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ying; Li Xiuyi; Gong Shouliang; Liu Shuzheng

    2000-01-01

    Objective: In present study the authors observed the effect of whole body irradiation (WBI) with 75 mGy X-rays on the immune function of tumor-bearing mice. Methods: Lewis lung carcinoma cells were implanted into the right thigh muscle of C57BL/6J mice. Ten days after tumor implantation, the tumor-bearing mice were administrated with 75 mGy X-rays WBI, then the mice were sacrificed 18 h after irradiation to detect the immune parameters including the spontaneous proliferation of thymocytes, the proliferative response of splenocytes to ConA and LPS, the cytotoxic activities of specific cytotoxic lymphocytes (CTL) and natural killer cells (NK), as well as lymphokine activated killer cells (LAK) in spleen. The methods the authors used were 3 H-TdR incorporation or release assay. Results: the immune parameters of exposed tumor-bearing mice were much higher than those of sham-irradiated tumor-bearing mice (P<0.01). Conclusion: These results suggested that low dose radiation (LDR) could enhance the immune function of tumor-bearing mice, which might be of practical significance in the prevention and therapy of cancer

  16. Effects of whole body x-irradiation and cyclophosphamide treatment on induction of macrophage tumoricidal function in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, R.M.; Pavlidis, N.A.; Chirigos, M.A.; Weiss, J.F.

    1978-07-01

    The influence of whole-body x irradiation (200 to 800 R) and subcutaneous cyclophosphamide (CY) treatment (150 to 500 mg/kg) was studied on the ability of adjuvants to induce cytotoxic macrophages in vivo. Surprisingly, radiation or CY therapy alone produced growth inhibitory macrophages whose function peaked within 2 days after treatment. When adjuvants such as Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG), pyran copolymer, or glucan were administered ip within 2 hr after sublethal (600 R) x irradiation, adjuvant-induced cytotoxic function was depressed but not ablated. In addition, when noninduced peritoneal macrophages were obtained 6 days after lethal (800 R) x irradiation, their ability to be activated in vitro by lymphokine or fibroblast-derived interferon preparations was only slightly depressed at all concentrations of inducer tested. When BCG, pyran, or glucan was administered ip concurrently with sc CY treatment, only the ability of BCG to activate macrophages was markedly reduced, indicating separate mechanisms for the induction of tumoricidal macrophages. A better understanding of the interaction of chemotherapeutic and/or radiation regimens with adjuvants which affect macrophage function may be instrumental to rationalized immunotherapy protocols.

  17. Effect of intestinal microflora on the survival time of mice exposed to lethal whole-body. gamma. irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onoue, M.; Uchida, K.; Yokokura, T.; Takahashi, T.; Mutai, M.

    1981-11-01

    The effect of intestinal microflora on the survival time of mice exposed to 2-kR whole-body ..gamma.. irradiation was studied using germfree, monoassociated, and conventionalized ICR mice. The germfree mice were monoassociated with 1 of 11 bacterial strains, which were isolated from the fresh feces of conventional mice, 2 weeks prior to irradiation. All mice died within 3 weeks after irradiation. Monoassociation with Fusobacterium sp., Streptococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, or Pseudomonas sp. significantly reduced the mean survival time compared to that of germfree mice. In contrast, monoassociation with Clostridium sp., Bifidobacterium pseudolongum, or Lactobacillus acidophilus significantly prolonged the mean survival time compared to that of germfree mice. This suggests that the latter organisms may perform some activity to protect the mice from radiation injury. In this histopathological autopsy examination, the main lesions were hypocellularity in hematopoietic organs and hemorrhage in various organs. Neither karyorrhexis nor desquamation of intestinal mucosal cells was observed in any mice. From these observations, it is suggested that the death of these mice was related to hematopoietic damage. Bacterial invasion into various organs was observed in conventionalized and Pseudomonas-, E. coli-, or S. faecalis-monoassociated mice but not in Clostridium-, B. pseudolongum-, L. acidophilus-, or Fusobacterium-monoassociated mice.

  18. Effect of intestinal microflora on the survival time of mice exposed to lethal whole-body γ irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onoue, M.; Uchida, K.; Yokokura, T.; Takahashi, T.; Mutai, M.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of intestinal microflora on the survival time of mice exposed to 2-kR whole-body γ irradiation was studied using germfree, monoassociated, and conventionalized ICR mice. The germfree mice were monoassociated with 1 of 11 bacterial strains, which were isolated from the fresh feces of conventional mice, 2 weeks prior to irradiation. All mice died within 3 weeks after irradiation. Monoassociation with Fusobacterium sp., Streptococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, or Pseudomonas sp. significantly reduced the mean survival time compared to that of germfree mice. In contrast, monoassociation with Clostridium sp., Bifidobacterium pseudolongum, or Lactobacillus acidophilus significantly prolonged the mean survival time compared to that of germfree mice. This suggests that the latter organisms may perform some activity to protect the mice from radiation injury. In this histopathological autopsy examination, the main lesions were hypocellularity in hematopoietic organs and hemorrhage in various organs. Neither karyorrhexis nor desquamation of intestinal mucosal cells was observed in any mice. From these observations, it is suggested that the death of these mice was related to hematopoietic damage. Bacterial invasion into various organs was observed in conventionalized and Pseudomonas-, E. coli-, or S. faecalis-monoassociated mice but not in Clostridium-, B. pseudolongum-, L. acidophilus-, or Fusobacterium-monoassociated mice

  19. Radio-induced neuropathology: from early effects to late sequelae. Rat behavioural and metabolic studies after sublethal total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martigne, A.P.

    2010-05-01

    The radioresistance dogma of Central Nervous System (CNS) is now obsolete. Recent progress in neuroscience allow us to reconsider the radiation-induced cognitive dysfunctions observed after radiation therapy or after a nuclear accident, and to devise appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic means. We have developed a Rat model to study the effects of total body irradiation at a sublethal dose (4.5 Gy). This leads to impaired learning and memory of a task being acquired during the first month - which is prevented by administration of a radioprotector (amifostine) - while it does not appear to affect retrograde memory. Early, an apoptotic wave occurs in the sub-ventricular zone, 5 to 9 hours after exposure, while neuro-genesis is suppressed. Two days after irradiation, the metabolic study conducted by NMR HRMAS (High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning) suggests the presence of cerebral oedema and the study of brain lipids in liquid NMR confirms the membrane damages (elevated cholesterol and phospholipids). The lipid profile is then normalized while a gliosis appears. Finally, 1 month post-irradiation, the elevation of GABA, an inhibitory neurotransmitter, in 2 separate brain structures, occurs simultaneously with a taurine decrease in the hippocampus that lasts 6 months. Our integrated model allows validating bio-markers measurable in vivo NMR spectroscopy - the next experimental stage - and testing new radiation-protective agents. (author)

  20. Effects of whole body x-irradiation and cyclophosphamide treatment on induction of macrophage tumoricidal function in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, R.M.; Pavlidis, N.A.; Chirigos, M.A.; Weiss, J.F.

    1978-01-01

    The influence of whole-body x irradiation (200 to 800 R) and subcutaneous cyclophosphamide (CY) treatment (150 to 500 mg/kg) was studied on the ability of adjuvants to induce cytotoxic macrophages in vivo. Surprisingly, radiation or CY therapy alone produced growth inhibitory macrophages whose function peaked within 2 days after treatment. When adjuvants such as Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG), pyran copolymer, or glucan were administered ip within 2 hr after sublethal (600 R) x irradiation, adjuvant-induced cytotoxic function was depressed but not ablated. In addition, when noninduced peritoneal macrophages were obtained 6 days after lethal (800 R) x irradiation, their ability to be activated in vitro by lymphokine or fibroblast-derived interferon preparations was only slightly depressed at all concentrations of inducer tested. When BCG, pyran, or glucan was administered ip concurrently with sc CY treatment, only the ability of BCG to activate macrophages was markedly reduced, indicating separate mechanisms for the induction of tumoricidal macrophages. A better understanding of the interaction of chemotherapeutic and/or radiation regimens with adjuvants which affect macrophage function may be instrumental to rationalized immunotherapy protocols

  1. The effect of total body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation during childhood and adolescence on growth and endocrine function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leiper, A.D.; Stanhope, R.; Lau, T.; Grant, D.B.; Blacklock, H.; Chessells, J.M.; Plowman, P.N.

    1987-01-01

    Seventeen children with acute leukaemia and myeloproliferative disorders were investigated for growth and endocrine dysfunction. All had undergone bone marrow transplantation prepared with cyclophosphamide and single fraction total body irradiation (900-1000 cGy) between 1.5 and 3.8 (mean 2.2) years previously. The majority exhibited growth failure, of multiple aetiology. Ten patients, of whom eight had had previous prophylactic cranial irradiation, had evidence of growth hormone deficiency based on reduced growth hormone reponse to insulin induced hypoglycaemia. Three had evidence of hypothalamic damage. Gonadal failure was common. All four girls of adolescent age (10.6-14.1 years) had ovarian failure requiring sex steroid replacement. Of eight boys of adolescent age (12.3-18.3 years), two had testicular failure requiring sex steroid supplements. Both had had previous testicular irradiation. Five others had compensated gonadal failure; one had normal Leydig cell function. Abnormalities of the TSH response to TRH occurred in 10 patients but only three had overt hypothyroidism. Unlike growth hormone deficiency, gonadal and thyroid dysfunction showed no correlation with previous cranial radiotherapy. (author)

  2. The modifying effect of ibuprofen on total body irradiation-induced elevation of oxidative reactions in male hamsters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dokmeci, D.; Akpolat, M.; Aydogdu, N.; Uzal, C.; Turan, N.F.

    2004-01-01

    Radiation therapy plays an important role in curative and palliative treatments of malignant diseases. Because of the lipid component in the membrane, lipid peroxidation has been reported to be particularly susceptible to radiation damage. However, lipid peroxidation is reversed by cellular defense mechanisms, and the use of various antioxidants involved in these mechanisms have recently been suggested to be beneficial. It is known that ibuprofen has antioxidative and/or free radical scavenging activities. Our purpose is to examine the antioxidant capacity of ibuprofen in hamsters undergoing total body irradiation (TBI). Ibuprofen was given by gavage at dose of 10 mg/kg for 15 consecutive days. After this period, animals were exposed to TBI 60 Co gamma irradiation with a single dose of 8 Gy. After 24 h radiation exposure, the hamsters were killed and samples were taken from blood. Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) increased significantly after radiation exposure, and ibuprofen diminished the amounts of TBARS. Significant protection of the radiation-induced changes in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase was also recorded in the blood of ibuprofen-treated and -irradiated hamsters. These results suggest that ibuprofen with its antioxidant capacity could play a modulatory role against cellular damage effected by free radicals induced by TBI. (author)

  3. Effect of antihistamines, disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) or methysergide on post-irradiation cerebral blood flow and mean systemic arterial blood pressure in primates after 25 Gy, whole-body, gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockerham, L.G.; Forcino, C.D. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation causes hypotension, cerebral ischemia and release of histamine (HA) and serotonin (5-HT). To investigate the relationship among these responses, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) received physiological saline (i.v.), disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), antihistamines (AH, mepyramine and cimetidine), or methysergide (METH), then were given 25 Gy whole-body irradiation. Monkeys receiving DSCG, AH or METH had higher post-irradiation mean arterial blood pressure (MBP) than saline-treated controls. Compared to levels in controls, post-irradiation hippocampal blood flow (rCBF) levels were higher in monkeys receiving DSCG, AH or METH. Treatment with the 5-HT{sub 2} receptor antagonist methysergide was the most effective in maintaining both rCBF and MBP after irradiation. Results support the hypothesis that the irradiation-induced cerebral ischemia and, to some extent, the hypotension is mediated by serotonin through 5-HT{sub 2} receptor sites. (author) 72 refs.

  4. Out of Africa, but how and when? The case of hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Gisela H; Roos, Christian; Butynski, Thomas M; Wildman, Derek E; Alagaili, Abdulaziz N; Groeneveld, Linn F; Zinner, Dietmar

    2014-11-01

    Many species of Arabian mammals are considered to be of Afrotropical origin and for most of them the Red Sea has constituted an obstacle for dispersal since the Miocene-Pliocene transition. There are two possible routes, the 'northern' and the 'southern', for terrestrial mammals (including humans) to move between Africa and Arabia. The 'northern route', crossing the Sinai Peninsula, is confirmed for several taxa by an extensive fossil record, especially from northern Egypt and the Levant, whereas the 'southern route', across the Bab-el-Mandab Strait, which links the Red Sea with the Gulf of Aden, is more controversial, although post-Pliocene terrestrial crossings of the Red Sea might have been possible during glacial maxima when sea levels were low. Hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas) are the only baboon taxon to disperse out of Africa and still inhabit Arabia. In this study, we investigate the origin of Arabian hamadryas baboons using mitochondrial sequence data from 294 samples collected in Arabia and Northeast Africa. Through the analysis of the geographic distribution of genetic diversity, the timing of population expansions, and divergence time estimates combined with palaeoecological data, we test: (i) if Arabian and African hamadryas baboons are genetically distinct; (ii) if Arabian baboons exhibit population substructure; and (iii) when, and via which route, baboons colonized Arabia. Our results suggest that hamadryas baboons colonized Arabia during the Late Pleistocene (130-12 kya [thousands of years ago]) and also moved back to Africa. We reject the hypothesis that hamadryas baboons were introduced to Arabia by humans, because the initial colonization considerably predates the earliest records of human seafaring in this region. Our results strongly suggest that the 'southern route' from Africa to Arabia could have been used by hamadryas baboons during the same time period as proposed for modern humans. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier

  5. Home range utilization by chacma baboon (Papio ursinus) troops on Suikerbosrand Nature Reserve, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Kerry; Barrett, Alan; Brown, Leslie R

    2018-01-01

    Rapid urbanization coupled with decreasing areas of natural habitat are causing baboon populations to become scattered and isolated, often resulting in increased levels of human-baboon conflict. To implement baboon-human conflict management strategies, it is essential to formulate realistic conservation policies that deal with all stakeholder concerns and ensure the conservation of viable baboon populations. A study was initiated in response to complaints of perceived excessive baboon numbers and associated lack of food resources on Suikerbosrand Nature Reserve in South Africa. Data obtained from GPS tracking collars fitted to one baboon from each of 10 identified troops were analyzed to determine home range size and utilization. The spatial representation of home ranges generated from this study will allow reserve management to identify areas of potential high and low human-baboon conflict and will contribute to the development of a formal baboon management plan to reduce human-baboon conflict on and around the reserve. Home ranges were unevenly distributed and had a mean size of 26.72 km2 ± 13.91 SD in the cold/dry season and 26.54 km2 ± 12.76 SD in the warm/wet season. Troop home ranges overlapped to some degree and five troops utilized areas outside the reserve. Although no significant relationship between troop size and home range was found, there was a positive relationship between troop size and daily distance travelled. All troops had significantly longer mean daily distances during the warm/wet season than during the cold/dry season (P ≤ 0.02).

  6. Transplantation tolerance in primates following total lymphoid irradiation and allogeneic bone marrow injection. I. Orthoptic liver allographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myburgh, J.A.; Smit, J.A.; Browde, S.; Hill, R.R.H.

    1980-01-01

    Fractionated total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and allogeneic bone marrow (BM) injection have been reported to produce stable chimerism without graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in inbred mice and rats and mongrel dogs, and transplantation tolerance for skin and heart grafts in rodents. This concept has been studied in outbred chacma baboons receiving orthotopic liver allografts with the use of five different irradiation protocols. Eight fractions of 200 rad to the whole torso, followed immediately by allogeneic BM injections, and liver grafts from the BM donors 3 to 4 weeks later resulted in markedly prolonged survivals of 63 to 106 days in four baboons (median survival of untreated controls 19 days). Only one of the four animals died directly from the effects of rejection. BM chimerism was demonstrated in two baboons. There were no clinical or histological signs of GVHD in any of the animals. Two fractions of TLI, totaling 800 rad, 23 hr apart and followed immediately by BM injection and liver grafting resulted in profound thrombocytopenia and death form intraperitoneal hemorrhage in four of five baboons. In one animal BM injection and liver transplantation were delayed for 75 days. The baboon is still alive more than 6 months later. Three groups received single doses of 300, 400, and 500 rad to the whole torso, followed by allogeneic BM injections 1 and 2 weeks later, and liver transplants from their BM donors after an additional 3 to 4 weeks. The four baboons receiving 300 rad survived for 42, 86, 123, and >180 days. Two of the four baboons receiving 400 rad died of septic intraabdominal complications with minimal or no evidence of rejection. Fourh of the five baboons receiving 500 rad died from rejection

  7. DNA repair in baboon alveolar macrophages: a system for assessing biohazardous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meltz, M.L.

    1976-06-01

    The repair of DNA in the alveolar macrophages of the baboon has been investigated after treatment of the cells in vitro with ultraviolet light and with the alkylating agent, methyl methanesulfonate. Repair replication has been observed to occur after ultraviolet-light irradiation of macrophages attached to plastic dishes. The two different techniques used for measuring repair replication were a standard density-gradient procedure which separates normal-density, repair-replicated, preexisting DNA from semiconservatively synthesized DNA containing sufficient (/sup 3/H)bromodeoxyuridine to cause a density shift; and an alternative procedure applicable to nonproliferating cell systems wherein residual semiconservative synthesis is inhibited by hydroxyurea, and the increased incorporation of the DNA precursor (/sup 3/H)thymidine due to repair replication is measured. The latter technique was applied to the investigation of the concentration dependence of repair replication both after and during the treatment of the cells with the alkylating agent, methyl methanesulfonate. The labeling after treatment measures the repair of damage still present at the end of the treatment interval, while the labeling during treatment allows for greater sensitivity and detection of all repair occurring during the treatment period.

  8. Recovery Profiles of T-Cell Subsets Following Low-Dose Total Body Irradiation and Improvement With Cinnamon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Xiaodan [Key Laboratory for Tumor Immunology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Immunology, Institute of Basic Medicine, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan (China); School of Medicine and Life Science, University of Jinan-Shandong Academy of Medical Science, Jinan (China); Guo, Yuqi [Key Laboratory for Tumor Immunology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Immunology, Institute of Basic Medicine, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan (China); Wang, Lei [Second Affiliated Hospital of Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan (China); Zhang, Honghai [Key Laboratory for Tumor Immunology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Immunology, Institute of Basic Medicine, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan (China); Wang, Shaobo [Shandong University, Jinan (China); Wang, Li [Key Laboratory for Tumor Immunology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Immunology, Institute of Basic Medicine, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan (China); An, Lei [Key Laboratory for Tumor Immunology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Immunology, Institute of Basic Medicine, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan (China); School of Medicine and Life Science, University of Jinan-Shandong Academy of Medical Science, Jinan (China); Zhou, Xianbin; Li, Xia [Key Laboratory for Tumor Immunology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Immunology, Institute of Basic Medicine, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan (China); Yao, Chengfang, E-mail: yaocf9941@163.com [Key Laboratory for Tumor Immunology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Immunology, Institute of Basic Medicine, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan (China)

    2015-12-01

    Purpose: Inefficient T-cell reconstitution from x-ray–induced immune damage reduces antitumor response. To understand the profile of T-cell reconstitution after irradiation will overcome the barrier of antitumor immunity. This study aimed to identify the recovery profile of T-cell subsets following x-ray irradiation and to highlight the role of cinnamon on efficient T-cell restoration postexposure in the antitumor response. Methods and Materials: CD3{sup +}, CD8{sup +}, and CD4{sup +} T cells and Th1, Th2, Th17, and regulatory T (Treg) cells were evaluated at different time points after single low-dose total body irradiation (SLTBI) with or without cinnamon treatments. T-bet, GATA3, RORγt, and Foxp3 signaling specific for Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg were also analyzed by RT-PCR assay. The effects of cinnamon on efficient T-cell subset reconstitution was confirmed in a lung melanoma model in irradiated mice. Results: Reconstitution of CD4{sup +} T cells was delayed more than that of CD8{sup +} T cells in T-cell restoration after SLTBI. The production of IFNγ by Th1 or Tc1 cells was sharply decreased and was accompanied by reduced T-bet mRNA, even when total T-cell numbers had recovered; the frequencies of Th17 and Treg cells and their specific transcription factors (RORγt and Foxp3, respectively) were obviously increased. Irradiation-induced inefficient T-cell reconstitution impaired the antitumor capacities in the lung melanoma model. Pretreatment with cinnamon in irradiated mice accelerated the generation of Th1 and reduced the differentiation of Treg cells by activating T-bet and limiting transcriptions of Foxp3. Improvement resulting from cinnamon pretreatment on the efficient T-cell recovery profile from SLTBI promoted antitumor immunity in the lung melanoma model. Conclusions: T-cell reconstitution from SLTBI was characterized by impaired Th1 and elevated Th17 and Treg cells. Cinnamon effectively improved the imbalance of T-cell subsets by promoting the

  9. Recovery Profiles of T-Cell Subsets Following Low-Dose Total Body Irradiation and Improvement With Cinnamon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Xiaodan; Guo, Yuqi; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Honghai; Wang, Shaobo; Wang, Li; An, Lei; Zhou, Xianbin; Li, Xia; Yao, Chengfang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Inefficient T-cell reconstitution from x-ray–induced immune damage reduces antitumor response. To understand the profile of T-cell reconstitution after irradiation will overcome the barrier of antitumor immunity. This study aimed to identify the recovery profile of T-cell subsets following x-ray irradiation and to highlight the role of cinnamon on efficient T-cell restoration postexposure in the antitumor response. Methods and Materials: CD3 + , CD8 + , and CD4 + T cells and Th1, Th2, Th17, and regulatory T (Treg) cells were evaluated at different time points after single low-dose total body irradiation (SLTBI) with or without cinnamon treatments. T-bet, GATA3, RORγt, and Foxp3 signaling specific for Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg were also analyzed by RT-PCR assay. The effects of cinnamon on efficient T-cell subset reconstitution was confirmed in a lung melanoma model in irradiated mice. Results: Reconstitution of CD4 + T cells was delayed more than that of CD8 + T cells in T-cell restoration after SLTBI. The production of IFNγ by Th1 or Tc1 cells was sharply decreased and was accompanied by reduced T-bet mRNA, even when total T-cell numbers had recovered; the frequencies of Th17 and Treg cells and their specific transcription factors (RORγt and Foxp3, respectively) were obviously increased. Irradiation-induced inefficient T-cell reconstitution impaired the antitumor capacities in the lung melanoma model. Pretreatment with cinnamon in irradiated mice accelerated the generation of Th1 and reduced the differentiation of Treg cells by activating T-bet and limiting transcriptions of Foxp3. Improvement resulting from cinnamon pretreatment on the efficient T-cell recovery profile from SLTBI promoted antitumor immunity in the lung melanoma model. Conclusions: T-cell reconstitution from SLTBI was characterized by impaired Th1 and elevated Th17 and Treg cells. Cinnamon effectively improved the imbalance of T-cell subsets by promoting the proliferation of Th1 and

  10. Development of a portable blood irradiator for potential clinical uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hungate, F.P.

    1988-12-01

    This document provides an account of the development of a fully portable blood irradiator and the evaluation of its safety and efficacy when implanted in goats, sheep, a baboon and dogs. The program was initiated because the control of lymphocyte populations by irradiation is a potential method for improving success in organ or tissue transplantation and for treating a variety of blood diseases. 15 refs., 27 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Animal experiments with rats as a contribution to the question of whole body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schraub, A.; Doell, G.; Jonas, H.; Kindt, A.; Sattler, E.L.

    1975-01-01

    Recovery after sublethal radiation damage was studied in the white blood count which shows a fast reaction to attacks caused by radiation. The so-called 'fractionated-dose method' was used. This method detrmines to what extent the total dose must be raised for two partial doses given at different times to produce the same amount of damage as a single irradiation. The second dose was applied after 7. days. A dose reduction by protraction of the first dose over 2 days was only found after doses of 300 to 400 rad. Regarding the anorexia connected with the radiation syndrome, no differences were found at low doses between protracted and one-time irradiation. This suggests that there is no repair. (MG) [de

  12. In vivo dosimetry with semiconducting diodes for dose verification in total-body irradiation. A 10-year experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramm, U.; Licher, J.; Moog, J.; Scherf, C.; Kara, E.; Boettcher, H.D.; Roedel, C. [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Center of Radiology, Univ. Hospital Johann Wolfgang Goethe Univ., Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Mose, S. [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Center of Radiology, Univ. Hospital Johann Wolfgang Goethe Univ., Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Schwarzwald-Baar Hospital, Villingen-Schwenningen (Germany)

    2008-07-15

    Background and purpose: for total-body irradiation (TBI) using the translation method, dose distribution cannot be computed with computer-assisted three-dimensional planning systems. Therefore, dose distribution has to be primarily estimated based on CT scans (beam-zone method) which is followed by in vivo measurements to ascertain a homogeneous dose delivery. The aim of this study was to clinically establish semiconductor probes as a simple and fast method to obtain an online verification of the dose at relevant points. Patients and methods: in 110 consecutively irradiated TBI patients (12.6 Gy, 2 x 1.8 Gy/day), six semiconductor probes were attached to the body surface at dose-relevant points (eye/head, neck, lung, navel). The mid-body point of the abdomen was defined as dose reference point. The speed of translation was optimized to definitively reach the prescribed dose in this point. Based on the entrance and exit doses, the mid-body doses at the other points were computed. The dose homogeneity in the entire target volume was determined comparing all measured data with the dose at the reference point. Results: after calibration of the semiconductor probes under treatment conditions the dose in selected points and the dose homogeneity in the target volume could be quantitatively specified. In the TBI patients, conformity of calculated and measured doses in the given points was achieved with small deviations of adequate accuracy. The data of 80% of the patients are within an uncertainty of {+-} 5%. Conclusion: during TBI using the translation method, dose distribution and dose homogeneity can be easily controlled in selected points by means of semiconductor probes. Semiconductor probes are recommended for further use in the physical evaluation of TBI. (orig.)

  13. In vivo dosimetry with semiconducting diodes for dose verification in total-body irradiation. A 10-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramm, Ulla; Licher, Jörg; Moog, Jussi; Scherf, Christian; Kara, Eugen; Böttcher, Heinz-Dietrich; Rödel, Claus; Mose, Stephan

    2008-07-01

    For total-body irradiation (TBI) using the translation method, dose distribution cannot be computed with computer-assisted three-dimensional planning systems. Therefore, dose distribution has to be primarily estimated based on CT scans (beam-zone method) which is followed by in vivo measurements to ascertain a homogeneous dose delivery. The aim of this study was to clinically establish semiconductor probes as a simple and fast method to obtain an online verification of the dose at relevant points. In 110 consecutively irradiated TBI patients (12.6 Gy, 2 x 1.8 Gy/day), six semiconductor probes were attached to the body surface at dose-relevant points (eye/head, neck, lung, navel). The mid-body point of the abdomen was defined as dose reference point. The speed of translation was optimized to definitively reach the prescribed dose in this point. Based on the entrance and exit doses, the mid-body doses at the other points were computed. The dose homogeneity in the entire target volume was determined comparing all measured data with the dose at the reference point. After calibration of the semiconductor probes under treatment conditions the dose in selected points and the dose homogeneity in the target volume could be quantitatively specified. In the TBI patients, conformity of calculated and measured doses in the given points was achieved with small deviations of adequate accuracy. The data of 80% of the patients are within an uncertainty of +/- 5%. During TBI using the translation method, dose distribution and dose homogeneity can be easily controlled in selected points by means of semiconductor probes. Semiconductor probes are recommended for further use in the physical evaluation of TBI.

  14. Hemorrhagic tendency following whole-body irradiation of conventional and decontaminated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiemeyer, V.; Hohage, R.

    1974-01-01

    Female SIV 50 rats were irradiated with 700 r, and the blood platelets were counted in blood obtained by aortal puncture. A significant decrease could be observed already after a few days. The ADP-induced platelet aggregation showed only a little increase of the aggregation amplitude and a prolongation of the desaggregation time in irradiated animals. The increase of the collagen-induced platelet aggregation might be due to a reduced release of endogenic ADP rather than to reduced sensitivity to ADP. In order to examine the question whether the haemorrhagic tendency of decontaminated animals is reduced after irradiation, female rats were orally given Bacitracin, Neomycin, and Streptomycin over a period of 10 days. Increasing anaemia could be observed from the 7th day p.t. on. In decontaminated animals, anaemia occurrence was not as high as in conventional ones. The erythrocyte count of the lymph in the conventional animals was remarkably higher than in decontaminated animals, which as also the case in the haemoglobin content in the lymph notes. This proves definitely that rats kept conventionally have a stronger tendency to bleeding than decontaminated rats. (MG) [de

  15. Acute central nervous system (CNS) toxicity of total body irradiation (TBI) measured using neuropsychological testing of attention functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenz, Frederik; Steinvorth, Sarah; Lohr, Frank; Hacke, Werner; Wannenmacher, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate acute normal tissue damage of low irradiation doses to the healthy, adult central nervous system (CNS) using neuropsychological testing of attention functions. Methods and Materials: Neuropsychological testing (IQ, attention [modified Trail-Making Test A, Digit Symbol Test, D2 Test, Wiener Determination Machine]) was used to examine 40 patients (43 ± 10 years) before and immediately after the first fraction (1.2 Gy) of hyperfractionated total body irradiation (TBI) at the University of Heidelberg. The patients received antiemetic premedication. Test results are given as mean percentiles ± standard deviation, with 50 ± 34 being normal. Thirty-eight control patients (53 ± 15 years) were studied to quantify the influence of hospitalization, stress, and repeated testing. Results: The patients showed normal baseline test results (IQ = 101 ± 14, attention = 54 ± 28) and no decrease in test results after 1.2 Gy TBI. Attention functions improved (66 ± 25) corresponding to a practice effect of repeated testing that was seen in the control group, although alternate versions of the tests were used (IQ = 104 ± 10, attention before = 42 ± 29, attention after = 52 ± 31). Conclusion: Our data show no deterioration of neuropsychologic test results acutely after 1.2 Gy whole body exposure in adult patients without CNS disease receiving antiemetic medication

  16. Monte Carlo efficiency calibration of a neutron generator-based total-body irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shypailo, R.J.; Ellis, K.J.

    2009-01-01

    Many body composition measurement systems are calibrated against a single-sized reference phantom. Prompt-gamma neutron activation (PGNA) provides the only direct measure of total body nitrogen (TBN), an index of the body's lean tissue mass. In PGNA systems, body size influences neutron flux attenuation, induced gamma signal distribution, and counting efficiency. Thus, calibration based on a single-sized phantom could result in inaccurate TBN values. We used Monte Carlo simulations (MCNP-5; Los Alamos National Laboratory) in order to map a system's response to the range of body weights (65-160 kg) and body fat distributions (25-60%) in obese humans. Calibration curves were constructed to derive body-size correction factors relative to a standard reference phantom, providing customized adjustments to account for differences in body habitus of obese adults. The use of MCNP-generated calibration curves should allow for a better estimate of the true changes in lean tissue mass that many occur during intervention programs focused only on weight loss. (author)

  17. Monte carlo efficiency calibration of a neutron generator-based total-body irradiator

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increasing prevalence of obesity world-wide has focused attention on the need for accurate body composition assessments, especially of large subjects. However, many body composition measurement systems are calibrated against a single-sized phantom, often based on the standard Reference Man mode...

  18. Effects of 60Co γ-rays irradiation on cell growth and alkaloid accumulation of protocorm-like bodies in suspension cultures from Dendrobium huoshanense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Sali; Jin Qing; Huang Bei; Cai Yongping; Lin Yi

    2009-01-01

    Protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) in suspension cultures from Dendrobium huoshanense were irradiated by 60 Co γ-rays at doses of 5, 10, 20 and 30Gy, and alkaloid accumulation of PLBs was studied. The results showed that 60 Co γ-rays irradiation could improve the alkaloid content of PLBs, and the suitable dose was 10Gy. The fresh weight of 10Gy irradiated PLBs was 26.54g/flask, and the alkaloid content was 0.035% on the 36th day. The medium pH and electric conductivity of 10Gy irradiated PLBs changed slightly during the suspension culture period. The results suggested such cultural environment was suitable for PLBs growth continuely. Results also showed that 60 Co γ-rays irradiation could increase the activities of POD, SOD, CAT, PAL and decrease the activity of PPO, these were responsible for the improvement of cell growth and alkaloid accumulation in PLBs. (authors)

  19. Effect of ionizing whole-body irradiation on the primary and secondary antibody reaction of cows to injection of human gamma globulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, F.; Buchholz, I.; Mehlhorn, G.

    1989-01-01

    In 3 experiments 29 cows were exposed to whole-body irradiation, using 9 MeV X-rays of a linear accelerator, with doses of 1.50 and 2.00 Gy or 60 Co gamma rays with a dose of 2.75 Gy, as a midline dose. 2 weeks prior to irradiation the first immunization was applied using human gamma globulin. 4 or 5 weeks after irradiation a second immunization was carried out. The antibody titres were investigated. The irradiation failed to affect the antibody titres after the first immunization. After the second immunization the antibody titres of the irradiated animals remained diminished significantly (α = 0.05). This has been attributed to a damage of the memory cell pool. (author)

  20. The LDsub(50/30) and the survival time in whole-body gamma-irradiated conventional and germfree Minnesota miniature piglets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandel, L.; Travnicek, J.; Talafantova, M.; Zahradnickova, M.

    1980-01-01

    The median lethal exposure causing the death in 30 days after single whole-body gamma-irradiation (the LD 50/30) was found to be 2731 MBq (73.8 mC/kg) for conventional piglets, but 3226 MBq (87.2 mC/kg) for germ-free piglets both irradiated 14 days after birth. After lethal exposures, the survival time in germ-free piglets was prolonged for 7 days in comparison with conventional piglets. (author)

  1. Surfactant phosphatidylcholine half-life and pool size measurements in premature baboons developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J. Janssen; V.P. Carnielli (Virgilio); P.E. Cogo (Paola); S.R. Seidner; I.H.I. Luijendijk; J.L.D. Wattimena (Josias); A.H. Jobe (Alan); L.J.I. Zimmermann (Luc)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractBecause minimal information is available about surfactant metabolism in bronchopulmonary dysplasia, we measured half-lives and pool sizes of surfactant phosphatidylcholine in very preterm baboons recovering from respiratory distress syndrome and developing

  2. Effect of Whole-Body X-Irradiation of the Synthesis of Individual Fatty Acids in Liver Slices from Normal and Fasted Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Hansen, Lisbeth Grænge; Faber, M.

    1965-01-01

    (1) Using (2-14C) acetate and (1-14C) butyrate as precursors, rat-liver fatty acids were synthesized in vitro and assayed by paper chromatography. (2) Whole-body x-irradiation induced a change in the synthetic pattern of hepatic fatty acids towards a relatively enhanced synthesis of palmitic acid....... (3) X-irradiation and fasting seem to have opposite effects on fatty-acid synthesis. X-irradiation counteracts the drop in total synthesis and the relatively enhanced synthesis of palmitoleic acid induced by fasting. The relative enhancement of palmitic-acid synthesis mentioned under (2) stands...

  3. Phosphorylation of histone H2AX as an indicator of received dose of gamma radiation after whole-body irradiation of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radim Havelek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to determine whether phosphorylation of histone H2AX can be used as an indicator of received dose of gamma radiation after whole-body irradiation of rats. Wistar rats were irradiated by 1-10 Gy of gamma radiation by 60Co source. Value LD50/60 was 7.37 (4.68-8.05 Gy. Histone H2AX is phosphorylated by ATM kinase on serine 139 (γH2AX quickly after the irradiation. It forms microscopically visible foci in the site of double strand breaks of DNA. Flow-cytometric method was used for quantitative detection. This study is the first one that evaluated dose-dependency of H2AX phosphorylation in peripheral lymphocytes of rats irradiated by whole-body dose 1-10 Gy. Our data show a dose-dependent increase in γH2AX in rat peripheral blood lymphocytes 1 h after whole-body irradiation by the dose of 1-10 Gy. We proved that phosphorylation of histone H2AX is a prompt and reliable indicator of the received radiation dose suitable for rapid measurement before the number of lymphocytes in peripheral blood starts to decrease. It can be used already 1 h after the irradiation for an estimation of the received dose of radiation. Blood samples can be stored in 4 °C for 23 h without significantly affecting the result.

  4. Incidence of interstitial pneumonia after hyperfractionated total body irradiation before autologous bone marrow/stem cell transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohr, F.; Schraube, P.; Wenz, F.; Flentje, M.; Kalle, K. von; Haas, R.; Hunstein, W.; Wannenmacher, M.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives Interstitial pneumonia (IP) is a severe complication after allogenic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) with incidence rates between 10 % and 40 % in different series. It is a polyetiologic disease that occurs depending on age, graft vs. host disease (GvHD), CMV-status, total body irradiation (TBI) and immunosuppressive therapy after BMT. The effects of fractionation and dose rate are not entirely clear. This study evaluates the incidence of lethal IP after hyperfractionated TBI for autologous BMT or stem cell transplantation. Materials and Methods Between 1982 and 1992, 182 patients (60 % male, 40 % female) were treated with hyperfractionated total body irradiation (TBI) before autologous bone marrow transplantation. Main indications were leukemias and lymphomas (53 % AML, 21 % ALL, 22 % NHL, 4 % others) Median age was 30 ys (15 - 55 ys). A total dose of 14.4 Gy was applied using lung blocks (12 fractions of 1.2 Gy in 4 days, dose rate 7-18 cGy/min, lung dose 9 - 9.5 Gy). TBI was followed by cyclophosphamide (200 mg/kg). 72 % were treated with bone marrow transplantation, 28 % were treated with stem cell transplantation. Interstitial pneumonia was diagnosed clinically, radiologically and by autopsy. Results 4 patients died most likely of interstitial pneumonia. For another 12 patients interstitial pneumonia was not the most likely cause of death but could not be excluded. Thus, the incidence of lethal IP was at least 2.2 % but certainly below 8.8 %. Conclusion Lethal interstitial pneumonia is a rare complication after total body irradiation before autologous bone marrow transplantation in this large, homogeously treated series. In the autologous setting, total doses of 14.4 Gy can be applied with a low risk for developing interstitial pneumonia if hyperfractionation and lung blocks are used. This falls in line with data from series with identical twins or t-cell depleted marrow and smaller, less homogeneous autologous transplant studies. Thus

  5. Innate Immune Responses to TLR2 and TLR4 Agonists Differ between Baboons, Chimpanzees and Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkworth, Jessica F.; Pechenkina, Ekaterina A.; Silver, Jack; Goyert, Sanna M.

    2012-01-01

    Background African catarrhine primates differ in bacterial disease susceptibility. Methods Human, chimpanzee, and baboon blood was stimulated with TLR-detected bacterial agonists and cytokine/chemokine induction assessed by real-time pcr. Results Humans and chimpanzees shared similar cytokine/chemokine responses, while baboon cytokine/chemokine induction differed. Generally, responses were agonist-independent. Conclusions These primates tend to generate species rather than agonist–specific responses to bacterial agonists. PMID:22978822

  6. High Prevalence of Antibodies against the Bacterium Treponema pallidum in Senegalese Guinea Baboons (Papio papio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauf, Sascha; Barnett, Ulrike; Maciej, Peter; Klapproth, Matthias; Ndao, Ibrahima; Frischmann, Sieghard; Fischer, Julia; Zinner, Dietmar; Liu, Hsi

    2015-01-01

    The bacterium Treponema pallidum is known to cause syphilis (ssp. pallidum), yaws (ssp. pertenue), and endemic syphilis (ssp. endemicum) in humans. Nonhuman primates have also been reported to be infected with the bacterium with equally versatile clinical manifestations, from severe skin ulcerations to asymptomatic. At present all simian strains are closely related to human yaws-causing strains, an important consideration for yaws eradication. We tested clinically healthy Guinea baboons (Papio papio) at Parc National Niokolo Koba in south eastern Senegal for the presence of anti-T. pallidum antibodies. Since T. pallidum infection in this species was identified 50 years ago, and there has been no attempt to treat non-human primates for infection, it was hypothesized that a large number of West African baboons are still infected with simian strains of the yaws-bacterium. All animals were without clinical signs of treponematoses, but 18 of 20 (90%) baboons tested positive for antibodies against T. pallidum based on treponemal tests. Yet, Guinea baboons seem to develop no clinical symptoms, though it must be assumed that infection is chronic or comparable to the latent stage in human yaws infection. The non-active character is supported by the low anti-T. pallidum serum titers in Guinea baboons (median = 1:2,560) versus serum titers that are found in genital-ulcerated olive baboons with active infection in Tanzania (range of medians among the groups of initial, moderate, and severe infected animals = 1:15,360 to 1:2.097e+7). Our findings provide evidence for simian infection with T. pallidum in wild Senegalese baboons. Potentially, Guinea baboons in West Africa serve as a natural reservoir for human infection, as the West African simian strain has been shown to cause sustainable yaws infection when inoculated into humans. The present study pinpoints an area where further research is needed to support the currently on-going second WHO led yaws eradication campaign with

  7. The ecological determinants of baboon troop movements at local and continental scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Caspian; Piel, Alex K; Forman, Dan; Stewart, Fiona A; King, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    How an animal moves through its environment directly impacts its survival, reproduction, and thus biological fitness. A basic measure describing how an individual (or group) travels through its environment is Day Path Length (DPL), i.e., the distance travelled in a 24-hour period. Here, we investigate the ecological determinants of baboon (Papio spp.) troop DPL and movements at local and continental scales. At the continental scale we explore the ecological determinants of annual mean DPL for 47 baboon troops across 23 different populations, updating a classic study by Dunbar (Behav Ecol Sociobiol 31: 35-49, 1992). We find that variation in baboon DPLs is predicted by ecological dissimilarity across the genus range. Troops that experience higher average monthly rainfall and anthropogenic influences have significantly shorter DPL, whilst troops that live in areas with higher average annual temperatures have significantly longer DPL. We then explore DPLs and movement characteristics (the speed and distribution of turning angles) for yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus) at a local scale, in the Issa Valley of western Tanzania. We show that our continental-scale model is a good predictor of DPL in Issa baboons, and that troops move significantly slower, and over shorter distances, on warmer days. We do not find any effect of season or the abundance of fruit resources on the movement characteristics or DPL of Issa baboons, but find that baboons moved less during periods of high fruit availability. Overall, this study emphasises the ability of baboons to adapt their ranging behaviour to a range of ecological conditions and highlights how investigations of movement patterns at different spatial scales can provide a more thorough understanding of the ecological determinants of movement.

  8. Total-body irradiation and host reconstitution with stored autologous marrow: an experimental model for the induction of allogeneic unresponsiveness in large mammals. [Dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapaport, F.T.; Bachvaroff, R.J.; Dicke, K.; Santos, G.

    1979-03-01

    These results point to the capacity of suprelethal total-body irradiation and autologous bone marrow replacement to produce in the host a time-dependent privileged phase of immunologic reactivity during which exposure to alloantigens is more likely to produce unresponsiveness, rather than sensitization. The mechanisms implicated in the mediation of this phenomenon are not clear. Regardless of hypothetical interpretations, however, the current growing interest in total-body irradiation and autologous bone marrow replacement in clinical medicine, and the ease with which this approach appears to produce allogenic unresponsiveness in large mammals, raise the possibility that this method may constitute a highly promising approach to the facilitation of survival of vital transplanted organs in man. This possibility is further supported by the long-term record of the world's longest surviving renal allograft recipient, whose preoperative preparation consisted of total-body irradiation 24 hr before a kidney transplant.

  9. Dose and dose rate effects of whole-body gamma-irradiation: II. Hematological variables and cytokines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gridley, D. S.; Pecaut, M. J.; Miller, G. M.; Moyers, M. F.; Nelson, G. A.

    2001-01-01

    The goal of part II of this study was to evaluate the effects of gamma-radiation on circulating blood cells, functional characteristics of splenocytes, and cytokine expression after whole-body irradiation at varying total doses and at low- and high-dose-rates (LDR, HDR). Young adult C57BL/6 mice (n = 75) were irradiated with either 1 cGy/min or 80 cGy/min photons from a 60Co source to cumulative doses of 0.5, 1.5, and 3.0 Gy. The animals were euthanized at 4 days post-exposure for in vitro assays. Significant dose- (but not dose-rate-) dependent decreases were observed in erythrocyte and blood leukocyte counts, hemoglobin, hematocrit, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced 3H-thymidine incorporation, and interleukin-2 (IL-2) secretion by activated spleen cells when compared to sham-irradiated controls (p < 0.05). Basal proliferation of leukocytes in the blood and spleen increased significantly with increasing dose (p < 0.05). Significant dose rate effects were observed only in thrombocyte counts. Plasma levels of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) and splenocyte secretion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) were not affected by either the dose or dose rate of radiation. The data demonstrate that the responses of blood and spleen were largely dependent upon the total dose of radiation employed and that an 80-fold difference in the dose rate was not a significant factor in the great majority of measurements.

  10. Effects of vertebral-body-sparing proton craniospinal irradiation on the spine of young pediatric patients with medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacEwan, Iain; Chou, Brian; Moretz, Jeremy; Loredo, Lilia; Bush, David; Slater, Jerry D

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the long-term effects of vertebral-body-sparing proton craniospinal irradiation (CSI) on the spine of young patients with medulloblastoma. Six children between the ages of 3 and 5 years with medulloblastoma were treated with vertebral-body-sparing proton CSI after maximal safe resection. Radiation therapy was delivered in the supine position with posterior beams targeting the craniospinal axis, and the proton beam was stopped anterior to the thecal sac. Patients were treated with a dose of either 23.4 Gy or 36 Gy to the craniospinal axis followed by a boost to the posterior fossa and any metastatic lesions. Chemotherapy varied by protocol. Radiographic effects on the spine were evaluated with serial imaging, either with magnetic resonance imaging scans or plain film using Cobb angle calculations, the presence of thoracic lordosis, lumbar vertebral body-to-disc height ratios, and anterior-posterior height ratios. Clinical outcomes were evaluated by patient/family interview and medical chart review. Overall survival and disease free survival were 83% (5/6) at follow-up. Median clinical and radiographic follow-up were 13.6 years and 12.3 years, respectively. Two patients were clinically diagnosed with scoliosis and treated conservatively. At the time of follow-up, no patients had experienced chronic back pain or required spine surgery. No patients were identified to have thoracic lordosis. Diminished growth of the posterior portions of vertebral bodies was identified in all patients, with an average posterior to anterior ratio of 0.88, which was accompanied by compensatory hypertrophy of the posterior intervertebral discs. Vertebral-body-sparing CSI with proton beam did not appear to cause increased severe spinal abnormalities in patients treated at our institution. This approach could be considered in future clinical trials in an effort to reduce toxicity and the risk of secondary malignancy and to improve adult height.

  11. Alopecia in Outdoor Group- and Corral-Housed Baboons (Papio hamadryas spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Corrine K; Sharp, R Mark

    2015-07-01

    Alopecia has been reported to occur in several species of captive NHP. Much of this research has focused on macaque monkeys; whether other primate species such as baboons are affected similarly is unknown. Because alopecia can be a focus of inspectors and a possible marker of wellbeing, the purpose of the current study was to survey the occurrence of alopecia in 2 baboon populations and to identify potential risk factors. Subjects were 262 group-housed and 279 corral-housed baboons. Alopecia was assessed cage-side (group-housed) and on sedated animals (corral-housed). Although alopecia was mild in both populations, there were significant effects of season and sex. Alopecia was greater in the winter (group-housed) and the fall (corral-housed) and in female baboons. In addition, the group-housed baboons showed a significant negative effect of age and a lesser effect of group size on alopecia. These results demonstrate that variables other than those associated with animal management practices can affect hair loss in baboons.

  12. DSCR9 gene simultaneous expression in placental, testicular and renal tissues from baboon (papio hamadryas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez-Sanchez Irám

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2002 Takamatsu and co-workers described the human DSCR9 gene and observed that it was transcriptionally active in human testicular tissue, but no protein was identified as a product of this transcript. Similar results were obtained in chimpanzee tissue. This gene has not been detected in species other than primates, suggesting that DSCR9 is exclusively found in these mammals. Results We report evidence of DSCR9 expression in placenta, testis and kidney of baboon (Papio hamadryas. We used primers specific for DSCR9 to amplify transcripts through reverse transcription (RT coupled to polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Furthermore, PCR was used to amplify the complete DSCR9 gene from genomic DNA from three baboons. We amplified and sequenced five overlapping segments that were assembled into the 3284 bp baboon DSCR9 gene, including the putative promoter and the entire transcriptional unit (5'-UTR, CDS and 3'-UTR. Conclusions The baboon DSCR9 gene is highly similar to the human counterpart. The isolated transcripts from baboon tissues (placenta, testis and kidney of three different baboons correspond to the human orthologous gene.

  13. Extreme behavioural shifts by baboons exploiting risky, resource-rich, human-modified environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehlmann, Gaelle; O'Riain, M Justin; Kerr-Smith, Catherine; Hailes, Stephen; Luckman, Adrian; Shepard, Emily L C; King, Andrew J

    2017-11-08

    A range of species exploit anthropogenic food resources in behaviour known as 'raiding'. Such behavioural flexibility is considered a central component of a species' ability to cope with human-induced environmental changes. Here, we study the behavioural processes by which raiding male chacma baboons (Papio ursinus) exploit the opportunities and mitigate the risks presented by raiding in the suburbs of Cape Town, South Africa. Ecological sampling and interviews conducted with 'rangers' (employed to manage the baboons' space use) revealed that baboons are at risk of being herded out of urban spaces that contain high-energy anthropogenic food sources. Baboon-attached motion/GPS tracking collars showed that raiding male baboons spent almost all of their time at the urban edge, engaging in short, high-activity forays into the urban space. Moreover, activity levels were increased where the likelihood of deterrence by rangers was greater. Overall, these raiding baboons display a time-activity balance that is drastically altered in comparison to individuals living in more remote regions. We suggest our methods can be used to obtain precise estimates of management impact for this and other species in conflict with people.

  14. Group compositional changes impact the social and feeding behaviors of captive hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas hamadryas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Amy M; Hauber, Mark E

    2016-01-01

    The formation and modification of social groups in captivity are delicate management tasks. The ability for personnel to anticipate changes in group dynamics following compositional changes can increase the likelihood of successful management with minimized injury or social instability. Hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas hamadryas) have a distinctive multi-level social system comprising of one-male units (OMUs) that can make it difficult to apply knowledge from other primates' multi-female/multi-male social structure to changes imposed onto captive hamadryas baboon groups. We conducted an observational study of the behavioral impacts following the introduction of two females into the group of hamadryas baboons at the Wildlife Conservation Society's Prospect Park Zoo in NY to test hypotheses about the relationships between changes in group composition and social and feeding behavior. Generalized linear mixed models demonstrated that social interactions significantly increased following the compositional changes, even in groups that only experienced member removals. The increase in affiliative social behavior observed suggests that during times of social stress or uncertainty, hamadryas baboons may employ social behavior as a tension-reducing mechanism to negotiate relationships as opposed to using aggression to engage in competitions for ranks and resources. The observed response to compositional changes implies that hamadryas baboons may respond with less aggression than do other Old World monkey species and that levels of affiliative behavior may be a more accurate metric for evaluating introduction success in hamadryas baboons. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Facilitation of nodal metastasis from a non-immunogenic murine carcinoma by previous whole-body irradiation of tumour recipients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewitt, H.B.; Blake, E.R.

    1977-01-01

    Of 193 CBA mice kept under prolonged observation after excision of small intradermal transplants of a non-immunogenic tumour (CBA Carcinoma NT), 27 (14%) presented with local recurrence, 19 (10%) with regional lymphnodal metastasis (RNM) and 72 (37%), with pulmonary metastasis +- other systemic metastases. When mice were exposed to sublethal whole-body irradiation (WBI) before tumour transplantation, the incidence of RNM rose to approximately 80% and the latent period was reduced from approximately 60 days to approximately 40 days after tumour transplantation. This enhancement of RNM by WBI was undiminished when the interval between WBI and tumour transplantation was increased from 1 to 90 days. An explanation for this effect in terms of immunosuppression by the WBI is unlikely for the following reasons: the tumour was non-immunogenic by standard quantitative tests; the effect persisted long after the expected time for recovery of immune reactivity; and i.v. injection of normal marrow and lymphoid cells after WBI failed to reduce the effect. That the effect was systemic was proved by failure of local pre-irradiation of the tumour bed or regional node to enhance RNM. The effect was not observed when WBI was given 4 days after excision of tumours. These and other experiments failed to indicate the mechanism of the effect of WBI, but its long persistence suggests that it may relate to stored lethal radiation damage in migrating cells of slow turnover tissues. (author)

  16. Late complications following total-body irradiation and bone marrow rescue in mice: predominance of glomerular nephropathy and hemolytic anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Down, J.D.; Berman, A.J.; Mauch, P.; Warhol, M.

    1990-01-01

    Late mortality and pathology were assessed in various mouse strains following total-body irradiation (TBI) and bone marrow transplantation. Long-term survival data revealed both radiation dose- and strain-dependent onset of mortality between 1 and 2 years post-treatment. Renal damage appeared to have contributed to the late mortality in most treatment groups as shown by glomerular lesions, elevated blood urea nitrogen and an accompanying fall in hematocrit. Hemolysis was deduced to be the major cause of anemia, as concluded from results of 51 Cr-labeled erythrocyte survival. No decrease in erythropoiesis was evident as seen from spleen and bone marrow 59 Fe uptake. These findings are together consistent with the manifestation of a hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) with kidney glomeruli representing the principal sites of injury responsible for both renal dysfunction and microangiopathic hemolysis. (author)

  17. Late complications following total-body irradiation and bone marrow rescue in mice: predominance of glomerular nephropathy and hemolytic anemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Down, J.D.; Berman, A.J.; Mauch, P. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (USA)); Warhol, M. (Pennsylvania Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (USA). Dept. of Pathology); Yeap, B. (Dana Farber Cancer Inst., Boston, MA (USA))

    1990-03-01

    Late mortality and pathology were assessed in various mouse strains following total-body irradiation (TBI) and bone marrow transplantation. Long-term survival data revealed both radiation dose- and strain-dependent onset of mortality between 1 and 2 years post-treatment. Renal damage appeared to have contributed to the late mortality in most treatment groups as shown by glomerular lesions, elevated blood urea nitrogen and an accompanying fall in hematocrit. Hemolysis was deduced to be the major cause of anemia, as concluded from results of {sup 51}Cr-labeled erythrocyte survival. No decrease in erythropoiesis was evident as seen from spleen and bone marrow {sup 59}Fe uptake. These findings are together consistent with the manifestation of a hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) with kidney glomeruli representing the principal sites of injury responsible for both renal dysfunction and microangiopathic hemolysis. (author).

  18. Total body irradiation for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in acute leukemia: A cooperative study from the TBI Subcommittee in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, T.; Masaoka, T.; Shibata, H.

    1986-01-01

    By means of national survey, records of 78 acute leukemia patients who underwent allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) from September 1975 through September 1983 were collected from 14 participating institutions in Total Body Irradiation (TBI) Subcommittee in Japan. Patients were classified into 37 of acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), and 41 of acute non-lymphocytic leukemia (ANLL). One-year survivals were 51% and 33% in ALL and ANLL patients, respectively. Uninfected patients in remission had significantly better survival than infected ones and/or in relapse. Overall incidence of interstitial pneumonia was 43%. Rejection and relapse were encountered in 26% of patients. Concerning cause of death, interstitial pneumonia was the most frequent cause (44%). Uni- and multivariate analyses strongly suggested that favorable prognostic factors were remission, uninfection, preparation of low-dose-rate fractionated TBI and cyclophosphamide, and mild graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) for acute leukemia patient treated with allogeneic BMT. (orig.) [de

  19. The influence of whole-body γ-irradiation with low doses on enzyme activity of rat adrenal medulla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amvros'ev, A.P.; Shostak, Yu.A.

    1991-01-01

    A study was made of the pattern of changes in histological indices of key enzymes of the tricarbonic acid cycle (succinate dehydrogenase) and glycolysis (lactate dehydrogenase) as well as of catecholamines (monoamine oxidase) in cells of the adrenal medulla of young and adult albino rats subjected to external whole-body γ-irradiation with doses of 0.5 and 1.0 Gy (dose-rate of 2.7·10 -4 Gy/s). Radiosensitivity of the enzyme systems under study in the adrenal gland cells of young animals was higher than in that of adult. Changes of their levels in different periods of observation were mainly of phase nature and indicated the development of adaptation syndrome in the animal organism

  20. Regeneration of the epidermis and basement membrane of the planarian Dugesia japonica after total-body x irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, I.

    1979-01-01

    Fresh-water planarians were studied to examine effects of x rays on regeneration of the epidermis and basement membrane. During early stages of regeneration, free rhabdite-forming cells were associated with the wound epidermis and recruited it. In later stages, however, a gradual degeneration occurred in the epidermis and cells undergoing epithelization decreased in number. Eventually epidermal cells on the wound surface appeared necrotic as evidenced by pyknotic nuclei and vacuolized dense cytoplasm. The entire basement membrane could not be reconstituted in any stage after wounding though its precursor-like material was secreted in the interspace between epidermis and parenchyma. Morphological changes in extracellular products and in the cells surrounding the products suggest that epidermal cells which have covered the wound surface synthesize precursors of the basement membrane. Possible factors of a characteristic perturbation in epithelization and basement membrane formation after total-body irradiation are discussed

  1. Regeneration of the epidermis and basement membrane of the planarian Dugesia japonica after total-body x irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hori, I.

    1979-03-01

    Fresh-water planarians were studied to examine effects of x rays on regeneration of the epidermis and basement membrane. During early stages of regeneration, free rhabdite-forming cells were associated with the wound epidermis and recruited it. In later stages, however, a gradual degeneration occurred in the epidermis and cells undergoing epithelization decreased in number. Eventually epidermal cells on the wound surface appeared necrotic as evidenced by pyknotic nuclei and vacuolized dense cytoplasm. The entire basement membrane could not be reconstituted in any stage after wounding though its precursor-like material was secreted in the interspace between epidermis and parenchyma. Morphological changes in extracellular products and in the cells surrounding the products suggest that epidermal cells which have covered the wound surface synthesize precursors of the basement membrane. Possible factors of a characteristic perturbation in epithelization and basement membrane formation after total-body irradiation are discussed.

  2. The Basel experience with total body irradiation for conditioning patients with acute leukemia for allogenic bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speck, B.; Cornu, P.; Nissen, C.; Gratwohl, A.; Sartorius, J.

    1979-01-01

    We are reporting our experience with 13 patients suffering from end stage acute leukemia that were prepared for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation by combined chemotherapy followed by high dose cyclophosphamide (Cy) and total body irradiation (TBI). Only one patient became a long term survivor. Of the evaluable 12 patients, 6 died of interstitial pneumonia, 4 of GvH and 1 of recurrent leukemia. We conclude that adding combined chemotherapy to the standard conditioning program with Cy and TBI probably increases the risk of developing fatal interstitial pneumonia without eliminating the risk of recurrent leukemia. We suggest that allogenic marrow grafts should be performed earlier in the course of refractory acute leukemias, because in patients with end stage disease its chances of being curative are small

  3. Female chacma baboons form strong, equitable, and enduring social bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Joan B; Beehner, Jacinta C; Bergman, Thore J; Crockford, Catherine; Engh, Anne L; Moscovice, Liza R; Wittig, Roman M; Seyfarth, Robert M; Cheney, Dorothy L

    2010-11-01

    Analyses of the pattern of associations, social interactions, coalitions, and aggression among chacma baboons (Papio hamadryas ursinus) in the Okavango Delta of Botswana over a 16-year period indicate that adult females form close, equitable, supportive, and enduring social relationships. They show strong and stable preferences for close kin, particularly their own mothers and daughters. Females also form strong attachments to unrelated females who are close to their own age and who are likely to be paternal half-sisters. Although absolute rates of aggression among kin are as high as rates of aggression among nonkin, females are more tolerant of close relatives than they are of others with whom they have comparable amounts of contact. These findings complement previous work which indicates that the strength of social bonds enhances the fitness of females in this population and support findings about the structure and function of social bonds in other primate groups.

  4. Effect of carotid ligation on cerebral blood flow in baboons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, D.; Harper, Murray; Jennett, Bryan

    1974-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements were carried out in two groups of anaesthetized normocapnic baboons. In the first group of five animals the effect of hypoxia on the CBF before and after ipsilateral carotid artery ligation was studied. The results showed that, although after ipsilateral carotid ligation there was little change in the CBF at normal PaO2, at hypoxia there was only 20% rise in the CBF as compared with an 80% rise before the carotid ligation. In the second group of 10 animals, effects of haemorrhagic hypotension on the CBF after ipsilateral carotid artery ligation were estimated. The results indicated impairment of autoregulatory response of the cerebral circulation. PMID:4836753

  5. Low-dose fractionated whole-body irradiation in the treatment of advanced non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, N.C.; Timothy, A.R.; Kaufman, S.D.; Carey, R.W.; Aisenberg, A.C.

    1979-01-01

    Thirty-nine patients with advanced non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (38 patients with lymphocytic lymphoma and 1 patient with mixed lymphocytic and histiocytic lymphoma) were treated by fractionated low dose whole body irradiation (WBI) with a minimum follow-up of 8 months. Twenty-eight patients had no previous treatment and the other 11 patients were in relapse after previous chemotherapy or regional radiotherapy. There were 20 and 19 patients in stages III and IV groups, respectively. The majority of patients (31) had nodular histology; diffuse lymphocytic lymphoma was present in 8 patients (Rappaport criteria) (9). Constitutional symptoms were present in 10 patients. Thirty-three (85%) attained complete remission (CR) with median duration of remission 24 months. Actuarial survival was 78% and 74% at 3 and 4 years. However, relapse free survival was 26% at 3 and 4 years. A prospective randomized trial to compare 10 vs. 15 rad per fraction of fractionated WBI schedules (the same total dose 150 rad) demonstrated no difference in response rate, response duration, and median nadir platelet or WBC counts between the two schedules. Supplement radiotherapy to bulky tumor site prevented local recurrence, but did not influence survival or duration or remission. Major toxicity was thrombocytopenia with median nadir platelet counts 77,000/mm 3 (11,000 to 170,000/mm 3 ). Five of 6 patients with diffuse lymphocytic poorly differentiated lymphoma attained CR. However, their median survival was 30 months which is much shorter than that of nodular lymphoma. Constitutional symptoms and advanced stage (stage IV) were associated with shorter duration of remission. Response of patients in relapse after WBI to subsequent chemotherapy +- local radiotherapy was CR in 50% and PR in 40%. Fractionated whole body irradiation is an excellent systemic induction agent for advanced lymphocytic and mixed lymphoma

  6. Haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation without total body irradiation for pediatric acute leukemia: a single-center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu YS

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Yanshun Mu,* Maoquan Qin,* Bin Wang, Sidan Li, Guanghua Zhu, Xuan Zhou, Jun Yang, Kai Wang, Wei Lin, Huyong Zheng Beijing Key Laboratory of Pediatric Hematology Oncology, National Key Discipline of Pediatrics, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Major Diseases in Children, Ministry of Education, Hematology Oncology Center, Beijing Children’s Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT is a promising method for therapy of pediatric patients with acute leukemia. However, less availability of matched donors limited its wide application. Recently, haploidentical HSCT has become a great resource. Here, we have retrospectively reported our experience of 20 pediatric patients with acute leukemia who underwent haploidentical HSCT without total body irradiation (TBI myeloablative regimen in our center from November 2007 to June 2014. All the patients attained successful HSCT engraftment in terms of myeloid and platelet recovery. Thirteen patients developed grade I–IV acute graft-versus-host disease (a-GVHD. The incidence of grade I–II a-GVHD, grade III–IV a-GVHD, and chronic GVHD (c-GVHD was 45%, 20%, and 25%, respectively. The mean myeloid and platelet recovery time was 13.20±2.41 and 19.10±8.37 days. The median follow-up time was 43.95±29.26 months. During the follow-up, three patients died. The overall survival (OS rate was 85%. The present study indicated that haploidentical HSCT without TBI myeloablative regimen significantly improved the OS rate of pediatric patients with acute leukemia. Keywords: haploidentical, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, myeloablative regimen, total body irradiation, acute leukemia, pediatric

  7. Autoradiographic studies on the cell kinetics after the whole body X-irradiation. 2. Regularities of the post-irradiation death of differentiating and proliferating cells of the rat brain subependimal zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gracheva, N.D. (Tsentral' nyj Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Rentgeno-Radiologicheskij Inst., Leningrad (USSR))

    1982-01-01

    A wave-like character of death of proliferating and differentiating (D) cells is shown autoradiographically using /sup 3/H-thymidine introduced 60-80 min before the whole body X-ray irradiation in doses of 50, 150 or 300 R on subependymal cells of rat brain. Lethally damaged cells irradiated in G/sub 2/ and S-phases, resulted in 4 peaks of death in mitosis by following the first postradiational mitotic cycle (MC). Lethally damaged cells irradiated in G/sub 1/-phase lost ability for DNA synthesis as cells irradiated in a dose of 300 R did not include additionally introduced (3 hrs before death) /sup 14/C-thymidine from 12 to 17 hrs after /sup 3/H-thymidine injection. However, in the first 4 hrs after irradiation there were no cells irradiated in G/sub 1/-phase among dead ones, as indirectly shown in the calculations of data obtained while studying Pliss lymphosarcoma. A supposition is made that the death of cells irradiated in G/sub 1/-phase is attributed to mitotic phase of the first MC after irradiation. Waves of death of lethally damaged D-cells repeated the peaks of death and corresponded to the mitotic peaks of proliferating cells, which permitted to presuppose the presence of ''short cycle'' (SC) in D-cells, which have the rhythm similar to MC and their death has been attributed to the final SC phase, which corresponds to MC mitotic phase in time. According to the peaks of cell death position of one hour block independent of dose in six MC(SC) points is determined. The cells have experienced the block in the point of MC(SC) in subphase of which they were caught by irradiation. Dose effect is manifested in the number of dead cells.

  8. A Comparison of Molecular and Histopathological Changes in Mouse Intestinal Tissue Following Whole-Body Proton- or Gamma-Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purgason, Ashley; Mangala, Lingegowda; Zhang, Ye; Hamilton, Stanley; Wu, Honglu

    2010-01-01

    There are many consequences following exposure to the space radiation environment which can adversely affect the health of a crew member. Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) involving nausea and vomiting, damage to radio-sensitive tissue such as the blood forming organs and gastrointestinal tract, and cancer are some of these negative effects. The space radiation environment is ample with protons and contains gamma rays as well. Little knowledge exists to this point, however, regarding the effects of protons on mammalian systems; conversely several studies have been performed observing the effects of gamma rays on different animal models. For the research presented here, we wish to compare our previous work looking at whole-body exposure to protons using a mouse model to our studies of mice experiencing whole-body exposure to gamma rays as part of the radio-adaptive response. Radio-adaptation is a well-documented phenomenon in which cells exposed to a priming low dose of radiation prior to a higher dose display a reduction in endpoints like chromosomal aberrations, cell death, micronucleus formation, and more when compared to their counterparts receiving high dose-irradiation only. Our group has recently completed a radio-adaptive experiment with C57BL/6 mice. For both this study and the preceding proton research, the gastrointestinal tract of each animal was dissected four hours post-irradiation and the isolated small intestinal tissue was fixed in formalin for histopathological examination or snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen for RNA isolation. Histopathologic observation of the tissue using standard H&E staining methods to screen for morphologic changes showed an increase in apoptotic lesions for even the lowest doses of 0.1 Gy of protons and 0.05 Gy of gamma rays, and the percentage of apoptotic cells increased with increasing dose. A smaller percentage of crypts showed 3 or more apoptotic lesions in animals that received 6 Gy of gamma-irradiation compared to mice

  9. The effects of different schedules of total-body irradiation in heterotopic vascularized bone transplantation. An experimental study in the Lewis rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez del Pino, J.; Benito, M.; Randolph, M.A.; Weiland, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of irradiation on heterotopically placed vascularized knee isografts, a single dose of 10 Gy of total-body irradiation was given to Lewis donor rats. Irradiation was delivered either 2 or 6 days prior to harvesting or subsequent transplantation, and evaluated at 1, 2, and 4 weeks after grafting. Irradiation caused endothelial depopulation of the graft artery, although vascular pedicle patency was maintained throughout the study. Bone graft viability and mineralization were normal. Dramatic changes in the bone marrow were seen that included an increase of its fat content (P less than 0.001), and a concomitant decrease in bone marrow-derived immunocompetent cells. These changes were more prominent in recipients of grafts from day -6 irradiated donor rats. Total-body irradiation did not prejudice the use of vascularized bone grafts, and exhibited an associated immunosuppresant effect over the vascular endothelium and bone marrow. This may be a further rational conditioning procedure to avoid recipient manipulation in vascularized bone allotransplantation

  10. Effects of ACTH on corticosteroid and progesterone levels in female baboons depending on the phase of the menstrual cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todua, T.N.; Goncharov, N.P.; Katsiya, G.V.; Lapin, B.A.; Vorontsov, V.I.

    1986-01-01

    To study the effect of ACTH on the endocrine function of steroid producing glands depending on the level of sex hormones in the body, a comparative study of the dynamics of steroid hormones in the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle in response to a standard does of ACTH was undertaken in experiments on hamadryad baboons. Concentrations of corticosterone, 11-deoxycortisol, and progesterone were determined in duplicate samples of plasma by radioimmunoassay. It is shown that the sensitivity of the adrenals to a single injection of ACTH is independent of the phase of the menstrual cycle and the inhibitory effects of ACTH on progesterone secretion is exhibited only in the presence of an actively functioning corpus luteus of the ovary

  11. Effects of ACTH on corticosteroid and progesterone levels in female baboons depending on the phase of the menstrual cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todua, T.N.; Goncharov, N.P.; Katsiya, G.V.; Lapin, B.A.; Vorontsov, V.I.

    1986-01-01

    To study the effect of ACTH on the endocrine function of steroid producing glands depending on the level of sex hormones in the body, a comparative study of the dynamics of steroid hormones in the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle in response to a standard does of ACTH was undertaken in experiments on hamadryad baboons. Concentrations of corticosterone, 11-deoxycortisol, and progesterone were determined in duplicate samples of plasma by radioimmunoassay. It is shown that the sensitivity of the adrenals to a single injection of ACTH is independent of the phase of the menstrual cycle and the inhibitory effects of ACTH on progesterone secretion is exhibited only in the presence of an actively functioning corpus luteus of the ovary.

  12. Periodontitis in Pregnant Baboons: Systemic Inflammation and Adaptive Immune Responses and Pregnancy Outcomes in a Baboon Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersole, Jeffrey L.; Holt, Stanley C.; Cappelli, David

    2014-01-01

    Chronic periodontal infections have been suggested to contribute to the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. This study describes the relationship of patterns of systemic inflammatory mediators and IgG antibody to 20 oral bacteria in pregnant female baboons (Papio anubis) coupled with clinical features of ligature-induced periodontitis, as risk indicators for adverse pregnancy outcomes. Animals showing a preterm delivery and/or low birth weight newborns, as well as those pregnancies resulting in spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, or fetal demise were tabulated as adverse pregnancy outcomes. A significantly greater frequency of the periodontitis group neonates had a low birth weight (18.1%; p=0.008) and decreased gestational age (9.8%). Spontaneous abortion/stillbirth/fetal demise were increased in the periodontitis (8.7%) versus the control group (3.8%) (p=0.054). The baseline oral clinical presentation of the experimental animals did not relate to the adverse pregnancy outcomes. Animals with the greatest extent/severity of periodontitis progression during the initial ½ of gestation (ie. to mid-pregnancy) had the greatest risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes. Baseline biological parameters indicating historical responses of the animals to periodontal challenge demonstrated individual variation in selected mediators, some of which became more differential during ligature-induced periodontitis. The relationship of clinical parameters to systemic inflammatory responses was consistent with a temporal contribution to adverse pregnancy outcomes in a subset of the animals. These results support a link between periodontitis and adverse pregnancy outcomes in the baboons and provide a prospective experimental model for delineating the biologic parameters that contribute to a causal relationship between chronic oral infections and birth events. PMID:23710643

  13. Radioprotection by dipyridamole in the aging mouse. Effects on lipid peroxidation in mouse liver, spleen and brain after whole-body X-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seino, Noritaka

    1995-01-01

    To investigate the radioprotective effect of dipyridamole in the aging mouse, the lipid peroxide content in aging mouse liver, spleen and brain irradiated by X-ray were measured both before and after injection of dipyridamole. The lipid peroxide content increased with aging from 2 months old to 16 months old in the mouse liver, spleen and brain. The content of lipid peroxide in the liver and spleen of the aging mouse was significantly increased in 7 days after whole-body irradiation with 8 Gy, but was unchanged in the brain. Dipyridamole, given before irradiation, significantly inhibited the increase of lipid peroxide after irradiation. These results suggest that dipyridamole may have radioprotective effects on aging mouse liver and spleen as well as on young mouse, and that inhibition of lipid peroxidation is a possible factor in the radioprotective effect of dipyridamole. (author)

  14. Myeloid regeneration after whole body irradiation, autologous bone marrow transplantation, and treatment with an anabolic steroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrus, C.M.; Ambrus, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    Stumptail monkeys (Macaca speciosa) received lethal whole-body radiation. Autologous bone marrow injection resulted in survival of the majority of the animals. Treatment with Deca-Durabolin, an anabolic steroid, caused more rapid recovery of colony-forming cell numbers in the bone marrow than in control animals. Both the Deca-Durabolin-treated and control groups were given autologous bone marrow transplantation. Anabolic steroid effect on transplanted bone marrow colony-forming cells may explain the increased rate of leukopoietic regeneration in anabolic steroid-treated animals as compared to controls

  15. Variational Method of the Theory of Plasticity for Inhomogeneous and Composite Bodies at Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amenzadeh, R. Yu.; Sevdimaliyev, Yu. M.

    2016-03-01

    For a three-dimensional theory, a variational method of mixed type is developed to determine the stress-strain state of inhomogeneous anisotropic elastoplastic bodies under the action of neutron fluxes in the case of small strains. It is assumed that the physicomechanical characteristics of the medium depend on the radiation dose. The principle proposed is based on independent variation of the velocity fields of displacements and stresses. A modification of the variational theorem to the case of a composite material in a heterogeneous environment where different phases (inclusions) are clearly expressed is given.

  16. Late effects of protracted whole-body irradiation of beagles by cobalt-60 gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, T.E.; Seed, T.M.; Tolle, D.V.; Lombard, L.S.

    1986-01-01

    So that a stronger basis for extrapolation of low-level radiation effects to man can be provided, existing data from small laboratory animals are being supplemented by studies in a longer lived animal, the dog. Beagle dogs are exposed to continuous cobalt-60 irradiation either throughout life or until predetermined total doses are accumulated. The radiation-specific excess-mortality rate and associated causes of death will be related to both dose rate and total dose. The ongoing studies also emphasize the pathogenesis of myelogenous leukemia. At dose rates of 3.75 to 26.25 rads/day, given continuously, responses were consistent, highly dose-rate dependent, and limited primarily to the hematopoietic system. At rates as low as 0.3 rad/day, the hematopoietic system is still the limiting factor for survival, but below 3.75 rads/day present evidence suggests that the responses are independent of dose rate. Longitudinal studies of peripheral blood and bone marrow detected four preclinical phases of myelogenous leukemia. These phases were characterized by standard hematologic end points, ultrastructural features, in vitro cloning assays, and the acute radiation sensitivity of stem cells. Results suggest that an induced error-prone repair mechanism is the basis for the onset of radiation-induced myelogenous leukemia. Interim data from dogs given terminated exposures suggest that the types of tumors and times to death are different from controls but the numbers of tumors are not yet greater than in controls. 26 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs

  17. Metabolism and Disposition of 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (“Ecstasy”) in Baboons after Oral Administration: Comparison with Humans Reveals Marked Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, Melanie; Goodwin, Amy K.; Ator, Nancy A.; McCann, Una D.; Ricaurte, George A.

    2011-01-01

    The baboon is potentially an attractive animal for modeling 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) effects in humans. Baboons self-administer MDMA, are susceptible to MDMA neurotoxicity, and are suitable for positron emission tomography, the method most often used to probe for MDMA neurotoxicity in humans. Because pharmacokinetic equivalence is a key feature of a good predictive animal model, we compared the pharmacokinetics of MDMA in baboons and humans. Baboons were trained to orally cons...

  18. Radioprotective Effect and Follow-up of Melatonin as Antifertility Drug in Male Adult Mice submitted to Whole-Body γ Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawfik, S.S.; Mansour, H.H.; El-Shamy, E.; Sallam, M.H.

    2006-01-01

    Melatonin is universal antioxidant for both man and animals and a substance normally produced in the human body. Radioprotective and follow up of melatonin as anti-fertility drug in whole body γ-irradiated male adult mice were studied. The alterations occurred in reproductive system and biochemical aspects in mice were evaluated. Control group, melatonin treated (received 10 mg/kg body wt for 20 successive days), following up for melatonin treated (2 recovery periods; 60 and 120 days), irradiated (2 Gy-γ-rays), pre-treated (received melatonin before irradiation) and following up for pre-treated (2 recovery periods) groups were designed. Body and testes wt, micronucleus test (MN), chromosomal aberration (CA), seminal plasma melatonin, sperm quality (count, motility and abnormal forms) and hormonal assay in serum (melatonin, testosterone, FSH and prolactin) were recorded for fertility assessment. Oxidative parameters in testis tissue (malonaldehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and nitric oxide (NO)) and biochemical assay (protein and lipid fractions in serum) were investigated for judgment melatonin radioprotective efficacy. Irradiation intensifies the processes of lipo peroxidation and oxidative modification of lipids and proteins with synchronized inhibition of the anti oxidative protection system. Melatonin administration against a background of radiation caused a distinctly expressed antioxidant effect

  19. THE EFFECT OF DONOR LYMPHOCYTES-T AND TOTAL-BODY IRRADIATION ON HEMATOPOIETIC ENGRAFTMENT AND PULMONARY TOXICITY FOLLOWING EXPERIMENTAL ALLOGENEIC BONE-MARROW TRANSPLANTATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DOWN, JD; MAUCH, P; WARHOL, M; NEBEN, S; FERRARA, JLM

    1992-01-01

    To study the effects of donor T lymphocytes on engraftment and graft-versus-host disease in relation to recipient total-body irradiation, we have returned small numbers of T cells to T-cell-depleted bone marrow transplanted across a minor histocompatibility barrier in mice (B10.BR --> CBA).

  20. Relative effect of radiation dose rate on hemopoietic and nonhemopoietic lethality of total-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, L.J.; McNeill, J.; Karolis, C.; Thames, H.D. Jr.; Travis, E.L.

    1986-01-01

    Experiments were undertaken to determine the influence of dose rate on the toxicity of total-body irrdiation (TBI) with and without syngeneic bone-marrow rescue in mice. The results showed a much greater dose-rate dependence for death from nonhemopoietic toxicity than from bone-marrow ablation, with the ratio of LD 50 's increasing from 1.73 at 25 cGy/min to 2.80 at 1 cGy/min. At the higher dose rates, dose-limiting nonhemopoietic toxicity resulted from late organ injury, affecting the lungs, kidneys, and liver. At 1 cGy/min the major dose-limiting nonhemopoietic toxicity was acute gastrointestinal injury. The implications of these results in the context of TBI in preparation for bone-marrow transplantation are discussed. 15 refs., 4 figs

  1. Acute hematological tolerance to multiple fraction, whole body, low dose irradiation in an experimental murine system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melamed, J.S.; Chen, M.G.; Brown, J.W.; Katagiri, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    Using a dose fractionation scheme patterned after the current regimen for treatment of disseminated non-Hodgkin lymphoma, the authors studied the effects of irradation on progenitor and effector cells for hematopoiesis in five-month-old BC3F 1 mice. Fractions of 20 or 50 rad (0.2 or 0.5 Gy) total body irradation were given twice weekly to a final total dose of 200 or 500 rad (2 or 5 Gy), respectively. Weekly assays revealed a marked, sustained depression of stem cell activity, measured as numbers of spleen colony-forming units (CFU-S) and in vitro colony-forming cells (CFU-C), without corresponding depression of effector cells (red and white cells, and platelets). The lack of correlation between numbers of stem cells and peripheral elements is relevant to clinical assessment of marrow reserve

  2. Sex differences in the acoustic structure of vowel-like grunt vocalizations in baboons and their perceptual discrimination by baboon listeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendall, Drew; Owren, Michael J.; Weerts, Elise; Hienz, Robert D.

    2004-01-01

    This study quantifies sex differences in the acoustic structure of vowel-like grunt vocalizations in baboons (Papio spp.) and tests the basic perceptual discriminability of these differences to baboon listeners. Acoustic analyses were performed on 1028 grunts recorded from 27 adult baboons (11 males and 16 females) in southern Africa, focusing specifically on the fundamental frequency (F0) and formant frequencies. The mean F0 and the mean frequencies of the first three formants were all significantly lower in males than they were in females, more dramatically so for F0. Experiments using standard psychophysical procedures subsequently tested the discriminability of adult male and adult female grunts. After learning to discriminate the grunt of one male from that of one female, five baboon subjects subsequently generalized this discrimination both to new call tokens from the same individuals and to grunts from novel males and females. These results are discussed in the context of both the possible vocal anatomical basis for sex differences in call structure and the potential perceptual mechanisms involved in their processing by listeners, particularly as these relate to analogous issues in human speech production and perception.

  3. Differential effects of whole-body {gamma}-irradiation on antinociception induced by morphine and {beta}-endorphin administered intracerebroventricularly in the mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Chung, K.M.; Park, T.W.

    2000-05-01

    Two separate lines of evidence suggested the present study. First, intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administered morphine (a {mu}-opioid receptor agonist) and {beta}-endorphin (an {epsilon}-opioid receptor agonist) produce antinociception by activating different descending pain inhibitory systems. Second, {gamma}-irradiation attenuates the acute antinociceptive action of i.c.v. injected morphine, but not DPLPE (a {delta}-opioid receptor agonist), in mice. These findings prompted us to investigate the effect of {gamma}-irradiation on the antinociception produced by i.c.v. injected morphine and {beta}-endorphin in male ICR mice. In one group, mice were exposed to whole-body irradiation at a dose of 5 Gy from a {sup 60}Co {gamma}-source and the antinociceptive effects were tested 5, 30, 60,90 and 180 min after irradiation using the 1% acetic acid-induced writhing test (10 ml/kg). The antinociceptive effect was produced time-dependently and reached its maximum at 90 min after irradiation. Thus, time was fixed in the following studies. In another group, mice were irradiated with 5 Gy and tested 90 minutes later for antinociception produced by i.c.v. administration of morphine (50 and 100 ng/mouse) or {beta}-endorphin (31 ng/mouse). Irradiation significantly potentiated the antinociception produced by {beta}-endorphin. However, the antinociception produced by morphine was not affected by irradiation. These results demonstrate a differential sensitivity of {mu}- and {epsilon}-opioid receptors to {gamma}-irradiation, in addition, support the hypothesis that morphine and {beta}-endorphin administered supraspinally produce antinociception by different neuronal mechanisms. (author)

  4. Differential effects of whole-body γ-irradiation on antinociception induced by morphine and β-endorphin administered intracerebroventricularly in the mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.K.; Chung, K.M.; Park, T.W.

    2000-01-01

    Two separate lines of evidence suggested the present study. First, intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administered morphine (a μ-opioid receptor agonist) and β-endorphin (an ε-opioid receptor agonist) produce antinociception by activating different descending pain inhibitory systems. Second, γ-irradiation attenuates the acute antinociceptive action of i.c.v. injected morphine, but not DPLPE (a δ-opioid receptor agonist), in mice. These findings prompted us to investigate the effect of γ-irradiation on the antinociception produced by i.c.v. injected morphine and β-endorphin in male ICR mice. In one group, mice were exposed to whole-body irradiation at a dose of 5 Gy from a 60 Co γ-source and the antinociceptive effects were tested 5, 30, 60,90 and 180 min after irradiation using the 1% acetic acid-induced writhing test (10 ml/kg). The antinociceptive effect was produced time-dependently and reached its maximum at 90 min after irradiation. Thus, time was fixed in the following studies. In another group, mice were irradiated with 5 Gy and tested 90 minutes later for antinociception produced by i.c.v. administration of morphine (50 and 100 ng/mouse) or β-endorphin (31 ng/mouse). Irradiation significantly potentiated the antinociception produced by β-endorphin. However, the antinociception produced by morphine was not affected by irradiation. These results demonstrate a differential sensitivity of μ- and ε-opioid receptors to γ-irradiation, in addition, support the hypothesis that morphine and β-endorphin administered supraspinally produce antinociception by different neuronal mechanisms. (author)

  5. Utility of cranial boost in addition to total body irradiation in the treatment of high risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, Brian M.; Wechsler, Daniel; Braun, Thomas M.; Levine, John; Herman, Joseph; Yanik, Gregory; Hutchinson, Raymond; Pierce, Lori J.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Total body irradiation (TBI) as part of a conditioning regimen before hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) is an important component in the management of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) that has relapsed or has other certain high-risk features. Controversy exists, however, as to whether a cranial boost in addition to TBI is necessary to prevent central nervous system (CNS) recurrences in these high-risk cases. Previous national trials have included a cranial boost in the absence of data to justify its use. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess risk of CNS recurrence in ALL patients treated with TBI, to identify subsets of these high-risk patients at an increased or decreased risk of CNS recurrence after TBI, and to investigate whether regimens with higher doses of cranial irradiation further reduce the risk of CNS recurrence. Methods and Materials: Charts of 67 consecutively treated patients with ALL who received TBI before HSCT were reviewed. Data including patient demographics, clinical features at presentation, conditioning regimen, donor source, use of a cranial boost, remission stage at transplant, histologic subtype, cytogenetics, and extramedullary site of presentation were retrospectively collected and correlated with the risk of subsequent CNS recurrence. Results: At the time of analysis, 30 (45%) patients were alive with no evidence of disease, 8 (12%) were alive with recurrence of leukemia, 7 (10.5%) had recurrent ALL but with successful salvage, 7 (11%) died subsequent to recurrence, 14 (21%) died from complications related to HCST, and 1 patient was lost to follow-up (1.5%). Of the patients who recurred after HSCT, the relapses were hematologic in 13 (57%), CNS with or without simultaneous marrow involvement in 3 (13%), and other sites in 7 (30%). Forty-one (61%) patients did not receive an extracranial boost of irradiation with TBI. Two of these patients (4.9%) suffered CNS failures compared with 1 of 26 (3.8%) who received a

  6. Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Re-irradiation of Persistent or Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trovo, Marco, E-mail: marcotrovo33@hotmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico of Aviano, Pordenone (Italy); Minatel, Emilio; Durofil, Elena [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico of Aviano, Pordenone (Italy); Polesel, Jerry [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico of Aviano, Pordenone (Italy); Avanzo, Michele [Department of Medical Physics, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico of Aviano, Pordenone (Italy); Baresic, Tania [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico of Aviano, Pordenone (Italy); Bearz, Alessandra [Department of Medical Oncology, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico of Aviano, Pordenone (Italy); Del Conte, Alessandro [Department of Medical Oncology, Pordenone General Hospital, Aviano, Pordenone (Italy); Franchin, Giovanni; Gobitti, Carlo; Rumeileh, Imad Abu; Trovo, Mauro G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico of Aviano, Pordenone (Italy)

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively assess toxicity and outcome of re-irradiation with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in patients with recurrent or persistent non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), who were previously treated with radical radiation therapy (50-60 Gy). The secondary endpoint was to investigate whether there are dosimetric parameter predictors of severe radiation toxicity. Methods and Materials: The analysis was conducted in 17 patients with “in-field” recurrent/persistent centrally located NSCLC, who underwent re-irradiation with SBRT. SBRT consisted of 30 Gy in 5 to 6 fractions; these prescriptions would be equivalent for the tumor to 37.5 to 40 Gy, bringing the total 2-Gy-per-fraction cumulative dose to 87 to 100 Gy, considering the primary radiation therapy treatment. Actuarial analyses and survival were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method, and P values were estimated by the log-rank test, starting from the date of completion of SBRT. Dosimetric parameters from the subgroups with and without grade ≥3 pulmonary toxicity were compared using a 2-tailed Student t test. Results: The median follow-up was 18 months (range, 4-57 months). Only 2 patients had local failure, corresponding to a local control rate of 86% at 1 year. The Kaplan-Meier estimates of overall survival (OS) rates at 1 and 2 years were 59% and 29%, respectively; the median OS was 19 months. Four patients (23%) experienced grade 3 radiation pneumonitis, and 1 patient developed fatal pneumonitis. One patient died of fatal hemoptysis 2 months after the completion of SBRT. Unexpectedly, heart maximum dose, D5 (minimum dose to at least 5% of the heart volume), and D10 were correlated with risk of radiation pneumonitis (P<.05). Conclusions: Re-irradiation with SBRT for recurrent/persistent centrally located NSCLC achieves excellent results in terms of local control. However, the high rate of severe toxicity reported in our study is of concern.

  7. Hemibody irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schen, B.C.; Mella, O.; Dahl, O.

    1992-01-01

    In a large number of cancer patients, extensive skeletal metastases or myelomatosis induce vast suffering, such as intolerable pain and local complications of neoplastic bone destruction. Analgetic drugs frequently do not yield sufficient palliation. Irradiation of local fields often has to be repeated, because of tumour growth outside previously irradiated volumes. Wide field irradiation of the lower or upper half of the body causes significant relief of pain in most patients. Adequate pretreatment handling of patients, method of irradiation, and follow-up are of importance to reduce side effects, and are described as they are carried out at the Department of Oncology, Haukeland Hospital, Norway. 16 refs., 2 figs

  8. Total body irradiation (TBI) in pediatric patients. A single-center experience after 30 years of low-dose rate irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsenmeier, Claudia; Thoennessen, Daniel; Negretti, Laura; Streller, Tino; Luetolf, Urs Martin; Bourquin, Jean-Pierre; Oertel, Susanne; Heidelberg Univ.

    2010-01-01

    To retrospectively analyze patient characteristics, treatment, and treatment outcome of pediatric patients with hematologic diseases treated with total body irradiation (TBI) between 1978 and 2006. 32 pediatric patients were referred to the Department of Radiation-Oncology at the University of Zurich for TBI. Records of regular follow-up of 28 patients were available for review. Patient characteristics as well as treatment outcome regarding local control and overall survival were assessed. A total of 18 patients suffered from acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), 5 from acute and 2 from chronic myelogenous leukemia, 1 from non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and 2 from anaplastic anemia. The cohort consisted of 15 patients referred after first remission and 13 patients with relapsed leukemia. Mean follow-up was 34 months (2-196 months) with 15 patients alive at the time of last follow-up. Eight patients died of recurrent disease, 1 of graft vs. host reaction, 2 of sepsis, and 2 patients died of a secondary malignancy. The 5-year overall survival rate (OS) was 60%. Overall survival was significantly inferior in patients treated after relapse compared to those treated for newly diagnosed leukemia (24% versus 74%; p=0.004). At the time of last follow-up, 11 patients survived for more than 36 months following TBI. Late effects (RTOG ≥3) were pneumonitis in 1 patient, chronic bronchitis in 1 patient, cardiomyopathy in 2 patients, severe cataractogenesis in 1 patient (48 months after TBI with 10 Gy in a single dose) and secondary malignancies in 2 patients (36 and 190 months after TBI). Growth disturbances were observed in all patients treated prepubertally. In 2 patients with identical twins treated at ages 2 and 7, a loss of 8% in final height of the treated twin was observed. As severe late sequelae after TBI, we observed 2 secondary malignancies in 11 patients who survived in excess of 36 months. However, long-term morbidity is moderate following treatment with the fractionated

  9. Total body irradiation (TBI) in pediatric patients. A single-center experience after 30 years of low-dose rate irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linsenmeier, Claudia; Thoennessen, Daniel; Negretti, Laura; Streller, Tino; Luetolf, Urs Martin [University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland). Dept. of Radiation-Oncology; Bourquin, Jean-Pierre [University Children' s Hospital Zurich (Switzerland). Dept. of Hemato-Oncology; Oertel, Susanne [University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland). Dept. of Radiation-Oncology; Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2010-11-15

    To retrospectively analyze patient characteristics, treatment, and treatment outcome of pediatric patients with hematologic diseases treated with total body irradiation (TBI) between 1978 and 2006. 32 pediatric patients were referred to the Department of Radiation-Oncology at the University of Zurich for TBI. Records of regular follow-up of 28 patients were available for review. Patient characteristics as well as treatment outcome regarding local control and overall survival were assessed. A total of 18 patients suffered from acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), 5 from acute and 2 from chronic myelogenous leukemia, 1 from non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and 2 from anaplastic anemia. The cohort consisted of 15 patients referred after first remission and 13 patients with relapsed leukemia. Mean follow-up was 34 months (2-196 months) with 15 patients alive at the time of last follow-up. Eight patients died of recurrent disease, 1 of graft vs. host reaction, 2 of sepsis, and 2 patients died of a secondary malignancy. The 5-year overall survival rate (OS) was 60%. Overall survival was significantly inferior in patients treated after relapse compared to those treated for newly diagnosed leukemia (24% versus 74%; p=0.004). At the time of last follow-up, 11 patients survived for more than 36 months following TBI. Late effects (RTOG {>=}3) were pneumonitis in 1 patient, chronic bronchitis in 1 patient, cardiomyopathy in 2 patients, severe cataractogenesis in 1 patient (48 months after TBI with 10 Gy in a single dose) and secondary malignancies in 2 patients (36 and 190 months after TBI). Growth disturbances were observed in all patients treated prepubertally. In 2 patients with identical twins treated at ages 2 and 7, a loss of 8% in final height of the treated twin was observed. As severe late sequelae after TBI, we observed 2 secondary malignancies in 11 patients who survived in excess of 36 months. However, long-term morbidity is moderate following treatment with the fractionated

  10. Gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium and uranium in fed and fasted adult baboons and mice: application to humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Larsen, R.P.; Oldham, R.D. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Cohen, N.; Ralston, L.G.; Moretti, E.S.; Ayres, L. (New York Univ., NY (USA). Inst. of Environmental Medicine)

    1989-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) absorption values of plutonium and uranium were determined in fed and fasted adult baboons and mice. For both baboons and mice, the GI absorptions of plutonium and uranium were 10 to 20 times higher in 24 h fasted animals than in fed ones. For plutonium, GI absorption values in baboons were almost identical to those in mice for both fed and fasted conditions, and values for fed animals agreed with estimates for humans. For uranium, GI absorption values in fed and fasted baboons were 6 to 7 times higher than those in mice, and agreed well with those fed and fasted humans. For one baboon that was not given its morning meal, plutonium absorption 2 h after the start of the active phase was the same as that in the 24 h fasted animals. In contrast, for baboons that received a morning meal, plutonium absorption did not rise to the value of 24 h fasted baboons even 8 h after the meal. We conclude that GI absorption values for plutonium and uranium in adult baboons are good estimates of the values in humans and that the values for the fasted condition should be used to set standards for oral exposure of persons in the workplace. (author).

  11. Gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium and uranium in fed and fasted adult baboons and mice: application to humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Larsen, R.P.; Oldham, R.D.; Cohen, N.; Ralston, L.G.; Moretti, E.S.; Ayres, L.

    1989-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) absorption values of plutonium and uranium were determined in fed and fasted adult baboons and mice. For both baboons and mice, the GI absorptions of plutonium and uranium were 10 to 20 times higher in 24 h fasted animals than in fed ones. For plutonium, GI absorption values in baboons were almost identical to those in mice for both fed and fasted conditions, and values for fed animals agreed with estimates for humans. For uranium, GI absorption values in fed and fasted baboons were 6 to 7 times higher than those in mice, and agreed well with those fed and fasted humans. For one baboon that was not given its morning meal, plutonium absorption 2 h after the start of the active phase was the same as that in the 24 h fasted animals. In contrast, for baboons that received a morning meal, plutonium absorption did not rise to the value of 24 h fasted baboons even 8 h after the meal. We conclude that GI absorption values for plutonium and uranium in adult baboons are good estimates of the values in humans and that the values for the fasted condition should be used to set standards for oral exposure of persons in the workplace. (author)

  12. New data on the toxicity and translocation of inhaled 239PuO2 in baboons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metivier, H.; Masse, R.; Rateau, G.; Nolibe, D.; Lafuma, J.

    1989-01-01

    In 1973-1974, baboons were exposed to a polydispersed aerosol of 239 PuO 2 , prepared at 1000 0 C, at the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique in France. The data published in 1978 for these baboons were used by Bair et al (1980), for comparison with those obtained in beagles exposed to 239 PuO 2 at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, USA. Since our 1978 publication, 8 baboons have died or were killed by euthanasia when moribund, and 11 were still alive when the present report was drafted. Two of the eight baboons died of lung squamous cell carcinoma at 2171 and 2528 days respectively. The remaining 6 died of fibrosis, interstitial pneumonia or diseases unrelated to Pu toxicity. The relationship observed in the eight baboons between initial lung burden and survival time shows that their lifespan was longer than expected from the data curve based on the findings for the first 1000 days. However, this increased survival time was not observed if the lifespan was expressed as a function of the average lung burden. (author)

  13. Olive baboons: a non-human primate model for testing dengue virus type 2 replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés, Iris; Gil, Lázaro; Castro, Jorge; Odoyo, Damián; Hitler, Rikoi; Munene, Elephas; Romero, Yaremis; Ochola, Lucy; Cosme, Karelia; Kariuki, Thomas; Guillén, Gerardo; Hermida, Lisset

    2013-12-01

    This study evaluated the use of a non-human primate, the olive baboon (Papio anubis), as a model of dengue infection. Olive baboons closely resemble humans genetically and physiologically and have been used extensively for assessing novel vaccine formulations. Two doses of dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2) were tested in baboons: 10(3) and 10(4) pfu. Similarly, African green monkeys received the same quantity of virus and acted as positive controls. Following exposure, high levels of viremia were detected in both animal species. There was a trend to detect more days of viremia and more homogeneous viral titers in animals receiving the low viral dose. In addition, baboons infected with the virus generally exhibited positive virus isolation 1 day later than African green monkeys. Humoral responses consisting of antiviral and neutralizing antibodies were detected in all animals after infection. We conclude that baboons provide an alternative non-human primate species for experimental DENV-2 infection and we recommend their use for further tests of vaccines, administering the lowest dose assayed: 10(3) pfu. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of acute mortality in baboons and dogs after inhalation of 239PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bair, W.J.; Park, J.F.; Stevens, D.L.; Watson, C.R.; Metivier, H.; Masse, R.; Nolibe, D.; Lafuma, J.

    1979-01-01

    Results from experiments with baboons were compared with those from experiments with dogs to determine the relative sensitivity of the two species to acute mortality from inhaled 239 PuO 2 . To assure a valid comparison of data developed at two laboratories, methodology differences were minimized by establishing a common pool of raw data, using the same computer programs to analyze the data, and standardizing assumptions regarding the calculation of radiation doses to lungs. Several comparison methods were used involving variations in estimating different parameters such as the concentration of plutonium in the lungs. Although nearly all comparisons suggested baboons were slightly more sensitive, none of the methods for comparing the relationship between dose and survival time showed consistently significant differences between baboons and dogs. Although the baboons were physiologically and morphologically immature when exposed to plutonium, whereas the dogs were mature, it was concluded that adult baboons and dogs are similarly sensitive to the acute effects of inhaled 239 PuO 2 . Since only acute mortality was considered in this comparison, the results do not apply to possible late effects caused by much lower levels of plutonium than were used in these experiments

  15. Bomb-spike dating of a mummified baboon in Ludwig Cave, Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hodgins Greg

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1982 a mummified adult female baboon was discovered on a ledge in Ludwig Cave in Namibia. A toe bone was removed for dating in July 1995. AMS radiocarbon dating of bone collagen, tendon, and skin indicates a post-modern age. Application of the atomic bomb-spike calibration curve suggests death in late 1977 and an age at death of around 19 years. Baboons roost in the cave and the mummified female, along with a mummified juvenile male discovered in 2002 and three rotting corpses discovered in 1995, were probably chased by other baboons or by leopards down a ca. 6 m drop during the rainy season, and were unable to climb the steep and very slippery slope to escape. The large number of baboons trapped in the cave in less than 20 years, and mummification of two individuals on dry, dusty ledges in the cave, may explain why large numbers of baboon skeletons have been discovered in ancient bone breccias (up to 4 Ma old in a number of caves throughout Southern Africa.

  16. Radiological protection in a patient during a total body irradiation procedure; Proteccion radiologica en un paciente durante un procedimiento de TBI (irradiacion de cuerpo entero)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez O, J. O.; Hinojosa G, J.; Gomez M, E.; Balam de la Vega, J. A. [The American British Cowdray Medical Center, I. A. P., Sur 128 No. 143, Col. Americas, 01120 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Deheza V, J. C., E-mail: johernandezo@abchospital.co [IPN, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Av. Luis Enrique Erro s/n, Edificio No. 9, Unidad Profesional Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Col. Lindavista, 07738 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2010-09-15

    A technique used in the Service of Radiotherapy of the Cancer Center of the American British Cowdray Medical Center (ABC) for the bone marrow transplantation, is the total body irradiation. It is known that the dose calculation, for this irradiation type, is old, since the dosimetric calculation is carried out by hand and they exist infinity of techniques for the patients irradiation and different forms of protecting organs of risk, as well as a great uncertainty in the given dose. In the Cancer Center of the ABC Medical Center, was carried out an irradiation procedure to total body with the following methodology: Computerized tomography of the patient total body (two vacuum mattresses in the following positions: dorsal and lateral decubitus), where is combined the two treatment techniques anterior-posterior and bilateral, skin delineate and reference volumes, dose calculation with the planning system Xi O of CMS, dose determination using an ionization chamber and a lung phantom IMRT Thorax Phantom of the mark CIRS and dosimetry in vivo. In this work is presented the used treatment technique, the results, statistics and the actualization of the patient clinical state. (Author)

  17. Dose and dose rate effects of whole-body gamma-irradiation: I. Lymphocytes and lymphoid organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecaut, M. J.; Nelson, G. A.; Gridley, D. S.

    2001-01-01

    The major goal of part I of this study was to compare varying doses and dose rates of whole-body gamma-radiation on lymphoid cells and organs. C57BL/6 mice (n = 75) were exposed to 0, 0.5, 1.5, and 3.0 Gy gamma-rays (60Co) at 1 cGy/min (low-dose rate, LDR) and 80 cGy/min (high-dose rate, HDR) and euthanized 4 days later. A significant dose-dependent loss of spleen mass was observed with both LDR and HDR irradiation; for the thymus this was true only with HDR. Decreasing leukocyte and lymphocyte numbers occurred with increasing dose in blood and spleen at both dose rates. The numbers (not percentages) of CD3+ T lymphocytes decreased in the blood in a dose-dependent manner at both HDR and LDR. Splenic T cell counts decreased with dose only in HDR groups; percentages increased with dose at both dose rates. Dose-dependent decreases occurred in CD4+ T helper and CD8+ T cytotoxic cell counts at HDR and LDR. In the blood the percentages of CD4+ cells increased with increasing dose at both dose rates, whereas in the spleen the counts decreased only in the HDR groups. The percentages of the CD8+ population remained stable in both blood and spleen. CD19+ B cell counts and percentages in both compartments declined markedly with increasing HDR and LDR radiation. NK1.1+ natural killer cell numbers and proportions remained relatively stable. Overall, these data indicate that the observed changes were highly dependent on the dose, but not dose rate, and that cells in the spleen are more affected by dose rate than those in blood. The results also suggest that the response of lymphocytes in different body compartments may be variable.

  18. Long-term renal toxicity in children following fractionated total-body irradiation (TBI) before allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerstein, Johanna; Meyer, Andreas; Fruehauf, Joerg; Karstens, Johann H.; Bremer, Michael; Sykora, Karl-Walter

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: to retrospectively assess the incidence and time course of renal dysfunction in children (≤ 16 years) following total-body irradiation (TBI) before allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT). Patients and methods: between 1986 and 2003, 92 children (median age, 11 years; range, 3-16 years) underwent TBI before allogeneic SCT. 43 of them had a minimum follow-up of 12 months (median, 51 months; range, 12-186 months) and were included into this analysis. Conditioning regimen included chemotherapy and fractionated TBI with 12 Gy (n = 26) or 11.1 Gy (n = 17). In one patient, renal dose was limited to 10 Gy by customized renal shielding due to known nephropathy prior to SCt. Renal dysfunction was defined as an increase of serum creatinine > 1.25 times the upper limit of age-dependent normal. Results: twelve children (28%) experienced an episode of renal dysfunction after a median of 2 months (range, 1-10 months) following SCT. In all but one patient renal dysfunction was transient and resolved after a median of 8 months (range, 3-16 months). One single patient developed persistent renal dysfunction with onset at 10 months after SCT. None of these patients required dialysis. The actuarial 3-year freedom from persistent renal toxicity for children surviving > 12 months after SCt was 97.3%. Conclusion: the incidence of persistent renal dysfunction after fractionated TBI with total doses ≤ 12 Gy was very low in this analysis. (orig.)

  19. Captopril and Losartan for Mitigation of Renal Injury Caused by Single-Dose Total-Body Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulder, John E.; Cohen, Eric P.; Fish, Brian L.

    2011-01-01

    It is known that angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin II type-1 receptor blockers (ARBs) can be used to mitigate radiation-induced renal injury. However, for a variety of reasons, these previous results are not directly applicable to the development of agents for the mitigation of injuries caused by terrorism-related radiation exposure. As part of an effort to develop an animal model that would fit the requirements of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) “Animal Efficacy Rule”, we designed new studies which used an FDA-approved ACEI (captopril) or an FDA-approved ARB (losartan, Cozaar®) started 10 days after a single total-body irradiation (TBI) at drug doses that are equivalent (on a g/m2/day basis) to the doses prescribed to humans. Captopril and losartan were equally effective as mitigators, with DMFs of 1.23 and 1.21, respectively, for delaying renal failure. These studies show that radiation nephropathy in a realistic rodent model can be mitigated with relevant doses of FDA-approved agents. This lays the necessary groundwork for pivotal rodent studies under the FDA Animal Efficacy Rule and provides an outline of how the FDA-required large-animal studies could be designed. PMID:21175344

  20. Thrombopoietin Receptor Agonist Mitigates Hematopoietic Radiation Syndrome and Improves Survival after Whole-Body Ionizing Irradiation Followed by Wound Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliann G. Kiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ionizing radiation combined with trauma tissue injury (combined injury, CI results in greater mortality and H-ARS than radiation alone (radiation injury, RI, which includes thrombocytopenia. The aim of this study was to determine whether increases in numbers of thrombocytes would improve survival and mitigate H-ARS after CI. We observed in mice that WBC and platelets remained very low in surviving RI animals that were given 9.5 Gy 60Co-γ-photon radiation, whereas only lymphocytes and basophils remained low in surviving CI mice that were irradiated and then given skin wounds. Numbers of RBC and platelets, hemoglobin concentrations, and hematocrit values remained low in surviving RI and CI mice. CI induced 30-day mortality higher than RI. Radiation delayed wound healing by approximately 14 days. Treatment with a thrombopoietin receptor agonist, Alxn4100TPO, after CI improved survival, mitigated body-weight loss, and reduced water consumption. Though this therapy delayed wound-healing rate more than in vehicle groups, it greatly increased numbers of platelets in sham, wounded, RI, and CI mice; it significantly mitigated decreases in WBC, spleen weights, and splenocytes in CI mice and decreases in RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit values, and splenocytes and splenomegaly in RI mice. The results suggest that Alxn4100TPO is effective in mitigating CI.

  1. Paraphyseal changes on bone-age studies predict risk of delayed radiation-associated skeletal complications following total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitazono Hammell, Mary T.; Edgar, J.C.; Jaramillo, Diego; Bunin, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Children undergoing total body irradiation (TBI) often develop delayed skeletal complications. Bone-age studies in these children often reveal subtle paraphyseal changes including physeal widening, metaphyseal irregularity and paraphyseal exostoses. To investigate whether paraphyseal changes on a bone-age study following TBI indicate a predisposition toward developing other radiation-associated skeletal complications. We retrospectively reviewed medical records and bone-age studies of 77 children receiving TBI at our institution between 1995 and 2008 who had at least 2 years of clinical follow-up and one bone-age study after TBI. We graded bone-age studies according to the severity of paraphyseal changes. All documented skeletal complications following TBI were tabulated. Kendall's tau-b was used to examine associations between degree of paraphyseal change and development of a skeletal complication. Kendall's tau analyses showed that physeal widening and metaphyseal irregularity/sclerosis (tau = 0.87, P < 0.001) and paraphyseal exostoses (tau = 0.68, P < 0.001) seen on bone-age studies were significantly positively associated with the development of delayed skeletal complications following TBI. Thirty percent of children with no or mild paraphyseal changes developed a delayed skeletal complication, compared with 58% of children with moderate paraphyseal changes and 90% of children with severe paraphyseal changes. Paraphyseal changes identified on a bone-age study correlate positively with the development of delayed skeletal complications elsewhere in the skeleton following TBI. (orig.)

  2. Long-term renal toxicity in children following fractionated total-body irradiation (TBI) before allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerstein, Johanna; Meyer, Andreas; Fruehauf, Joerg; Karstens, Johann H.; Bremer, Michael [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Medical School Hannover (Germany); Sykora, Karl-Walter [Dept. of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Medical School Hannover (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: to retrospectively assess the incidence and time course of renal dysfunction in children ({<=} 16 years) following total-body irradiation (TBI) before allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT). Patients and methods: between 1986 and 2003, 92 children (median age, 11 years; range, 3-16 years) underwent TBI before allogeneic SCT. 43 of them had a minimum follow-up of 12 months (median, 51 months; range, 12-186 months) and were included into this analysis. Conditioning regimen included chemotherapy and fractionated TBI with 12 Gy (n = 26) or 11.1 Gy (n = 17). In one patient, renal dose was limited to 10 Gy by customized renal shielding due to known nephropathy prior to SCt. Renal dysfunction was defined as an increase of serum creatinine > 1.25 times the upper limit of age-dependent normal. Results: twelve children (28%) experienced an episode of renal dysfunction after a median of 2 months (range, 1-10 months) following SCT. In all but one patient renal dysfunction was transient and resolved after a median of 8 months (range, 3-16 months). One single patient developed persistent renal dysfunction with onset at 10 months after SCT. None of these patients required dialysis. The actuarial 3-year freedom from persistent renal toxicity for children surviving > 12 months after SCt was 97.3%. Conclusion: the incidence of persistent renal dysfunction after fractionated TBI with total doses {<=} 12 Gy was very low in this analysis. (orig.)

  3. Vocal communication in a complex multi-level society: constrained acoustic structure and flexible call usage in Guinea baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciej, Peter; Ndao, Ibrahima; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Fischer, Julia

    2013-09-23

    To understand the evolution of acoustic communication in animals, it is important to distinguish between the structure and the usage of vocal signals, since both aspects are subject to different constraints. In terrestrial mammals, the structure of calls is largely innate, while individuals have a greater ability to actively initiate or withhold calls. In closely related taxa, one would therefore predict a higher flexibility in call usage compared to call structure. In the present study, we investigated the vocal repertoire of free living Guinea baboons (Papio papio) and examined the structure and usage of the animals' vocal signals. Guinea baboons live in a complex multi-level social organization and exhibit a largely tolerant and affiliative social style, contrary to most other baboon taxa. To classify the vocal repertoire of male and female Guinea baboons, cluster analyses were used and focal observations were conducted to assess the usage of vocal signals in the particular contexts. In general, the vocal repertoire of Guinea baboons largely corresponded to the vocal repertoire other baboon taxa. The usage of calls, however, differed considerably from other baboon taxa and corresponded with the specific characteristics of the Guinea baboons' social behaviour. While Guinea baboons showed a diminished usage of contest and display vocalizations (a common pattern observed in chacma baboons), they frequently used vocal signals during affiliative and greeting interactions. Our study shows that the call structure of primates is largely unaffected by the species' social system (including grouping patterns and social interactions), while the usage of calls can be more flexibly adjusted, reflecting the quality of social interactions of the individuals. Our results support the view that the primary function of social signals is to regulate social interactions, and therefore the degree of competition and cooperation may be more important to explain variation in call usage

  4. Development of infant baboons' responses to graded bark variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, J; Cheney, D L; Seyfarth, R M

    2000-11-22

    We studied the development of infant baboons' (Papio cynocephalus ursinus) responses to conspecific 'barks' in a free-ranging population in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. These barks grade from tonal, harmonically rich calls into calls with a more noisy, harsh structure. Typically, tonal variants are given when the signaller is at risk of losing contact with the group or a particular individual ('contact barks'), whereas harsh variants are given in response to predators ('alarm barks'). We conducted focal observations and playback experiments in which we presented variants of barks recorded from resident adult females. By six months of age, infants reliably discriminated between typical alarm and contact barks and they responded more strongly to intermediate alarm calls than to typical contact barks. Infants of six months and older also recognized their mothers by voice. The ability to discriminate between different call variants developed with increasing age. At two and a half months of age, infants failed to respond at all, whereas at four months they responded irrespective of the call type that was presented. At six months, infants showed adult-like responses by responding strongly to alarm barks but ignoring contact barks. We concluded that infants gradually learn to attach the appropriate meaning to alarm and contact barks.

  5. Pegylated G-CSF Inhibits Blood Cell Depletion, Increases Platelets, Blocks Splenomegaly, and Improves Survival after Whole-Body Ionizing Irradiation but Not after Irradiation Combined with Burn

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-05

    Ionizing Irradiation but Not after Irradiation Combined with Burn Juliann G. Kiang,1,2,3 Min Zhai,1 Pei-Jyun Liao,1 David L. Bolduc,1 Thomas B. Elliott,1...Contribution Juliann G. Kiang conceived and designed the experiments in the paper. Juliann G. Kiang, Min Zhai, Pei-Jyun Liao, David L. Bolduc, Thomas B...319–332, 2010. [8] M. E. Berger, D. M. Christensen, P. C. Lowry , O. W. Jones, and A. L.Wiley, “Medical management of radiation injuries: current

  6. Plasma beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity and its variations in baboons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golanov, E.V.; Fufacheva, A.A.; Parin, S.B.

    1986-04-01

    This paper determines the level of beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity (beta-elir) in the blood plasma of baboons and studies its changes in certain situations. For radioimmunoassay of beta-ELIR in the blood plasma, a standard kit and the appropriate technique were used. The background plasma beta-ELIR level of the baboons, in a state of quiet wakefulness, was 0.0 = 1.0 fmoles/ml. The total level of b-ELIR was 134 plus or minus 24 pg/ml. The data show that elevation of the plasma b-ELIR level accompanies stress formation, including the development of a state of shock in baboons. A definite role in the regulation of the plasma b-endorphin level may be played by the paraventricular-perifornical region of the hypothalamus.

  7. A non-Lévy random walk in chacma baboons: what does it mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueur, Cédric

    2011-01-13

    The Lévy walk is found from amoebas to humans and has been described as the optimal strategy for food research. Recent results, however, have generated controversy about this conclusion since animals also display alternatives to the Lévy walk such as the Brownian walk or mental maps and because movement patterns found in some species only seem to depend on food patches distribution. Here I show that movement patterns of chacma baboons do not follow a Lévy walk but a Brownian process. Moreover this Brownian walk is not the main process responsible for movement patterns of baboons. Findings about their speed and trajectories show that baboons use metal maps and memory to find resources. Thus the Brownian process found in this species appears to be more dependent on the environment or might be an alternative when known food patches are depleted and when animals have to find new resources.

  8. A non-Lévy random walk in chacma baboons: what does it mean?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric Sueur

    Full Text Available The Lévy walk is found from amoebas to humans and has been described as the optimal strategy for food research. Recent results, however, have generated controversy about this conclusion since animals also display alternatives to the Lévy walk such as the Brownian walk or mental maps and because movement patterns found in some species only seem to depend on food patches distribution. Here I show that movement patterns of chacma baboons do not follow a Lévy walk but a Brownian process. Moreover this Brownian walk is not the main process responsible for movement patterns of baboons. Findings about their speed and trajectories show that baboons use metal maps and memory to find resources. Thus the Brownian process found in this species appears to be more dependent on the environment or might be an alternative when known food patches are depleted and when animals have to find new resources.

  9. Hepatic Failure After Pig Heart Transplantation Into a Baboon: No Involvement of Porcine Hepatitis E Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abicht, Jan-Michael; Mayr, Tanja A; Reichart, Bruno; Plotzki, Elena; Güthoff, Sonja; Falkenau, Almuth; Kind, Alexander; Denner, Joachim

    2016-01-07

    After transplantation of pig hearts into baboons, a particularly high increase of liver parameters was observed in 1 animal. To evaluate whether porcine hepatitis E virus (HEV) was involved in the pathological changes, the donor pig and the recipient baboon were screened for the presence of HEV. Screening for HEV was performed using highly sensitive and specific PCR methods as well as immunological screening for HEV-specific antibodies. HEV was not detected in the donor pig or the baboon recipient. At necropsy, histopathological examination of liver sections showed acute coagulative necrosis of hepatocytes and hemorrhage, but minimal inflammatory cell activity. The liver failure observed in the recipient animal was not due to transmission of porcine HEV. Liver failure could have been caused by the onset of cardiac failure related to delayed transplant rejection.

  10. Male-driven grooming bouts in mixed-sex dyads of Kinda baboons (Papio kindae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyher, Anna H; Phillips-Conroy, Jane E; Fourrier, Marc S; Jolly, Clifford J

    2014-01-01

    The behavior of the Central African Kinda baboon (Papio kindae) is not well documented. Having previously noted distinctive grooming behavior in several Kinda baboon populations, we investigated the topic more systematically in the Kafue National Park, Zambia. We recorded the duration and details of male-female dyadic interactions (approaches, withdrawals and time spent grooming) in the early morning and late afternoon. Such interactions were more often initiated by the male and terminated by the female partner. The male groomed the female more often, and longer, than she groomed him, regardless of the female's reproductive state or the presence of an infant. The bias towards male grooming was stronger in morning than evening interactions. These behaviors, whose function is not immediately obvious, and which are unlike those previously reported in baboons, further exemplify the distinctiveness of the taxon.

  11. Radioprotection by caffeine pre-treatment and post-treatment in the bone marrow chromosomes of mice given whole-body γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooqi, Z.; Kesavan, P.C.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of caffeine given as pre- and post-treatment in mice exposed to whole-body γ-irradiation (1.5 Gy 60 Co γ-rays) was studied. The pre-treatment was either acute or chronic. The acute dose (5 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg body weight) was in the form of an injection given intraperitoneally, 30 min before irradiation. The chronic administration was in the form of caffeine solution (4.208x10 -3 M and 7.72x10 -4 M) contained in drinking water for 5 weeks prior to radiation exposure. The acute pre-treatment with caffeine reduced the radiation-induced frequency of chromosomal aberrations discernibly, whereas chronic pre-treatment afforded a much more significant degree of radioprotection. The caffeine post-treatment (5 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg body weight) was given in the form of an intraperitoneal injection to the mice immediately following whole-body γ-irradiation. It is noted that both post-treatment concentrations of caffeine also significantly reduced the frequency of chromosomal aberrations induced by γ-rays. These data are briefly discussed in terms of possible mechanistic considerations. (author). 33 refs.; 3 tabs

  12. Geophagy in chacma baboons: patterns of soil consumption by age class, sex, and reproductive state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pebsworth, Paula A; Bardi, Massimo; Huffman, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    Despite baboons' widespread distribution across Africa, geophagy among all subspecies has been poorly documented. We used video camera traps and soil analyses to investigate geophagy in chacma baboons (Papio cynocephalus ursinus) inhabiting the Western Cape of South Africa. During an 18-month study, from August 2009 to January 2011, we continually monitored the largest and most frequently visited geophagy sites with camera traps for 545 days and captured soil consumption at one or more sites on 266 of those days (49%). In 3,500 baboon visits to geophagy sites, video camera traps captured 58.6 hr of geophagy. From these data, we evaluated site preference based on time spent consuming soil among these four geophagy sites. One hundred and seventy days of soil consumption data from the most frequently visited geophagy site allowed us to look for demographic trends in geophagy. Selected consumed soils from geophagy sites were analyzed for mineral, physical, and chemical properties. The baboons spent more time consuming white alkaline soils with high percentages of clay and fine silt, which contained higher concentrations of sodium than non-white acidic soils that contained higher concentrations of iron. Our data indicate that pregnant chacma baboons spent more time consuming soil at monitored geophagy sites than baboons of any other age class, sex, or reproductive state. Based on analytical results, the soils consumed would be effective at alleviating gastrointestinal distress and possibly supplementing minerals for all age/sex classes, but potentially for different age/sex requirements. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. The enhancing effect of fractionated whole-body x-irradiation on replication of endogenous leukemia viruses in BALB/c mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamori, Yasuhiko; Okumoto, Masaaki; Iwai, Mineko; Iwai, Yoshiaki

    1976-01-01

    The incidence of leukemia, changes in the tissue weight of spleen and thymus, and the expression of endogenous viruses were examined with BALB/c mice following 4 weekly fractionated whole-body x-irradiation of 170 R each, starting at 4 weeks of age. The leukemia incidence was quite low for the unirradiated controls, while 60% of the irradiated male mice developed thymic lymphoma. The virus-positive cells appeared earlier in the spleen than in the thymus and bone marrow, and increased with aging. The time of appearance of virus-positive cells in these tissues was remarkably promoted by the fractionated x-irradiation, and its frequency was also enhanced. (auth.)

  14. Autoradiographic studies of cell kinetics after whole body x-ray irradiation. Part 1. Mode of death of lethally injured proliferating subependymal cells in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gracheva, N.D.

    1982-03-01

    Autoradiographic tests were performed on proliferating subependymal cells derived from the brain of Wistar rats treated with /sup 3/H-thymidine, 60 to 80 min prior to whole-body x-ray irradiation with 50, 150, or 300 R. Evaluation of the time-dependent increase in the fraction of radio-labeled cells and the two-fold lower concentration of the label in pycnotic nuclei indicated that the lethally-injured cells which were irradiated in the early G/sub 2/ and S phases were subjected to mitotic, rather than interphase, death in the first post-radiation cell cycle. Such cells underwent mitosis ca. 2 h after irradiation, showing a 1 h lag phase vis-a-vis control cells, irrespective of the radiation dose. 25 references, 5 figures.

  15. Pumpkin Seed Oil Attenuates Functional and Structural Disorders in Urogenital System of Male Albino Rats Induced by Whole Body Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezk, R.G.; Darwish, M.R

    2012-01-01

    Pumpkin seeds have long been used for health benefits and the seed oil has been shown to contain active beneficial components that may protect from oxidative stress. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the modulator role of pumpkin seed oil (PSO) supplementation on gamma radiation induced changes in certain biochemical and histological abnormalities in both kidney and testes tissues. Male rats received 5Gy whole body gamma-irradiation delivered as 1 Gy day after day to result in a cumulative dose of 5 Gy. PSO was orally administered to rats (20mg/Kg body weight) for 20 consecutive days before irradiation and during the period of irradiation. On days seven and twenty one after the last irradiation dose, rats were sacrificed. Biochemical analysis in the serum revealed that PSO supplementation diminished the radiation-induced increase in the level of urea, creatinine , follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). Significant amelioration of the radiation-induced decreases in calcium (Ca +2 ), potassium (K + ) and testosterone levels were also recorded. PSO administration has attenuated the toxic effects of radiation by decreasing the level of lipid peroxides measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and increasing the activity of endogenous antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and the content of glutathione (GSH). Histological observations of photomicrographs of kidney sections of irradiated rats showed amorphoid glomeruli, renal sclerosis and high content of inflammatory cells and fibroblasts, hemorrhage in glomeruli, ruptured proximal and distal convoluted tubules. Examination of testis tissues showed disappearance of seminiferous tubules, ruptured tunica albuginea, and degeneration of interstitial cells. PSO supplementation has obviously improved the radiation-induced histopathological changes in both tissues. It could be concluded that PSO can be used as a useful adjunct for maintaining

  16. Gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium, uranium and neptunium in fed and fasted adult baboons: Application to humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Larsen, R.P.; Oldham, R.D.; Moretti, E.S.; Cohen, N.; Ralston, L.G.; Ayres, L.

    1992-03-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) absorption values of plutonium, uranium, and neptunium were determined in fed and fasted adult baboons. A dual isotope method of determining GI absorption, which does not require animal sacrifice, was validated and shown to compare well with the sacrifice method (summation of oral isotope in urine with that in tissues at sacrifice). For all three elements, mean GI absorption values were significantly high (5- to 50-fold) in 24-hour (h)-fasted animals than in fed animals, and GI absorption values for baboons agreed well with those for humans

  17. Tissue irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hungate, F.P.; Riemath, W.F.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1975-01-01

    A tissue irradiator is provided for the in-vivo irradiation of body tissue. The irradiator comprises a radiation source material contained and completely encapsulated within vitreous carbon. An embodiment for use as an in-vivo blood irradiator comprises a cylindrical body having an axial bore therethrough. A radioisotope is contained within a first portion of vitreous carbon cylindrically surrounding the axial bore, and a containment portion of vitreous carbon surrounds the radioisotope containing portion, the two portions of vitreous carbon being integrally formed as a single unit. Connecting means are provided at each end of the cylindrical body to permit connections to blood-carrying vessels and to provide for passage of blood through the bore. In a preferred embodiment, the radioisotope is thulium-170 which is present in the irradiator in the form of thulium oxide. A method of producing the preferred blood irradiator is also provided, whereby nonradioactive thulium-169 is dispersed within a polyfurfuryl alcohol resin which is carbonized and fired to form the integral vitreous carbon body and the device is activated by neutron bombardment of the thulium-169 to produce the beta-emitting thulium-170

  18. Technical Note: Partial body irradiation of mice using a customized PMMA apparatus and a clinical 3D planning/LINAC radiotherapy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karagounis, Ilias V.; Koukourakis, Michael I., E-mail: targ@her.forthnet.gr, E-mail: mkoukour@med.duth.gr [Department of Radiotherapy–Oncology, Radiopathology and Radiobiology Unit, Medical School, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis 68100 (Greece); Abatzoglou, Ioannis M., E-mail: abadzoglou@yahoo.gr [Medical Physics Department, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Alexandroupolis 68100 (Greece)

    2016-05-15

    Purpose: In vivo radiobiology experiments involving partial body irradiation (PBI) of mice are of major importance because they allow for the evaluation of individual organ tolerance; overcoming current limitations of experiments using lower dose, whole body irradiation. In the current study, the authors characterize and validate an effective and efficient apparatus for multiple animal PBI, directed to the head, thorax, or abdomen of mice. Methods: The apparatus is made of polymethylmethacrylate and consists of a rectangular parallelepiped prism (40 cm × 16 cm × 8 cm), in which five holes were drilled to accomodate standard 60 ml syringes, each housing an unanesthetized, fully immobilized mouse. Following CT-scanning and radiotherapy treatment planning, radiation fields were designed to irradiate the head, thorax, or abdomen of the animal. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were used to confirm the treatment planning dosimetry for primary beam and scattered radiation. Results: Mice are efficiently placed into 60 ml syringes and immobilized, without the use of anesthetics. Although partial rotational movement around the longitudinal axis and a minor 2 mm forward/backward movement are permitted, this does not compromise the irradiation of the chosen body area. TLDs confirmed the dose values predicted by the treatment planning dosimetry, both for primary beam and scattered radiation. Conclusions: The customized PMMA apparatus described and validated is cost-effective, convenient to use, and efficient in performing PBI without the use of anesthesia. The developed apparatus permits the isolated irradiation of the mouse head, thorax, and abdomen. Importantly, the apparatus allows the delivery of PBI to five mice, simultaneously, representing an efficient way to effectively expose a large number of animals to PBI through multiple daily fractions, simulating clinical radiotherapy treatment schedules.

  19. Technical Note: Partial body irradiation of mice using a customized PMMA apparatus and a clinical 3D planning/LINAC radiotherapy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagounis, Ilias V; Abatzoglou, Ioannis M; Koukourakis, Michael I

    2016-05-01

    In vivo radiobiology experiments involving partial body irradiation (PBI) of mice are of major importance because they allow for the evaluation of individual organ tolerance; overcoming current limitations of experiments using lower dose, whole body irradiation. In the current study, the authors characterize and validate an effective and efficient apparatus for multiple animal PBI, directed to the head, thorax, or abdomen of mice. The apparatus is made of polymethylmethacrylate and consists of a rectangular parallelepiped prism (40 cm × 16 cm × 8 cm), in which five holes were drilled to accomodate standard 60 ml syringes, each housing an unanesthetized, fully immobilized mouse. Following CT-scanning and radiotherapy treatment planning, radiation fields were designed to irradiate the head, thorax, or abdomen of the animal. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were used to confirm the treatment planning dosimetry for primary beam and scattered radiation. Mice are efficiently placed into 60 ml syringes and immobilized, without the use of anesthetics. Although partial rotational movement around the longitudinal axis and a minor 2 mm forward/backward movement are permitted, this does not compromise the irradiation of the chosen body area. TLDs confirmed the dose values predicted by the treatment planning dosimetry, both for primary beam and scattered radiation. The customized PMMA apparatus described and validated is cost-effective, convenient to use, and efficient in performing PBI without the use of anesthesia. The developed apparatus permits the isolated irradiation of the mouse head, thorax, and abdomen. Importantly, the apparatus allows the delivery of PBI to five mice, simultaneously, representing an efficient way to effectively expose a large number of animals to PBI through multiple daily fractions, simulating clinical radiotherapy treatment schedules.

  20. Recovery of the proliferative and functional integrity of mouse bone marrow in long-term cultures established after whole-body irradiation at different doses and dose rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierkens, J.G.; Hendry, J.H.; Testa, N.G. (Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, Manchester (England))

    1991-02-01

    Injury inflicted upon the bone marrow stroma following whole-body irradiation and its repair over a 1-year period has been assessed in murine long-term bone marrow cultures established at increasing time intervals after irradiation. Different doses at different dose rates (10 Gy at 0.05 cGy/min, 4.5 Gy and 10 Gy at 1.6 cGy/min, and 4 x 4.5 Gy (3 weeks between doses) at 60 cGy/min) were chosen so as to maximize differences in effect in the stroma. The cellularity of the adherent layer in long-term cultures established 1 month after irradiation was reduced by 40%-90% depending on the dose and dose rate. Simultaneous with the poor ability of the marrow to form adherent layers, the cumulative spleen colony-forming unit (CFU-S) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming cell (GM-CFC) production over a 7-week period was reduced to 0% and 30% of control cultures, respectively. The slow recovery of the adherent layer was paralleled by an increase in the numbers of CFU-S and GM-CFC in the supernatant. Cultures established from repeatedly irradiated mice performed poorly over the entire 1-year period. Whereas the regeneration of the stroma was near complete 1 year after irradiation, the CFU-S and GM-CFC levels reached only between 50% and 80% of control cultures, respectively. Also, the concentration of CFU-S and GM-CFC in the supernatant remained persistently lower in cultures established from irradiated mice as compared to control cultures. The levels of sulfated glycosaminoglycans, which have been implicated in the establishment of the functional integrity of the microenvironment, were not reduced in the adherent layers at any time after irradiation. These results indicate that the regeneration of the stroma is accompanied by an incomplete recovery of active hemopoiesis in vitro.

  1. SIGN-R1 and complement factors are involved in the systemic clearance of radiation-induced apoptotic cells in whole-body irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin-Yeon; Loh, SoHee; Cho, Eun-hee [Department of Biomedical Science & Technology, Konkuk University, 1 Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hyeong-Jwa [Division of Radiation Effect, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 215-4, 75 Nowon gil Nowon-Gu, Seoul, 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Na, Tae-Young [College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-741 (Korea, Republic of); Nemeno, Judee Grace E.; Lee, Jeong Ik [Regenerative Medicine Laboratory, Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, Seoul, 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Taek Joon [Department of Food and Nutrition, Yuhan College, Bucheon, Gyeonggi-do, 422-749 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, In-Soo [Department of Infectious Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, 1 Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Minyoung [Division of Radiation Effect, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 215-4, 75 Nowon gil Nowon-Gu, Seoul, 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae-Seon [Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, Inha University, Incheon, 400-712 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Young-Sun, E-mail: kangys1967@naver.com [Department of Biomedical Science & Technology, Konkuk University, 1 Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, 1 Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, 143-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-07

    Although SIGN-R1-mediated complement activation pathway has been shown to enhance the systemic clearance of apoptotic cells, the role of SIGN-R1 in the clearance of radiation-induced apoptotic cells has not been characterized and was investigated in this study. Our data indicated that whole-body γ-irradiation of mice increased caspase-3{sup +} apoptotic lymphocyte numbers in secondary lymphoid organs. Following γ-irradiation, SIGN-R1 and complements (C4 and C3) were simultaneously increased only in the mice spleen tissue among the assessed tissues. In particular, C3 was exclusively activated in the spleen. The delayed clearance of apoptotic cells was markedly prevalent in the spleen and liver of SIGN-R1 KO mice, followed by a significant increase of CD11b{sup +} cells. These results indicate that SIGN-R1 and complement factors play an important role in the systemic clearance of radiation-induced apoptotic innate immune cells to maintain tissue homeostasis after γ-irradiation. - Highlights: • Splenic SIGN-R1{sup +} macrophages are activated after γ-irradiation. • C3 and C4 levels increased and C3 was activated in the spleen after γ-irradiation. • SIGN-R1 mediated the systemic clearance of radiation-induced apoptotic cells in spleen and liver.

  2. Calibration of semiconductors diodes for in vivo dosimetry in total body irradiation treatments; Calibracao de diodos semicondutores para dosimetria in vivo em tratamentos de irradiacao de corpo inteiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Fernanda F.; Costa, Alessandro M.; Ghilardi Netto, Thomaz, E-mail: ferretti.oliveira@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FFCLRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias e Letras. Departamento de Fisica; Amaral, Leonardo L. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (HCFMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Radioterapia

    2012-08-15

    This paper presents the results of in vivo dosimetry with p-type semiconductors diodes, EDP-15 (Scanditronix Wellhoefer) of two patients who underwent total body irradiation treatments, at Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto University of Sao Paulo (HCFMRP-USP). The diodes were well calibrated and the calibration factors were determined with the aid of a reference ionization chamber (FC065, IBA dosimetry, sensitive volume of 0.65 cm{sup 3}).The calibration was performed in a Total Body Irradiation (TBI) setup, using solid water phantoms. Different lateral thicknesses from one patient were simulated and then the calibration factors were determined by means of maximum depth dose readings (half of the lateral thickness). The response difference between diode readings and the prescribed dose for both treatments was below 4%. This difference is in agreement as recommended by International Commission on Radiation Units (ICRU), which is {+-}5%. (author)

  3. Pathomorphological studies of the radiation syndrome in sheep after whole-body irradiation with X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johannsen, U.; Mehlhorn, G.; Koch, F.; Panndorf, H.

    1978-01-01

    Eight one-year-old Merino mutton sheep were irradiated with X-ray doses of 380 R. Five of the animals died between the 16th and 25th day after irradiation and were examined. In organs and tissues a great diversity of pathological changes was observed as for instance hematopoietic disorders, septic processes, hemorrhagic diatheses, and partial epilation

  4. Total-body irradiation - role and indications. Results from the German Registry for Stem Cell Transplantation (DRST)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinzelmann, F.; Bamberg, M.; Belka, C. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. of Tuebingen (Germany); Ottinger, H. [German Registry for Stem Cell Transplantation (DRST) Secretary, Univ. of Essen (Germany); Mueller, C.H.; Allgaier, S. [DRST Datacenter, DRK Bloodbank Center Ulm (Germany); Faul, C. [Dept. of Internal Medicine II, Univ. of Tuebingen (Germany)

    2006-04-15

    Background and purpose: total-body irradiation (TBI) is a key part of the conditioning regimen before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The exact role of TBI as part of the conditioning regimen is largely unclear. In order to determine the relevance of TBI, the status of TBI utilization was analyzed on the basis of a nationwide registry. Material and methods: 14,371 patients (1998-2002) documented in the German Stem Cell Transplantation Registry (DRST) were analyzed regarding TBI utilization prior to autologous or allogeneic transplantation, underlying disorder, type of donor, stem cell source, and size of the treatment center. Results: for autologous HSCT {proportional_to}10% of the patients (873/8,167) received TBI, with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL, {proportional_to}80%, 171/214) and low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (l-NHL, {proportional_to}35%, 330/929) being the most important disorders. In the allogeneic setting 50% of the patients (2,399/4,904) received TBI, with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL, 85%, 794/930), acute myeloid leukemia (AML, 45%, 662/1,487) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML, 49%, 561/1,156) being the key indications. The type of donor, stem cell source and center size did not strongly influence the use of TBI. Conclusion: TBI has only a limited role for the conditioning prior to autologous HCST. For allogeneic HSCT TBI is widely accepted with no major changes over the observation time. The use of TBI is generally accepted for ALL, whereas approximately half of the patients with CML or AML received TBI. Although a considerably large database was analyzed, no clear determinants for the use of TBI could be distinguished. (orig.)

  5. The Total Body Irradiation Schedule Affects Acute Leukemia Relapse After Matched T Cell–Depleted Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aristei, Cynthia; Carotti, Alessandra; Palazzari, Elisa; Amico, Lucia; Ruggeri, Loredana; Perrucci, Elisabetta; Falcinelli, Lorenzo; Lancellotta, Valentina; Palumbo, Isabella; Falzetti, Franca; Aversa, Franco; Merluzzi, Mara; Velardi, Andrea; Martelli, Massimo Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We sought to determine whether the total body irradiation (TBI) schedule affected outcome in patients with acute leukemia in complete remission who received T cell–depleted allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from HLA identical siblings. Methods and Materials: The study recruited 55 patients (median age, 48 years; age range, 20-66 years; 30 men and 25 women; 34 with acute myeloid leukemia and 21 with acute lymphoid leukemia). Hyperfractionated TBI (HTBI) (1.2 Gy thrice daily for 4 days [for a total dose of 14.4 Gy] from day −12 to day −9) was administered to 29 patients. Single-dose TBI (STBI) (8 Gy, at a median dose rate of 10.7 cGy/min on day −9) was given to 26 patients. Results: All patients achieved primary, sustained engraftment with full donor-type chimerism. At 10 years, the overall cumulative incidence of transplant-related mortality was 11% (SE, ±0.1%). It was 7% (SE, ±0.2%) after HTBI and 15% (SE, ±0.5%) after STBI (P=.3). The overall cumulative incidence of relapse was 33% (SE, ±0.5). It was 13% (SE, ±0.5%) after HTBI and 46% (SE, ±1%) after STBI (P=.02). The overall probability of disease-free survival (DFS) was 59% (SE, ±7%). It was 67% (SE, ±0.84%) after HTBI and 37% (SE, ±1.4%) after STBI (P=.01). Multivariate analyses showed the TBI schedule was the only risk factor that significantly affected relapse and DFS (P=.01 and P=.03, respectively). Conclusions: In patients with acute leukemia, HTBI is more efficacious than STBI in eradicating minimal residual disease after HLA-matched T cell–depleted hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, thus affecting DFS.

  6. Total-body irradiation - role and indications. Results from the German Registry for Stem Cell Transplantation (DRST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinzelmann, F.; Bamberg, M.; Belka, C.; Ottinger, H.; Mueller, C.H.; Allgaier, S.; Faul, C.

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: total-body irradiation (TBI) is a key part of the conditioning regimen before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The exact role of TBI as part of the conditioning regimen is largely unclear. In order to determine the relevance of TBI, the status of TBI utilization was analyzed on the basis of a nationwide registry. Material and methods: 14,371 patients (1998-2002) documented in the German Stem Cell Transplantation Registry (DRST) were analyzed regarding TBI utilization prior to autologous or allogeneic transplantation, underlying disorder, type of donor, stem cell source, and size of the treatment center. Results: for autologous HSCT ∝10% of the patients (873/8,167) received TBI, with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL, ∝80%, 171/214) and low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (l-NHL, ∝35%, 330/929) being the most important disorders. In the allogeneic setting 50% of the patients (2,399/4,904) received TBI, with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL, 85%, 794/930), acute myeloid leukemia (AML, 45%, 662/1,487) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML, 49%, 561/1,156) being the key indications. The type of donor, stem cell source and center size did not strongly influence the use of TBI. Conclusion: TBI has only a limited role for the conditioning prior to autologous HCST. For allogeneic HSCT TBI is widely accepted with no major changes over the observation time. The use of TBI is generally accepted for ALL, whereas approximately half of the patients with CML or AML received TBI. Although a considerably large database was analyzed, no clear determinants for the use of TBI could be distinguished. (orig.)

  7. p38 MAPK Inhibitor Insufficiently Attenuates HSC Senescence Administered Long-Term after 6 Gy Total Body Irradiation in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Lu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Senescent hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs accumulate with age and exposure to stress, such as total-body irradiation (TBI, which may cause long-term myelosuppression in the clinic. However, the methods available for long-term myelosuppression remain limited. Previous studies have demonstrated that sustained p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38 MAPK activation in HSCs following exposure to TBI in mice and the administration of its inhibitor twenty-four hours after TBI may partially prevent long-term myelosuppression. However, long-term myelosuppression is latent and identified long after the administration of radiation. In this study, we investigated the effects of SB203580 (a small molecule inhibitor of p38 MAPK on long-term myelosuppression induced by TBI. Mice with hematopoietic injury were injected intraperitoneally with SB203580 every other day five times beginning 70 days after 6 Gy of 137Cs γ ray TBI. Our results at 80 days demonstrated that SB203580 did not significantly improve the TBI-induced long-term reduction of peripheral blood cell and bone marrow nucleated cell (BMNC counts, or defects in hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs and HSC clonogenic function. SB203580 reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS production and p-p38 expression; however, SB203580 had no effect on p16 expression in the HSCs of mice. In conclusion, these findings suggest that treatment with SB203580 70 days after TBI in mice inhibits the ROS-p38 oxidative stress pathway; however, it has no therapeutic effect on long-term myelosuppression induced by TBI.

  8. The Total Body Irradiation Schedule Affects Acute Leukemia Relapse After Matched T Cell–Depleted Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aristei, Cynthia, E-mail: cynthia.aristei@unipg.it [Radiation Oncology Section, Department of Surgery and Biomedical Sciences, University of Perugia and Perugia General Hospital, Perugia (Italy); Carotti, Alessandra [Division of Hematology and Clinical Immunology and Bone Marrow Transplant Program, Department of Medicine, Perugia General Hospital and University, Perugia (Italy); Palazzari, Elisa [Radiation Oncology Section, University of Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Amico, Lucia; Ruggeri, Loredana [Division of Hematology and Clinical Immunology and Bone Marrow Transplant Program, Department of Medicine, Perugia General Hospital and University, Perugia (Italy); Perrucci, Elisabetta; Falcinelli, Lorenzo [Radiation Oncology Division, Perugia General Hospital, Perugia (Italy); Lancellotta, Valentina [Radiation Oncology Section, University of Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Palumbo, Isabella [Radiation Oncology Section, Department of Surgery and Biomedical Sciences, University of Perugia and Perugia General Hospital, Perugia (Italy); Falzetti, Franca [Division of Hematology and Clinical Immunology and Bone Marrow Transplant Program, Department of Medicine, Perugia General Hospital and University, Perugia (Italy); Aversa, Franco [Hematology and Bone Marrow Transplant Unit, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Parma General Hospital and University, Parma (Italy); Merluzzi, Mara; Velardi, Andrea; Martelli, Massimo Fabrizio [Division of Hematology and Clinical Immunology and Bone Marrow Transplant Program, Department of Medicine, Perugia General Hospital and University, Perugia (Italy)

    2016-11-15

    Purpose: We sought to determine whether the total body irradiation (TBI) schedule affected outcome in patients with acute leukemia in complete remission who received T cell–depleted allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from HLA identical siblings. Methods and Materials: The study recruited 55 patients (median age, 48 years; age range, 20-66 years; 30 men and 25 women; 34 with acute myeloid leukemia and 21 with acute lymphoid leukemia). Hyperfractionated TBI (HTBI) (1.2 Gy thrice daily for 4 days [for a total dose of 14.4 Gy] from day −12 to day −9) was administered to 29 patients. Single-dose TBI (STBI) (8 Gy, at a median dose rate of 10.7 cGy/min on day −9) was given to 26 patients. Results: All patients achieved primary, sustained engraftment with full donor-type chimerism. At 10 years, the overall cumulative incidence of transplant-related mortality was 11% (SE, ±0.1%). It was 7% (SE, ±0.2%) after HTBI and 15% (SE, ±0.5%) after STBI (P=.3). The overall cumulative incidence of relapse was 33% (SE, ±0.5). It was 13% (SE, ±0.5%) after HTBI and 46% (SE, ±1%) after STBI (P=.02). The overall probability of disease-free survival (DFS) was 59% (SE, ±7%). It was 67% (SE, ±0.84%) after HTBI and 37% (SE, ±1.4%) after STBI (P=.01). Multivariate analyses showed the TBI schedule was the only risk factor that significantly affected relapse and DFS (P=.01 and P=.03, respectively). Conclusions: In patients with acute leukemia, HTBI is more efficacious than STBI in eradicating minimal residual disease after HLA-matched T cell–depleted hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, thus affecting DFS.

  9. Morphological study of the effect of cyclophosphamide, dimethylmyleran and whole-body irradiation for the conditioning of dogs to bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, L.

    1980-01-01

    Dogs were treated with either cyclophosphamide (CY) or dimethylmyleran (DMM), both cytostatics or with total body irradiation (TBI) in order to find out which agents are most suitable for conditioning for bone marrow (BM) transplantation. The histomorphological changes in various organs (lung, bone marrow, lymphatic tissues, digestive tract, liver, kidney, bladder, heart and gonads) after treatment with different doses are described. (orig./MG) [de

  10. The early irradiation syndrome. A study of the functional changes in the rabbit following whole-body γ exposure at sublethale doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufour, R.; Collignon, Y.; Vincent, F.

    1975-01-01

    A method of simultaneous observation of several physiological functions was developed in the unanaesthetized rabbit. Arterial blood pressure, local brain circulation, internal body temperature and arterial blodd acido-basic balance were thus followed before, during and after γ-irradiation. There appeared two periods in the development of this early syndrome: they were related to two processes, a central one, mainly of sympathetic origin was hardly sensitive to the dose, the other is dose-dependent [fr

  11. Effect of gamma irradiation on sex chromatin body appearance and the sex chromosome aberrations in the potato tuber moth, phthorimaea operculella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makee, H.

    2007-01-01

    Genetic sexing technique based on the construction of a Balanced Lethal Strain (BLS) has been proposed for Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller). The isolation of female with T(W. Z) translocation is a fundamental step to develop such strain. Gamma irradiation was used to induce the requested translocations. The availability of sex-linked morphological marker is required to facilitate the detection of such mutations. Since a visible sex-linked marker has not been found in P. operculella, therefore main aim of our study was to determine the possibility of using sex heterochromatin body as a marker to identify the required translocated females. The appearance of sex heterochromatin body and the analysis of sex chromosomes in F1 females of irradiated P. operculella females were investigated. The percentage of abnormality in sex heterochromatin body in highly polyploid Malpighian tubule nuclei was increased by increasing the applied dose. Based on the appearance of this body, 3 mutant lines were isolated: elongated, small, fragmented lines. W chromosome was easily distinguished from Z chromosome when the analysis of pachytene sex chromosome bivalents of P. operculella females was carried out. The aberrations involved W chromosome directly influenced the appearance of sex heterochromatin body in highly polyploid somatic cells of the isolated mutant lines. The results showed that sex heterochromatin could be used as sex determination and cytogenetic marker in P. operculella. (Author)

  12. Effect of gamma irradiation on sex chromatin body appearance and the sex chromosome aberrations in the potato tuber moth, phthorimaea operculella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makee, H.

    2006-05-01

    Genetic sexing technique based on the construction of a Balanced Lethal Strain (BLS) has been proposed for Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller). The isolation of female with T(W; Z) translocation is a fundamental step to develop such strain. Gamma irradiation was used to induce the requested translocations. The availability of sex-linked morphological marker is required to facilitate the detection of such mutations. Since a visible sex-linked marker has not been found in P. operculella, therefore main aim of our study was to determine the possibility of using sex heterochromatin body as a marker to identify the required translocated females. The appearance of sex heterochromatin body and the analysis of sex chromosomes in F1 females of irradiated P. operculella females were investigated. The percentage of abnormality in sex heterochromatin body in highly polyploid Malpighian tubule nuclei was increased by increasing the applied dose. Based on the appearance of this body, 3 mutant lines were isolated: elongated, small, fragmented lines. W chromosome was easily distinguished from Z chromosome when the analysis of pachytene sex chromosome bivalents of P. operculella females was carried out. The aberrations involved W chromosome directly influenced the appearance of sex heterochromatin body in highly polyploid somatic cells of the isolated mutant lines. The results showed that sex heterochromatin could be used as sex determination and cytogenetic marker in P. operculella. (Author)

  13. Histopathological studies show protective efficacy of Hippophae leaf extract against damage to jejunum in whole body 60Co-a-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Manish; Prasad, Jagdish; Madhu Bala

    2012-01-01

    Background: Ionizing radiation affect living tissue by causing majority of in vivo damage by free radical production. Earlier we reported that our preparation from Hippophae leaf offered survival benefit to >90% mice population which was whole body irradiated ( 60 Co-a-rays, 10 Gy). Objective: This study was planned to examine the protective effects of our drug (from Hippophae leaf) on ( 60 Co-a-ray induced oxidative damage and histopathological changes in jejunum. Methods: Around 2 months old adult male Strain 'A' mice were irradiated (10 Gy). Drug was administered intraperitoneally (-30 mm.). Histological parameters were studied after staining the sections with hematoxylin and eosin. Malondialdehyde formation (index of lipid peroxidation), alkaline phosphatase activity, and total thiol content were determined by biochemical techniques. The data was obtained at different time interval upto 30 days. Results: Biochemical studies showed that in comparison to the untreated controls, in the irradiated (10 Gy) mice, there was significant increase in the alkaline phosphatase activity and level of malondialdehyde whereas decrease in total thiol content within 2 days. Histological studies showed that whole body irradiation (10 Gy), damaged the jejunam crypt cells and decreased the villi height within 2 days. Intra-peritoneal administration of drug, 30 mm prior to irradiation, protected the crypt cells and villi height, countered the radiation induced increase in alkaline phosphatase activity and lipid peroxidation and values were comparable to the level of control in 30 days. Conclusions: These biochemical and histopathological studies suggested that our drug can offer effective radioprotection against the oxidative damage to jejunum in vivo. (author)

  14. Effect of menstrual cycle phase and hormonal treatments on evaluation of tubal patency in baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jeffrey T; Hanna, Carol; Mishler, Emily; Lim, Jeong Y; Slayden, Ov D

    2018-02-01

    We evaluated whether menstrual cycle phase influences the assessment of tubal patency by hysterosalpingography (HSG) in baboons. Retrospective analysis of baseline tubal patency studies and serum estradiol (E 2 ) and progesterone (P4) values obtained from female baboons used as models for development of non-surgical permanent contraception in women. The main outcome measure was bilateral tubal patency (BTP) in relationship with estradiol level. Female baboons (n = 110) underwent a single (n = 81), two (n = 26), or three (n = 3) HSG examinations. In 33/142 (23%) HSG examinations, one or both tubes showed functional occlusion (FO). The median E 2 in studies with BTP (49 pg/mL) was significantly higher than in those studies with FO (32 pg/mL, P = .005). Among 18 animals with repeat examinations where serum E 2 changed from <60 to ≥ 60 pg/mL, 13 results changed from FO to BTP (P = .0001). No sets showed a change from BTP to FO with an increase in estradiol. In baboons, functional occlusion of the fallopian tube is associated with low estradiol levels, supporting a role for estrogen-mediated relaxation of the utero-tubal junction. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Medical Primatology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Aromatase inhibitor treatment limits progression of peritoneal endometriosis in baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langoi, David; Pavone, Mary Ellen; Gurates, Bilgin; Chai, Daniel; Fazleabas, Asgerally; Bulun, Serdar E

    2013-03-01

    To determine the effect of inhibiting aromatase activity on endometrial lesion growth and aromatase expression in a baboon model of induced endometriosis. Prospective study. Primate research institute. Sixteen olive baboons. Sixteen olive baboons with induced endometriosis were examined with laparoscopy 10 months after disease inoculation. Animals in group 1 (n = 10) were treated with 1.25 mg/d of the aromatase inhibitor (AI) letrozole, and animals in group 2 (n = 6) were given a placebo for a total of 6 months. Total number of endometriotic lesions, morphology, and volume of lesions, as well as semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and quantitative polymerase chain reaction for levels of aromatase cytochrome messenger RNA were measured. Ovarian volumes were evaluated before treatment initiation and every 2 months during the study. Treatment of group 1 animals with an AI significantly decreased lesion volume from baseline measurements, whereas the placebo-treated animals showed an increase in lesion volume. Aromatase messenger RNA levels in lesions in the AI-treated animals were significantly lower compared with the placebo-treated animals. Ovarian volumes were significantly increased at 6 months of AI treatment compared with pretreatment volumes. These findings suggest that suppression of aromatase cytochrome P450 may inhibit the in vivo growth of endometriotic lesions in baboons. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. An Assessment Of The Efficacy Of Dfmo In Baboons (Papio Anubis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The disease also disrupted the circadian rhythmicity of sleep and wakefulness between weeks 8 and 10 when the animals were in the classical diurnal sleepiness with 8 - 10 sleep episodes and nocturnal restlessness. All the infected baboons died from the attendant disease between the 8 and 10 weeks of infection.

  17. Sarcoglycan complex in masseter and sternocleidomastoid muscles of baboons: an immunohistochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Cutroneo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The sarcoglycan complex consists of a group of single-pass transmembrane glycoproteins that are essential to maintain the integrity of muscle membranes. Any mutation in each sarcoglycan gene causes a series of recessive autosomal dystrophin-positive muscular dystrophies. Negative fibres for sarcoglycans have never been found in healthy humans and animals. In this study, we have investigated whether the social ranking has an influence on the expression of sarcoglycans in the skeletal muscles of healthy baboons. Biopsies of masseter and sternocleidomastoid muscles were processed for confocal immunohistochemical detection of sarcoglycans. Our findings showed that baboons from different social rankings exhibited different sarcoglycan expression profiles. While in dominant baboons almost all muscles were stained for sarcoglycans, only 55% of muscle fibres showed a significant staining. This different expression pattern is likely to be due to the living conditions of these primates. Sarcoglycans which play a key role in muscle activity by controlling contractile forces may influence the phenotype of muscle fibres, thus determining an adaptation to functional conditions. We hypothesize that this intraspecies variation reflects an epigenetic modification of the muscular protein network that allows baboons to adapt progressively to a different social status.

  18. Rank and grooming reciprocity among females in a mixed-sex group of captive hamadryas baboons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leinfelder, I.; Vries, Han de; Deleu, R.; Nelissen, M.

    2001-01-01

    In a mixed-sex, captive group of hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas hamadryas) we investigated whether female grooming relationships are affected by their dominance ranks. Seyfarths [1977] grooming for support model and Barrett et al.s [1999] biological market model both predict that in primate

  19. The average baboon brain: MRI templates and tissue probability maps from 89 individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Scott A; Marie, Damien; Roth, Muriel; Lacoste, Romain; Nazarian, Bruno; Bertello, Alice; Coulon, Olivier; Anton, Jean-Luc; Meguerditchian, Adrien

    2016-05-15

    The baboon (Papio) brain is a remarkable model for investigating the brain. The current work aimed at creating a population-average baboon (Papio anubis) brain template and its left/right hemisphere symmetric version from a large sample of T1-weighted magnetic resonance images collected from 89 individuals. Averaging the prior probability maps output during the segmentation of each individual also produced the first baboon brain tissue probability maps for gray matter, white matter and cerebrospinal fluid. The templates and the tissue probability maps were created using state-of-the-art, freely available software tools and are being made freely and publicly available: http://www.nitrc.org/projects/haiko89/ or http://lpc.univ-amu.fr/spip.php?article589. It is hoped that these images will aid neuroimaging research of the baboon by, for example, providing a modern, high quality normalization target and accompanying standardized coordinate system as well as probabilistic priors that can be used during tissue segmentation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Live Attenuated Pertussis Vaccine BPZE1 Protects Baboons Against Bordetella pertussis Disease and Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papin, James F.; Lecher, Sophie; Debrie, Anne-Sophie; Thalen, Marcel; Solovay, Ken; Rubin, Keith; Mielcarek, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Evidence suggests that the resurgence of pertussis in many industrialized countries may result from the failure of current vaccines to prevent nasopharyngeal colonization by Bordetella pertussis, the principal causative agent of whooping cough. Here, we used a baboon model to test the protective potential of the novel, live attenuated pertussis vaccine candidate BPZE1. A single intranasal/intratracheal inoculation of juvenile baboons with BPZE1 resulted in transient nasopharyngeal colonization and induction of immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin A to all antigens tested, while causing no adverse symptoms or leukocytosis. When BPZE1-vaccinated baboons were challenged with a high dose of a highly virulent B. pertussis isolate, they were fully protected against disease, whereas naive baboons developed illness (with 1 death) and leukocytosis. Total postchallenge nasopharyngeal virulent bacterial burden of vaccinated animals was substantially reduced (0.002%) compared to naive controls, providing promising evidence in nonhuman primates that BPZE1 protects against both pertussis disease and B. pertussis infection. PMID:28535276

  1. Microsomal drug-metabolizing enzymes in the olive baboon (papio anabis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autrup, Herman; Thurlow, Brenda J.; Wakhisi, Johnston

    1975-01-01

    1.1. The activity of microsomal drug-metabolizing enzymes—azo reductase, nitroreductase, p-hydroxylation, N-demethylation, O-demethylation, NADPH cytochrome c reductase and cytochrome P P-450—in the olive baboon are lower than in other animal species, e.g. mouse, rat, guinea-pig. 2. 2. The level...

  2. Phosphate Ion Exchange Resin Used in the Liquid Preservation of Baboon Red Blood Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-08

    phlebotomy each baboon was sedated with 30 mg of phencyclidine hydrochloride (Sernylan) or with 130 mg of pentobarbital . Using an 18-gauge needle and an AE-2...REFERENCES 1. Valeri CR. Blood banking and the use of frozen blood products. Boca Raton : CRC Press, 1976:35-48. 2. Benesch R, Benesch RE. The effect of

  3. The endocannabinoid system in the baboon (Papio spp.) as a complex framework for developmental pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Sanchez, Iram P; Guindon, Josee; Ruiz, Marco; Tejero, M Elizabeth; Hubbard, Gene; Martinez-de-Villarreal, Laura E; Barrera-Saldaña, Hugo A; Dick, Edward J; Comuzzie, Anthony G; Schlabritz-Loutsevitch, Natalia E

    The consumption of marijuana (exogenous cannabinoid) almost doubled in adults during last decade. Consumption of exogenous cannabinoids interferes with the endogenous cannabinoid (or "endocannabinoid" (eCB)) system (ECS), which comprises N-arachidonylethanolamide (anandamide, AEA), 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG), endocannabinoid receptors (cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2 (CB1R and CB2R), encoded by CNR1 and CNR2, respectively), and synthesizing/degrading enzymes (FAAH, fatty-acid amide hydrolase; MAGL, monoacylglycerol lipase; DAGL-α, diacylglycerol lipase-alpha). Reports regarding the toxic and therapeutic effects of pharmacological compounds targeting the ECS are sometimes contradictory. This may be caused by the fact that structure of the eCBs varies in the species studied. First: to clone and characterize the cDNAs of selected members of ECS in a non-human primate (baboon, Papio spp.), and second: to compare those cDNA sequences to known human structural variants (single nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotypes). Polymerase chain reaction-amplified gene products from baboon tissues were transformed into Escherichia coli. Amplicon-positive clones were sequenced, and the obtained sequences were conceptually translated into amino-acid sequences using the genetic code. Among the ECS members, CNR1 was the best conserved gene between humans and baboons. The phenotypes associated with mutations in the untranslated regions of this gene in humans have not been described in baboons. One difference in the structure of CNR2 between humans and baboons was detected in the region with the only known clinically relevant polymorphism in a human receptor. All of the differences in the amino-acid structure of DAGL-α between humans and baboons were located in the hydroxylase domain, close to phosphorylation sites. None of the differences in the amino-acid structure of MAGL observed between baboons and humans were located in the area critical for enzyme function. The evaluation of

  4. Gene therapy strategy to reduced bone marrow aplasia: evaluation in cynomolgus macaque exposed to a gamma total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becard, N.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess whether direct intra-marrow injection of an adeno-viral vector expressing human IL-1α gene stimulates hematopoiesis in healthy non-irradiated and gamma irradiated cynomolgus macaques. In the first hand, we have evaluated the feasibility of this gene therapy strategy in two healthy non-irradiated macaques. In this work, we have observed an increase of neutrophil, monocyte and platelets in the two animals treated with the therapeutic construct. This effect was associated with no abnormal clinical side effect. On the other hand, we have evaluated this strategy in non-human primate exposed to a sublethal gamma irradiation. Two of three animals treated by the therapeutic construct reduced significantly the neutropenia, thrombocytopenia and anemia radio-induced. In conclusion, this gene therapy strategy gave a similar clinical benefit comparatively to systemic administration of huIL-1α but without severe side effect. (author) [fr

  5. Effects of whole-body irradiation on the degradation of 125I insulin and Na131I insulin in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, M.

    1980-01-01

    The degradation of simultaneously (i.v.) injected Na 131 I- and 125 I-bovine insuline by rabbit blood and the urinary excretion of Na 131 I- and 125 I-containing insulin degradation products have been investigated before and 24 h after 700 R X-ray irradiation. Also, the distribution of the two substances in the livers, kidneys, spleens, and KI-blocked thyroids was observed after irradiation. Radiation effects on the distribution of Na 131 I- and 125 I-insulin on the livers, kidneys, and spleens of rabbits were not observed. On irradiation, there was a significant reduction of diuresis and also of the urinary excretion of 131 I and 125 I radioactivity. Irradiation had no influence on the distribution of Na 131 I-and 125 I-insulin between plasma and extravascular space. The renal excretion function for water, iodide, and insulin degradation products was clearly impaired after irradiation. The same applies to the insulincatabolism by the degrading organs. The leukocyte count was reduced to about 17% during the first 4 days after irradiation. (orig./MG) [de

  6. Activation of immune functions via induction of glutathione of lymphocytes by low-dose, whole-body irradiation with gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuji Kojima; Hisatake Hayase; Mareyuki Takahashi

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. We have recently found that low doses of radiation, unlike higher doses, do not always cause a decrease of cellular glutathione, but they can increase it, leading to an elevation of Con A-induced proliferation of splenocytes. In this study, we first examined whether the increase of glutathione level induced by low-dose gamma-ray irradiation is involved in the appearance of enhanced natural killer (NK) activity and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), leading to delayed tumor growth in Ehrlich solid tumor (EST)-bearing mice. NK activity in ICR mouse splenocytes was significantly increased from 4 h to 6 h after a single whole-body gamma-ray irradiation at 0.5 Gy, and thereafter decreased almost to the zero-time level by 24 h post-irradiation. ADCC was also increased significantly in a similar way. Reduced glutathione exogenously added to splenocytes obtained from normal mice enhanced both NK activity and ADCC in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibitory effect of the radiation on tumor growth was then examined in EST-bearing mice. Repeated low-dose irradiation (0.5 Gy, four times, before and within an early time after the inoculation) significantly delayed the tumor growth. Finally, the effect of single low-dose (0.5 Gy), whole-body gamma-ray irradiation on immune balance (Th1/Th2) was examined in order to elucidate the mechanism underlying the anti-tumor immunity. Recent studies indicate that Th1/Th2 balance plays an important role in the immune responses involved in anti-tumor immunity. The activity of NK is hallmarks of cell-mediated immunity, and play key roles in anti-tumor immunity. The percentage of B cells in blood lymphocytes was selectively decreased after the radiation, concomitantly with an increase in that of helper T cell population, favoring Th1 polarization. The IFN-gamma level in splenocyte culture prepared from EST-bearing mice was significantly increased 48 h after the radiation, though the level of

  7. Pleistocene aridification cycles shaped the contemporary genetic architecture of Southern African baboons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riashna Sithaldeen

    Full Text Available Plio-Pleistocene environmental change influenced the evolutionary history of many animal lineages in Africa, highlighting key roles for both climate and tectonics in the evolution of Africa's faunal diversity. Here, we explore diversification in the southern African chacma baboon Papio ursinus sensu lato and reveal a dominant role for increasingly arid landscapes during past glacial cycles in shaping contemporary genetic structure. Recent work on baboons (Papio spp. supports complex lineage structuring with a dominant pulse of diversification occurring 1-2Ma, and yet the link to palaeoenvironmental change remains largely untested. Phylogeographic reconstruction based on mitochondrial DNA sequence data supports a scenario where chacma baboon populations were likely restricted to refugia during periods of regional cooling and drying through the Late Pleistocene. The two lineages of chacma baboon, ursinus and griseipes, are strongly geographically structured, and demographic reconstruction together with spatial analysis of genetic variation point to possible climate-driven isolating events where baboons may have retreated to more optimum conditions during cooler, drier periods. Our analysis highlights a period of continuous population growth beginning in the Middle to Late Pleistocene in both the ursinus and the PG2 griseipes lineages. All three clades identified in the study then enter a state of declining population size (Nef through to the Holocene; this is particularly marked in the last 20,000 years, most likely coincident with the Last Glacial Maximum. The pattern recovered here conforms to expectations based on the dynamic regional climate trends in southern Africa through the Pleistocene and provides further support for complex patterns of diversification in the region's biodiversity.

  8. Pleistocene aridification cycles shaped the contemporary genetic architecture of Southern African baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sithaldeen, Riashna; Ackermann, Rebecca Rogers; Bishop, Jacqueline M

    2015-01-01

    Plio-Pleistocene environmental change influenced the evolutionary history of many animal lineages in Africa, highlighting key roles for both climate and tectonics in the evolution of Africa's faunal diversity. Here, we explore diversification in the southern African chacma baboon Papio ursinus sensu lato and reveal a dominant role for increasingly arid landscapes during past glacial cycles in shaping contemporary genetic structure. Recent work on baboons (Papio spp.) supports complex lineage structuring with a dominant pulse of diversification occurring 1-2Ma, and yet the link to palaeoenvironmental change remains largely untested. Phylogeographic reconstruction based on mitochondrial DNA sequence data supports a scenario where chacma baboon populations were likely restricted to refugia during periods of regional cooling and drying through the Late Pleistocene. The two lineages of chacma baboon, ursinus and griseipes, are strongly geographically structured, and demographic reconstruction together with spatial analysis of genetic variation point to possible climate-driven isolating events where baboons may have retreated to more optimum conditions during cooler, drier periods. Our analysis highlights a period of continuous population growth beginning in the Middle to Late Pleistocene in both the ursinus and the PG2 griseipes lineages. All three clades identified in the study then enter a state of declining population size (Nef) through to the Holocene; this is particularly marked in the last 20,000 years, most likely coincident with the Last Glacial Maximum. The pattern recovered here conforms to expectations based on the dynamic regional climate trends in southern Africa through the Pleistocene and provides further support for complex patterns of diversification in the region's biodiversity.

  9. Studies on immunity to Schistosoma mansoni in vivo: whole-body irradiation has no effect on vaccine-induced resistance in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vignali, D.A.A.; Bickle, Q.D.; Taylor, M.G.

    1988-01-01

    Actively immunized mice, whole-body irradiated with 650 or 525 rad., manifested comparable levels of resistance to Schistosoma mansoni compared with unirradiated, immunized mice in spite of a marked reduction in circulating leucocytes and platelets, and despite an abrogation of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) (Type IV) reponse to schistosomular antigens. However, limited histopathological comparison of lung sections from irradiated and unirradiated mice 7 days post-challenge showed that cellular reactions ('foci') around parasites were similar in size and cellular composition except that in irradiated mice, eosinophils were poorly represented both in the foci and in lung tissue in general. Neither presumed immune complex-mediated (Type III, Arthus reaction) hypersensitivity nor serum anti-schistosomulum extract antibody levels were affected. The pattern of 125 I-labelled schistosomular surface antigens immunoprecipitated with serum from irradiated and unirradiated mice was essentially similar. These results are consistent with antibody playing an important role in vaccine-induced immunity in mice but suggest that radiosensitive T cell function and radiosensitive cells, such as platelets and polymorphonuclear cells, including eosinophils, may not be essential. (author)

  10. Thyroxine clearance in rats within the first month after the single whole-body {gamma} - irradiation at a dose of 10Gy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pryadko, Kirill A. [Institute of Radiobiology, National Academy of Sciences, Minsk (Belarus)

    2002-07-01

    The effects of acute whole-body {gamma} -irradiation at a dose of 10 Gy on thyroxine (T{sub 4}) plasma clearance rate (PCR) and thyroidal and blood T4 concentration ([T{sub 4}]) were examined within one month after exposure. The PCR values were measured using the bolus injection, single-compartmental approach. To eliminate the influence of radiation-induced anorexia animals were fasting for two days before the pharmacokinetic experiments. Hormone concentrations in blood and in thyroid tissue were measured by RIA. Throughout the observation period, PCR was elevated in irradiated rats with maximum at day 4 after exposure (0.56{+-}0.04 vs. 0.36{+-}0.03 ml/h100 gbw, P<0.001). [T{sub 4}] in blood was not significantly different from that in control animals. Thyroidal [T{sub 4}] was significantly decreased in irradiated animals 4 days after exposure (151.8{+-}21.7 vs. 258.8{+-}29.9 pmol/mg protein, P<0.01) and gradually increased after day 9. 10 Gy {gamma} -irradiation causes the intensification of T{sub 4} metabolism without the pronounced changes in concentration. Presumably, at early terms the rising local demand in O{sub 4} can not be compensated with the existing level of production. Alterations in the intensity of T{sub 4} metabolism are evident at least one month after exposure but they may not be detected without taking into account kinetic data.

  11. The Possible Effect Of Tamoxifen Vs Whole Body Irradiation Treatment On Thyroid Hormones in Female Rats Bearing Mammary Tumors Chemically Induced

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelgawad, M.R.

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in most developed and developing regions of the world. In women, this drug has tissuespecific effects, acting as an estrogen antagonist on the breast, and as an estrogen agonist on bone, lipid metabolism (increasing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and decreasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol), and the endometrium. Thyroid hormones act on almost all organs throughout the body and regulate the basal metabolism of the organism. Thyroid hormone can also stimulate the proliferation in vitro of certain tumor cell lines. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the significant value of tamoxifen and/or irradiation treatment on thyroid hormones in breast cancer bearing female rats. Forty two female Sprague-Dawely rats randomly divided into seven groups and the effect of tamoxifen and post-irradiation was studied on breast cancer chemically induced. The results shows a T 4 and estradiol levels not T 3 were altered in different experimental groups. It could be concluded that irradiation-induced changes in the composition of the mammary microenvironment promote the expression of neoplastic potential by affecting both estradiol and thyroid hormones, and tamoxifen may alter the thyroid hormones. Irradiation and tamoxifen administration may have worth effects on T 4 and estradiol levels and it is recommended to further studies towards the bystander effect of radiation and tamoxifen on the tissue culture and molecular biology scale.

  12. Cataract-free interval and severity of cataract after total body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation: influence of treatment parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempen-Harteveld, M. Loes van; Struikmans, Henk; Kal, Henk B.; Tweel, Ingeborg van der; Mourits, Maarten; Verdonck, Leo F.; Schipper, Jan; Battermann, Jan J.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To determine prospectively the cataract-free interval (latency time) after total body irradiation (TBI) and bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and to assess accurately the final severity of the cataract. Methods and Materials: Ninety-three of the patients who received TBI as a part of their conditioning regimen for BMT between 1982 and 1995 were followed with respect to cataract formation. Included were only patients who had a follow-up period of at least 23 months. TBI was applied in one fraction of 8 Gy or two fractions of 5 or 6 Gy. Cataract-free period was assessed and in 56 patients, who could be followed until stabilization of the cataract had occurred, final severity of the cataract was determined using a classification system. With respect to final severity, two groups were analyzed: subclinical low-grade cataract and high-grade cataract. Cataract-free period and final severity were determined with respect to type of transplantation, TBI dose, and posttransplant variables such as graft versus host disease (GVHD) and steroid treatment. Results: Cataract incidence of the analyzed patients was 89%. Median time to develop a cataract was 58 months for autologous transplanted patients. For allogeneic transplanted patients treated or not treated with steroids, median times were 33 and 46 months, respectively. Final severity was not significantly different for autologous or allogeneic patients. In allogeneic patients, however, final severity was significantly different for patients who had or had not been treated with steroids for GVHD: 93% versus 35% high-grade cataract, respectively. Final severity was also different for patients receiving 1 x 8 or 2 x 5 Gy TBI, from patients receiving 2 x 6 Gy as conditioning therapy: 33% versus 79% high-grade cataract, respectively. The group of patients receiving 2 x 6 Gy comprised, however, more patients with steroid treatment for GVHD. So the high percentage of high-grade cataract in the 2 x 6 Gy group might also

  13. Total half-body systemic irradiation for occult metastases in non-small cell lung cancer: an Eastern Cooperative Oncology group pilot report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar, O.M.; Scarantino, C.W.; Rubin, P.; Feldstein, M.L.; Keller, B.E.

    1980-01-01

    There is a high probability for patients with locally advanced, unresectable, nonmetastatic, nonsmall-cell bronchogenic carcinoma (NSCBC) to harbor subclinical distant metastases at diagnosis. Approximately 30% will disseminate in the first three months and an additional 50% will disseminate before a year has elapsed. Twenty advanced nonmetastatic patients wtith NSCBC were treated with localized split-course chest irradiation (LCI) plus total body (upper and lower half-body) irradiation for occult metastases. Thirty equally advanced, nonmetastatic patients, who were treated with only localized split-course chest irradiation, were matched and served as a retrospective control group. Apparently, the median recurrence free survival, metastatic free interval, and median survival were significantly prolonged, and there was a decrease in the incidence of liver metastases in patients receiving HBI for occult metastases over the patients of the control group. Although elective HBI seems to delay the appearance of distant metastases, it did not prevent their occurrence, alter patterns of first relapse, or significantly improve the overall survival. Nevertheless, a therapeutic gain may have been achieved and is discussed. The incidence of radiation pneumonitis with 800 rad of UHBI corrected for lung transmission was 9%. A hypothesis and a rationale for a more effective combined modality therapy in these patients is given

  14. Effects of whole-body γ-irradiation on the biosynthesis of certain serum proteins. Final report, November 29, 1967--June 30, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuhaus, O.W.

    1976-01-01

    Whole-body exposure of rats to ionizing radiations yielded an increased incorporation of labeled amino acids into serum albumin in in vivo studies suggesting a stimulation of biosynthesis. Actually this may have been caused by an elevated hepatic transport of labeled amino acids (see below). A suppressed biosynthesis of albumin was observed when the experiments were performed in vitro using liver microsomes. Impaired biosynthesis appeared to be caused by a reduced mRNA production. Irradiation stimulated the biosynthesis of acute-phase plasma proteins (stress response) and inhibited the excretion of α/sub 2u/-globulin, the sex-dependent protein of the adult male rat. Exposure of rats to γ-rays stimulated amino acid transport into the liver. This process which is Na + and energy-dependent was studied with α-aminoisobutyric acid, cycloleucine, and L-methionine among others. After irradiation the serum glucagon and insulin, as well as hepatic cAMP levels, were elevated. Amino acid transport may be an important factor in controlling the increased gluconeogenesis and glycogenesis observed in rats following whole-body irradiation

  15. Brucella papionis sp. nov., isolated from baboons (Papio spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whatmore, Adrian M; Davison, Nicholas; Cloeckaert, Axel; Al Dahouk, Sascha; Zygmunt, Michel S; Brew, Simon D; Perrett, Lorraine L; Koylass, Mark S; Vergnaud, Gilles; Quance, Christine; Scholz, Holger C; Dick, Edward J; Hubbard, Gene; Schlabritz-Loutsevitch, Natalia E

    2014-12-01

    Two Gram-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming coccoid bacteria (strains F8/08-60(T) and F8/08-61) isolated from clinical specimens obtained from baboons (Papio spp.) that had delivered stillborn offspring were subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, both strains, which possessed identical sequences, were assigned to the genus Brucella. This placement was confirmed by extended multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA), where both strains possessed identical sequences, and whole-genome sequencing of a representative isolate. All of the above analyses suggested that the two strains represent a novel lineage within the genus Brucella. The strains also possessed a unique profile when subjected to the phenotyping approach classically used to separate species of the genus Brucella, reacting only with Brucella A monospecific antiserum, being sensitive to the dyes thionin and fuchsin, being lysed by bacteriophage Wb, Bk2 and Fi phage at routine test dilution (RTD) but only partially sensitive to bacteriophage Tb, and with no requirement for CO2 and no production of H2S but strong urease activity. Biochemical profiling revealed a pattern of enzyme activity and metabolic capabilities distinct from existing species of the genus Brucella. Molecular analysis of the omp2 locus genes showed that both strains had a novel combination of two highly similar omp2b gene copies. The two strains shared a unique fingerprint profile of the multiple-copy Brucella-specific element IS711. Like MLSA, a multilocus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) showed that the isolates clustered together very closely, but represent a distinct group within the genus Brucella. Isolates F8/08-60(T) and F8/08-61 could be distinguished clearly from all known species of the genus Brucella and their biovars by both phenotypic and molecular properties. Therefore, by applying the species concept for the genus Brucella suggested by the ICSP

  16. Body

    OpenAIRE

    Riggs, Christina

    2010-01-01

    The human body is both the physical form inhabited by an individual “self” and the medium through which an individual engages with society. Hence the body both shapes and is shaped by an individual’s social roles. In contrast to the cognate fields of archaeology, anthropology, and classics, there has been little explicit discussion or theorization of the body in Egyptology. Some recent works, discussed here, constitute an exception to this trend, but there is much more scope for exploring anc...

  17. Autoradiographic studies on the cell kinetics after the whole body X-irradiation. 3. Post-irradiation changes in the mitotic activity and mitotic cycle of the rat's brain subependymal cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gracheva, N.D. (Tsentral' nyj Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Rentgeno-Radiologicheskij Inst., Leningrad (USSR))

    1982-04-01

    The study is carried out on subependymal cells of rat brain usig autoradiography with 3H-tymidine introduced 60-80 min before whole body X-ray irradiation i doses 50, 150, or 300 R. In postradiation cell system the dynamics of mitotic index Isub(M) and changes of mitotic cycle aevaluated according to the curve of labelled mitosis (CLM) are studied. A new interpretation of ''classical delay of mitosis'' is given, which points not to excessive delay in phases of mitotic cycle but to dependence on dose time from the irradiation moment before appearance of the first mitoses of survived cells as cells which were dividing at the time of death. At that, all the cells of the system have experienced one hour block independent of the dose. It is showm that the curve Isub(M) can serve as a measure of dead proliferative cells. The changes of CLM, conditioned by mitotic deathe f cells irradiated in G2-and S-phases and its other peculiarities are discussed.

  18. Effect of gamma irradiation on the total nitrogen and protein content in body during different stages of silkworm development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petkov, N.; Malinova, K.; Binkh, N.T.

    1996-01-01

    The aim was to determine the effect of gamma irradiation of eggs of silk moth in B 2 stage in doses of 1.00, 2.00 and 3.00 Gy on the changes of total nitrogen and protein content during different stages of Bombyx mori L. development. Highest levels of total nitrogen and protein were found in silk gland 14.032-14.355 mg%, followed by pupae - 7.448-8.092 and 46.550-48.906 mg%, moths after egg laying - 6.650-7.825 and 41.563-48.906 mg% and silkworm hemolymph - 6.920-6.980 and 43.250-43.625 mg%, respectively. The irradiation of eggs with 2.00 and 3,00 Gy gamma rays stimulated the increase of total nitrogen and protein content in silk gland by 6.66-7.3% compared to non-irradiated eggs of the same breed. 14 refs., 3 tabs. (author)

  19. Total body 100-mGy X-irradiation does not induce Alzheimer's disease-like pathogenesis or memory impairment in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Bing; Tanaka, Kaoru; Ji, Bin

    2014-01-01

    The cause and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are poorly understood. Possible cognitive and behavioral consequences induced by low-dose radiation are important because humans are exposed to ionizing radiation from various sources. Early transcriptional response in murine brain to low-dose X-rays (100 mGy) has been reported, suggesting alterations of molecular networks and pathways associated with cognitive functions, advanced aging and AD. To investigate acute and late transcriptional, pathological and cognitive consequences of low-dose radiation, we applied an acute dose of 100-mGy total body irradiation (TBI) with X-rays to C57BL/6J Jms mice. We collected hippocampi and analyzed expression of 84 AD-related genes. Mouse learning ability and memory were assessed with the Morris water maze test. We performed in vivo PET scans with 11 C-PIB, a radiolabeled ligand for amyloid imaging, to detect fibrillary amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) accumulation, and examined characteristic AD pathologies with immunohistochemical staining of amyloid precursor protein (APP), Aβ, tau and phosphorylated tau (p-tau). mRNA studies showed significant downregulation of only two of 84 AD-related genes, Apbb1 and Lrp1, at 4 h after irradiation, and of only one gene, Il1α, at 1 year after irradiation. Spatial learning ability and memory were not significantly affected at 1 or 2 years after irradiation. No induction of amyloid fibrillogenesis or changes in APP, Aβ, tau, or p-tau expression was detected at 4 months or 2 years after irradiation. TBI induced early or late transcriptional alteration in only a few AD-related genes but did not significantly affect spatial learning, memory or AD-like pathological change in mice. (author)

  20. Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) with Baboons Generate Live Offspring: A Nonhuman Primate Model for ART and Reproductive Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simerly, Calvin R.; Castro, Carlos A.; Jacoby, Ethan; Grund, Kevin; Turpin, Janet; McFarland, Dave; Champagne, Jamie; Jimenez, Joe B.; Frost, Pat; Bauer, Cassandra; Hewitson, Laura; Schatten, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    Human reproduction has benefited significantly by investigating non-human primate (NHP) models, especially rhesus macaques. To expand the Old World monkey species available for human reproductive studies, we present protocols in baboons, our closest Old World primate relatives, for Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) leading to live-born offspring. Baboons complement rhesus by confirming or modifying observations generated in humans often obtained by the study of clinically-discarded specimens donated by anonymous infertility patient-couples. Here, baboon ART protocols, including oocyte collection, in vitro fertilization, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), preimplantation development to blastocyst stage and embryo transfer techniques are described. With baboon ART methodologies in place, motility during baboon fertilization was investigated by time-lapse video microscopy. The first ART baboons produced by ICSI, a pair of male twins, were delivered naturally at 165 days post-gestation. Genetic testing of these twins confirmed their ART parental origins and demonstrated that they are unrelated fraternal twins, not identicals. These results have implications for ART outcomes, embryonic stem cell derivation, and reproductive sciences. PMID:20631291

  1. Studies on the propagation in cell culture and the infectivity for baboons of human hepatitis A virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, M.B.

    1985-05-01

    Current aspects of hepatitis A and hepatitis A virus (HAV) research and the techniques used for the propagation and monitoring of HAV and HAV antigen (HA Ag) production in vitro and HAV infection in vivo, and its sequelae are reviewed. Radioimmunoassay, immunofluorescence and electron microscopic techniques for the demonstration of HA Ag were adapted for this investigation. The cell-adapted strain of HAV(MBB) was successfully propagated in the human hepatoma cell line PLC/PRF/5 at 32 degrees Celsius. A crystalline structure was demonstrated in the cytoplasm of HAV-infected cells by thin-section electron microscopy. The origin and significance of this structure is uncertain. A possible temperature variant of HAV (strain MBB) or an HAV-related baboon virus was detected in PLC/PRF/5 cells maintained at 37 degrees Celsius after infection with a faecal extract prepared from baboons which had been infected with the cell-cultured HAV. Baboons, both free-ranging and in captivity, were found to have antibodies to HAV, which suggests susceptibility to human HAV or another cross-reacting virus. The experimental infection of the Cape baboon orally, intravenously or by both routes with HAV were investigated. The results of the study suggest reasons for the presence of anti-HAV antibodies in certain baboon populations and show that the baboon is not an ideal model for hepatitis A investigations

  2. Time- and radiation-dose dependent changes in the plasma proteome after total body irradiation of non-human primates: Implications for biomarker selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie D Byrum

    Full Text Available Acute radiation syndrome (ARS is a complex multi-organ disease resulting from total body exposure to high doses of radiation. Individuals can be exposed to total body irradiation (TBI in a number of ways, including terrorist radiological weapons or nuclear accidents. In order to determine whether an individual has been exposed to high doses of radiation and needs countermeasure treatment, robust biomarkers are needed to estimate radiation exposure from biospecimens such as blood or urine. In order to identity such candidate biomarkers of radiation exposure, high-resolution proteomics was used to analyze plasma from non-human primates following whole body irradiation (Co-60 at 6.7 Gy and 7.4 Gy with a twelve day observation period. A total of 663 proteins were evaluated from the plasma proteome analysis. A panel of plasma proteins with characteristic time- and dose-dependent changes was identified. In addition to the plasma proteomics study reported here, we recently identified candidate biomarkers using urine from these same non-human primates. From the proteomic analysis of both plasma and urine, we identified ten overlapping proteins that significantly differentiate both time and dose variables. These shared plasma and urine proteins represent optimal candidate biomarkers of radiation exposure.

  3. Effect of Fluosol-DA 20% and oxygen on response of C57BL/6 mice to whole-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldow, S.M.; Lustig, R.A.; Brass-Marlow, E.L.; Nunno, M.P.; Holst, R.J.; Wallner, P.E.

    1990-01-01

    Normal tissue effects in mice due to combinations of a perfluorochemical emulsion, Fluosol-DA 20%, 100% oxygen, and whole-body irradiation were investigated. Eight-to-10-week-old C57BL/6 male mice were injected via the tail vein with 10 ml/kg of Fluosol-DA with and without subsequent exposure to oxygen for 60 minutes. Animals then received graded doses of whole-body radiation (4 MV photons) at a dose rate of 2.85 +/- .015 Gy/minute. Using linear regression analysis, the lethal doses of radiation to 50% and 10% of the animals within 30 days in the absence of Fluosol-DA and oxygen were 8.35 Gy (95% c.l.:7.77-8.93 Gy) and 6.73 Gy (95% cl.:6.21-7.25 Gy), respectively, and were unaffected by Fluosol-DA and/or oxygen pre-treatment. However, Fluosol-DA given alone or in combination with oxygen produced increased balding and decreased graying incidence in mice within 60 days, and resulted in depressed weight gain 15 to 60 days post-treatment. Normal tissue effects due to administration of Fluosol-DA and oxygen in combination with whole-body irradiation have been demonstrated but appear minimal compared to other anti-tumor modalities currently under investigation

  4. Adaptive hormetic response of pre-exposure of mouse brain with low-dose 12C 6+ ion or 60Co γ-ray on growth hormone (GH) and body weight induced by subsequent high-dose irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Xie, Yi; Zhou, Qingming; Liu, Bing; Li, Wenjian; Li, Xiaoda; Duan, Xin; Yuan, Zhigang; Zhou, Guangming; Min, Fengling

    2006-01-01

    The brain of the Kun-Ming strain mice were irradiated with 0.05 Gy of 12C 6+ ion or 60Co γ-ray as the pre-exposure dose, and were then irradiated with 2 Gy of 12C 6+ ion or 60Co γ-ray as challenging irradiation dose at 4 h after per-exposure. Body weight and serum growth hormone (GH) concentration were measured at 35th day after irradiation. The results showed that irradiation of mouse brain with 2 Gy of 12C 6+ ion or 60Co γ-ray significantly diminished mouse body weight and level of serum GH. The relative biological effectiveness values of a 2 Gy dose of 12C 6+ ion calculated with respect to 60Co γ-ray were 1.47 and 1.34 for body weight and serum GH concentration, respectively. Pre-exposure with a low-dose (0.05 Gy) of 12C 6+ ion or 60Co γ-ray significantly alleviated reductions of mouse body weight and level of serum GH induced by a subsequent high-dose (2 Gy) irradiation. The data suggested that low-dose ionizing irradiation can induce adaptive hormetic responses to the harmful effects of pituitary by subsequent high-dose exposure.

  5. Succesive irradiation of the lower and upper body in non-Hodgkin lymphoma after failure of chemotherapy. Report of eight cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touboul, E.; Leonard, P.; Guerin, R.A.; Merle Beral, H.; Goris, C.; Leblond-Missenard, V.; Jablonski, O.; Buscaill, A.

    1985-01-01

    Eight patients, with stages CS IV non-Hodgkin lymphoma involving the bone marrow and secondarily resistant to chemotherapy were studied. The eight patients were managed, by external irradiation of the lower half of the body (LHBI), followed six weeks later by irradiation of the upper half of the body (UHBI). A single dose of 8.00 Grays in 6 cases and 6.00 Grays in two cases was delivered. After LHBI, 4 of 8 patients experienced nausea and emesis within the first thirty minutes. Two patients had diarrhea 24 to 48 hours after treatment. Side effects recorded after LHBI were as follows: marked tiredness in 3 cases, alopecia in 6, stomatitis in 1, oral and digestive candidiasis in 2, nausea and emesis 4, fever in 1, oral herpes simplex in 1, diarrhea in 1 and abdominal pain in 1. The dose delivered to the lungs was brought down to 6.00 Grays by interposition of attenuating lead sheets, and no postirradiation lung disease was observed. After the first radiation session, 2 of 8 patients had hemoglobin levels less than 8 g/100 ml and platelet counts less than 50 000/mm 3 on the sixth and eleventh day respectively. After irradiation of the second half of the body, 3 patients developed severe medullary aplasia. Each of these patients had received 8.00 Grays. In each case, duration of the aplasia exceeded two months. Outcome was fatal in two patients, at four months and 3.5. Overall apparent clinical remission rate was 4/8 [fr

  6. Succesive irradiation of the lower and upper body in non-Hodgkin lymphoma after failure of chemotherapy. Report of eight cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Touboul, E.; Leonard, P.; Guerin, R.A.; Merle Beral, H.; Goris, C.; Leblond-Missenard, V.; Jablonski, O.; Buscaill, A. (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Pitie Salpetriere, 75 - Paris (France))

    1985-04-18

    Eight patients, with stages CS IV non-Hodgkin lymphoma involving the bone marrow and secondarily resistant to chemotherapy were studied. The eight patients were managed, by external irradiation of the lower half of the body (LHBI), followed six weeks later by irradiation of the upper half of the body (UHBI). A single dose of 8.00 Grays in 6 cases and 6.00 Grays in two cases was delivered. After LHBI, 4 of 8 patients experienced nausea and emesis within the first thirty minutes. Two patients had diarrhea 24 to 48 hours after treatment. Side effects recorded after LHBI were as follows: marked tiredness in 3 cases, alopecia in 6, stomatitis in 1, oral and digestive candidiasis in 2, nausea and emesis 4, fever in 1, oral herpes simplex in 1, diarrhea in 1 and abdominal pain in 1. The dose delivered to the lungs was brought down to 6.00 Grays by interposition of attenuating lead sheets, and no postirradiation lung disease was observed. After the first radiation session, 2 of 8 patients had hemoglobin levels less than 8 g/100 ml and platelet counts less than 50 000/mm/sup 3/ on the sixth and eleventh day respectively. After irradiation of the second half of the body, 3 patients developed severe medullary aplasia. Each of these patients had received 8.00 Grays. In each case, duration of the aplasia exceeded two months. Outcome was fatal in two patients, at four months and 3.5. Overall apparent clinical remission rate was 4/8.

  7. Long-Term Cognitive Functioning in Single-Dose Total-Body Gamma-Irradiated Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanbury, David B.; Peiffer, Ann M.; Dugan, Greg; Andrews, Rachel N.; Cline, J. Mark

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effects of a potentially lethal radiation exposure on the brain for long-term cognitive sequelae were investigated using Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) adopted from other facilities after analysis of acute radiation response via the Centers for Medical Countermeasures against Radiation (CMCR) network. Fifty-nine animals were given the opportunity to participate in cognitive cage-side testing. The animals that received single-dose gamma irradiation were significantly less likely to engage in cognitive testing than the controls, suggesting that irradiated animals may have differences in cognitive ability. Five irradiated (6.75–8.05 Gy) and three naïve control animals self-selected, were extensively trained and administered a simple visual discrimination with reversal (SVD+R) task 2–3 times per week for 11–18 months. Each session consisted of 30 trials in which the animals were required to choose the correct visual stimulus for a food reward. After the initial presentation, the stimulus that signaled the presence of food was twice reversed once the animal reached criterion (90% accuracy across four consecutive sessions). While the limited sample size precluded definitive statistical analysis, irradiated animals took longer to reach the criterion subsequent to reversal than did control animals, suggesting a relative deficiency in cognitive flexibility. These results provide preliminary data supporting the potential use of a nonhuman primate model to study radiation-induced, late-delayed cognitive deficits. PMID:27740889

  8. Protection of mouse hematopoietic stem cells by a preparation of herb mixture (hemoHIM) against whole body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, W. H.; Park, H. R.; Oh, H.; Jung, I. Y.; Cho, S. K. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-10-01

    A preparation of herb mixture (HemoHIM) was designed from three medicinal herbs including Angelica gigantis Radix to protect gastrointestine, hematopoietic organs and immune system against radiation damage. In the present study, we investigated the radioprotective effects of HemoHIM on hematopoietic stem cells in {gamma}-irradiated mice and the underlying mechanisms. The administration of HemoHIM significantly increased the formation of endogenous spleen colony and reduced apoptosis of bone marrow cells in {gamma}-irradiated mice. These results showed that HemoHIM protected hematopoietic stem cells from irradiation. To investigate the mechanism of the protection, the effects of HemoHIM on expression of radioprotective cytokines was examined. HemoHIM increased the mRNA levels of IL-1{beta}, TNF-{alpha}, SCF and IL-6 in bone marrow cells and peritoneal macrophages in vitro. In vivo administration of HemoHIM increased the mRNA levels of IL-1{beta}, TNF-{alpha} in spleen. The examination of radical scavenging activity of HemoHIM as another mechanism revealed that HemoHIM was effective at scavenging DPPH radicals and hydroxyl radicals. From these results, it is suggested that HemoHIM exerts these radioprotective effects through the induction of radioprotective cytokines and/or through directly scavenging radicals produced by {gamma}-irradiation.

  9. An experimental model of acute encephalopathy after total body irradiation in the rat: effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761); Effet de l'extrait de Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761) chez le rat sur un modele experimental d'encephalopathie aigue apres irradiation corporelle totale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamproglou, I.; Bok, B. [Hopital Bichat, 75 - Paris (France); Boisserie, G.; Mazeron, J.J.; Baillet, F. [Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere, 75 - Paris (France); Drieu, K. [IHB-IPSEN, 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-06-01

    To define the therapeutic effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) in an experimental model of acute encephalopathy following total body irradiation in rats. Ninety four-month-old rats received 4.5 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) at day 1 while 15 rats received sham irradiation. A behavioural study based on a conditioning test of negative reinforcement, the one-way avoidance test, was performed test, was performed after irradiation. Orally treatment was started one day (study A) or twenty two days (study B) after irradiation and repeated daily for twelve days. In the irradiated group, three subgroups were defined according to the treatment received: EGb 761 (50 mg/kg), EGb 761 (100 mg/kg), water. This work comprised two consecutive studies. In study A (45 rats) the one-way avoidance test was administered daily from day 7 to day 14. In study B (45 rats) the behavioural test was performed from day 28 to day 35. Study A (three groups of 15 rats): following TBI, irradiated rats treated with water demonstrated a significant delay in a learning the one-way avoidance test in comparison with sham-irradiated rats (P < 0.0002) or irradiated rats treated with EGb 761 (50 mg/kg; P < 0.007) or EGb 761 (100 mg/kg; P < 0.0002). The irradiated rats, treated with EGb 761 (50 or 100 mg/kg) did not differ from the sham-irradiated controls. Study B (three groups of 15 rats): the irradiated rats, treated with water of EGb 761 (50 or 100 mg/kg) did not differ from the sham-irradiated controls. (authors)

  10. Maternal nutrient restriction during pregnancy and lactation leads to impaired right ventricular function in young adult baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Anderson H; Li, Cun; Huber, Hillary F; Schwab, Matthias; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Clarke, Geoffrey D

    2017-07-01

    Maternal nutrient restriction induces intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and leads to heightened cardiovascular risks later in life. We report right ventricular (RV) filling and ejection abnormalities in IUGR young adult baboons using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Both functional and morphological indicators of poor RV function were seen, many of which were similar to effects of ageing, but also with a few key differences. We observed more pronounced RV changes compared to our previous report of the left ventricle, suggesting there is likely to be a component of isolated RV abnormality in addition to expected haemodynamic sequelae from left ventricular dysfunction. In particular, our findings raise the suspicion of pulmonary hypertension after IUGR. This study establishes that IUGR also leads to impairment of the right ventricle in addition to the left ventricle classically studied. Maternal nutrient restriction induces intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), increasing later life chronic disease including cardiovascular dysfunction. Our left ventricular (LV) CMRI studies in IUGR baboons (8 M, 8 F, 5.7 years - human equivalent approximately 25 years), control offspring (8 M, 8 F, 5.6 years), and normal elderly (OLD) baboons (6 M, 6 F, mean 15.9 years) revealed long-term LV abnormalities in IUGR offspring. Although it is known that right ventricular (RV) function is dependent on LV health, the IUGR right ventricle remains poorly studied. We examined the right ventricle with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in the same cohorts. We observed decreased ejection fraction (49 ± 2 vs. 33 ± 3%, P < 0.001), cardiac index (2.73 ± 0.27 vs. 1.89 ± 0.20 l min -1 m -2 , P < 0.05), early filling rate/body surface area (BSA) (109.2 ± 7.8 vs. 44.6 ± 7.3 ml s -1  m -2 , P < 0.001), wall thickening (61 ± 3 vs. 44 ± 5%, P < 0.05), and longitudinal shortening (26 ± 3 vs. 15 ± 2%, P < 0.01) in IUGR animals with increased

  11. MASM, a Matrine Derivative, Offers Radioprotection by Modulating Lethal Total-Body Irradiation-Induced Multiple Signaling Pathways in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhong Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Matrine is an alkaloid extracted from Sophora flavescens Ait and has many biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antitumor, anti-fibrosis, and immunosuppressive properties. In our previous studies, the matrine derivative MASM was synthesized and exhibited potent inhibitory activity against liver fibrosis. In this study, we mainly investigated its protection against lethal total-body irradiation (TBI in rats. Administration of MASM reduced the radiation sickness characteristics and increased the 30-day survival of rats before or after lethal TBI. Ultrastructural observation illustrated that pretreatment of rats with MASM significantly attenuated the TBI-induced morphological changes in the different organs of irradiated rats. Gene expression profiles revealed that pretreatment with MASM had a dramatic effect on gene expression changes caused by TBI. Pretreatment with MASM prevented differential expression of 53% (765 genes of 1445 differentially expressed genes induced by TBI. Pathway enrichment analysis indicated that these genes were mainly involved in a total of 21 pathways, such as metabolic pathways, pathways in cancer, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways. Our data indicated that pretreatment of rats with MASM modulated these pathways induced by TBI, suggesting that the pretreatment with MASM might provide the protective effects on lethal TBI mainly or partially through the modulation of these pathways, such as multiple MAPK pathways. Therefore, MASM has the potential to be used as an effective therapeutic or radioprotective agent to minimize irradiation damages and in combination with radiotherapy to improve the efficacy of cancer therapy.

  12. Contribution to the study of non-lethal whole-body gamma irradiation effects on the unitary activities of the dorsal hippocampus in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassant, M.-H.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of non-lethal whole-body gamma irradiation on the spontaneous activity of the dorsal hippocampus pyramidal cells were studied in rabbits. First of all the unitary activity of the CA 1 and CA 4 pyramidal cells was recorded extracellularly in the reference animal. The results were analyzed by a statistical method. By classifying the various cell functioning modes observed, and measuring the frequency with which they appear as a function of the state of vigilance, an attempt was made to characterize precisely the spontaneous activity of the hippocampal neurons. Recording were then made under identical experimental conditions on animals totally irradiated to mean absorbed doses of 250 and 450 rads (delivered at a constant rate of 14 rads/mn). The electroencephalographic activity of the hippocampus shows many anomalies (slow waves, wave-points, theta rythm deformation) as a function of which several pathological states were distinguished and used to classify the data, then processed by the methods already used for the reference data. The results obtained prove that the statistical characteristics of the unitary activity are changed by irradiation [fr

  13. Hepatocytes, rather than leukocytes reverse DNA damage in vivo induced by whole body y-irradiation of mice, as shown by the alkaline comet assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUANA PINCHEIRA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA damage repair was assessed in quiescent (G0 leukocytes and in hepatocytes of mice, after 1 and 2 hours recovery from a single whole body y-irradiation with 0.5, 1 or 2 Gy. Evaluation of single-strand breaks (SSB and alkali-labile sites together were carried out by a single-cell electrophoresis at pH>13.0 (alkaline comet assay. In non-irradiated (control mice, the constitutive, endogenous DNA damage (basal was around 1.5 times higher in leukocytes than in hepatocytes. Irradiation immediately increased SSB frequency in both cell types, in a dose-dependent manner. Two sequential phases took place during the in vivo repair of the radio-induced DNA lesions. The earliest one, present in both hepatocytes and leukocytes, further increased the SSB frequency, making evident the processing of some primary lesions in DNA bases into the SSB repair intermediates. In a second phase, SSB frequency decreased because of their removal. In hepatocytes, such a frequency regressed to the constitutive basal level after 2 hours recovery from either 0.5 orí Gy. On the other hand, the SSB repair phase was specifically abrogated in leukocytes, at the doses and recovery times analyzed. Thus, the efficiency of in vivo repair of radio-induced DNA damage in dormant cells (lymphocytes is quite different from that in hepatocytes whose low proliferation activity accounts only for cell renewal.

  14. Histopathology of kidney induced by LICAM (C) therapy in baboons after inhalation of plutonium-tributyl phosphate complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsch, P.; Lepage, M.; Duserre, C.; Metivier, H.; Gerasimo, P.

    1989-01-01

    The histological changes induced in baboon kidneys after administration of LICAM C and/or DTPA to remove Pu after inhalation of large doses of 239 Pu-TBP have been characterised. Treatment with LICAM C alone was most effective at removing Pu from the body but increased its retention in the kidneys. It also induced specific kidney lesions confined to the proximal tubules, i.e. vacuole formation in the basal part of the tubular cells. No vacuolar lesions were observed after treatment with DTPA alone. Combined treatment with LICAM C and DTPA was less effective than with LICAM C alone but more effective than with DTPA alone. After this combined treatment, in which the smallest cumulated dose of LICAM C was used, the kidney Pu burden decreased compared to the burden after treatment with LICAM C alone, but the specific lesions in the proximal tubules were still sometimes observed. The vacuole formation induced by LICAM C seemed to be reversible and the number of vacuoles was closely correlated with the dose of LICAM C administered. (author)

  15. Increased health care utilization by survivors of childhood lymphoblastic leukemia is confined to those treated with cranial or total body irradiation: a case cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmqvist, Anna Sällfors; Moëll, Christian; Hjorth, Lars; Lindgren, Anna; Garwicz, Stanislaw; Wiebe, Thomas; Øra, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have an increased morbidity measured in terms of health care utilization. However, earlier studies have several potentially important limitations. To overcome some of these, we investigated hospital contact rates, and predictors thereof, among 5-year survivors of ALL in a population-based setting, and compared them to a control cohort regarding outcome measures from a comprehensive nation-wide health register. All individuals diagnosed with ALL before the age of 18 in Southern Sweden during 1970–1999 and alive January 2007 (n = 213; male = 107) were identified through the Swedish Cancer Register. Each subject was matched to fifty controls, identified in the Swedish Population Register. All study subjects were linked to the National Hospital Register and detailed information was obtained on all hospital contacts (hospital admissions and outpatients visits) starting five years after cancer diagnosis, and the corresponding date for the controls, until 2009. The median follow-up among the 5-year survivors of ALL was 16 years (range 5–33), accruing a total of 3,527 person-years. Of the 213 5-year survivors, 105 (49.3%) had at least one hospital contact compared to 3,634 (34.1%) of the controls (p < 0.001). Survivors had more hospital contacts (3 [1–6] vs. 2 [1–4] contacts, p < 0.001) and more total days in hospital (6 [2–18] vs. 3 [1–7] days, p < 0.001) than the controls during the study period. Logistic regression analysis showed that survivors treated with cranial irradiation and/or total body irradiation (45% and 7%, respectively) had an increased risk of at least one hospital contact (OR 2.3, 95%CI; 1.5–3.6 and OR 11.0, 95%CI; 3.2–50.7, respectively), while there was no significant difference between the non-irradiated survivors and controls. We show that irradiated survivors of childhood ALL have an increased morbidity measured in terms of hospital

  16. Explaining sex differences in lifespan in terms of optimal energy allocation in the baboon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    King, Annette M.; Kirkwood, Thomas B.L.; Shanley, Daryl P.

    2017-01-01

    We provide a quantitative test of the hypothesis that sex role specialization may account for sex differences in lifespan in baboons if such specialization causes the dependency of fitness upon longevity, and consequently the optimal resolution to an energetic trade-off between somatic maintenance...... from differences in the value of somatic maintenance relative to other fitness-enhancing functions in keeping with the disposable soma theory....

  17. Effects of chronic ethanol intake on mobilization and excretion of cholesterol in baboons.

    OpenAIRE

    Karsenty, C; Baraona, E; Savolainen, M J; Lieber, C S

    1985-01-01

    To investigate the effects of chronic ethanol administration on the mobilization and excretion of cholesterol, turnover and balance studies were carried out in baboons pair-fed cholesterol-free diets containing 50% of energy either as ethanol or as additional carbohydrate for several years. Ethanol feeding increased free cholesterol in all plasma lipoprotein fractions, and esterified cholesterol in very low density lipoprotein, intermediate density lipoprotein, and high density lipoprotein (H...

  18. Characterization of tubal occlusion after transcervical polidocanol foam (PF) infusion in baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jeffrey T; Hanna, Carol; Yao, Shan; Bauer, Cassondra; Morgan, Terry K; Slayden, Ov D

    2015-08-01

    Our long-term goal is to develop a nonsurgical method of fallopian tubal occlusion for the purpose of permanent contraception. We have previously demonstrated that transcervical administration of 5% polidocanol foam (PF) can create tubal occlusion in macaques but that multiple treatments are required. In this study, we assessed the efficacy of various regimens of PF with and without depomedroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) (to control ovarian cycle phase) in the baboon. Adult cycling female baboons were evaluated for tubal patency by hysterosalpingography and then received a transcervical infusion of PF with (+) or without (-) an intramuscular injection of DMPA (3.5 mg/kg). Two concentrations of PF were compared: 1% [(+) DMPA, n=5; (-) DMPA, n=3] and 5% [(+) DMPA, n=4; (-) DMPA, n=3]. Controls received (+) DMPA (n=2) or (-) DMPA, (n=3) only. The reproductive tracts were removed 1-3 months after treatment for examination. No fallopian tubal occlusion was observed in negative controls (±DMPA). Histologic complete tubal occlusion was observed in 3/8 of females treated with 1% PF and in 6/7 treated with 5% PF. Histologic evaluation suggested that 1% PF is associated with prolonged chronic inflammation (more than 2-3 months), while 5% treatment eliminates the epithelial lining, at least focally, and resolves into complete occlusion within 1-2 months. This pattern of complete occlusion was seen in all 4 females that received 5% PF (+DMPA) and in 2/3 that received 5% PF (-DMPA). In a baboon model of transcervical permanent contraception, a single treatment with 5% PF resulted in complete tubal occlusion more reliably (85%) than 1% PF (38%). Cotreatment with DMPA may improve treatment results with 5% PF but requires additional study. A finding that a single transcervical treatment with 5% PF can occlude the fallopian tubes of baboon supports further study of this approach as a novel strategy for permanent contraception for women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  19. Rescue by peripheral blood mononuclear cells in dogs from bone marrow failure after total-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zander, A.R.; Gray, K.N.; Hester, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    In order to determine the minimum dose of buffy coat cells necessary to achieve hematopoietic rescue following supralethal irradiation, mongrel dogs under general anesthesia were subjected to leukacytapheresis using three different techniques of cell separation. The buffy coats were frozen with dimethylsulfoxide and stored at -196 degrees C until transfused. Sixteen dogs were irradiated with 800 rads and were supported with antibiotics and transfusions of irradiated homologous blood. They were transfused with the frozen and thawed buffy coat cells, and, if they survived, they were followed for 100 days, sacrificed, and their tissues studied. The mean yield of mononuclear cells during leukocytapheresis ranged from 4.1 +/- 2.0 X 10(9) (mean +/- SD) to 6.0 +/- 4.0 X 10(9) for the three leukacytapheresis methods; one technique was not as satisfactory as the other two. Six of the 16 dogs fully recovered with evidence of marrow rescue; however, only one had a dose of mononuclear cells less than 11.1 X 10(9). These data indicate that seven to 17 leukacytapheresis procedures would be required to reconstitute a 70 kilogram patient. These preliminary findings suggest that, because the yields of transplantable cells with current technology are not adequate, the transplantation potential of buffy coat cells exposed to mobilizing agents should be evaluated

  20. Study of erythrocyte recovery by means of cellular spectra and reticulocytes remodeling after whole-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Go, A.; Le Go, R.; Malarbet, J.-L.; Prudhomme, J.; Genest, L.

    1977-01-01

    The size (volume) distribution spectra of red blood cells (RBC) are closely related to the renewal kinetics of the RBC population and to its instantaneous composition in normocytes and in younger cells of greater size. After experimental gamma irradiation in the rat, the following events can be observed: progressive reduction of the normocytic component of the spectra; after a latent period, dose-related neo-production of RBC, made up of macrocytes, could be observed on the spectra by a macrocytic peak progressively increasing from the 21th to the 42th day after irradiation; after this early recovery a period of size normalization of RBC production occured with progressive reappearance of normocytes. The normocyte population reappeared and increased simultaneously with the disappearance of macrocytic population, due to their shorter life span and a probable remodelling process only active in the presence of the spleen and unobserved after splenectomy. By substracting the macrocytic peak contents from two successive spectra (at a week's interval), the weekly productions of macrocytes and normocytes could be calculated. These values closely reflect the recovery kinetics of irradiated bone-marrow [fr

  1. Response of plasma and urinary uric acid, creatine and creatinine to dietary protein deficiency and/or whole body gamma-irradiation in desert rodent and albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roushdy, H.M.; El-Husseini, M.; Saleh, F.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of whole body gamma-irradiation on the levels of plasma and urinary uric acid, creatine and creatinine was studied in the desert rodent, Psammomys obesus and albino rats subjected to dietary protein deficiency. In albino rats, the levels of uric acid in plasma and urine were higher in the animals kept on high protein diets than in those maintained on non-protein ones. Radiation exposure caused a significant increase in uric acid concentration both in plasma and urine of albino rats, whereas in Psammomys obesus obesus, it exerted a significant drop in uric acid concentration in blood paralleling a marked rise in the daily uric acid excretion in the urine, especially with the high radiation level of 1170 r. Creatinine concentrations in plasma and urine of albino rats were higher than the corresponding values in Psammomys obesus obesus. Radiation exposure in general caused an increase in the creatinine concentration in blood and a decrease in its concentration in urine. Plasma creatine was shown to increase due to the effect of radiation exposure. This runs in parallel with the increase in the excretion of creatine in urine. Creatinuria observed in whole body irradiation is obviously caused by a defect in the ability of skeletal muscle to take up creatine from blood. Such abnormality could be the result of direct damage to the muscle caused by incident radiation

  2. Enhancement of distribution of dermal multipotent stem cells to bone marrow in rats of total body irradiation by platelet-derived growth factor-AA treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zong Zhaowen; Ren Yongchuan; Shen Yue; Chen Yonghua; Ran Xinze; Shi Chunmeng; Cheng Tianmin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To observe whether dermal multipotent stem cells (dMSCs) treated with platelet-derived growth factor-AA (PDGF-AA) could distribute more frequently to the bone marrow in rats of total body irradiation (TBI). Methods: Male dMSCs were isolated and 10 μg/L PDGF-AA was added to the culture medium and further cultured for 2 h. Then the expression of tenascin-C were examined by Western blot, and the migration ability of dMSCs was assessed in transwell chamber. The pre-treated dMSCs were transplanted by tail vein injection into female rats administered with total body irradiation, and 2 weeks after transplantation, real-time PCR was employed to measure the amount of dMSCs in bone marrow. Non-treated dMSCs served as control.Results PDGF-AA treatment increased the expression of tenascin-C in dMSCs, made (1.79 ± 0.13) × 10 5 cells migrate to the lower chamber under the effect of bone marrow extract, and distributed to bone marrow in TBI rats, significantly more than (1.24 ± 0.09) ×10 5 in non-treated dMSCs (t=8.833, P<0.01). Conclusions: PDGF-AA treatment could enhance the migration ability of dMSCs and increase the amount of dMSCs in bone marrow of TBI rats after transplantation. (authors)

  3. Radiosensitivity of T and B lymphocytes. IV. Effect of whole body irradiation upon various lymphoid tissues and numbers of recirculating lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.E.; Olson, G.B.; Autry, J.R.; Howarth, J.L.; Troup, G.M.; Bartels, P.H.

    1977-01-01

    Groups of 10-week-old-female CBA/J mice were exposed in whole body fashion to 0, 5, 50, and 500 rads and sacrificed in serial fashion 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 15, and 30 days after irradiation for morphologic evaluation of thymus, spleen, lymph node, and Peyer's patch, and assessment of the relative numbers of thymus-derived (T) and bone marrow-derived (B) cells in these tissues. The absolute and relative numbers of recirculating T and B cells mobilizable by thoracic duct cannulation were also determined and compared with similar determinations with respect to peripheral blood lymphocytes. B cell depletion occurred more quickly and was more pronounced in spleen and lymph node than T cell depletion at all three exposure doses. Depletion of T and B cells was roughly equal in peripheral blood and thoracic duct lymph. When present, regeneration of the T cell component occurred more rapidly than did B cell restoration. The latter often was incomplete at the time of the final sacrifice (day 30). PHA-responsive and Con A-responsive cells also appeared to differ with respect to the kinetics of cell death after whole body irradiation

  4. Sepsis-Induced Coagulation in the Baboon Lung Is Associated with Decreased Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Haiwang; Ivanciu, Lacramioara; Popescu, Narcis; Peer, Glenn; Hack, Erik; Lupu, Cristina; Taylor, Fletcher B.; Lupu, Florea

    2007-01-01

    Increased tissue factor (TF)-dependent procoagulant activity in sepsis may be partly due to decreased expression or function of tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI). To test this hypothesis, baboons were infused with live Escherichia coli and sacrificed after 2, 8, or 24 hours. Confocal and electron microscopy revealed increased leukocyte infiltration and fibrin deposition in the intravascular and interstitial compartments. Large amounts of TF were detected by immunostaining in leukocytes and platelet-rich microthrombi. TF induction was documented by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and coagulation assays. Lung-associated TFPI antigen and mRNA decreased during sepsis, and TFPI activity diminished abruptly at 2 hours. Blocking antibodies against TFPI increased fibrin deposition in septic baboon lungs, suggesting that TF-dependent coagulation might be aggravated by reduced endothelial TFPI. Decreased TFPI activity coincided with the release of tissue plasminogen activator and the peak of plasmin generation, suggesting that TFPI could undergo proteolytic inactivation by plasmin. Enhanced plasmin produced in septic baboons by infusion of blocking antibodies against plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 led to decreased lung-associated TFPI and unforeseen massive fibrin deposition. We conclude that activation of TF-driven coagulation not adequately countered by TFPI may underlie the widespread thrombotic complications of sepsis. PMID:17640967

  5. Analysis of prostate-specific antigen transcripts in chimpanzees, cynomolgus monkeys, baboons, and African green monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James N Mubiru

    Full Text Available The function of prostate-specific antigen (PSA is to liquefy the semen coagulum so that the released sperm can fuse with the ovum. Fifteen spliced variants of the PSA gene have been reported in humans, but little is known about alternative splicing in nonhuman primates. Positive selection has been reported in sex- and reproductive-related genes from sea urchins to Drosophila to humans; however, there are few studies of adaptive evolution of the PSA gene. Here, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR product cloning and sequencing, we study PSA transcript variant heterogeneity in the prostates of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes, cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis, baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis, and African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops. Six PSA variants were identified in the chimpanzee prostate, but only two variants were found in cynomolgus monkeys, baboons, and African green monkeys. In the chimpanzee the full-length transcript is expressed at the same magnitude as the transcripts that retain intron 3. We have found previously unidentified splice variants of the PSA gene, some of which might be linked to disease conditions. Selection on the PSA gene was studied in 11 primate species by computational methods using the sequences reported here for African green monkey, cynomolgus monkey, baboon, and chimpanzee and other sequences available in public databases. A codon-based analysis (dN/dS of the PSA gene identified potential adaptive evolution at five residue sites (Arg45, Lys70, Gln144, Pro189, and Thr203.

  6. Recombinant human C1-inhibitor prevents acute antibody-mediated rejection in alloimmunized baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillou, Xavier; Poirier, Nicolas; Le Bas-Bernardet, Stéphanie; Hervouet, Jeremy; Minault, David; Renaudin, Karine; Vistoli, Fabio; Karam, Georges; Daha, Mohamed; Soulillou, Jean Paul; Blancho, Gilles

    2010-07-01

    Acute antibody-mediated rejection is an unsolved issue in transplantation, especially in the context of pretransplant immunization. The deleterious effect of preformed cytotoxic anti-HLA antibodies through complement activation is well proven, but very little is known concerning complement blockade to prevent/cure this rejection. Here, we used a baboon model of preimmunization to explore the prevention of acute antibody-mediated rejection by an early inhibition of the classical complement pathway using human recombinant C1-inhibitor. Baboons were immunized against peripheral blood mononuclear cells from allogeneic donors and, once a specific and stable immunization had been established, they received a kidney from the same donor. Rejection occurred at day 2 posttransplant in untreated presensitized recipients, with characteristic histological lesions and complement deposition. As recombinant human C1-inhibitor blocks in vitro cytotoxicity induced by donor-specific antibodies, other alloimmunized baboons received the drug thrice daily intravenously during the first 5 days after transplant. Rejection was prevented during this treatment but occurred after discontinuation of treatment. We show here that early blockade of complement activation by recombinant human C1-inhibitor can prevent acute antibody-mediated rejection in presensitized recipients. This treatment could also be useful in other forms of acute antibody-mediated rejection caused by induced antibodies.

  7. A baboon syndrome induced by intravenous human immunoglobulins: report of a case and immunological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaud, A; Tréchot, P; Granel, F; Lonchamp, P; Faure, G; Schmutz, J L; Béné, M C

    1999-01-01

    Following the second series of intravenous human immunoglobulins (IVIg; 0.4 g/kg) prescribed to treat a sensorimotor polyneuritis, a 28-year-old woman developed pompholyx that recurred after each of the following monthly treatments with IVIg. During the administration of the 10th series, the patient developed a typical baboon syndrome. Immunohistochemical studies of a skin biopsy revealed an unexpected epidermal expression of P-selectin, usually expressed by endothelial cells. Patch, prick and intradermal tests performed with IVIg on the back, arms and buttocks gave negative results on immediate and delayed readings. IVIg were re-administered, with the informed consent of the patient, and induced a generalized maculopapular rash. This is the first reported case of baboon syndrome induced by IVIg. Although extensive skin testing was performed, all test sites remained negative. We wonder whether IVIg could reproduce immunological mechanisms involved in the 3 types of systemic contact dermatitis (pompholyx, baboon syndrome and maculopapular rash), including the epidermal expression of P-selectin.

  8. Treponema pallidum Infection in the Wild Baboons of East Africa: Distribution and Genetic Characterization of the Strains Responsible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Kristin N.; Fyumagwa, Robert D.; Hoare, Richard; Wambura, Philemon N.; Coppenhaver, Dorian H.; Sapolsky, Robert M.; Alberts, Susan C.; Tung, Jenny; Rogers, Jeffrey; Kilewo, Morris; Batamuzi, Emmanuel K.; Leendertz, Fabian H.; Armelagos, George J.; Knauf, Sascha

    2012-01-01

    It has been known for decades that wild baboons are naturally infected with Treponema pallidum, the bacterium that causes the diseases syphilis (subsp. pallidum), yaws (subsp. pertenue), and bejel (subsp. endemicum) in humans. Recently, a form of T. pallidum infection associated with severe genital lesions has been described in wild baboons at Lake Manyara National Park in Tanzania. In this study, we investigated ten additional sites in Tanzania and Kenya using a combination of macroscopic observation and serology, in order to determine whether the infection was present in each area. In addition, we obtained genetic sequence data from six polymorphic regions using T. pallidum strains collected from baboons at two different Tanzanian sites. We report that lesions consistent with T. pallidum infection were present at four of the five Tanzanian sites examined, and serology was used to confirm treponemal infection at three of these. By contrast, no signs of treponemal infection were observed at the six Kenyan sites, and serology indicated T. pallidum was present at only one of them. A survey of sexually mature baboons at Lake Manyara National Park in 2006 carried out as part of this study indicated that roughly ten percent displayed T. pallidum-associated lesions severe enough to cause major structural damage to the genitalia. Finally, we found that T. pallidum strains from Lake Manyara National Park and Serengeti National Park were genetically distinct, and a phylogeny suggested that baboon strains may have diverged prior to the clade containing human strains. We conclude that T. pallidum infection associated with genital lesions appears to be common in the wild baboons of the regions studied in Tanzania. Further study is needed to elucidate the infection's transmission mode, its associated morbidity and mortality, and the relationship between baboon and human strains. PMID:23284649

  9. Homeothermy and primate bipedalism: is water shortage or solar radiation the main threat to baboon (Papio hamadryas) homeothermy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Duncan; Fuller, Andrea; Maloney, Shane K

    2009-05-01

    Other than the hominin lineage, baboons are the diurnally active primates that have colonized the arid plains of Africa most successfully. While the hominin lineage adopted bipedalism before colonizing the open, dry plains, baboons retained a quadrupedal mode of locomotion. Because bipedalism has been considered to reduce the thermoregulatory stress of inhabiting open dry plains, we investigated how baboons cope with thermal loads and water restriction. Using implanted data loggers, we measured abdominal temperature every 5 min in six unrestrained baboons while they were exposed to simulated desert conditions (15 degrees C at night rising to 35 degrees C during the day, with and without extra radiant heating), or an ambient temperature of 22 degrees C. At 22 degrees C, core temperature averaged 37.9 degrees C and cycled nychthemerally by 1.7 degrees C. Mean, minimum, and maximum daily core temperatures in euhydrated baboons in the simulated desert environments did not differ from the temperatures displayed in the 22 degrees C environment, even when radiant heating was applied. At 22 degrees C, restricting water intake did not affect core temperature. During the desert simulations, maximum core temperature increased significantly on each day of water deprivation, with the highest temperatures (>40 degrees C) on the third day in the simulation that included radiant heat. When drinking water heated to 38 degrees C was returned, core temperature decreased rapidly to a level lower than normal for that time of day. We conclude that baboons with access to water can maintain homeothermy in the face of high air temperatures and radiant heat loads, but that a lack of access to drinking water poses a major threat to baboon homeothermy. We speculate that any competitive thermoregulatory advantage of bipedalism in early hominins was related to coping with water shortage in hot environments, and that their freed hands might have enabled them to transport enough water to avoid

  10. Treponema pallidum infection in the wild baboons of East Africa: distribution and genetic characterization of the strains responsible.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin N Harper

    Full Text Available It has been known for decades that wild baboons are naturally infected with Treponema pallidum, the bacterium that causes the diseases syphilis (subsp. pallidum, yaws (subsp. pertenue, and bejel (subsp. endemicum in humans. Recently, a form of T. pallidum infection associated with severe genital lesions has been described in wild baboons at Lake Manyara National Park in Tanzania. In this study, we investigated ten additional sites in Tanzania and Kenya using a combination of macroscopic observation and serology, in order to determine whether the infection was present in each area. In addition, we obtained genetic sequence data from six polymorphic regions using T. pallidum strains collected from baboons at two different Tanzanian sites. We report that lesions consistent with T. pallidum infection were present at four of the five Tanzanian sites examined, and serology was used to confirm treponemal infection at three of these. By contrast, no signs of treponemal infection were observed at the six Kenyan sites, and serology indicated T. pallidum was present at only one of them. A survey of sexually mature baboons at Lake Manyara National Park in 2006 carried out as part of this study indicated that roughly ten percent displayed T. pallidum-associated lesions severe enough to cause major structural damage to the genitalia. Finally, we found that T. pallidum strains from Lake Manyara National Park and Serengeti National Park were genetically distinct, and a phylogeny suggested that baboon strains may have diverged prior to the clade containing human strains. We conclude that T. pallidum infection associated with genital lesions appears to be common in the wild baboons of the regions studied in Tanzania. Further study is needed to elucidate the infection's transmission mode, its associated morbidity and mortality, and the relationship between baboon and human strains.

  11. Autologous cell therapy as a new approach to treatment of radiation-induced bone marrow aplasia: preliminary study in a baboon model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herodin, F.; Drouet, M. [Radiohematology Unit, Centre de Recherches du Service de Sante des Armees, La Tronche CEDEX (France)

    2002-07-01

    The sparing of viable hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells located in underexposed bone marrow territories associated with the relative radioresistance of certain stem cell populations is the rationale for autologous cell therapy consisting of ex vivo expansion of residual cells after collection postirradiation. The feasibility of this treatment mainly depends on time constraints and hematopoietic cell threshold. We showed in this study that in the absence of early-acting mobilizing agent administration, subliminar amounts of CD34{sup +} cells can be collected (1 x 10{sup 6} CD34{sup +} cells/100 mL bone marrow or for 1 L apheresis) from 6-Gy {gamma} globally irradiated baboons. Residual CD34{sup +} cells were successfully expanded in serum-free medium in the presence of antiapoptotic cytokine combination (stem cell factor + FLT-3 ligand + thrombopoietin + interleukin 3, 50 ng/mL each, i.e., 4F): K{sub CD34{sup +}} = x2.8 and x13.7 (n=2). Moreover, we demonstrated the short-term neutrophil engraftment potential of a low-size mixed expanded graft (1.5 x 10{sup 6} final CD34{sup +}cells/kg) issued from the coculture of unirradiated (20%) and 2.5-Gy in vitro irradiated (80%) CD34{sup +} cells on an allogeneic stromal cell layer in the presence of 4F. Further preclinical research needs to be performed to clearly establish this therapeutic approach that could be optimized by the early administration of antiapoptotic cytokines. (author)

  12. Radioprotective and Anti-infertility Role of Resveratrol in Adult Male Rats Exposed to Whole-body ?-Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.M.; Tawfik, S.S.

    2010-01-01

    GAMMA-Radiation destroys the process of spermatogenesis and even leads to male infertility. Moreover, seminal oxidative stress is known to end in per oxidative damage of the sperm plasma membrane and loss of its DNA integrity. Man infertility is defined as one year of regular and unprotected intercourse without conception. Plants provide a treatment option that is affordable and available for infertile couples and phyto therapy is an essential form of treatment in nowadays health system. Resveratrol (RSV) is a natural phytoalexin with a wide range of biological activities. Male rats were divided into six groups under investigation, each of six animals. Control group, two RSV groups which received intra gastric RSV (20 and 40 mg kg-1 day-1) for 7 weeks, irradiated group (2 Gy gamma-rays) and two irradiated and RSV groups which received the same preceding doses of RSV for the same period after 2 Gy gamma-rays exposure. Hormonal assay in serum; testosterone, follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) and prolactin were recorded for fertility assessment. The abnormalities occurred in the reproductive system of the irradiated rats were evaluated: Chromosomal aberration frequencies in spermatocytes, metaphase-1, sperm-head abnormalities and oxidative parameters in testes tissue; malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and nitric oxide (NO). Also, the findings suggest that the anti-fertility effect of melatonin was proved to be transient and reversed completely or in part at the end of the second recovery period. The results showed that RSV has a curative role against the oxidative stress involved by gamma-rays in the rats and showed a significant improvement on the male reproductive functions.

  13. Genetic variations in the beta-tubulin gene and the internal transcribed spacer 2 region of Trichuris species from man and baboons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tina Vicky Alstrup; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Olsen, Annette

    2013-01-01

    of this study was to investigate whether these SNPs were present in the beta-tubulin gene of Trichuris spp. from humans and baboons. As a secondary objective, the degree of identity between T. trichiura from humans and Trichuris spp. from baboons was evaluated based on the beta-tubulin gene and the internal...

  14. Protective role of Hippopahe leaves against kidney damage in total body 60Co-gamma-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, Manu; Prasad, Jagdish; Bala, Madhu

    2012-01-01

    Hippophae rhamnoides has diverse therapeutic applications in Indian, Chinese and Tibetan medicine. Our earlier studies have shown that pretreatment with Hippophae leaf extract rendered >90% survival in mice population. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of our herbal preparation from Hippophae leaf against radiation induced kidney damage. The study was conducted with Strain 'A' male mice weighing approximately 28 ±2 g. The mice were administered Hippophae leaf extract, 30 minutes prior to 60 cobalt-gamma irradiation. The weight of kidneys and histological changes in kidney tissues at the light microscopic level were examined at 2, 5, 7, 10 and 15 days after treatment. The results showed that no significant change was observed in kidney weight after 60 cobalt-gamma irradiation. The glomerular damage in the form of glomerular sclerosis and percentage of damaged glomeruli; tubular damage in form of tubular dilations; apoptosis, and interstitial hemorrhages in renal cortex was also observed after radiation treatment. The pretreatment with Hippophae leaf extract countered most of the histological alterations induced by radiation. In comparison to radiation alone group, there was a significant decrease (p 60 cobalt gamma radiation induced damage. (author)

  15. Extreme heterogeneity of myeloablative total