WorldWideScience

Sample records for body image

  1. Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... affect body image Pre-baby body Pregnancy and eating disorders Looking for information on mental health conditions? Visit ... Mental health section. Fact sheets Anorexia nervosa Binge eating disorder Bulimia nervosa Cosmetics and your health Depression during ...

  2. Body Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The high-tech art of digital signal processing (DSP) was pioneered at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in the mid-1960s for use in the Apollo Lunar Landing Program. Designed to computer enhance pictures of the Moon, this technology became the basis for the Landsat Earth resources satellites and subsequently has been incorporated into a broad range of Earthbound medical and diagnostic tools. DSP is employed in advanced body imaging techniques including Computer-Aided Tomography, also known as CT and CATScan, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). CT images are collected by irradiating a thin slice of the body with a fan-shaped x-ray beam from a number of directions around the body's perimeter. A tomographic (slice-like) picture is reconstructed from these multiple views by a computer. MRI employs a magnetic field and radio waves, rather than x-rays, to create images.

  3. Adolescence and Body Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinshenker, Naomi

    2002-01-01

    Discusses body image among adolescents, explaining that today's adolescents are more prone to body image distortions and dissatisfaction than ever and examining the historical context; how self-image develops; normative discontent; body image distortions; body dysmorphic disorder (BDD); vulnerability of boys (muscle dysmorphia); who is at risk;…

  4. Body Image and Transsexualism

    OpenAIRE

    Kraemer, B; Delsignore, A; Schnyder, U; Hepp, U

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To achieve a detailed view of the body image of transsexual patients, an assessment of perception, attitudes and experiences about one's own body is necessary. To date, research on the body image of transsexual patients has mostly covered body dissatisfaction with respect to body perception. SAMPLING AND METHODS: We investigated 23 preoperative (16 male-to-female and 7 female-to-male transsexual patients) and 22 postoperative (14 male-to-female and 8 female-to-male) transsexual pa...

  5. Body Weight and Body Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McFarlane Traci

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Health Issue Body weight is of physical and psychological importance to Canadian women; it is associated with health status, physical activity, body image, and self-esteem. Although the problems associated with overweight and obesity are indeed serious, there are also problems connected to being underweight. Weight prejudice and the dieting industry intensify body image concerns for Canadian women and can have a major negative impact on self-esteem. Key Findings Women have lower BMIs than men, a lower incidence of being overweight and a higher incidence of being underweight. However, women across all weight categories are more dissatisfied with their bodies. Sixty percent of women are inactive, and women with a BMI of 27 or higher are more likely to be inactive than women with lower BMIs. The data show that women are aware of the health benefits of exercise, but there is a gap between knowledge and practice. When asked about barriers to health improvement, 39.7% of women cited lack of time and 39.2% lack of willpower. Data Gaps and Recommendations Weight prejudice must be made unacceptable and positive body image should be encouraged and diversity valued. Health policies should encourage healthy eating and healthy activity. Health curricula for young students should include information about healthy eating, active lifestyle, and self-esteem. Physical activities that mothers can participate in with their families should be encouraged. Research should be funded to elucidate the most effective methods of getting women to become and remain physically active without focusing on appearance.

  6. [Body image; literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero-Cristóbal, Raquel; Alacid, Fernando; Muyor, José María; López-Miñarro, Pedro Ángel

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, in developed countries there are standards of beauty based on pro-thin models, which are internalized by adolescents and young people especially in the case of women, assuming it as risk factor for developing changes in body image and perception. To analyze the current state of research in relation to body image, the sociodemographic variables that influence it, the relationship between body composition, conducting diets, eating disorders, sports and intervention programs and prevention, and the body image. It was searched in Medline, Isi Web of knowledge and Dialnet as well as a manual search among the references of selected studies and in different libraries. A increased socio-cultural influence is associated with a greater perception of body fat, greater body image dissatisfaction and lower self assessment of overall fitness. This leads to a lot of teenagers and young adults to abuse to the restrictive diets and to suffer eating disorders. Numerous studies have analyzed the relationship between sports practice with body image disturbance; there are conflictive results. Moreover it is necessary to design objective tools to detect changes and enhance the design of prevention and intervention programs in order to avoid distortion of body image, especially in those age ranges where the population is more vulnerable to this phenomenon. The excessive current preoccupation about body image has resulted in the realization of diets and changes as eating disorders. There are other factors that influence body image and perception as the realization of physical exercise, although the results about the relationship between these factors are contradictory. Therefore, further work is needed on the issue by creating tools to detect changes and enhance the design of prevention and intervention programs. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  7. Body Image Concerns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Ansari, Walid; Dibba, Emily; Stock, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the socio-demographic, lifestyle and well-being variables that are associated with body image concerns (BIC) and whether these associations differed between female and male students. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey; 3,706 undergraduate students...... (2,699 females, 765 males) from seven universities in the UK completed a self-administered questionnaire that assessed socio-demographic, lifestyle, well-being and BIC based on the Body Shape Questionnaire developed by Cooper et al. Multifactorial logistic regression analysis examined the odds ratios......, perceived health, depressive symptoms) on the other. RESULTS: More females (35%) than males (8%) reported being moderately or markedly concerned with their body image. For both genders, BIC was associated with a higher level of depressive symptoms and to variable extents, with nutrition and year...

  8. Culture and body image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Alves

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the relationship between culture and body image. We intend to know how socio-cultural factors influence the levels of satisfaction with body image. The emphasis is given to the cultural values as represented by the sociocultural norms of societies such as the United States of America and Europe. It is argued that through the media, the values of these industrialized societies are dissipated throughout the world provoking cultural changes and uniformization of behavioural standards. From the literature review, it is possible to conclude that body dissatisfaction is a reality to both sexes and a direct result of the non-conformity to cultural-esthetical patterns promoted by the profit-oriented societies.

  9. Culture and body image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Alves

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the relationship between culture and body image. We intend to know how socio-cultural factors influence the levels of satisfaction with body image. The emphasis is given to the cultural values as represented by the sociocultural norms of societies such as the United States of America and Europe. It is argued that through the media, the values of these industrialized societies are dissipated throughout the world provoking cultural changes and uniformization of behavioural standards. From the literature review, it is possible to conclude that body dissatisfaction is a reality to both sexes and a direct result of the non-conformity to cultural-esthetical patterns promoted by the profit-oriented societies.

  10. Body Image and Body Contouring Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwer, David B; Polonsky, Heather M

    2016-10-01

    Dissatisfaction with physical appearance and body image is a common psychological phenomena in Western society. Body image dissatisfaction is frequently reported by those who have excess body weight, but also is seen in those of normal body weight. For both groups of individuals, this dissatisfaction impacts self-esteem and quality of life. Furthermore, it is believed to be the motivational catalyst to a range of appearance-enhancing behaviors, including weight loss efforts and physical activity. Body image dissatisfaction is also believed to play a role in the decision to seek the wide range of body contouring procedures offered by aesthetic physicians. Individuals who seek these procedures typically report increased body image dissatisfaction, focus on the feature they wish to alter with treatment, and often experience improvement in body image following treatment. At the same time, extreme body image dissatisfaction is a symptom of a number of recognized psychiatric disorders. These include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), all of which can contraindicate aesthetic treatment. This special topic review paper provides an overview of the relationship between body image dissatisfaction and aesthetic procedures designed to improve body contouring. The review specifically focuses on the relationship of body image and body weight, as well as the presentation of body image psychopathology that would contraindicate aesthetic surgery. The overall goal of the paper is to highlight the clinical implications of the existing research and provide suggestions for future research on the psychological aspects of body contouring procedures. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Body Image Satisfaction among Blacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustat, Jeanette; Carton, Thomas W.; Shahien, Amir A.; Andersen, Lori

    2017-01-01

    Satisfaction with body image is a factor related to health outcomes. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between body image satisfaction and body size perception in an urban, Black community sample in New Orleans, Louisiana. Only 42.2% of respondents were satisfied with their body image and 44.1% correctly perceived their body…

  12. [Perspectives on body: embodiment and body image].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shiow-Ru; Chao, Yu-Mei Yu

    2007-06-01

    "Body" is a basic concept of both the natural and human sciences. This extensive review of the literature explores the various philosophical approaches to the body, including empiricism, idealism, existentialism and phenomenology, as well as the relationship between body and mind. Embodiment and body image are the two main concepts of body addressed in this article. Merleau-Ponty's perspective on embodiment, an important new area of theory development, emphasizes that embodiment research must focus on life experiences, such as the study of body image. Using Schilder's framework of psychosocialology, this article provides a comprehensive understanding of the concept of body image and women's perspectives on the "body" in both Western culture and Eastern cultures. Body size and shape significantly influence the self-image of women. Body image is something that develops and changes throughout one's life span and is continually being constructed, destructed, and reconstructed. Personal body image has important psychological effects on the individual, especially women. This integrative review can make a significant contribution to knowledge in this area and, consequently, to related practice and research.

  13. Implicit beliefs about ideal body image predict body image dissatisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Heider, Niclas; Spruyt, Adriaan; De Houwer, Jan

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether implicit measures of actual and ideal body image can be used to predict body dissatisfaction in young female adults. Participants completed two Implicit Relational Assessment Procedures (IRAPs) to examine their implicit beliefs concerning actual (e.g., I am thin) and desired ideal body image (e.g., I want to be thin). Body dissatisfaction was examined via self-report questionnaires and rating scales. As expected, differences in body dissatisfaction exerted a differential i...

  14. Implicit Beliefs about Ideal Body Image Predict Body Image Dissatisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niclas eHeider

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We examined whether implicit measures of actual and ideal body image can be used to predict body dissatisfaction in young female adults. Participants completed two Implicit Relational Assessment Procedures (IRAPs to examine their implicit beliefs concerning actual (e.g., I am thin and desired ideal body image (e.g., I want to be thin. Body dissatisfaction was examined via self-report questionnaires and rating scales. As expected, differences in body dissatisfaction exerted a differential influence on the two IRAP scores. Specifically, the implicit belief that one is thin was lower in participants who exhibited a high degree of body dissatisfaction than in participants who exhibited a low degree of body dissatisfaction. In contrast, the implicit desire to be thin (i.e., thin ideal body image was stronger in participants who exhibited a high level of body dissatisfaction than in participants who were less dissatisfied with their body. Adding further weight to the idea that both IRAP measures captured different underlying constructs, we also observed that they correlated differently with body mass index, explicit body dissatisfaction, and explicit measures of actual and ideal body image. More generally, these findings underscore the advantage of using implicit measures that incorporate relational information relative to implicit measures that allow for an assessment of associative relations only.

  15. Body Image (Children and Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... critical role in helping children develop a positive body image and self-esteem (how you see yourself and feel about yourself). ... sign of a more serious response to low self-esteem and body image. Symptoms of depression Social withdrawal (from friends/activities) ...

  16. Body image in adolescent pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaltzman, Alina; Falcon, Bani; Harrison, Megan E

    2015-04-01

    To review the existing literature on body image in adolescent pregnancy and explore concepts about the relationship between the two. A systematic review. Peer-reviewed articles were identified through MEDLINE (1946-present) and PsycINFO (1806-November 2013), conducted in any setting. Pregnant and postpartum adolescents ages 13-19 y. None. The outcome measures used in the studies reviewed varied: themes from focus groups, diary entry analysis, Pregnancy and weight gain attitude scale, Edinburgh postnatal depression scale, Parenting stress index, Eating disorder inventory, Tennessee self concept scale. The search yielded a total of 149 studies, of which 6 were relevant to the specific topic and age group. The very limited research shows a dichotomy in body image perception during pregnancy in adolescence; some studies show an increase in body image disturbance and dissatisfaction during pregnancy in adolescents, and other studies reviewed found that the majority of pregnant adolescents had positive body image and positive attitudes towards weight gain. A bidirectional link between depression and negative body image in adolescent pregnancy is suggested. The current research exploring the relationshp between body image and pregnancy in adolescence is limited, both in quality and quantity. Future research is needed to evaluate longitudinal models that will better inform about potential risk factors for body dissatisfaction during pregnancy in adolescence, including the possible role of depression. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Body Image of Pakistani Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Tariq Jalees; Ernest C de Run

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how media exposure, self esteem, and religiosity influence body image of Pakistan consumers.The underpinning of this study is based on Social Comparison Theory with two additional variables (religiosity and self esteem) for understanding understand consumer attitude towards body image. A self administered questionnaire was used. 193 persons responded at mall intercepts. The Conceptual framework was empirically tested through SEM. A positive relationship between exposure to...

  18. Body Image and Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janete Maximiano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Eating disorders should be understood in a multidimensional perspective, emphasizing a biopsicossocial context. In these pathologies it`s the body, in the first instance, that reveals the disease, being in this way the target of the conflict, revealing a disturbed body experience and as a consequence a weak conception of their personal body image. The body image is conceptualised as a subjective image that the individuals form in their own mind, about their body, in relation with differ- ent contexts of life. The intent of the studies is to comprehend the level of body image disturbance, which have concluded that in the majority of the cases, significant changes on perceptive capacity of the patients do not exist. In this way it`s important to study in a more effective and qualitative way the affective and personal factors. The authors pretend with this bibliographic revision, make a research of body image assessment to the Eating Disorders (Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa, and to reflect which are the best ones to adapt for Portuguese reality.

  19. Marketing importance of body image

    OpenAIRE

    Francová, Nikola

    2010-01-01

    Body image is undoubtedly important in everyone's life. The main objective of this thesis is to find its importance for marketing. To achieve this goal, it was necessary to find out the society's opinions on the issue of beauty and body image, how do media picture human body and if there exists a difference between these two things. The first part of this theses consists of the historical development of the beauty ideal. It is followed by segmentation of Czech population, based on the data fr...

  20. Very Young Children's Body Image: Bodies and Minds under Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birbeck, David; Drummond, Murray

    2006-01-01

    In recent years research has recognised that notions of body image, body image ideals and body dissatisfaction develop much earlier than was once thought. Forty-seven children (25 male; 22 female) aged between 5 and 6 years were interviewed on three occasions over 12 months regarding their perceptions of body image. The interviews revealed…

  1. The Body-Image of Blind Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cratty, Bryant J.; Sams, Theressa A.

    To develop an assessment device for the evaluation of body image, to evaluate the body image of blind children, to make comparisons between subgroups (sex, age, IQ) and to derive sequences of tasks related to body image training, 91 children (mean age 10.06 years, mean IQ 88.32) were evaluated by a body image survey form. Analysis of the data…

  2. The "Body Beautiful": English Adolescents' Images of Ideal Bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmar, Helga; Lloyd, Barbara; Dugan, Shaun; Halliwell, Emma; Jacobs, Neil; Cramer, Helen

    2000-01-01

    Two studies examine qualities capturing adolescents' images of ideal bodies for both genders. Data from questionnaires and discussions of photographs indicate that body-image ideals are multidimensional, show systematic gender differences, and become more conventional with age. Adolescents' own body mass links systematically to body-image…

  3. Body Image in the Dance Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Wendy

    2008-01-01

    Although some research has shown that dance enhances body image and self-esteem, other research shows that it sometimes has the opposite effect and causes dancers to develop a negative body image and even eating disorders. In dance, body image is not only about maintaining a certain weight; it can also refer to specific perceived body flaws.…

  4. Television Images and Adolescent Girls' Body Image Disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botta, Renee A.

    1999-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship on the effects of media images on adolescents, using social-comparison theory and critical-viewing theory. Finds that media do have an impact on body-image disturbance. Suggests that body-image processing is the key to understanding how television images affect adolescent girls' body-image attitudes and behaviors. (SR)

  5. [Body image and low back pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenig, C G; Hasenbring, M I; Kleinert, J; Kellmann, M

    2016-10-01

    Many factors seem to be causal for non-specific low back pain and are sometimes controversially discussed. Some years ago the concept of subjective body image attracted attention but due to the inconsistent use of terms and concepts it is difficult to classify publications in the literature. Studies confirmed a difference between the body images of patients with low back pain and healthy controls so that an inclusion of body image concepts could be relevant for causation and therapy. This article presents an overview of the current state of research on the association between body image and low back pain and with respect to the allocation of body image in psychosocial concepts of low back pain. Relevant studies on body image and low back pain were reviewed and are discussed with respect to the different use of terms and concepts of body image. Moreover, an approach for integration of the body image into current psychosocial concepts and therapy of low back pain is presented. Finally, it is discussed whether consideration of the body image could be of value in the therapy of low back pain. Studies have shown that low back pain patients have a more negative body image compared to healthy controls. There is a lack of studies on clinical evidence for the application and effectiveness of interventions that influence the body image in low back pain. Further studies are necessary which include body image concepts as a possible psychosocial risk factor, in particular studies on the mechanism of body image procedures.

  6. Workshop on Body Image: Creating or Reinventing a Positive Body Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Christine

    This paper examines the culturization of body image and the impact of body image on women and men, noting that the strict definition of body size has made many women and men dissatisfied with their bodies. The first section defines body image and culturization, explaining how the current media images put tremendous pressure on men and women that…

  7. Body Talk: Body Image Commentary on Queerty.com.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Joseph; Grimm, Josh

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we conducted a content analysis of 243 photographic images of men published on the gay male-oriented blog Queerty.com. We also analyzed 435 user-generated comments from a randomly selected 1-year sample. Focusing on images' body types, we found that the range of body types featured on the blog was quite narrow-the vast majority of images had very low levels of body fat and very high levels of muscularity. Users' body image-related comments typically endorsed and celebrated images; critiques of images were comparatively rare. Perspectives from objectification theory and social comparison theory suggest that the images and commentary found on the blog likely reinforce unhealthy body image in gay male communities.

  8. Whole body imaging system mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carman, R.W.; Doherty, E.J.

    1980-01-01

    A radioisotope scanning apparatus for use in nuclear medicine is described in detail. The apparatus enables the quantification and spatial location of the radioactivity in a body section of a patient to be determined with high sensitivity. It consists of an array of highly focussed collimators arranged such that adjacent collimators move in the same circumferential but opposite radial directions. The explicit movements of the gantry are described in detail and may be controlled by a general purpose computer. The use of highly focussed collimators allows both a reasonable solid angle of acceptance and also high target to background images; additionally, dual radionuclide pharmaceutical studies can be performed simultaneously. It is claimed that the high sensitivity of the system permits the early diagnosis of pathological changes and the images obtained show accurately the location and shape of physiological abnormalities. (U.K.)

  9. The becoming of bodies : girls, media effects and body image.

    OpenAIRE

    Coleman, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    The relations between women's bodies and images have long interested and occupied feminist theoretical and empirical work. Recently, much feminist research has focused on the relations between girls' and young women's bodies and images in “the media.” Underpinning much of this research, I argue, is an oppositional model of subject/object onto which bodies and images are mapped. Developing Deleuze's concept of becoming and exploring my own research with a small number of white British teenage ...

  10. Body image and media use among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzekowski, Dina L G; Bayer, Angela M

    2005-06-01

    This article reviews the literature on body image and media use among adolescents. We begin by defining body image and how it is constructed, especially among young people. We then offer information on when one's body image perception is askew with one's perception of personal ideal, which can result in disordered eating, including obesity, anorexia, and bulimia. Next, we describe the research literature on media use and its relationship to adolescents' body image perceptions and discuss content analyses and correlational, experimental, and qualitative studies. Lastly, we recommend, beyond conducting further and improved research studies, interventions and policies that may have an impact on body image and media use.

  11. The evolution of whole-body imaging.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moran, Deirdre E

    2012-02-01

    This article reviews the evolution of whole-body imaging, discussing the history and development of radiography, nuclear medicine, computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET), combined PET-CT, and magnetic resonance imaging. The obstacles hindering progress toward whole-body imaging using each of these modalities, and the technical advances that were developed to overcome them, are reviewed. The effectiveness and the limitations of whole-body imaging with each of these techniques are also briefly discussed.

  12. Body Image Satisfaction in Turkish Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cok, Figen

    1990-01-01

    Examined body image satisfaction in Turkish adolescents. Findings from 269 female and 286 male secondary school students revealed that males were more satisfied with their bodies than were females, early-maturing males and late-maturing females had higher levels of body image satisfaction, and participants in physical activities were more…

  13. Body image in non-western societies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edmonds, A.; Cash, T.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses a range of body modification and conceptions of the body in non-Western societies. It also analyzes difficulties in applying the primarily Western psychological notion of body image to different societies. Body modification is a near human universal, but has many meanings and

  14. Importance of body image in marketing communication

    OpenAIRE

    Váradyová, Monika

    2012-01-01

    The thesis dedicated to the issue of body image in the context of marketing communication emphasizing female body imaging in advertising. The aim of Master's thesis is to identify differences in the perception of beauty between the German and Czechoslovak culture. The theoretical part is intended to explain the body image issues, including historical development. Furthermore points out the influence of mass media on women's physical self-concept. The practical part deals with content analysis...

  15. Comparison of whole-body-imaging methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rollo, F.D.; Hoffer, P.

    1977-01-01

    Currently there are four different devices that have found clinical utility in whole-body imaging. These are the rectilinear scanner, the multicrystal whole-body scanner, the Anger-type camera with a whole-body-imaging table, and the tomoscanner. In this text, the basic theory of operation and a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages in whole-body imaging is presented for each device. When applicable, a comparative assessment of the various devices is also presented. As with all else in life, there is no simple answer to the question ''which total body imaging device is best.'' Institutions with a very heavy total-body-imaging load may prefer to use an already available dual-headed rectilinear scanner system for these studies, rather than invest in a new instrument. Institutions with moderate total-body-imaging loads may wish to invest in moving table or moving camera devices which make total body imaging more convenient but retain the basic flexibility of the camera. The large-field Anger camera with or without motion offers another flexible option to these institutions. The laboratory with a very heavy total body imaging load may select efficiency over flexibility, thereby freeing up other instruments for additional studies. Finally, reliability as well as availability and quality of local service must be considered. After all, design features of an instrument become irrelevant when it is broken down and awaiting repair

  16. Body image distortions in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Christina T; Longo, Matthew R; Haggard, Patrick

    2013-10-01

    Distortions of body image have often been investigated in clinical disorders. Much of this literature implicitly assumes healthy adults maintain an accurate body image. We recently developed a novel, implicit, and quantitative measure of body image - the Body Image Task (BIT). Here, we report a large-scale analysis of performance on this task by healthy adults. In both an in-person and an online version of the BIT, participants were presented with an image of a head as an anchoring stimulus on a computer screen, and told to imagine that the head was part of a mirror image of themselves in a standing position. They were then instructed to judge where, relative to the head, each of several parts of their body would be located. The relative positions of each landmark can be used to construct an implicit perceptual map of bodily structure. We could thus measure the internally-stored body image, although we cannot exclude contributions from other representations. Our results show several distortions of body image. First, we found a large and systematic over-estimation of width relative to height. These distortions were similar for both males and females, and did not closely track the idiosyncrasies of individual participant's own bodies. Comparisons of individual body parts showed that participants overestimated the width of their shoulders and the length of their upper arms, relative to their height, while underestimating the lengths of their lower arms and legs. Principal components analysis showed a clear spatial structure to the distortions, suggesting spatial organisation and segmentation of the body image into upper and lower limb components that are bilaterally integrated. These results provide new insight into the body image of healthy adults, and have implications for the study and rehabilitation of clinical populations. © 2013.

  17. Investigating Adolescent Stress and Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kristen M.; Byrne, Don G.; Rieger, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent stress is clearly implicated in the development of mental health problems. However, its role in dysfunctional body image, which rises markedly in adolescence, has not been investigated. The present study examined the link between stress and body image, as well as self-esteem and depressive symptoms, in 533 high school students in grades…

  18. Body Image, Media, and Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenne, Jennifer L.; Beresin, Eugene V.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Eating disorders, including obesity, are a major public health problem today. Throughout history, body image has been determined by various factors, including politics and media. Exposure to mass media (television, movies, magazines, Internet) is correlated with obesity and negative body image, which may lead to disordered eating. The…

  19. Body Image Change and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Judith M.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the temporal association between body image and depressive symptoms in African American, Asian American, Hispanic American, and white adolescents. Found that girls were more influenced by body image change than boys. Compared to other ethnic groups, African American girls experienced a greater increase in psychological distress as body…

  20. Correlates of body image dissatisfaction among female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to examine factors predicting body image dissatisfaction among female university undergraduates in Ogun State. Adolescent have been found to be influenced by a number of factors which may determine how they feel about their body images. Two hundred and fifty Undergraduate students ...

  1. Bodily Deviations and Body Image in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhjalmsson, Runar; Kristjansdottir, Gudrun; Ward, Dianne S.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents with unusually sized or shaped bodies may experience ridicule, rejection, or exclusion based on their negatively valued bodily characteristics. Such experiences can have negative consequences for a person's image and evaluation of self. This study focuses on the relationship between bodily deviations and body image and is based on a…

  2. Body enhancement : body images, vulnerability and moral responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Dikken, A.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this explorative study is to show that it is highly relevant to integrate cultural and personal body images into the ethical debate on human enhancement. The current debate has little attention for the motivations to make use of technology to alter the human body, such as cultural

  3. Body shape as body image determinant in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Jiménez, Arnulfo; Hernández Torres, Rosa P; Wall Medrano, Abraham; Urquídez Romero, René; Barahona, Igor; Villalobos Molina, Rafael

    2017-10-24

    Body shape (BSP) and body image (BI) are part of the external physical structure, then modifications in body shape necessarily affect body image; however, both combined have not been studied. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the statistical relationship between BSP and BI in university students. Two hundred and ninety-six participants (17-35 years) were included in this study. Different anthropometric measurements were used to define their somatotype (BSP), body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio (WHR) and waist circumference (WC). In addition, a questionnaire on body image perception was applied (McElhone et al.), regarding "how do I look?", "how do I think others see me?", "how do others see me?", and "how do I want to look like?". On average, men perceived themselves in normal weight; in contrast, women perceived themselves as overweight. Men were meso-endomorphic, while women were endo-mesomorphic as an average. Body shape measured as somatotype as well as WC and WHR were excellent determinants of body image. Participants who presented a higher endomorphy, WC and WHR and a lower ectomorphy had a higher appreciation of being overweight or obese and wish to become thinner.

  4. [Eating disorders, body image and sexuality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Patricio; Kes, Mariana Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    Eating disorders are a growing problem in healthcare. Altered eating behaviors are a consequence of cognitions and emotions generated by low self-esteem and dissatisfaction with body image and schema. It is possible, that a negative body image, and in many cases, distorted, may be the most difficult feature to approach and improve in this disorders. But the dissatisfaction to one's own body would not be related only to altered eating behaviors. Several studies show that body image and one's own body perception are an essential feature in sexual experiences, especially in women's sexuality. This article describes the relation and influences between body image and women's sexuality, and the sexuality in women with eating disorders.

  5. Body image satisfaction among female college students

    OpenAIRE

    Goswami, Shweta; Sachdeva, Sandeep; Sachdeva, Ruchi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine body image satisfaction among newly entrant women students in a professional institution. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study using body image satisfaction described in words was undertaken, which also explored relationship with body mass index (BMI) and other selected co-variables such as socio-demographic details, overall satisfaction in life, and particularly in academic/professional life, current health status using 5-item based Likert scale. Height, wei...

  6. Considerations on the correlation between real body and body image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice ABALAȘEI

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available very individual in the society has a representation of it’s own body in relation to the spatial cues, postural cues, time cues, etc., considered by specialists the body scheme. Throughout its development, the human being goes through different stages of organization of both the image the and body scheme. We start carrying out this study from the idea that there could be, in male individuals, a link between body representation (own image projected outwardly apparent by reference to an image presented through a questionnaire and anthropological parameters, such as body fat and body mass index. The study was conducted on a total of 28 subjects, aged 22.71 ± 2.62 years, height of 177.11 ± 6.76 cm and body weight of 73.56 ± 12.60 kg. For these subjects the body composition has been determined by electromagnetic bioimpendance technique and projection of the self was assesed through a questionnaire. After analyzing statistical data, our hypothesis was refuted by the lack of mathematical connections between the variables analyzed.

  7. Body image construct of Sri Lankan adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonapienuwala, B L; Agampodi, S B; Kalupahana, N S; Siribaddana, S

    2017-03-31

    Body image” is more than the visual perception of size and it is probably multidimensional. It is known to influence eating behaviors and self-esteem of adolescents. Although widely studied in developed countries, it has been studied little in Sri Lanka. This study was designed to translate and culturally adapt a tool to assess dimensions of body image in Sri Lankan adolescents. The study was carried out in the Anuradhapura District on school going children in grades nine to eleven. A multidimensional body image questionnaire was translated to Sinhalese language using the nominal group consensus method. The translated version was administered to 278 (114 boys) students after content validation and pre-testing. To assess test-retest reliability, the same questionnaire was administered to the same sample after two weeks. Psychometric properties were assessed using exploratory factor analysis. Three-factor model emerged when dimensions in body image were analysed. Both boys and girls had almost identical factor structure. The three dimensions identified were “affective body image”, “body perception” and “orientation on body size”. All factors had good internal consistency with Cronbach’s alpha > 0.76 and explained more than 56% of the total variance in both sexes. The translated body image questionnaire was a valid and reliable tool which can be used in Sri Lankan adolescents. Both genders had a similar, multidimensional body image construct.

  8. Body Image Amongst Elite Rugby Union Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Claire; Hindle, Chloe; McLay-Cooke, Rebecca; Slater, Joanne; Brown, Rachel; Smith, Brett; Baker, Dane; Healey, Philip; Black, Katherine

    2017-11-16

    There is limited information on the risk of eating disorders and body image of elite male athletes. However, research suggests there are some athletes who have poor body image and they may be at increased risk of developing eating disorders. Therefore, the current study investigated risk of eating disorders, body image, and the relationship with age, in elite rugby union players during their pre-season training period.This cross-sectional study was undertaken at the start of the pre-season amongst elite rugby union players in New Zealand. Twenty-six professional rugby union players completed a 49-item questionnaire on body image and disordered eating. A 'body image score' was calculated from questionnaire subscales including 'drive for thinness', 'bulimia' and 'body dissatisfaction', with total scores above twenty indicative of poor body image.Body image scores varied from 8-39 out of a possible 0-100. Disordered eating behaviours were reported, including binge eating at least once a week (15%, n=4/26), pathogenic weight control use (4%, n=1/26) and avoidance of certain foods (77%, n=20/26). There was a statistically significant inverse association between the bulimia subscale and age (P = 0.034).At the start of the pre-season training period, many elite rugby union players experience disturbances in body image. The prevalence of disordered eating behaviours is of concern, and needs to be minimised due to the negative impact on health and performance. A focus on assessment and education of younger male rugby players may be required in order to reduce disordered eating patterns.

  9. Assessing Body Image in Young Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin E. Heron

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine body image discrepancies in elementary-age children in a racially diverse sample. Body image and body image discrepancy were measured in elementary school children (N = 58 of various racial groups (35% Hispanic, 33% African American, 16% Caucasian, 14% other. Each participant was shown a set of silhouette figure drawings and reported current and ideal body sizes. Children’s body discrepancies appear to change between Grades 1 and 2. Notable discrepancies between their current and ideal figures, and their current figure and those that they believe are most attractive, are largely absent in Grade 1, but are evident in Grade 2 and older children. No substantive racial or gender differences in body image perceptions or dissatisfaction were observed in this sample. Body image dissatisfaction may begin as early as second grade in both girls and boys of various racial and ethnic backgrounds. These findings provide preliminary evidence that body discrepancies may begin much earlier than previously thought.

  10. Media Images: Do They Influence College Students' Body Image?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Gina Jarman

    2009-01-01

    Body image perception and body mass index (BMI) among college students exposed and not exposed to photographs of models were compared. Classes were assigned to receive a presentation with or without photographs of models incorporated. Students (n = 184) completed a survey about body/weight satisfaction, height, weight, and the Contour Drawing…

  11. Lice, body with stool (Pediculus humanus) (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... capitis ), or the pubic area ( Phthirus pubis ). Some body lice may carry diseases such as epidemic typhus, relapsing fever, or trench fever. (Image courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control and ...

  12. Body image satisfaction among female college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Goswami

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine body image satisfaction among newly entrant women students in a professional institution. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study using body image satisfaction described in words was undertaken, which also explored relationship with body mass index (BMI and other selected co-variables such as socio-demographic details, overall satisfaction in life, and particularly in academic/professional life, current health status using 5-item based Likert scale. Height, weight, hip and waist circumference measurement was carried out using standard protocol. Data collection was carried through personal interview using pre-designed, pre-tested semi-structured interview schedule by female investigators during August-September 2010 and analysis carried out by computing percentages and Chi-square test. Results: Out of 96 study samples, 16.66%, 51.04%, and 32.29% girl students perceived their body image as fair, good and excellent, respectively while overall 13.54% were dissatisfied with their body image. The body image satisfaction had significant relationship with image perception ( P<0.001, current general health status ( P<0.001 and self weight assessment ( P<0.001. Mother′s education had a statistically significant ( P=0.004 but negative relationship with outcome variable. Students with low weight (BMI <18.5 kg/m2 had a significantly higher (85.71% prevalence of body image satisfaction while overweight students (BMI≤23 kg/m2 had a significantly higher (54.54% prevalence of dissatisfaction ( P<0.001. Discussion: High body image satisfaction is reported in this study and was found to be significantly related to anthropometric measurements. On an encouraging note, this level needs to be preserved for overall mental and healthy development of students. Proactive preventive measures could be initiated on personality development, acceptance of self and individual differences while maintaining optimum weight and active life style.

  13. Body image satisfaction among female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Shweta; Sachdeva, Sandeep; Sachdeva, Ruchi

    2012-07-01

    To determine body image satisfaction among newly entrant women students in a professional institution. A cross-sectional study using body image satisfaction described in words was undertaken, which also explored relationship with body mass index (BMI) and other selected co-variables such as socio-demographic details, overall satisfaction in life, and particularly in academic/professional life, current health status using 5-item based Likert scale. Height, weight, hip and waist circumference measurement was carried out using standard protocol. Data collection was carried through personal interview using pre-designed, pre-tested semi-structured interview schedule by female investigators during August-September 2010 and analysis carried out by computing percentages and Chi-square test. Out of 96 study samples, 16.66%, 51.04%, and 32.29% girl students perceived their body image as fair, good and excellent, respectively while overall 13.54% were dissatisfied with their body image. The body image satisfaction had significant relationship with image perception (Passessment (Psatisfaction while overweight students (BMI≤23 kg/m(2)) had a significantly higher (54.54%) prevalence of dissatisfaction (Psatisfaction is reported in this study and was found to be significantly related to anthropometric measurements. On an encouraging note, this level needs to be preserved for overall mental and healthy development of students. Proactive preventive measures could be initiated on personality development, acceptance of self and individual differences while maintaining optimum weight and active life style.

  14. Body Image, Physical Attractiveness, and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noles, Steven W.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Examined the relationship between body image, global self-concept, and depression. Men and women (N=224) completed questionnaires and were videotaped and objectively rated on attractiveness. Results indicated that depressed subjects were less satisfied with their bodies and saw themselves as less physically attractive than was reported by…

  15. Breast Hypertrophy, Reduction Mammaplasty, and Body Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Cristiane Costa; Veiga, Daniela Francescato; Garcia, Edgard da Silva; Cabral, Isaías Vieira; de Carvalho, Monique Maçais; de Brito, Maria José Azevedo; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2018-02-07

    Body image dissatisfaction is one of the major factors that motivate patients to undergo plastic surgery. However, few studies have associated body satisfaction with reduction mammaplasty. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of breast hypertrophy and reduction mammaplasty on body image. Breast hypertrophy patients, with reduction mammaplasty already scheduled between June 2013 and December 2015 (mammaplasty group, MG), were prospectively evaluated through the body dysmorphic disorder examination (BDDE), body investment scale (BIS), and breast evaluation questionnaire (BEQ55) tools. Women with normal-sized breasts were also evaluated as study controls (normal-sized breast group, NSBG). All the participants were interviewed at the initial assessment and after six months. Data were analyzed before and after six months. Each group consisted of 103 women. The MG group had a significant improvement in BDDE, BIS, and BEQ55 scores six months postoperatively (P ≤ 0.001 for the three instruments), whereas the NSBG group showed no alteration in results over time (P = 0.876; P = 0.442; and P = 0.184, respectively). In the intergroup comparison it was observed that the MG group began to invest more in the body, similarly to the NSBG group, and surpassed the level of satisfaction and body image that the women of the NSBG group had after the surgery. Reduction mammaplasty promoted improvement in body image of women with breast hypertrophy. © 2018 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com

  16. Body image and eating patterns among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Pich, Jordi; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A

    2013-12-01

    Data on the association between body self-perception and eating patterns among adolescents are scarce. This study assessed the association between body image and eating patterns among normal-weight, overweight and obese adolescents. A cross-sectional survey (n = 1231; 12-17 years old) was carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain. Anthropometry, body image, socio-economic determinants, and food consumption were studied. Fifty-one percent of boys and sixty percent of girls that wished to be thinner had less than or equal to 3 eating occasions per day. Overfat girls that wish to be thinner skipped breakfast more frequently than normal-fat girls. Overfat boys and girls that wished a thinner body reported lower consumption of several food groups than normal-fat adolescents and overfat boys satisfied with their own body image (i.e. breakfast cereals, pasta and rice dishes, other oils and fats, high fat foods, soft drinks and chocolates in boys; and dairy products and chocolates in girls).A restriction of Western diet foods and energy intake was associated with a wish to be thinner among overfat adolescents. Many overfat boys were satisfied with their body image while practically all overfat girls reported wishing a thinner body. Meal patterns and food consumption were associated with body dissatisfaction and overfat status among adolescents.

  17. Media Impact on Students' Body Image

    OpenAIRE

    Asumadu-Sarkodie, Samuel; Owusu, Phebe Asantewaa

    2015-01-01

    Media promotion of the ideal body as slimness for women and muscularity for men, has led to increasing numbers of both genders reporting dissatisfaction with their bodies and trying to change using unhealthy eating habits. This research was conducted in University for Development Studies, Tamale campus. The main goal was to assess the impact of the media on university students' attitude toward body image. The objectives of the study is to, determine whether there was any association between b...

  18. Body image and cosmetic medical treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwer, David B; Crerand, Canice E

    2004-01-01

    Cosmetic medical treatments have become increasingly popular over the past decade. The explosion in popularity can be attributed to several factors-the evolution of safer, minimally invasive procedures, increased mass media attention, and the greater willingness of individuals to undergo cosmetic procedures as a means to enhance physical appearance. Medical and mental health professionals have long been interested in understanding both the motivations for seeking a change in physical appearance as well as the psychological outcomes of these treatments. Body image has been thought to play a key role in the decision to seek cosmetic procedures, however, only recently have studies investigated the pre- and postoperative body image concerns of patients. While body image dissatisfaction may motivate the pursuit of cosmetic medical treatments, psychiatric disorders characterized by body image disturbances, such as body dysmorphic disorder and eating disorders, may be relatively common among these patients. Subsequent research on persons who alter their physical appearance through cosmetic medical treatments are likely provide important information on the nature of body image.

  19. Association of Hidradenitis Suppurativa With Body Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider-Burrus, Sylke; Jost, Agata; Peters, Eva Milena Johanna; Witte-Haendel, Ellen; Sterry, Wolfram; Sabat, Robert

    2018-02-21

    Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) leads to disfigurement and painful eruptions in terminal hair follicles of the intertriginous skin, mainly of axillary, genitofemoral, and perianal sites. It is associated with an excessive impairment of quality of life, psychiatric disorders, and sexual distress. Body image impairment has been linked to depression and anxiety and has been described for some dermatologic disorders but has not yet been investigated in patients with HS. To investigate whether body image is diminished in patients with HS and whether disease severity, age at onset, disease duration, obesity, depression, and anxiety are linked to body image impairment. This 12-month (August 1, 2009, to August 31, 2010) case-control study with a prospective, observational, cross-sectional design recruited 47 consecutive patients with HS entering a tertiary care center and 45 healthy control individuals matched for age, sex, and body mass index (BMI). One patient and 4 controls failed to complete the questionnaire and were excluded from the evaluation. Data analysis was performed from December 1, 2013, to February 15, 2014. The Frankfurt Body Concept Scale (FKKS) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were given to patients and controls. Correlations among FKKS, HADS, and disease features were calculated. Of the 46 patients and 41 controls included in the evaluation (mean [SD] age, 35.6 [1.6] years; 40 [46%] male and 47 [54%] female), HS significantly reduced body image (mean FKKS score, 234.2 [5.4] in patients and 276.9 [5.7] in controls; P < .001), even when controlled for BMI. A correlation was found for the extent of body image disruption and BMI (r = -0.589; P < .001), HADS-depression score (r = -0.619; P < .001), and HADS-anxiety score (r = -0.340; P = .03). No association was found for the body image score and the severity of HS, age at onset of disease, and duration of disease. The body contact subscale score was the only

  20. Feminist identity, body image, and disordered eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowsky, Hannah M; Eisenberg, Marla E; Bucchianeri, Michaela M; Piran, Niva; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    Using data from a community-based sample (Project EAT-III), this study (N = 1241; mean age = 25.2) examined the relationship of feminist identity with body image and disordered eating. Feminist-identified women reported significantly higher body satisfaction than non-feminist women and women who did not identify as feminists but held feminist beliefs. However, feminist-identified women did not differ from non-feminist women in disordered eating. Women holding feminist beliefs and non-feminist women did not differ in body satisfaction. Our findings suggest that self-identification as a feminist may promote positive body image in young adult women, but may be insufficient to change behaviors.

  1. [Body image of adolescents in rural cities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Valter Paulo Neves; Conti, Maria Aparecida; Bastos, Ronaldo Rocha; Laus, Maria Fernanda; Almeida, Sebastião de Sousa; Ferreira, Maria Elisa Caputo

    2014-06-01

    The scope of this article is to evaluate the body image of adolescents from rural cities and its relationship with nutritional status, sex and the adolescent phase. Adolescents of both sexes participated in the cross-sectional study. Body image was evaluated through the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) and the Figure Rating Scale (FRS) for adolescents. Weight and height were measured for the evaluation of body mass index (BMI). Stages of adolescence were classified by age. Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were conducted. Four hundred and forty-five adolescents (190 boys and 255 girls), with a mean age of 16.44 comprised the sample. Higher risk of body dissatisfaction was found among overweight and obese participants (BSQ: OR = 3.359 p adolescence revealed a lesser risk of dissatisfaction compared to those from the initial phase. Body dissatisfaction was related to overweight and obesity, to the female sex and to the initial period of adolescence. Intervention research is required to control the factors that influence excessive adolescent body dissatisfaction.

  2. Body image attitude among Chinese college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kui; Liang, Rui; Ma, Zhen-Ling; Chen, Jue; Cheung, Eric F C; Roalf, David R; Gur, Ruben C; Chan, Raymond C K

    2018-03-01

    The present study aimed to examine body image attitude in Chinese college students and related psychological consequences. A silhouette-matching test was administered to 425 college students in mainland China. Self-esteem, negative emotions, subjective well-being, and eating-disorder-related weight-controlling behaviors were also measured. Only 12.9% of the participants were satisfied with their figure and the extent of body image dissatisfaction was comparable for both sexes. The majority of the female participants indicated a preference to be more slender. Their ideal figure was underweight and was far smaller than the most attractive female figure chosen by male participants. For male participants, the proportion wanting a fuller figure was comparable to that wanting a slimmer figure. Among female participants, body image dissatisfaction negatively correlated with self-esteem and subjective well-being, and positively correlated with negative emotions. Drive for thinness correlated with eating-disorder-related weight-controlling behaviors not only for females, but also for males. Body image dissatisfaction, as a diagnostic feature for major subtypes of eating disorders, may signal serious concern among Chinese college students. © 2018 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. Body image, eating disorders, and the media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Marjorie J; Strasburger, Victor C

    2008-12-01

    Adolescence is a time of tremendous change in physical appearance. Many adolescents report dissatisfaction with their body shape and size. Forming one's body image is a complex process, influenced by family, peers, and media messages. Increasing evidence shows that the combination of ubiquitous ads for foods and emphasis on female beauty and thinness in both advertising and programming leads to confusion and dissatisfaction for many young people. Sociocultural factors, specifically media exposure, play an important role in the development of disordered body image. Of significant concern, studies have revealed a link between media exposure and the likelihood of having symptoms of disordered eating or a frank eating disorder. Pediatricians and other adults must work to promote media education and make media healthier for young people. More research is needed to identify the most vulnerable children and adolescents.

  4. Imaging of drug smuggling by body packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sica, Giacomo; Guida, Franco; Bocchini, Giorgio; Iaselli, Francesco; Iadevito, Isabella; Scaglione, Mariano

    2015-02-01

    Body packing, pushing, and stuffing are hazardous practices with complex medicolegal and social implications. A radiologist plays both a social and a medicolegal role in their assessment, and it should not be limited only to the identification of the packages but must also provide accurate information about their number and their exact location so as to prevent any package remains in the body packer. Radiologists must also be able to recognize the complications associated with these risky practices. Imaging assessment of body packing is performed essentially through plain abdominal X-ray and computed tomography scans. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging, although with some advantages, actually have a limited use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Body image in different periods of adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Paulo N. Miranda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze body image in different periods of adolescence. Methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled students aged ten to 19 years old of public schools in small districts of Minas Gerais, Southeast Brazil. The Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ, the Body Dissatisfaction Assessment Scale for Teenagers and the Silhouette Scale for Teenagers (SST were used. Adolescence phases were classified according to the subjects' ages. Weight and height were measured in order to calculate the body mass index and the nutritional status. Results were analyzed by logistic regression. Results: The study emolled 531 teenagers (318 females. The average age was 15.6± 2 .2 years and 84.6% were eutrophic. The prevalence of body dissatisfaction varied from 28.9% (BSQ to 78.9% (SST. Overweight adolescents presented greater dissatisfaction (BSQ: OR 3.66, p<0.001; SST: OR 4.108, p<0.001. Dissatisfaction also occurred for females and those at the early adolescence (p<0.05. Conclusions: A low prevalence of dissatisfaction with the body image was observed among adolescents in small towns of Minas Gerais; however, most of them wished a different silhouette than the current one. The results showed that younger adolescents had higher dissatisfaction than their peers, as well as female and overweighed adolescents.

  6. Body Image in a Sexual Context : The Relationship between Body Image and Sexual Experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brink, F.

    2017-01-01

    Given the large sociocultural emphasis on appearance and the widespread incidence of a negative body image in current society, scientific understanding of its potential psychological and physical health consequences, including sexual problems, is now of particular importance. The value of

  7. Toward a Theoretical Model of Women's Body Image Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choate, Laura Hensley

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses women's body image resilience. Body image dissatisfaction is prevalent among girls and women. Girls as young as 6 years old experience negative body image, and there is evidence that women struggle with body concerns throughout the life cycle (Lewis & Cachelin, 2001; Smolak, 2002; Striegel-Moore & Franko, 2002). In fact,…

  8. Comparison of the perception of ideal body images of Ghanaian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that Ghanaian men preferred Ghanaian women to be of the larger, traditional body size. Ghanaian men and women were selected at random to complete a survey and to select a body image that best represented their current body image (CBI), and an ideal body image ...

  9. Body Image in Female Professional and Amateur Dancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollatou, Elisana; Bakali, Nikoleta; Theodorakis, Yannis; Goudas, Marios

    2010-01-01

    Body image is considered to be an obscure, mental representation of body shape, size and form which is influenced by a variety of factors that operate over varying time spans. Research has shown that professional female dancers may face preoccupations with their body image and weight. The present study aimed to investigate how body image was…

  10. Whole body MR imaging in diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weckbach, Sabine; Schoenberg, Stefan O.

    2009-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major cardiovascular risk factor and one of the major causes for morbidity and mortality worldwide. Diabetic complications have not only major impact on the quality of life of diabetic patients, but are also potentially life-threatening. Therefore prevention, diagnosis and therapy of these long-term complications are of high importance. However, diagnosis of the variety of complications from diabetes mellitus remains a diagnostic challenge and usually several diagnostic steps are necessary to diagnose or exclude these complications. In the last years whole body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) including whole body magnetic resonance angiography (WB-MRA) has been introduced for cardiovascular imaging and is now increasingly applied in clinical routine for the workup of patients with cardiovascular disease and for cardiovascular screening. The article summarizes rationales for WB-MRI in diabetes mellitus, technical concepts of disease specific cardiovascular WB-MRI in diabetes mellitus and discusses potential clinical consequences.

  11. Body image, compulsory heterosexuality, and internalized homophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, G E

    1999-01-01

    ABSTRACT Body dissatisfaction in lesbians is a subject which has traditionally been ignored in the psychological literature on body image and eating disorders. Early feminist theorists and researchers argued that body dissatisfaction in women developed as a way of dealing with the oppression and misogyny they are faced with on a daily basis. However, these theories failed to take issues of race, class, and sexual orientation into account, thereby excluding the experiences of a diversity of women. This article focuses specifically on the lesbian experience and explores how cultural messages about thinness, femininity, and heterosexuality shape lesbians' feelings about their sexuality and about their bodies. Through the inevitable process of internalizing homophobia and fat hatred, both of which are institutionalized ways of keeping heterosexuality and female oppression in place, lesbians may begin to believe that there is something inherently wrong with them and with their bodies. This article explores how the impact of racism, classism, sexism, and homophobia on women may provide a more comprehensive understanding of the cultural forces behind women's dissatisfaction with their bodies.

  12. Etic aspects of childrens body image

    OpenAIRE

    Bokaová, Katarína

    2010-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with marketing communication focused on children, particulary with the impact on children's body image. It reflects the regulation of advertising in terms of legal and ethical issues. It seeks to examine the manipulability of children in decision-making process and the impact of advertising and media on their healthy development. The role of the thesis is to highlight the importance of careful monitoring of the marketing development and its negative impact on childr...

  13. Body image v marketingu

    OpenAIRE

    Michelík, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Today's era depicts life of consumer society with the growing battle for customers. Every single person in this world wants to have a solid life and look pretty. Advertisements, which display handsome and slender people are all around us and they influence our consumer behavior. We tend to equilibrate these ideals by buying the most diverse products and even attempt to achieve the alleged feeling of happiness. This thesis is focused on Body image in which explains individual consumer behavior...

  14. Whole-body intravoxel incoherent motion imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filli, Lukas; Wurnig, Moritz C.; Eberhardt, Christian; Guggenberger, Roman; Boss, Andreas [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Luechinger, Roger [University and ETH Zurich, Institute of Biomedical Technology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-07-15

    To investigate the technical feasibility of whole-body intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) imaging. Whole-body MR images of eight healthy volunteers were acquired at 3T using a spin-echo echo-planar imaging sequence with eight b-values. Coronal parametrical whole-body maps of diffusion (D), pseudodiffusion (D*), and the perfusion fraction (F{sub p}) were calculated. Image quality was rated qualitatively by two independent radiologists, and inter-reader reliability was tested with intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs). Region of interest (ROI) analysis was performed in the brain, liver, kidney, and erector spinae muscle. Depiction of anatomic structures was rated as good on D maps and good to fair on D* and F{sub p} maps. Exemplary mean D (10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s), D* (10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) and F{sub p} (%) values (± standard deviation) of the renal cortex were as follows: 1.7 ± 0.2; 15.6 ± 6.5; 20.9 ± 4.4. Inter-observer agreement was ''substantial'' to ''almost perfect'' (ICC = 0.80 - 0.92). The coefficient of variation of D* was significantly lower with the proposed algorithm compared to the conventional algorithm (p < 0.001), indicating higher stability. The proposed IVIM protocol allows computation of parametrical maps with good to fair image quality. Potential future clinical applications may include characterization of widespread disease such as metastatic tumours or inflammatory myopathies. (orig.)

  15. Body image, media, and eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenne, Jennifer L; Beresin, Eugene V

    2006-01-01

    Eating disorders, including obesity, are a major public health problem today. Throughout history, body image has been determined by various factors, including politics and media. Exposure to mass media (television, movies, magazines, Internet) is correlated with obesity and negative body image, which may lead to disordered eating. The authors attempt to explain the historical context of the problem and explore potential avenues for change. The authors review changes in ideal female body type throughout history, comment on current attitudes toward shape and weight in both men and women, and outline interventions aimed at increasing healthy habits and fostering self-esteem in youth. Throughout history, the ideal of beauty has been difficult to achieve and has been shaped by social context. Current mass media is ubiquitous and powerful, leading to increased body dissatisfaction among both men and women. Parents need to limit children's exposure to media, promote healthy eating and moderate physical activity, and encourage participation in activities that increase mastery and self-esteem. Funding for high-quality, visible advertising campaigns promoting healthy life styles may increase awareness.

  16. How do you define body image? Exploring conceptual gaps in understandings of body image at an exercise facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, K Alysse; Gammage, Kimberley L; van Ingen, Cathy

    2017-12-01

    The definition of body image has evolved within research; however, less is known about the layperson's understanding of the construct. This study explored how members and student trainees of an exercise facility (designed for older adults, people with physical disability, and those with cardiac complications) defined body image. Nineteen participants completed a one-on-one interview, and seven of those participants took part in six additional focus group meetings. The following main themes were found: stereotypical assumptions about body image (e.g., it is solely a person's weight or merely a woman's issue), body image continua for positive and negative body image, degree of complexity of body image dimensions, broad considerations of body image (e.g., it is self-esteem), and limited knowledge about body image. These findings suggest a need for knowledge translation between researchers and the general public which informs future body image program design. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Relationships among Body Image, Body Mass Index, Exercise, and Sexual Functioning in Heterosexual Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Angela D.; Byers, E. Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Problems related to negative body image are very common among young women. In this study, we examined the relationship between women's body image and their sexual functioning over and above the effects of physical exercise and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of 214 university women. Low situational body image dysphoria and low body…

  18. Body Image and its Relation with Body Mass Index among Indian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Vaishali R; Kulkarni, Aditi A

    2017-12-15

    To evaluate association of body mass index with perception and attitude towards bodyweight, shape and body image among adolescents. This cross-sectional study was done on 1811 adolescents. Attitude towards body image was assessed by using a self-administered Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire. Perceived body shape was measured using the Stunkard scale. Adolescents showed significant difference (P<0.005) in perceptions and behaviors related to appearance, fitness, health, body areas and weight across various body mass index and socioeconomic categories. Girls articulated significantly higher (P<0.005) body dissatisfaction than boys. Attitudes and perceptions towards body image differ with sex, body mass index and socioeconomic class.

  19. Seymour Fisher contributions to research on body image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.R.L. Ribeiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to systematically review Seymour Fisher contributions to research on body image. A literature review of his work on body perception, distorted body image, body boundary, assigned meanings to specific body areas, and general body awareness was carried out on four of the books written by the author. Fisher correlated those variables with defense mechanisms, adaptation, and body anxiety. Moreover, he also considered the roles played by culture and personality on the complex phenomenon of body experience. This review intends to disseminate Seymour Fisher contributions among Brazilian researchers on body image.

  20. Body image, body mass index, and body composition in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streeter, Veronica M; Milhausen, Robin R; Buchholz, Andrea C

    2012-01-01

    Associations were examined between body image and body mass index (BMI) in comparison with body composition in healthy weight, overweight, and obese young adults. Weight and height were determined, and the percentage of fat mass (%FM) and percentage of fat-free mass (%FFM) were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in 75 male and 87 female young adults (21.1 ± 1.9 years; 25.2 ± 4.4 kg/m² [mean ± standard deviation]). Body image was measured using the three subscales Weight Esteem, Appearance Esteem, and External Attribution of the Body-Esteem Scale for Adolescents and Adults (BESAA). Body mass index and %FM were highly correlated (r for males = 0.74, r for females = 0.82; both pbody image, particularly Weight Esteem. After adjustment for physical activity, BMI and %FM (and %FFM, although in the opposite direction) were associated with each BESAA subscale: %FM, %FFM, and BMI explained 12% to 14% of the variance in Appearance Esteem for both sexes, 33% to 41% in Weight Esteem in women and 16% to 18% in men, and 8% to 10% in External Attribution in women (all pbody image decreases, particularly in women.

  1. Body image features and interpersonal strategies in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Fadieieva Kseniia-Marharyta Olegivna

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the phenomenon of teenagers physical socialization in the context of extracurricular activities. The features of body image of dance, sports, travel and psychological courses participants. This article highlights typical stylistic features of teens body image.

  2. Whole-body imaging of bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Gerwin P; Reiser, Maximilian F; Baur-Melnyk, Andrea

    2009-06-01

    For bone marrow screening, multimodality algorithms including conventional radiographs, bone scintigraphy, multislice computed tomography CT (MS-CT) scan, and dedicated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are widely established in clinical routine. Although radiographs are used as a basic imaging procedure for clarification of suspected focal bone pathologies, low sensitivity has been reported for the detection of limited osteolytic bone marrow destruction. Therefore, skeletal scintigraphy often is used as a more sensitive and integrated method in patients with suspected malignant bone marrow disease. MS-CT scan is the method of choice in the assessment of bone stability and allows for evaluation of fracture risk. Hybrid imaging concepts, such as positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) scan, have been established as an effective tool for the detection of skeletal metastases, using the additional metabolic information of a PET scan for the assessment of tumor viability and therapy response. MRI is an imaging technique that allows direct visualization of bone marrow components with high spatial resolution. The unique soft-tissue contrast of MRI enables precise assessment of bone marrow infiltration before osteolytic changes become visible in MS-CT or metabolic changes occur in bone scintigraphy or a PET scan. Furthermore it can depict tumor expansion into adjacent paraosseous structures, such as the spinal canal. The development of multichannel whole-body MRI (WB-MRI) systems has enabled bone marrow screening without use of ionizing radiation at high diagnostic accuracy. Parallel imaging techniques in combination with global matrix coil concepts, as well as the introduction of high-field whole-body scanners, have substantially reduced acquisition times without compromises in spatial resolution. WB-MRI has successfully been applied for screening of bone metastases and hematologic bone marrow diseases, like multiple myeloma, lymphoma, and histiocytosis X

  3. Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Women's Body-Image Dissatisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butters, Jonathan W.; Cash, Thomas F.

    1987-01-01

    Assigned college women with a significant level of body-image dissatisfaction to a cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) program or to a waiting-list control group. The CBT program successfully improved affective body image, weakened maladaptive body-image cognitions, and enhanced social self-esteem and feelings about physical fitness and…

  4. Body Image and Self-Esteem (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Body Image and Self-Esteem KidsHealth / For Teens / Body Image and Self-Esteem ... your self-esteem . Why Are Self-Esteem and Body Image Important? Self-esteem is all about how much you feel you ...

  5. Body Image of Anorexic, Obese, and Normal Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Crystal; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Investigated disturbances in body image perception with anorexic, obese and control groups. Significant difference was found among the groups in perception of present-self body image, body image at plus 10 pounds, and minus 10 pounds. A directional trend was noted in anorexic overestimation and obese underestimation on the total concept of body…

  6. Understanding the Social Basis of Adolescent Body Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornholt, L. J.

    It is apparent from current research and professional experience that body image has a strong social basis, but the form of such comparisons is unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine likely forms of the social basis of adolescent body image. This study compares two approaches to the social basis of body image to ask to what extent…

  7. The Development of Body Image and Weight Bias in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, S J; Damiano, S R

    2017-01-01

    Negative body image attitudes are related to the onset of disordered eating, poor self-esteem, general mental health problems, and obesity. In this chapter, we will review the nature of body image attitudes in girls and boys in early (approximately 3-7 years old) and later childhood (approximately 8-11 years old). The body image attitudes explored in this chapter include body image attitudes related to the self, with a focus on body dissatisfaction, and body image attitudes related to others, with a focus on weight bias. Issues of measurement of body image and weight bias will first be explored. In light of measurement considerations, the prevalence and predictors of body dissatisfaction and related concerns, and weight bias will be examined. The chapter will conclude with a review of promising directions in the prevention of body dissatisfaction and weight bias in children. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The female aging body: A systematic review of female perspectives on aging, health, and body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Erin; Ward, Pamela; Mandville-Anstey, Sue Ann; Coombs, Alyssa

    2018-03-20

    While most body image research has focused on young female populations, evidence has shown that as few as 12% of older women are satisfied with their body size. Recent studies have also highlighted how anti-aging discourses are promoting unrealistic body norms, which have shown to contribute to poor body image and altered health behaviors. A systematic review of empirical studies focused on older women's perspectives of health, body image, and the aging body is presented. Findings support that body image is a persistent, lifelong issue for women and should be considered when implementing healthy aging policies and practices.

  9. Contextual body image and athletes’ disordered eating: The role of athletic body image in disordered eating in elite women athletes

    OpenAIRE

    de Bruin, A.P.; Oudejans, R.R.D.; Bakker, F.C.; Woertman, L.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the contribution of a contextual body image perspective to understanding disordered eating in high performance women athletes. Because existing questionnaires were not suitable for measuring body image in the contexts of sport and daily life, we developed the 'Contextual Body Image Questionnaire for Athletes' (CBIQA) in which body image is divided into 'appearance', 'muscularity', 'thin-fat self-evaluations' and 'thin-fat perceived opinions of others', in both c...

  10. The Fantastical Body and the Vulnerability of Comfort: Alternative Models for Understanding Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springgay, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    Arguing for new models of inquiry that interrogate body image from the perspective of intercorporeality, this article explores a research study conducted in a secondary school art class. Shifting analysis from the representation of body image to a tactile, sensuous, and experiential understanding of body image, I highlight the contradictions and…

  11. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, Dana K; Reel, Justine J; Greenleaf, Christy

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty) that affect one's body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one's body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender) to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise). Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed.

  12. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, Dana K; Reel, Justine J; Greenleaf, Christy

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty) that affect one’s body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one’s body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender) to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise). Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed. PMID:26347007

  13. Body image and anthropometric indicators in adolescents living with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Rodrigo Augustemak de Lima

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare body image and anthropometric indicators among adolescents living with HIV and healthy adolescents (control group. In addition, we verified the associations of anthropometric indicators, infection/treatment, sexual maturity, and sociodemographic characteristics with body image in adolescents living with HIV. One hundred and eleven adolescents aged 10 to 15 years were divided into those living with HIV (n = 57 and a control group (n = 54. Body image was investigated using an eight-point body silhouette scale. Body weight, height, circumferences, and skinfolds were measured. Body image dissatisfaction was found in 54.4% of the adolescents living with HIV, with 38.6% of them wishing to increase their body size. Conversely, body image dissatisfaction was due to the desire to reduce body size in the control group (40.7%. No difference between the HIV and control groups was found for the anthropometric indicators analyzed. Gender (β = -0.52, age (β = 0.18, body weight (β = 0.07, body mass index (β = -0.19, and upper arm muscle area (β = -0.08 explained 42% of the variation in the body image score of adolescents living with HIV. Thinness is the main reason for body image dissatisfaction in adolescents living with HIV. Almost half the body dissatisfaction of adolescents living with HIV was explained by demographic and anthropometric variables.

  14. Relationship between body image and somatotype profile in young women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Rodrigues Castro

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate associations among body dissatisfaction, behaviors, feelings, and beliefs related to the body - and somatotypical profile. The sample included 142 undergraduate female students (21.81 ± 3 years who underwent to assessment of Body Mass Index and somatotype, according to the World Health Organization and Heath-Carter protocols, respectively. To assess body image the following instruments were applied: Body Shape Questionnaire, Body Attitudes Questionnaire, Body Image Avoidance Questionnaire, Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Scale, Self-Subject Silhouettes To the analysis data we proceeded to multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA one-way. As the main result, we find that body dissatisfaction, body avoidance and negative attitudes about appearance components are linked to each other and they are influenced by body profiles with mesomorphic and endomorphic predominance. We conclude that the somatotype profile can be an important predictor of changes in body image and is indicated for tracking risk groups.

  15. Viewing television shows containing ideal and neutral body images while exercising: does type of body image content influence exercise performance and body image in women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Eric E; Baird, Seanna A; Gilbert, Danielle N; Miller, Paul C; Bixby, Walter R

    2011-09-01

    This study examined how exposure to media containing different body image content while exercising influenced exercise performance and feelings concerning appearance. 41 females completed two sessions of cycling (30 minutes). During exercise, participants viewed a television show that contained either media-portrayed ideal or neutral female body images. There were no differences in exercise performance between conditions. Physical appearance state anxiety (PASA) decreased post-exercise. After viewing ideal bodies, participants scored higher on appearance and comparison processing. The high internalization group scored higher on appearance and comparison processing and PASA increased following ideal body image content while the low internalization group decreased.

  16. Asian American college women's body image: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Allison S M; Lum, Sharilyn K; Chronister, Krista M; Forrest, Linda

    2006-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of values acculturation and the influence of media on Asian American college women's overall body image. A sample of 59 Asian American women from two large universities completed self-report surveys, which included questions regarding values acculturation, media internalization, and overall body satisfaction. Results showed that Asian American women who identified more strongly with traditional Asian values reported higher levels of body image dissatisfaction. Further, Asian American women who reported higher internalization of media portrayals of beauty ideals reported higher body image dissatisfaction. Research and clinical recommendations are made to enhance psychologists' understanding of Asian American women's body image and acculturation.

  17. Silent Bodies: Japanese taciturnity and image thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Došen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A nonverbal transmission and an implicit way of communication are highly encouraged in Japanese society. The reason for this “silence prerogative” is often found in historical facts of lengthy feudal era or in ancient philosophies and religions such as Buddhism and Confucianism and their various concepts which privilege taciturn way of communication. Moreover, the unspoken comprehension is often complemented by the attitude which equates truthfulness with silence. This paper explores the silence as a communicative act in the domain of Japanese art, where the body takes over the place of the language. In traditional Japanese theatrical performance, such as noh, words are often inadequate to convey emotion and therefore the aesthetics of emptiness, understatement and abstraction is transcended by the masks with "nonmoving lips". Drawing on theoretical perspectives from both East and West, I argue that the silent bodies operate as deliberate and integral determinants of Japanese non-silent art forms – especially in cinema and theatre. In the Eastern thought, visual perception is fundamental in cognition of the world, whereas auditory discernment is secondary to "image-thinking" (Yuasa. Accustomed to taciturnity, Japanese audience effectively corresponds to the performance and "completes" it in silence.

  18. Attractive celebrity and peer images on Instagram: Effect on women's mood and body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Zoe; Tiggemann, Marika

    2016-12-01

    A large body of research has documented that exposure to images of thin fashion models contributes to women's body dissatisfaction. The present study aimed to experimentally investigate the impact of attractive celebrity and peer images on women's body image. Participants were 138 female undergraduate students who were randomly assigned to view either a set of celebrity images, a set of equally attractive unknown peer images, or a control set of travel images. All images were sourced from public Instagram profiles. Results showed that exposure to celebrity and peer images increased negative mood and body dissatisfaction relative to travel images, with no significant difference between celebrity and peer images. This effect was mediated by state appearance comparison. In addition, celebrity worship moderated an increased effect of celebrity images on body dissatisfaction. It was concluded that exposure to attractive celebrity and peer images can be detrimental to women's body image. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Weight status and perceived body size image in overweight and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Doaa K. Hussin

    Children;. Obesity;. Body image. Abstract Background: Young people's perception of their weight status attracted much interest. With a better understanding of childhood body image problems, investigating prevention programs within schools is an important next step. Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate body ...

  20. Media-portrayed idealized images, body shame, and appearance anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monro, Fiona; Huon, Gail

    2005-07-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects of media-portrayed idealized images on young women's body shame and appearance anxiety, and to establish whether the effects depend on advertisement type and on participant self-objectification. Participants were 39 female university students. Twenty-four magazine advertisements comprised 12 body-related and 12 non-body-related products, one half of each with, and the other one half without, idealized images. Preexposure and post exposure body shame and appearance anxiety measures were recorded. Appearance anxiety increased after viewing advertisements featuring idealized images. There was also a significant interaction between self-objectification level and idealized body (presence vs. absence). No differences emerged for body-related compared with non-body-related product advertisements. The only result for body shame was a main effect for time. Participants' body shame increased after exposure to idealized images, irrespective of advertisement type. Although our findings reveal that media-portrayed idealized images detrimentally affect the body image of young women, they highlight the individual differences in vulnerability and the different effects for different components of body image. These results are discussed in terms of their implications for the prevention and early intervention of body image and dieting-related disorders. ( Copyright 2005 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  1. A system and method for imaging body areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goethals, F.P.C.

    2013-01-01

    The invention relates to a system for imaging one or more external human body areas comprising a photographic device configured to acquire, store and output an image or images of the one or more body areas. The invention also relates to a method for determining a probable disease state of an

  2. Effects of Media on Female Body Image: Myth or Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryla, Karen Y.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the media's influence on female body image. differentiating between the effects of print and electronic media. Results suggest that print media have a direct, immediate, and negative effect on female body image, while no such relationship exists for electronic media. Results also indicate that exploring only exposure to media images is…

  3. Body Weight, Body Image, and Perception of Fad Diets in Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storz, Nancy S.; Greene, Walter H.

    1983-01-01

    Examined relationships among adolescent girls' (N=203) satisfaction with body weight, body image, and perception/use of fad diets. Subjects wanting to lose weight were placed into two groups based on amount of weight-loss desired and compared in terms of body image scores, ratings of fad diets, and frequency of using the diets. (JN)

  4. Childhood trauma and anorexia nervosa: From body image to embodiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malecki, Jennifer; Rhodes, Paul; Ussher, Jane

    2018-02-27

    Contemporary understandings of anorexia nervosa are framed by the body image paradigm. The body-image framework considers that women's bodily experiences are reflected through distorted mental images of their bodies or disordered thinking and behavior around food and eating. Body image has come to symbolize all that can go wrong with women's relationship with their bodies, food and eating. The problem with this approach is its failure to consider the experience of women who survived childhood abuse. Women's bodily disturbances are not easily discernible through objective measures as they lie within the inner subjective realm of the embodied 'self', and embodied emotional experience. Consideration of the different ways that women inhabit their bodies inform this paper's examination of the conceptual framework embodiment as an alternate to the body image paradigm.

  5. Perfectionistic self-presentation, body image, and eating disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Brandy J; Hewitt, Paul L; Sherry, Simon B; Parkin, Melanie; Flett, Gordon L

    2005-03-01

    A specific model for eating disorder symptoms involving perfectionistic self-presentation and two different moderators (i.e., body image evaluation and body image investment) was tested. Participants completed measures of perfectionistic self-presentation, body image dysfunction, and eating disorder symptoms. Findings indicated that all three dimensions of perfectionistic self-presentation were associated with eating disorder symptoms. Results also showed that perfectionistic self-presentation predicted eating disorder symptoms in women who were dissatisfied with their bodies, but that it did not predict eating problems in women who liked their bodies and felt there was little or no discrepancy between their actual and ideal appearances. Body image investment did not moderate the relationship between perfectionistic self-presentation and eating disorder symptoms, suggesting that ego-involvement alone is insufficient to promote eating disturbance in the context of perfectionism. The importance of self-presentation components of perfectionism and specific body image difficulties in predicting eating disorder symptoms are discussed.

  6. Body-Image Evaluation and Body-Image Investment among Adolescents: A Test of Sociocultural and Social Comparison Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Todd G.; Kalin, Rudolf; Morrison, Melanie A.

    2004-01-01

    Sociocultural theory and social comparison theory were used to account for variations in body-image evaluation and body-image investment among male and female adolescents (N = 1,543). Exposure to magazines and television programs containing idealistic body imagery as well as frequency of self-comparison to universalistic targets (e.g., fashion…

  7. Perception of body image and sexuality for women with mastectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Charlotte Brun; Laursen, Birgitte Schantz

    Background Having cancer and having one breast removed can affect all aspects of a woman's life. The literature shows that many women experience an altered body image and sexuality, loss of femininity, a feeling of less sexual attractiveness and decline in self-esteem. Furthermore mastectomy can...... affect women's perception of quality of life and psychosocial state.In Denmark, no previous studies have focused on perception of body image and sexuality in the acute phase after mastectomy. Furthermore, no study addresses the influence of perceived body image and sexuality on the decision to have....... Objectives The aim is to explore perceived body image and sexuality after having had mastectomy in the acute phase. Further, the aim is to focus on body image and sexuality as determinants for whether women choose reconstruction or not. Insight into women's perceived body image and sexuality is valuable...

  8. Marketingový význam body image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Koudelka

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Consumer behavior is significantly influenced by body image. Psychological, social and cultural reflections of body image play serious role in marketing approach as they noticeably enter the buying decision process of consumers. Commonly substantial attention is devoted to problems connected with body image due to their healthy life relations and media attractiveness. Arising occurrence of critical data with regard to the worsening health condition of population used to be connected with marketing activities that leads to the increasing pressure on marketing regulation. That is why the research of this potential influence is very actual. Both the real body image impact on consumer behavior and the ideal body image imaginary should be explored. Contrary to the importance of body image in consumer behavior, concentrated attention to it is relatively rare or even missing in marketing literature. There is also the other reason why to investigate it: naturally, there exist many differences in body image behavior among consumers . This implies the possibilities of physiognomic variables in market segmentation processes. A lot of research lines and methods could be employed to investigate marketing specifics of body image. One area is represented by comparative analyses of various secondary data. For example, the Body Mass Index date, their structure and trends can indicate some backgrounds moments. Data mining of syndicated data of marketing research agencies (such as project Market&Media&Lifestyle-TGI of Median agency in CR offer an immense possibility to explore overall tendencies in body image consumer behavior, changes in time, cross relations between several body image variables and consumer descriptive characteristics. Moreover, body image behavior could be related to media behavior and attitudes to advertising. Quantitative and qualitative ad hoc research represents further important research direction. It enables to explore specific levels of

  9. The association between sexual satisfaction and body image in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujols, Yasisca; Seal, Brooke N; Meston, Cindy M

    2010-02-01

    Although sexual functioning has been linked to sexual satisfaction, it only partially explains the degree to which women report being sexually satisfied. Other factors include quality of life, relational variables, and individual factors such as body image. Of the few studies that have investigated the link between body image and sexual satisfaction, most have considered body image to be a single construct and have shown mixed results. The present study assessed multiple body image variables in order to better understand which aspects of body image influence multiple domains of sexual satisfaction, including sexual communication, compatibility, contentment, personal concern, and relational concern in a community sample of women. Women between the ages of 18 and 49 years in sexual relationships (N = 154) participated in an Internet survey that assessed sexual functioning, five domains of sexual satisfaction, and several body image variables. Body image variables included the sexual attractiveness, weight concern, and physical condition subscales of the Body Esteem Scale, the appearance-based subscale of the Cognitive Distractions During Sexual Activity Scale, and body mass index. Total score of the Sexual Satisfaction Scale for Women was the main outcome measure. Sexual functioning was measured by a modified Female Sexual Function Index. Consistent with expectations, correlations indicated significant positive relationships between sexual functioning, sexual satisfaction, and all body image variables. A multiple regression analysis revealed that sexual satisfaction was predicted by high body esteem and low frequency of appearance-based distracting thoughts during sexual activity, even after controlling for sexual functioning status. Several aspects of body image, including weight concern, physical condition, sexual attractiveness, and thoughts about the body during sexual activity predict sexual satisfaction in women. The findings suggest that women who experience

  10. Marketingový význam body image

    OpenAIRE

    Koudelka, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Consumer behavior is significantly influenced by body image. Psychological, social and cultural reflections of body image play serious role in marketing approach as they noticeably enter the buying decision process of consumers. Commonly substantial attention is devoted to problems connected with body image due to their healthy life relations and media attractiveness. Arising occurrence of critical data with regard to the worsening health condition of population used to be connected wi...

  11. Body image and prosthesis satisfaction in the lower limb amputee.

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Craig; Fox, Jezz

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the relationship between prosthesis satisfaction and body image in lower limb prosthesis users, and the gendered variations within these relationships. Method: A total of 44 valid responses were obtained to an Internet survey regarding prosthesis satisfaction, body image, and phantom pain. Spearman Rho correlations were calculated for these three domains. Results: Moderate to high negative correlations were observed between Body Image Disturbance and Prosthesis Sa...

  12. Body Image in Younger Breast Cancer Survivors: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Carly; Lengacher, Cecile A.; Donovan, Kristine A.; Kip, Kevin E.; Tofthagen, Cindy S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Body image is a complex issue with the potential to impact many aspects of cancer survivorship, particularly for the younger breast cancer survivor. Objective The purpose of this review is to synthesize the current state of the science for body image in younger women with breast cancer. Intervention/Methods Combinations of the terms “body image,” “sexuality intervention,” “women,” “younger women,” and “breast cancer” were searched in the PubMed, PsycInfo, CINAHL, Web of Knowledge and Science Direct databases through January 2014. Inclusion criteria for this review were: 1) original research; 2) published in English from the year 2000 forward; 3) measuring body image as an outcome variable; and 4) results included reporting of age-related outcomes. Results Thirty-six articles met the inclusion criteria. The majority of studies were cross-sectional, with extensive variation in body image assessment tools. Age and treatment type had a significant impact on body image, and poorer body image was related to physical and psychological distress, sex and intimacy, and the partnered relationship among younger women. Only one intervention study found a significant improvement in body image post-intervention. Conclusions Findings suggest body image is a complex post-treatment concern for breast cancer survivors, particularly younger women. The findings of this review are limited by the high level of variation in the methods for assessing body image. Implications for Practice Further research of interventions to address body image concerns following treatment for breast cancer is warranted. Improvement of body image may improve the quality of life of younger breast cancer survivors. PMID:25881807

  13. The Impact of the Ideal Thin Body Image on Women

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkins, Nicole

    1999-01-01

    Researchers and clinicians have postulated that the thin-ideal image portrayed in the media leads to body dissatisfaction and negative self-appraisals among women; however, there is little research that has directly examined the effects of these images on women. The purpose of this research investigation was to experimentally examine the effects of exposure to the thin-ideal on women's affect, self-esteem, body satisfaction, and level of internalization of the thin body image. This study also...

  14. Hubungan Body Image dengan Kepercayaan Diri Remaja Putri

    OpenAIRE

    Ifdil Ifdil; Amandha Unzilla Denich; Asmidir Ilyas

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: This study aims to describe the condition of teenage girl’s self-confidence and body image and to identify the relationship between teenage girl's body image with self confidence. This descriptive and correlation study using 77 teenage girls as sample. Sampling technique used stratified random sampling technique. The research used instrument  Zila & Ifdil Kepercayaan Diri Inventori and Zila & Ifdil Body Images Inventory. Data were analyzed using descriptive analysis technique and co...

  15. Body Image Disorder Linked with Sport Activities to Obesity Students

    OpenAIRE

    Trijayanti Idris, Desi Natalia

    2012-01-01

    Physical changes are very influential on a person's psychological development, and will have an impact on body image, many people are doing the wrong way, whereas sports is a better way. The purpose this study was to determine the correlation body image disorder and sport activities to obesity students at Nursing Study Program S1 STIKES RS Baptis Kediri. The design this study was cross sectional with sample of 71 respondents. The Independent variable was body image disorder and dependent vari...

  16. Study of Body Image in Fertile and Infertile Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Dadkhah, Asghar; Bagherpour, Ahmad; Ardakani, Zohreh Behjati; Kamali, Kourosh; Binaafar, Sima; Kosari, Haleh; Ghorbani, Behzad

    2011-01-01

    Background Body Image as a multidimensional entity is related to both physical and psychological aspects of the image one has of his or her own body. Lack/absence of an acceptable body image is one of the reasons of mental distress in infertile individuals. Methods In this study, an equal number (No=120) of fertile and infertile men attending Avicenna Infertility Clinic (AIC) were enrolled. The participants were compared in regard to body image variables based on the "Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ)" consisting of 10 subscales. Data was analyzed by SPSS, version 11.5, using Chi square and independent t-tests. Results Fertile men had a more positive body image as compared to infertile individuals. Significant statistical differences were observed when body image subscales were compared in both groups; in other words appearance evaluation, appearance orientation, Novy, health evaluation, health orientation, illness orientation, body satisfaction, overweight preoccupation and self-classified weight showed differences, while no significant difference was observed in regard to fitness orientation. Conclusion It seems that the ability and efficiency of body image is affected by infertility leading to dissatisfaction of one's body image. PMID:23926517

  17. [Analysis of body image perception of university students in navarra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto Ruiz, Ma Nelia; Marin Fernández, Blanca; Aguinaga Ontoso, Inés; Guillén-Grima, Francisco; Serrano Mozó, Inmaculada; Canga Armayor, Navidad; Hermoso de Mendoza Cantón, Juana; Stock, Christiane; Kraemer, Alexander; Annan, James

    2015-05-01

    Current models of beauty represent an extreme thinness in the women and a muscular body in the men. The body image perception will condition the search of ideal beauty through different behaviors and can be transform in eating disorders. The university students, with the changes typical of youth and university transition, are a vulnerable group. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the body image perception of university students in Navarra. The study included 1162 subjects of which 64.2% were female. Students asked for a self-managed questionnaire and they were weighted and heighted to calculate the body mass index (BMI). Their body image perception were obtained asking the students to select a picture, according to their perception which corresponded to their current body image from nine different silhouettes for men and women. Their BMI were calculated and compared with their perceived BMI. 43.03% of students, overestimated their body image (10.65% in males and 59.69% in females) and 10.20% of students underestimated it. 46.75% of students had concordance between BMI and body image perception. There were more cases the alterations in the body image perception in women. In general, women saw themselves as being fatter than really were while men saw themselves as being thinner than they really were. The results shown that the women were more worried about their weight and body image than the men. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  18. Body image dissatisfaction among rural and urban adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Glaner

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To identify the prevalence of body image dissatisfaction among adolescents living in rural and urban areas, and to analyze the influence of demographic and anthropometric variables on body image dissatisfaction. A total of 629 adolescents aged 13 to 17 years from urban and rural areas participated in the study. Demographic variables (gender, age, area of residence, anthropometric measurements (body weight, height, skinfold thickness and body image data were collected. BMI (underweight: 25 kg/m² and the sum of two skinfold thicknesses, Σ2SF (girls: low: 36 mm; boys: low: 25 mm were then calculated. The prevalence of body image dissatisfaction was similar (p≥0,05 among rural (64,2% and urban adolescents (62,8%. Boys wished to increase the size of their body silhouette (41,3%, whereas girls wished to reduce it (50,5% (p<0,001. Adolescents with low and excess weight based on BMI and with high Σ2SF presented a 3,14, 8,45 and 2,08 times higher chance of body image dissatisfaction, respectively. A high prevalence of body image dissatisfaction was observed among adolescents from rural and urban areas. An unhealthy nutritional status and body adiposity increase the chances of body image dissatisfaction. These findings emphasize the social pressure on girls to remain slim and on boys to attain an athletic body.

  19. Does body image influence the relationship between body weight and breastfeeding maintenance in new mothers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Vivien; Keely, Alice; Denison, Fiona C

    2017-09-01

    Obese women have lower breastfeeding initiation and maintenance rates than healthy weight women. Research generally focuses on biomedical explanations for this. Psychosocial factors including body image and well-being after childbirth are less well understood as predictors of breastfeeding. In obese and healthy weight women, we investigated changes in body image between 72 hrs post-delivery and 6-8 weeks post-natal, studying how women's body image related to breastfeeding initiation and maintenance. We also investigated how psychological distress was related to body image. Longitudinal semi-structured questionnaire survey. Body image and psychological distress were assessed within 72 hrs of birth and by postal questionnaire at 6-8 weeks, for 70 obese and 70 healthy weight women initiating exclusive (breastmilk only) breastfeeding or mixed feeding (with formula milk) in hospital. Breastfeeding was re-assessed at 6-8 weeks. Obese women were less likely to exclusively breastfeed in hospital and maintain breastfeeding to 6-8 weeks. Better body image was related to maintaining breastfeeding and to lower post-natal psychological distress for all women, but education level was the most significant predictor of maintenance in multivariate regression including body image and weight status. Body image mediated, but did not moderate the relationship between weight and breastfeeding maintenance. Body image was lower overall in obese women, but all women had low body image satisfaction around childbirth, reducing further at 6-8 weeks. Health professionals should consider women's body image when discussing breastfeeding. A focus on breast function over form may support breastfeeding for all women. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Obesity can negatively affect breastfeeding initiation and maintenance, but there is little information about how psychosocial factors affect this relationship. Body image may be an important factor, but has not

  20. BODY IMAGE AMONG MEN WHO PRACTICE BODY BUILDING: COMPARISON BY AGE, ECONOMIC STATUS, AND CITY SIZE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Diego A S; Da Silva, Rafael C; Gonçalves, Eliane C A

    2015-10-01

    Identifying the factors that influence the body image of body builders is important for understanding this construct. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between body image and age, socioeconomic status, and place of residence of body builders from two cities in Brazil. A cross-sectional study of 301 body builders with an average age of 25.2 yr. (SD = 3.5) was carried out. The Muscle Silhouette Measure scale was used, in which the discrepancy between current and desired silhouette was examined. Older body builders showed greater discrepancy between current and desired silhouette, reflecting their desire for a more muscular body.

  1. Studies of the body image in various psychological approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia A. Kaminskaya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to systematize modern concepts of body image and body scheme. For the analysis of theoretical models the following criteria were allocated: explication of the mechanism underlying the formation and restructuring of body image, development of certain aspects of body image which are explained by the presented concepts. Separately the issue of the difference between the body scheme and the body image is discussed that seems relevant in connection with the specific features of the neural mechanisms of body image. In the study of the phenomenological level of bodily experience the assumption that the body scheme is fragmented and has no hierarchical structure is considered. Significant differences in viewing basic mechanisms of developing the body image associated with attention to various bodily phenomena are showed. Psychodynamic, cognitive, socio-cultural, feminist and interdisciplinary approaches are analyzed, which permitted to identify mechanisms of integration-differentiation, cognitive generalization and internalization-introjection. The analysis suggests the consideration of the body image in the context of issues on the appropriation of the body. If person is considered as a tool for shaping and maintening integration of mental processes, the patterns of interconnected and interdependent changes in the processes that occur in the construction of the image of the external situation and the body image acquires a special psychological meaning. It becomes necessary to allocate correctly the structure of the integrating object in which the subject is involved during the normal course of life, and in exceptional cases, i.e. in the presence of physical defects, the sudden change of appearance, etc. These development objects determine specific form of body image and its possible distortions.

  2. Body image altered by psoriasis. A study based on individual interviews and a model for body image

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoury, Lina R; Danielsen, Patricia L; Skiveren, Jette

    2014-01-01

    Background: Visible psoriasis skin symptoms have a severe psychological impact on quality of life. To improve clinical approaches, methods of assessing these aspects are needed. Objectives: To investigate the influence of psoriasis on patients' body image based on the Body Image Model (BIM...... on patient body image were identified: body coverage, sexual inhibitions, the influence of social support, reduced exercise activity and a negative self-image. Furthermore, information obtained through the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) questionnaires did not entirely reflect statements from patients...... made during interviews. Conclusion: An altered body image has a psychosocial impact on patients with visible psoriasis that may result in increased body coverage, sexual inhibitions and reduced exercise activity. This further affects self-image negatively and influences how people with psoriasis handle...

  3. Body image dissatisfaction among adolescent schoolgirls in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, Tamara Y; Mashal, Rima H; Al-Domi, Hayder A; Jibril, Musa A

    2010-01-01

    The present study has investigated the occurrence of body image dissatisfaction among adolescent schoolgirls in Amman, Jordan, and the risk factors that are known to predispose it including individual, familial and social variables. A sample of 326 adolescent girls aged 10-16 years was recruited from public and private schools in Amman. Participants completed a socio-demographic data sheet, eating attitude test, and body shape questionnaire. Approximately, 21.2% of participants displayed body image dissatisfaction in which physical changes associated with puberty and exhibiting negative eating attitudes were associated with this dissatisfaction. Additionally, mass media messages, as well as peers and family pressures towards thinness were associated with participants' preoccupation with their body image. In conclusion, negative body image perception was observed in the present sample. Therefore, well-controlled prospective studies and development of intervention programs on body image among adolescent girls in Jordan are needed. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Using psychophysical tools to quantify body image perception: a tutorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Mauerberg-deCastro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This article presents a tutorial about two protocols that can be used to measure an individual's perception of body image, direct and indirect , and which follow S.S. ( Stevens 1951 methods. Two psychophysical task approaches illustrate the ability of individuals to quantify body image distortions. We selected psychophysical tasks that indirectly assess a participant's behavioral component of body image (i.e., satisfaction tendencies about body image; and second, the cognitive component of body image (i.e., individuals' perceptual accuracy in magnitude estimation tasks, which depend on a familiarity with interval scales and the use of numbers and ratios to represent physical dimensions of stimuli. We determined individuals' perceptual sensitivity (i.e., his or her perceptual style to manipulations of the body's size by using Stevens' power function ( Stevens, 1951.

  5. Adolescent Body Image Distortion: A Consideration of Immigrant Generational Status, Immigrant Concentration, Sex and Body Dissatisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimber, Melissa; Georgiades, Katholiki; Couturier, Jennifer; Jack, Susan M; Wahoush, Olive

    2015-11-01

    Immigrant adolescents represent a significant and growing proportion of the population in the United States. Yet, little is known about their experiences of body image distortion. This is particularly concerning given that body image distortion has been identified as a significant and modifiable risk factor for a number of mental illnesses, including depression and eating disorders. This study uses multi-level modeling to examine the associations between immigrant generational status, neighborhood immigrant concentration, sex, body dissatisfaction and risk for body image distortion. Data come from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and includes 10,962 11-19 year olds (49.6 % female). First generation immigrant females were significantly more likely than 3rd generation-or-later adolescents to experience underweight body image distortion. There was no association between neighborhood immigrant concentration and risk for body image distortion. Body dissatisfaction was associated with greater risk for underweight and overweight body image distortion, with the magnitude of underweight distortion risk significantly greater among 1st generation immigrants. Interventions that encourage the development of a healthy body image have the potential to reduce the onset and duration of body image distortion among immigrant and non-immigrant adolescents.

  6. Computerized assessment of body image in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa: comparison with standardized body image assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Asaf; Amiaz, Revital; Davidson, Noa; Czerniak, Efrat; Gur, Eitan; Kiryati, Nahum; Harari, Daniel; Furst, Miriam; Stein, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    Body image disturbances are a prominent feature of eating disorders (EDs). Our aim was to test and evaluate a computerized assessment of body image (CABI), to compare the body image disturbances in different ED types, and to assess the factors affecting body image. The body image of 22 individuals undergoing inpatient treatment with restricting anorexia nervosa (AN-R), 22 with binge/purge AN (AN-B/P), 20 with bulimia nervosa (BN), and 41 healthy controls was assessed using the Contour Drawing Rating Scale (CDRS), the CABI, which simulated the participants' self-image in different levels of weight changes, and the Eating Disorder Inventory-2-Body Dissatisfaction (EDI-2-BD) scale. Severity of depression and anxiety was also assessed. Significant differences were found among the three scales assessing body image, although most of their dimensions differentiated between patients with EDs and controls. Our findings support the use of the CABI in the comparison of body image disturbances in patients with EDs vs. Moreover, the use of different assessment tools allows for a better understanding of the differences in body image disturbances in different ED types.

  7. Body Dissatisfaction Revisited: On the Importance of Implicit Beliefs about Actual and Ideal Body Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niclas Heider

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Body dissatisfaction (i.e., a negative attitude towards one’s own physical appearance is assumed to originate from a perceived discrepancy between the actual physical appearance (i.e., actual body image and the desired ideal state of the body (i.e., ideal body image. We assessed implicit beliefs about these two aspects of the body image independently using two Relational Responding Tasks (RRT in a sample of participants who were either low or high in explicitly reported body dissatisfaction. As hypothesized, differences in body dissatisfaction exerted a differential influence on the two RRT scores. The implicit belief that one is thin was less pronounced in participants who were strongly dissatisfied with their body relative to participants who were more satisfied with their body. The implicit desire to be thin (i.e., thin ideal body image, in contrast, tended to be more pronounced in participants who exhibited a high degree of body dissatisfaction as compared to participants who exhibited a low degree of body dissatisfaction. Hierarchical regression analyses also revealed that the RRT scores were predictive of self-reported body dissatisfaction, even over and above the predictive validity of some (but not all explicit predictors of body dissatisfaction that were included in the present study. More generally, these findings contribute to the empirical validation of the RRT as a measure of implicit beliefs in the context of body dissatisfaction.

  8. Cognitive-Behavioral Body Image Therapy for Body Dysmorphic Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, James C.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Randomly assigned 54 body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) subjects to cognitive behavior therapy or no treatment. BDD symptoms were significantly decreased in therapy subjects and the disorder was eliminated in 82 percent of cases at posttreatment and 77 percent at follow-up. Subjects' overall psychological symptoms and self-esteem also improved. (RJM)

  9. Body Image in Adult Women: Moving Beyond the Younger Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpela, Lisa Smith; Becker, Carolyn Black; Wesley, Nicole; Stewart, Tiffany

    2015-01-01

    In spite of copious literature investigating body dissatisfaction and its correlates in adolescents and young adult women, exploration of body image disturbances in adult women remains an underrepresented domain in the literature. Yet, there are many reasons to suspect that body image in adult women both may differ from and possibly be more complex than that of younger women. Adult women face myriad factors influencing body image beyond those delineated in the body image literature on adolescents and young adult women. For instance, aging-related physiological changes shift the female body further away from the thin-young-ideal, which is the societal standard of female beauty. Further, life priorities and psychological factors evolve with age as well. As such, adult women encounter changes that may differentially affect body image across the lifespan. This paper aims to provide an up-to-date review of the current literature on the relationship between body image and associated mental and physical health problems and behaviors in adult women. In addition, we explore factors that may influence body image in adult women. Lastly, we use this review to identify significant gaps in the existing literature with the aim of identifying critical targets for future research. PMID:26052476

  10. Disordered eating behaviors and body image in male athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goltz, Fernanda Reistenbach; Stenzel, Lucia Marques; Schneider, Cláudia Dornelles

    2013-01-01

    To identify disordered eating behaviors and body image dissatisfaction, as well as their relationship to body fat (BF), among male athletes in high risk sports for eating disorders. One hundred and fifty-six male athletes were divided into the following categories: weight-class sports, sports where leanness improves performance, and sports with aesthetic ideals. BF was assessed and three questionnaires were used: the Eating Attitudes Test; the Bulimic Investigatory Test, Edinburgh; the Body Shape Questionnaire. Disordered eating behaviors and body image dissatisfaction were found in 43 (27.6%) and 23 athletes (14.7%), respectively, and an association was detected between the two variables (p disordered eating behaviors did not differ in %BF (11.0 ± 5.2% and 9.8 ± 4.0%, respectively; p = 0.106). However, athletes with body image dissatisfaction had higher %BF than those who were satisfied (12.6 ± 5.9% and 9.7 ± 3.9%, respectively; p = 0.034). There were no differences in BF, frequency of disordered eating behaviors, and body image dissatisfaction between sports categories. Nearly one-quarter of athletes showed disordered eating behaviors, which was associated with body image dissatisfaction. Athletes with higher %BF were more likely to be dissatisfied with body image. There was no difference in eating behavior and body image between athletes from different sports categories.

  11. Disordered eating behaviors and body image in male athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Reistenbach Goltz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify disordered eating behaviors and body image dissatisfaction, as well as their relationship to body fat (BF, among male athletes in high risk sports for eating disorders. Methods: One hundred and fifty-six male athletes were divided into the following categories: weight-class sports, sports where leanness improves performance, and sports with aesthetic ideals. BF was assessed and three questionnaires were used: the Eating Attitudes Test; the Bulimic Investigatory Test, Edinburgh; the Body Shape Questionnaire. Results: Disordered eating behaviors and body image dissatisfaction were found in 43 (27.6% and 23 athletes (14.7%, respectively, and an association was detected between the two variables (p < 0.001. Athletes with and without disordered eating behaviors did not differ in %BF (11.0±5.2% and 9.8±4.0%, respectively; p = 0.106. However, athletes with body image dissatisfaction had higher %BF than those who were satisfied (12.6±5.9% and 9.7±3.9%, respectively; p = 0.034. There were no differences in BF, frequency of disordered eating behaviors, and body image dissatisfaction between sports categories. Conclusion: Nearly one-quarter of athletes showed disordered eating behaviors, which was associated with body image dissatisfaction. Athletes with higher %BF were more likely to be dissatisfied with body image. There was no difference in eating behavior and body image between athletes from different sports categories.

  12. University hosts Eating Issues and Body Image Awareness Week

    OpenAIRE

    Gehrt, Katie

    2010-01-01

    The Virginia Tech Eating Disorders Task Force will host the Eating Issues and Body Image Awareness Week through Feb. 26. The event features a variety of activities to encourage participants to identify and practice healthy eating and body image attitudes. The activities are free and open to the public.

  13. Cross-Cultural Examination of Women's Body Image Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, R. John; And Others

    The media's portrayal of the ideal body image has been shown to be a large determinant of one's body image perception. The desire to be excessively thin can be conceived of as an artifact of White-American culture largely due to the media's influence. This study looks at cultures that have had limited exposure to the American ideal and examines…

  14. Influence of Percieved body Image on Nutrient Intake and Nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: There is need for nutritional counseling and education among university students to address the issue of body image vis a viz food intake since most students skipped meals and this together with knowledge on food choice were found to significantly predict nutrient intake and body image perceptions.

  15. Psychosocial variables and body image anxiety among tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result showed that whereas gender has no significant effect on body image anxiety, media model, peer influence and self-esteem had a significant relationship with body image anxiety. The major recommendation was that primary care physicians should help patients to value themselves as individuals as this will ...

  16. Body Image and Self-Esteem in Normal Weight Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleghorn, Alice A.; Penner, Louis A.

    Research suggests that, in clinical samples, body image disturbances are related to severe eating disorders and problems with self-concept and self-esteem. There have been relatively few studies, however, which have empirically investigated the relation between body image and personality characteristics among normal women. This study investigated…

  17. Adolescent Attitudes Toward Body Image and Anorexic Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Carol Lee; Fodor, Iris Goldstein

    1986-01-01

    Explored the relationship between anorexic behavior and selected dimensions of body image predictor variables, selected dimensions of body image, physical attractiveness, self-esteem, and physical effectiveness). Results indicated that the dimension of self-esteem was the major factor in the prediction of anorexic behaviors as measured by the…

  18. Treatment of Body Image Dissatisfaction among Women with Bulimia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwers, Mariette

    1990-01-01

    Sees body image dissatisfaction as contributing to development and maintenance of bulimia nervosa and bulimic's desire for thinness breeding low self-esteem, feelings of inadequacy, and resistance to recovery. Offers treatment suggestions for body image dissatisfaction as it relates to bulimia. Advises counselors to be satisfied with their own…

  19. The Affective Consequences of Minimizing Women's Body Image Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosson, Jennifer K.; Pinel, Elizabeth C.; Thompson, J. Kevin

    2008-01-01

    We propose that women regularly anticipate and receive messages from others that trivialize the severity of their body image concerns. Moreover, we suggest that these minimizing messages can heighten women's negative affective reactions to body image threats, particularly if they internalize them. Two studies provided support for these ideas. In…

  20. Battling Body Image: Confessions of a Health Educator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasberry, Catherine N.

    2008-01-01

    As a college health educator, the author knows much about healthy behaviors. In spite of this, however, the author discusses finding herself struggling with the same problems of body image that her students express. With a variety of influences tied to negative body image, it is important that college health professionals create a plan of action…

  1. Relationship between body image and socio-economic status in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine the body image (BI) and its relationship with socio-economic status (SES) among adolescents. The 15-year-old adolescents (N=287), consisting of 111 boys and 176 girls, were grouped according to SES. They completed the Body-Image Ideals Questionnaire (BIQ) to assess any ...

  2. Sociocultural influences on adolescent boys' body image and body change strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Jacqueline N; McCabe, Marita P

    2005-06-01

    Society provides messages about how people should ideally look and previous research has indicated these messages, both the actual messages provided and the perception of the message, influence body image. Research into male body image has shown males are concerned with having a lean and muscular body and as such, may want to decrease fat and increase their muscles. This paper explored the influence of a range of messages from parents, peers, and the media on a number of different measures of 362 adolescent boys' body image and body change strategies. Specifically, messages about shape, food, exercise, losing weight and increasing muscles were explored in relation to satisfaction with weight and muscles, and the use of strategies to decrease weight and increase muscles. The findings indicated that parental messages were the strongest influence on body image and that parents, the media, and to a lesser extent messages from male friends were the strongest predictors of body change strategies.

  3. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voelker DK

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Dana K Voelker,1 Justine J Reel,2 Christy Greenleaf3 1West Virginia University, College of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences, Morgantown, WV, 2University of North Carolina Wilmington, College of Health and Human Services, Wilmington, NC, 3University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, College of Health Sciences, Milwaukee, WI, USA Abstract: Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty that affect one’s body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one’s body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise. Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed. Keywords: adolescence, eating disorders, obesity, bullying, puberty, physical activity

  4. Altered Visual Adaptation to Body Shape in Eating Disorders: Implications for Body Image Distortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Harald M; Rickmeyer, Constanze; Hummel, Dennis; Ernst, Mareike; Grabhorn, Ralph

    2016-07-01

    Previous research has shown that after adapting to a thin body, healthy participants (HP) perceive pictures of their own bodies as being fatter and vice versa. This aftereffect might contribute to the development of perceptual body image disturbances in eating disorders (ED).In the present study, HP and ED completed a behavioral experiment to rate manipulated pictures of their own bodies after adaptation to thin or fat body pictures. After adapting to a thin body, HP judged a thinner than actual body picture to be the most realistic and vice versa, resembling a typical aftereffect. ED only showed such an adaptation effect when they adapted to fat body pictures.The reported results indicate a relationship between body image distortion in ED and visual body image adaptation. It can be suspected that due to a pre-existing, long-lasting adaptation to thin body shapes in ED, an additional visual adaption to thin body shapes cannot be induced. Hence this pre-existing adaptation to thin body shapes could induce perceptual body image distortions in ED. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Development of a human body RMN imaging device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint-Jalmes, H.

    1984-03-01

    Imaging device for human body is studied in this thesis. The section images presented are got by a projection-reconstruction method associated to a section plane selection by an oscillating gradient application. Different stages of the machine development are presented: - design and calculation of a resistive magnet for very homogeneous field imaging - design of gradient coils for imaging magnets - realization of control and acquisition interfaces - realization of imaging software in real time [fr

  6. Body image: a survey of children in Caribbean Bonaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kist-van Holthe, Joana; Melchers, Laura; Blom, Tirza; Altenburg, Teatske; Luinstra-Passchier, Marian; Janga-Jansen, Alcira; van Kanten, Tahirih; Wirix, Aleid; Hirasing, Remy; Chinapaw, Mai

    2017-01-01

    In Bonaire, the prevalence of overweight and obesity is twice as high compared with Northern Europe but similar to other Caribbean Islands and the USA. Having a realistic body image may be an important tool in the battle against childhood obesity. Previous studies have demonstrated associations between having a realistic body image and efforts to control weight. The aim of the study was to explore the body image of children in Bonaire. In a cross-sectional study from March to May 2015 in Bonaire, weight and height were measured in all children aged 10-14 years attending school. Body mass index (kg/m 2 ) was classified according to the International Obesity Task Force. The children were asked about their body image using a validated questionnaire. Body mass index was measured in 939 of 1029 (91.3%) children aged 10-14 years (51.5% boys) in Bonaire. Of all children, 9.7% was underweight, 57.6% was normal weight, 32.7% was overweight (including obesity) and 11.6% was obese. The question pertaining to body image was completed by 750 of 939 (79.9%) children. Having a realistic perception of body image varied per weight category from 65% in underweight girls to 13% in obese boys. The percentage of obese children who underestimate their weight is high (boys 87%, girls 77%). In many children in Caribbean Bonaire, perceived body image is not in agreement with actual weight status. This applies especially to obese children. Disagreement between perceived body image and actual weight status may prevent weight management in overweight children. Future research is needed to elucidate determinants of disagreement between body image and actual weight status.

  7. (DMT) on the body image of female adolescents

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of dance and movement therapy (DMT) on the body image of female adolescents. ... African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... The excessive emphasis in the media on low body weight and body appearance may contribute to adolescents' dissatisfaction with their own physical appearance.

  8. Style and Body Language in the Moving Image

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lennard Højbjerg

    2013-01-01

    Audio visual style has a complex multi-functionality and the important part of this deals with the way that the character body is visualized and how body language is implemented in the moving image. With a number of examples of contemporary film and television, the article will line up of key...... issues of body language in the moving image. This article describes two important aspects of body language in visual media—how visual style mediates the body expressions of fictional character and real persons in news on television and how aspects of the visual style always represent bodily presence...

  9. Body image quality of life in eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio; Bolaños-Ríos,Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Ignacio Jáuregui Lobera1, Patricia Bolaños Ríos21Department of Nutrition and Bromatology, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, Spain; 2Behavior Sciences Institute, Seville, SpainPurpose: The objective was to examine how body image affects quality of life in an eating-disorder (ED) clinical sample, a non-ED clinical sample, and a nonclinical sample. We hypothesized that ED patients would show the worst body image quality of life. We also hypothesized that body...

  10. BODY IMAGE IN CHILDHOOD: AN INTEGRATIVE LITERATURE REVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Clara Mockdece; Cipriani, Flávia Marcelle; Meireles, Juliana Fernandes Filgueiras; Morgado, Fabiane Frota da Rocha; Ferreira, Maria Elisa Caputo

    2017-01-01

    To analyse the scientific literature regarding the evaluation of body image in children through an integrative literature review. An intersection of the keywords "body image" AND "child" was conducted in Scopus, Medline and Virtual Health Library (BVS - Biblioteca Virtual de Saúde) databases. The electronic search was based on studies published from January 2013 to January 2016, in order to verify the most current investigations on the subject. Exclusion criteria were: articles in duplicate; no available summaries; not empirical; not assessing any component of body image; the sample did not consider the target age of this research (0 to 12 years old) and/or considered clinical populations; besides articles not fully available. 7,681 references were identified, and, after the exclusion criteria were implemented, 33 studies were analysed. Results showed that the perceptual and attitudinal dimensions focusing on body dissatisfaction were explored, mainly evaluated by silhouette scales. Intervention programs were developed internationally to prevent negative body image in children. The studies included in this review evaluated specific aspects of body image in children, especially body perception and body dissatisfaction. The creation of specific tools for children to evaluate body image is recommended to promote the psychosocial well being of individuals throughout human development.

  11. Contextual body image and athletes’ disordered eating: The role of athletic body image in disordered eating in elite women athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, A.P.; Oudejans, R.R.D.; Bakker, F.C.; Woertman, L.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the contribution of a contextual body image perspective to understanding disordered eating in high performance women athletes. Because existing questionnaires were not suitable for measuring body image in the contexts of sport and daily life, we developed the

  12. "But I Like My Body": Positive body image characteristics and a holistic model for young-adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood-Barcalow, Nichole L; Tylka, Tracy L; Augustus-Horvath, Casey L

    2010-03-01

    Extant body image research has provided a rich understanding of negative body image but a rather underdeveloped depiction of positive body image. Thus, this study used Grounded Theory to analyze interviews from 15 college women classified as having positive body image and five body image experts. Many characteristics of positive body image emerged, including appreciating the unique beauty and functionality of their body, filtering information (e.g., appearance commentary, media ideals) in a body-protective manner, defining beauty broadly, and highlighting their body's assets while minimizing perceived imperfections. A holistic model emerged: when women processed mostly positive and rejected negative source information, their body investment decreased and body evaluation became more positive, illustrating the fluidity of body image. Women reciprocally influenced these sources (e.g., mentoring others to love their bodies, surrounding themselves with others who promote body acceptance, taking care of their health), which, in turn, promoted increased positive source information. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Body talk and body-related co-rumination: associations with body image, eating attitudes, and psychological adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudiger, Jonathan A; Winstead, Barbara A

    2013-09-01

    Talk about physical appearance and body image is common among young women. We investigated how body talk (negative, positive/self-accepting, and co-ruminative) is related to body image, body-related cognitive distortions, disordered eating, psychological adjustment, and friendship quality via hierarchical regression analyses (controlling for social desirability and body mass index). In a sample of young adult women (N=203), negative body talk was, as predicted, negatively related to body satisfaction and self-esteem and positively related to appearance investment, body-related cognitive distortions, disordered eating, and depression, but not friendship quality. Self-accepting/positive body talk was negatively related to body-related cognitive distortions and positively related to body satisfaction, self-esteem, and friendship quality. Body-related co-rumination demonstrated adjustment trade-offs, being related to body-related cognitive distortions, disordered eating, and higher friendship quality. Results indicated no advantage to negative body talk, both individual and relationship benefits from positive/self-accepting body talk, and mixed outcomes for body-related co-rumination. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Refinement of the tripartite influence model for men: dual body image pathways to body change behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylka, Tracy L

    2011-06-01

    Although muscularity and body fat concerns are central to conceptualizing men's body image, they have not been examined together within existing structural models. This study refined the tripartite influence model (Thompson, Heinberg, Altabe, & Tantleff-Dunn, 1999) by including dual body image pathways (muscularity and body fat dissatisfaction) to engagement in muscular enhancement and disordered eating behaviors, respectively, and added dating partners as a source of social influence. Latent variable structural equation modeling analyses supported this quadripartite model in 473 undergraduate men. Nonsignificant paths were trimmed and two unanticipated paths were added. Muscularity dissatisfaction and body fat dissatisfaction represented dual body image pathways to men's engagement in muscularity enhancement behaviors and disordered eating behaviors, respectively. Pressures to be mesomorphic from friends, family, media, and dating partners made unique contributions to the model. Internalization of the mesomorphic ideal, muscularity dissatisfaction, and body fat dissatisfaction played key meditational roles within the model. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Impact of exposure to idealised male images on adolescent boys' body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Paul; Paxton, Susan J

    2004-09-01

    Research examining the impact on adolescent boys of exposure to muscular, athletic, idealised male images has been limited. This research had two aims (i) to investigate the mean effect on state body satisfaction and mood of exposure to idealised male images in adolescent boys, and, (ii) to identify individual attributes that predicted change in state body satisfaction, depression and anxiety following image exposure. One hundred and six boys (mean age=15.6 years) completed a self-report questionnaire on body image attitudes and psychological status. One week later, participants were divided into two groups, one that viewed idealised male images (experimental condition) while the other viewed non-figure advertising images (control condition). Three body satisfaction Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), and a depression and anxiety VAS were completed immediately prior to and following image exposure. In the experimental compared to control condition, there were no significant changes on Want Toned Body, Want to Change Body Shape, Depression and Anxiety VAS following image exposure. However, there was a significant improvement in Like Body Shape VAS. In the experimental group, high internalisation of the muscular, athletic ideal predicted more negative response to viewing images on the body image and Depression VAS. Prior body dissatisfaction significantly predicted negative response to Body Shape Liking and Anxiety VAS. While on average, adolescent boys in this research were not negatively affected by exposure to idealised male images, reaction to exposure is dependent on individual attributes.

  16. Body image in adolescents with disorders of steroidogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Cong; Green-Golan, Liza; Stratakis, Constantine A; Leschek, Ellen; Sinaii, Ninet; Schroth, Elizabeth; Ernst, Monique; Merke, Deborah P

    2008-08-01

    Little is known about body image in children with endocrine conditions. We evaluated body image in children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), familial male precocious puberty (FMPP), and Cushing's syndrome (CS). We compared 67 patients (41 CAH, 12 FMPP, 14 CS) age 8-18 years with 55 age-matched controls. Patients expressed more weight unhappiness than controls (females: p body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.03), but not for males (p = 0.12). Unhappiness with height and age of appearance was similar between groups. In female patients, higher BMI was a significant predictor of weight unhappiness (p = 0.01). Adolescents with CAH, FMPP, and CS are at risk for negative body image regarding weight, but not height or age of appearance. Weight unhappiness is partially related to greater weight, but factors unrelated to physical findings seem to contribute to negative body image in female patients.

  17. Images of a poe(rotic body scanned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Carolina Hipólito de Assis

    2014-04-01

    This study aims to determine how the poetic eroticized body is evident in the visual images of some works of the poet, translator and literary critic Brazilian Décio Pignatari, as well as put on the reintegration of this debate in the media desiring body from the critical explained by the Mexican poet and essayist Octávio Paz is work Conjunções e Disjunções (1979. To address this body lov(erotic as cut corpus study of the work: Poesia Pois é Poesia, of Décio Pignatari (2004. Poetry expressing the brand and put in concrete dialogue resulting images of translating a digital body that extends (McLuhan while communication apparatus, media convergence in the conception of art as scanned image, such as sensory, tactile, eroticized body. Attendance plastic, tangible reflecting a face that survives own image: a concrete icon.

  18. Factors associated with body image distortion in Korean adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Mi-Yeul; Jung, Young-Eun; Kim, Moon-Doo; Kwak, Young-Sook; Hong, Sung-Chul; Bahk, Won-Myong; Yoon, Bo-Hyun; Yoon, Hye Won; Yoo, Bora

    2014-01-01

    Body image incorporates cognitive and affective components as well as behaviors related to own body perception. This study evaluated the occurrence of body image distortion and its correlates in Korean adolescents. In a school-based cross-sectional survey, a total of 2,117 adolescents were recruited. They filled out self-completing questionnaires on body image distortion, eating attitudes, and behaviors (Eating Attitude Test-26) and related factors. Body image distortions were found in 51.8 percent of adolescents. Univariate analyses showed that boys and older adolescents had higher rates of body image distortion. In the multivariate analyses, body image distortion was associated with high risk for eating disorders (odds ratio [OR] =1.69; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11-2.58; P=0.015) and being over weight (OR =33.27; 95% CI 15.51-71.35; Pbody image distortion is relatively common in Korean adolescents, which has implications for adolescents at risk of developing eating disorders.

  19. Improving body image and sexual health behaviors among college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Stephanie L; Campagna, Bianca; Brochu, Hadley; Odermatt, Meline; Annunziato, Rachel A

    2018-03-22

    To conduct a pilot test to determine if the Body Project, an eating disorder prevention program, was able to reduce risky sexual behaviors. Twenty college-age women ages 18-21 (in March, 2015) who endorsed both body image dissatisfaction and previous or current sexual activity. Participants were randomized to the Body Project or psychoeducational control group, and completed baseline, post-test, and 6-month follow-up measures assessing body image concerns, eating behaviors, and sexual behaviors and attitudes. An intervention manipulation check demonstrated that body image variables were in expected directions, though were not significant by group. There was a significant interaction across group and time for "unanticipated sexual encounters," which decreased in the Body Project group. This pilot study supports the feasibility of using an eating disorder prevention program to reduce other risky behaviors, specifically risky sexual behavior.

  20. Thought–shape fusion and body image in eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jáuregui-Lobera I

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera,1 Patricia Bolaños-Ríos,2 Inmaculada Ruiz-Prieto21Department of Nutrition and Bromatology, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, Spain; 2Behavioral Sciences Institute, Seville, SpainPurpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships among thought–shape fusion (TSF, specific instruments to assess body image disturbances, and body image quality of life in eating disorder patients in order to improve the understanding of the links between body image concerns and a specific bias consisting of beliefs about the consequences of thinking about forbidden foods.Patients and methods: The final sample included 76 eating disorder patients (mean age 20.13 ± 2.28 years; 59 women and seven men. After having obtained informed consent, the following questionnaires were administered: Body Appreciation Scale (BAS, Body Image Quality of Life Inventory (BIQLI-SP, Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ, Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R and Thought-Shape Fusion Questionnaire (TSF-Q.Results: Significant correlations were found between TSF-Q and body image-related variables. Those with higher scores in TSF showed higher scores in the BSQ (P < 0.0001, Eating Disorder Inventory – Drive for Thinness (EDI-DT (P < 0.0001, and Eating Disorder Inventory – Body Dissatisfaction (EDI-BD (P < 0.0001. The same patients showed lower scores in the BAS (P < 0.0001. With respect to the psychopathological variables, patients with high TSF obtained higher scores in all SCL-90-R subscales as well as in the STAI.Conclusion: The current study shows the interrelations among different body image-related variables, TSF, and body image quality of life.Keywords: cognitive distortions, quality of life, body appreciation, psychopathology, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa

  1. Microwave non-contact imaging of subcutaneous human body tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernokalov, Alexander; Khripkov, Alexander; Cho, Jaegeol; Druchinin, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    A small-size microwave sensor is developed for non-contact imaging of a human body structure in 2D, enabling fitness and health monitoring using mobile devices. A method for human body tissue structure imaging is developed and experimentally validated. Subcutaneous fat tissue reconstruction depth of up to 70 mm and maximum fat thickness measurement error below 2 mm are demonstrated by measurements with a human body phantom and human subjects. Electrically small antennas are developed for integration of the microwave sensor into a mobile device. Usability of the developed microwave sensor for fitness applications, healthcare, and body weight management is demonstrated. PMID:26609415

  2. Microwave non-contact imaging of subcutaneous human body tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kletsov, Andrey; Chernokalov, Alexander; Khripkov, Alexander; Cho, Jaegeol; Druchinin, Sergey

    2015-10-01

    A small-size microwave sensor is developed for non-contact imaging of a human body structure in 2D, enabling fitness and health monitoring using mobile devices. A method for human body tissue structure imaging is developed and experimentally validated. Subcutaneous fat tissue reconstruction depth of up to 70 mm and maximum fat thickness measurement error below 2 mm are demonstrated by measurements with a human body phantom and human subjects. Electrically small antennas are developed for integration of the microwave sensor into a mobile device. Usability of the developed microwave sensor for fitness applications, healthcare, and body weight management is demonstrated.

  3. Body Image, Food Addiction, Depression, and Body Mass Index in University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şanlier, Nevin; Türközü, Duygu; Toka, Onur

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between body image, depression, food addiction and body mass index (BMI) and differences in these variables due to gender and field of education have not been studied extensively. This study was conducted on a total of 793 university students (20.19 ± 1.90 years). The Beck Depression Inventory, Yale Food Addiction, and Body Image Scale were used. It was determined that body image scores of females and individuals enrolled in health sciences programs were lower compared to those of males and those enrolled in the social sciences. There was a negative relationship between body image and depression and food addiction scores. There was a positive relationship between food addiction and depression scores, in addition to a positive relationship between food addiction and BMI.

  4. Can a latent image explain the characteristics of the Shroud body image?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, G.; Mandaglio, G.

    2012-03-01

    The distribution of the fibrils that have yielded the body image on the Shroud is stochastic. In this paper, we show that the hypothesis of latent image can explain the chemical and physical characteristics of the above body image. It is also concluded that the "Shroud question" requires new radiocarbon dating done on a sample selected after careful chemical analysis.

  5. Whole-body and multispectral photoacoustic imaging of adult zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Na; Xi, Lei

    2016-10-01

    Zebrafish is a top vertebrate model to study developmental biology and genetics, and it is becoming increasingly popular for studying human diseases due to its high genome similarity to that of humans and the optical transparency in embryonic stages. However, it becomes difficult for pure optical imaging techniques to volumetric visualize the internal organs and structures of wild-type zebrafish in juvenile and adult stages with excellent resolution and penetration depth. Even with the establishment of mutant lines which remain transparent over the life cycle, it is still a challenge for pure optical imaging modalities to image the whole body of adult zebrafish with micro-scale resolution. However, the method called photoacoustic imaging that combines all the advantages of the optical imaging and ultrasonic imaging provides a new way to image the whole body of the zebrafish. In this work, we developed a non-invasive photoacoustic imaging system with optimized near-infrared illumination and cylindrical scanning to image the zebrafish. The lateral and axial resolution yield to 80 μm and 600 μm, respectively. Multispectral strategy with wavelengths from 690 nm to 930 nm was employed to image various organs inside the zebrafish. From the reconstructed images, most major organs and structures inside the body can be precisely imaged. Quantitative and statistical analysis of absorption for organs under illumination with different wavelengths were carried out.

  6. Beauty and Body Image Concerns Among African American College Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Germine H; Norwood, Carolette; Taylor, Desire S; Martinez, Mercedes; McClain, Shannon; Jones, Bianca; Holman, Andrea; Chapman-Hilliard, Collette

    2015-12-01

    The current study examined body image concerns among African American women. In recent years, there has been an attempt to include ethnic minority samples in body image studies (e.g., Grabe & Hyde, 2006; Hrabosky & Grilo, 2007; Lovejoy, 2001) but few specifically examine unique issues pertaining to beauty and body image for African American college age women. A total of 31 African American women participated in one of five focus groups on the campus of a large Southwestern University to examine beauty and body image. Data were analyzed using a thematic approach and several themes were identified. The majority of themes pertained to issues related to hair, skin tone, body type, and message sources. Themes included: sacrifice, ignorance/racial microaggressions, and validation and invalidation by others, thick/toned/curvy as optimal, hypersexualization, and being thin is for White women. Findings of the current study suggest a reconceptualization of body image for African American women where relevant characteristics such as hair and skin tone are given more priority over traditional body image concerns often associated with European American women.

  7. Medical Imaging of Mummies and Bog Bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Mummies are human remains with preservation of non-bony tissue. Mummification by natural influences results in so-called natural mummies, while mummification induced by active (human) intervention results in so-called artificial mummies, although many cultures practiced burial rites which to some...... severely degraded, bone is quite readily visualized, but accurate imaging of preserved soft tissues, and pathological lesions therein, may require considerable post-image capture processing of CT data....

  8. Body image altered by psoriasis. A study based on individual interviews and a model for body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Lina R; Danielsen, Patricia L; Skiveren, Jette

    2014-02-01

    Visible psoriasis skin symptoms have a severe psychological impact on quality of life. To improve clinical approaches, methods of assessing these aspects are needed. To investigate the influence of psoriasis on patients' body image based on the Body Image Model (BIM). In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted. Transcriptions of the interviews were subsequently analyzed using concepts from the BIM. Eight patients with severe to moderate psoriasis (PASI ≥10) were interviewed. Five thematic issues linked to the negative impact of psoriasis on patient body image were identified: body coverage, sexual inhibitions, the influence of social support, reduced exercise activity and a negative self-image. Furthermore, information obtained through the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) questionnaires did not entirely reflect statements from patients made during interviews. An altered body image has a psychosocial impact on patients with visible psoriasis that may result in increased body coverage, sexual inhibitions and reduced exercise activity. This further affects self-image negatively and influences how people with psoriasis handle the risk of metabolic syndrome. Assessment of patient body image using components of the BIM increases the possibility of identifying important psychosocial aspects of psoriasis and the related risk of metabolic syndrome and is thus a valuable support for the DLQI questionnaires.

  9. Body-image thought processes: The development and initial validation of the Assessment of Body-Image Cognitive Distortions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakatdar, Tejal A; Cash, Thomas F; Engle, Erin K

    2006-12-01

    No measures exist that specifically assess cognitive distortions related to body image per se, despite their theoretical and clinical significance. Most cognitive-distortion scales pertain to depression, anxiety, or eating disorders. Accordingly, the 37-item Assessment of Body-Image Cognitive Distortions (ABCD) was developed and validated in this study with a sample of 263 college women. The ABCD samples eight types of distorted thinking related to how persons process information about their physical appearance. Two 18-item parallel forms of the unidimensional measure were also constructed. All forms were highly internally consistent and relatively free from socially desirable responding. Convergent validity for all ABCD forms was established using several standardized measures of body image and eating attitudes. Multiple regression analysis showed that the ABCD was predictable from body-image evaluation, investment, and overweight preoccupation. The ABCD uniquely predicted body-image quality of life and disturbed eating attitudes above and beyond other body-image predictors. Heavier women and White women were more prone to body-image cognitive distortions than were thinner women and Black women. Finally, limitations of this preliminary study, directions for future research, and clinical implications are discussed.

  10. Liking them thin: adolescents' favorite television characters and body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te'eni-Harari, Tali; Eyal, Keren

    2015-01-01

    Considering the alarming worldwide increases in eating disorders among adolescents, thought to be linked with body image, this study uses social cognitive theory as a framework to combine the examination of adolescent body image with the topic of mediated characters. The study places a new focus in this realm on favorite television characters, extending past research on general social comparison tendencies or comparisons with unfamiliar mediated models. A survey of 756 students in Grades 7-8 and 10-11 identified their favorite same-gender television characters as well as the adolescents' body image and social comparison with the characters. The survey was accompanied by a content analysis of the favorite characters and their body sizes. Adolescents' favorite television characters were mostly identified as thin or average in body size. The thinner the characters, the more adolescents self-compared with them. The discrepancy between the adolescents' body size and that of their favorite characters significantly and negatively predicted adolescents' body image both directly and indirectly through its relationship with social comparison with the character. The study finds that television characters are important references for adolescents and may serve as targets for social comparison in the context of body image.

  11. Adolescents and Body Image: A Cross Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mannat M; Ashok, Lena; Binu, V S; Parsekar, Shradha S; Bhumika, T V

    2015-12-01

    To assess proportion of adolescents perceiving their body image as normal and to study association between body shape, self-esteem and body mass index; each with body image perception. A cross sectional study was conducted among pre university college (PUC) students of Udupi taluk. A total of 550 students in the age group of 15-19y were randomly selected from 11 PUC's: four were taken from government and unaided strata respectively and three from aided. The PUC's were selected based on proportional allocation from a total of 48 PUC's. From each PUC a class was randomly chosen as a cluster; all students in the class were included. Body shape questionnaire and Rosenberg self-esteem scale were used to assess body shape concerns and self-esteem respectively. Height and weight was measured and body mass index was calculated. SPSS version 15 has been used for analysis. Results were tabulated using frequency distribution and proportions. Multinomial logistic regression was done. About 38 % of the respondents perceived their body image as normal. Body shape [OR = 0.48,95 % CI: 0.305, 0.76], self-esteem [OR = 6.12,95 % CI: 2.76, 13.9] and body mass index [OR = 4.65,95 % CI: 2.13,10.12] were found to be independently associated with body image perception. Educational institutes are a major component of adolescent's lives; the identified factors for body image perception should be taken into consideration and appropriate educational efforts to be incorporated into the routine curriculum.

  12. Body image and health behaviors: is there a relationship between lifestyles and positive body image?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanon, A; Tomassoni, R; Gargano, M; Granai, M G

    2016-01-01

    The study illustrates a research on the relationship between body image and lifestyles in a sample of 262 young amateur athletes that have a regular attendance of a gym in Cassino (Central Italy). The following questionnaires were used: Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ34), International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), Short form 12 items (SF12). The participants were 257 (response rate 98.1%) mainly of young age (18-24 years, 63.8%), single (72%), with a senior high school diploma (57.2%), students (63%). For almost all the BSQ-34 questionnaire items differences for gender were found, with Females more worried than males. 187 (72.8%) reported some vigorous activity during a week, 207 (80.5%) some moderate activity, and 229 (89.1%) walking. The participants had a median PCS score of 54.2 (range: 24.5-64.8) and a median MCS score of 43.8 (range: 9.3 - 58.7). The mean score of the Mediterranean diet was 4.8 (median = 5; Range = 1-8), and only 72 individuals (11.7%) had optimal score (over or equal to 6).

  13. 5 Ways to Promote a Positive Body Image for Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... On the other hand, kids with a negative body image feel more self-conscious, anxious and isolated. They are at greater risk for excessive weight gain and for eating disorders. Here are five ways you can give your ...

  14. The Association between Body Image and Adjustment in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Tamannaeifar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over the past decades a large amount of research has been done on body image of adolescents. The motivation for this new surge is based on its effect on their functions and behaviors. The aim of this study was to investigate relationship between body image and adjustment in both sexes. Materials and Methods: The subjects of the study included 400 male and female students of high school selected by cluster sampling. Information was gathered using Physical Self-Description Questionnaire and Bell Adjustment Inventory. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient and stepwise regression analysis.Results: Results indicated that there was significant relationship between body image and adjustment in both sexes.Conclusion: In general, findings demonstrate that positive body image lead to high self worth and adjustive behaviors in both sexes.

  15. Young adult women's experiences of body image after bariatric surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Janet F; Hoegh-Petersen, Mette; Larsen, Tine B

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To understand the lived experience of body image in young women after obesity surgery. BACKGROUND: Quantitative studies have documented that health-related quality of life and body image are improved after bariatric surgery, probably due to significant weight loss. Female obesity surgery...... candidates are likely to be motivated by dissatisfaction regarding physical appearance. However, little is known about the experience of the individual woman, leaving little understanding of the association between bariatric surgery and changes in health-related quality of life and body image. DESIGN...... synthesized into one major theme: on the edge of control, that is describing these women's feelings of being on the edge of balance between control and loss of control. CONCLUSION: Perception of control may be an essential aspect of body image and the key to understanding these young women's feelings...

  16. Senses of body image in adolescents in elementary school

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Maria Lídia de Abreu; Taquette, Stella Regina; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To comprehend the perception of body image in adolescence. METHODS A qualitative study was conducted with eight focus groups with 96 students of both sexes attending four public elementary school institutions in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil, in 2013. An interview guide with questions about the adolescents’ feelings in relation to: their bodies, standards of idealized beauty, practice of physical exercise and sociocultural influences on self-image. In the data an...

  17. The impact of anal sphincter injury on perceived body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iles, David; Khan, Rabia; Naidoo, Kristina; Kearney, Rohna; Myers, Jenny; Reid, Fiona

    2017-05-01

    Obstetric anal sphincter injury is common but the effect on body image is unreported. The aim of this study was to explore patient perceived changes in body image and other psychological aspects in women attending a perineal follow-up clinic. This retrospective study analysed women's responses to a self-reported questionnaire. Consecutive women with anal sphincter injury who attended a United Kingdom Maternity Hospital perineal follow-up clinic between January 1999 and January 2012 were identified and the records obtained and reviewed. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to examine variables influencing self-reported change in body image. Questionnaires and operation notes were analysed from 422 women who attended at a median of four months after delivery. 222 (53%) reported a change in body image with 80 (19%) reporting lower self-esteem and 75 (18%) a change in their personality due to the change in body image. 248 (59%) perceived an anatomical change due to the delivery. Factors associated with increased likelihood of reporting a change in body image were reporting a perceived change in anatomy due to the delivery, adjusted OR 6.11 (3.56-10.49), anal incontinence, OR 1.97 (1.16-3.36), and delivery by forceps, OR 2.59 (1.23-5.43). This is the first study to quantify body image changes in women after anal sphincter injury sustained in childbirth. These were found to be very common, affecting up to 50% of women. The study has several limitations but it does highlight the significant psychosocial problems of negative self-esteem and personality changes associated with a perceived change in body image that has not previously been reported. It also outlines the further research questions that need to be addressed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Marketingový význam body image

    OpenAIRE

    Rašková, Barbora

    2009-01-01

    The Diploma thesis deals with the importance of body image marketing. Thesis depicts concept of body image, its evolution in time and the influence of media on people's self-concept and self-evaluation. The practical part is focused on content analysis of front-pages of specific magazine in given time period. Independent chapter concerns with analysis of consumers via data from MML-TGI database.

  19. Weight status and the perception of body image in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardner RM

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rick M Gardner Department of Psychology, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO, USA Abstract: Understanding the role of body size in relation to the accuracy of body image perception in men is an important topic because of the implications for avoiding and treating obesity, and it may serve as a potential diagnostic criterion for eating disorders. The early research on this topic produced mixed findings. About one-half of the early studies showed that obese men overestimated their body size, with the remaining half providing accurate estimates. Later, improvements in research technology and methodology provided a clearer indication of the role of weight status in body image perception. Research in our laboratory has also produced diverse findings, including that obese subjects sometimes overestimate their body size. However, when examining our findings across several studies, obese subjects had about the same level of accuracy in estimating their body size as normal-weight subjects. Studies in our laboratory also permitted the separation of sensory and nonsensory factors in body image perception. In all but one instance, no differences were found overall between the ability of obese and normal-weight subjects to detect overall changes in body size. Importantly, however, obese subjects are better at detecting changes in their body size when the image is distorted to be too thin as compared to too wide. Both obese and normal-weight men require about a 3%–7% change in the width of their body size in order to detect the change reliably. Correlations between a range of body mass index values and body size estimation accuracy indicated no relationship between these variables. Numerous studies in other laboratories asked men to place their body size into discrete categorizes, ranging from thin to obese. Researchers found that overweight and obese men underestimate their weight status, and that men are less accurate in their categorizations than

  20. Relationship between perceived body image and recorded body mass index among Kuwaiti female university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Yearul; Zafar, Tasleem A; Waslien, Carol

    2013-01-01

    The associations between body image and attitudes toward obesity and thinness and their associations with measured body mass index (BMI) among female students of Kuwait University (n = 137) was examined in 2008. The body image perceptions were assessed using nine female silhouettes figures. The difference between current perceived body image (PBI) and ideal body image (IBI) was used as a measure of body image dissatisfaction (BID). Students tended to have a bigger PBI and smaller IBI than would be expected from their BMI category, leading to high levels of BID in each BMI category. PBI, IBI, BID, RBI were highly correlated with each other, and BMI was significantly correlated with each of them. The coefficients of these associations were not significantly altered in multiple regression analysis by the addition of potential confounding variables, such as age, marital status, physical activity, dieting behavior, parental education, and family size. These results suggest that PBI and a desire to be thinner were strongly related to BID and that thinness is becoming more desired in Kuwaiti society than the plump body image of the past.

  1. The effects of body exposure on self-body image and esthetic appreciation in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzato, Valentina; Mian, Emanuel; Mele, Sonia; Tognana, Giulia; Todisco, Patrizia; Urgesi, Cosimo

    2016-03-01

    Repeated exposures to thin-idealized body shapes may alter women's perceptions of what normal (e.g., accepted) and ideal (e.g., desired) bodies in a cultural environment look like. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether exposure to thin and round body shapes may change the subsequent esthetic appreciation of others' bodies and the perceptual and cognitive-affective dimensions of self-body image in patients suffering from anorexia nervosa (AN). Thirteen AN patients and 13 matched healthy controls were exposed to pictures of either thin or round unfamiliar body models and, before and after exposure, they were required to either express liking judgments about round and slim figures of unfamiliar bodies (esthetic task) or to adjust distorted pictures of their own body to their perceptual (How do you see yourself?), affective (How do you feel yourself?), metacognitive (How do others see you?) and ideal (How would you like to look like?) body image (self-body adjustment task). Brief exposures to round models increased liking judgments of round figures in both groups. However, only in AN patients, exposure to round models induced an increase in thin figures liking, which positively correlated with their preoccupation with dieting. Furthermore, exposure to round bodies in AN patients, but not in controls, increased the distortion for the perceptual body image and decreased the size of the ideal one. No differences between the two groups were obtained after adaptation to thin models. Our results suggest that AN patients' perception of their own and others' body is more easily malleable by exposure to round figures as compared to controls. Crucially, this mechanism may strongly contribute to the development and maintenance of self-body image disturbances.

  2. Delusionality of body image beliefs in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantakopoulos, George; Varsou, Eleytheria; Dikeos, Dimitris; Ioannidi, Nikoleta; Gonidakis, Fragiskos; Papadimitriou, George; Oulis, Panagiotis

    2012-12-30

    Preoccupation with body shape and weight is characteristic of both anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Despite their diagnostic and clinical significance, evidence on the nature of the underlying beliefs is relatively scarce. We used the Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale (BABS) to assess the degree of delusionality of body image beliefs in seventy-two participants: 39 with anorexia and 33 with bulimia nervosa. We also investigated the relationship between body image delusionality and other clinical characteristics in eating disorders. Only patients with anorexia nervosa (28.8%) had delusional body image beliefs, whereas overvalued ideas appeared to be frequent in both anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Body image delusionality in anorexia nervosa was associated with restrictive eating pathology, early onset of the disorder and body dissatisfaction, whereas in the bulimia group it was linked to shorter duration of the illness, more intense dieting behaviors and specific psychological factors: ineffectiveness and maturity fears. Results suggest that a delusional variant of anorexia nervosa represents the one end of a continuum of insight among patients with eating disorders. Categorization of patients with eating disorders based on the level of delusionality of body image beliefs could facilitate further research on the role of insight deficits in these disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Body image and self-esteem in somatizing patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sertoz, Ozen O; Doganavsargil, Ozge; Elbi, Hayriye

    2009-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine dissatisfaction with body appearance and bodily functions and to assess self-esteem in somatizing patients. Body image and self-esteem were investigated in 128 women; 34 of those had diagnosed somatoform disorders, 50 were breast cancer patients with total mastectomy surgery alone, and 44 were healthy subjects. Body image and self-esteem were assessed using the Body Cathexis Scale and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The two clinical groups did not differ from one another (z = -1.832, P = 0.067), but differed from healthy controls in terms of body image (somatizing patients vs healthy controls, z = -3.628, P self-esteem (z = -0.936, P = 0.349) when depressive symptoms were controlled. No statistically significant difference was observed between total mastectomy patients and healthy controls in terms of self-esteem (z = -1.727, P = 0.084). The lower levels of self-esteem in somatizing patients were largely mediated by depressive symptoms. Depressed and non-depressed somatizing patients differed significantly from healthy controls with respect to their self-esteem and body image. Somatizing patients who were dissatisfied with their bodily functions and appearance had lower levels of self-esteem and high comorbidity of depression. In clinical practice it is suggested that clinicians should take into account psychiatric comorbidity, self-esteem, and body image in somatizing patients when planning treatment approaches.

  4. [Sociodemographic factors and body image among high school students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felden, Érico Pereira Gomes; Claumann, Gaia Salvador; Sacomori, Cinara; Daronco, Luciane Sanchotene Etchepare; Cardoso, Fernando Luiz; Pelegrini, Andreia

    2015-11-01

    The scope of this article is to investigate associations between body image dissatisfaction and sociodemographic indicators among adolescents. Participants included 1126 high school students in the city of Santa Maria in the State of Rio Grande do Sul. Aspects regarding body image dissatisfaction and sociodemographic indicators were analyzed. Association analyses were performed using crude Poisson regression duly adjusted for sex and age. Boys were found to be dissatisfied due to slimness and girls due to excess weight. Adolescents where the parents had less schooling, as well as those from lower socioeconomic classes and with lower income were found to be more likely to have body image dissatisfaction due to slimness. However, those where the parents had completed higher education and those living in the downtown area were more likely to have body image dissatisfaction due to excess weight. Sociodemographic indicators are closely associated with body image dissatisfaction. Body image dissatisfaction due to slimness can be explained by the lower level of schooling of the parents, lower socioeconomic class and lower income. Dissatisfaction due to excess weight can be explained by the higher schooling of the parents and the fact of living in the downtown area.

  5. [Body image disorder in 100 Tunisian female breast cancer patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faten, Ellouze; Nader, Marrakchi; Raies, Hend; Sana, Masmoudi; Amel, Mezlini; Fadhel, M'rad Mohamed

    2018-03-07

    This study aimed at tracking the prevalence of body image disorder in a population of Tunisian women followed for breast cancer and the factors associated with it. The cross-sectional study was conducted at Salah-Azaiez Institute in Tunis, over a period of four months. One hundred outpatients followed for confirmed breast cancer were recruited. The questionnaire targeted the women's sexuality and their couple relationships, along with their socio-demographic, clinical, and therapeutic characteristics. The scales used were BIS, HADS, and FSFI. The prevalence of body image disorder according to BIS was 45% with an average of 11.5±11.2 among the interrogated patients, 24.7% of which reported an alteration in their couple relationships and 47% in their sexual relations. In univariate analysis, body image disorder was associated with family support, change in couple relationship, depression and anxiety. Body image disorder and sexual dysfunction were interrelated: each of them fostered the prevalence of the other. Multivariate analysis showed that occupational activity was an independent predictor and the absence of anxiety an independent protective factor. Body image disorder was an independent predictive factor of depression and anxiety. The quality of couple relation and sexuality, along with the impact of the patient's surrounding are decisive for the protection or alteration of her body image. Copyright © 2018 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Agreement and association between different indicators of body image and body mass index in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Carla Fernandez Dos; Castro, Inês Rugani Ribeiro de; Cardoso, Letícia de Oliveira; Tavares, Letícia Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the correlation among different indicators of body image; between each one of these and nutritional status; and the association of these indicators with the Body Mass Index (BMI) of adolescents. A random sample of 152 students from public and private schools in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, was studied. On four occasions, two silhouette scales and two questions regarding the opinion of the student about his/her body and weight were applied and weight and height were measured. The BMI was examined both as a continuous and as a categorical variable. The agreement between the variables was analyzed using the quadratic weighted Kappa statistics. The association between body image variables and BMI was examined by the comparison among median, mean, standard deviation and 95% confidence interval of BMI for each category of the body image variables. In general, the correlation among the body image variables ranged from reasonable to good; between these and the variable nutritional status, correlation ranged from regular to reasonable. Best results were observed among boys and students from private schools. All body image variables showed good discriminatory power for BMI, when it was analyzed as a continuous variable, even when controlling for potential confounders. The question about body seems to be better than that about weight to compose the questionnaire of a surveillance system for risk and protective factors for adolescent health.

  7. STUDY OF BODY IMAGE IN PROFESSIONAL DANCERS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allana Alexandre Cardoso

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Body image is multidimensional, dynamic, and entirely linked to the body in motion, which entails relevant bodily concerns in the routine of professional dancers, who need to maintain their body aesthetics constantly. The objective was summarizing the scientific production on the body image of professional dancers and to understand how they perceive it. This review is composed by seven studies that investigated professional dancers of classical ballet, jazz and contemporary dance. The results demonstrate that even though they are lean and had appropriate body mass index, professional dancers are dissatisfied with their body and wish to be thinner, that is, professional dancers constitute a risk group for the development of eating disorders.

  8. Correlates of Body Image in Polish Weight Trainers

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    Guszkowska Monika

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine body image and body satisfaction in Polish adult men involved in resistance training and to investigate their relationships with objective anthropometric and training characteristics. Methods. The study included 176 males aged 18-31 years with 1-14 years resistance training experience. The Figure Rating Scale, Body Satisfaction Scale and a self-designed questionnaire were administered. Results. Approximately 62% of the participants would like to be more muscular, only 29% accepted their appearance and 9% would like to be less muscular. The body selected as the personal ideal (M = 5.34 was less muscular than the body considered by the participants to be ideal by other men (normative body; M = 6.07 and was more muscular than the body thought to be most attractive to women (M = 5.10. Actual and ideal body muscularity correlated positively with age and body mass, height and BMI. Dissatisfaction with trunk and motor characteristics correlated positively with ideal body and the body considered most attractive to women as well as with the discrepancy indices between the above factors and the actual body. Conclusions. Men regularly involved in resistance training were found to strive for a muscular physique. The normative body, the physique believed to be desired by other men, was more muscular than what was considered preferential to women. However, the latter constitutes a stronger determinant of the level of body satisfaction in men engaged in resistance training.

  9. Childhood Abuse, Body Image Disturbance, and Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaaf, Kristin K.; McCanne, Thomas R.

    1994-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among childhood sexual and physical abuse, body image disturbance, and eating disorder symptomatology in college students, of whom 29 had been sexually abused, 32 physically abused, and 29 nonabused. There was no evidence that child sexual or physical abuse was associated with the development of body image…

  10. Predictors of Changes in Body Image Concerns of Chinese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Jackson, Todd

    2009-01-01

    This nine-month prospective study tested the extent to which risk factors implicated in recent accounts of body dissatisfaction predicted changes in body image concerns of adolescent boys and girls in China. A sample of 593 Chinese adolescents (217 boys, 376 girls) completed measures of weight esteem, appearance esteem and physical stature concern…

  11. The Impact of Teasing on Children's Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostanski, Marion; Gullone, Eleonora

    2007-01-01

    Being teased about one's physical appearance in childhood has been found to have a strong impact on the way in which adolescent and adult women perceive their bodies. Teasing is also strongly related to self-esteem in children. However, little is known about the impact of teasing on the development of body image in childhood. Through a…

  12. Perceived body image and weight: discrepancies and gender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Body image (BI) is a multidimensional construct that includes perceptual, attitudinal, behavioural components, and feedback from other people's perception of oneself. The feedback from others and the degree to which one accepts or rejects it can determine self evaluation and perception. Body weight ...

  13. Weight status and perceived body size image in overweight and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Young people's perception of their weight status attracted much interest. With a better understanding of childhood body image problems, investigating prevention programs within schools is an important next step. Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate body size perception in school children using ...

  14. Feminist Pedagogy, Body Image, and the Dance Technique Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Sherrie; Oliver, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the evolution of feminist consciousness in dance technique class as related to body image, the myth of the perfect body, and the development of feminist pedagogy. Western concert dance forms have often been taught in a manner where imitating the teacher is primary in the learning process. In this traditional scenario,…

  15. Negative body image associated with changes in the visual body appearance increases pain perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osumi, Michihiro; Imai, Ryota; Ueta, Kozo; Nobusako, Satoshi; Morioka, Shu

    2014-01-01

    Changing the visual body appearance by use of as virtual reality system, funny mirror, or binocular glasses has been reported to be helpful in rehabilitation of pain. However, there are interindividual differences in the analgesic effect of changing the visual body image. We hypothesized that a negative body image associated with changing the visual body appearance causes interindividual differences in the analgesic effect although the relationship between the visual body appearance and analgesic effect has not been clarified. We investigated whether a negative body image associated with changes in the visual body appearance increased pain. Twenty-five healthy individuals participated in this study. To evoke a negative body image, we applied the method of rubber hand illusion. We created an "injured rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with pain, a "hairy rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with embarrassment, and a "twisted rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with deviation from the concept of normality. We also created a "normal rubber hand" as a control. The pain threshold was measured while the participant observed the rubber hand using a device that measured pain caused by thermal stimuli. Body ownership experiences were elicited by observation of the injured rubber hand and hairy rubber hand as well as the normal rubber hand. Participants felt more unpleasantness by observing the injured rubber hand and hairy rubber hand than the normal rubber hand and twisted rubber hand (pappearance associated with pain can increase pain sensitivity.

  16. Reconceptualization of the body image construct from a multidisciplinary perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Castro-Lemus

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The present article carries out a systematic review of the main conceptualizations that currently exist of the body image construct from different disciplines, such as philosophy, psychology, sociology, and even Physical Education. This review argues the terminological unification of terms such as body, embodiment, corporeality, corporal identity, self-concept, corporal asset, and body schema. It also offers a reconceptualization of the construct.

  17. Does the Use of Body Scanners Discriminate Overweight Flight Passengers? The Effect of Body Scanners on Body Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Laib

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Whereas the introduction of body scanners at airports has been accompanied by critical voices raising concerns that body scanners might have a negative impact on different minority groups, it has not been investigated thus far whether they might also have negative impacts on the average flight passenger and if the provision of adequate information might attenuate such negative impacts. Using a pre/post-design the current study examines the effect of a body scan in a controlled laboratory setting on the explicit and implicit body image of normal-weight and overweight people as assessed by questionnaires and an Implicit Association Test. Half of the sample received an information sheet concerning body scanners before they were scanned. While there was a negative impact of the body scan on the implicit body image of overweight participants, there was a positive impact on their explicit body image. The negative effect of the body scan was unaffected by receiving information. This study demonstrates that body scans do not only have negative effects on certain minority groups but potentially on a large proportion of the general public which suggests a critical reconsideration of the control procedures at airports, the training of the airport staff who is in charge of these procedures and the information flight passengers get about these procedures.

  18. Body image in the mass media

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Iris Bazán; Rosinella Miño

    2015-01-01

    The concern about weight that characterizes most modern women stemmed from the medical research that showed the relationship between obesity and diseases such as hypertension or cardiovascular disease. As shown by the American filmmaker Michael Moore in his documentary film “Sicko” in 2007, large US health companies financially rewarded those with a thinner body and sanctioned overweight people because they had higher risks of disease and thus generate losses to their companies. From there, t...

  19. Body image and quality of life in a Spanish population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Jáuregui Lobera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ignacio Jáuregui Lobera1, Patricia Bolaños Ríos21Department of Nutrition and Bromatology, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, Spain; 2Behavior Science Institute, Seville, SpainPurpose: The aim of the current study was to analyze the psychometric properties, factor structure, and internal consistency of the Spanish version of the Body Image Quality of Life Inventory (BIQLI-SP as well as its test–retest reliability. Further objectives were to analyze different relationships with key dimensions of psychosocial functioning (ie, self-esteem, presence of psychopathological symptoms, eating and body image-related problems, and perceived stress and to evaluate differences in body image quality of life due to gender.Patients and methods: The sample comprised 417 students without any psychiatric history, recruited from the Pablo de Olavide University and the University of Seville. There were 140 men (33.57% and 277 women (66.43%, and the mean age was 21.62 years (standard deviation = 5.12. After obtaining informed consent from all participants, the following questionnaires were administered: BIQLI, Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2, Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ, Self-Esteem Scale (SES, and Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R.Results: The BIQLI-SP shows adequate psychometric properties, and it may be useful to determine the body image quality of life in different physical conditions. A more positive body image quality of life is associated with better self-esteem, better psychological wellbeing, and fewer eating-related dysfunctional attitudes, this being more evident among women.Conclusion: The BIQLI-SP may be useful to determine the body image quality of life in different contexts with regard to dermatology, cosmetic and reconstructive surgery, and endocrinology, among others. In these fields of study, a new trend has emerged to assess body image-related quality of life.Keywords: body appreciation, wellbeing, self-esteem, social

  20. The relationship between friendship factors and adolescent girls' body image concern, body dissatisfaction, and restrained eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerner, Bibi; Wilson, Peter H

    2005-05-01

    This study examined whether poorer friendship relations predict weight concerns and dietary restraint in adolescent girls. Questionnaires were administered to 131 Year 9 and Year 10 girls to assess the relationship between acceptance by friends, perceived social support, friendship intimacy, and perceived impact of thinness on male (PITOF-M) and female (PITOF-F) friendships on the one hand, and body image concern, body dissatisfaction, and restrained eating on the other. Friendship variables contributed significantly to the prediction of body image concern, body dissatisfaction, and restrained eating. The largest unique contribution to prediction was from the PITOF-M. Poor acceptance by friends significantly predicted the PITOF-M and PITOF-F. Whereas heavier girls were more likely to believe being thinner would improve their friendships, they did not experience poorer friendships. Results suggest sociocultural risk factors for disordered eating and underline the importance of perceived peer affiliation on girls' body image concern and dieting. Copyright 2005 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  1. Body image and body change: Predictive factors in an Iranian population

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    Behshid Garrusi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Body concerns and its health consequences such as eating disorders and harmful body change activities are mentioned in Asian countries. This study evaluates factors contributing to body image/shape changes in an Iranian population. Methods: In this cross-sectional study we focused on four main body change activity (diet, exercise, substance use, and surgery and their risk factors such as demographic variables, Body Mass Index (BMI, Media, Body-Esteem, Perceived Socio-cultural Pressure, Body dissatisfaction and, Self-Esteem. Approximately, 1,200 individuals between 14-55 years old participated in this study. We used a multistage sampling method. In each region, the first household was selected at random. The probability of outcomes was estimated from logistic models. Results: About 54.3% of respondents were females. The mean (SD of age was 31.06 (10.24 years. Variables such as gender, age, BMI, use of media and socio cultural factors as, body dissatisfaction, body-esteem and pressure by relatives were the main factors that influenced body change methods. In particular we have seen that male are 53% less likely to follow surgical treatments, but 125% were more likely to use substances. Conclusions: Investigation of body concern and its health related problem should be assessed in cultural context. For effectiveness of interventional programs and reducing harmful body image/shape changes activities, socio-cultural background should be noted.

  2. Body Image and Body Change: Predictive Factors in an Iranian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrusi, Behshid; Garousi, Saeide; Baneshi, Mohammad R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Body concerns and its health consequences such as eating disorders and harmful body change activities are mentioned in Asian countries. This study evaluates factors contributing to body image/shape changes in an Iranian population. Methods: In this cross-sectional study we focused on four main body change activity (diet, exercise, substance use, and surgery) and their risk factors such as demographic variables, Body Mass Index (BMI), Media, Body-Esteem, Perceived Socio-cultural Pressure, Body dissatisfaction and, Self-Esteem. Approximately, 1,200 individuals between 14-55 years old participated in this study. We used a multistage sampling method. In each region, the first household was selected at random. The probability of outcomes was estimated from logistic models. Results: About 54.3% of respondents were females. The mean (SD) of age was 31.06 (10.24) years. Variables such as gender, age, BMI, use of media and socio cultural factors as, body dissatisfaction, body-esteem and pressure by relatives were the main factors that influenced body change methods. In particular we have seen that male are 53% less likely to follow surgical treatments, but 125% were more likely to use substances. Conclusions: Investigation of body concern and its health related problem should be assessed in cultural context. For effectiveness of interventional programs and reducing harmful body image/shape changes activities, socio-cultural background should be noted. PMID:24049621

  3. Body image and body change: predictive factors in an Iranian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrusi, Behshid; Garousi, Saeide; Baneshi, Mohammad R

    2013-08-01

    Body concerns and its health consequences such as eating disorders and harmful body change activities are mentioned in Asian countries. This study evaluates factors contributing to body image/shape changes in an Iranian population. In this cross-sectional study we focused on four main body change activity (diet, exercise, substance use, and surgery) and their risk factors such as demographic variables, Body Mass Index (BMI), Media, Body-Esteem, Perceived Socio-cultural Pressure, Body dissatisfaction and, Self-Esteem. Approximately, 1,200 individuals between 14-55 years old participated in this study. We used a multistage sampling method. In each region, the first household was selected at random. The probability of outcomes was estimated from logistic models. About 54.3% of respondents were females. The mean (SD) of age was 31.06 (10.24) years. Variables such as gender, age, BMI, use of media and socio cultural factors as, body dissatisfaction, body-esteem and pressure by relatives were the main factors that influenced body change methods. In particular we have seen that male are 53% less likely to follow surgical treatments, but 125% were more likely to use substances. Investigation of body concern and its health related problem should be assessed in cultural context. For effectiveness of interventional programs and reducing harmful body image/shape changes activities, socio-cultural background should be noted.

  4. Body image and body change methods in adolescent boys. Role of parents, friends and the media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardelli, L A; McCabe, M P; Banfield, S

    2000-09-01

    This study examines sociocultural influences affecting both body image and body change methods in adolescent boys. Twenty boys in grade 7 (aged 12-13) and twenty boys in grade 9 (aged 14-15) were individually interviewed. The influence of parents, siblings, friends and the media on both body image and body change methods was evaluated. For approximately a third of the boys, parents, siblings, friends and the media were perceived to have at least some influence over boys' feelings about their bodies and body change methods. In particular, feedback from mothers and female friends were viewed as having a positive impact on boys' body image whereas feed-back from fathers and male friends was viewed as more important in influencing body change methods. The media was also viewed as contributing to boys' body satisfaction but it was seen to encourage greater exercise to alter body size and shape. The differences and similarities between the sociocultural messages received by males and females are discussed. The implication of these findings in fostering better health among adolescent males are explored.

  5. Brief Report: Body Image in Autism: Evidence from Body Size Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Kosuke; Tojo, Yoshikuni; Hakarino, Koichiro; Saito, Atsuko; Hasegawa, Toshikazu; Kumagaya, Shinichiro

    2018-02-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have difficulties with social interaction and communication. First-hand accounts written by individuals with ASD have shown the existence of other atypical characteristics such as difficulties with body awareness. However, few studies have examined whether such atypicalities are found more generally among individuals with ASD. We examined body image (i.e., self-body awareness) by asking individuals with ASD and typically developing (TD) individuals to estimate their own body size (shoulder width). Results show that TD individuals estimated their shoulder width more accurately than individuals with ASD. This study suggests that individuals with ASD often experience misperceptions in their body size.

  6. Advanced imaging techniques in pediatric body MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtier, Jesse [UCSF Benioff Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States); Rao, Anil G. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology, Charleston, SC (United States); Anupindi, Sudha A. [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2017-05-15

    While there are many challenges specific to pediatric abdomino-pelvic MRI, many recent advances are addressing these challenges. It is therefore essential for radiologists to be familiar with the latest advances in MR imaging. Laudable efforts have also recently been implemented in many centers to improve the overall experience of pediatric patients, including the use of dedicated radiology child life specialists, MRI video goggles, and improved MR suite environments. These efforts have allowed a larger number of children to be scanned while awake, with fewer studies being done under sedation or anesthesia; this has resulted in additional challenges from patient motion and difficulties with breath-holding and tolerating longer scan times. In this review, we highlight common challenges faced in imaging the pediatric abdomen and pelvis and discuss the application of the newest techniques to address these challenges. Additionally, we highlight the newest advances in quantified imaging techniques, specifically in MR liver iron quantification. The techniques described in this review are all commercially available and can be readily implemented. (orig.)

  7. Body image in the mass media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Iris Bazán

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The concern about weight that characterizes most modern women stemmed from the medical research that showed the relationship between obesity and diseases such as hypertension or cardiovascular disease. As shown by the American filmmaker Michael Moore in his documentary film “Sicko” in 2007, large US health companies financially rewarded those with a thinner body and sanctioned overweight people because they had higher risks of disease and thus generate losses to their companies. From there, the emphasis on weight control and low-calorie dieting -and its association with health- reached unexpected limits. Mass Media had and have a leading role on this growing concern about weight. This article analyzes the effects of media on the aesthetic / healthy ideal, which contribute to the construction of a woman captured by endless demands. These social requirements are associated with perfection, the predominance of the aesthetic, healthy body and eternal youth, which would guarantee success. What relationship have television, women’s magazines, Internet, advertising and even children’s toys with the expansion of “the culture of light”, the ideal body and healthy behavior are some of the questions that will be addressed in this Article. To contribute to a better understanding of this phenomenon, we will make a bibliographic and Media exploration. Finally, as a possible solution to the problem, a strategy of state intervention on the current market model for promoting good use of information and prevention of Eating Disorders and other diseases related to poor diet is proposed. 

  8. Body image and subjective well-being in Portuguese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, António; Gaspar de Matos, Margarida; Diniz, José Alves

    2013-01-01

    The study examines the impact of body image in adolescents' well-being. Well-being was assessed with the scale Kidscreen10, with the Cantril ladder for satisfaction with life and with an ad hoc happiness scale. The study presents data on adolescent health from the Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC)/World Health Organization study in Portugal (2006), with a sample of 4,877 adolescents, average age of 14 years old and gender distribution at 49,6% males. Portuguese adolescents showed differences between gender and age group regarding their body image-related satisfaction/dissatisfaction and self-perceived body image, being that both components have a direct impact on the levels of well-being. The male gender has better results in the perception of body image and, consequently, well-being. The largest inter-gender differences for well-being is at 15 years of age. The main predictors of well-being are the look and body satisfaction/dissatisfaction, with greater importance on the affective component. This research highlights the importance of body image for adolescents' well-being, as well as to prepare educational strategies adapted to adolescents' age and gender, by helping them to develop skills concerning self-knowledge and caring for their look.

  9. Influential sources affecting Bangkok adolescent body image perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thianthai, Chulanee

    2006-01-01

    The study of body image-related problems in non-Western countries is still very limited. Thus, this study aims to identify the main influential sources and show how they affect the body image perceptions of Bangkok adolescents. The researcher recruited 400 Thai male and female adolescents in Bangkok, attending high school to freshmen level, ranging from 16-19 years, to participate in this study. Survey questionnaires were distributed to every student and follow-up interviews conducted with 40 students. The findings showed that there are eight main influential sources respectively ranked from the most influential to the least influential: magazines, television, peer group, familial, fashion trend, the opposite gender, self-realization and health knowledge. Similar to those studies conducted in Western countries, more than half of the total percentage was the influence of mass media and peer groups. Bangkok adolescents also internalized Western ideal beauty through these mass media channels. Alike studies conducted in the West, there was similarities in the process of how these influential sources affect Bangkok adolescent body image perception, with the exception of familial source. In conclusion, taking the approach of identifying the main influential sources and understanding how they affect adolescent body image perceptions can help prevent adolescents from having unhealthy views and taking risky measures toward their bodies. More studies conducted in non-Western countries are needed in order to build a cultural sensitive program, catered to the body image problems occurring in adolescents within that particular society.

  10. Swimsuit issues: promoting positive body image in young women's magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Elizabeth Reid; Moncrieff-Boyd, Jessica

    2011-08-01

    This preliminary study reviews the promotion of healthy body image to young Australian women, following the 2009 introduction of the voluntary Industry Code of Conduct on Body Image. The Code includes using diverse sized models in magazines. A qualitative content analysis of the 2010 annual 'swimsuit issues' was conducted on 10 Australian young women's magazines. Pictorial and/or textual editorial evidence of promoting diverse body shapes and sizes was regarded as indicative of the magazines' upholding aspects of the voluntary Code of Conduct for Body Image. Diverse sized models were incorporated in four of the seven magazines with swimsuit features sampled. Body size differentials were presented as part of the swimsuit features in three of the magazines sampled. Tips for diverse body type enhancement were included in four of the magazines. All magazines met at least one criterion. One magazine displayed evidence of all three criteria. Preliminary examination suggests that more than half of young women's magazines are upholding elements of the voluntary Code of Conduct for Body Image, through representation of diverse-sized women in their swimsuit issues.

  11. Senses of body image in adolescents in elementary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Maria Lídia de Abreu; Taquette, Stella Regina; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire

    2014-06-01

    To comprehend the perception of body image in adolescence. A qualitative study was conducted with eight focus groups with 96 students of both sexes attending four public elementary school institutions in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil, in 2013. An interview guide with questions about the adolescents' feelings in relation to: their bodies, standards of idealized beauty, practice of physical exercise and sociocultural influences on self-image. In the data analysis we sought to understand and interpret the meanings and contradictions of narratives, understanding the subjects' context and reasons and the internal logic of the group. Three thematic categories were identified. The influence of media on body image showed the difficulty of achieving the perfect body and is viewed with suspicion in face of standards of beauty broadcast; the importance of a healthy body was observed as standards of beauty and good looks were closely linked to good physical condition and result from having a healthy body; the relationship between the standard of beauty and prejudice, as people who are not considered attractive, having small physical imperfections, are discriminated against and can be rejected or even excluded from society. The standard of perfect body propagated by media influences adolescents' self-image and, consequently, self-esteem and is considered an unattainable goal, corresponding to a standard of beauty described as artificial and unreal. However, it causes great suffering and discrimination against those who do not feel they are attractive, which can lead to health problems resulting from low self-esteem.

  12. Relationship between Body Image and Body Mass Index in College Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Julia A.; Christie, Catherine; Chally, Pamela

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: The authors examined cognitive and affective dimensions of body image of a randomized sample of 188 college men on the basis of body mass index (BMI). Methods: They conducted chi-square tests and ANOVAs to determine differences between 4 BMI groups (underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese) on demographics and…

  13. Body Image: It's Not Just About How You See Your Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Let's be honest. As women, we can be pretty hard on ourselves, and we can be especially hard on how our bodies look. Having a negative body image can affect not only how you feel about yourself, but it can also keep you from living the life you want to have.

  14. Adolescent Boys and Body Image: Weight and Muscularity Concerns as Dual Pathways to Body Dissatisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Diane Carlson; Crawford, Joy K.

    2005-01-01

    This research evaluated a dual pathway model for body dissatisfaction among adolescent boys. The study provides empirical support for the importance of distinguishing between weight and muscularity concerns in understanding male body image. A total of 128 boys from grades 8 and 11 completed a self-report questionnaire. Results indicated that…

  15. Psychosocial Aspects of Body Mass and Body Image among Rural American Indian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Denise L.; Sontag, Lisa M.; Salvato, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the psychosocial risks associated with body weight (BMI) and body image in a southeastern, rural Lumbee American Indian community. A total of 134 adolescents (57% female) were surveyed over 2 years at ages of 13 and 15 years. On average, boys (55%) were more likely to be overweight or obese than were girls (31%). BMI was…

  16. Body image flexibility as a protective factor against disordered eating behavior for women with lower body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Mary L; Masuda, Akihiko; Latzman, Robert D

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine whether body dissatisfaction and body image flexibility would be uniquely and significantly associated with disordered eating behavior. In addition, the study examined if body mass index (BMI) moderated the relationships between each of the body image related variables and disordered eating. Two-hundred-fifty-eight female participants completed the web-based survey. Body dissatisfaction and body image flexibility were significantly related to disordered eating behavior, after controlling for ethnicity and BMI, and BMI moderated the relation between body image flexibility and disordered eating. Specifically, for those with low BMI, greater body image flexibility was associated with reduced disordered eating behavior. Body image flexibility was not associated with disordered eating behavior among those with average or high BMI. These results suggest that greater body image flexibility may serve as a protective factor against disordered eating behaviors for those with low BMI. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Body monitoring and imaging apparatus and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, T.E.

    1998-06-16

    A non-acoustic pulse-echo radar monitor is employed in the repetitive mode, whereby a large number of reflected pulses are averaged to produce a voltage that modulates an audio oscillator to produce a tone that corresponds to the heart motion. The antenna used in this monitor generally comprises two flat copper foils, thus permitting the antenna to be housed in a substantially flat housing. The monitor converts the detected voltage to an audible signal with both amplitude modulation and Doppler effect. It further uses a dual time constant to reduce the effect of gross sensor-to-surface movement. The monitor detects the movement of one or more internal body parts, such as the heart, lungs, arteries, and vocal chords, and includes a pulse generator for simultaneously inputting a sequence of pulses to a transmit path and a grating path. The pulses transmitted along the transmit path drive Oh impulse, generator and provide corresponding transmit pulses that are applied to a transmit antenna. The gating path includes a range delay generator which generates timed gating pulses. The timed gating pulses cause the receive path to selectively conduct pulses reflected from the body parts and received by a receive antenna. The monitor output potential can be separated into a cardiac output indicative of the physical movement of the heart, and a pulmonary output indicative of the physical movement of the lung. The impulse generator in the transmit path can be replaced with a pulsed RF generator. 13 figs.

  18. Body Image as Strategy for Engagement in Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcisio Torres Silva

    2015-06-01

    This work intends to analyze not only how communication technologies have contributed to the emergence of such events but also how image production can be interpreted in such environments. Since the use of social media in protests caught the attention of broadcasting media in 2009 during demonstrations in Iran, a strong connection can be noticed between the content circulating through digital communication technologies and the body. For images produced during the Arab Spring, the same is observed with a series of strategies connecting body image and social mobilization. Our intention is to contribute to the debate of political images, considering the way they have been produced in contemporary society, which deals with a complex environment composed of communication technologies, social organization, and the body itself.

  19. Body image and quality of life in a Spanish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jáuregui Lobera, Ignacio; Bolaños Ríos, Patricia

    2011-01-25

    The aim of the current study was to analyze the psychometric properties, factor structure, and internal consistency of the Spanish version of the Body Image Quality of Life Inventory (BIQLI-SP) as well as its test-retest reliability. Further objectives were to analyze different relationships with key dimensions of psychosocial functioning (ie, self-esteem, presence of psychopathological symptoms, eating and body image-related problems, and perceived stress) and to evaluate differences in body image quality of life due to gender. The sample comprised 417 students without any psychiatric history, recruited from the Pablo de Olavide University and the University of Seville. There were 140 men (33.57%) and 277 women (66.43%), and the mean age was 21.62 years (standard deviation = 5.12). After obtaining informed consent from all participants, the following questionnaires were administered: BIQLI, Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2), Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ), Self-Esteem Scale (SES), and Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R). The BIQLI-SP shows adequate psychometric properties, and it may be useful to determine the body image quality of life in different physical conditions. A more positive body image quality of life is associated with better self-esteem, better psychological wellbeing, and fewer eating-related dysfunctional attitudes, this being more evident among women. The BIQLI-SP may be useful to determine the body image quality of life in different contexts with regard to dermatology, cosmetic and reconstructive surgery, and endocrinology, among others. In these fields of study, a new trend has emerged to assess body image-related quality of life.

  20. The Body Caught in an Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Tavčar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In a private collection in Nova Gorica, Slovenia, two photographs from the beginning of the twentieth century have been preserved that are interesting as both sociological evidence and documentation of the history of photography; specifically, that of two photography studios: one in Rijeka, Croatia, and the other in the faraway Egypt. The persons in these photos are “bodies frozen in time,” but at the same time they are “holders of lives.” They offer an insight into their individual lifestyles and, by applying appropriate methods, they unveil history at the “micro” level. This paper discusses the “vocation” of a wet nurse in Alexandria (born in 1877, one of numerous women from the Gorizia region that left their homeland to earn their living in a faraway country out of economic necessity. The focus is on the issue of her body, which, in the case of the earlier photograph taken on the occasion of her wedding, serves as a clothes-hanger for a fashionable dress, whereas the second photograph was taken after she had been forced to offer her body to the “labor market,” receiving wages in return for having weaned her own child and going to Alexandria to suckle the baby of rich parents there. Along with this bitter central theme, the creators of the two photographs are also studied: the older photo was taken in 1895/96 in Rijeka by Ilario Carposio (1852–1921, who received several international awards for his trade, which he also documented on the verso of the photograph. The second photo was taken at the Fettel & Bernard studio in Alexandria. By a strange coincidence, both the Alexandria wet nurse (in 1906/07 and, a decade earlier (in 1896, the Greek poet Constantin P. Cavafy (1863–1933 were photographed in the same studio, posed next to the same studio requisite, which demonstrates that people of both upper and lower classes could meet in these studios.

  1. Body Image and Body Satisfaction Differ by Race in Overweight Postpartum Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Lori A.; Revels, Jessica; Durham, Holiday; Lokhnygina, Yuliya; Amamoo, M. Ahinee; Ostbye, Truls

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Body image (BI) and body satisfaction may be important in understanding weight loss behaviors, particularly during the postpartum period. We assessed these constructs among African American and white overweight postpartum women. Methods The sample included 162 women (73 African American and 89 white) in the intervention arm 6 months into the Active Mothers Postpartum (AMP) Study, a nutritional and physical activity weight loss intervention. BIs, self-reported using the Stunkard figure rating scale, were compared assessing mean values by race. Body satisfaction was measured using body discrepancy (BD), calculated as perceived current image minus ideal image (BD0: desire to be lighter). BD was assessed by race for: BDIdeal (current image minus the ideal image) and BDIdeal Mother (current image minus ideal mother image). Results Compared with white women, African American women were younger and were less likely to report being married, having any college education, or residing in households with annual incomes >$30,000 (all p < 0.01). They also had a higher mean body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.04), although perceived current BI did not differ by race (p = 0.21). African Americans had higher mean ideal (p = 0.07) and ideal mother (p = 0.001) BIs compared with whites. African Americans' mean BDs (adjusting for age, BMI, education, income, marital status, and interaction terms) were significantly lower than those of whites, indicating greater body satisfaction among African Americans (BDIdeal: 1.7 vs. 2.3, p = 0.005; BDIdeal Mother: 1.1 vs. 1.8, p = 0.0002). Conclusions Racial differences exist in postpartum weight, ideal images, and body satisfaction. Healthcare providers should consider tailored messaging that accounts for these racially different perceptions and factors when designing weight loss programs for overweight mothers. PMID:20113143

  2. Body Image Dissatisfaction and Distortion, Steroid Use, and Sex Differences in College Age Bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Mark Anthony; Phelps, LeAddelle

    2001-01-01

    Compares college age bodybuilders by sex and steroid intake on two variables: body image dissatisfaction and body image distortion. Results reveal only a significant effect for gender on body distortion. No steroid-use differences were apparent for either body image dissatisfaction or body image distortion. Analyses indicate that female…

  3. Body image quality of life in eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Jáuregui Lobera

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Ignacio Jáuregui Lobera1, Patricia Bolaños Ríos21Department of Nutrition and Bromatology, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, Spain; 2Behavior Sciences Institute, Seville, SpainPurpose: The objective was to examine how body image affects quality of life in an eating-disorder (ED clinical sample, a non-ED clinical sample, and a nonclinical sample. We hypothesized that ED patients would show the worst body image quality of life. We also hypothesized that body image quality of life would have a stronger negative association with specific ED-related variables than with other psychological and psychopathological variables, mainly among ED patients. On the basis of previous studies, the influence of gender on the results was explored, too.Patients and methods: The final sample comprised 70 ED patients (mean age 22.65 ± 7.76 years; 59 women and 11 men; 106 were patients with other psychiatric disorders (mean age 28.20 ± 6.52; 67 women and 39 men, and 135 were university students (mean age 21.57 ± 2.58; 81 women and 54 men, with no psychiatric history. After having obtained informed consent, the following questionnaires were administered: Body Image Quality of Life Inventory-Spanish version (BIQLI-SP, Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2, Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ, Self-Esteem Scale (SES, and Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R.Results: The ED patients' ratings on the BIQLI-SP were the lowest and negatively scored (BIQLI-SP means: +20.18, +5.14, and —6.18, in the student group, the non-ED patient group, and the ED group, respectively. The effect of body image on quality of life was more negative in the ED group in all items of the BIQLI-SP. Body image quality of life was negatively associated with specific ED-related variables, more than with other psychological and psychopathological variables, but not especially among ED patients.Conclusion: Body image quality of life was affected not only by specific pathologies related to body

  4. Personality characteristics and body image in obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarısoy, Gökhan; Atmaca, Ayşegül; Ecemiş, Gülçin; Gümüş, Kübra; Pazvantoğlu, Ozan

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the personality characteristics of obese and morbidly obese individuals with no psychiatric disorder and the correlation between these characteristics and body image and self-esteem. Sixty-nine obese individuals and 69 healthy controls, matched in age, sex and marital status, were included in the study. Psychiatric disorders were excluded for all participants using SCID-I and II. Obese and healthy volunteers were compared in terms of body image, self-esteem and personality characteristics. TCI harm avoidance scores were higher in obese individuals compared to healthy controls. Harm avoidance scores were also higher in individuals with morbid obesity compared to non-morbid individuals, while self-directedness and persistence scores were lower. Body image dissatisfaction was higher in obese individuals. There was a negative correlation in obese individuals between body image and self-esteem scale scores and harm avoidance scores, and a positive correlation with self-directedness scores. An elevated harm avoidance temperament characteristic may be correlated with obesity. Furthermore, high harm avoidance, low self-directedness and low persistence may be significant personality characteristics in a process leading to morbid obesity. In addition, harm avoidance temperament and self-directedness personality characteristics may be correlated with body image dissatisfaction and self-esteem in obese individuals. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. FOOD BEHAVIOR, BODY IMAGE AND ANTHROPOMETRIC INDICES OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

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    Márcia Regina Pereira MONTEIRO

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The aim of this study was to assess food behavior, self-image perception and anthropometric indices of college students. This was a cross-sectional study with 54 students in a public university. The lifestyle and self-image perception was collected using a standardized questionnaire tested. Food behavior was evaluated through the Eating Attitudes Test. Body composition was assessed for Body Mass Index (BMI, circumferences, skinfold analysis and bioelectrical impedance (BIA. The statistics tests used were Chi-square and Pearson correlation (p< 0.05. The students had 19 to 27 years old, 96.3% were non-smokers, 46.3% drank alcoholic beverages and 37.0% practiced regular physical activity. Most of the students (75.5% were considered normal weight (BMI but the body fat percentage was found to be above average. Regarding self- image perception, 40.7% felt overweight. Observing food behavior results, 12.0% were at risk of developing eating disorders. Positive correlations were verifi ed between BMI with skinfold and skinfold with bioelectrical impedance. It was concluded that a considerable number of the college students assessed had a distorted self-image perception. Many of them had normal weight but with high body fat percentage. This study is relevant to investigate the risk of eating disorders and body image perception as part of the nutritional assessment.

  6. Predicting body appreciation in young women: An integrated model of positive body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Rachel; Tiggemann, Marika; Clark, Levina

    2016-09-01

    This study examined a range of predictors, based on previous theoretical models, of positive body image in young adult women. Participants were 266 women who completed an online questionnaire measuring body appreciation, activity participation, media consumption, perceived body acceptance by others, self-compassion, and autonomy. Potential mechanisms in predicting body appreciation assessed were self-objectification, social appearance comparison, and thin-ideal internalisation. Results indicated that greater perceived body acceptance by others and self-compassion, and lower appearance media consumption, self-objectification, social comparison, and thin-ideal internalisation were related to greater body appreciation. An integrated model showed that appearance media (negatively) and non-appearance media and self-compassion (positively) were associated with lower self-objectification, social comparison, and thin-ideal internalisation, which in turn related to greater body appreciation. Additionally, perceived body acceptance by others was directly associated with body appreciation. The results contribute to an understanding of potential pathways of positive body image development, thereby highlighting possible intervention targets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Body image and depressive symptoms in person suffering from psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosińska, Monika; Rzepa, Teresa; Szramka-Pawlak, Beata; Żaba, Ryszard

    2017-12-30

    The purpose of the research study was specifying the relationship between severity of psoriasis and body image and self-reported depressive symptoms, taking into account the differences between the sexes. The research study involved 54 psoriasis patients, including 30 men and 24 women aged from 19 to 82. The level of depressive symptoms was assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory, and body image - using the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire. The disease severity was objectively assessed using the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index. The female psoriasis patients were more critical of their appearance than the men (p< 0.01), and at the same time they were more appearance-oriented (p< 0.05). The men rated their fitness level (p< 0.01) and care for good physical condition (p< 0.01) higher than the women. The women showed less satisfaction with their body parts than the men (p< 0.01) and more fear of obesity (p< 0.05) and overweight (p< 0.05). No statistically significant differences were found between men and women with regard to general evaluation of body image and self-reported depressive symptoms. Moreover, it was established that in the case of both women and men there was a correlation between lowered mood and psoriasis severity (R = 0.416), as well as body image (R = - 0.282). In relation to individual scales, there was a statistically significant relationship between self-reported depressive symptoms and appearance evaluation (R = - 0.519), health evaluation (R = - 0.585), satisfaction with body parts (R = - 0.462), as well as appearance orientation (R = 0.425). Distortion of body image is correlated with self-reported depressive symptoms in psoriasis patients.

  8. Body imaging diagnosis of obstructive jaundice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanehiro, Kenji; Kuno, Nobuyoshi; Kurimoto, Kumiko; Yokota, Tetsuo; Kato, Tomoyuki

    1983-01-01

    We have evaluated the efficacy of ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography (CT) in comparison with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC), and angiography (AG), and discussed a rational diagnostic approach for the evaluation of obstructive jaundice. The subjects were 70 patients with obstructive jaundice, finally confirmed by subsequent surgery or autopsy. In this study, US and CT achieved a diagnostic accuracy of 95% and 98%, respectively, in detection of the presence and level of an obstruction. Therefore, we consider that US is the best initial procedure for evaluation of obstructive jaundice; followed by CT only when the bilialy ducts should be poorly demonstrated by US because of body habitus or gaseous distension. US might be able to identify even the specific etiology of an obstructive lesion. In tumors of the bilialy tract and the pancreas including small and resectable ones, the diagnostic rate of US was high, 91% for bilialy tract tumor and 100% for pancreatic tumor, which was almost the same as that of ERCP, PTC or AG. This result suggests that US eliminates the need of invasive procedures in some cases before making decision of therapeutic approach, while CT was not so accurate diagnostic modality as US in small lesions. But in papillary tumors, small lesions of the distal common bile duct, and gallstone diseases, either ERCP or PTC yielding almost 100% diagnostic accuracy, is the most reliable procedure, while US or CT did not show a good diagnostic accuracy. (J.P.N.)

  9. Body Covering and Body Image: A Comparison of Veiled and Unveiled Muslim Women, Christian Women, and Atheist Women Regarding Body Checking, Body Dissatisfaction, and Eating Disorder Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Leonie; Hartmann, Andrea S; Becker, Julia C; Kişi, Melahat; Waldorf, Manuel; Vocks, Silja

    2018-02-21

    Although Islam is the fastest growing religion worldwide, only few studies have investigated body image in Muslim women, and no study has investigated body checking. Therefore, the present study examined whether body image, body checking, and disordered eating differ between veiled and unveiled Muslim women, Christian women, and atheist women. While the groups did not differ regarding body dissatisfaction, unveiled Muslim women reported more checking than veiled Muslim and Christian women, and higher bulimia scores than Christian. Thus, prevention against eating disorders should integrate all women, irrespective of religious affiliation or veiling, with a particular focus on unveiled Muslim women.

  10. A Virtual Reality Full Body Illusion Improves Body Image Disturbance in Anorexia Nervosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouk Keizer

    Full Text Available Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN have a persistent distorted experience of the size of their body. Previously we found that the Rubber Hand Illusion improves hand size estimation in this group. Here we investigated whether a Full Body Illusion (FBI affects body size estimation of body parts more emotionally salient than the hand. In the FBI, analogue to the RHI, participants experience ownership over an entire virtual body in VR after synchronous visuo-tactile stimulation of the actual and virtual body.We asked participants to estimate their body size (shoulders, abdomen, hips before the FBI was induced, directly after induction and at ~2 hour 45 minutes follow-up. The results showed that AN patients (N = 30 decrease the overestimation of their shoulders, abdomen and hips directly after the FBI was induced. This effect was strongest for estimates of circumference, and also observed in the asynchronous control condition of the illusion. Moreover, at follow-up, the improvements in body size estimation could still be observed in the AN group. Notably, the HC group (N = 29 also showed changes in body size estimation after the FBI, but the effect showed a different pattern than that of the AN group.The results lead us to conclude that the disturbed experience of body size in AN is flexible and can be changed, even for highly emotional body parts. As such this study offers novel starting points from which new interventions for body image disturbance in AN can be developed.

  11. A Virtual Reality Full Body Illusion Improves Body Image Disturbance in Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keizer, Anouk; van Elburg, Annemarie; Helms, Rossa; Dijkerman, H. Chris

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) have a persistent distorted experience of the size of their body. Previously we found that the Rubber Hand Illusion improves hand size estimation in this group. Here we investigated whether a Full Body Illusion (FBI) affects body size estimation of body parts more emotionally salient than the hand. In the FBI, analogue to the RHI, participants experience ownership over an entire virtual body in VR after synchronous visuo-tactile stimulation of the actual and virtual body. Methods and Results We asked participants to estimate their body size (shoulders, abdomen, hips) before the FBI was induced, directly after induction and at ~2 hour 45 minutes follow-up. The results showed that AN patients (N = 30) decrease the overestimation of their shoulders, abdomen and hips directly after the FBI was induced. This effect was strongest for estimates of circumference, and also observed in the asynchronous control condition of the illusion. Moreover, at follow-up, the improvements in body size estimation could still be observed in the AN group. Notably, the HC group (N = 29) also showed changes in body size estimation after the FBI, but the effect showed a different pattern than that of the AN group. Conclusion The results lead us to conclude that the disturbed experience of body size in AN is flexible and can be changed, even for highly emotional body parts. As such this study offers novel starting points from which new interventions for body image disturbance in AN can be developed. PMID:27711234

  12. Factors associated with body image distortion in Korean adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun MY

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mi-Yeul Hyun,1 Young-Eun Jung,2 Moon-Doo Kim,2 Young-Sook Kwak,2 Sung-Chul Hong,3 Won-Myong Bahk,4 Bo-Hyun Yoon,5 Hye Won Yoon,6 Bora Yoo61College of Nursing, Jeju National University, Jeju, Korea; 2Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Jeju National University, Jeju, Korea; 3Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Jeju National University, Jeju, Korea; 4Department of Psychiatry, Yeouido St Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea; 5Department of Psychiatry, Naju National Hospital, Naju, Korea; 6School of Medicine, Jeju National University, Jeju, KoreaPurpose: Body image incorporates cognitive and affective components as well as behaviors related to own body perception. This study evaluated the occurrence of body image distortion and its correlates in Korean adolescents.Methods: In a school-based cross-sectional survey, a total of 2,117 adolescents were recruited. They filled out self-completing questionnaires on body image distortion, eating attitudes, and behaviors (Eating Attitude Test-26 and related factors.Results: Body image distortions were found in 51.8 percent of adolescents. Univariate analyses showed that boys and older adolescents had higher rates of body image distortion. In the multivariate analyses, body image distortion was associated with high risk for eating disorders (odds ratio [OR] =1.69; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11–2.58; P=0.015 and being over weight (OR =33.27; 95% CI 15.51–71.35; P<0.001 or obese (OR =9.37; 95% CI 5.06–17.34; P<0.001.Conclusion: These results suggest that body image distortion is relatively common in Korean adolescents, which has implications for adolescents at risk of developing eating disorders.Keywords: body image distortion, high risk for eating disorders, Korean adolescent

  13. Negative body image associated with changes in the visual body appearance increases pain perception.

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    Michihiro Osumi

    Full Text Available Changing the visual body appearance by use of as virtual reality system, funny mirror, or binocular glasses has been reported to be helpful in rehabilitation of pain. However, there are interindividual differences in the analgesic effect of changing the visual body image. We hypothesized that a negative body image associated with changing the visual body appearance causes interindividual differences in the analgesic effect although the relationship between the visual body appearance and analgesic effect has not been clarified. We investigated whether a negative body image associated with changes in the visual body appearance increased pain. Twenty-five healthy individuals participated in this study. To evoke a negative body image, we applied the method of rubber hand illusion. We created an "injured rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with pain, a "hairy rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with embarrassment, and a "twisted rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with deviation from the concept of normality. We also created a "normal rubber hand" as a control. The pain threshold was measured while the participant observed the rubber hand using a device that measured pain caused by thermal stimuli. Body ownership experiences were elicited by observation of the injured rubber hand and hairy rubber hand as well as the normal rubber hand. Participants felt more unpleasantness by observing the injured rubber hand and hairy rubber hand than the normal rubber hand and twisted rubber hand (p<0.001. The pain threshold was lower under the injured rubber hand condition than with the other conditions (p<0.001. We conclude that a negative body appearance associated with pain can increase pain sensitivity.

  14. Body Image and Attachment Style Among University Students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bo, Inger Glavind

    2018-01-01

    The main focus of this study is to investigate how body image and attachment style among university students are related. We approach these different student types on a cross sectional dataset including 898 university students from Denmark, Germany, Portugal, Croatia and Czechoslovakia. Based...... on the combination of the Body Esteem Scale (BES) and the Attachment Style Scale (WASQ) we create four types: "double jeopardy students", "well-balanced students", "nurturing solitude students" and "social mirroring students". The "double jeopardy students" are students with low social attachment and a high dislike...... of their body. Based on this combination of body image and social attachment we investigate how these four student types are related to three different dimensions: parental characteristics, northern versus southern countries and different field of study....

  15. [Images and representations of the female body in Brazilian magazines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Márcia Rebeca Rocha; de Oliveira, Jeane Freitas; do Nascimento, Enilda Rosendo; Carvalho, Evanilda Souza de Santana

    2013-06-01

    This documentary, qualitative, descriptive study has the objective to analyze images and representations of the female body and their relation to drug use in the content of articles published in four magazines with national circulation (Veja, Isto E, Boa Forma, Claúdia). The articles selected were submitted to the technique of content analysis, with three thematic groups identified: the body as an incentive to use drugs; risks to the body resulting from drug use; and the search for the perfect body through drug use. The data showed that the media reproduces rigid aesthetic standards, exposing women to social and health offenses that stimulate drug use, either autonomously or by prescription. The search for beauty and the appeal to feminine eroticism, published through the communication channels analyzed limit the social importance of women by using images that link them to the status of sexual object.

  16. Prospective Changes in Body Image Dissatisfaction among Adolescent Bariatric Patients: The Importance of Body Size Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliff, M.B.; Eshleman, K.E.; Reiter-Purtill, J.; Zeller, M.H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Body image dissatisfaction (BID) is pervasive among patients presenting for bariatric surgery but significantly improves post-operatively. These findings are based primarily on studies of adults. Objective The objective of this study was to examine changes in BID among adolescents with extreme obesity from baseline/preoperative to 6 and 12 months following bariatric surgery using body size estimation. Setting Pediatric Medical Center. Methods BID was prospectively assessed among 16 adolescent bariatric patients (Mage=16.3±1.2, MBMI=66.2±12.0, 67% female) using a standard visual/perceptual measure [i.e., Stunkard Figure Rating Scale. Participants identified Current and Ideal body size, with a discrepancy score (Current – Ideal) indicating BID. Body size estimation ratings were compared to attitudinal (i.e., IWQOL-Kids: Body Esteem and Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents: Physical Appearance) body image scores, BMI (kg/m2), and Total weight-related quality of life (WRQOL). Results There was a significant reduction in Current body size (7.9 to 6.4, pbody size was related to BMI and %EWL but not attitudinal body image at each time point. Smaller Discrepancy (Current – Ideal) was associated with higher Total WRQOL (r=−0.68), with a trend towards significance for Body Esteem (r=−0.65) at 12 months. Conclusions Adolescents undergoing bariatric surgery experience significantly decreased BID within the first 12 months post-surgery, with the most substantial change between baseline and 6 months. Post-operative WRQOL is more closely associated to body size discrepancy than current body size. PMID:22154271

  17. Effects of cognitive behavioral counseling on body Image following mastectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simin Fadaei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Surgical treatment of breast cancer may cause body image alterations. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of cognitive behavioral counseling on body image among Iranian women with primary breast cancer. Methods: In this quasi-experimental designed study, 72 patients diagnosed as breast cancer and surgically treated were enrolled in Isfahan, Iran. The patients were entered the study by convenience sampling method and were randomly di-vided in two groups of intervention (n = 32 and control (n = 40. The intervention group received consultation based on Ellis rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT method for 6 sessions during 3 weeks. The control group did not re-ceive any consultation Paired t-test was used to compare the changes in groups and independent t-test was conducted to compare two groups. The average values represented as mean ± standard deviation. Results: Before the study, the body image score was not significantly different between the intervention (16 97 ± 5 44 and control (15 95 ± 4 66 groups (t = 0 86, P = 0 395. The body image score was significantly lower in the interven-tion group (9 03 ± 6 11 compared to control group (17 18 ± 5 27 after the intervention (t = -6 07, P < 0 001. Conclusions: Since a woman′s body image influences her breast cancer treatment decision, oncology professionals need to recognize the value of a woman′s favorite about appearance and body image. This study emphasizes the impor-tance of offering consultation in breast cancer patients.

  18. Body image concerns amongst massive weight loss patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmartin, Jo

    2013-05-01

    To explore body image matters amongst patients following massive weight loss. In contemporary health care, a growing number of morbidly obese patients are seeking surgical solutions such as bariatric surgery or in other cases engaging with radical lifestyle changes. Massive weight loss can leave patients with a huge excess of lax overstretched skin that in some cases can trigger major body image dissatisfaction or depression. There is a scarcity of research about the needs of this group of patients and this is important for nursing practice. A qualitative design using in-depth interviews was employed. Twenty white adults (18 women and two men) were recruited retrospectively amongst patients who had massive weight loss by undergoing bariatric surgery or radical lifestyle changes, aged 29-63 years. All of the participants gave signed informed consent. Face-to-face in-depth interviews were conducted and transcribed verbatim. The data were analysed using thematic analysis. One core theme focusing on body image ugliness and three associated subthemes were identified: the subthemes included feeling socially marginalised, feeling depressed and sexual and intimacy difficulties. Body image matters are hugely significant and appear to have a lasting effect on emotional well-being and function, contributing to psychological distress and social isolation. Greater sensitivity is required in enabling patients to work through emotional isolation and shame that has been a part of their childhood. Furthermore more, treatments need to be accessible to this growing patient population such as reconstructive surgery. Nurses who care for massive weight loss patients need to be mindful of their psychodynamic needs and be non-judgemental and accepting. Moreover, nurses need to be aware of treatment options and be able to assess body image matters and implement quality care for this particular patient group including body image acceptance programmes and support groups. © 2013 Blackwell

  19. Effects of cognitive behavioral counseling on body Image following mastectomy*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadaei, Simin; Janighorban, Mojgan; Mehrabi, Tayebe; Ahmadi, Sayed Ahmadi; Mokaryan, Fariborz; Gukizade, Abbas

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Surgical treatment of breast cancer may cause body image alterations. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of cognitive behavioral counseling on body image among Iranian women with primary breast cancer. METHODS: In this quasi-experimental designed study, 72 patients diagnosed as breast cancer and surgically treated were enrolled in Isfahan, Iran. The patients were entered the study by convenience sampling method and were randomly divided in two groups of intervention (n = 32) and control (n = 40). The intervention group received consultation based on Ellis rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) method for 6 sessions during 3 weeks. The control group did not receive any consultation Paired t-test was used to compare the changes in groups and independent t-test was conducted to compare two groups. The average values represented as mean ± standard deviation. RESULTS: Before the study, the body image score was not significantly different between the intervention (16 97 ± 5 44) and control (15 95 ± 4 66) groups (t = 0 86, P = 0 395). The body image score was significantly lower in the interven-tion group (9 03 ± 6 11) compared to control group (17 18 ± 5 27) after the intervention (t = -6 07, P < 0 001). CONCLUSIONS: Since a woman's body image influences her breast cancer treatment decision, oncology professionals need to recognize the value of a woman's favorite about appearance and body image. This study emphasizes the importance of offering consultation in breast cancer patients. PMID:22279481

  20. Effects of cognitive behavioral counseling on body Image following mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadaei, Simin; Janighorban, Mojgan; Mehrabi, Tayebe; Ahmadi, Sayed Ahmadi; Mokaryan, Fariborz; Gukizade, Abbas

    2011-08-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Surgical treatment of breast cancer may cause body image alterations. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of cognitive behavioral counseling on body image among Iranian women with primary breast cancer. In this quasi-experimental designed study, 72 patients diagnosed as breast cancer and surgically treated were enrolled in Isfahan, Iran. The patients were entered the study by convenience sampling method and were randomly divided in two groups of intervention (n = 32) and control (n = 40). The intervention group received consultation based on Ellis rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) method for 6 sessions during 3 weeks. The control group did not receive any consultation Paired t-test was used to compare the changes in groups and independent t-test was conducted to compare two groups. The average values represented as mean ± standard deviation. Before the study, the body image score was not significantly different between the intervention (16 97 ± 5 44) and control (15 95 ± 4 66) groups (t = 0 86, P = 0 395). The body image score was significantly lower in the interven-tion group (9 03 ± 6 11) compared to control group (17 18 ± 5 27) after the intervention (t = -6 07, P < 0 001). Since a woman's body image influences her breast cancer treatment decision, oncology professionals need to recognize the value of a woman's favorite about appearance and body image. This study emphasizes the importance of offering consultation in breast cancer patients.

  1. Development of a body image scale for Brazilian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catiane Souza

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Body image is an important parameter of body satisfaction and needs to be evaluated with instruments developed and validated for a specific population. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a scale to assess body image in Brazilian women. A scale consisting of 11 silhouettes was prepared. Content validation was performed by seven experts from different health areas. To assess repeatability (two consecutive assessments and reproducibility (reassessment after one week, an intentional sample stratified into four groups according to the characterization of Brazilian women regarding nutritional status was selected. Participants were 125 women aged 18-55 years and body mass index (BMI between 18.5 and 38.6 kg/m2. The Kappa coefficient (k was used to assess repeatability and reproducibility, considering the isolated responses of the current body, ideal body and the difference between them, assumed as satisfactory when k≥0.6. For all trials, α=0.05. During the content validation phase, the instrument developed was changed following the evaluators’ suggestions and it was considered very suitable by six of seven evaluators. The Kappa coefficient was good in isolated issues and in the difference between them in both repeatability and reproducibility. The Body Image Scale was considered a valid content, with good repeatability and reproducibility. Considering the instrument as low cost and of rapid implementation/evaluation, it may be used to evaluate the body image of Brazilian women with BMI between 18.5 and 38.6 kg/m2, in different contexts.

  2. Association between body image dissatisfaction and depressive symptoms in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Flores-Cornejo, Fiorela; Kamego-Tome, Mayumi; Zapata-Pachas, Mariana A.; Alvarado, German F.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the association between body image dissatisfaction (BID) and depressive symptoms in adolescents from a school in Lima, Peru. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed through a census of 875 high-school students, aged 13 to 17 years, from a school in Lima. Participants completed a survey containing the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Data regarding demographics, alcohol and tobacco use, self-esteem, and family histor...

  3. Abnormalities in visual processing amongst students with body image concerns

    OpenAIRE

    Mundy E., Matthew; Sadusky, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) appear to possess abnormalities in the way they observe and discriminate visual information. A pre-occupation with perceived defects in appearance has been attributed to a local visual processing bias. We studied the nature of visual bias in individuals who may be at risk of developing BDD – those with high body image concerns (BICs) – by using inverted stimulus discrimination. Inversion disrupts global, configural information in favor of local,...

  4. Adolescents Eating Behavior, Body Image and Psychological Well-Being

    OpenAIRE

    Peternel, Lana; Sujoldžić, Anita

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on the middle school students in the Croatian region of Dalmatia. The survey was designed to examine adolescent eating behavior as it relates to body image and psychological well-being (self-esteem, life-satisfaction and stress) in relation to body mass index; BMI. Differences among participants in food intake were examined according to demographic variables and eating behavior (regular food intake or dieting) as well. Psychological variables were highly associated with die...

  5. Racial differences in predictors of college women's body image attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, S M

    1994-01-01

    African-American and Euro-American women from three predominantly Euro-American colleges in the southeast U.S. between 17 and 23 years of age completed instruments assessing body image attitudes, social competence, sex-role attitudes, racial identity, and a measure of family and personal characteristics. Analyses revealed race differences on all body image measures with the exception of appearance evaluation which was influenced by family income and race. Specifically, African-American women reported more satisfaction with and positive feelings towards their bodies and less dissatisfaction than Euro-American women. Unlike Euro-Americans, African-American women attached importance to fitness and health. The relationship between personal/physical factors and body image was stronger for African-American than Euro-American women. Additionally, personal/physical characteristics were the best model of appearance evaluation for African-American women, whereas personal/physical and sociodemographic factors best predicted this measure for Euro-American women. The results are discussed in relation to body image norms and standards of the African-American subculture and middle-class, Euro-American mainstream culture.

  6. [Effect of body image in adolescent orthodontic treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minghui, Peng; Jing, Kang; Xiao, Deng

    2017-10-01

    This study was designed to probe the psychological factors adolescent orthodontic patients, the role of body image and self-esteem in the whole process of orthodontic treatment and the impact on the efficacy and satisfaction of orthodontic. Five hundred and twenty-eight patients were selected in this study. The Aesthetic Component of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN-AC) , Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES), Negative Physical Self-General (NPS-G) and other body analysis scale study after orthodontic lasted 18-24 months were used to investigate the role of body image in adolescent orthodontic treatment. Esthetic evaluation of patients teeth after correction had been significantly improved, patient self-evaluation difference IOTN-AC doctor evaluation, Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire-tooth confidence, aesthetic concerns, psychological impact and social function were significantly improved. The improvement of the dental aesthetics component (T2 when doctors evaluate IOTN-AC) was positively correlated with the evaluation of the efficacy, and was significantly negatively correlated with the negative emotions of patients at baseline. Negative body image-dental dissatisfied-cognitive component and the affective component, the overall negative body image and negative emotions can predict patient satisfaction with treatment efficacy. Orthodontic treatment not only improves the self-aesthetic evaluation of adolescent patients, but also has a positive effect on the mental health of adolescent patients.

  7. Marketingový význam body image

    OpenAIRE

    Ježová, Veronika

    2010-01-01

    The thesis addresses issues of body image in a marketing context. The aim of the thesis is to affect elements of the body image of persons shown in the printed local and foreign media, determine the extent to which people look identical and how it differs. Part of the objective is to affect the factors leading consumers to solve their dissatisfaction of how they look like by looking for the help of plastic surgery. The work is divided into theoretical and analytical part, the theoretical part...

  8. A Fear Avoidance Model in Facial Burn Body Image Disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagkalakis, P.; Demiri, E.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The quality of life of burn-injured patients can be impaired physically and psychologically. Burn patients who experience facial disfigurement have psychological, social, and economic difficulties living with their appearance in addition to difficulties associated with their medical treatment. The aim of this review was to investigate, within a cognitive behavioural framework, the effect of facial disfigurement on body image and social integration in burn patients. Body image is a complex concept used to express the mental image of a person's physical self. Newell offered a cognitive-behavioural model which drew on clinical studies of phobic disorders, assuming that many of the psychological difficulties in patients who have suffered a threat to their body image are mediated primarily by fear and avoidance. The model proposes two ends of a continuum for disturbed body image: confrontation leading to social integration, and avoidance leading to social isolation. The literature suggests that many of the confrontational and adaptive processes described in the model are likely to be important in addressing facial disfigurement issues in burn patients. However, the conclusions drawn may be entirely speculative until they are confirmed by sufficient robust research evidence. PMID:21991183

  9. Altering Visual Perception Abnormalities: A Marker for Body Image Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncum, Anna J. F.; Mundy, Matthew E.

    2016-01-01

    The body image concern (BIC) continuum ranges from a healthy and positive body image, to clinical diagnoses of abnormal body image, like body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). BDD and non-clinical, yet high-BIC participants have demonstrated a local visual processing bias, characterised by reduced inversion effects. To examine whether this bias is a potential marker of BDD, the visual processing of individuals across the entire BIC continuum was examined. Dysmorphic Concern Questionnaire (DCQ; quantified BIC) scores were expected to correlate with higher discrimination accuracy and faster reaction times of inverted stimuli, indicating reduced inversion effects (occurring due to increased local visual processing). Additionally, an induced global or local processing bias via Navon stimulus presentation was expected to alter these associations. Seventy-four participants completed the DCQ and upright-inverted face and body stimulus discrimination task. Moderate positive associations were revealed between DCQ scores and accuracy rates for inverted face and body stimuli, indicating a graded local bias accompanying increases in BIC. This relationship supports a local processing bias as a marker for BDD, which has significant assessment implications. Furthermore, a moderate negative relationship was found between DCQ score and inverted face accuracy after inducing global processing, indicating the processing bias can temporarily be reversed in high BIC individuals. Navon stimuli were successfully able to alter the visual processing of individuals across the BIC continuum, which has important implications for treating BDD. PMID:27003715

  10. Altering Visual Perception Abnormalities: A Marker for Body Image Concern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca L Beilharz

    Full Text Available The body image concern (BIC continuum ranges from a healthy and positive body image, to clinical diagnoses of abnormal body image, like body dysmorphic disorder (BDD. BDD and non-clinical, yet high-BIC participants have demonstrated a local visual processing bias, characterised by reduced inversion effects. To examine whether this bias is a potential marker of BDD, the visual processing of individuals across the entire BIC continuum was examined. Dysmorphic Concern Questionnaire (DCQ; quantified BIC scores were expected to correlate with higher discrimination accuracy and faster reaction times of inverted stimuli, indicating reduced inversion effects (occurring due to increased local visual processing. Additionally, an induced global or local processing bias via Navon stimulus presentation was expected to alter these associations. Seventy-four participants completed the DCQ and upright-inverted face and body stimulus discrimination task. Moderate positive associations were revealed between DCQ scores and accuracy rates for inverted face and body stimuli, indicating a graded local bias accompanying increases in BIC. This relationship supports a local processing bias as a marker for BDD, which has significant assessment implications. Furthermore, a moderate negative relationship was found between DCQ score and inverted face accuracy after inducing global processing, indicating the processing bias can temporarily be reversed in high BIC individuals. Navon stimuli were successfully able to alter the visual processing of individuals across the BIC continuum, which has important implications for treating BDD.

  11. Selective distortion of body image by asynchronous visuotactile stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Marcos, Daniel; Martini, Matteo; Fuentes, Christina T; Bellido Rivas, Anna I; Haggard, Patrick; Sanchez-Vives, Maria V

    2018-03-01

    In the rubber hand illusion (RHI), a rubber hand is felt as being part of one's body. This illusion is evoked by providing synchronous visuotactile stimulation to the fake and real hands. Asynchronous visuotactile stimulation is known not to produce such an illusion of ownership, being commonly used as the control condition. Here we explored the impact of synchronous and asynchronous visuotactile stimulation on the body image. We combined the induction of the RHI with a quantitative test for the internal representation of body metrics (i.e., the positions of key fiducial points on the body relative to each other). We found a significant recalibration of the upper/lower arm lengths following asynchronous visuotactile stimulation. In particular, we observed a selective elongation of the lower arm, a distortion typical of deafferentation. Conversely, synchronous visuotactile stimulation did not alter the estimation of the arm segments' length. Our findings are consistent with a dynamic internal representation of body image that is continuously updated based on incoming multisensory information. Furthermore, the use of asynchronous multisensory stimulation as a neutral condition should be reconsidered since it introduces changes in the body image. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The body image in ancient tragedy: a verbal visuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisana De Carli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, two tragedies of Sophocles and two others from Seneca are analyzed in order to identify the visuality given to the body through the word, image built for the character’s body, their levels of meaning and reverberation in text and scene. This information can be characterized as internal rubric because such data supports the scene’s construction. Thus, structure and content engender enhancing body's significance on scene either by its presence or a verbal visual, figuring a semantic occupation, which configures as one of the marks of the ancient theater.

  13. Abnormalities in visual processing amongst students with body image concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy E, Matthew; Sadusky, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) appear to possess abnormalities in the way they observe and discriminate visual information. A pre-occupation with perceived defects in appearance has been attributed to a local visual processing bias. We studied the nature of visual bias in individuals who may be at risk of developing BDD - those with high body image concerns (BICs) - by using inverted stimulus discrimination. Inversion disrupts global, configural information in favor of local, feature-based processing. 40 individuals with high BIC and 40 low BIC controls performed a discrimination task with upright and inverted faces, bodies, and scenes. Individuals with high BIC discriminated inverted faces and bodies faster than controls, and were also more accurate when discriminating inverted bodies and scenes. This reduction in inversion effect for high BIC individuals may be due to a stimulus-general local, detail-focused processing bias, which may be associated with maladaptive fixation on small features in their appearance.

  14. Dieting practices and body image perception among Lebanese university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahia, Najat; El-Ghazale, Hiba; Achkar, Alice; Rizk, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Dieting is becoming a popular phenomenon among university students to achieve or maintain a healthy weight. The purpose of this study is to obtain a preliminary understanding of what dieting practices university students use in order to achieve their desirable body weight and to determine the magnitude of body dissatisfaction in relation to weight status among a sample of students (n=252) from the Lebanese American University in Beirut, Lebanon. Students filled out a self-reported questionnaire that included questions on their dieting and physical activity practices in addition to the body shape questionnaire (BSQ). Weight and height were measured to calculate body mass index. Percentage body fat was measured using Tanita scale body fat analyzer 300A. The outcome of this study showed that smoking and unhealthy dieting practices were not common among students (only 26% reported smoking, 8% reported taking laxatives and 4% taking diet pills). Half of the students reported practicing regular physical activity. Multivitamin intake was also not popular among students. BSQ scores indicate that the majority of students were not worried about their body image perception (64% reported not being worried, 19% were slightly worried, 12% were moderately worried and 5% were extremely worried). A gender difference was observed in the BSQ scores, as 89% of the "extremely worried" students were females. Collectively, results indicate that unhealthy dieting practices are uncommon among students. However, developing health promotion awareness' programs to promote good self image within the concept of a realistic healthy weight will be beneficial, especially among females.

  15. Body Image in Anorexia Nervosa: Body Size Estimation Utilising a Biological Motion Task and Eyetracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipou, Andrea; Rossell, Susan Lee; Gurvich, Caroline; Castle, David Jonathan; Troje, Nikolaus Friedrich; Abel, Larry Allen

    2016-03-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric condition characterised by a distortion of body image. However, whether individuals with AN can accurately perceive the size of other individuals' bodies is unclear. In the current study, 24 women with AN and 24 healthy control participants undertook two biological motion tasks while eyetracking was performed: to identify the gender and to indicate the walkers' body size. Anorexia nervosa participants tended to 'hyperscan' stimuli but did not demonstrate differences in how visual attention was directed to different body areas, relative to controls. Groups also did not differ in their estimation of body size. The hyperscanning behaviours suggest increased anxiety to disorder-relevant stimuli in AN. The lack of group difference in the estimation of body size suggests that the AN group was able to judge the body size of others accurately. The findings are discussed in terms of body image distortion specific to oneself in AN. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  16. Medical imaging feasibility in body fluids using Markov chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavehrad, M.; Armstrong, A. D.

    2017-02-01

    A relatively wide field-of-view and high resolution imaging is necessary for navigating the scope within the body, inspecting tissue, diagnosing disease, and guiding surgical interventions. As the large number of modes available in the multimode fibers (MMF) provides higher resolution, MMFs could replace the millimeters-thick bundles of fibers and lenses currently used in endoscopes. However, attributes of body fluids and obscurants such as blood, impose perennial limitations on resolution and reliability of optical imaging inside human body. To design and evaluate optimum imaging techniques that operate under realistic body fluids conditions, a good understanding of the channel (medium) behavior is necessary. In most prior works, Monte-Carlo Ray Tracing (MCRT) algorithm has been used to analyze the channel behavior. This task is quite numerically intensive. The focus of this paper is on investigating the possibility of simplifying this task by a direct extraction of state transition matrices associated with standard Markov modeling from the MCRT computer simulations programs. We show that by tracing a photon's trajectory in the body fluids via a Markov chain model, the angular distribution can be calculated by simple matrix multiplications. We also demonstrate that the new approach produces result that are close to those obtained by MCRT and other known methods. Furthermore, considering the fact that angular, spatial, and temporal distributions of energy are inter-related, mixing time of Monte- Carlo Markov Chain (MCMC) for different types of liquid concentrations is calculated based on Eigen-analysis of the state transition matrix and possibility of imaging in scattering media are investigated. To this end, we have started to characterize the body fluids that reduce the resolution of imaging [1].

  17. Senses of body image in adolescents in elementary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lídia de Abreu Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE : To comprehend the perception of body image in adolescence. METHODS : A qualitative study was conducted with eight focus groups with 96 students of both sexes attending four public elementary school institutions in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil, in 2013. An interview guide with questions about the adolescents’ feelings in relation to: their bodies, standards of idealized beauty, practice of physical exercise and sociocultural influences on self-image. In the data analysis we sought to understand and interpret the meanings and contradictions of narratives, understanding the subjects’ context and reasons and the internal logic of the group. RESULTS : Three thematic categories were identified. The influence of media on body image showed the difficulty of achieving the perfect body and is viewed with suspicion in face of standards of beauty broadcast; the importance of a healthy body was observed as standards of beauty and good looks were closely linked to good physical condition and result from having a healthy body; the relationship between the standard of beauty and prejudice, as people who are not considered attractive, having small physical imperfections, are discriminated against and can be rejected or even excluded from society. CONCLUSIONS : The standard of perfect body propagated by media influences adolescents’ self-image and, consequently, self-esteem and is considered an unattainable goal, corresponding to a standard of beauty described as artificial and unreal. However, it causes great suffering and discrimination against those who do not feel they are attractive, which can lead to health problems resulting from low self-esteem.

  18. Predictors of Change in Body Image in Female Participants of an Outdoor Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovey, Kate; Foland, Jody; Foley, John T.; Kniffin, Mike; Bailey, JoEllen

    2016-01-01

    Body image is an ever-changing phenomenon that has a profound effect on women's quality of life. Research related to body image is expansive, but few researchers have focused on how outdoor education may influence body image. This study examines predictors of change in body image of female participants of an outdoor education program. Twenty-eight…

  19. Encouraging Lifelong Healthy Habits for a Positive Body Image in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Christine

    This article discusses issues related to body image in adolescents, explaining what school practitioners can do to encourage lifelong healthy habits that enhance body image. Body image is the picture of physical self carried in the mind's eye. This impression can have little resemblance to how a teen actually looks. Body image culturalization is…

  20. Should women be "All About That Bass?": Diverse body-ideal messages and women's body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, Diana E; Ramsey, Laura R

    2017-09-01

    While most body image research emphasizes the thin ideal, a wider variety of body-ideal messages pervade U.S. popular culture today, including those promoting athleticism or curves. Two studies assessed women's reactions to messages conveying thin, athletic, and curvy ideals, compared to a control message that emphasized accepting all body types. Study 1 (N=192) surveyed women's responses to these messages and found they perceived body-acceptance and athletic messages most favorably, curvy messages more negatively, and thin messages most negatively. Further, greatest liking within each message category came from women who identified with that body type. Study 2 (N=189) experimentally manipulated exposure to these messages, then measured self-objectification and body satisfaction. Messages promoting a body-ideal caused more self-objectification than body-acceptance messages. Also, athletic messages caused more body dissatisfaction than thin messages. Together, these findings reveal the complexity of women's responses to diverse messages they receive about ideal bodies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Book Review Overcoming Body Image Disturbance: A Programme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book Review Overcoming Body Image Disturbance: A Programme for People with Eating Disorders By Lorraine Bell and Jenny Rushforth (2008). Carla Dukas. Abstract. Routledge, London Paperback, ISBN 978-0-415-42330-4, ZAR 393 160 pages40. Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health 2008, 20(2): 133–134.

  2. [Reasons and prevalence of body image dissatisfaction in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroski, Edio Luiz; Pelegrini, Andreia; Glaner, Maria Fátima

    2012-04-01

    To investigate the prevalence of body image (BI) dissatisfaction in adolescents. The study enrolled 641 adolescents aged 11 to 17 from the town of Saudades, Santa Catarina, Brazil. The prevalence of BI dissatisfaction was 60.4% (males = 54.5%, females = 65.7%; p vigorexia).

  3. Body Image and First Sexual Intercourse in Late Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilenko, Sara A.; Rama, Nilam; Lefkowitz, Eva S.

    2011-01-01

    Sexual behavior is associated with body image, but the directionality of this association is unclear. This study used longitudinal data from a sample of previously abstinent college students (N = 100, 45% female, 49% European American, 26% Latino American, 25% African American) to test whether satisfaction with appearance changed after first…

  4. Perception of body image and sexuality for women with mastectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H D; Gregersen, A M; Thorup, Charlotte Brun

    Background Having cancer and having one breast removed can affect all aspects of a woman's life. The literature shows that many women experience an altered body image and sexuality, loss of femininity, a feeling of less sexual attractiveness and decline in self-esteem. Furthermore mastectomy can...

  5. The Body Image Of Physically Active And Inactive Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guszkowska Monika

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of the study was to compare the image of the body, the level of its acceptance and satisfaction with it, as well as anxiety about one’s physical appearance and overall self-esteem in a group of adult women who did fitness exercise and those who were physically inactive.

  6. The Vulnerability of Female Body Image to Weight Related Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, DeAnna L.; Morey, Leslie

    A central component of anorexia nervosa is a body image disturbance (BID). BID, as it is experienced in anorexia nervosa, is defined as an inability to recognize how thin one really is and is exhibited by a sense of feeling overweight in spite of severe emaciation. Several researchers have recognized a relationship between depressive personality…

  7. Self-Esteem and Body-Image Concept in Paraplegics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Marian; Gruver, Gene Gary

    1978-01-01

    Paraplegics, hospitalized tuberculosis patients, and nonhospitalized normal people were compared to ascertain the relationship between body image and self-concept. There were no significant differences between paraplegics and nonhospitalized normal people. Between the hospitalized tuberculosis patients and the other two groups, however, the…

  8. Promoting Healthy Body Image through the Comprehensive School Health Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, M. Elizabeth

    1991-01-01

    Examines research indicating that children are affected by U.S. society's preoccupation with thinness, discusses self-esteem and healthy body image, and offers suggestions for incorporating strategies into existing comprehensive school health programs to deter disordered eating and inappropriate dieting habits among children. (SM)

  9. Body image hos mastektomiopererede kvinder, med og uden rekonstruktion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Charlotte Brun; Gregersen, Anette Møller; Damgaard, Helle

    2012-01-01

    Baggrund: I Danmark er incidensen for brystkræft ca. 5.000 årligt. Kvinder, der er mastektomiopereret, risikerer ubalance i body image. De kan føle sig amputeret, lemlæstede, mindre kvindelige og mindre seksuelt attraktive. De kan frygte at se sig selv i spejlet. De kan opleve, at kroppen ikke er...... hel. Mange undersøgelser er kvantitative og kun få har undersøgt kvindernes oplevelse af body image kvalitativt. Formål: At opnå indsigt i danske mastektomiopererede kvinders oplevelse af body image, med fokus på den akutte fase samt år efter operationen, hvor beslutningen om valg eller fravalg af...... rekonstruktion var taget. Metode: Undersøgelsen var fænomenologisk hermeneutisk, idet hensigten var at opnå indsigt i kvinders oplevelser af body image relateret til mastektomi. Fund: Undersøgelsen resulterede i tre temaer, der følger Bob Price begreber. Kropsrealiteten viste sig som ”en krop, der ikke var hel...

  10. Correlates of Bio-Psychosocial Factors on Perceived Body Image ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Correlates of Bio-Psychosocial Factors on Perceived Body Image amongst Adolescents: Implications for Preventive Health Education. ... The questionnaire contained measures of demographics, self-esteem, self-efficacy, food habit index, exercise, weight. Data was analyzed using correlation analysis. The results indicated ...

  11. Anthropometric Indices, Perceived Body Image and Risk of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A socio-demographic Questionnaire was administered on the subjects and question-items to elicit their perception of self body image. Appropriate anhtropometic measurements were carried out on them and they were also screened for possible presence of psychopathologies/psychological distress using General Health ...

  12. Body Image Assessment Among Community Mental Health Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramseyer Winter, Virginia; Brett, Anna; Pevehouse-Pfeiffer, Danielle; O'Neill, Elizabeth A; Ellis-Ordway, Nancy

    2017-11-14

    Although research suggests an association between body image and mental health, with poor body image related to several mental illnesses, there is no research exploring mental health clinicians' body image screening practices. This study aims to fill this gap among a sample of community mental health providers (N = 216). Using a cross-sectional design, clinicians in Community Health Centers were recruited through email using purposeful and snowball sampling in a Midwest state. The majority of participants identified as women (88.4%) and White (88.4%). Additionally, the mean age of the sample was 36.66 years and participants reported working an average of 8.44 years as a mental health provider. We ran descriptive and Chi square analyses. Results suggest a relationship between viewing body image screening as important and level of preparedness as well as level of preparedness and actual assessment. Training and assessment tools may be warranted to increase clinician's preparedness. Additional clinical and policy recommendations are discussed.

  13. Sociocultural Influences on Body Image Concerns of Young Chinese Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Todd; Chen, Hong

    2008-01-01

    This research assessed the extent to which sociocultural factors implicated in explanations of weight dissatisfaction among young Western females extend to sources of body image concern in emerging adult and adolescent males from the People's Republic of China. In Study 1, 219 Mainland Chinese male university students completed measures of stature…

  14. Body Image Disorder in Adolescent Males: Strategies for School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Eric J.; Frame, Marsha Wiggins

    2004-01-01

    In recent decades, men have been bombarded with images in society that depict the "ideal" male: strong, muscular, lean, with perfect features. What many adolescents do not realize is that most of the male bodies that they idealize can be acquired only with the use of anabolic steroids. Thus, many adolescent boys find themselves pursuing a body…

  15. Sport practice, physical structure, and body image among university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toselli, Stefania; Spiga, Federico

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate body image perception in undergraduate students, and to investigate its associations with weight status, abdominal obesity, muscularity, gender and sport. The sample consisted of 231 Italian students (174 males and 57 females); anthropometric measurements, taken by trained technicians, were: height, weight, arm-circumference, waist and hip circumferences. BMI, WHR and Δ arm-circumference were calculated. Body image was assessed using body silhouette charts. Information about sport (currently practiced sport, starting age, and weekly hours of sport) was acquired with questionnaires. Females perceived themselves as slightly overweight, while males identified themselves as normal weight. Females had a tendency to desire to be thinner in all weight status categories; in males, normal weight subjects had a tendency to desire to be larger, while overweight wished to be thinner. Sport practice was significantly higher in males. Individuals who were overweight and did less sport were significantly more likely to have higher body dissatisfaction. The present study highlights a positive relationship between sport practice, corpulence and body image perception.

  16. [Cognitive mechanisms and self-acceptance of body image].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuel, Adriana; Bracho, Angie; Brito, Nereida; Rondón, José Eduardo; Sulbarán, Dimas

    2012-01-01

    This research proposed to investigate the effect of an intervention program to strengthen self-acceptance (positive), and a cognitive intervention program on body image. Specifically, it is based on the idea of prevention of risk factors for eating disorders from the perspective of normalcy in the prevention of body dissatisfaction. We used a 2×2 factorial design with 120 participants of both sexes, aged between 10 and 12 years, selected by stratification. To evaluate the hypothesis, we used two-way analysis of variance. The results concluded that only the cognitive intervention program affected the dependent variable body image, maintaining its statistical significance, which is revealed both in the general two-way ANOVA and when controlling the effect of the covariates, age and sex.

  17. Body image and dieting behavior in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truby, H; Paxton, A S

    2001-06-01

    To examine the relationship between pulmonary function, nutritional status, body image, and eating attitudes in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) compared with healthy controls. Seventy-six children with CF (39 girls) and 153 healthy control children (82 girls) were recruited. All children were between 7 and 12 years of age. After being weighed and measured, participants undertook a structured 1-to-1 interview. Four measures were used to assess body image: body size (perception and satisfaction) were ascertained using the Children's Body Image Scale (CBIS), which uses photographs of children of various body mass index (BMI) representative of the range of BMI percentiles for children 7 to 12 years of age. Body size satisfaction was measured by the response to the questions, "Do you think your body is 1) much too thin, 2) too thin, 3) just right, 4) too fat, and 5) much too fat?" Body weight satisfaction was measured by the question, "Would you like your body to be 1) much thinner, 2) a little bit thinner, 3) stay the same, 4) a little bit fatter, and 5) much fatter?" Global self-esteem was measured using the children's version of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Body Esteem Scale using a 24-item scale. Dieting behavior was measured by asking directly about previous weight control behaviors, use of the Dutch Eating Behavior-Restraint Scale (DEBQ-R), and, in children who acknowledged previous dieting behavior, the Children's Eating Attitude Test (ChEAT) was additionally administered. Results. Both girls and boys with CF had significantly reduced BMI percentiles compared with control children. Boys with CF did not have a significantly different BMI compared with girls with CF. There were significant positive correlations between forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) (% of predicted) and BMI percentile in girls (r =.35) and boys (r =.50) with CF. Body image perceptions in boys and girls with CF were examined in relation to the healthy control group using 2

  18. The phenomenology of body image in men living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jamie Stephen; Langdon, Dawn; Serpell, Lucy

    2009-12-01

    Research into how people living with HIV or AIDS (PLWHA) experience and make sense of feared or actual body changes, such as lipodystrophy, is limited. The present study conducted in-depth interviews with gay men living with HIV. Interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) yielded themes across five domains. The ambiguity of early-stage lipodystrophy was a cause of distress. There was a drive to detect changes early, leading to anxiety, uncertainty and negative feelings about the body as well as possible misperception of change. In later stages, lipodystrophy was felt to be highly distinctive. Participants struggled to live with a shape that transgressed a body ideal. Feelings of loss of control were evident in both the increased ineffectiveness of strategies to maintain a desirable appearance and in the tendency for such changes to act as a visible marker of status. Conflicting feelings emerged in ideas of thinness and of health, with loss of fat seen as desirable in certain contexts. The study builds on previous research suggesting that the high value of appearance, particularly within gay communities, may lead to extreme compensatory behaviours. HIV places increased risk on a group highly vulnerable to body dissatisfaction and eating disorders. The study concludes with a cognitive-behavioural model of body image for PLWHA and suggestions for intervention. Further research is needed to validate the model and investigate whether the findings are generalisable. However, body image concerns should be acknowledged when addressing HIV-related health.

  19. Control of satellite imaging formations in multi-body regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Kathleen C.; Millard, Lindsay D.

    2009-03-01

    Libration point orbits may be ideal locations for satellite imaging formations. Therefore, control of these arrays in multi-body regimes is critical. A continuous feedback control algorithm is developed that maintains a formation of satellites in motion that is bounded relative to a halo orbit. This algorithm is derived based on the dynamic characteristics of the phase space near periodic orbits in the circular restricted three-body problem (CR3BP). By adjusting parameters of the control algorithm appropriately, satellites in the formation follow trajectories that are particularly advantageous to imaging arrays. Image reconstruction and coverage of the ( u, v) plane are simulated for interferometric satellite configurations, demonstrating potential applications of the algorithm and the resulting motion.

  20. The phenomenology of body image distortions induced by regional anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paqueron, X; Leguen, M; Rosenthal, D; Coriat, P; Willer, J C; Danziger, N

    2003-03-01

    Patients with peripheral nerve or spinal cord lesions frequently report perceptual distortions related to position, shape, texture or temperature of the affected areas. This study aimed to describe the phenomenology of such body image alterations during the course of upper limb, lower limb or spinal anaesthetic blocks in patients (n = 36) undergoing orthopaedic surgery. Multimodal sensory testing and assessment of motor function were performed at regular intervals, and the relationship between the reported body image distortions and the progression of sensory and motor impairment was analysed. We found that perceptual changes concerning the shape and size of the deafferented limb occurred in the great majority of patients. In all of them, illusions of swelling, elongation or shortening of the limb coincided with the impairment of warm, cold and/or pinprick sensations, suggesting that thin myelinated Adelta- and/or unmyelinated C-fibres may provide a source of tonic modulation to the limb's cortical representation. Such perceptual alterations of shape and size of body parts differed clearly from postural illusions in terms of frequency, time course and influence of vision. In addition to perceptual changes in the deafferented area, almost half of the patients felt their unanaesthetized lips and/or mouth swelling during the course of upper limb block, suggesting the unmasking of dynamic interactions between somatotopically adjacent cortical representations. Conflicting sensations could co-exist in the patient's body image, such as the illusion of swelling of a limb, which, at the same time, was felt to be missing. The sense of ownership of the deafferented limb was impaired in some cases. These observations show that the perception of body shape and the awareness of its postural variations are built from different plastic models. They also underline the contribution of peripheral afferent activity to the maintenance of a unified body image.

  1. Body after baby: a pilot survey of genital body image and sexual esteem following vaginal birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Ruth; Kane Low, Lisa; Smith, Abigail R; Miller, Janis M

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine acceptability of the Vaginal Changes Sexual and Body Esteem (VSBE) scale for women post childbirth and explore the association between childbirth events and sexual/body esteem. This is a cross-sectional study within the Evaluating Maternal Recovery from Labor and Delivery study. This study was conducted in a community setting. The study was conducted in women post first vaginal birth with birth events that posed risk factors for levator ani muscle tears. Survey, magnetic resonance images of levator ani, and physical examination were the data collected 8 months postpartum. Birth variables were collected by hospital chart review. Descriptive analysis of VSBE response rates and distribution of responses was conducted. An exploratory analysis of the potential association of demographic, birth, clinical, and magnetic resonance image characteristics with VSBE scores was conducted. The outcome measure used in this study is VSBE scale. The majority of participants (97%) completed the scale, with responses to most questions skewed toward positive sexual/body esteem, with the exception of sexual enjoyment, where 38% indicated some interference due to genital changes. The scale showed high internal consistency (alpha =0.93). In the exploratory analysis of potential characteristics associated with VSBE, women with episiotomies had lower sexual/body esteem compared to those who did not (median VSBE scores 35 vs 42.5, P =0.01). Anal sphincter tear was not associated with sexual/body esteem ( P =0.78). Additional study is indicated to further explore observed trends toward the association of severe levator ani tear, maternal age at childbirth, and forceps with VSBE scores. The VSBE is suitable for use to assess sexual/body esteem in women post childbirth. Most women in this sample did not indicate negative genital body image/sexual esteem. However, some indicated that the changes post birth negatively affected their sexual/body esteem

  2. Food choice criteria in adolescents according to body image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousana K. Papadopoulou

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent obesity has increased worldwide, while the percentage of adolescents who are dissatisfied with their body image has also increased. Disturbed body image is an important criterion for eating disturbances. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of body image on the food choice criteria of adolescents. The participants consisted of 1003 students (495 boys and 508 girls from High and Junior High schools in Thessaloniki, with mean age of 14.6±1.5 years. The sample for our study was chosen with stratified sampling plan. Data was collected with the use of a questionnaire regarding the food choice criteria, based on the studies of Lappalainen et al. (1998, Steptoe et al. (1995, Contento et al. (1995 and Worsley and Leitch (1981. Body image was assessed using Contento et al. (1995 questionnaire. The difference between desired and real body weight was used to estimate the desire of body weight change. The SPSS computer program was used for the statistical analysis. Chi square (X2 test was used to assess the differences between subgroups. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results showed that 35.9% of the adolescents (45% females and 26.6% males wanted to lose weight, while 14% (6.3% females and 22% males wished to gain weight. The remaining 50.1% (48.7% females and 51.4% males wanted to maintain their body weight. Food appearance constituted a more important criterion for the adolescents who wished to gain weight compared to those who wished to maintain their weight and the adolescents who wanted to lose weight. Dietary value was more important for the individuals who wanted to lose weight, than those who wished to maintain their weight and those who wished to gain weight. Overall, the majority of the girls was dissatisfied with their body image and wanted to lose weight. More boys wished to gain weight compared to girls. Adolescents who wished to lose weight seemed more concerned about food dietary value than

  3. The Encultured Body: Policy Implications for Healthy Body Image and Disordered Eating Behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskill, Deanne, Ed.; Sanders, Fran, Ed.

    The purpose of this publication is to provide discussion of some of the most difficult and controversial issues surrounding body image and eating disorders, specifically, anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. It includes contributions from a number of nationally and internationally recognized clinicians and researchers in the field. It also…

  4. Living into the imagined body: how the diagnostic image confronts the lived body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Devan

    2013-06-01

    In this paper I will show how the medical image, presented to the patient by the physician, participates in medicine's cold culture of abstraction, objectification and mandated normativity. I begin by giving a brief account of the use of anatomical imaging since the Renaissance to show how images have historically functioned in contrast to how they are currently used in medical practice. Next, I examine how contemporary medical imaging techniques participate in a kind of knowledge production that objectifies the human body. Finally, I elucidate how physicians ought to place the medical image within the context of the lived body so as to create a healing relationship with the patient. In all this I hope to show that the medical image, far from a piece of objective data, testifies to the interplay of particular beliefs, practices and doctrines contemporary medicine holds dear. To best treat her patient, the physician must appreciate the influence of these images and appropriately place them within the context of the patient's lived experience.

  5. Body image and genital self-image in pre-menopausal women with dyspareunia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazmany, Els; Bergeron, Sophie; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Verhaeghe, Johan; Enzlin, Paul

    2013-08-01

    With a prevalence of 15-21%, dyspareunia is one of the most commonly reported sexual dysfunctions in pre-menopausal women under the age of 40. Studies to date have focused primarily on clinical samples, showing that women with dyspareunia report overall sexual impairment, anxiety, and feelings of sexual inadequacy. However, little is known about their body image and genital self-image and few studies have sampled women exclusively from the general population. The aim of the present, controlled study was to investigate body image and genital self-image in a community sample of pre-menopausal women with self-reported dyspareunia. In total, 330 women completed an online survey, of which 192 (58%) had dyspareunia and 138 (42%) were pain-free control women. In comparison to pain-free control women, women with dyspareunia reported significantly more distress about their body image and a more negative genital self-image. Moreover, findings from a logistic regression, in which trait anxiety was controlled for, showed that a more negative genital self-image was strongly and independently associated with an increased likelihood of reporting dyspareunia. These results suggest that, in women with dyspareunia, body image and genital self-image are significantly poorer and would benefit from more attention from both clinicians and researchers.

  6. Role of Perfectionism and Body Image in the Prediction of Body Dysmorphic Disorder Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Arji

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background The prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD has been reported to increase in recent decades. Therefore, scientific studies should be performed to specify psychological variables, which may contribute to the etiology of this disorder. In this study, we examined the role of body image and perfectionism in predicting BDD symptoms among students. Objective The aim of this survey was to investigate the role of body image and perfectionism in the prediction of BDD symptoms. Methods This cross sectional study was performed in 2016 on a sample, including 351 students of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, who were selected based on the Morgan formula and multistage cluster random sampling. The participants completed the Yale-Brown obsessive compulsive scale modified for BDD (BDD-YBOCS, multidimensional body-self relations questionnaire (MBSRQ, and Besharat’s Tehran multidimensional perfectionism scale (TMPS. The collected data were analyzed by Pearson’s correlation test and stepwise regression analysis. Results and Conclusions The results of stepwise regression analysis showed that perfectionism and body image could significantly predict BDD symptoms (P < 0.001. Therefore, these variables can be important in the promotion of students’ health.

  7. Idealized media images and adolescent body image: "comparing" boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Duane A; Tiggemann, Marika

    2004-12-01

    Sociocultural theories of body image suggest that body dissatisfaction results from unrealistic societal beauty ideals, and one way of transmitting these ideals is through the mass media. The present research aimed to examine the effect of exposure to images of idealized beauty in the media on adolescent girls' and boys' body image. The participants (595 adolescents) viewed television commercials containing either images of the thin ideal for women, images of the muscular ideal for men, or non-appearance television commercials. Body dissatisfaction was measured before and after commercial viewing. It was found that exposure to idealized commercials led to increased body dissatisfaction for girls but not for boys. Idealized commercials led to increased negative mood and appearance comparison for girls and boys, although the effect on appearance comparison was stronger for girls. Further, participants high on appearance investment reported greater appearance comparison after viewing idealized commercials than those less strongly invested in their appearance. The results suggest the immediate impact of the media on body image is both stronger and more normative for girls than for boys, but that some boys may also be affected.

  8. Body image and personality: associations between the Big Five Personality Factors, actual-ideal weight discrepancy, and body appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Tran, Ulrich S; Brooks, Louise Hoffmann; Kanaan, Laura; Luesse, Ellen-Marlene; Nader, Ingo W; Pietschnig, Jakob; Stieger, Stefan; Voracek, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Studies have suggested associations between personality dimensions and body image constructs, but these have not been conclusively established. In two studies, we examined direct associations between the Big Five dimensions and two body image constructs, actual-ideal weight discrepancy and body appreciation. In Study 1, 950 women completed measures of both body image constructs and a brief measure of the Big Five dimensions. In Study 2,339 women completed measures of the body image constructs and a more reliable measure of the Big Five. Both studies showed that Neuroticism was significantly associated with actual-ideal weight discrepancy (positively) and body appreciation (negatively) once the effects of body mass index and social status had been accounted for. These results are consistent with the suggestion that Neuroticism is a trait of public health significance requiring attention by body image scholars. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2012 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  9. Body image in gay and straight men: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, John F; Arcelus, Jon

    2009-11-01

    Recent research has emphasized vulnerability to eating disorders in gay men, with calls for research on causality, cultural factors and focus on a younger age cohort. This study aimed to examine body image and related eating behaviours in younger gay and straight men. Qualitative study using a sample of gay and straight male university students, applying audiotaped and transcribed depth interview subjected to interpretative phenomenological analysis. Fifteen young men (18-24) with a spectrum of sexual orientation (gay, straight and bisexual) agreed to participate. Five dominant categories emerged: body image ideal, external influences, perception of body image, dieting, mechanisms for modification (diet, exercise, cosmetics) and sexual orientation. Health and aesthetic ideals appear less divorced for young men than women, offering some degree of protection from eating disorders. Nonetheless there is widespread body dissatisfaction. Media and social influences are powerful, particularly for single gay men, but the study suggests fewer differences than similarities between gay and straight men. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  10. Exploring adolescent views of body image: the influence of media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurr, Shelley; Berry, Lois; Walker, Keith

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present findings from two parallel qualitative studies that used focus groups to explore adolescent views of psychological wellness and healthy bodies. Nine focus groups were held with 46 adolescents aged 16-19 years from two Mid-Western Canadian high schools. Both studies were designed with an interpretive humanist perspective and then a 6-step thematic approach was used to analyze the data. Common themes emerging in the focus group discussions in both studies included the negative impact of media on adolescent body image and pressure to conform to the Western views of physical appearance. These findings illustrate the need for nurses to understand the influence of the media on adolescents' views of their body image and to incorporate protocols for assessment, education, and counseling of adolescents on the healthy usage of media into their pediatric clinical practice. Through consistent participation in the development and implementation of health policies, nurses play a critical role in supporting adolescents to develop healthy views of body image.

  11. Evaluation of cutaneous body image dissatisfaction in the dermatology patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Madhulika A; Gupta, Aditya K

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous body image (CBI), defined as the individual's mental representation of his or her skin, hair, and nails, is an important clinical factor in dermatologic disorders and often the primary consideration in deciding whether to proceed with cosmetic procedures or institute treatment in some skin disorders such as acne. CBI is a highly subjective construct that can be significantly confounded by cultural, psychosocial, and psychiatric factors. Assessment of CBI in the dermatology patient is best accomplished using a biopsychosocial model that involves (1) evaluation of concerns about the appearance of the skin, hair, and nails, (2) assessment of comorbid body image pathologies, especially body dysmorphic disorder, and (3) assessment of other psychiatric comorbidities such as major depressive disorder that can confound the presentation of the CBI complaint. Depending on the psychiatric comobidities, an assessment of suicide risk may have to be done, and if necessary, a referral made to a mental health professional. The clinician should consider the patient's developmental stage (eg, body image concerns are likely to be much greater in the adolescent patient independent of his or her dermatologic disorder) and sociocultural background (eg, a desire for lighter skin in some ethnic groups), factors that can also have a major effect on CBI. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Body image, body dissatisfaction and weight status in south asian children: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duda Joan L

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is a continuing problem in the UK and South Asian children represent a group that are particularly vulnerable to its health consequences. The relationship between body dissatisfaction and obesity is well documented in older children and adults, but is less clear in young children, particularly South Asians. A better understanding of this relationship in young South Asian children will inform the design and delivery of obesity intervention programmes. The aim of this study is to describe body image size perception and dissatisfaction, and their relationship to weight status in primary school aged UK South Asian children. Methods Objective measures of height and weight were undertaken on 574 predominantly South Asian children aged 5-7 (296 boys and 278 girls. BMI z-scores, and weight status (underweight, healthy weight, overweight or obese were calculated based on the UK 1990 BMI reference charts. Figure rating scales were used to assess perceived body image size (asking children to identify their perceived body size and dissatisfaction (difference between perceived current and ideal body size. The relationship between these and weight status were examined using multivariate analyses. Results Perceived body image size was positively associated with weight status (partial regression coefficient for overweight/obese vs. non-overweight/obese was 0.63 (95% CI 0.26-0.99 and for BMI z-score was 0.21 (95% CI 0.10-0.31, adjusted for sex, age and ethnicity. Body dissatisfaction was also associated with weight status, with overweight and obese children more likely to select thinner ideal body size than healthy weight children (adjusted partial regression coefficient for overweight/obese vs. non-overweight/obese was 1.47 (95% CI 0.99-1.96 and for BMI z-score was 0.54 (95% CI 0.40-0.67. Conclusions Awareness of body image size and increasing body dissatisfaction with higher weight status is established at a young age in

  13. Body image, body dissatisfaction and weight status in South Asian children: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallan, Miranda J; Hiam, Lucinda C; Duda, Joan L; Adab, Peymane

    2011-01-09

    Childhood obesity is a continuing problem in the UK and South Asian children represent a group that are particularly vulnerable to its health consequences. The relationship between body dissatisfaction and obesity is well documented in older children and adults, but is less clear in young children, particularly South Asians. A better understanding of this relationship in young South Asian children will inform the design and delivery of obesity intervention programmes. The aim of this study is to describe body image size perception and dissatisfaction, and their relationship to weight status in primary school aged UK South Asian children. Objective measures of height and weight were undertaken on 574 predominantly South Asian children aged 5-7 (296 boys and 278 girls). BMI z-scores, and weight status (underweight, healthy weight, overweight or obese) were calculated based on the UK 1990 BMI reference charts. Figure rating scales were used to assess perceived body image size (asking children to identify their perceived body size) and dissatisfaction (difference between perceived current and ideal body size). The relationship between these and weight status were examined using multivariate analyses. Perceived body image size was positively associated with weight status (partial regression coefficient for overweight/obese vs. non-overweight/obese was 0.63 (95% CI 0.26-0.99) and for BMI z-score was 0.21 (95% CI 0.10-0.31), adjusted for sex, age and ethnicity). Body dissatisfaction was also associated with weight status, with overweight and obese children more likely to select thinner ideal body size than healthy weight children (adjusted partial regression coefficient for overweight/obese vs. non-overweight/obese was 1.47 (95% CI 0.99-1.96) and for BMI z-score was 0.54 (95% CI 0.40-0.67)). Awareness of body image size and increasing body dissatisfaction with higher weight status is established at a young age in this population. This needs to be considered when designing

  14. Mexican American Female Adolescent Self-Esteem: The Effect of Body Image, Exercise Behavior, and Body Fatness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Bobby; Semper, Tom; Jorgensen, Layne

    1997-01-01

    A study of 254 Mexican American eighth-grade girls in south Texas found that girls' self-esteem was positively related to body image and exercise involvement and negatively related to body fatness. This population displayed somewhat distorted body image, which was the strongest predictor of self-esteem. Contains 43 references. (SV)

  15. Quantitative image reconstruction for total-body PET imaging using the 2-meter long EXPLORER scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuezhu; Zhou, Jian; Cherry, Simon R; Badawi, Ramsey D; Qi, Jinyi

    2017-03-21

    The EXPLORER project aims to build a 2 meter long total-body PET scanner, which will provide extremely high sensitivity for imaging the entire human body. It will possess a range of capabilities currently unavailable to state-of-the-art clinical PET scanners with a limited axial field-of-view. The huge number of lines-of-response (LORs) of the EXPLORER poses a challenge to the data handling and image reconstruction. The objective of this study is to develop a quantitative image reconstruction method for the EXPLORER and compare its performance with current whole-body scanners. Fully 3D image reconstruction was performed using time-of-flight list-mode data with parallel computation. To recover the resolution loss caused by the parallax error between crystal pairs at a large axial ring difference or transaxial radial offset, we applied an image domain resolution model estimated from point source data. To evaluate the image quality, we conducted computer simulations using the SimSET Monte-Carlo toolkit and XCAT 2.0 anthropomorphic phantom to mimic a 20 min whole-body PET scan with an injection of 25 MBq 18 F-FDG. We compare the performance of the EXPLORER with a current clinical scanner that has an axial FOV of 22 cm. The comparison results demonstrated superior image quality from the EXPLORER with a 6.9-fold reduction in noise standard deviation comparing with multi-bed imaging using the clinical scanner.

  16. Quantitative image reconstruction for total-body PET imaging using the 2-meter long EXPLORER scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuezhu; Zhou, Jian; Cherry, Simon R.; Badawi, Ramsey D.; Qi, Jinyi

    2017-03-01

    The EXPLORER project aims to build a 2 meter long total-body PET scanner, which will provide extremely high sensitivity for imaging the entire human body. It will possess a range of capabilities currently unavailable to state-of-the-art clinical PET scanners with a limited axial field-of-view. The huge number of lines-of-response (LORs) of the EXPLORER poses a challenge to the data handling and image reconstruction. The objective of this study is to develop a quantitative image reconstruction method for the EXPLORER and compare its performance with current whole-body scanners. Fully 3D image reconstruction was performed using time-of-flight list-mode data with parallel computation. To recover the resolution loss caused by the parallax error between crystal pairs at a large axial ring difference or transaxial radial offset, we applied an image domain resolution model estimated from point source data. To evaluate the image quality, we conducted computer simulations using the SimSET Monte-Carlo toolkit and XCAT 2.0 anthropomorphic phantom to mimic a 20 min whole-body PET scan with an injection of 25 MBq 18F-FDG. We compare the performance of the EXPLORER with a current clinical scanner that has an axial FOV of 22 cm. The comparison results demonstrated superior image quality from the EXPLORER with a 6.9-fold reduction in noise standard deviation comparing with multi-bed imaging using the clinical scanner.

  17. Self-image differences as related to body image of students in a middle school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Donna M; Skemp, Karen M

    2012-07-01

    To examine whether gender and ethnic self-image differences exist among Asian and white adolescents within the context of body image. One hundred seventy-seven students in a Midwestern US middle school were surveyed on self-image. Analyzed using 2-way ANOVA by gender and race. Asian students have lower self-image compared to white students, including the subcomponents of self-esteem, identity, and integrity. Asian students have more critical feelings about themselves, base their identities on a few sources rather than on diverse sources, and choose unrealistic standards. However, Asian girls scored better on the image-consciousness subscale.

  18. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in inflammatory arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mikkel; Eshed, Iris; Althoff, Christian E.

    2017-01-01

    with reproducibility data). The Working Group decided on inflammation in peripheral joints and entheses as primary focus areas, and then developed consensus MRI definitions for these pathologies, selected anatomical locations for assessment, agreed on a core set of MRI sequences and imaging planes for the different...... was to perform a systematic literature review (SLR) and to develop consensus definitions of key pathologies, anatomical locations for assessment, a set of MRI sequences and imaging planes for the different body regions, and a preliminary scoring system for WB-MRI in inflammatory arthritis. Methods: An SLR...

  19. Body image issues in Lithuanian females before and during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutkuviene, Janina; Juskaite, Austeja; Katinaite, Justina; Silove, Simona; Drasutis, Jonas; Sargautyte, Ruta; Ramasauskaite, Diana; Drasutiene, Grazina

    2018-02-01

    There is a risk that during pregnancy a woman's changing physique might result in stronger concerns about her appearance and may lead to negative consequences both for mother and foetus. The aim of the present study was to assess women's self-esteem, body image and weight control before and during pregnancy. A cross-sectional study was carried out at the Centre of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Vilnius University Hospital. In total, 234 pregnant women were investigated. The Self-esteem was measured by Rosenberg's scale (1965), while the attitude towards the body size - by Stunkard's figure rating scale (1983). When rating their actual body size and the preferred body shape using Stunkard's figures, the investigated females chose, on average, 3.40 and 2.93 (respectively) size figures for the period before pregnancy ( p 0.05). Regardless of their body shape assessment during pregnancy, pregnant women did not restrict their diet ( r s (232) = 0.064, p > 0.05). Conclusions: during pregnancy women assessed their weight gain adequately, pregnant women chose larger body sizes as an ideal physique if compared to the ones of the period before pregnancy, women's efforts not to gain weight during pregnancy were not determined by their body size perception during pregnancy, pregnant women, despite their body shape assessment during pregnancy, did not restrict their diet, i.e. pregnant women became psychologically adapted to their body changes during pregnancy, and the maternity became a much more important factor than the beauty ideals associated with slender figures.

  20. Target recognition in passive terahertz image of human body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ran; Zhao, Yuan-meng; Deng, Chao; Zhang, Cun-lin; Li, Yue

    2014-11-01

    THz radiation can penetrate through many nonpolar dielectric materials and can be used for nondestructive/noninvasive sensing and imaging of targets under nonpolar, nonmetallic covers or containers. Thus using THz systems to "see through" concealing barriers (i.e. packaging, corrugated cardboard, clothing) has been proposed as a new security screening method. Objects that can be detected by THz include concealed weapons, explosives, and chemical agents under clothing. Passive THz imaging system can detect THz wave from human body without transmit any electromagnetic wave, and the suspicious objects will become visible because the THz wave is blocked by this items. We can find out whether or not someone is carrying dangerous objects through this image. In this paper, the THz image enhancement, segmentation and contour extraction algorithms were studied to achieve effective target image detection. First, the terahertz images are enhanced and their grayscales are stretched. Then we apply global threshold segmentation to extract the target, and finally the targets are marked on the image. Experimental results showed that the algorithm proposed in this paper can extract and mark targets effectively, so that people can identify suspicious objects under clothing quickly. The algorithm can significantly improve the usefulness of the terahertz security apparatus.

  1. Images and bodies subject: sexuality in advertising campaign be stupid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Luiz Menegazzi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the portrayal of sexuality and gender in contemporary advertising by the image and it focuses on visual analysis of the case study of the campaign Be Stupid, the clothing brand Diesel. Examines some of the ads clearer suggestions to the theme of sexuality, about fifteen images, running between 2010 and 2011em many countries, including Brazil, having won the controversial impact of media such as magazines, billboards and especially the Internet. Perform a survey of theoretical and methodological aspects that facilitate the action of reading and deciphering the images, mainly based on the theory Flusser conceptions of technical image, apparatus, with a view to focus on media production, broadcasting, and formats distribution. These advertising images as visual anthropological objects who discourse through the triad body, image and media conditions of power and surveillance, eroticism, stereotypes and cultural life of the spectacle. Contextualizes the scenario analysis within the postmodern perspective, the society of advanced capitalism and diffuse power and media, marked by profound changes in the scale of the feeling of their individual identities unstable. With an emphasis on Foucauldian theory, discusses the concepts of identity, gender intelligible and cultural practices of subjection of the individual mechanisms for language and sexuality. Discusses how is the construction of visual messages of sexuality and gender roles specified by the images and search on it, demonstrating the wider aspects of visual advertising messages today.

  2. Body imaging in the differential diagnosis of jaundice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuno, Nobuyoshi; Endo, Tokiko; Kasugai, Tatsuzo

    1981-01-01

    Forty-five jaundiced patients with confirmed pancreatico-biliary diseases were studied to determine the value of body imaging in the differential diagnosis of jaundice. In this study, body imaging included five tests, which were US, CT, ERCP, PTC and RI. The results indicate that each to these five tests is useful and highly accurate in differentiating between obstructive and nonobstructive jaundice (about 90%). The site of obstruction was delineated in 91.3%, 90.9%, 82.5%, 66.7% and 50% by PTC, ERCP, CT, US and RI, respectively. ERCP, PTC, CT, US and RI helped determine the etiology of jaundice in 79.5%, 65.2%, 57.5%, 50% and 0%, respectively. ERCP and US were highly accurate in establishing the diagnosis of resectable pancreatico-biliary cancer with obstructive jaundice. On the basis of these results, we propose a diagnostic approach to obstructive jaundice as in Table 5. (author)

  3. Body Image And Sensation Seeking In Gym-Goers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlegel Petr

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to explore a relation between Body image (PSPP and Sensation Seeking (SSS-V and to determine gym-goers based on these entities. The research file (N = 182 consisted of gym-goers aged between 24 – 45. The comparison of the tests showed a weak relation (0.25 between PSPP and SST tests and also among the individual subscales. The comparison of men and women did not come up with any significant differences. In terms of Body image, the file showed above-average results, in the case of Sensation Seeking, its score was average. The outcome of our findings is that there is no marked relation between PSPP and SST and the same goes for men and women.

  4. Body imaging in the differential diagnosis of jaundice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuno, N.; Endo, T.; Kasugai, T. (Aichi Cancer Center, Nagoya (Japan))

    1981-12-01

    Forty-five jaundiced patients with confirmed pancreatico-biliary diseases were studied to determine the value of body imaging in the differential diagnosis of jaundice. In this study, body imaging included five tests, which were US, CT, ERCP, PTC and RI. The results indicate that each to these five tests is useful and highly accurate in differentiating between obstructive and nonobstructive jaundice (about 90%). The site of obstruction was delineated in 91.3%, 90.9%, 82.5%, 66.7% and 50% by PTC, ERCP, CT, US and RI, respectively. ERCP, PTC, CT, US and RI helped determine the etiology of jaundice in 79.5%, 65.2%, 57.5%, 50% and 0%, respectively. ERCP and US were highly accurate in establishing the diagnosis of resectable pancreatico-biliary cancer with obstructive jaundice. On the basis of these results, we propose a diagnostic approach to obstructive jaundice as in Table 5.

  5. Body image and HIV risk among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Meghan M; Markey, Charlotte N

    2014-11-01

    To focus on the role of sex, race/ethnicity, and body image in HIV-protective behaviors. Undergraduates (N = 277; 53% women; M = 19.27 years old) from the United States completed a survey on HIV-related behaviors and body image (appearance orientation and appearance evaluation). Women and African Americans/ Blacks were more likely to have ever had an HIV test. African Americans/Blacks and individuals who had more positive evaluations of their appearance were more likely to have ever asked a partner's HIV status and to have asked a partner to get tested for HIV. Findings indicate low rates of HIV testing and communication with a partner about HIV, suggesting the importance of sexual health intervention and education programs for college students.

  6. Psychological predictors of body image dissatisfaction in women suffering from eating discorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brytek-Matera, A

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify factors influencing body image dissatisfaction in female patients with anorexia and bulimia nervosa. 61 women, aged 16 to 31, (M = 21.69; SD = 3.85) filled questionnaires evaluating dissatisfaction with their body (Body Dissatisfaction Scale by Garner & al., 1984), attitudes about the body (Body Attitude Test by Probst & al., 1995), avoidance with regard to body image (Body Image Avoidance Questionnaire by Rosen & al., 1991), negative mood states (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale by Zigmond and Snaith, 1983) as well as self-esteem (Self-Esteem Inventory by Coopersmith, 1984). Negative appreciation of body size, symptoms of depression, grooming and weighting, lack of familiarity with one's own body, as well as low self-esteem in general, could predict the body image dissatisfaction among eating disordered women. The fact of knowing the most important determinants of body image could give indications for the prevention of the cognitive distortions concerning body image.

  7. Body image related negative interpretation bias in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmeyer, Timo; Anderle, Alisa; Schmidt, Hagen; Febry, Stephanie; Wünsch-Leiteritz, Wally; Leiteritz, Andreas; Friederich, Hans-Christoph

    2018-03-14

    A distorted body image and pronounced body dissatisfaction are hallmarks of anorexia nervosa (AN) that typically result in dietary restraint and compensatory behaviours. Cognitive biases such as negative interpretation bias are considered key maintaining factors of these maladaptive cognitions and behaviours. However, little attention has been paid to empirical tests whether negative interpretation bias exists in AN and to what degree it is associated with symptom severity. Participants in the present study were 40 women with AN and 40 healthy women with no history of an eating disorder. Body-related negative interpretation bias (i.e., a tendency to interpret ambiguous information about the own body in a negative way) was measured by a Scrambled Sentences Task. Patients with AN showed a stronger body-related negative interpretation bias than healthy controls. Within both groups, negative interpretation bias correlated strongly and positively with AN symptom severity and these effects were not moderated by levels of depressive symptoms. The findings support the idea that biased interpretation of body-related information is associated with the specific psychopathology of AN. Targeted, computerised interventions (e.g. interpretation bias modification) may help to alter these dysfunctional cognitive schemas that lie at the heart of AN. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Body Image Perception and Self-esteem During Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Sema Inanir; Bulent Cakmak; Mehmet Can Nacar; Askin Evren Guler; Ahmet Inanir

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study is to examine the change in body image perception (BIP) and evaluate self-esteem levels during pregnancy. Material and Methods: This study includes totally 180 females having similar demographic features, i.e. 30 non-pregnant (control group) and 50 pregnant women from each trimester (first, second and third trimester groups) at an Obstetrics Outpatient Department of a university hospital. BIP and self-esteem scores have been compared among the groups. Dat...

  9. Engaging stakeholder communities as body image intervention partners: The Body Project as a case example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Carolyn Black; Perez, Marisol; Kilpela, Lisa Smith; Diedrichs, Phillippa C; Trujillo, Eva; Stice, Eric

    2017-04-01

    Despite recent advances in developing evidence-based psychological interventions, substantial changes are needed in the current system of intervention delivery to impact mental health on a global scale (Kazdin & Blase, 2011). Prevention offers one avenue for reaching large populations because prevention interventions often are amenable to scaling-up strategies, such as task-shifting to lay providers, which further facilitate community stakeholder partnerships. This paper discusses the dissemination and implementation of the Body Project, an evidence-based body image prevention program, across 6 diverse stakeholder partnerships that span academic, non-profit and business sectors at national and international levels. The paper details key elements of the Body Project that facilitated partnership development, dissemination and implementation, including use of community-based participatory research methods and a blended train-the-trainer and task-shifting approach. We observed consistent themes across partnerships, including: sharing decision making with community partners, engaging of community leaders as gatekeepers, emphasizing strengths of community partners, working within the community's structure, optimizing non-traditional and/or private financial resources, placing value on cost-effectiveness and sustainability, marketing the program, and supporting flexibility and creativity in developing strategies for evolution within the community and in research. Ideally, lessons learned with the Body Project can be generalized to implementation of other body image and eating disorder prevention programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Body image in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: validation of the Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire--Scoliosis Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Joshua D; Lonner, Baron S; Crerand, Canice E; Shah, Suken A; Flynn, John M; Bastrom, Tracey; Penn, Phedra; Ahn, Jennifer; Toombs, Courtney; Bharucha, Neil; Bowe, Whitney P; Newton, Peter O

    2014-04-16

    Appearance concerns in individuals with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis can result in impairment in daily functioning, or body image disturbance. The Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire (BIDQ) is a self-reported, seven-question instrument that measures body image disturbance in general populations; no studies have specifically examined body image disturbance in those with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. This study aimed to validate a modified version of the BIDQ in a population with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and to establish discriminant validity by comparing responses of operatively and nonoperatively treated patients with those of normal controls. In the first phase, a multicenter study of forty-nine patients (mean age, fourteen years; thirty-seven female) with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis was performed to validate the BIDQ-Scoliosis version (BIDQ-S). Participants completed the BIDQ-S, Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)-22, Children's Depression Index (CDI), and Body Esteem Scale for Adolescents and Adults (BESAA) questionnaires. Descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated. In the second phase, ninety-eight patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (mean age, 15.7 years; seventy-five female) matched by age and sex with ninety-eight healthy adolescents were enrolled into a single-center study to evaluate the discriminant validity of the BIDQ-S. Subjects completed the BIDQ-S and a demographic form before treatment. Independent-sample t tests and Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated. The BIDQ-S was internally consistent (Cronbach alpha = 0.82), and corrected item total correlations ranged from 0.47 to 0.67. The BIDQ-S was significantly correlated with each domain of the SRS-22 and the total score (r = -0.50 to -0.72, p ≤ 0.001), with the CDI (r = 0.31, p = 0.03), and with the BESAA (r = 0.60, p image disturbance compared with healthy controls. To our knowledge, this user-friendly instrument is the first to

  11. Body Image Coping Strategies among Aesthetic Surgery Patients in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y Yazdandoost, Rokhsareh; Hayatbini, Niki; Fatemi, Mohammad Javad

    2017-05-01

    Aesthetic surgery procedures have been performed at dramatically increased rates in recent years in Iran. Few researches exist documenting the usage of body image coping strategies and its relationship in seeking surgery. The present research examined data from 90 aesthetic surgery participants (30 Subjects each in invasive, minimally-invasive, and control groups). Assessed subjects on body image coping strategies inventory (avoidance, appearance fixing and positive rational acceptance) provided dysfunctional usage of its variables among Iranian clients. Between the three groups, on variables of body image coping strategies, there was a significant difference. There was a significant difference on avoidance variable in three groups. On positive rational acceptance variable, there was a significant difference for invasive group with minimally-invasive and control groups. No significant difference was found on appearance fixing variable. The study emphasizes on the role of psychological problems of aesthetic surgery clients that surgeons should be aware of them, which could inhibit the positive effects of aesthetic surgery. These results have implications for pre-surgical assessment along with psychological interventions at first step rather than invasive medical interventions.

  12. Maternal effects on daughters' eating pathology and body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Eric; Toray, Tamina; Wang, Mei Chuan; Valdez, Noreen N

    2008-01-01

    Effects of maternal eating behaviors and attitudes, maternal feedback to daughter about weight issues, mother-daughter relationship closeness, media influences, and mothers' perceptions of daughters shape on daughters' body image and eating pathology were examined using 91 pairs of mothers and college-aged daughters. Hierarchical multiple regressions using daughters' BMI as the first step were separately performed for daughters' body image and eating pathology. Variables predictive of daughters' body image included negative feedback from mother, mother's disapproval of daughter's figure, and mothers' eating behaviors and attitudes as perceived by daughters. A similar pattern was found for daughters' eating pathology scores with the addition of mothers' tendency to internalize media messages regarding thinness and beauty significantly adding to the prediction. Maternal influence through modeling may be best assessed by using the daughters' perceptions of their mothers because this corresponds to what the daughter was aware of in their mothers' eating attitudes and behaviors. Negative feedback from mothers about daughters' figures and eating patterns significantly increased daughters' difficulties in these areas. Mothers who showed a greater internalization of media messages about thinness were most likely to have daughters with eating pathologies.

  13. Toward imaging the body at 10.5 tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertürk, M Arcan; Wu, Xiaoping; Eryaman, Yiğitcan; Van de Moortele, Pierre-François; Auerbach, Edward J; Lagore, Russell L; DelaBarre, Lance; Vaughan, J Thomas; Uğurbil, Kâmil; Adriany, Gregor; Metzger, Gregory J

    2017-01-01

    To explore the potential of performing body imaging at 10.5 Tesla (T) compared with 7.0T through evaluating the transmit/receive performance of similarly configured dipole antenna arrays. Fractionated dipole antenna elements for 10.5T body imaging were designed and evaluated using numerical simulations. Transmit performance of antenna arrays inside the prostate, kidneys and heart were investigated and compared with those at 7.0T using both phase-only radiofrequency (RF) shimming and multi-spoke pulses. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) comparisons were also performed. A 10-channel antenna array was constructed to image the abdomen of a swine at 10.5T. Numerical methods were validated with phantom studies at both field strengths. Similar power efficiencies were observed inside target organs with phase-only shimming, but RF nonuniformity was significantly higher at 10.5T. Spokes RF pulses allowed similar transmit performance with accompanying local specific absorption rate increases of 25-90% compared with 7.0T. Relative SNR gains inside the target anatomies were calculated to be >two-fold higher at 10.5T, and 2.2-fold SNR gain was measured in a phantom. Gradient echo and fast spin echo imaging demonstrated the feasibility of body imaging at 10.5T with the designed array. While comparable power efficiencies can be achieved using dipole antenna arrays with static shimming at 10.5T; increasing RF nonuniformities underscore the need for efficient, robust, and safe parallel transmission methods. Magn Reson Med 77:434-443, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  14. My body looks like that girl's : Body mass index modulates brain activity during body image self-reflection among young women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, Xiao; Deng, Xiao; Wen, Xin; She, Ying; Vinke, Petra Corianne; Chen, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Body image distress or body dissatisfaction is one of the most common consequences of obesity and overweight. We investigated the neural bases of body image processing in overweight and average weight young women to understand whether brain regions that were previously found to be involved in

  15. Con-forming bodies:the interplay of machines and bodies and the implications of agency in medical imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    In attending to the material discursive constructions of the patient body within cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging in radiotherapy treatments, in this paper I describe how bodies and machines co-create images. Using an analytical framework inspired by Science and Technology Studies and Feminist Technoscience, I describe the interplay between machines and bodies and the implications of materialities and agency. I argue that patients’ bodies play a part in producing scans within acce...

  16. A radiant energy imaging apparatus for examination of a body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, D.D.

    1981-01-01

    A radiant energy imaging apparatus for obtaining CT scans is described. It employs a rotating unit operative to produce a scanning pencil beam of X-ray radiant energy by use of a mechanical scanning device. This consists of a first collimator which shapes radiation emitted from an X-ray source into a fan-shaped beam of X-rays, and a second collimator comprising a disc-shaped chopper wheel which is rotated through the fan-shaped beam. A single pencil beam is produced and caused to scan through an angle, sufficiently great to embrace a cross section of a body being examined, onto a single detector forming a portion of the rotating unit and located on the side of the body opposite to the X-ray source and mechanical scanning device. In addition to being used as a CT scanner, the system can be used to generate its own localization images and to perform digital radiography on those images and, because of the relative rotation feature, can be employed in this mode of operation to obtain anterior-posterior, lateral or oblique images at any desired angle. (Auth.)

  17. Body image, aging, and identity in women over 50: The Gender and Body Image (GABI) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeier, Sara M; Runfola, Cristin D; Sala, Margarita; Gagne, Danielle A; Brownley, Kimberly A; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a qualitative study of 1,849 women over age 50 to capture the thoughts, feelings, and attitudes that women at middle age have about their bodies and the experience of aging. Via an open-ended question online survey, four primary themes emerged: (a) the physical and psychological experience of aging; (b) the injustices, inequities, and challenges of aging; (c) the importance of self-care; and (d) a plea for recognition of the need to maintain a contributory role in society. Results highlight the complexities of women's psychological and physical aspects of aging and point toward important topics worthy of further study in this growing population.

  18. Body image during pregnancy: an evaluation of the suitability of the body attitudes questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuller-Tyszkiewicz Matthew

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Available data suggest that body dissatisfaction is common during pregnancy and may even be a precursor to post-natal depression. However, in order to accurately identify at-risk women, it is essential to first establish that body image measures function appropriately in pregnant populations. Our study examines the suitability of the Body Attitudes Questionnaire (BAQ for measuring body dissatisfaction among pregnant women by comparing the psychometric functioning of the BAQ: (1 across key phases of pregnancy, and (2 between pregnant and non-pregnant women. Methods A total of 176 pregnant women from Melbourne, Victoria filled out a questionnaire battery containing demographic questions and the Body Attitudes Questionnaire at 16, 24, and 32 weeks during pregnancy. A comparison group of 148 non-pregnant women also completed the questionnaire battery at Time 1. Evaluations of the psychometric properties of the BAQ consisted of a series of measurement invariance tests conducted within a structural equation modelling framework. Results Although the internal consistency and factorial validity of the subscales of the BAQ were established across time and also in comparisons between pregnant and non-pregnant women, measurement invariance tests showed non-invariant item intercepts across pregnancy and also in comparison with the non-pregnant subgroup. Inspection of modification indices revealed a complex, non-uniform pattern of differences in item intercepts across groups. Conclusions Collectively, our findings suggest that comparisons of body dissatisfaction between pregnant and non-pregnant women (at least based on the BAQ are likely to be conflated by differential measurement biases that serve to undermine attempts to accurately assess level of body dissatisfaction. Researchers should be cautious in assessments of body dissatisfaction among pregnant women until a suitable measure has been established for use in this population. Given

  19. Neurocognitive processing of body representations in artistic and photographic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Aline; Nassehi, Armin; Bao, Yan; Pöppel, Ernst; Sztrókay, Anikó; Reiser, Maximilian; Fehse, Kai; Gutyrchik, Evgeny

    2013-02-01

    Visual art because of its artistic context can be related to the general idea of providing alternative perceptual experiences. However, research examining the neural basis of art beyond the paradigm of beauty has been neglected. This study seeks to determine how the perception of a body in an artwork can be distinguished from the perception of a body in a non-artistic photography. While viewing different body representations in both artworks and photographs, subjects were required to evaluate the appeal of the portrayed persons. By using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we show that the perception of a body within the context of art leads to a higher activation in the right parietal cortex and the extrastriate cortex bilaterally. Relating this result to concepts from previous research, we suggest that the perception of art is linked to visuo-spatial coding and also motor mapping. In contrast, the higher activity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the primary visual cortex during the perception of a body in a non-artistic frame of reference, i.e. in a photograph, can be linked to processes of person evaluation. Possibly, the task to judge the appeal of a person in a photograph might be more daunting and, thus, cause emotional and even moral challenges being reflected in the ventromedial prefrontal activity. Taken together, perceptual experiences within an artistic vs. a non-artistic frame of reference are based on distinct patterns of neuronal activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Body after baby: a pilot survey of genital body image and sexual esteem following vaginal birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zielinski R

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ruth Zielinski,1 Lisa Kane Low,1–3 Abigail R Smith,4 Janis M Miller1,3 1Department of Health Behavior and Biological Sciences, School of Nursing, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 2Department of Women’s Studies, College of Literature, Science and the Arts, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 4Arbor Research Collaborative for Health, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Objective: The aim of this study was to determine acceptability of the Vaginal Changes Sexual and Body Esteem (VSBE scale for women post childbirth and explore the association between childbirth events and sexual/body esteem.Design: This is a cross-sectional study within the Evaluating Maternal Recovery from Labor and Delivery study.Setting: This study was conducted in a community setting.Population: The study was conducted in women post first vaginal birth with birth events that posed risk factors for levator ani muscle tears.Methods: Survey, magnetic resonance images of levator ani, and physical examination were the data collected 8 months postpartum. Birth variables were collected by hospital chart review. Descriptive analysis of VSBE response rates and distribution of responses was conducted. An exploratory analysis of the potential association of demographic, birth, clinical, and magnetic resonance image characteristics with VSBE scores was conducted.Main outcome measures: The outcome measure used in this study is VSBE scale.Results: The majority of participants (97% completed the scale, with responses to most questions skewed toward positive sexual/body esteem, with the exception of sexual enjoyment, where 38% indicated some interference due to genital changes. The scale showed high internal consistency (alpha =0.93. In the exploratory analysis of potential characteristics associated with VSBE, women with episiotomies had lower sexual/body esteem compared to those who did not (median

  1. Anorexia nervosa and body dysmorphic disorder: A comparison of body image concerns and explicit and implicit attractiveness beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, A S; Thomas, J J; Greenberg, J L; Elliott, C M; Matheny, N L; Wilhelm, S

    2015-06-01

    Although body image is central to the etiological models of anorexia nervosa and body dysmorphic disorder, studies comparing body image and beliefs about attractiveness between the disorders are rare. Sixty-nine individuals (anorexia nervosa: n=24, body dysmorphic disorder: n=23, healthy controls: n=22) completed self-report measures (body image and general psychopathology), diagnostic interviews, and Go/No-Go Association tasks measuring implicit associations. Compared to controls, both clinical groups exhibited greater negative body image, a more negative attitude toward their physical selves, and more dysfunctional coping strategies (psbody image disturbance, this study also showed that beliefs regarding the importance of appearance (e.g., "one must be attractive to be successful") might be a fruitful target for therapy across both disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. BodiMojo: Efficacy of a Mobile-Based Intervention in Improving Body Image and Self-Compassion among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Rachel F; Donovan, Elizabeth; Cousineau, Tara; Yates, Kayla; McGowan, Kayla; Cook, Elizabeth; Lowy, Alice S; Franko, Debra L

    2018-01-18

    Mobile interventions promoting positive body image are lacking. This study presents a randomized controlled evaluation of BodiMojo, a mobile application (app) intervention grounded in self-compassion to promote positive body image. A sample of 274 adolescents, mean (SD) age = 18.36 (1.34) years, 74% female, were allocated to a control group or used BodiMojo for 6 weeks. Appearance esteem, body image flexibility, appearance comparison, mood, and self-compassion were assessed at baseline, 6, and 12 weeks. Significant time by group interactions emerged for appearance esteem and self-compassion, with appearance esteem and self-compassion increasing in the intervention relative to the control group. These findings provide preliminary support for BodiMojo, a cost-effective mobile app for positive body image.

  3. Whole body MR imaging in neurofibromatosis type 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meerbeeck, S.F.L. van [Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Ghent University, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)], E-mail: stephen.vm@rad-vanmeerbeeck.be; Verstraete, K.L. [Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Ghent University, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)], E-mail: koenraad.verstraete@ugent.be; Janssens, S.; Mortier, G. [Department of Medical Genetics, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2009-02-15

    Objective: To assess the value of whole body MR imaging in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Materials and methods: 24 patients (15-59 years; mean and median 36 years; 7 males; 17 females) with genetically proven neurofibromatosis type 1 were examined with whole body MR imaging. Axial and coronal T1- and fat-suppressed T2-weighted images (slice thickness 6-12 mm) were acquired on a 1.5 T MR unit (Symphony; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). The images were reviewed by 2 radiologists: 1 senior, 1 junior. The criterion for a neurofibroma was a mass lesion with low signal intensity on T1 and high signal intensity on T2, along the course of a nerve. The location, size, general morphology and course along plexuses and nerves were evaluated. Cutaneous and subcutaneous neurofibromas were defined as 'superficial' neurofibromas. The other neurofibromas were regarded as 'deep' neurofibromas. Results: There were no major problems to differentiate neurofibromas from lymph nodes, vessels or cysts. The latter three were easily recognised by their typical shape and location, whereas neurofibromas occurred in regions where no mass lesion was anatomically expected. There was no relation between age and total number of neurofibromas throughout the body. Classification according to location and number of neurofibromas: 8 patients had only superficial neurofibromas, 1 only deep and 15 both superficial and deep lesions. Twelve patients had less than 15 neurofibromas and 12 had more. Classification according to course: in 8 patients the neurofibromas occurred along plexuses or proximal part of the intercostal nerves; in 16 patients the lesions were more peripheral. Classification according to morphology: 4 patients had plexiform neurofibromas and 20 patients had multiple solitary lesions. Twelve of these 20 patients had less than 15 lesions, and 8 had more. In 2 patients multiple solitary neurofibromas occurred along the nerve in a chain configuration. In one

  4. Factors Associated With Body Image Perception Among Brazilian Students From Low Human Development Index Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo, Thábyta Silva; Barbosa Filho, Valter Cordeiro; Gubert, Fabiane do Amaral; de Almeida, Paulo César; Martins, Mariana Cavalcante; Carvalho, Queliane Gomes da Silva; Costa, Ana Cristina Pereira de Jesus; Vieira, Neiva Francenely Cunha

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate sociodemographic, behavioral, and individual factors associated with body image perception in a sample of adolescents from schools in low Human Development Index areas in Brazil. This cross-sectional study included 609 boys and 573 girls (aged 11-17 years). Body image perception (nine-silhouettes scale) and sociodemographic, behavioral, and individual variables were included. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used. Most boys (76.9%) and girls (77.5%) were dissatisfied with their body image. Body mass index status and healthy body image evaluation were significantly associated with body image dissatisfaction in both boys and girls ( p < .001), and daily fruit consumption was associated with body image dissatisfaction only in boys ( p = .035). Education and health care focused on body image can pay special attention to young people from vulnerable areas with unhealthy nutritional status and focus on strategies that enable improving the perception of a healthy body and a healthy diet.

  5. The Relationship Between Body Image and Domains of Sexual Functioning Among Heterosexual, Emerging Adult Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Quinn-Nilas, MA

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: Findings from this study suggest important linkages between body image and sexual functioning constructs and indicates that interventions to improve body image could have concomitant benefits related to sexual experience.

  6. Hubungan Antara Body Image Dan Self-esteem Pada Dewasa Awal Tuna Daksa

    OpenAIRE

    Sari, Dahlia Nur Permata

    2012-01-01

    Penelitian ini meneliti mengenai pengaruh body image terhadap selfesteem pada dewasa awal tuna daksa. Hipotesis pada penelitian ini adalah adanya hubungan positif antara body image dan self-esteem pada dewasa awal tuna daksa. Semakin positif body image maka semakin tinggi self-esteem yang dimiliki, begitu juga sebaliknya, semakin negatif body image maka semakin rendah self-esteem yang dimiliki. Sampel penelitian sebanyak 30 dewasa awal tuna daksa yang memiliki cacat tubuh seteleh kelahiran. D...

  7. Body Image v kontextu soudobé společnosti

    OpenAIRE

    Rolínek, Igor

    2008-01-01

    The thesis focuses on body image - defines the main characteristics of this area, describes cultural influences and body image history and explains basic quantitative values (Body Mass Index, Waist Hip Ratio, Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis). Furthemore the thesis deals with media influence on body ideal formation process, especially in gay subculture. The research part explores recent situation of body image in gay subculture compared with heterosexual males. This section includes the conte...

  8. Testing a dissonance body image intervention among young girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliwell, Emma; Diedrichs, Phillippa C

    2014-02-01

    Body image and eating disorder interventions based on cognitive dissonance have been shown to be effective among girls and women aged 14 and above. This article reports a preliminary examination of whether a dissonance intervention is also effective when delivered in a school setting to 12- and 13-year-old girls in the United Kingdom. Girls (N = 106, mean age = 12.07 years, SD = .27) were allocated to the intervention condition or a waitlist control. In contrast to the control group, girls in the intervention condition reported significant reductions in body dissatisfaction and internalization of a thin body ideal post-intervention. There was no significant change in self-reported dietary restraint for either condition. In addition, compared with the control group, girls in the intervention condition showed increased resilience to negative media effects 1-month post-intervention. Results suggests that dissonance based programs can reduce body dissatisfaction, internalization and negative media effects among a younger group of girls than previously examined and in a United Kingdom school setting. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Three-dimensional imaging of atomic four-body processes

    CERN Document Server

    Schulz, M; Fischer, D; Kollmus, H; Madison, D H; Jones, S; Ullrich, J

    2003-01-01

    To understand the physical processes that occur in nature we need to obtain a solid concept about the 'fundamental' forces acting between pairs of elementary particles. it is also necessary to describe the temporal and spatial evolution of many mutually interacting particles under the influence of these forces. This latter step, known as the few-body problem, remains an important unsolved problem in physics. Experiments involving atomic collisions represent a useful testing ground for studying the few-body problem. For the single ionization of a helium atom by charged particle impact, kinematically complete experiments have been performed since 1969. The theoretical analysis of such experiments was thought to yield a complete picture of the basic features of the collision process, at least for large collision energies. These conclusions are, however, almost exclusively based on studies of restricted electron-emission geometries. We report three- dimensional images of the complete electron emission pattern for...

  10. Impact of the media on adolescent body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Claire V; Sunday, Suzanne R; Becker, Anne E

    2005-07-01

    The mass media have become a powerful force throughout the world and strongly influence how people see themselves and others. This is particularly true for adolescents. This article discusses how the media affect body image and self-esteem and why the media seem to have such strong effects on adolescents. The differences in responses to the media in adolescents of different ethnic, racial, and cultural backgrounds are discussed. Although this article focuses primarily on teenage girls, the data for adolescent boys is reviewed as well. Finally, this article discusses possible ways to help adolescents become more active viewers of the media and help prevent the decrease in body esteem that so often occurs during adolescence.

  11. Female body dissatisfaction after exposure to overweight and thin media images : The role of body mass index and neuroticism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalley, Simon E.; Buunk, Abraham P.; Umit, Turul

    Exposure to thin media images is thought to play a significant role in the development of body image dissatisfaction (BID) amongst females. In this study we examined whether individual differences in body mass index (BMI) and neuroticism can make females more vulnerable to BID upon exposure to

  12. Body-image dissatisfaction is strongly associated with chronic dysphoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenström, Tom; Jokela, Markus; Hintsanen, Mirka; Josefsson, Kim; Juonala, Markus; Kivimäki, Mika; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Viikari, Jorma S A; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Heinonen, Erkki; Raitakari, Olli T; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa

    2013-09-05

    Individual depressive symptoms may contribute to the risk of chronic depression. This study aimed to explore which symptoms predict chronic dysphoria, a hallmark of depression. 1057 participants from the population-based Young Finns study were examined for four times during a 16-year period. Those with a modified Beck's Depression Inventory score in the upper third at all four screenings were considered to have chronic dysphoria (n=135). Participants with only one high depression score formed the reference group of transient dysphoria (n=179). Individual items of the Inventory were analyzed in terms of their association with dysphoria status and chronicity, controlling for potential confounding factors, such as personality assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory. Body-image dissatisfaction was strongly associated with chronically elevated dysphoria (Bonferroni-corrected p=0.006). The degree of body-image dissatisfaction was associated with the probability for chronic dysphoria in a dose-response manner, with the estimated probability ranging from 0.01 to 0.60 as a function of item response. The association remained after adjustments for a wide range of personality characteristics. The study relied on self-reports of mood and personality, and lacked information on external opinion on participants appearances. The requirement of full time-series data may have resulted in attrition-related bias. Body-image dissatisfaction was a strong predictor of chronic depression characterized by dysphoria. This finding suggests that dysfunctional attitude towards oneself might represent a potentially important target for cognitive therapies and preventive interventions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Changes in neuronal correlates of body image processing by means of cognitive-behavioural body image therapy for eating disorders: a randomized controlled fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vocks, S; Schulte, D; Busch, M; Grönemeyer, D; Herpertz, S; Suchan, B

    2011-08-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies have demonstrated abnormalities in visual body image processing in anorexia and bulimia nervosa, possibly underlying body image disturbance in these disorders. Although cognitive behavioural interventions have been shown to be successful in improving body image disturbance in eating disorders, no randomized controlled study has yet analysed treatment-induced changes in neuronal correlates of visual body image processing. Altogether, 32 females with eating disorders were randomly assigned either to a manualized cognitive behavioural body image therapy consisting of 10 group sessions, or to a waiting list control condition. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, brain responses to viewing photographs of one's own and another female's body taken from 16 standardized perspectives while participants were wearing a uniform bikini were acquired before and after the intervention and the waiting time, respectively. Data indicate a general blood oxygen level dependent signal enhancement in response to looking at photographs of one's own body from pre- to post-treatment, whereas exclusively in the control group activation decreases from pre- to post-waiting time were observed. Focused activation increases from pre- to post-treatment were found in the left middle temporal gyrus covering the coordinates of the extrastriate body area and in bilateral frontal structures including the middle frontal gyrus. Results point to a more intense neuronal processing of one's own body after the cognitive behavioural body image therapy in cortical regions that are responsible for the visual processing of the human body and for self-awareness. © Cambridge University Press 2010

  14. Phase-contrast imaging for body composition measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Huajie; Hu, Renfang; Wali, Faiz; Wu, Zhao; Gao, Kun; Wang, Shenghao; Gu, Yonggang; Jin, Yi; Zhai, Chao

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel method for human body composition measurement, especially for the bone mineral density (BMD) measurement. The proposed method, using the absorption and differential phase information retrieved from X-ray grating-based interferometer (XGBI) to measure the BMD, has potential to replace dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), which is currently widely used for body composition measurement. The DEXA method employs two absorption images acquired at two different X-ray spectra (high energy and low energy) to calculate the human body composition. In this paper, a new method to calculate BMD using a single X-ray measurement is proposed. XGBI is a relatively new X-ray technique that provides absorption, phase and scattering information simultaneously using a single X-ray spectrum. With the absorption and differential phase information retrieved from XGBI, BMD can be measured using only one single X-ray spectrum. Numerical simulations are performed with a body phantom of bone (Cortical, ICRU-44) surrounded by soft tissue (Soft, ICRU-44). BMD is calculated with both the DEXA method and the proposed method. Results show that BMD can be measured accurately with the proposed method; moreover, better signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is obtained compared to DEXA. With the proposed method, BMD can be measured with XGBI setup. Further, the proposed method can be realized using current X-ray phase-contrast imaging (XPCI) apparatus without any hardware modification, suggesting that this technique can be a promising supplementary function to current XPCI equipment. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Body image in patients with mental disorders : Characteristics, associations with diagnosis and treatment outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffers, Mia; van Busschbach, Jooske T; Bosscher, Ruud J; Aerts, Liza C; Wiersma, Durk; Schoevers, Robert A

    Objective: Despite the increasing recognition in clinical practice of body image problems in other than appearance related mental disorders, the question remains how aspects of body image are affected in different disorders. The aim of this study was to measure body image in patients with a variety

  16. Body Image in Patients With Spinal Cord Injury During Inpatient Rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Diemen, Tijn; van Leeuwen, Christel; van Nes, Ilse; Geertzen, Jan; Post, Marcel

    Objectives: (1) To investigate the course of body image in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) during their first inpatient rehabilitation stay; and (2) to explore the association between demographic and injury-related variables and body image and the association between body image and

  17. The role of body image in prenatal and postpartum depression: a critical review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Marushka L; Ertel, Karen A; Dole, Nancy; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2015-06-01

    Maternal depression increases risk of adverse perinatal outcomes, and recent evidence suggests that body image may play an important role in depression. This systematic review identifies studies of body image and perinatal depression with the goal of elucidating the complex role that body image plays in prenatal and postpartum depression, improving measurement, and informing next steps in research. We conducted a literature search of the PubMed database (1996-2014) for English language studies of (1) depression, (2) body image, and (3) pregnancy or postpartum. In total, 19 studies matched these criteria. Cross-sectional studies consistently found a positive association between body image dissatisfaction and perinatal depression. Prospective cohort studies found that body image dissatisfaction predicted incident prenatal and postpartum depression; findings were consistent across different aspects of body image and various pregnancy and postpartum time periods. Prospective studies that examined the reverse association found that depression influenced the onset of some aspects of body image dissatisfaction during pregnancy, but few evaluated the postpartum onset of body image dissatisfaction. The majority of studies found that body image dissatisfaction is consistently but weakly associated with the onset of prenatal and postpartum depression. Findings were less consistent for the association between perinatal depression and subsequent body image dissatisfaction. While published studies provide a foundation for understanding these issues, methodologically rigorous studies that capture the perinatal variation in depression and body image via instruments validated in pregnant women, consistently adjust for important confounders, and include ethnically diverse populations will further elucidate this association.

  18. The Politics and Economics of Body Image and Sexuality in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body image is internal and external. It is seen by ourselves and by others. Social body image constructs seem to be built on what is deemed to be beautiful within our cultural contexts, which in turn is perceived as valuable and in turn has higher social standing because everyone else looks up to it. The politics of body image ...

  19. Body image dissatisfaction and dietary patterns according to nutritional status in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Ribeiro‐Silva

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion: Amongst overweight/obese adolescents, those with slight and moderate body image dissatisfaction were less likely to follow a Western‐like dietary pattern when compared with those satisfied with their body image. Additionally, in this group, adolescents with high body image dissatisfaction was more likely to follow a restrictive pattern.

  20. Adolescent Girls and Body Image: Influence of Outdoor Adventure on Healthy Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr-Wilson, Susie K.; Roberts, Nina S.

    2016-01-01

    Outdoor adventure may improve body image. However, minimal research exists on the effect outdoor adventure has on body image in adolescent girls, a demographic continually plagued by negative body image. In response, this exploratory study considered the influence of one outdoor adventure program in the San Francisco Bay Area. Through…

  1. Explorations in body image care: Peplau and practice knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, B

    1998-06-01

    Practitioners in mental health care have long utilized the work of Hildegard Peplau, both for nursing discourse and for practice. At a time when the role of theory in practice is once more being debated, and when theories are being applied in new contexts, this paper examines the contribution that Peplau's work may have to offer altered body image nursing care. A case study is used to highlight concepts in practice, the paper examining the ways in which Peplau's Theory of Interpersonal Relations complement the other elements of practice knowledge that the nurse uses to assist patients and lay carers alike.

  2. Foreign Body in Duodenum Mimicking a Duplication Cyst on Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Aditya Pratap; Mathur, Vinay; Tanger, Ramesh; Gupta, Arun; Kumar, Ayush

    2016-01-01

    Paediatric age group is most vulnerable for the accidental foreign body (FB) ingestion which may go unnoticed. These patients present with symptoms or complications as a result of FB and may mimic other conditions on various investigations. We describe a 9-month old infant who ingested crystal gel ball and presented with vomiting for a month. On radiological imaging it was interpreted as duplication cyst of the duodenum. At operation, crystal gel ball was retrieved. Our case vindicates importance of keeping various possibilities in mind as differential diagnoses during evaluation and management of surgical ailments such as the duplication cyst of duodenum.

  3. My Body Looks Like That Girl’s: Body Mass Index Modulates Brain Activity during Body Image Self-Reflection among Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xin; She, Ying; Vinke, Petra Corianne; Chen, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Body image distress or body dissatisfaction is one of the most common consequences of obesity and overweight. We investigated the neural bases of body image processing in overweight and average weight young women to understand whether brain regions that were previously found to be involved in processing self-reflective, perspective and affective components of body image would show different activation between two groups. Thirteen overweight (O-W group, age = 20.31±1.70 years) and thirteen average weight (A-W group, age = 20.15±1.62 years) young women underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a body image self-reflection task. Among both groups, whole-brain analysis revealed activations of a brain network related to perceptive and affective components of body image processing. ROI analysis showed a main effect of group in ACC as well as a group by condition interaction within bilateral EBA, bilateral FBA, right IPL, bilateral DLPFC, left amygdala and left MPFC. For the A-W group, simple effect analysis revealed stronger activations in Thin-Control compared to Fat-Control condition within regions related to perceptive (including bilateral EBA, bilateral FBA, right IPL) and affective components of body image processing (including bilateral DLPFC, left amygdala), as well as self-reference (left MPFC). The O-W group only showed stronger activations in Fat-Control than in Thin-Control condition within regions related to the perceptive component of body image processing (including left EBA and left FBA). Path analysis showed that in the Fat-Thin contrast, body dissatisfaction completely mediated the group difference in brain response in left amygdala across the whole sample. Our data are the first to demonstrate differences in brain response to body pictures between average weight and overweight young females involved in a body image self-reflection task. These results provide insights for understanding the vulnerability to body image distress

  4. Considering an affect regulation framework for examining the association between body dissatisfaction and positive body image in Black older adolescent females: does body mass index matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Jennifer B; Butler-Ajibade, Phoebe; Robinson, Seronda A

    2014-09-01

    The present study provided an initial evaluation of an affect regulation model describing the association between body dissatisfaction and two contemporary measures of positive body image among 247 Black college-bound older adolescent females. We further tested whether possessing a higher body mass index (BMI) would strengthen these associations. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate BMI. Respondents also completed a culturally-sensitive figure rating scale along with assessments of body appreciation and body image flexibility. Results indicated a robust positive association between the two measures of positive body image; BMI was the strongest predictor of both body appreciation and body image flexibility with body size discrepancy (current minus ideal) contributing incremental variance to both models tested. Implications for improving our understanding of the association between positive and negative body image and bolstering positive body image to promote health-protective behaviors among Black young women at this developmental juncture are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Are there differences in the attitudinal body image between adolescent anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruuska, J; Kaltiala-Heino, R; Rantanen, P; Koivisto, A M

    2005-06-01

    Body image dissatisfaction is as well a risk factor for eating disorders (ED) and a central feature of ED. The exact nature of body image in adolescent ED is still debated. This study examined attitudinal body image in adolescent anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN), and the association of age, maturational timing, duration of eating disorder, actual weight and general psychological distress with the attitudinal body image in ED. The study group consisted of an outpatient clinical sample of adolescents attending for assessment because of eating disorders. The attitudinal body image of 57 adolescents (girls) aged 14-21 years was studied at the beginning of the treatment. The attitudes to body shape, body size, appearance, tone and femininity were studied by a Likert format scale and by the body dissatisfaction (BD) and drive for thinness scales (DT) from EDI-2 inventory. Bulimics reported more body image dissatisfaction than anorectics. In multivariate analyses BN and higher general psychological distress had strong associations with body image dissatisfaction. Longer duration of ED and earlier menarche were also associated with negative body image. Attitudinal body image differs between adolescent AN and BN. The psychological distress has a great impact on body image in ED, which should be taken into account in assessment and in treatment interventions.

  6. Limited role of body satisfaction and body image self-consciousness in sexual frequency and satisfaction in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radoš, Sandra Nakić; Vraneš, Hrvojka Soljačić; Šunjić, Marijana

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the role of maternal body image and body image self-consciousness in sexual satisfaction and intercourse frequency during pregnancy when controlling for satisfaction with partnership. Pregnant women in their third trimester of pregnancy (N = 150) participated in the study. Body image was measured by the Body Areas Satisfaction Scale (BASS) and Body Image Self-Consciousness Scale (BISC), while relationship satisfaction was measured by different subscales of the Perceived Quality of Marital Relationship (PQMR) Scale. Sexual satisfaction was also measured by one of the subscales of the PQMR (Intimate Relationship). The sexual behavior questionnaire comprised questions about frequency of sexual intercourse, desire, and other aspects of sexual functioning as well as the reasons that might prevent women from having intercourse during pregnancy. Findings suggested that satisfaction with body image and body image self-consciousness were related to sexual satisfaction. Nevertheless, other aspects of partnership, such as communication, appeared to be much more important predictors of sexual satisfaction than body image variables. The best predictor of sexual frequency was fear that intercourse might harm the fetus. Implications for education about sexuality issues in pregnancy are discussed.

  7. Examining pain, body image, and depressive symptoms in patients with lymphedema secondary to breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Irene; Novy, Diane M; Chang, David W; Cox, Matthew G; Fingeret, Michelle Cororve

    2015-11-01

    Depression and reduced quality of life are often reported in patients with upper-extremity lymphedema secondary to breast cancer treatment. Little is known about how pain and body image influence depression in patients with lymphedema. The current study examined the association of pain intensity and body integrity beliefs with depressive symptoms and the extent to which body image dissatisfaction mediated these associations. A cross-sectional sample of patients with lymphedema secondary to breast cancer treatment completed self-report questionnaires of pain, body image, and depressive symptoms. Hierarchical regression analyses and tests of mediation were conducted to examine the associations among the variables of interest. Pain intensity and body integrity beliefs were positively associated with depressive symptoms. Further, body image dissatisfaction mediated the relationship between pain and depressive symptoms, indicating that higher levels of pain led to higher states of body image dissatisfaction, which, in turn, led to greater depressive symptoms. Body image dissatisfaction also mediated the relationship between body integrity beliefs and depressive symptoms, suggesting that greater body integrity beliefs led to higher dissatisfaction with one's body and subsequently to greater depressive symptoms. Our findings provide preliminary evidence that pain intensity and body image are important factors in understanding depressive symptoms in patients with lymphedema. Clinical implications include screening for pain and body image concerns in this population to identify patients who are in distress. Counseling interventions targeting body image dissatisfaction can also be potentially helpful for patients with lymphedema. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Body Image Perceptions of Women Veterans with Military Sexual Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freysteinson, Wyona M; Mellott, Susan; Celia, Tania; Du, Jinlan; Goff, Marilyn; Plescher, Tana; Allam, Zoheb

    2018-04-12

    The researchers were invited to a transitional home for homeless women veterans to help veterans with body image issues. Convenience sampling was used to recruit 12 veterans who perceived they had a physical difference due to military service. Data were obtained in focus groups where the veterans were invited to share stories. Ricoeur's hermeneutic phenomenology guided the study. The research team learned early in the data collection stage that 11 of the 12 participants suffered military sexual trauma (MST). Three structures emerged in the data: (a) to speak up or not to speak, (b) from military pride to shameful anguish, and (c) invisible scars versus visible scars. A phenomenological interpretation of these invisible scars uncovered that viewing self in a mirror was depicted as viewing a stranger. Being with others, including family, was described as wearing a fake face. The phrase I am broken defined intimate relationships which were non-existent or strained. Shame permeated all body image structures. As the veterans listened to each other, they began to see themes in their stories. There was a shared sense of identity and a movement toward greater self-understanding and resolving. In addition to the recommendations the participants had regarding prevention of MST and recovery care of those with MST, implications for research and practice are provided.

  9. Body Image and Body Experience Disturbances in Schizophrenia: an Attempt to Introduce the Concept of Body Self as a Conceptual Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakson-Obada, Olga; Chudzikiewicz, Paulina; Pankowski, Daniel; Jarema, Marek

    2018-01-01

    Disturbances in body experience are described as key schizophrenia symptoms and early disease predictors. In case studies, different disorders relating to body experience are presented, but only a few empirical studies have aimed to distinguish the characteristics of body experience in schizophrenia, and these have been selected arbitrarily and without reference to cohesive theoretical model. To integrate this fragmentary approach, we propose a body self (BS) model, composed of: functions; representations (e.g., body image); and sense of body identity. The aim of the study was to determine whether the BS differentiates schizophrenic patients from healthy controls, and to investigate the relations between aspects of BS and a history of illness and clinical characteristics. The Body Self Questionnaire and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale were administered to 63 schizophrenic patients and 63 healthy subjects. The difference was found in the functions of the body-self (perceiving, interpreting, and regulating body experience), in the sense of body identity, and in one of three aspects of body image explored (e.g., acceptance of biological sex). Disturbances in BS were related to positive symptoms and to the number of hospitalizations for other diseases. Together, the results demonstrate that schizophrenia is more body experience than body image disorder, since the negative emotional attitude towards the body and acceptance of fitness were not distinctive for schizophrenia. The link between the disturbances in BS and the number of nonpsychiatric hospitalizations suggests that misinterpretation of body experiences in schizophrenia can promote a search for medical attention.

  10. Does nutritional status interfere with adolescents' body image perception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Karla L; Sousa, Ana L L; Carneiro, Carolina S; Nascente, Flávia M N; Póvoa, Thaís I R; Souza, Weimar K S B; Jardim, Thiago S V; Jardim, Paulo C B V

    2014-08-01

    Adolescents' body image (BI) may not match their nutritional status. This study selected representative sample of healthy adolescents aged between 12 and 18 from public and private schools. Anthropometric measures were performed in order to calculate the body mass index (BMI) percentile. The silhouette scale proposed by Childress was used to evaluate BI, making it possible to assess BI satisfaction and BI distortion. The sample was composed of 1168 adolescents with a mean age of 14.7 years; 52.9% were female, 50.9% were fair-skinned, 62.4% had consumed or still consume alcohol and 67% attended public school. Male adolescents presented more overweight and obesity (28.4%) (pbody weight and 82.5% of those underweight wished to gain body weight. BI distortion was identified, since 35% of the adolescents who were underweight did not regard themselves thin, 39.1% of the overweight individuals and 62.1% of the obese did not see themselves in their adequate classifications. Adolescents with overweight/obesity were those who presented higher dissatisfaction with BI, mainly the females. Male individuals presented a greater wish of gaining weight. BI distortion was present in adolescents of all classes of BMI percentile. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Impressions of female body: representations of women and body-image in the brazilian press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulce Helena Mazer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the representations of women and bodyimage in the brazilian press and it questions the sexual divisions in the society by the images published in the media. It also presents an iconological analysisof the photographs in six editions of the periodical Folha de São Paulo in 2012, randomly chosen. From a critical theory and analysis it shows that the image of women, which has long been used as merchandise in advertising, is increasingly perceived by print journalism as a decoy for readers. The use of certain female images in the media reinforces stereotypes and builds limits for the understanding of more complex contexts. The hypothesis that the female body-image is used in the press in order to determine positions from recurrent aesthetic patterns can be confirmed. The paper also describes the three main female stereotypes in the media, based on three major pictorial stereotypes in history, being the madona, the seductive and the politician (HIGONNET, 1991. It expresses the confirmation of the superlative visibility of some groups of women and the invisibility of others. The survey reveals that, despite the assumption that they are very imagetically represented in newspapers, women are under-represented, especially in news photographs. It shows that the editorship of the “culture” and “varieties” sections are exceptions, because those special fragments are considered “light”, referring to art, music, dance, celebrities, television, film and cultural activities” (HEDLER, 2011. We conclude that even in a visual culture, visibility is not guaranteed at all. This research enables to deconstructthe concept that it´s normal to use certain images as representations of such a heterogeneous group like women. We expect to expand the horizon of the discussion about the leading roles for women in the society and their relationship to the images produced about them in the newspapers.

  12. Body image in patients with mental disorders: Characteristics, associations with diagnosis and treatment outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffers, Mia; van Busschbach, Jooske T; Bosscher, Ruud J; Aerts, Liza C; Wiersma, Durk; Schoevers, Robert A

    2017-04-01

    Despite the increasing recognition in clinical practice of body image problems in other than appearance related mental disorders, the question remains how aspects of body image are affected in different disorders. The aim of this study was to measure body image in patients with a variety of mental disorders and to compare scores with those in the general population in order to obtain more insight in the relative disturbance of body image in the patients group compared to healthy controls. In a further exploration associations with self-reported mental health, quality of life and empowerment were established as well as the changes in body image in patients over time. 176 women and 91 men in regular psychiatric treatment completed the Dresden Body Image Questionnaire, the Outcome Questionnaire, the Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life and the Mental Health Confidence Scale. Measurements were repeated after four months. Patients with mental disorders, especially those with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), scored significantly lower on body image, with large effect sizes, in comparison with the healthy controls. Scores of patients from different diagnostic groups varied across domains of body image, with body acceptance lowest in the group with eating disorders, and sexual fulfillment extremely low in PTSD. Vitality did not differ significantly between the various disorders. Gender differences were large for body acceptance and sexual fulfillment and small for vitality. Associations of body image with self-reported mental health, quality of life and empowerment were moderate to strong. After four months of treatment positive changes in body image were observed. Negative body image is a common problem occurring in most patients with mental disorders. Diagnosis-specific profiles emerge, with PTSD being the most affected disorder. Body acceptance and sexual fulfillment were the most differentiating aspects of body image between diagnoses. Changes in body

  13. [Body image satisfaction in Mexican adolescents and adults and its relation with body selfperception and real body mass index].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sámano, Reyna; Rodríguez-Ventura, Ana Lilia; Sánchez-Jiménez, Bernarda; Godínez Martínez, Estela Ytelina; Noriega, Almudena; Zelonka, Rosa; Garza, Marien; Nieto, Javier

    2014-12-16

    Body Image (BI) perception could determine the nutritional care search, even though there is not always concordance between the real BMI and the self-perceived one. To determine the correlation between self-perceived and real BMI, and their relation with body image (BI) satisfaction in a sample of Mexican adolescents and adults. An cross-sectional and analytical study, conformed by 556 participants; of which 330 were adolescents and 217 were adults with anthropometric, self-perception and BI satisfaction assessment. The BMI was higher 23±6 vs 29.3±5 padolescents 79% vs 43%. About 50% of participants had concordance between their real BMI and their perceived one (padolescents was 80%. The predictive variables of BI insatisfaction were being an adult, being a woman and having overweight/obesity (p=0.013). Those ones who referred a positive judgment about their BI, they also reported being satisfied with their BI and presented a real normal or overweight BMI. Half of the participants had concordance of their perceived BI with their real BMI. The satisfaction with BI was more frequent between the lower real and perceived BMI, but subjects with overweight and obesity also reported satisfaction with their BI even though it is considered a risk condition. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  14. Binge Eating Disorder and body image perception among university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoli, Marina G; Junior, Raphael D R Liberatore

    2011-12-01

    Binge Eating Disorder (BED) is characterized by recurrent episodes of compulsive eating, without any compensatory behavior to avoid possible gain weight. Individuals who suffer from eating disorders often show negative self-image. The present paper aimed to assess BED prevalence and self-image disorders among university students in the city of São José do Rio Preto, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The survey had the participation of 217 undergraduates. The following procedures were carried out: a personal data questionnaire, the Binge Eating Scale and a figure scale. In the surveyed population, 12.90% showed BED. Most subjects (86.32%) chose larger figures when compared to their current BMI, overestimating their body size. Furthermore, BED individuals showed higher self-image inadequacy in comparison to people without the disorder. Therefore, this is a public health problem to which undergraduates are exposed; forthcoming studies may be carried out to understand BED and associated commorbidities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Body Image in Transmen: Multidimensional Measurement and the Effects of Mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Grift, Tim C; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Elfering, Lian; Özer, Müjde; Bouman, Mark-Bram; Buncamper, Marlon E; Smit, Jan Maerten; Mullender, Margriet G

    2016-11-01

    Transmen are generally dissatisfied with their breasts and often opt for mastectomy. However, little is known about the specific effects of this procedure on this group's body image. To prospectively assess the effect of mastectomy on the body image of transmen, including cognitive, emotional, and behavioral aspects. During a 10-month period, all transmen applying for mastectomy were invited to participate in this study. The 33 participants completed assessments preoperatively and at least 6 months postoperatively. Participants were surveyed on body satisfaction (Body Image Scale for Transsexuals), body attitudes (Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire), appearance schemas (Appearance Schemas Inventory), situational bodily feelings (Situational Inventory of Body Image Dysphoria), body image-related quality of life (Body Image Quality of Life Inventory), and self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale). Control values were retrieved from the literature and a college sample. Before surgery, transmen reported less positive body attitudes and satisfaction, a lower self-esteem and body image-related quality of life compared with cisgender men and women. Mastectomy improved body satisfaction most strongly, although respondents reported improvements in all domains (eg, decreased dysphoria when looking in the mirror and improved feelings of self-worth). Most outcome measurements were strongly correlated. Mastectomy improves body image beyond satisfaction with chest appearance alone. Body satisfaction and feelings of "passing" in social situations are associated with a higher quality of life and self-esteem. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Body image disturbance in binge eating disorder: a comparison of obese patients with and without binge eating disorder regarding the cognitive, behavioral and perceptual component of body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewer, Merle; Nasrawi, Nadia; Schroeder, Dorothea; Vocks, Silja

    2016-03-01

    Whereas the manifestation of body image disturbance in binge eating disorder (BED) has been intensively investigated concerning the cognitive-affective component, with regard to the behavioral and the perceptual components of body image disturbance in BED, research is limited and results are inconsistent. Therefore, the present study assessed body image disturbance in BED with respect to the different components of body image in a sample of obese females (n = 31) with BED compared to obese females without an eating disorder (n = 28). The Eating Disorder Inventory-2, the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, the Body Image Avoidance Questionnaire and the Body Checking Questionnaire as well as a Digital Photo Distortion Technique based on a picture of each participant taken under standardized conditions were employed. Using two-sample t tests, we found that the participants with BED displayed significantly greater impairments concerning the cognitive-affective component of body image than the control group. Concerning the behavioral component, participants with BED reported more body checking and avoidance behavior than the controls, but group differences failed to reach significance after the Bonferroni corrections. Regarding the perceptual component, a significant group difference was found for the perceived "ideal" figure, with the individuals suffering from BED displaying a greater wish for a slimmer ideal figure than the control group. These results support the assumption that body image disturbance is a relevant factor in BED, similar to other eating disorders.

  17. Media Influences on Body Image and Disordered Eating among Indigenous Adolescent Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Marita P.; Ricciardelli, Lina; Mellor, David; Ball, Kylie

    2005-01-01

    There has been no previous investigation of body image concerns and body change strategies among indigenous Australians. This study was designed to investigate the level of body satisfaction, body change strategies, and perceived media messages about body change strategies among 50 indigenous (25 males, 25 females) and 50 non-indigenous (25 males,…

  18. The Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Body Image Attitudes in Women

    OpenAIRE

    Sareh Zar-Shenas; Ashraf Karbalaaei-Nouri; Seyyed-Ali Hosseini; Mahdi Rahgozar; Reza Seyed-Nour; Nahaleh Moshtagh

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Sociocultural emphasis and increased interest in physical attractiveness and current attitudes body structure have increased body image dissatisfaction among women. The prevalence of body image dissatisfaction is linked with various psychological disorders and disturbances such as low self-esteem, depression and other disorders. The present study investigated the short program aerobic exercise effects on body image among women. Materials & Methods: In this interventional and qu...

  19. Different Facets of Body Image Disturbance in Binge Eating Disorder: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewer, Merle; Bauer, Anika

    2017-01-01

    The goal of the present review is to give an overview of the current findings on various facets of body image disturbance in Binge Eating Disorder such as body dissatisfaction, overconcern with weight and shape, body-related checking and avoidance behavior, misperception of body size, and body-related cognitive bias. In addition, treatments for a disturbed body image in BED and evidence of body image disturbance in youth with binge eating are reviewed. The results show that a disturbed body image in BED is present in the form of overconcern with weight and shape. Furthermore, there are hints that body dissatisfaction, as well as body-related checking and avoidance behavior, are also impaired. Research concerning misperception of body size in BED has been neglected so far, but first findings show that individuals with BED rate their own body shape rather accurately. Furthermore, there are first hints that body-related cognitive biases are present in individuals with BED. Moreover, in children and adolescents, there are first hints that body dissatisfaction, as well as shape and weight concerns, seem to be associated with loss of control and binge eating. Treatments aimed directly at the convertibility of a disturbed body image in BED have revealed encouraging outcomes. In conclusion, body image disturbance seems to occur in BED, and first studies show that it can be treated effectively. PMID:29182531

  20. Different Facets of Body Image Disturbance in Binge Eating Disorder: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merle Lewer

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present review is to give an overview of the current findings on various facets of body image disturbance in Binge Eating Disorder such as body dissatisfaction, overconcern with weight and shape, body-related checking and avoidance behavior, misperception of body size, and body-related cognitive bias. In addition, treatments for a disturbed body image in BED and evidence of body image disturbance in youth with binge eating are reviewed. The results show that a disturbed body image in BED is present in the form of overconcern with weight and shape. Furthermore, there are hints that body dissatisfaction, as well as body-related checking and avoidance behavior, are also impaired. Research concerning misperception of body size in BED has been neglected so far, but first findings show that individuals with BED rate their own body shape rather accurately. Furthermore, there are first hints that body-related cognitive biases are present in individuals with BED. Moreover, in children and adolescents, there are first hints that body dissatisfaction, as well as shape and weight concerns, seem to be associated with loss of control and binge eating. Treatments aimed directly at the convertibility of a disturbed body image in BED have revealed encouraging outcomes. In conclusion, body image disturbance seems to occur in BED, and first studies show that it can be treated effectively.

  1. "My body was my temple": a narrative revealing body image experiences following treatment of a spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, K Alysse; Gammage, Kimberley L; van Ingen, Cathy; Ditor, David S

    2017-09-01

    This narrative explores the lived experience of a young woman, Rebecca, and her transitioned body image after sustaining and being treated for a spinal cord injury. Data were collected from a single semi-structured in-depth interview. Rebecca disclosed her transitioned body image experiences after sustaining a spinal cord injury and being treated by medical staff immediately following her injury. Before her injury, she described a holistic body experience and named this experience her "temple". During intensive care in the hospital, she explained her body was treated as an object. The disconnected treatment of her body led to a loss of the private self, as she described her sacred body being stripped away - her "temple" lost and in ruins. Body image may be an overlooked component of health following a spinal cord injury. This narrative emphasizes the importance of unveiling body image experiences after the treatment of a spinal cord injury to medical professionals. Lessons of the importance of considering the transitioned body experiences after a spinal cord injury may help prevent body-related depression and other subsequent health impacts. Recommendations for best practice are provided. Implications for Rehabilitation    Spinal Cord Injury   • A spinal cord injury may drastically change a person's body image, thereby significantly impacting psychological health   • More effective screening for body image within the medical/rehabilitation context is needed to help practitioners recognize distress   • Practitioners should be prepared to refer clients to distress hotlines they may need once released from treatment.

  2. Image combination enhancement method for X-ray compton back-scattering security inspection body scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huaiying; Zhang Yujin; Yang Lirui; Li Dong

    2011-01-01

    As for X-ray Compton Back-Scattering (CBS) body scanner, image clearness is very important for the performance of detecting the contraband hidden on the body. A new image combination enhancement method is provided based on characteristics of CBS body images and points of human vision. After processed by this method, the CBS image will be obviously improved with clear levels, distinct outline and uniform background. (authors)

  3. The Influence of Societal Factors on Female Body Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteath, Sheryl A.; McCabe, Marita P.

    1997-01-01

    Investigates the influence of societal factors on Western women's perceptions of their bodies. Finds that women typically underestimate their body size and want smaller bodies; two-fifths of women expressed negative feelings about their bodies; and that body satisfaction is best explained by societal influences, self-esteem and body mass index.…

  4. Roles of body image-related experiential avoidance and uncommitted living in the link between body image and women’s quality of life

    OpenAIRE

    Trindade, Inês A.; Ferreira, Cláudia; Pinto-Gouveia, José

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed to test whether the associations of body mass index, body image discrepancy, and social comparison based on physical appearance with women's psychological quality of life (QoL) would be explained by the mechanisms of body image-related experiential avoidance and patterns of uncommitted living. The sample was collected from October 2014 to March 2015 and included 737 female college students (aged between 18 and 25 years) who completed validated self-report measures. Res...

  5. RF Device for Acquiring Images of the Human Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaier, Todd C.; McGrath, William R.

    2010-01-01

    A safe, non-invasive method for forming images through clothing of large groups of people, in order to search for concealed weapons either made of metal or not, has been developed. A millimeter wavelength scanner designed in a unique, ring-shaped configuration can obtain a full 360 image of the body with a resolution of less than a millimeter in only a few seconds. Millimeter waves readily penetrate normal clothing, but are highly reflected by the human body and concealed objects. Millimeter wave signals are nonionizing and are harmless to human tissues when used at low power levels. The imager (see figure) consists of a thin base that supports a small-diameter vertical post about 7 ft (=2.13 m) tall. Attached to the post is a square-shaped ring 2 in. (=5 cm) wide and 3 ft (=91 cm) on a side. The ring is oriented horizontally, and is supported halfway along one side by a connection to a linear bearing on the vertical post. A planar RF circuit board is mounted to the inside of each side of the ring. Each circuit board contains an array of 30 receivers, one transmitter, and digitization electronics. Each array element has a printed-circuit patch antenna coupled to a pair of mixers by a 90 coupler. The mixers receive a reference local oscillator signal to a subharmonic of the transmitter frequency. A single local oscillator line feeds all 30 receivers on the board. The resulting MHz IF signals are amplified and carried to the edge of the board where they are demodulated and digitized. The transmitted signal is derived from the local oscillator at a frequency offset determined by a crystal oscillator. One antenna centrally located on each side of the square ring provides the source illumination power. The total transmitted power is less than 100 mW, resulting in an exposure level that is completely safe to humans. The output signals from all four circuit boards are fed via serial connection to a data processing computer. The computer processes the approximately 1-MB

  6. Body Image Satisfaction, Eating Attitudes and Perceptions of Female Body Silhouettes in Rural South African Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titilola M Pedro

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the associations between BMI, disordered eating attitude, body dissatisfaction in female adolescents, and descriptive attributes assigned to silhouettes of varying sizes in male and female adolescents, aged 11 to 15, in rural South Africa. Height and weight were measured to determine BMI. Age and sex-specific cut-offs for underweight and overweight/obesity were determined using the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs. Body image satisfaction using Feel-Ideal Discrepancy (FID scores, Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26, and perceptual female silhouettes were collected through self-administered questionnaires in 385 adolescents from the Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System (HSDSS. Participants self-reported their Tanner pubertal stage and were classified as early pubertal ( 2. Mid to post pubertal boys and girls were significantly heavier, taller, and had higher BMI values than their early pubertal counterparts (all p<0.001. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher in the girls than the boys in both pubertal stages. The majority (83.5% of the girls demonstrated body dissatisfaction (a desire to be thinner or fatter. The girls who wanted to be fatter had a significantly higher BMI than the girls who wanted to be thinner (p<0.001. There were no differences in EAT-26 scores between pubertal groups, within the same sex, and between boys and girls within the two pubertal groups. The majority of the boys and the girls in both pubertal groups perceived the underweight silhouettes to be "unhappy" and "weak" and the majority of girls in both pubertal groups perceived the normal silhouettes to be the "best". These findings suggest a need for policy intervention that will address a healthy body size among South African adolescents.

  7. The Effects of Immigration and Media Influence on Body Image Among Pakistani Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghir, Sheeba; Hyland, Lynda

    2017-07-01

    This study examined the role of media influence and immigration on body image among Pakistani men. Attitudes toward the body were compared between those living in Pakistan ( n = 56) and those who had immigrated to the United Arab Emirates ( n = 58). Results of a factorial analysis of variance demonstrated a significant main effect of immigrant status. Pakistani men living in the United Arab Emirates displayed poorer body image than those in the Pakistan sample. Results also indicated a second main effect of media influence.Those highly influenced by the media displayed poorer body image. No interaction effect was observed between immigrant status and media influence on body image. These findings suggest that media influence and immigration are among important risk factors for the development of negative body image among non-Western men. Interventions designed to address the negative effects of the media and immigration may be effective at reducing body image disorders and other related health problems in this population.

  8. Psychological and Cortisol Responses to and Recovery From Exposure to a Body Image Threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larkin Lamarche

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The majority of body image research has failed to measure what occurs beyond the immediate presentation of a body image threat, or after a body image threat is no longer present. This is particularly true for physiological outcomes. The present study examined psychological and cortisol responses to, and recovery from, a body composition assessment as a social-evaluative body image threat. Women (N = 64 were randomized into either a control or threat group. Participants completed a measure of social physique anxiety and provided a sample of saliva (to assess cortisol at baseline, and immediately following and 20 min following their condition. The threat group reported higher social physique anxiety following the threat in comparison with both baseline levels and recovery levels. Cortisol was higher immediately following the threat in comparison with baseline levels. Findings support the inclusion of a recovery time point in body image research to provide a more complete picture of the psychobiology of body image experiences.

  9. Consumer opinion on social policy approaches to promoting positive body image: Airbrushed media images and disclaimer labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskeva, Nicole; Lewis-Smith, Helena; Diedrichs, Phillippa C

    2017-02-01

    Disclaimer labels on airbrushed media images have generated political attention and advocacy as a social policy approach to promoting positive body image. Experimental research suggests that labelling is ineffective and consumers' viewpoints have been overlooked. A mixed-method study explored British consumers' ( N = 1555, aged 11-78 years) opinions on body image and social policy approaches. Thematic analysis indicated scepticism about the effectiveness of labelling images. Quantitatively, adults, although not adolescents, reported that labelling was unlikely to improve body image. Appearance diversity in media and reorienting social norms from appearance to function and health were perceived as effective strategies. Social policy and research implications are discussed.

  10. Eating disorders awareness week: the effectiveness of a one-time body image dissatisfaction prevention session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridolfi, Danielle R; Vander Wal, Jillion S

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a body image dissatisfaction prevention session that provided information on body image and media literacy to college women. Participants were 81 undergraduates who were randomly assigned to attend either a body image intervention or a control intervention. Participants completed measures at pre- and post-intervention and at 4-week follow-up. The body image group improved significantly more than the control group on body shape concerns, but not on the other outcome variables. Efficacious interventions capable of reaching large numbers of women are necessary to help dispel the "normative discontent" prevalent today.

  11. Sketching people: Prospective investigations of the impact of life drawing on body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren

    2017-03-01

    Three studies were conducted to establish the extent to which life drawing is effective at promoting positive body image. Study 1 (N=84 women) showed that life drawing had a positive impact on state body image, but only if artists observed a human model and not non-human objects. Study 2 (N=61 women, 61 men) showed that life drawing had a positive impact on state body image for women and men, irrespective of whether artists observed a sex-congruent or -incongruent model. Study 3 (N=23) showed that participating in weekly life drawing sessions for a 6-week period resulted in significantly elevated trait positive body image (body appreciation and body pride) and embodiment, and in reduced social physique anxiety; however, the intervention had no significant impact on negative body image (drive for thinness or muscularity). These results highlight the potential of life drawing for promoting positive body experiences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Association between body image dissatisfaction and depressive symptoms in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorela Flores-Cornejo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the association between body image dissatisfaction (BID and depressive symptoms in adolescents from a school in Lima, Peru. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed through a census of 875 high-school students, aged 13 to 17 years, from a school in Lima. Participants completed a survey containing the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9. Data regarding demographics, alcohol and tobacco use, self-esteem, and family history of depression were also obtained. To identify associated factors, Poisson regression with robust variance was used. Prevalence ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Results: Of the 875 adolescents, 55.8% were male. The mean age was 14.1±1.5 years. Depressive symptoms were observed in 19.9% of participants. An association between BID and depressive symptoms was found. Alcohol and tobacco use were also associated with the outcome of interest. Conclusions: Teens who had BID were 3.7 times more likely to report depressive symptoms. Additionally, those who used tobacco or alcohol were 1.5 and 1.4 times more likely to have depressive symptoms, respectively. Further studies targeting other populations and using longitudinal designs are recommended.

  13. Association between body image dissatisfaction and depressive symptoms in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Cornejo, Fiorela; Kamego-Tome, Mayumi; Zapata-Pachas, Mariana A; Alvarado, German F

    2017-01-01

    To determine the association between body image dissatisfaction (BID) and depressive symptoms in adolescents from a school in Lima, Peru. A cross-sectional study was performed through a census of 875 high-school students, aged 13 to 17 years, from a school in Lima. Participants completed a survey containing the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Data regarding demographics, alcohol and tobacco use, self-esteem, and family history of depression were also obtained. To identify associated factors, Poisson regression with robust variance was used. Prevalence ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Of the 875 adolescents, 55.8% were male. The mean age was 14.1±1.5 years. Depressive symptoms were observed in 19.9% of participants. An association between BID and depressive symptoms was found. Alcohol and tobacco use were also associated with the outcome of interest. Teens who had BID were 3.7 times more likely to report depressive symptoms. Additionally, those who used tobacco or alcohol were 1.5 and 1.4 times more likely to have depressive symptoms, respectively. Further studies targeting other populations and using longitudinal designs are recommended.

  14. Independent Aftereffects of Fat and Muscle: Implications for neural encoding, body space representation, and body image disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturman, Daniel; Stephen, Ian D; Mond, Jonathan; Stevenson, Richard J; Brooks, Kevin R

    2017-01-10

    Although research addressing body size misperception has focused on socio-cognitive processes, such as internalization of the "ideal" images of bodies in the media, the perceptual basis of this phenomenon remains largely unknown. Further, most studies focus on body size per se even though this depends on both fat and muscle mass - variables that have very different relationships with health. We tested visual adaptation as a mechanism for inducing body fat and muscle mass misperception, and assessed whether these two dimensions of body space are processed independently. Observers manipulated the apparent fat and muscle mass of bodies to make them appear "normal" before and after inspecting images from one of four adaptation conditions (increased fat/decreased fat/increased muscle/decreased muscle). Exposure resulted in a shift in the point of subjective normality in the direction of the adapting images along the relevant (fat or muscle) axis, suggesting that the neural mechanisms involved in body fat and muscle perception are independent. This supports the viability of adaptation as a model of real-world body size misperception, and extends its applicability to clinical manifestations of body image disturbance that entail not only preoccupation with thinness (e.g., anorexia nervosa) but also with muscularity (e.g., muscle dysmorphia).

  15. Adjunctive graded body image exposure for eating disorders: A randomized controlled initial trial in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trottier, Kathryn; Carter, Jacqueline C; MacDonald, Danielle E; McFarlane, Traci; Olmsted, Marion P

    2015-07-01

    Graded body image exposure is a key component of CBT for eating disorders (EDs). However, despite being a highly anxiety-provoking intervention, its specific effectiveness is unknown. The aims of this initial study were to investigate the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of individualized graded body image exposure to a range of feared/avoided body image-related situations in a sample of partially remitted ED patients. Forty-five female adult participants were randomly assigned to maintenance treatment as usual (MTAU) only or MTAU plus five sessions of graded body image exposure. The graded body image exposure intervention led to large improvements in body avoidance as measured by two different methods. In addition, there was evidence of a significant impact of body image exposure on the overvaluation of shape, but not weight, 5 months after treatment. Taken together, the current results provide evidence of the feasibility of adjunctive individualized graded body image exposure within a clinical treatment program and suggest that graded body image exposure reduces body avoidance behaviors in partially remitted ED patients. Our findings suggest that individualized graded body image exposure shows promise as an intervention targeting the overvaluation of shape in EDs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. [Sex differences in body image of adolescents and significance for self esteem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Marcus

    2002-03-01

    Previous findings show that the body image of adolescents is in the first place gender related. However, most studies primarily focus on body cathexis. The present study, which was conducted in the context of a multi-dimensional perspective, refers to the question of gender differences in the adolescent's body image. Furthermore, it examines what relevance the single components of the body image have for general self-esteem. Therefore, we tested 326 adolescents aged 13 to 16 using questionnaires. The results indicate that there is primarily evidence for gender differences, whereas age related differences can hardly be found: Female adolescents differ from their male counterparts for example in the following aspects: they have a higher body awareness, a higher dissatisfaction with their shape, a lower perceived athletic competence and stronger feelings of depersonalisation. However, considering the effect sizes, it becomes clear that the differences mainly come up to only a low extend. Besides, the individual body image profile is hardly suitable to determine the gender of the adolescents. Furthermore, using regression analysis it was shown that altogether the body image has the same relevance for males and females in order to predict self-esteem. Nevertheless, there are special body image components that help to predict body image for boys and girls differently. The results show that the body image of adolescents is gender-depending but not gender specific. So demand arises for investigating the determinants of the development of the adolescent's body image that go beyond the gender-variable.

  17. Body Image and Quality of Life in Adolescents With Craniofacial Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crerand, Canice E; Sarwer, David B; Kazak, Anne E; Clarke, Alexandra; Rumsey, Nichola

    2017-01-01

      To evaluate body image in adolescents with and without craniofacial conditions and to examine relationships between body image and quality of life.   Case-control design.   A pediatric hospital's craniofacial center and primary care practices.   Seventy adolescents with visible craniofacial conditions and a demographically matched sample of 42 adolescents without craniofacial conditions.   Adolescents completed measures of quality of life and body image including satisfaction with weight, facial and overall appearance, investment in appearance (importance of appearance to self-worth), and body image disturbance (appearance-related distress and impairment in functioning).   Adolescents with craniofacial conditions reported lower appearance investment (P body image disturbance, and lower weight satisfaction compared with males (P body image disturbance was associated with lower quality of life (P body image disturbance, or satisfaction with appearance.   Body image and quality of life in adolescents with craniofacial conditions are similar to nonaffected youth. Relationships between body image and quality of life emphasize that appearance perceptions are important to adolescents' well-being regardless of whether they have a facial disfigurement. Investment in one's appearance may explain variations in body image satisfaction and serve as an intervention target, particularly for females.

  18. Importance of Ideal Body Image, Self-Esteem and Depression in Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Susan Kohlruss; Elovson, Allana C.

    Dissatisfaction with body image among women has become a major psychological and physical contemporary problem. This study is among the few to empirically suggest that overall body satisfaction is strongly related to perceived discrepancy of one's body image from ideal societal standards of attractiveness. This study also identifies the personal…

  19. Application of a Relational Model to Understanding Body Image in College Women and Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanftner, Jennifer L.; Ryan, William J.; Pierce, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Relational cultural theory was examined in relation to body image in two samples of college women (n = 102) and men (n = 78) from a Midwestern university. Participants completed measures of mutuality and body image satisfaction. Results revealed that low mutuality with mothers and fathers predicted body dissatisfaction in both men and women, and…

  20. Evaluation of An Upper Elementary School Program To Prevent Body Image, Eating, and Weight Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kater, Kathy J.; Rohwer, John; Londre, Karen

    2002-01-01

    Examined whether the 11-lesson "Healthy Body Image: Teaching Kids to Eat and Love Their Bodies Too!" curriculum would have a positive effect on upper elementary students. Pretest- posttest measures indicated that, compared to control children, children who completed the curriculum showed significant or notable improvement regarding body image,…

  1. Assessing the Landscape: Body Image Values and Attitudes among Middle School Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosick, Tracy L.; Talbert-Johnson, Carolyn; Myers, Melissa J.; Angelo, Renee

    2013-01-01

    Background: Body image refers to an individual's thoughts and feelings about his or her body and physical appearance. To date, several qualitative and quantitative findings implicate sociocultural influences, such as the media or parental pressure, in shaping female adolescents' body image perceptions. Overall, there is not much quantitative…

  2. [Application of GVF snake model in segmentation of whole body bone SPECT image].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chunmei; Tian, Lianfang; Chen, Ping; Wang, Lifei; Ye, Guangchun; Mao, Zongyuan

    2008-02-01

    Limited by the imaging principle of whole body bone SPECT image, the gray value of bladder area is quite high, which affects the image's brightness, contrast and readability. In the meantime, the similarity between bladder area and focus makes it difficult for some images to be segmented automatically. In this paper, an improved Snake model, GVF Snake, is adopted to automatically segment bladder area, preparing for further processing of whole body bone SPECT images.

  3. Strategies to minimize sedation in pediatric body magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaimes, Camilo; Gee, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    The high soft-tissue contrast of MRI and the absence of ionizing radiation make it a valuable tool for assessment of body pathology in children. Infants and young children are often unable to cooperate with awake MRI so sedation or general anesthesia might be required. However, given recent data on the costs and potential risks of anesthesia in young children, there is a need to try to decrease or avoid sedation in this population when possible. Child life specialists in radiology frequently use behavioral techniques and audiovisual support devices, and they practice with children and families using mock scanners to improve child compliance with MRI. Optimization of the MR scanner environment is also important to create a child-friendly space. If the child can remain inside the MRI scanner, a variety of emerging techniques can reduce the effect of involuntary motion. Using sequences with short acquisition times such as single-shot fast spin echo and volumetric gradient echo can decrease artifacts and improve image quality. Breath-holding, respiratory triggering and signal averaging all reduce respiratory motion. Emerging techniques such as radial and multislice k-space acquisition, navigator motion correction, as well as parallel imaging and compressed sensing reconstruction methods can further accelerate acquisition and decrease motion. Collaboration among radiologists, anesthesiologists, technologists, child life specialists and families is crucial for successful performance of MRI in young children. (orig.)

  4. PET imaging predicts future body weight and cocaine preference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaelides M.; Wang G.; Michaelides M.; Thanos P.K. Kim R.; Cho J.; Ananth M.; Wang G.-J.; Volkow N.D.

    2011-08-28

    Deficits in dopamine D2/D3 receptor (D2R/D3R) binding availability using PET imaging have been reported in obese humans and rodents. Similar deficits have been reported in cocaine-addicts and cocaine-exposed primates. We found that D2R/D3R binding availability negatively correlated with measures of body weight at the time of scan (ventral striatum), at 1 (ventral striatum) and 2 months (dorsal and ventral striatum) post scan in rats. Cocaine preference was negatively correlated with D2R/D3R binding availability 2 months (ventral striatum) post scan. Our findings suggest that inherent deficits in striatal D2R/D3R signaling are related to obesity and drug addiction susceptibility and that ventral and dorsal striatum serve dissociable roles in maintaining weight gain and cocaine preference. Measuring D2R/D3R binding availability provides a way for assessing susceptibility to weight gain and cocaine abuse in rodents and given the translational nature of PET imaging, potentially primates and humans.

  5. PET imaging predicts future body weight and cocaine preference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaelides, M.; Wang, G.; Michaelides, M.; Thanos, P.K.; Kim, R.; Cho, J.; Ananth, M.; Wang, G.-J.; Volkow N.D.

    2012-01-01

    Deficits in dopamine D2/D3 receptor (D2R/D3R) binding availability using PET imaging have been reported in obese humans and rodents. Similar deficits have been reported in cocaine-addicts and cocaine-exposed primates. We found that D2R/D3R binding availability negatively correlated with measures of body weight at the time of scan (ventral striatum), at 1 (ventral striatum) and 2 months (dorsal and ventral striatum) post scan in rats. Cocaine preference was negatively correlated with D2R/D3R binding availability 2 months (ventral striatum) post scan. Our findings suggest that inherent deficits in striatal D2R/D3R signaling are related to obesity and drug addiction susceptibility and that ventral and dorsal striatum serve dissociable roles in maintaining weight gain and cocaine preference. Measuring D2R/D3R binding availability provides a way for assessing susceptibility to weight gain and cocaine abuse in rodents and given the translational nature of PET imaging, potentially primates and humans.

  6. Tiny dancer: Body image and dancer identity in female modern dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, Susan W; Petracca, Gina

    2010-09-01

    Dance has been found to both enhance and undermine body image. Most of the literature has focused on ballet dancers and has neglected the role of identity as a dancer. This study assessed general and dance specific body image and dancer identity in 77 female modern dancers. Compared to samples of non-clinical college women, this sample had higher body appreciation and lower drive for thinness and self-objectification. White dancers in the sample also had positive levels of dancer body efficacy/acceptance whereas as non-White dancers had negative levels of this variable. Identity as a dancer was negatively correlated with body appreciation and dancer body perceptions and not related to the number of years of dance experience. Of general and dance specific body image, body appreciation emerged as the unique predictor. The findings warrant further research on positive body image, modern dancers, and identity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Form or function: Does focusing on body functionality protect women from body dissatisfaction when viewing media images?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulgrew, Kate E; Tiggemann, Marika

    2018-01-01

    We examined whether shifting young women's ( N =322) attention toward functionality components of media-portrayed idealized images would protect against body dissatisfaction. Image type was manipulated via images of models in either an objectified body-as-object form or active body-as-process form; viewing focus was manipulated via questions about the appearance or functionality of the models. Social comparison was examined as a moderator. Negative outcomes were most pronounced within the process-related conditions (body-as-process images or functionality viewing focus) and for women who reported greater functionality comparison. Results suggest that functionality-based depictions, reflections, and comparisons may actually produce worse outcomes than those based on appearance.

  8. Body image in patients with body dysmorphic disorder: evaluations of and investment in appearance, health/illness, and fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didie, Elizabeth R; Kuniega-Pietrzak, Tracy; Phillips, Katharine A

    2010-01-01

    Body image is an important aspect of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) which has received little investigation. Ninety-two BDD participants who participated in one of three BDD pharmacotherapy studies completed the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire, which assesses attitudinal body image, specifically evaluations of and investment in appearance, health/illness, and physical fitness. Scores were compared to population norms. Compared to norms, BDD participants were significantly less satisfied with their appearance. Less satisfaction was associated with more severe BDD and greater delusionality. Men with BDD were significantly more invested in their appearance compared to male population norms. Compared to population norms, males and females with BDD felt less physically healthy and females were less invested in a healthy lifestyle. However, compared with population females, females with BDD were less alert to being ill. These findings suggest that patients with BDD differ from population norms in a number of important aspects of body image. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Body Image Concerns in College-Aged Male Physical Education Students: A Descriptive Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Michele S.; Esco, Michael R.; Willifo, Hank

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine body image concerns in college-aged male physical education majors. Sixty volunteers completed validated body image instruments including two-dimensional figure drawings. In general, the sample reported that they preferred a larger, more muscular physique reflective of male images that currently abound the…

  10. Body Image and Self-Esteem among Adolescent Girls: Testing the Influence of Sociocultural Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Daniel; Vignoles, Vivian L.; Dittmar, Helga

    2005-01-01

    In Western cultures, girls' self-esteem declines substantially during middle adolescence, with changes in body image proposed as a possible explanation. Body image develops in the context of sociocultural factors, such as unrealistic media images of female beauty. In a study of 136 U.K. girls aged 11-16, experimental exposure to either ultra-thin…

  11. The Combined Effect of Subjective Body Image and Body Mass Index (Distorted Body Weight Perception on Suicidal Ideation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeyong Shin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Mental health disorders and suicide are an important and growing public health concern in Korea. Evidence has shown that both globally and in Korea, obesity is associated with an increased risk of developing some psychiatric disorders. Therefore, we examined the association between distorted body weight perception (BWP and suicidal ideation. Methods: Data were obtained from the 2007-2012 Korea National Health and Nutritional Evaluation Survey (KNHANES, an annual cross-sectional nationwide survey that included 14 276 men and 19 428 women. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to investigate the associations between nine BWP categories, which combined body image (BI and body mass index (BMI categories, and suicidal ideation. Moreover, the fitness of our models was verified using the Akaike information criterion. Results: Consistent with previous studies, suicidal ideation was associated with marital status, household income, education level, and perceived health status in both genders. Only women were significantly more likely to have distorted BWP; there was no relationship among men. In category B1 (low BMI and normal BI, women (odds ratio [OR], 2.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.48 to 3.42 were more likely to express suicidal ideation than women in category B2 (normal BMI and normal BI were. Women in overweight BWP category C2 (normal BMI and fat BI also had an increased OR for suicidal ideation (OR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.48 to 3.42. Those in normal BWP categories were not likely to have suicidal ideation. Among women in the underweight BWP categories, only the OR for those in category A2 (normal BMI and thin BI was significant (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.59. Conclusions: Distorted BWP should be considered an important factor in the prevention of suicide and for the improvement of mental health among Korean adults, especially Korean women with distorted BWPs.

  12. An evaluation of the Aerie Real campaign: Potential for promoting positive body image?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, Alexandra D; Rodgers, Rachel F; Franko, Debra L; Jodoin, Adriana

    2016-11-01

    This study evaluated the impact on young women's body satisfaction of an advertising campaign: Aerie Real, which included images of models who were not digitally modified. In total, 200 female students were randomly allocated to view either Aerie Real images or digitally modified images from previous campaigns. In the total sample, no condition differences appeared. However, participants with high appearance comparison reported a smaller decrease in body satisfaction after viewing the Aerie Real images as compared to those viewing previous images ( p = .003). Findings provide preliminary support for the Aerie Real campaign as less deleterious form of media for body image.

  13. Changing Body Image and Well-Being: Following the Experience of Massive Weight Loss and Body Contouring Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Gilmartin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the perception of changing body image and well-being for patients who had undergone plastic surgery following massive weight loss. The exploratory, qualitative study was undertaken with 20 patients from one teaching hospital in the south of England. Semi-structured interviews were carried out and a thematic analysis of the data undertaken. The results provide important insights regarding body contouring influencing body image change and the adjustment process involved. The ability to pursue self-esteem and the accruing social benefits is emphasized in the interrelated sub themes including social acceptance, undoing depression and sexual vitality. Body contouring surgery following massive weight loss appears to facilitate improvement in body image and well-being. Adjustment to the changing body image is both empowering and challenging. Supportive educational programmes need to be developed to assist this transition to a more positive body image and appreciation; these could usefully include access to and involvement with patient support groups.

  14. Con-forming bodies: the interplay of machines and bodies and the implications of agency in medical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Lisa A

    2016-06-01

    Attending to the material discursive constructions of the patient body within cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging in radiotherapy treatments, in this paper I describe how bodies and machines co-create images. Using an analytical framework inspired by Science and Technology Studies and Feminist Technoscience, I describe the interplay between machines and bodies and the implications of materialities and agency. I argue that patients' bodies play a part in producing scans within acceptable limits of machines as set out through organisational arrangements. In doing so I argue that bodies are fabricated into the order of work prescribed and embedded within and around the CBCT system, becoming, not only the subject of resulting images, but part of that image. The scan is not therefore a representation of a passive subject (a body) but co-produced by the work of practitioners and patients who actively control (and contort) and discipline their body according to protocols and instructions and the CBCT system. In this way I suggest they are 'con-forming' the CBCT image. A Virtual Abstract of this paper can be found at: https://youtu.be/qysCcBGuNSM. © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  15. Development of multi-dimensional body image scale for malaysian female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Yit Siew; Taib, Mohd Nasir Mohd; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Khor, Geok Lin

    2008-01-01

    The present study was conducted to develop a Multi-dimensional Body Image Scale for Malaysian female adolescents. Data were collected among 328 female adolescents from a secondary school in Kuantan district, state of Pahang, Malaysia by using a self-administered questionnaire and anthropometric measurements. The self-administered questionnaire comprised multiple measures of body image, Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26; Garner & Garfinkel, 1979) and Rosenberg Self-esteem Inventory (Rosenberg, 1965). The 152 items from selected multiple measures of body image were examined through factor analysis and for internal consistency. Correlations between Multi-dimensional Body Image Scale and body mass index (BMI), risk of eating disorders and self-esteem were assessed for construct validity. A seven factor model of a 62-item Multi-dimensional Body Image Scale for Malaysian female adolescents with construct validity and good internal consistency was developed. The scale encompasses 1) preoccupation with thinness and dieting behavior, 2) appearance and body satisfaction, 3) body importance, 4) muscle increasing behavior, 5) extreme dieting behavior, 6) appearance importance, and 7) perception of size and shape dimensions. Besides, a multidimensional body image composite score was proposed to screen negative body image risk in female adolescents. The result found body image was correlated with BMI, risk of eating disorders and self-esteem in female adolescents. In short, the present study supports a multi-dimensional concept for body image and provides a new insight into its multi-dimensionality in Malaysian female adolescents with preliminary validity and reliability of the scale. The Multi-dimensional Body Image Scale can be used to identify female adolescents who are potentially at risk of developing body image disturbance through future intervention programs.

  16. "Exercise to be fit, not skinny": The effect of fitspiration imagery on women's body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, Marika; Zaccardo, Mia

    2015-09-01

    Fitspiration is an online trend designed to inspire viewers towards a healthier lifestyle by promoting exercise and healthy food. The present study aimed to experimentally investigate the impact of fitspiration images on women's body image. Participants were 130 female undergraduate students who were randomly assigned to view either a set of Instagram fitspiration images or a control set of travel images presented on an iPad. Results showed that acute exposure to fitspiration images led to increased negative mood and body dissatisfaction and decreased state appearance self-esteem relative to travel images. Importantly, regression analyses showed that the effects of image type were mediated by state appearance comparison. Thus it was concluded that fitspiration can have negative unintended consequences for body image. The results offer support to general sociocultural models of media effects on body image, and extend these to "new" media. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Understanding depressive symptoms after bariatric surgery: the role of weight, eating and body image].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Paula; Bastos, Ana Pinto; Venâncio, Carla; Vaz, Ana Rita; Brandão, Isabel; Costa, José Maia; Machado, Paulo; Conceição, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Depressive symptoms have been reported as prevalent after bariatric surgery. This study aims to analyze the role of weight, eating behaviors and body image in depressive symptomatology in bariatric surgery patients assessed post-operatively. This is a cross-sectional study including 52 bariatric surgery patients assessed post-operatively with a follow-up time ranging from 22 to 132 months. Psychological assessment included a clinical interview (Eating Disorder Examination) to assess eating disorders psychopathology, and three self-report measures: Outcome Questionnaire 45--general distress; Beck Depression Inventory--depressive symptoms; and Body Shape Questionnaire--body image. Our data show that depressive symptoms after surgery are associated with loss of control over eating, increased concerns with body image, and body mass index regain. Multiple linear regressions was tested including these variables and showed that body mass index regain after surgery, loss of control over eating and concerns with body image significantly explained 50% of the variance of post-operative depressive symptoms, being the concern with body image the most significant variable: greater dissatisfaction with body image was associated with more depressive symptoms. The results of this study showed that a subgroup of patients presents a significant weight gain after bariatric surgery, which is associated with episodes of loss of control over eating, concerns with body image and depressive symptoms. These results stress the relevance of body image concerns after surgery and the importance of clinically addressing these issues to optimize psychological functioning after bariatric surgery.

  18. Measures of body image: Confirmatory factor analysis and association with disordered eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellizzer, Mia L; Tiggemann, Marika; Waller, Glenn; Wade, Tracey D

    2018-02-01

    The current study aimed to examine the factor structure, reliability, and validity of 3 measures of body image disturbance (body image flexibility, body avoidance, and body checking) considered to be relevant to eating disorder psychopathology, with the aim of determining the optimal structure of each for use in treatment planning and outcome monitoring. Additionally, the study aimed to identify which factors had the strongest association with disordered eating. Participants were 328 female undergraduate university students aged 17-25 years. Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted followed by correlational, regression, and t test analyses. The original proposed models were retained for the body image flexibility and body checking measures, while an alternative model was supported for the body image avoidance measure. All 3 solutions were found to have acceptable validity and reliability. Scores on each measure differed significantly between normal and disordered eaters. The body image flexibility measure and selected subscales of the body image avoidance and checking measures had unique associations with eating disorder psychopathology and psychosocial impairment. Results of this study indicate how the assessment of body image can be achieved in treatment of eating disorders in such a way as to reduce participant burden while adequately assessing the body image disturbance that is characteristic of eating disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Body Dysmorphic Disorder and Other Clinically Significant Body Image Concerns in Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatients: Prevalence and Clinical Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyl, Jennifer; Kittler, Jennifer; Phillips, Katharine A.; Hunt, Jeffrey I.

    2006-01-01

    Background: This study assessed prevalence and clinical correlates of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), eating disorders (ED), and other clinically significant body image concerns in 208 consecutively admitted adolescent inpatients. It was hypothesized that adolescents with BDD would have higher levels of depression, anxiety, and suicidality.…

  20. African American College Women's Body Image: An Examination of Body Mass, African Self-Consciousness, and Skin Color Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, Jameca Woody; Neville, Helen A.

    2000-01-01

    Investigated the general and cultural factors associated with body image perceptions of African American female college students. Data from surveys of 124 women at a historically black college indicated that African self-consciousness, skin color satisfaction, and body mass index collectively accounted for significant variance in dimensions of…

  1. Body Image Satisfaction, Eating Attitudes and Perceptions of Female Body Silhouettes in Rural South African Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro, Titilola M; Micklesfield, Lisa K; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen M; Pettifor, John M; Norris, Shane A

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to examine the associations between BMI, disordered eating attitude, body dissatisfaction in female adolescents, and descriptive attributes assigned to silhouettes of varying sizes in male and female adolescents, aged 11 to 15, in rural South Africa. Height and weight were measured to determine BMI. Age and sex-specific cut-offs for underweight and overweight/obesity were determined using the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs. Body image satisfaction using Feel-Ideal Discrepancy (FID) scores, Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), and perceptual female silhouettes were collected through self-administered questionnaires in 385 adolescents from the Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System (HSDSS). Participants self-reported their Tanner pubertal stage and were classified as early pubertal ( 2). Mid to post pubertal boys and girls were significantly heavier, taller, and had higher BMI values than their early pubertal counterparts (all pbody dissatisfaction (a desire to be thinner or fatter). The girls who wanted to be fatter had a significantly higher BMI than the girls who wanted to be thinner (pbody size among South African adolescents.

  2. Evaluating image reconstruction methods for tumor detection performance in whole-body PET oncology imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lartizien, Carole; Kinahan, Paul E.; Comtat, Claude; Lin, Michael; Swensson, Richard G.; Trebossen, Regine; Bendriem, Bernard

    2000-04-01

    This work presents initial results from observer detection performance studies using the same volume visualization software tools that are used in clinical PET oncology imaging. Research into the FORE+OSEM and FORE+AWOSEM statistical image reconstruction methods tailored to whole- body 3D PET oncology imaging have indicated potential improvements in image SNR compared to currently used analytic reconstruction methods (FBP). To assess the resulting impact of these reconstruction methods on the performance of human observers in detecting and localizing tumors, we use a non- Monte Carlo technique to generate multiple statistically accurate realizations of 3D whole-body PET data, based on an extended MCAT phantom and with clinically realistic levels of statistical noise. For each realization, we add a fixed number of randomly located 1 cm diam. lesions whose contrast is varied among pre-calibrated values so that the range of true positive fractions is well sampled. The observer is told the number of tumors and, similar to the AFROC method, asked to localize all of them. The true positive fraction for the three algorithms (FBP, FORE+OSEM, FORE+AWOSEM) as a function of lesion contrast is calculated, although other protocols could be compared. A confidence level for each tumor is also recorded for incorporation into later AFROC analysis.

  3. Person Recognition System Based on a Combination of Body Images from Visible Light and Thermal Cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dat Tien; Hong, Hyung Gil; Kim, Ki Wan; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2017-03-16

    The human body contains identity information that can be used for the person recognition (verification/recognition) problem. In this paper, we propose a person recognition method using the information extracted from body images. Our research is novel in the following three ways compared to previous studies. First, we use the images of human body for recognizing individuals. To overcome the limitations of previous studies on body-based person recognition that use only visible light images for recognition, we use human body images captured by two different kinds of camera, including a visible light camera and a thermal camera. The use of two different kinds of body image helps us to reduce the effects of noise, background, and variation in the appearance of a human body. Second, we apply a state-of-the art method, called convolutional neural network (CNN) among various available methods, for image features extraction in order to overcome the limitations of traditional hand-designed image feature extraction methods. Finally, with the extracted image features from body images, the recognition task is performed by measuring the distance between the input and enrolled samples. The experimental results show that the proposed method is efficient for enhancing recognition accuracy compared to systems that use only visible light or thermal images of the human body.

  4. Body image in social anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderka, Idan M; Gutner, Cassidy A; Lazarov, Amit; Hermesh, Haggai; Hofmann, Stefan G; Marom, Sofi

    2014-01-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder falls under the category of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders, yet research has suggested it may also be highly associated with social anxiety disorder. The current study examined body image variables among 68 outpatients with primary obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD; n=22), social anxiety disorder (SAD; n=25), and panic disorder (PD; n=21). Participants filled out self-report measures of body image disturbance, attitudes toward one's appearance, and anxiety. Body image disturbance and attitudes toward appearance did not significantly differ between the groups. However, SAD symptoms predicted body image disturbance, Appearance Evaluation and Body Areas Satisfaction, and OCD symptoms predicted Appearance Orientation. These findings suggest that SAD and OCD may be associated with different facets of body image. Implications for the treatment of anxiety disorders and for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Relationship Between Body Image and Domains of Sexual Functioning Among Heterosexual, Emerging Adult Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn-Nilas, Christopher; Benson, Lindsay; Milhausen, Robin R; Buchholz, Andrea C; Goncalves, Melissa

    2016-09-01

    Research suggests that body image affects sexual functioning, but the relationship between specific types of body image (evaluative, affective, and behavioral) and domains of sexual functioning (desire, arousal, and orgasm) has not been investigated. To determine whether, and to what degree, body image concerns (evaluative, affective, and behavioral) influence aspects of women's sexual functioning (desire, arousal, and orgasm). Eighty-eight sexually active women in heterosexual romantic relationships completed surveys assessing evaluative, affective, and behavioral body image and sexual functioning. Body composition data also were collected using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Sexual functioning was assessed using the desire, arousal, and orgasm subscales of the Female Sexual Functioning Index. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicated that poor evaluative, affective, and behavioral body image were detrimental to women's sexual functioning. Specifically, dissatisfaction with one's body predicted decrements in desire (β = -0.31, P benefits related to sexual experience. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Body image trends among Icelandic adolescents: a cross-sectional national study from 1997 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgeirsdottir, Bryndis Bjork; Ingolfsdottir, Gudrun; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate trends in body image among Icelandic adolescents from 1997 to 2010. Data from five cross-sectional surveys conducted among national samples of 9th and 10th graders in Iceland using five time points (1997, 2000, 2006, 2009, and 2010) were compared to examine changes in body image. In total, 32,397 adolescents participated in the study. Body image among 14-15-year-old adolescents in Iceland improved significantly over the 13-year period. Girls reported more negative body image than boys at all time points. However, the positive change in body image from 1997 to 2010 was more pronounced for girls than boys, resulting in a narrower gap between the genders. The current results are encouraging and indicate that in an age of increased overweight and obesity, the body image of Icelandic adolescents is becoming more positive. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The effects of exposure to slender and muscular images on male body dissatisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galioto, Rachel; Crowther, Janis H

    2013-09-01

    This research examined the effects of appearance-based comparisons to muscular and slender idealized male bodies and the contribution of internalization and social comparison to change in body dissatisfaction. Participants were 111 male undergraduates who completed measures of body dissatisfaction, internalization, and social comparison and viewed images of either muscular or slender men in advertisements or product-only advertisements. Results indicated that exposure to both muscular and slender images was associated with an increase in body dissatisfaction, with no significant differences in the change in body dissatisfaction between the two image conditions. Internalization and trait social comparison were each associated with an increase in body dissatisfaction; however, upward social comparison was only a significant predictor of a change in body dissatisfaction for the males who viewed muscular images. These results highlight the impact of slender models on young men's body dissatisfaction and support the examination of media literacy interventions with this population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Body Image and Eating Disorders among Female Students: A Pilot Nutritional Psychology Study in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Comfort Nora Ntim; Jacob Owusu Sarfo

    2015-01-01

    Body image and eating disorders have emerged as an essential facet of bio-psychosocial well-being. Although considered less prevalent in Ghana than in the West, body image and eating disorders are issues of global concern. One hundred (100) female participants with a mean age of approximately 21 years were recruited after informed consent for this pilot study. Results showed a positive correlation between body image and eating disorders. In addition, there was no significant difference betwee...

  9. The Relationship between Body Image Coping Strategy and Eating Disorders among Iranian Adolescent Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Malihe Farid; Mahnaz Akbari Kamrani

    2016-01-01

    Background: Due to physical and psychological changes during puberty, most common problem of young people is body image defined as degree of size, shape and general appearance. Wrong perception of body image and dissatisfaction with body image in people can lead to eating disorders and stress. Peace of mind is in fact a mental mechanism that people use it to reduce physical and emotional strains coping with stressful situations. The aim of this study was to determine the type of coping strate...

  10. Body image v televizních reklamách

    OpenAIRE

    Bednaříková, Jana

    2009-01-01

    Target of my final thesis is to explore elements of body image in TV commercials. In the thesis I focused on body image, marketing communication and advertisement. I tried to map what are people like in TV spots through content analysis. I did also analyze marketing research data of Market & Media & Lifestyle agency. I chose those data with due regard for perception of body image by consumers and I focused on TV advertisements issues.

  11. The role of body image in prenatal and postpartum depression: a critical review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Silveira, Marushka L.; Ertel, Karen A.; Dole, Nancy; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Maternal depression increases risk of adverse perinatal outcomes, and recent evidence suggests that body image may play an important role in depression. This systematic review identifies studies of body image and perinatal depression with the goal of elucidating the complex role that body image plays in prenatal and postpartum depression, improving measurement, and informing next steps in research. We conducted a literature search of the PubMed database (1996– 2014) for English language studi...

  12. The Relationship Between Body Image and Domains of Sexual Functioning Among Heterosexual, Emerging Adult Women

    OpenAIRE

    Quinn-Nilas, Christopher; Benson, Lindsay; Milhausen, Robin R.; Buchholz, Andrea C.; Goncalves, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Research suggests that body image affects sexual functioning, but the relationship between specific types of body image (evaluative, affective, and behavioral) and domains of sexual functioning (desire, arousal, and orgasm) has not been investigated. Aim: To determine whether, and to what degree, body image concerns (evaluative, affective, and behavioral) influence aspects of women’s sexual functioning (desire, arousal, and orgasm). Methods: Eighty-eight sexually active wo...

  13. Body image satisfaction and anxiety of a Turkish sample of university students with skin diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaymak, Yeşim; Ulutaş, Ilkay; Taner, Ender; Bakir, Bilal; Simşek, Isil

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate perception of body image and anxiety of 221 university students presenting to the dermatology outpatient clinic with a skin disease and 205 students without skin disease. Analysis of anxiety and body image scores yielded differences by sex and age in both groups. The group with skin disease had lower scores on body image. Acne vulgaris seems to be the most disturbing among the skin diseases, and this was more prominent in younger patients.

  14. Roles of body image-related experiential avoidance and uncommitted living in the link between body image and women's quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, Inês A; Ferreira, Cláudia; Pinto-Gouveia, José

    2018-01-01

    The current study aimed to test whether the associations of body mass index, body image discrepancy, and social comparison based on physical appearance with women's psychological quality of life (QoL) would be explained by the mechanisms of body image-related experiential avoidance and patterns of uncommitted living. The sample was collected from October 2014 to March 2015 and included 737 female college students (aged between 18 and 25 years) who completed validated self-report measures. Results demonstrated that the final path model explained 43% of psychological QoL and revealed an excellent fit. Body image-related experiential avoidance had a meditational role in the association between body image discrepancy and psychological QoL. Further, the link between social comparison based on physical appearance and psychological QoL was partially mediated by body image-related experiential avoidance and uncommitted living. These findings indicate that the key mechanisms of the relationship between body image and young women's QoL were those related to maladaptive emotion regulation. It thus seems that interventions aiming to promote mental health in this population should promote acceptance of internal experiences related to physical appearance (e.g., sensations, thoughts, or emotions) and the engagement in behaviors committed to life values.

  15. The effects of Cross-fit, Pilates and Zumba exercise on body composition and body image of women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülsüm BAŞTUĞ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate body composition and body image of women doing CrossFit, Pilates and Zumba exercises. Material and Methods: This study was carried out to investigate body composition and body areas satisfaction of women doing CrossFit, Pilates and Zumba exercises, 80 women voluntarily being in an average age of 42.74±8.47 voluntarily participated in the research. The women were grouped into two such as experimental (n=45 and control (n=35. The women in experimental group were applied 30-70min mixed exercises (CrossFit, Plates, Zumba for 4 days in a week throughout 12 weeks to have target heart rate of 50-60%. Results: A significant difference was found between body weight and BMI pre-test and post-test values of women who were applied mixed exercise program (CrossFit, Pilates, Zumba. There was a decrease in both body weight and average means of BMI of women. A significant difference was found between body areas satisfaction pre-test and post-test values of women who were applied CrossFit, Pilates, Zumba exercise program. While pre-test value of body areas satisfaction of women who were applied mixed exercise program was determined as 31.68±6.11, its post-test value was 35.68±5.02. It is remarkable that while body weight and BMI of women doing exercises decreased, their body areas satisfaction values increased. It was indicated that the body areas satisfaction of women having weight loss increased. A significant difference was not found between body weight, BMI and body areas satisfaction pre-test and post-test values of women in control group. Conclusion: It was concluded that there were positive effects on body weight, BMI and body image.

  16. [原著]Body-Image and Depressed Mood during- Puberty

    OpenAIRE

    Kono, Shinzo; Sunagawa, Yoko; Oshiro, Thikako; Okudaira, Takayo; Department of Health Care, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus

    1993-01-01

    This research was performed to clarify depression status and body-image, personality perception, and recognition during puberty. For the purpose of evaluation a profile silhouette chart body image and modified Beck's Depression Index were used. Typical male and female students between 10 and 18 years were were studied. A group of 1842 students was divided into separate groups according to sex, body type (obese,normal and lean), and stage of puberty (early, middle, late). The three body silhou...

  17. Deficits in agency in schizophrenia, and additional deficits in body image, body schema and internal timing, in passivity symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyran Trent Graham

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with schizophrenia, particularly those with passivity symptoms, may not feel in control of their actions, believing them to be controlled by external agents. Cognitive operations that contribute to these symptoms may include abnormal processing in agency, as well as body representations that deal with body schema and body image. However, these operations in schizophrenia are not fully understood, and the questions of general versus specific deficits in individuals with different symptom profiles remain unanswered. Using the projected hand illusion (a digital video version of the rubber hand illusion with syn-chronous and asynchronous stroking (500 ms delay, and a hand laterality judgment task, we assessed sense of agency, body image and body schema in 53 people with clinically stable schizophrenia (with a current, past, and no history of passivity symptoms and 48 healthy controls. The results revealed a stable trait in schizophrenia with no difference be-tween clinical subgroups (sense of agency, and some quantitative (specific differences de-pending on the passivity symptom profile (body image and body schema. Specifically, a reduced sense of self-agency was a common feature of all clinical subgroups. However, subgroup comparisons showed that individuals with passivity symptoms (both current and past had significantly greater deficits on tasks assessing body image and body schema, relative to the other groups. In addition, patients with current passivity symptoms failed to demonstrate the normal reduction in body illusion typically seen with a 500 ms delay in visual feedback (asynchronous condition, suggesting internal timing problems. Altogether, the results underscore self-abnormalities in schizophrenia, provide evidence for both trait abnormalities and state changes specific to passivity symptoms, and point to a role for internal timing deficits as a mechanistic explanation for external cues becoming a possible source of self-body

  18. Understanding Appearance-Enhancing Drug Use in Sport Using an Enactive Approach to Body Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauw, Denis; Bilard, Jean

    2017-01-01

    From an enactive approach to human activity, we suggest that the use of appearance-enhancing drugs is better explained by the sense-making related to body image rather than the cognitive evaluation of social norms about appearance and consequent psychopathology-oriented approach. After reviewing the main psychological disorders thought to link body image issues to the use of appearance-enhancing substances, we sketch a flexible, dynamic and embedded account of body image defined as the individual's propensity to act and experience in specific situations. We show how this enacted body image is a complex process of sense-making that people engage in when they are trying to adapt to specific situations. These adaptations of the enacted body image require effort, perseverance and time, and therefore any substance that accelerates this process appears to be an easy and attractive solution. In this enactive account of body image, we underline that the link between the enacted body image and substance use is also anchored in the history of the body's previous interactions with the world. This emerges during periods of upheaval and hardship, especially in a context where athletes experience weak participatory sense-making in a sport community. We conclude by suggesting prevention and intervention designs that would promote a safe instrumental use of the body in sports and psychological helping procedures for athletes experiencing difficulties with substances use and body image.

  19. Body Image and Eating Disorders among Female Students: A Pilot Nutritional Psychology Study in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comfort Nora Ntim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Body image and eating disorders have emerged as an essential facet of bio-psychosocial well-being. Although considered less prevalent in Ghana than in the West, body image and eating disorders are issues of global concern. One hundred (100 female participants with a mean age of approximately 21 years were recruited after informed consent for this pilot study. Results showed a positive correlation between body image and eating disorders. In addition, there was no significant difference between the levels of university education on female body image and eating distortions in Ghana. These findings underscore the importance for more future studies in nutritional psychology and related clinical management.

  20. Image of а head of law-enforcement body on micro level (empirical experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Perednya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article determines image of the head of law-enforcement body. Subjects and objects of image are described. Inhomogenuity of image is cleared up. Method of examination is shortly micro level described. It is talking about image, which is formed in mind of members of team of law-enforcement body, who are subordinated to object of image. State-of-the-art is illustrated, according to received data. Hypothesis about negative image of the head in mind of subordinates is disproved. It is shown contradiction of images in collective mind and social mind.

  1. What is and what is not positive body image? Conceptual foundations and construct definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylka, Tracy L; Wood-Barcalow, Nichole L

    2015-06-01

    A decade ago, research on positive body image as a unique construct was relatively nonexistent, and now this area is flourishing. How and why did positive body image scholarship emerge? What is known about this contemporary construct? This article situates and contextualizes positive body image within Cash's scholarship, eating disorder prevention efforts, feminist influences, strength-based disciplines within psychology, and Buddhism. Extracting insights from quantitative and qualitative research, this article demonstrates that positive body image is (a) distinct from negative body image; (b) multifaceted (including body appreciation, body acceptance/love, conceptualizing beauty broadly, adaptive investment in appearance, inner positivity, interpreting information in a body-protective manner); (c) holistic; (d) stable and malleable; (e) protective; (f) linked to self-perceived body acceptance by others; and (g) shaped by social identities. Complementing what positive body image is, this article further details what positive body image is not to provide a more nuanced understanding of this construct. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Self-compassion moderates the relationship between body mass index and both eating disorder pathology and body image flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Allison C; Vimalakanthan, Kiruthiha; Miller, Kathryn E

    2014-09-01

    The current study examined whether self-compassion, the tendency to treat oneself kindly during distress and disappointments, would attenuate the positive relationship between body mass index (BMI) and eating disorder pathology, and the negative relationship between BMI and body image flexibility. One-hundred and fifty-three female undergraduate students completed measures of self-compassion, self-esteem, eating disorder pathology, and body image flexibility, which refers to one's acceptance of negative body image experiences. Controlling for self-esteem, hierarchical regressions revealed that self-compassion moderated the relationships between BMI and the criteria. Specifically, the positive relationship between BMI and eating disorder pathology and the negative relationship between BMI and body image flexibility were weaker the higher women's levels of self-compassion. Among young women, self-compassion may help to protect against the greater eating disturbances that coincide with a higher BMI, and may facilitate the positive body image experiences that tend to be lower the higher one's BMI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Perceived Body Image, Eating Behavior, and Sedentary Activities and Body Mass Index Categories in Kuwaiti Female Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemia H. Shaban

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The State of Kuwait has a growing obesity epidemic in both genders and all age groups; however, obesity rates in the young seem to be rising. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 169 Kuwaiti female adolescents attending both private and public schools spanning the six governorates in the State of Kuwait in order to explore female adolescents’ self-image, body dissatisfaction, type of school (private versus public, TV viewing, and computer games and their relationship to body mass index. Results. Approximately half the students classified as obese perceived their body image to lie in the normal range. Females in the obese category were the most dissatisfied with their body image, followed by those in the overweight category. Eating behavior, level of physical activity, school type, television viewing, computer/video usage, and desired BMI were not significantly associated with level of obesity. Conclusion. This study was one of the few studies to assess adolescent females’ body image dissatisfaction in relation to obesity in the State of Kuwait. The results suggest that including body image dissatisfaction awareness into obesity prevention programs would be of value.

  4. Body image and sexual orientation: The experiences of lesbian and bisexual women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Marie L; Telford, Elina; Tree, Jeremy J

    2017-02-01

    Western cultures promote a thin and curvaceous ideal body size that most women find difficult to achieve by healthy measures, resulting in poor body image and increased risk for eating pathology. Research focusing on body image in lesbian and bisexual women has yielded inconsistent results. In total, 11 lesbian and bisexual women were interviewed regarding their experiences with body image. Interpretative phenomenological analysis revealed that these women experienced similar mainstream pressures to conform to a thin body ideal. Furthermore, participants perceived additional pressure to conform to heteronormative standards of beauty since the normalisation of homosexuality and the increase in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender representation in mainstream media.

  5. The impact of thin idealized media images on body satisfaction: does body appreciation protect women from negative effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliwell, Emma

    2013-09-01

    This article examines whether positive body image can protect women from negative media exposure effects. University women (N=112) were randomly allocated to view advertisements featuring ultra-thin models or control images. Women who reported high levels of body appreciation did not report negative media exposure effects. Furthermore, the protective role of body appreciation was also evident among women known to be vulnerable to media exposure. Women high on thin-ideal internalization and low on body appreciation reported appearance-discrepancies that were more salient and larger when they viewed models compared to the control group. However, women high on thin-ideal internalization and also high on body appreciation rated appearance-discrepancies as less important and no difference in size than the control group. The results support the notion that positive body image protects women from negative environmental appearance messages and suggests that promoting positive body image may be an effective intervention strategy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Associations Between Positive Body Image, Sexual Liberalism, and Unconventional Sexual Practices in U.S. Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Weis, Laura; Barron, David; Furnham, Adrian

    2017-11-01

    While studies have documented robust relationships between body image and sexual health outcomes, few studies have looked beyond sexual functioning in women. Here, we hypothesized that more positive body image would be associated with greater sexual liberalism and more positive attitudes toward unconventional sexual practices. An online sample of 151 women and 164 men from the U.S. completed measures of sexual liberalism, attitudes toward unconventional sexual practices, and indices of positive body image (i.e., body appreciation, body acceptance by others, body image flexibility, and body pride), and provided their demographic details. Regression analyses indicated that, once the effects of sexual orientation, relationship status, age, and body mass index had been accounted for, higher body appreciation was significantly associated with greater sexual liberalism in women and men. Furthermore, higher body appreciation and body image flexibility were significantly associated with more positive attitudes toward unconventional sexual practices in women and men. These results may have implications for scholars working from a sex-positive perspective, particularly in terms of understanding the role body image plays in sexual attitudes and behaviors.

  7. Short-term changes in affective, behavioral, and cognitive components of body image after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gail A; Hudson, Danae L; Whisenhunt, Brooke L; Stone, Megan; Heinberg, Leslie J; Crowther, Janis H

    2018-04-01

    Many bariatric surgery candidates report body image concerns before surgery. Research has reported post-surgical improvements in body satisfaction, which may be associated with weight loss. However, research has failed to comprehensively examine changes in affective, behavioral, and cognitive body image. This research examined (1) short-term changes in affective, behavioral, and cognitive components of body image from pre-surgery to 1- and 6-months after bariatric surgery, and (2) the association between percent weight loss and these changes. Participants were recruited from a private hospital in the midwestern United States. Eighty-eight females (original N = 123; lost to follow-up: n = 15 at 1-month and n = 20 at 6-months post-surgery) completed a questionnaire battery, including the Body Attitudes Questionnaire, Body Checking Questionnaire, Body Image Avoidance Questionnaire, and Body Shape Questionnaire, and weights were obtained from patients' medical records before and at 1- and 6-months post-surgery. Results indicated significant decreases in body dissatisfaction, feelings of fatness, and body image avoidance at 1- and 6-months after bariatric surgery, with the greatest magnitude of change occurring for body image avoidance. Change in feelings of fatness was significantly correlated with percent weight loss at 6-months, but not 1-month, post-surgery. These findings highlight the importance of examining short-term changes in body image from a multidimensional perspective in the effort to improve postsurgical outcomes. Unique contributions include the findings regarding the behavioral component of body image, as body image avoidance emerges as a particularly salient concern that changes over time among bariatric surgery candidates. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Associations of body-related teasing with weight status, body image, and dieting behavior among Japanese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisuwa-Hayami, Naomi; Haruki, Toshi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Body-related teasing is known to be linked to body dissatisfaction and dieting behavior in adolescents. However, little is known about it in non-Western countries. This study aims to examine the prevalence of body-related teasing among Japanese adolescents and its connection to weight status, body image, and dieting behavior to consider implications for public health. Methods: The design of this study is a cross-sectional study. An anonymous self-administrated survey was conducted with 1172 junior high school students in Higashi-Osaka City in Osaka Prefecture in Japan. The sampling method was non-random design. The survey items included self-reported height and weight, history and source of teasing, body image perception, and dieting behavior. A chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were used to examine the associations. Results: A history of teasing was reported by 16.4% of boys and 32.5% of girls (P Body-related teasing has a significant association with body image and dieting behavior in Japanese adolescents. A school-based education should be provided to reduce body-related teasing.

  9. Body image and personality among British men: associations between the Big Five personality domains, drive for muscularity, and body appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benford, Karis; Swami, Viren

    2014-09-01

    The present study examined associations between the Big Five personality domains and measures of men's body image. A total of 509 men from the community in London, UK, completed measures of drive for muscularity, body appreciation, the Big Five domains, and subjective social status, and provided their demographic details. The results of a hierarchical regression showed that, once the effects of participant body mass index (BMI) and subjective social status had been accounted for, men's drive for muscularity was significantly predicted by Neuroticism (β=.29). In addition, taking into account the effects of BMI and subjective social status, men's body appreciation was significantly predicted by Neuroticism (β=-.35) and Extraversion (β=.12). These findings highlight potential avenues for the development of intervention approaches based on the relationship between the Big Five personality traits and body image. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Perceived relationship with God fosters positive body image in college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, Kristin J; Cavanaugh, Brianna N

    2013-12-01

    Positive body image is defined as healthy body-related attitudes that go beyond the absence of distressful symptoms. A warm and secure relationship with an important other person has been linked with attitudes of acceptance and appreciation toward one's body as well as adaptive eating patterns. This study tested whether a warm and secure relationship with God was similarly related to positive body image. Undergraduate women completed self-report measures of religiosity, life satisfaction, body appreciation, body acceptance by others, functional orientation, and intuitive eating. Multiple regression analyses showed that relationship with God contributed variance to most of the well-being variables.

  11. Increasing body image flexibility in a residential eating disorder facility: Correlates with symptom improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eric B; Ong, Clarissa W; Twohig, Michael P; Lensegrav-Benson, Tera; Quakenbush-Roberts, Benita

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of changes in body image psychological flexibility over the course of treatment on various outcome variables. Participants included 103 female, residential patients diagnosed with an eating disorder. Pretreatment and posttreatment data were collected that examined body image psychological flexibility, general psychological flexibility, symptom severity, and other outcome variables. Changes in body image psychological flexibility significantly predicted changes in all outcome measures except for obsessive-compulsive symptoms after controlling for body mass index, depression, and anxiety. Additionally, these results were maintained after controlling for general psychological flexibility, contributing to the incremental validity of the BI-AAQ. This study suggests that changes in body image psychological flexibility meaningfully predict changes in various treatment outcomes of interest, including eating disorder risk, quality of life, and general mental health. Findings indicate that body image psychological flexibility might be a viable target for eating disorder treatment.

  12. Contextual body image and athletes' disordered eating: the contribution of athletic body image to disordered eating in high performance women athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, A P Karin; Oudejans, Raôul R D; Bakker, Frank C; Woertman, Liesbeth

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the contribution of a contextual body image perspective to understanding disordered eating in high performance women athletes. Because existing questionnaires were not suitable for measuring body image in the contexts of sport and daily life, we developed the 'Contextual Body Image Questionnaire for Athletes' (CBIQA) in which body image is divided into 'appearance', 'muscularity', 'thin-fat self-evaluations' and 'thin-fat perceived opinions of others', in both contexts. In Study 1, the internal validity and reliability of this questionnaire was established in a general, heterogeneous sample of female sport participants and exercisers. In Study 2, the external validity was determined in a sample of 52 high performance women athletes who mainly participated in aesthetic or endurance sports, 19 of which were classified with and 33 without disordered eating. The results of Study 2 showed that both 'thin-fat self' and 'thin-fat opinions of others' in sport made significant unique contributions to explaining eating disorder variance, indicating the important role of athletic body image. In conclusion, the contextual body image approach seems to be a promising framework for a better understanding of athletes' disordered eating. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  13. The effects of aerobic- versus strength-training on body image among young women with pre-existing body image concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin Ginis, Kathleen A; Strong, Heather A; Arent, Shawn M; Bray, Steven R; Bassett-Gunter, Rebecca L

    2014-06-01

    This experiment compared the effects of aerobic-training (AT) versus strength-training (ST) on body image among young women with pre-existing body image concerns. Theory-based correlates of body image change were also examined. Participants were 46 women (M age=21.5 years), randomly assigned to an 8-week AT or ST intervention consisting of supervised exercise 3 days/week. Multidimensional measures of body image were administered pre- and post-intervention, along with measures of physical fitness, perceived fitness, and exercise self-efficacy. Women in the AT condition reported greater reductions in social physique anxiety (p=.001) and tended to report greater improvements in appearance evaluation (p=.06) than women in the ST condition. Changes in perceived fatness, perceived aerobic endurance and aerobic self-efficacy were significantly correlated with body image change (psexercise to improve body image and advancing theory to account for the effects of exercise. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Automatic anatomy recognition in whole-body PET/CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Huiqian; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Odhner, Dewey; Tong, Yubing; Torigian, Drew A.; Zhao, Liming

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Whole-body positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) has become a standard method of imaging patients with various disease conditions, especially cancer. Body-wide accurate quantification of disease burden in PET/CT images is important for characterizing lesions, staging disease, prognosticating patient outcome, planning treatment, and evaluating disease response to therapeutic interventions. However, body-wide anatomy recognition in PET/CT is a critical first step for accurately and automatically quantifying disease body-wide, body-region-wise, and organwise. This latter process, however, has remained a challenge due to the lower quality of the anatomic information portrayed in the CT component of this imaging modality and the paucity of anatomic details in the PET component. In this paper, the authors demonstrate the adaptation of a recently developed automatic anatomy recognition (AAR) methodology [Udupa et al., “Body-wide hierarchical fuzzy modeling, recognition, and delineation of anatomy in medical images,” Med. Image Anal. 18, 752–771 (2014)] to PET/CT images. Their goal was to test what level of object localization accuracy can be achieved on PET/CT compared to that achieved on diagnostic CT images. Methods: The authors advance the AAR approach in this work in three fronts: (i) from body-region-wise treatment in the work of Udupa et al. to whole body; (ii) from the use of image intensity in optimal object recognition in the work of Udupa et al. to intensity plus object-specific texture properties, and (iii) from the intramodality model-building-recognition strategy to the intermodality approach. The whole-body approach allows consideration of relationships among objects in different body regions, which was previously not possible. Consideration of object texture allows generalizing the previous optimal threshold-based fuzzy model recognition method from intensity images to any derived fuzzy membership image, and in the process

  15. Automatic anatomy recognition in whole-body PET/CT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Huiqian [College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, China and Medical Image Processing Group Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Udupa, Jayaram K., E-mail: jay@mail.med.upenn.edu; Odhner, Dewey; Tong, Yubing; Torigian, Drew A. [Medical Image Processing Group Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Zhao, Liming [Medical Image Processing Group Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 and Research Center of Intelligent System and Robotics, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing 400065 (China)

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: Whole-body positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) has become a standard method of imaging patients with various disease conditions, especially cancer. Body-wide accurate quantification of disease burden in PET/CT images is important for characterizing lesions, staging disease, prognosticating patient outcome, planning treatment, and evaluating disease response to therapeutic interventions. However, body-wide anatomy recognition in PET/CT is a critical first step for accurately and automatically quantifying disease body-wide, body-region-wise, and organwise. This latter process, however, has remained a challenge due to the lower quality of the anatomic information portrayed in the CT component of this imaging modality and the paucity of anatomic details in the PET component. In this paper, the authors demonstrate the adaptation of a recently developed automatic anatomy recognition (AAR) methodology [Udupa et al., “Body-wide hierarchical fuzzy modeling, recognition, and delineation of anatomy in medical images,” Med. Image Anal. 18, 752–771 (2014)] to PET/CT images. Their goal was to test what level of object localization accuracy can be achieved on PET/CT compared to that achieved on diagnostic CT images. Methods: The authors advance the AAR approach in this work in three fronts: (i) from body-region-wise treatment in the work of Udupa et al. to whole body; (ii) from the use of image intensity in optimal object recognition in the work of Udupa et al. to intensity plus object-specific texture properties, and (iii) from the intramodality model-building-recognition strategy to the intermodality approach. The whole-body approach allows consideration of relationships among objects in different body regions, which was previously not possible. Consideration of object texture allows generalizing the previous optimal threshold-based fuzzy model recognition method from intensity images to any derived fuzzy membership image, and in the process

  16. A biopsychosocial model of body image concerns and disordered eating in early adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Rachel F; Paxton, Susan J; McLean, Siân A

    2014-05-01

    Body image and eating concerns are prevalent among early adolescent girls, and associated with biological, psychological and sociocultural risk factors. To date, explorations of biopsychosocial models of body image concerns and disordered eating in early adolescent girls are lacking. A sample of 488 early adolescent girls, mean age = 12.35 years (SD = 0.53), completed a questionnaire assessing depressive symptoms, self-esteem, body mass index (BMI), sociocultural appearance pressures, thin-ideal internalization, appearance comparison, body image concerns and disordered eating. Structural equation modelling was conducted to test a hypothetical model in which internalization and comparison were mediators of the effect of both negative affect and sociocultural influences on body image concerns and disordered eating. In addition, the model proposed that BMI would impact body image concerns. Although the initial model was a poor fit to the data, the fit was improved after the addition of a direct pathway between negative affect and bulimic symptoms. The final model explained a large to moderate proportion of the variance in body image and eating concerns. This study supports the role of negative affect in biopsychosocial models of the development of body image concerns and disordered eating in early adolescent girls. Interventions including strategies to address negative affect as well as sociocultural appearance pressures may help decrease the risk for body image concerns and disordered eating among this age group.

  17. Metacognitive beliefs and emotion regulation strategies: obese women with negative and positive body images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Nejati

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Women have higher vulnerability regarding to increase prevalence of obesity and its effect on people’s body image and women’s health on the society and future generations’ health is unquestionable role , negative body image influence on women’s eating habits and mental health, so aim of present research is to compare metacognitive beliefs and emotional regulation strategies in obese women with positive and negative body image. This study was a causal-comparative. The statistical population of this study consisted of 100 obese women with a BMI>30 who had referred to five nutritional clinics in Tehran. The clinics and the participants were selected by using the convenience sampling method. The data collection tools were the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM (SCID-I/II, Body Mass Index (BMI, the Metacognitions Questionnaire (MCQ-30, the cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire, and fisher’s body image scale. The multivariate hoteling t-test was used to compare the difference between the two groups. Results indicated that obese women with negative body image had higher mean scores in inefficient emotion regulation strategies including self-blame or focus on thought, catastrophizing and other-blame compared with obese women with positive body image. Moreover, the mean scores of obese women with positive body images was higher in efficient emotional regulation strategies include acceptance, positive refocusing, refocusing on planning, perspective taking and positive reappraisal. Metacognitive beliefs and emotion regulation strategies are significant variables in obese woman with positive and negative body images.

  18. Body Image in Patients With Spinal Cord Injury During Inpatient Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Diemen, Tijn; van Leeuwen, Christel; van Nes, Ilse; Geertzen, Jan; Post, Marcel

    2017-06-01

    (1) To investigate the course of body image in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) during their first inpatient rehabilitation stay; and (2) to explore the association between demographic and injury-related variables and body image and the association between body image and psychological distress. Longitudinal inception cohort study. Rehabilitation center. Of the 210 people admitted for their first inpatient SCI rehabilitation program (between March 2011 and April 2015), 188 met the inclusion criteria. Of these, N=150 (80%) agreed to participate. Not applicable. The Body Experience Questionnaire was used to measure 2 dimensions of body image: alienation and harmony. Mean scores on the Body Experience Questionnaire alienation subscale decreased significantly during the rehabilitation program. Mean scores on the Body Experience Questionnaire harmony subscale did not increase significantly but showed a trend in the hypothesized direction. The 2 subscales showed weak correlations with demographic and injury-related variables. The 2 subscales together explained 16% and 14% of the variance of depression and anxiety, respectively, after correction for demographic and injury-related variables. During participants' first inpatient rehabilitation stay after SCI, body image progressed toward a healthier state. Body image explains part of the variance in depression and anxiety, and the entire rehabilitation team should be targeting interventions to improve body image. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Fluctuations of body images in anorexia nervosa: patients' perception of contextual triggers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espeset, Ester M S; Gulliksen, Kjersti S; Nordbø, Ragnfrid H S; Skårderud, Finn; Holte, Arne

    2012-01-01

    Body image disturbance is a central diagnostic criterion of anorexia nervosa (AN). To a great extent, previous studies have conceptualized body image disturbance as a relatively stable and trait-like characteristic of the patient. There is, however, growing evidence that body images fluctuate in different situations and contexts. The aim of the present study was to explore which everyday contexts that patients with AN themselves associate with fluctuations in body image. Thirty-two women (20-35 years) who had been diagnosed with AN (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition) within the last year participated. Semi-open and focused qualitative interviews were conducted, transcribed and analyzed using Grounded Theory techniques. The results suggest that body image is a dynamic phenomenon that may fluctuate in different situations and contexts. The participants linked such fluctuations to their own uncertainty about their real appearance. In lack of a stable and integrated experience of their own body, they were extremely sensitive towards body image threats and challenges in their daily life and reacted to these situations by fluctuations in their body image. Four contextual cues were found to trigger such changes in body image: these were eating food, being reminded of one's body appearance, relating to one's own emotional signals and interpreting other people's expressed and unexpressed opinions about oneself and one's appearance. Clinical and theoretical implications are discussed. Individuals with anorexia nervosa may have quite varied body image experiences in different contexts. The contexts identified in this study may be a point of departure for clinicians in helping their patients to explore their subjective body image experiences and to connect these with emotional, cognitive and relational contexts in a psychologically meaningfully way. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Body image perception in women: prevalence and association with anthropometric indicators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Pelegrini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2014v16n1p58 The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of body image perception and its association with anthropometric indicators (body mass index, waist circumference, waist-height ratio, and conicity index in women undergoing cervical cancer screening at an institution in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina. The study included 736 women (≥ 18 years. Anthropometric variables (weight, height, waist circumference were collected for the determination of body mass index, waist-height ratio, and conicity index. Body image perception was evaluated using a nine-body silhouette scale. The prevalence of body image dissatisfaction was 73% (dissatisfaction due to excess weight = 67.4%; dissatisfaction due to thinness = 5.6%. Overweight women (PR=1.34; 95%CI=1.23-2.49, p<0.001 and women with an inadequate conicity index (PR=1.12; 95%CI =1.02-1.24, p=0.016 presented a higher prevalence of body image dissatisfaction. The prevalence of body image dissatisfaction is high and the proportion of inadequate anthropometric indicators requires attention. Moreover, body dissatisfaction was more prevalent among overweight women and women with an inadequate conicity index. These results indicate the need for interventions and for the implementation of programs designed to control body weight and to reduce cardiovascular risk factors and body image dissatisfaction in women attending primary health care centers, such as cancer screening services.

  1. Body-image dissatisfaction in gay versus heterosexual men: is there really a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Armand; Mangweth, Barbara; Walch, Thomas; Rupp, Claudia I; Pope, Harrison G

    2004-11-01

    Gay men are thought to experience body-image concerns or disorders more frequently than heterosexual men. It is unclear, however, whether these putative concerns are due to unrealistic body ideals (aspiring to a body shape that is difficult or impossible to attain), body-image distortion (misperceiving the actual shape of one's body), or both. We administered a well-established computerized body-image test, the "somatomorphic matrix," to 37 gay men recruited from the community in April 1999 and compared the results with previous data from 49 community-recruited heterosexual comparison men and 24 clinic-recruited heterosexual men with eating disorders. Gay men were indistinguishable from the community-recruited heterosexual comparison men on measures of both body ideals and body-image distortion. By contrast, eating-disordered men were significantly distinguishable from both other groups on body-image distortion. The lack of differences between community gay and heterosexual men on body-image indices seems unlikely to represent a type II error, since the somatomorphic matrix showed ample power to detect abnormalities in the eating-disordered men, despite the smaller sample size of the latter group. Contrary to our hypotheses, gay men did not differ significantly from heterosexual men on measures of body image. These unexpected findings cast doubt on the widespread belief that gay men experience greater body-image dissatisfaction than heterosexual men. If our findings are valid, it follows that some previous studies of body image in gay men may possibly have been influenced by selection bias.

  2. Impact of body habitus on quantitative and qualitative image quality in whole-body FDG-PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsumi, Mitsuaki; Clark, Paul A.; Nakamoto, Yuji; Wahl, Richard L. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, 601 N. Caroline St., Rm 3223, Baltimore, MD 21287-0817 (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Obtaining consistent high image quality is desirable for clinical positron emission tomography (PET). Body morphology may impact image quality. The purpose of this study was to define the average and the range of body sizes in patients undergoing tumor PET studies in our center and to determine how the body habitus affects the statistical and visual quality of PET images. Height, weight, body surface area (BSA), and body mass index (BMI) were determined in 101 male and 101 female patients (group 1) referred for clinical PET. The summed total counts from three consecutive transaxial slices on non-attenuation-corrected (NAC) 2D fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET images, which included the largest liver section and no lesions, were determined and compared with body morphology and injected doses (ID) in a representative group of 30 male and 30 female patients (group 2) spanning a range of body morphologies. The visual quality of images was also evaluated using a scoring system by three readers. The average height, weight, and BSA were greater in male than in female patients, but the average BMI was not different between them in group 1. The largest value of weight or BMI was more than four times the smallest value in female patients. The total true counts were best correlated with ID/weight (mCi/kg) in group 2 (r=0.929, P<0.0001). Intermediate to high total counts (930,000 or more) corresponded to ID/weight of 0.22 or higher. The average visual score was positively correlated with the total counts ({rho}=0.63, P<0.0001) and with ID/weight ({rho}=0.68, P<0.0001) on NAC images. The image quality in 22 (84.6%) of 26 patients with intermediate to high total counts was adequate to good, whereas that in 21 (61.8%) of 34 patients with lower total counts was suboptimal. A wide variety of body morphologies was observed in patients referred for clinical FDG-PET tumor studies in our center. The total counts and average image visual score were negatively correlated with

  3. Illustrating the body: Cross-sectional and prospective investigations of the impact of life drawing sessions on body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren

    2016-01-30

    Life drawing sessions, where individuals produce drawings of the human figure from observations of a live model, may contain embodying elements that promote healthier body image. Two pilot studies were conducted to test this hypothesis. In Study 1, 138 individuals recruited from life drawing sessions in London, UK, estimated how many sessions they had attended in their lifetime and completed measures of negative and positive body image. In women, greater attendance was significantly associated with higher body appreciation and lower drive for thinness and social physique anxiety. In men, greater attendance was significantly associated with higher body appreciation, but not drive for muscularity or social physique anxiety. In Study 2, 37 women took part in a life drawing session for the first time. Compared to pre-session scores, participants had significantly more positive state body image and appearance satisfaction after the session. The findings of these studies suggest that life drawing may promote healthier body image, particularly among women, but further research is needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Male body image in Taiwan versus the West: Yanggang Zhiqi meets the Adonis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chi-Fu Jeffrey; Gray, Peter; Pope, Harrison G

    2005-02-01

    Body image disorders appear to be more prevalent in Western than non-Western men. Previous studies by the authors have shown that young Western men display unrealistic body ideals and that Western advertising seems to place an increasing value on the male body. The authors hypothesized that Taiwanese men would exhibit less dissatisfaction with their bodies than Western men and that Taiwanese advertising would place less value on the male body than Western media. The authors administered a computerized test of body image to 55 heterosexual men in Taiwan and compared the results to those previously obtained in an identical study in the United States and Europe. Second, they counted the number of undressed male and female models in American versus Taiwanese women's magazine advertisements. In the body image study, the Taiwanese men exhibited significantly less body dissatisfaction than their Western counterparts. In the magazine study, American magazine advertisements portrayed undressed Western men frequently, but Taiwanese magazines portrayed undressed Asian men rarely. Taiwan appears less preoccupied with male body image than Western societies. This difference may reflect 1) Western traditions emphasizing muscularity and fitness as a measure of masculinity, 2) increasing exposure of Western men to muscular male bodies in media images, and 3) greater decline in traditional male roles in the West, leading to greater emphasis on the body as a measure of masculinity. These factors may explain why body dysmorphic disorder and anabolic steroid abuse are more serious problems in the West than in Taiwan.

  5. Body Image and Westernization Trends among Japanese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Hailey E.; Reel, Justine J.; Galli, Nick A.; Crookston, Benjamin T.; Miyairi, Maya

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims: The purpose of this project was to examine body dissatisfaction and the degree of acculturation to Western media body ideals among Japanese adolescents. Furthermore, sex differences in body esteem were examined between male and female participants. Methods: Male and female participants (N=158) aged 15 to 18 years in Okinawa,…

  6. Exploring the influence of gender-role socialization and objectified body consciousness on body image disturbance in breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boquiren, Virginia M; Esplen, Mary Jane; Wong, Jiahui; Toner, Brenda; Warner, Ellen

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to explore the relationships between gender-role socialization, objectified body consciousness and quality of life in breast cancer (BC) survivors with body image (BI) disturbance post-treatment. A total of 150 BC survivors participating in an ongoing randomized clinical trial of a group psychotherapy intervention for BI-related concerns completed a baseline battery of standardized measures including the following: Body Image Scale (BIS), Body Image after Breast Cancer Questionnaire (BIBCQ), Objectified Body Consciousness Scale (OBCS) measuring Body Shame and Surveillance, Gender-Role Socialization Scale (GRSS) measuring internalization of traditional gender roles and attitudes and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast Quality-of-Life Instrument (FACT-B). Correlational analyses were conducted between the two BI questionnaires, the two primary psychosocial variables GRSS and OBCS, and FACT-B. Path analysis was conducted on a proposed theoretical model delineating pathways between the two primary psychosocial variables and BI disturbance. Significant positive correlations were found between the two BI scales and (a) GRSS (average r = 0.53, p gender roles and attitudes, who engaged in greater self-surveillance and experienced greater body shame, reported greater BI disturbance and poorer quality of life post-treatment. Women with these predispositions are likely to be more vulnerable for psychological distress and may experience poorer adjustment after BC treatment. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Body Image as a Source of Shame: A New Measure for the Assessment of the Multifaceted Nature of Body Image Shame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Cristiana; Pinto-Gouveia, José; Ferreira, Cláudia; Batista, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical accounts highlight the link between shame and body image difficulties, and disordered eating behaviours. Specifically, body image shame seems to play a particularly important role in this association. The current study aimed at developing and validating a new measure of body image shame and its phenomenology, the Body Image Shame Scale (BISS). Distinct samples of women from the general and student populations were used to test the BISS factorial structure using principal component analysis (PCA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and to examine the psychometric properties of the BISS. Principal component analysis results indicated that the scale presents a two-factor structure assessing an externalized and an internalized dimension underlying body image shame, which explains a total of 62.41% of the variance. A confirmatory factor analysis further corroborated the adequacy of this structure, which revealed good global and local adjustment indices. The BISS also presented very good internal consistency, construct and discriminant validities and good test-retest reliability. The scale also showed good concurrent and divergent validities. Furthermore, the scale discriminates between women with higher or lower levels of disordered eating behaviours. Finally, a mediation analysis revealed that the BISS fully mediates the previously established association between external shame and eating psychopathology. The BISS is a psychometrically robust and short measure of body image shame and its external and internal dimensions. The BISS is a brief and reliable self-report instrument of body image-related shame. The BISS assesses the phenomenology of body image shame considering an externalized dimension and an internalized dimension, which may have important clinical implications. The BISS presents very good internal consistency, construct and discriminant validities, test-retest reliability, concurrent and divergent validities, and accurately

  8. The role of the nurse in the rehabilitation of patients with radical changes in body image due to burn injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aacovou, I

    2005-06-30

    Burn injuries are among the most serious causes of radical changes in body image. The subject of body image and self-image is essential in rehabilitation, and the nurse must be aware of the issues related to these concepts and take them seriously into account in drafting out the nursing programme. This paper defines certain key words related to body image and discusses the social context of body image. Burn injuries are considered in relation to the way each of these affects the patient's body image. The aim of nursing is defined and the nurse's role in cases of severe changes in body image due to burn injuries is discussed.

  9. Predictive factors of disordered eating and body image satisfaction in cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyrides, Marios; Kkeli, Natalie

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to assess possible relationships and predictor variables between disordered eating attitudes and behaviors, the internalization of the thin ideal construct, body image satisfaction, body image investment, weight-related anxiety, and body mass index (BMI) among Greek-Cypriot female university students in Cyprus. A total of 243 female university students responded to self-report measures assessing disordered eating, internalization of the thin ideal, body satisfaction, body image investment, and weight-related anxiety. Disordered eating was positively correlated to the internalization of the thin ideal, body image investment, weight-related anxiety, and BMI and negatively correlated with body image satisfaction. The internalization of the thin ideal was also positively correlated to weight-related anxiety and body image investment and negatively correlated to body image satisfaction. Furthermore, weight-related anxiety and internalization of the thin ideal have been found to be significant predictors of disordered eating attitudes. Possible explanations and vulnerability factors are addressed, as well as implication for prevention strategies and future research. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Body image disturbance in children and adolescents with eating disorders. Current evidence and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legenbauer, Tanja; Thiemann, Pia; Vocks, Silja

    2014-01-01

    Body image is multifaceted and incorporates perceptual, affective, and cognitive components as well as behavioral features. Only few studies have examined the character of body-image disturbance in children/adolescents with eating disorders. It is unknown whether body-image disturbances in children/adolescent with eating disturbances are comparable to those of adult patients with eating disorders. Body-image disturbance might differ quantitatively and qualitatively according to the cognitive developmental status and the age of the individual. This paper provides an overview of the current evidence for body-image disturbance in children/adolescents with eating disorders, and how they compare with those adults with eating disorders. Current evidence indicates that older adolescent patients show similar deficits as adult patients with eating disorders, in particular for the attitudinal body-image component. However, evidence for a perceptual body-image disturbance in adolescent patients, in particular anorexia nervosa, is not conclusive. Reliable statements for childhood can hardly be made because clinical studies are not available. Investigations of body-image disturbance in children have focused on the predictive value for eating disorders. Limitations of the current evidence are discussed, and future directions for research and therapy are indicated.

  11. A Program To Promote Positive Body Image: A 1-Year Follow-Up Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVey, Gail L.; Davis, Ron

    2002-01-01

    Evaluated the effectiveness of a program designed to promote body image satisfaction and prevent eating problems in young adolescent girls over a 1-year period. Found no program effect. Found instead, significant increases in body image satisfaction and decreases in eating problem scores over time for participants in both the prevention and…

  12. Cognitive Behavior Therapy with Body Image Exposure for Bulimia Nervosa: A Case Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delinsky, Sherrie S.; Wilson, G. Terence

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for bulimia nervosa (BN). However, among patients with BN, symptom improvement is more pronounced for behavioral eating symptoms (i.e., bingeing and purging) than for body image disturbance, and the persistence of body image disturbance is associated with relapse. The need for more…

  13. Body Image, Self-Esteem, and Weight-Related Criticism from Romantic Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Befort, Christie; Kurpius, Sharon E. Robinson; Hull-Blanks, Elva; Nicpon, Megan Foley; Huser, Laura; Sollenberger, Sonja

    2001-01-01

    Examines weight-related criticism from romantic partners and the importance of the romantic relationship in relation to the body image and self esteem for college freshmen women. Results reveal that self esteem and body image were positively related. Partner importance also predicted self esteem, whereas criticism did not. (Contains 55 references…

  14. Curricular Treatment of Body Image, Self-Esteem and Self-Concept in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Antonio V.; Estévez, Manuel; Palomares, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of human development in which problems with the perception of body image, self-esteem and self-concept proliferate, while the child is studying for Secondary Education. This study analyses the curricular treatment given to body image, self-esteem and self-concept in different legislative elements in the region of Valencia…

  15. The Politics and Economics of Body Image and Sexuality in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    Abstract. Body image is internal and external. It is seen by ourselves and by others. Social body image constructs seem to be built on what is deemed to be beautiful within our cultural contexts, which in turn is perceived as valuable and in turn has higher social standing because everyone else looks up to it. The politics of ...

  16. Self-Harm Behaviour in Adolescents: Body Image and Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktan, Vesile

    2017-01-01

    This research aimed to reveal the relationship between self-harm behaviour, body image, and self-esteem, and examined whether there was a difference between the body image and self-esteem of the adolescents who exhibited self-harm behaviour and those who did not. The study was conducted with the participation of 263 high school students--143…

  17. Gender and Age Patterns in Emotional Expression, Body Image, and Self-Esteem: A Qualitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polce-Lynch, Mary; Myers, Barbara J.; Kilmartin, Christopher T.; Forssmann-Falck, Renate; Kliewer, Wendy

    1998-01-01

    Used written narratives to examine gender and age patterns in body image, emotional expression, and self-esteem for 209 students in grades 5, 8, and 12. Results indicate that boys restrict emotional expression in adolescence, whereas girls increase emotional expression in the same period. Girls also are more influenced by body image. (SLD)

  18. Is subjective perception of negative body image among adolescents associated with bullying?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holubcikova, Jana; Kolarcik, Peter; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    Adolescents' body image dissatisfaction has an adverse effect on peer relationships. It may lead to changes in behaviour (aggressive or passive) and consequently to bullying behaviour. Our aim was to assess the association between body image dissatisfaction and involvement in bullying and whether

  19. The Practical Application of Promoting Positive Body Image on a College Campus: Insights from Freshmen Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Jackson, TeriSue; Reel, Justine J.; Thackeray, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Background: Body image disturbances and disordered eating behaviors are prevalent across college campuses and can lead to psychological and physical health consequences. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to gain formative research on the promotion of positive body image on a university campus with the goal of developing educational programs.…

  20. Gender Conformity, Self-Objectification, and Body Image for Sorority and Nonsorority Women: A Closer Look

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, David Francis; Behrens, Erica; Gann, Lianne; Schoen, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Sororities have been identified as placing young women at risk for body image concerns due to a focus on traditional gender role norms and objectification of women. Objective: This study assessed the relationship between conformity to feminine gender role norms, self-objectification, and body image surveillance among undergraduate women.…

  1. Social Cognitive Perspectives on the Development of Body Image in Adult Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Kristin Lee

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore women's perceptions of the sources of information that led to the development of their body image. The problem this study addressed was women receive messages that contribute to negative body image throughout their lifetimes. When these messages are processed passively, especially when cultivated over time,…

  2. Influence of Appearance-Related TV Commercials on Body Image State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legenbauer, Tanja; Ruhl, Ilka; Vocks, Silja

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of media exposure on body image state in eating-disordered (ED) patients. The attitudinal and perceptual components of body image are assessed, as well as any associations with dysfunctional cognitions and behavioral consequences. Twenty-five ED patients and 25 non-ED controls (ND) viewed commercials either…

  3. Strength Training Improves Body Image and Physical Activity Behaviors among Midlife and Older Rural Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguin, Rebecca A.; Eldridge, Galen; Lynch, Wesley; Paul, Lynn C.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of strength training on body image is understudied. The Strong Women Program, a 10-week, twice weekly strength-training program, was provided by Extension agents to 341 older rural women (62 ± 12 years); changes in body image and other psychosocial variables were evaluated. Paired-sample t-test analyses were conducted to assess mean…

  4. Weight, Weight-Related Aspects of Body Image, and Depression in Early Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rierdan, Jill; Koff, Elissa

    1997-01-01

    Examines the hypothesis that early adolescent girls (N=175) with more negative weight-related body images would report higher levels of depressive symptoms. Results indicate that the more subjective and personal measures of weight-related body image discontent (weight dissatisfaction and weight concerns) were associated with increased depressive…

  5. The moderating effect of perceived partner empathy on body image and depression among breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Su-Ying; Chang, Hong-Tai; Shu, Bih-Ching

    2015-12-01

    The aims of the study were the following: (1) to understand the relationship between women's perceptions of empathy from their partners and their depressive symptoms and body image and (2) to examine the moderating effects of women's perceptions of empathy from their partners on the relationship between body image and depressive symptoms. A cross-sectional and correlational design was used, in which a convenience sample of 151 women who completed surgery and the necessary chemotherapy/radiotherapy were recruited from southern Taiwan. A structured questionnaire including the Other Dyadic Perspective-Taking Scale, the Body Image Scale, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale were administered. Hierarchical regression was used to examine the moderating effects of empathy from partners between the women's body image and their level of depressive symptoms. The results showed significant relationships between empathy from a partner and depressive symptoms (p body image (p > 0.05). The moderating effect of empathy from a partner on the relationship between body image and depressive symptoms was also significant (p depressive symptoms women reported. Empathy from a partner could moderate the impact of body image changes on depressive symptoms. Women's depressive symptoms, resulting from a change in body image after breast cancer surgery, might be minimized if they perceived greater empathy from their partners. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. NetTweens: The Internet and Body Image Concerns in Preteenage Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, Marika; Slater, Amy

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between media exposure and body image concerns in preteenage girls, with a particular focus on the Internet. A sample of 189 girls (aged 10-12 years) completed questionnaire measures of media consumption and body image concerns. Nearly all girls (97.5%) had access to the Internet in their home.…

  7. Sexuality and body image in long-term survivors of testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossen, Philip; Pedersen, A F; Zachariae, R

    2012-01-01

    This study explores sexual function and the influence of different treatment modalities on sexual function and body image among long-term survivors of testicular cancer (TCSs).......This study explores sexual function and the influence of different treatment modalities on sexual function and body image among long-term survivors of testicular cancer (TCSs)....

  8. Perceptions of Body Image and Psychosocial Development: An Examination of First-Year Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Jennifer Lynne

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to help higher education practitioners and researchers better understand the role that body image plays in first-year traditional-aged college females' development of physical competence and also provide new insights regarding the role that body image plays in the psychosocial development of first-year…

  9. Counseling Adolescent Girls for Body Image Resilience: Strategies for School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choate, Laura Hensley

    2007-01-01

    Because body image dissatisfaction is such a pervasive problem in adolescent girls, school counselors need to develop effective prevention programs in this area. In this article, a model to promote girls' body image resilience is presented. The model identifies five protective factors that contribute to girls' abilities to resist sociocultural…

  10. Body image and weight control in South Africans 15 years or older: SANHANES-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mchiza, Zandile J; Parker, Whadi-Ah; Makoae, Mokhantso; Sewpaul, Ronel; Kupamupindi, Takura; Labadarios, Demetre

    2015-09-30

    South African studies have suggested that differences in obesity prevalence between groups may be partly related to differences in body image and body size dissatisfaction. However, there has never been a national study that measured body image and its relationship to weight control in the country. Hence, the main aim of the study was to examine body image in relation to body mass index and weight control in South Africa. A cross-sectional survey and a secondary analyses of data were undertaken for 6 411 South Africans (15+ years) participating in the first South African National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Body image was investigated in relation to weight status and attempts to lose or gain weight. Data were analysed using STATA version 11.0. Descriptive statistics are presented as counts (numbers), percentages, means, standard error of means, and 95 % confidence intervals. Any differences in values were considered to be significantly different if the confidence intervals did not overlap. Overall, 84.5 % participants had a largely distorted body image and 45.3 % were highly dissatisfied about their body size. Overweight and obese participants under estimated their body size and desired to be thinner. On the other hand, normal- and under-weight participants over estimated their body size and desired to be fatter. Only 12.1 and 10.1 % of participants attempted to lose or gain weight, respectively, mainly by adjusting dietary intake and physical activity. Body mass index appears to influence body image and weight adjustment in South Africa. South Africans at the extreme ends of the body mass index range have a largely distorted body image and are highly dissatisfied by it. This suggests a need for health education and beneficial weight control strategies to halt the obesity epidemic in the country.

  11. Higher Facebook use predicts greater body image dissatisfaction during pregnancy: The role of self-comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, S; Brown, A

    2016-09-01

    poor body image during pregnancy is a growing issue. Similarly, emerging evidence is suggesting that social media use may increase the risk of poor well-being e.g. depression, anxiety and body image concerns amongst users. Research has not examined how social media use may influence women during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to therefore to explore the relationship between body image during pregnancy and Facebook use. a cross sectional self-report questionnaire. two hundred and sixty nine pregnant women. community groups and online forums. a self-report questionnaire exploring maternal body image, use of Facebook and how mothers perceived Facebook affected their body image. Descriptive statistics were used to explore body image perceptions. Partial correlations (controlling for maternal age, education, parity and gestation) were used to explore the association between Facebook use and body image during pregnancy. negative body image was common in the sample, increased with gestation and was unrelated to pre pregnancy weight. Mothers with a Facebook account had higher body image concerns than those without a Facebook account. Of those with an account, increased Facebook use was associated with increased body image dissatisfaction, particularly in terms of postnatal concerns for how their body would look with 56.5% reporting that they frequently compared their pregnant body to other pregnant women on the site. Facebook access was frequent with 85% of participants checking it at least once per day and the average participant spending over an hour per day on the site. although causality cannot be fully explained, Facebook use may increase mother's risk of poor body image dissatisfaction during pregnancy. Mothers with already poor body image may also be drawn to the site in order to make comparisons of their appearance. the potential impact of Facebook on increasing the risk of, or promoting existing poor body image is an important message for those working to

  12. Is smoking related to body image satisfaction, stress, and self-esteem in young adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croghan, Ivana T; Bronars, Carrie; Patten, Christi A; Schroeder, Darrell R; Nirelli, Liza M; Thomas, Janet L; Clark, Matthew M; Vickers, Kristin S; Foraker, Randi; Lane, Kristi; Houlihan, Daniel; Offord, Kenneth P; Hurt, Richard D

    2006-01-01

    To examine the association of smoking and gender with body image satisfaction, perceived stress, and self-esteem in young adults. Respondents completed a survey consisting of Perceived Stress Scale, Body-Areas Satisfaction Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. Current smokers (n = 483) and never smokers (n = 973) are included. Smoking and female gender were independently associated with higher perceived stress (P body image satisfaction and lower self-esteem (P self-esteem (P = 0.007). Smoking treatment should include stress management and self-esteem and body image improvement.

  13. Comparative effects of Facebook and conventional media on body image dissatisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Rachel; Blaszczynski, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Appearance comparison has consistently been shown to engender body image dissatisfaction. To date, most studies have demonstrated this relationship between appearance comparison and body image dissatisfaction in the context of conventional media images depicting the thin-ideal. Social comparison theory posits that people are more likely to compare themselves to similar others. Since social media forums such as Facebook involve one's peers, the current study aimed to determine whether the relationship between appearance comparison and body image dissatisfaction would be stronger for those exposed to social media images, compared to conventional media images. A sample of 193 female first year university students were randomly allocated to view a series of either Facebook or conventional media thin-ideal images. Participants completed questionnaires assessing pre- and post- image exposure measures of thin-ideal internalisation, appearance comparison, self-esteem, Facebook use and eating disorder risk. Type of exposure was not found to moderate the relationship between appearance comparison and changes in body image dissatisfaction. When analysed according to exposure type, appearance comparison only significantly predicted body image dissatisfaction change for those exposed to Facebook, but not conventional media. Facebook use was found to predict higher baseline body image dissatisfaction and was associated with higher eating disorder risk. The findings suggest the importance of extending the body image dissatisfaction literature by taking into account emerging social media formats. It is recommended that interventions for body image dissatisfaction and eating disorders consider appearance comparison processes elicited by thin-ideal content on social media forums, such as Facebook, in addition to conventional media.

  14. Anthropometric body measurements based on multi-view stereo image reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaoxin; Jia, Wenyan; Mao, Zhi-Hong; Li, Jie; Chen, Hsin-Chen; Zuo, Wangmeng; Wang, Kuanquan; Sun, Mingui

    2013-01-01

    Anthropometric measurements, such as the circumferences of the hip, arm, leg and waist, waist-to-hip ratio, and body mass index, are of high significance in obesity and fitness evaluation. In this paper, we present a home based imaging system capable of conducting anthropometric measurements. Body images are acquired at different angles using a home camera and a simple rotating disk. Advanced image processing algorithms are utilized for 3D body surface reconstruction. A coarse body shape model is first established from segmented body silhouettes. Then, this model is refined through an inter-image consistency maximization process based on an energy function. Our experimental results using both a mannequin surrogate and a real human body validate the feasibility of the proposed system.

  15. Anthropometric Body Measurements Based on Multi-View Stereo Image Reconstruction*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaoxin; Jia, Wenyan; Mao, Zhi-Hong; Li, Jie; Chen, Hsin-Chen; Zuo, Wangmeng; Wang, Kuanquan; Sun, Mingui

    2013-01-01

    Anthropometric measurements, such as the circumferences of the hip, arm, leg and waist, waist-to-hip ratio, and body mass index, are of high significance in obesity and fitness evaluation. In this paper, we present a home based imaging system capable of conducting automatic anthropometric measurements. Body images are acquired at different angles using a home camera and a simple rotating disk. Advanced image processing algorithms are utilized for 3D body surface reconstruction. A coarse body shape model is first established from segmented body silhouettes. Then, this model is refined through an inter-image consistency maximization process based on an energy function. Our experimental results using both a mannequin surrogate and a real human body validate the feasibility of proposed system. PMID:24109700

  16. Body Image, Self-Esteem, and Depression-Proneness: Closing the Gender Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaulay, Marci; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Examines gender differences in body image and its relationship to depression-proneness and self-esteem. Findings indicate a preoccupation with body weight and appearance for both men and women, and a relationship between body satisfaction and depression-proneness. (FMW)

  17. Body image in cancer survivors : a systematic review of case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann, Vicky; Hagedoorn, Mariet; Tuinman, Marrit A.

    2015-01-01

    There is common consensus that cancer and its treatment can impair the body, but combined evidence of the previous literature in cancer survivors is missing. Therefore, we reviewed body image in cancer survivors and focused on case-control studies, in order to draw conclusions as to whether body

  18. Perceived Body Image Satisfaction: Impact on Romantic Relationships of African American Adult Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, Candy H.

    2009-01-01

    The size, shape and physical attractiveness of a woman's body are linked to her sexuality. As women age, changes occur to their bodies that may cause them anxiety over the socially constructed body image norms that are promoted within this society. Researchers posit that the standard of our culture seems to create more problems for women as they…

  19. Body image, self-esteem, and quality of life in patients with psoriasis

    OpenAIRE

    Hulya Nazik; Selcuk Nazik; Feride C Gul

    2017-01-01

    Background: Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the skin that may affect the visible areas of body. Hence, the quality of life, self-esteem, and body image can be affected in psoriasis patients. Objectives: We aimed in the present study to assess the effects of psoriasis on the quality of life, self-esteem, and body image. Materials and Methods: The study included 92 patients with psoriasis, along with 98 control participants. The sociodemographic characteristics of the patient...

  20. The Effects of Immigration and Media Influence on Body Image Among Pakistani Men

    OpenAIRE

    Saghir, Sheeba; Hyland, Lynda

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the role of media influence and immigration on body image among Pakistani men. Attitudes toward the body were compared between those living in Pakistan (n = 56) and those who had immigrated to the United Arab Emirates (n = 58). Results of a factorial analysis of variance demonstrated a significant main effect of immigrant status. Pakistani men living in the United Arab Emirates displayed poorer body image than those in the Pakistan sample. Results also indicated a second m...

  1. Obesity, Body Image, Depression, and Weight-control Behaviour Among Female University Students in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Jun, Eun Mi; Choi, Seung Bae

    2014-01-01

    Background: Obesity has become epidemic worldwide and 31.0% of Korean adults are obese. Obesity is the main cause of chronic diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension, cardiac disease, and cancer. The purpose of the study was to examine obesity, body image, depression, and weight-control behaviour among Korean female university students and investigate the differences in body image, depression, and weight-control behaviour with respect to obesity. Methods: This study examined obesity, body ima...

  2. Obesity, Body Image, Depression, and Weight-control Behaviour Among Female University Students in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Eun Mi; Choi, Seung Bae

    2014-09-01

    Obesity has become epidemic worldwide and 31.0% of Korean adults are obese. Obesity is the main cause of chronic diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension, cardiac disease, and cancer. The purpose of the study was to examine obesity, body image, depression, and weight-control behaviour among Korean female university students and investigate the differences in body image, depression, and weight-control behaviour with respect to obesity. This study examined obesity, body image, depression, and weight control in 700 female university students from 4 universities in South Korea. To evaluate obesity, both objective obesity (body mass index [BMI]) and subjective obesity (subjectively perceived) were measured. There was a significant difference between objective and subjective obesity (χ(2) = 231.280, P body image score (F = 19.867, P body image score (F = 58.281, P body image and weight-control behaviour with respect to objective obesity. Objective and subjective obesity was negatively associated with body image, and no relationships between objective or subjective obesity and depression.

  3. Body image flexibility: A predictor and moderator of outcome in transdiagnostic outpatient eating disorder treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellizzer, Mia L; Waller, Glenn; Wade, Tracey D

    2018-04-01

    Predictors of attrition and predictors and moderators of outcome were explored in a transdiagnostic sample of patients who received ten-session cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT-T) for nonunderweight eating disorders. Body image flexibility, a protective positive body image construct, was hypothesized to be a significant moderator. Data from two case series were combined to form a sample of 78 participants who received CBT-T. Baseline measures of body image, negative affect, personality, and motivation (readiness to change and self-efficacy) were included as potential predictors. Global eating disorder psychopathology at each assessment point (baseline, mid- and post-treatment, 1- and 3-month follow-up) was the outcome variable. Predictors of attrition were assessed using logistic regression, and multilevel modeling was applied for predictors and moderators of outcome. Body image flexibility emerged as the strongest predictor and moderator of global eating disorder psychopathology, followed by body image avoidance. Body checking, negative affect, personality beliefs, and self-efficacy were significant predictors of global eating disorder psychopathology. Higher body image flexibility predicted lower global eating disorder psychopathology at every assessment point. Further research is required to replicate findings and explore the benefit of focusing on positive body image in treatment. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The media's impact on body image: Implications for prevention and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw, J.; Waller, G.

    1995-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that media images of “ideal” female models have an impact upon women's body image, leading to dissatisfaction and perceptual distortion. The evidence for this link between media presentation and body image distortion is reviewed, and theoretical models are advanced to explain the link. In particular, women's use of social comparison in establishing their self-concept seems to be an important psychological construct in understanding the impact of the media upon...

  5. Comparative effects of Facebook and conventional media on body image dissatisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Rachel; Blaszczynski, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Background Appearance comparison has consistently been shown to engender body image dissatisfaction. To date, most studies have demonstrated this relationship between appearance comparison and body image dissatisfaction in the context of conventional media images depicting the thin-ideal. Social comparison theory posits that people are more likely to compare themselves to similar others. Since social media forums such as Facebook involve one?s peers, the current study aimed to determine wheth...

  6. Psychological correlates of eating disorder symptoms and body image in adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, Laura A; Dewey, Deborah

    2013-12-01

    To examine eating disorder symptoms and body image in adolescents with type 1 diabetes and to investigate the associations among social support, self-esteem, health locus of control, eating disorder symptoms and body image. Forty-six adolescents with type 1 diabetes and 27 healthy comparison adolescents completed questionnaires. No significant differences were identified in eating disorder symptoms and body image between adolescents with type 1 diabetes and healthy comparison adolescents. Regression analyses were completed with the full sample of adolescents with type 1 diabetes and healthy comparison adolescents. Higher levels of social support and being male were associated with a more positive body image, less body dissatisfaction and a lower drive for thinness. A belief by the adolescents that parents or healthcare providers (i.e. external powerful others locus of control) were in control of their health was associated with a more positive body image and less body dissatisfaction. Higher self-esteem was associated with a greater drive for thinness and a higher level of body dissatisfaction. Social support, health locus of control and self-esteem appear to be important correlates of eating disorder symptoms and body image in adolescents with diabetes and their typically developing peers. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Intense-personal celebrity worship and body image: evidence of a link among female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltby, John; Giles, David C; Barber, Louise; McCutcheon, Lynn E

    2005-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between celebrity worship and body image within the theoretical perspective of intense para-social relationships with celebrities. Correlation and multiple regression analyses were used to examine the relationships between celebrity worship and body image. Three samples, 229 (102 males and 127 females) adolescents, 183 (88 males and 95 females) full-time university undergraduate students, and 289 (126 males and 163 females) adults were administered an amended version of the Celebrity Attitude Scale, the Attention to Body Shape Scale, and the Body Shape Questionnaire-Revised. Significant relationships were found between attitudes toward celebrities and body image only among female adolescents. Multiple regression analyses suggested that Intense-personal celebrity worship accounted for unique variance in scores in body image. Findings suggest that in female adolescents, there is an interaction between Intense-personal celebrity worship and body image between the ages of 14 and 16 years, and some tentative evidence has been found to suggest that this relationship disappears at the onset of adulthood, 17 to 20 years. Results are consistent with those authors who stress the importance of the formation of para-social relationships with media figures, and suggest that para-social relationships with celebrities perceived as having a good body shape may lead to a poor body image in female adolescents.

  8. The four-dimensional mouse whole-body phantoms and its application in medical imaging research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chongguo; Wu Dake

    2012-01-01

    Medical imaging simulation is a powerful tool for characterizing,evaluating,and optimizing medical imaging devices and techniques. A vital aspect of simulation is to have a realistic phantom or model of the subject's anatomy. Four-dimensional mouse whole-body phantoms provide realistic models of the mouse anatomy and physiology for imaging studies. When combined with accurate models for the imaging process,are capable of providing a wealth of realistic imaging data from subjects with various anatomies and motions (cardiac and respiratory) in health and disease. With this ability, the four-dimensional mouse whole-body phantoms have enormous potential to study the effects of anatomical, physiological and physical factors on medical and small animal imaging and to research new instrumentation, image acquisition strategies, image processing, reconstruction methods, image visualization and interpretation techniques. (authors)

  9. An attitude of gratitude: The effects of body-focused gratitude on weight bias internalization and body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunaev, Jamie; Markey, Charlotte H; Brochu, Paula M

    2018-02-08

    Internalized weight bias and body dissatisfaction are associated with a number of negative psychological and physical health outcomes. The current study examined the effectiveness of body-focused gratitude, through a short writing exercise, as a strategy to reduce internalized weight bias and improve body image. Young adults (M age  = 22.71, SD = 2.08, 51.2% female) were randomly assigned to either a body gratitude condition (n = 185) or a control condition (n = 184). Results indicated that participants in the gratitude condition reported significantly lower weight bias internalization and significantly more favorable appearance evaluation and greater body satisfaction when compared to the control condition. These effects were in the small range (ds = 0.27-0.33), and neither gender nor BMI moderated these effects. These findings provide preliminary support for body-focused gratitude writing exercises as an effective individual-level strategy for both reducing internalized weight bias and improving body image. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. In vivo determination of body composition of rats using magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, H; Vasselli, J; Wu, E; Gallagher, D

    2000-05-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has potential as an instrument to measure body composition because it can discriminate various soft tissues in vivo. These soft tissues include adipose tissue, muscle, organs, and brain. We report on preliminary studies using a 4.2-tesla MRI for measuring body composition in the mouse and rat. We employed image segmentation methods that include an image correction method, a necessary requirement when the images are taken in the presence of nonuniform radio-frequency (RF) coil response. The software for 3-D data segmentation, quantification, correction, image manipulation, and visualization has been developed as a research tool. This method currently is being validated.

  11. Incongruence in body image and body mass index: A surrogate risk marker in Black women for type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rynal Devanathan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Excess weight contributes to the development and progression of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Distorted body image amongst urban Black women and the perception that thinness is linked with HIV, may however be compounding the problem, particularly in areas with a high HIV burden. Objectives: This study aimed to compare the perception of body image in urban Black women with and without T2DM. Methods: A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted on 328 Black women systematically sampled into two groups (with and without T2DM. Body mass index (BMI (weight [kg]/height[m2] was determined and the adapted Stunkard Body Image Silhouettes for Black women was used to determine perceived body image (PBI. Results: Seventy-two per cent had T2DM and in this group 89% were obese, with a mean BMI of 39.5 kg/m2 (s.d. ± 8.5. In the non-diabetes group (NDG 44% were obese, with a mean BMIof 31.3 kg/m2 (s.d. ± 9.0 Black women underestimated their body image across all weight categories (p < 0.05. Both groups (99% of the study group also perceived thinness as being associated with HIV. Conclusions: This study identified an incongruence between PBI and actual BMI amongst urban Black women. This, combined with their belief that thinness is associated with HIV, places those with T2DM at risk of secondary complications arising from diabetes mellitus, and those without diabetes mellitus at a higher risk of developing T2DM. A discrepancy between PBI and BMI may therefore serve as a risk marker to alert clinicians to use a more ethno-cultural specific approach in engaging with urban Black women regarding weight loss strategies in the future.

  12. Incongruence in body image and body mass index: A surrogate risk marker in Black women for type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rynal Devanathan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Excess weight contributes to the development and progression of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Distorted body image amongst urban Black women and the perception that thinness is linked with HIV, may however be compounding the problem, particularly in areas with a high HIV burden.Objectives: This study aimed to compare the perception of body image in urban Black women with and without T2DM.Methods: A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted on 328 Black women systematically sampled into two groups (with and without T2DM. Body mass index (BMI (weight [kg]/height[m2] was determined and the adapted Stunkard Body Image Silhouettes for Black women was used to determine perceived body image (PBI.Results: Seventy-two per cent had T2DM and in this group 89% were obese, with a mean BMI of 39.5 kg/m2 (s.d. ± 8.5. In the non-diabetes group (NDG 44% were obese, with a mean BMIof 31.3 kg/m2 (s.d. ± 9.0 Black women underestimated their body image across all weight categories (p < 0.05. Both groups (99% of the study group also perceived thinness as being associated with HIV.Conclusions: This study identified an incongruence between PBI and actual BMI amongst urban Black women. This, combined with their belief that thinness is associated with HIV, places those with T2DM at risk of secondary complications arising from diabetes mellitus, and those without diabetes mellitus at a higher risk of developing T2DM. A discrepancy between PBI and BMI may therefore serve as a risk marker to alert clinicians to use a more ethno-cultural specific approach in engaging with urban Black women regarding weight loss strategies in the future.

  13. Eating Disorders and Body Image of Undergraduate Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ousley, Louise; Cordero, Elizabeth Diane; White, Sabina

    2008-01-01

    Eating disorders and body dissatisfaction among undergraduate men are less documented and researched than are eating disorders and body dissatisfaction among undergraduate women. Objective and Participants: In this study, the authors examined these issues in undergraduate men to identify similarities and differences between this population and…

  14. Body Image: Learning to Love the New You

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your body goes through a lot of changes to accommodate your baby during and after pregnancy. These changes are natural and healthy, but they might affect the way you feel about your looks. Even if you didn’t like your body before, recognize the great feat it has accomplished―it produced another human being!

  15. Body Image Among Adolescent Girls and Boys: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Diane Carlson

    2004-01-01

    This longitudinal study of adolescent girls and boys examined the contributions of social (peer appearance context), psychological (internalized appearance ideals and appearance social comparison), and biological (body mass) factors to the development of body dissatisfaction. Students (165 girls and 139 boys) completed questionnaires when they…

  16. Alexithymia and its relationships with body checking and body image in a non-clinical female sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Berardis, Domenico; Carano, Alessandro; Gambi, Francesco; Campanella, Daniela; Giannetti, Paola; Ceci, Anna; Mancini, Enrico; La Rovere, Raffaella; Cicconetti, Alessandra; Penna, Laura; Di Matteo, Danilo; Scorrano, Barbara; Cotellessa, Carla; Salerno, Rosa Maria; Serroni, Nicola; Ferro, Filippo Maria

    2007-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate in a non-clinical sample of undergraduate women, the relationships between alexithymia, body checking and body image, identifying predictive factors associated with the possible risk of developing an Eating Disorder (ED). The Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), Body Checking Questionnaire (BCQ), Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ), Interaction Anxiousness Scale (IAS), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were completed by 254 undergraduate females. We found that alexithymics had more consistent body checking behaviors and higher body dissatisfaction than nonalexithymics. In addition, alexithymics also reported a higher potential risk for ED (higher scores on EAT-26) when compared to nonalexithymics. Difficulty in identifying and describing feelings subscales of TAS-20, Overall appearance and Specific Body Parts subscales of BCQ as well as lower self-esteem was associated with higher ED risk in a linear regression analysis. Thus, a combination of alexithymia, low self-esteem, body checking behaviors and body dissatisfaction may be a risk factor for symptoms of ED at least in a non-clinical sample of university women.

  17. Image artifacts from MR-based attenuation correction in clinical, whole-body PET/MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Sune H; Holm, Søren; Hansen, Adam E

    2013-01-01

    Integrated whole-body PET/MRI tomographs have become available. PET/MR imaging has the potential to supplement, or even replace combined PET/CT imaging in selected clinical indications. However, this is true only if methodological pitfalls and image artifacts arising from novel MR-based attenuation...

  18. Body Image Distortion and Exposure to Extreme Body Types: Contingent Adaptation and Cross Adaptation for Self and Other.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Kevin R; Mond, Jonathan M; Stevenson, Richard J; Stephen, Ian D

    2016-01-01

    Body size misperception is common amongst the general public and is a core component of eating disorders and related conditions. While perennial media exposure to the "thin ideal" has been blamed for this misperception, relatively little research has examined visual adaptation as a potential mechanism. We examined the extent to which the bodies of "self" and "other" are processed by common or separate mechanisms in young women. Using a contingent adaptation paradigm, experiment 1 gave participants prolonged exposure to images both of the self and of another female that had been distorted in opposite directions (e.g., expanded other/contracted self), and assessed the aftereffects using test images both of the self and other. The directions of the resulting perceptual biases were contingent on the test stimulus, establishing at least some separation between the mechanisms encoding these body types. Experiment 2 used a cross adaptation paradigm to further investigate the extent to which these mechanisms are independent. Participants were adapted either to expanded or to contracted images of their own body or that of another female. While adaptation effects were largest when adapting and testing with the same body type, confirming the separation of mechanisms reported in experiment 1, substantial misperceptions were also demonstrated for cross adaptation conditions, demonstrating a degree of overlap in the encoding of self and other. In addition, the evidence of misperception of one's own body following exposure to "thin" and to "fat" others demonstrates the viability of visual adaptation as a model of body image disturbance both for those who underestimate and those who overestimate their own size.

  19. Body Image Distortion and Exposure to Extreme Body Types: Contingent Adaptation and Cross Adaptation for Self and Other

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R. Brooks

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Body size misperception is common amongst the general public and is a core component of eating disorders and related conditions. While perennial media exposure to the thin ideal has been blamed for this misperception, relatively little research has examined visual adaptation as a potential mechanism. We examined the extent to which the bodies of self and other are processed by common or separate mechanisms in young women. Using a contingent adaptation paradigm, experiment 1 gave participants prolonged exposure to images both of the self and of another female that had been distorted in opposite directions (e.g. expanded other/contracted self, and assessed the aftereffects using test images both of the self and other. The directions of the resulting perceptual biases were contingent on the test stimulus, establishing at least some separation between the mechanisms encoding these body types. Experiment 2 used a cross adaptation paradigm to further investigate the extent to which these mechanisms are independent. Participants were adapted either to expanded or to contracted images of their own body or that of another female. While adaptation effects were largest when adapting and testing with the same body type, confirming the separation of mechanisms reported in experiment 1, substantial misperceptions were also demonstrated for cross adaptation conditions, demonstrating a degree of overlap in the encoding of self and other. In addition, the evidence of misperception of one’s own body following exposure to thin and to fat others demonstrates the viability of visual adaptation as a model of body image disturbance both for those who underestimate and those who overestimate their own size.

  20. Body image and nonsuicidal self-injury: Validation of the Body Investment Scale in participants with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, J H; Cañabate, M; García-Alandete, J; Llorca, G; Real-López, M; Beltrán, M; Pérez, S

    2018-01-01

    The Body Investment Scale (BIS) assesses body image feelings, body care, protection of the body, and comfort in touch, in order to identify and distinguish participants with self-harming and self-destructive tendencies. However, the psychometric properties of the BIS were not analysed in participants diagnosed with eating disorders. The main objective of the present study is to confirm the factor structure of the Spanish version of the BIS and analyse its psychometric properties in a sample composed of women diagnosed with eating disorders. Participants were 250 Spanish women between 12 and 60 years old (M = 26.05, SD = 11.97) diagnosed with eating disorders. A confirmatory factor analysis showed a poor fit of the original BIS. The final model showed an acceptable 4-factor structure (Body Feelings, α = .88; Body Touch, α = .82; Body Protection, α = .77; Body Care, α = .68), with a good fit to the data (SBχ 2 (246)  = 393.21, CFI = .906, IFI = .908, RMSEA = .049). The relationships between the BIS and both the Purpose-In-Life Test-10 Items and Beck Hopelessness Scale were analysed, as well as differences in the BIS score according to nonsuicidal self-injuries and suicidal ideation in the past year. The BIS is an appropriate instrument to assess the body investment dimension of body image in women with eating disorders. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.