WorldWideScience

Sample records for body image

  1. Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help your child have a healthy body image Cosmetic surgery Breast surgery Botox Liposuction Varicose or spider veins Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) Eating disorders Anorexia nervosa Binge eating ... nervosa Cosmetics and your health Depression during and after pregnancy ...

  2. Body Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The high-tech art of digital signal processing (DSP) was pioneered at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in the mid-1960s for use in the Apollo Lunar Landing Program. Designed to computer enhance pictures of the Moon, this technology became the basis for the Landsat Earth resources satellites and subsequently has been incorporated into a broad range of Earthbound medical and diagnostic tools. DSP is employed in advanced body imaging techniques including Computer-Aided Tomography, also known as CT and CATScan, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). CT images are collected by irradiating a thin slice of the body with a fan-shaped x-ray beam from a number of directions around the body's perimeter. A tomographic (slice-like) picture is reconstructed from these multiple views by a computer. MRI employs a magnetic field and radio waves, rather than x-rays, to create images.

  3. Body Weight and Body Image

    OpenAIRE

    McFarlane Traci; Olmsted Marion P

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Health Issue Body weight is of physical and psychological importance to Canadian women; it is associated with health status, physical activity, body image, and self-esteem. Although the problems associated with overweight and obesity are indeed serious, there are also problems connected to being underweight. Weight prejudice and the dieting industry intensify body image concerns for Canadian women and can have a major negative impact on self-esteem. Key Findings Women have lower BMIs...

  4. Adolescence and Body Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinshenker, Naomi

    2002-01-01

    Discusses body image among adolescents, explaining that today's adolescents are more prone to body image distortions and dissatisfaction than ever and examining the historical context; how self-image develops; normative discontent; body image distortions; body dysmorphic disorder (BDD); vulnerability of boys (muscle dysmorphia); who is at risk;…

  5. Media and Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Media and Body Image Home For Patients Search FAQs Media and Body ... and Body Image TFAQ002, June 2016 PDF Format Media and Body Image Especially For Teens How can the media make ...

  6. Adolescence and body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinshenker, Naomi

    2002-05-01

    Concerns about body image range from a normal desire to look attractive to a pathological concern with thinness or physical perfection. Today, more than ever, adolescents in America are prone to body image distortions and dissatisfaction. The reasons for this are multi-determined and include the influence of the media and cultural expectations, as well as a discrepancy between an adolescent's own physical characteristics and the expectations of his or her social environment. Adolescents with severe body image distortions are vulnerable to developing serious psychiatric disorders that can have life-threatening consequences. Schools can help by providing guidance and information in a time of uncertainty. PMID:12046161

  7. Body Image and Body Contouring Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwer, David B; Polonsky, Heather M

    2016-10-01

    Dissatisfaction with physical appearance and body image is a common psychological phenomena in Western society. Body image dissatisfaction is frequently reported by those who have excess body weight, but also is seen in those of normal body weight. For both groups of individuals, this dissatisfaction impacts self-esteem and quality of life. Furthermore, it is believed to be the motivational catalyst to a range of appearance-enhancing behaviors, including weight loss efforts and physical activity. Body image dissatisfaction is also believed to play a role in the decision to seek the wide range of body contouring procedures offered by aesthetic physicians. Individuals who seek these procedures typically report increased body image dissatisfaction, focus on the feature they wish to alter with treatment, and often experience improvement in body image following treatment. At the same time, extreme body image dissatisfaction is a symptom of a number of recognized psychiatric disorders. These include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), all of which can contraindicate aesthetic treatment. This special topic review paper provides an overview of the relationship between body image dissatisfaction and aesthetic procedures designed to improve body contouring. The review specifically focuses on the relationship of body image and body weight, as well as the presentation of body image psychopathology that would contraindicate aesthetic surgery. The overall goal of the paper is to highlight the clinical implications of the existing research and provide suggestions for future research on the psychological aspects of body contouring procedures. PMID:27634782

  8. Body Image and Body Contouring Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwer, David B; Polonsky, Heather M

    2016-10-01

    Dissatisfaction with physical appearance and body image is a common psychological phenomena in Western society. Body image dissatisfaction is frequently reported by those who have excess body weight, but also is seen in those of normal body weight. For both groups of individuals, this dissatisfaction impacts self-esteem and quality of life. Furthermore, it is believed to be the motivational catalyst to a range of appearance-enhancing behaviors, including weight loss efforts and physical activity. Body image dissatisfaction is also believed to play a role in the decision to seek the wide range of body contouring procedures offered by aesthetic physicians. Individuals who seek these procedures typically report increased body image dissatisfaction, focus on the feature they wish to alter with treatment, and often experience improvement in body image following treatment. At the same time, extreme body image dissatisfaction is a symptom of a number of recognized psychiatric disorders. These include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), all of which can contraindicate aesthetic treatment. This special topic review paper provides an overview of the relationship between body image dissatisfaction and aesthetic procedures designed to improve body contouring. The review specifically focuses on the relationship of body image and body weight, as well as the presentation of body image psychopathology that would contraindicate aesthetic surgery. The overall goal of the paper is to highlight the clinical implications of the existing research and provide suggestions for future research on the psychological aspects of body contouring procedures.

  9. Culture and body image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Alves

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the relationship between culture and body image. We intend to know how socio-cultural factors influence the levels of satisfaction with body image. The emphasis is given to the cultural values as represented by the sociocultural norms of societies such as the United States of America and Europe. It is argued that through the media, the values of these industrialized societies are dissipated throughout the world provoking cultural changes and uniformization of behavioural standards. From the literature review, it is possible to conclude that body dissatisfaction is a reality to both sexes and a direct result of the non-conformity to cultural-esthetical patterns promoted by the profit-oriented societies.

  10. Body image inflexibility mediates the relationship between body image evaluation and maladaptive body image coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Serafino G

    2016-03-01

    Body image inflexibility, the unwillingness to experience negative appearance-related thoughts and emotions, is associated with negative body image and eating disorder symptoms. The present study investigated whether body image inflexibility mediated the relationship between body image evaluation and maladaptive body image coping strategies (appearance-fixing and experiential avoidance) in a college and community sample comprising 156 females aged 18-51 years (M=22.76, SD=6.96). Controlling for recruitment source (college vs. community), body image inflexibility fully mediated the relationship between body image evaluation and maladaptive body image coping strategies. Results indicated that an unwillingness to experience negative appearance-related thoughts and emotions is likely responsible for negative body image evaluation's relationship to appearance-fixing behaviours and experiential avoidance. Findings support extant evidence that interventions that explicitly target body image inflexibility, such as Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, may have utility in treating body dissatisfaction in nonclinical populations. PMID:26595857

  11. Body image inflexibility mediates the relationship between body image evaluation and maladaptive body image coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Serafino G

    2016-03-01

    Body image inflexibility, the unwillingness to experience negative appearance-related thoughts and emotions, is associated with negative body image and eating disorder symptoms. The present study investigated whether body image inflexibility mediated the relationship between body image evaluation and maladaptive body image coping strategies (appearance-fixing and experiential avoidance) in a college and community sample comprising 156 females aged 18-51 years (M=22.76, SD=6.96). Controlling for recruitment source (college vs. community), body image inflexibility fully mediated the relationship between body image evaluation and maladaptive body image coping strategies. Results indicated that an unwillingness to experience negative appearance-related thoughts and emotions is likely responsible for negative body image evaluation's relationship to appearance-fixing behaviours and experiential avoidance. Findings support extant evidence that interventions that explicitly target body image inflexibility, such as Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, may have utility in treating body dissatisfaction in nonclinical populations.

  12. [Perspectives on body: embodiment and body image].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shiow-Ru; Chao, Yu-Mei Yu

    2007-06-01

    "Body" is a basic concept of both the natural and human sciences. This extensive review of the literature explores the various philosophical approaches to the body, including empiricism, idealism, existentialism and phenomenology, as well as the relationship between body and mind. Embodiment and body image are the two main concepts of body addressed in this article. Merleau-Ponty's perspective on embodiment, an important new area of theory development, emphasizes that embodiment research must focus on life experiences, such as the study of body image. Using Schilder's framework of psychosocialology, this article provides a comprehensive understanding of the concept of body image and women's perspectives on the "body" in both Western culture and Eastern cultures. Body size and shape significantly influence the self-image of women. Body image is something that develops and changes throughout one's life span and is continually being constructed, destructed, and reconstructed. Personal body image has important psychological effects on the individual, especially women. This integrative review can make a significant contribution to knowledge in this area and, consequently, to related practice and research.

  13. Splintered body image

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo Ballén, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Body image presentation, which made painting morevisual in the 20th century, offers visions of splinteredbodies in different versions of its extention in space andin its proyection in time. This splintered vision in visualpainting was structured by diverse factors, such as theearlier development of photography, and later by audiovisual,videography and rising virtual media. Painting´sclose-up shots on corporal action in the middle of the20th century, allowed us to question new paradigms ofcont...

  14. Body Image and Body Dysmorphic Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas-Aragones, Lucia; Marron, Servando E

    2016-08-23

    Most people would like to change something about their bodies and the way that they look, but for some it becomes an obsession. A healthy skin plays an important role in a person's physical and mental wellbeing, whereas a disfiguring appearance is associated with body image concerns. Skin diseases such as acne, psoriasis and vitiligo produce cosmetic disfigurement and patients suffering these and other visible skin conditions have an increased risk of depression, anxiety, feelings of stigmatization and self-harm ideation. Body image affects our emotions, thoughts, and behaviours in everyday life, but, above all, it influences our relationships. Furthermore, it has the potential to influence our quality of life. Promotion of positive body image is highly recommended, as it is important in improving people's quality of life, physical health, and health-related behaviors. Dermatologists have a key role in identifying body image concerns and offering patients possible treatment options. PMID:27283435

  15. Imaging body armor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harcke, H Theodore; Schauer, David A; Harris, Robert M; Campman, Steven C; Lonergan, Gael J

    2002-04-01

    This study examined the feasibility of performing radiographic studies on patients wearing standard-issue body armor. The Kevlar helmet, fragmentation vest, demining suit sleeve, and armor plate were studied with plain film and computed tomography in a simulated casualty situation. We found that the military helmet contains metal screws and metal clips in the headband, but diagnostic computed tomographic images can be obtained. Kevlar, the principal component of soft armor, has favorable photon attenuation characteristics. Plate armor of composite material also did not limit radiographic studies. Therefore, when medically advantageous, patients can be examined radiographically while wearing standard military body armor. Civilian emergency rooms should be aware of these observations because law enforcement officers wear similar protective armor. PMID:11977874

  16. Body Image Concerns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Ansari, Walid; Dibba, Emily; Stock, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the socio-demographic, lifestyle and well-being variables that are associated with body image concerns (BIC) and whether these associations differed between female and male students. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey; 3,706 undergraduate students...... for the association between four increasing levels of BIC as the dependent variables (no BIC, mild BIC, moderate BIC and marked BIC) on the one hand, and the socio-demographic (gender, age, year at university), lifestyle (physical activity, nutrition) and mental well-being variables (quality of life, perceived stress...... at university. Females' BICs were exclusively associated with low perceived health, higher perceived stress, studies in general as a stressor, and low physical activity. In contrast, males' BIC were found to be exclusively associated with low quality of life and with older age. CONCLUSIONS: Health promoting...

  17. Implicit Beliefs about Ideal Body Image Predict Body Image Dissatisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niclas eHeider

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We examined whether implicit measures of actual and ideal body image can be used to predict body dissatisfaction in young female adults. Participants completed two Implicit Relational Assessment Procedures (IRAPs to examine their implicit beliefs concerning actual (e.g., I am thin and desired ideal body image (e.g., I want to be thin. Body dissatisfaction was examined via self-report questionnaires and rating scales. As expected, differences in body dissatisfaction exerted a differential influence on the two IRAP scores. Specifically, the implicit belief that one is thin was lower in participants who exhibited a high degree of body dissatisfaction than in participants who exhibited a low degree of body dissatisfaction. In contrast, the implicit desire to be thin (i.e., thin ideal body image was stronger in participants who exhibited a high level of body dissatisfaction than in participants who were less dissatisfied with their body. Adding further weight to the idea that both IRAP measures captured different underlying constructs, we also observed that they correlated differently with body mass index, explicit body dissatisfaction, and explicit measures of actual and ideal body image. More generally, these findings underscore the advantage of using implicit measures that incorporate relational information relative to implicit measures that allow for an assessment of associative relations only.

  18. Body Image of Pakistani Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Jalees

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how media exposure, self-esteem, and religiosity influence body image of Pakistan consumers. The underpinning of this study is based on Social Comparison Theory with two additional variables (religiosity and self-esteem for understanding understand consumer attitude towards body image. A self-administered questionnaire was used. 193 persons responded at mall intercepts. The Conceptual framework was empirically tested through SEM. A positive relationship between exposure to media and body image was found while negative influence was found between self-esteem and body image. No relationship was found between religiosity and body image. The results showed mixed outcomes as compared to past studies. The scope of this study is limited to one city only and hence the finding could not be generalized. Future researcher may use a larger sample drawn throughout Pakistan, and by examining whether body image perception varies ethnically, age and gender. Media exposure is affecting the traditional norms and values of Pakistan culture and body image. The obsessions of the media and thin body image have to be controlled and this requires policy changes. Corporate sector might take initiative by not selecting ultra-thin models. They might also sponsors public service messages showing ill effects of being ultra-thin, and showing that the ultra-thin models are not real but is results of artworks and camera angles. Social Comparison Theory with two addition variable religiosity and self-esteem has been successfully extended/empirically tested in the domain of Pakistan culture.

  19. Body Image of Pakistani Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Tariq Jalees; Ernest C de Run

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how media exposure, self esteem, and religiosity influence body image of Pakistan consumers.The underpinning of this study is based on Social Comparison Theory with two additional variables (religiosity and self esteem) for understanding understand consumer attitude towards body image. A self administered questionnaire was used. 193 persons responded at mall intercepts. The Conceptual framework was empirically tested through SEM. A positive relationship between exposure to...

  20. Body Image and Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janete Maximiano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Eating disorders should be understood in a multidimensional perspective, emphasizing a biopsicossocial context. In these pathologies it`s the body, in the first instance, that reveals the disease, being in this way the target of the conflict, revealing a disturbed body experience and as a consequence a weak conception of their personal body image. The body image is conceptualised as a subjective image that the individuals form in their own mind, about their body, in relation with differ- ent contexts of life. The intent of the studies is to comprehend the level of body image disturbance, which have concluded that in the majority of the cases, significant changes on perceptive capacity of the patients do not exist. In this way it`s important to study in a more effective and qualitative way the affective and personal factors. The authors pretend with this bibliographic revision, make a research of body image assessment to the Eating Disorders (Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa, and to reflect which are the best ones to adapt for Portuguese reality.

  1. Guy's Guide to Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2 • 3 • 4 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Body Dysmorphic Disorder Are Steroids Worth the Risk? Delayed Puberty How Can I Improve My Self-Esteem? Body Image and Self-Esteem Help! Is This ...

  2. [Obesity: stigmatization, discrimination, body image].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzl, Johann F

    2016-03-01

    Obesity is a heterogeneous condition with multifactorial genesis (genetic predisposition, life-style, psychosocial situation), but there is a relatively homogeneous negative stereotype of obese individuals, because overweight and obesity are seen as self-inflicted disorders caused by physical inactivity and disorderd eating behavior. Obese individuals are confronted with far-reaching stigmatization and discrimination. Typical stereotypes are laziness, unattractiveness, work refusal. This negative image by the environment contributes to negative self-awareness and self-stigmatization, accompanied by a poor self-esteem and feelings of poor self-control and reduced self-efficacy, resulting in poor constructive coping strategies for overweight reduction. In addition, a disturbed body image combined with deep dissatisfaction with their own body is often found in many obese individuals. There is not always a close connection between body weight and body dissatisfaction. Young women and individuals with a binge eating disorder often show an increased body dissatisfaction as well. PMID:26883770

  3. Very Young Children's Body Image: Bodies and Minds under Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birbeck, David; Drummond, Murray

    2006-01-01

    In recent years research has recognised that notions of body image, body image ideals and body dissatisfaction develop much earlier than was once thought. Forty-seven children (25 male; 22 female) aged between 5 and 6 years were interviewed on three occasions over 12 months regarding their perceptions of body image. The interviews revealed…

  4. Body Image in the Dance Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Wendy

    2008-01-01

    Although some research has shown that dance enhances body image and self-esteem, other research shows that it sometimes has the opposite effect and causes dancers to develop a negative body image and even eating disorders. In dance, body image is not only about maintaining a certain weight; it can also refer to specific perceived body flaws.…

  5. Photography and body image in maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Brandão Viana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Elder’s Body Image have become the object of several studies in recent years due to the influence that this has on the quality of life for theirselves. The objective of this research was to evaluate the perception of body image of elderly people through personal accounts and completion of a range of Body Image for Seniors. Through a photoshoot and application of a rating scale for body image levels of body satisfaction were evaluated.

  6. Marketing importance of body image

    OpenAIRE

    Novák, Erik

    2013-01-01

    In China, applicants for flight attendant job voluntarily visit the hospital to break the tibia bone, into which is inserted gradually the expanding facility to ultimately adds the necessary centimeters to them to have chase to become flight attendants. The physical appearance seems to play in our lives increasingly greater role. How far we can go and what we can do to make us look better? Bachelor's work "The Marekting Importance of Body Image" introduces the reader with a theoretical part o...

  7. Television Images and Adolescent Girls' Body Image Disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botta, Renee A.

    1999-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship on the effects of media images on adolescents, using social-comparison theory and critical-viewing theory. Finds that media do have an impact on body-image disturbance. Suggests that body-image processing is the key to understanding how television images affect adolescent girls' body-image attitudes and behaviors. (SR)

  8. Workshop on Body Image: Creating or Reinventing a Positive Body Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Christine

    This paper examines the culturization of body image and the impact of body image on women and men, noting that the strict definition of body size has made many women and men dissatisfied with their bodies. The first section defines body image and culturization, explaining how the current media images put tremendous pressure on men and women that…

  9. Body Talk: Body Image Commentary on Queerty.com.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Joseph; Grimm, Josh

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we conducted a content analysis of 243 photographic images of men published on the gay male-oriented blog Queerty.com. We also analyzed 435 user-generated comments from a randomly selected 1-year sample. Focusing on images' body types, we found that the range of body types featured on the blog was quite narrow-the vast majority of images had very low levels of body fat and very high levels of muscularity. Users' body image-related comments typically endorsed and celebrated images; critiques of images were comparatively rare. Perspectives from objectification theory and social comparison theory suggest that the images and commentary found on the blog likely reinforce unhealthy body image in gay male communities. PMID:26849832

  10. The Slender Imbalance: Women and Body Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Leslie G.

    1985-01-01

    Identifies sociocultural factors contributing to the current emphasis on thinness, examines the negative impact this has had on women's body image, identifies major risk factors in the development of negative body image, and presents focus issues and related strategies designed to enhance body image and prevent development of related problems.…

  11. The Dimensionality of Body Image Disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgan, Richard J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined personality variables in 75 male and 75 female college students. Found two dimensions underlying body image disturbance variables, one loading on body image dissatisfaction and one loading on body image disturbance. Low negative correlation between two factors suggests that distortion and dissatisfaction are fairly distinct and that body…

  12. Body Image and Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help a Friend Who Cuts? Body Image and Self-Esteem KidsHealth > For Teens > Body Image and Self-Esteem ... really bring down your self-esteem . Why Are Self-Esteem and Body Image Important? Self-esteem is all ...

  13. The Becoming of Bodies: Girls, media effects, and body image

    OpenAIRE

    Coleman, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    The relations between women's bodies and images have long interested and occupied feminist theoretical and empirical work. Recently, much feminist research has focused on the relations between girls' and young women's bodies and images in “the media.” Underpinning much of this research, I argue, is an oppositional model of subject/object onto which bodies and images are mapped. Developing Deleuze's concept of becoming and exploring my own research with a small number of white British teenage ...

  14. Implicit body representations and the conscious body image

    OpenAIRE

    Longo, M. R.; Haggard, P.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that somatosensory processing relies on a class of implicit body representations showing large distortions of size and shape. The relation between these representations and the conscious body image remains unclear. Dissociations have been reported in the clinical literature on eating disorders between different body image measures, with larger and more consistent distortions found with depictive measures, in which participants compare their body to a visual depict...

  15. MR imaging of the body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rummeny, Ernst J. [Rechts der Isar Hospital, TU Muenchen (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Reimer, Peter [Karlsruhe Municipal Hospital (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Heindel, Walter [Muenster Univ. Hospital (Germany). Dept. of Clinical Radiology

    2009-07-01

    Since magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was first introduced into clinical medicine more than 25 years ago, tremendous advances have been made both in the technology and in the clinical applications of the method, particularly during the last 10 years. MRI is now a core imaging modality and represents an extremely effective method of diagnosing various diseases in every region of the body. The advances made in recent years have optimized techniques for examining the chest and heart, abdominal organs, urogenital system, and musculoskeletal system. Higher magnetic fields and total body examinations are becoming clinical realities. In view of these dynamic developments, there is, of course, a need for continuous learning. The present volume provides systematic coverage of the various disease entities that can be identified on MRI, with clearly organized tables and charts listing the details of examination strategies at a glance. Along with the outstanding illustrations, the book offers a conceptual framework for everyday use. This book may help experienced colleagues, as well as residents and fellows, to understand the physical basis for MRI, and it may be able to guide them not only in the correct choice of techniques, but also in the appropriate and rational use of contrast media. MRI has a bright future in clinical diagnosis and scientific research, and this book provides an excellent reflection of the current state of the specialty.

  16. Body image and media use among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzekowski, Dina L G; Bayer, Angela M

    2005-06-01

    This article reviews the literature on body image and media use among adolescents. We begin by defining body image and how it is constructed, especially among young people. We then offer information on when one's body image perception is askew with one's perception of personal ideal, which can result in disordered eating, including obesity, anorexia, and bulimia. Next, we describe the research literature on media use and its relationship to adolescents' body image perceptions and discuss content analyses and correlational, experimental, and qualitative studies. Lastly, we recommend, beyond conducting further and improved research studies, interventions and policies that may have an impact on body image and media use.

  17. The evolution of whole-body imaging.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moran, Deirdre E

    2012-02-01

    This article reviews the evolution of whole-body imaging, discussing the history and development of radiography, nuclear medicine, computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET), combined PET-CT, and magnetic resonance imaging. The obstacles hindering progress toward whole-body imaging using each of these modalities, and the technical advances that were developed to overcome them, are reviewed. The effectiveness and the limitations of whole-body imaging with each of these techniques are also briefly discussed.

  18. Body Image Satisfaction in Turkish Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cok, Figen

    1990-01-01

    Examined body image satisfaction in Turkish adolescents. Findings from 269 female and 286 male secondary school students revealed that males were more satisfied with their bodies than were females, early-maturing males and late-maturing females had higher levels of body image satisfaction, and participants in physical activities were more…

  19. Body image in non-western societies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Edmonds

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses a range of body modification and conceptions of the body in non-Western societies. It also analyzes difficulties in applying the primarily Western psychological notion of body image to different societies. Body modification is a near human universal, but has many meanings and

  20. Importance of body image in marketing communication

    OpenAIRE

    Váradyová, Monika

    2010-01-01

    The thesis dedicated to the issue of body image in the context of marketing communication emphasizing female body imaging in advertising. The aim of Master's thesis is to identify differences in the perception of beauty between the German and Czechoslovak culture. The theoretical part is intended to explain the body image issues, including historical development. Furthermore points out the influence of mass media on women's physical self-concept. The practical part deals with content analysis...

  1. Characterizing Body Image in Youth with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Megan L; Dallas, Ronald H; Porter, Jerlym S; Tang, Li; Sun, Yilun; Magdovitz-Frankfurt, Paige; Gaur, Aditya H

    2016-08-01

    Emerging research in adults with HIV suggests negative body image may be found at a higher rate in this group. To date, few studies have examined body image in adolescents living with HIV. This exploratory study aimed to characterize body image perceptions among youth living with HIV. Adolescents (n = 143; age range 16-24 years; 69 % male) completed an Audio Computer Assisted Self-Interview Questionnaire that assessed body image, psychosocial, medical and sociodemographic information. Medical history and physical functioning information were abstracted from medical records. Results showed normative global body image on the Multidimensional Body Self-Relations Questionnaire-Appearance Scales. Some subscale elevations were observed; including decreased interest in self-care and appearance, as well as concerns with individual body areas. Overall, youth reported preference for own body shape on the Figure Rating Scale; however, 41 % of youth classified as "overweight" per CDC body mass index reported contentment with current body size. Further, 47 % of youth classified as "normal" weight desired to have larger body size. Youth identified as men who have sex with men most often reported desiring larger body size. Implications for clinical care are discussed. PMID:26721247

  2. Body enhancement : body images, vulnerability and moral responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Dikken, A.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this explorative study is to show that it is highly relevant to integrate cultural and personal body images into the ethical debate on human enhancement. The current debate has little attention for the motivations to make use of technology to alter the human body, such as cultural i

  3. The -Curvature Images of Convex Bodies and -Projection Bodies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Songjun Lv; Gangsong Leng

    2008-08-01

    Associated with the -curvature image defined by Lutwak, some inequalities for extended mixed -affine surface areas of convex bodies and the support functions of -projection bodies are established. As a natural extension of a result due to Lutwak, an -type affine isoperimetric inequality, whose special cases are -Busemann–Petty centroid inequality and -affine projection inequality, respectively, is established. Some -mixed volume inequalities involving -projection bodies are also established.

  4. Body image distortions in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Christina T; Longo, Matthew R; Haggard, Patrick

    2013-10-01

    Distortions of body image have often been investigated in clinical disorders. Much of this literature implicitly assumes healthy adults maintain an accurate body image. We recently developed a novel, implicit, and quantitative measure of body image - the Body Image Task (BIT). Here, we report a large-scale analysis of performance on this task by healthy adults. In both an in-person and an online version of the BIT, participants were presented with an image of a head as an anchoring stimulus on a computer screen, and told to imagine that the head was part of a mirror image of themselves in a standing position. They were then instructed to judge where, relative to the head, each of several parts of their body would be located. The relative positions of each landmark can be used to construct an implicit perceptual map of bodily structure. We could thus measure the internally-stored body image, although we cannot exclude contributions from other representations. Our results show several distortions of body image. First, we found a large and systematic over-estimation of width relative to height. These distortions were similar for both males and females, and did not closely track the idiosyncrasies of individual participant's own bodies. Comparisons of individual body parts showed that participants overestimated the width of their shoulders and the length of their upper arms, relative to their height, while underestimating the lengths of their lower arms and legs. Principal components analysis showed a clear spatial structure to the distortions, suggesting spatial organisation and segmentation of the body image into upper and lower limb components that are bilaterally integrated. These results provide new insight into the body image of healthy adults, and have implications for the study and rehabilitation of clinical populations. PMID:23933684

  5. Bodily Deviations and Body Image in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhjalmsson, Runar; Kristjansdottir, Gudrun; Ward, Dianne S.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents with unusually sized or shaped bodies may experience ridicule, rejection, or exclusion based on their negatively valued bodily characteristics. Such experiences can have negative consequences for a person's image and evaluation of self. This study focuses on the relationship between bodily deviations and body image and is based on a…

  6. Investigating Adolescent Stress and Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kristen M.; Byrne, Don G.; Rieger, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent stress is clearly implicated in the development of mental health problems. However, its role in dysfunctional body image, which rises markedly in adolescence, has not been investigated. The present study examined the link between stress and body image, as well as self-esteem and depressive symptoms, in 533 high school students in grades…

  7. Body Image, Media, and Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenne, Jennifer L.; Beresin, Eugene V.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Eating disorders, including obesity, are a major public health problem today. Throughout history, body image has been determined by various factors, including politics and media. Exposure to mass media (television, movies, magazines, Internet) is correlated with obesity and negative body image, which may lead to disordered eating. The…

  8. Sexual Abuse and Body Image Distortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byram, Victoria; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Female undergraduates (n=100) were surveyed concerning body percept and past experience with sexual abuse. Body size overestimation was greater in noneating-disordered women who had relatively unhealthy eating attitudes. Overall findings suggested that age at time of abuse and body image are only associated where there is a degree of eating…

  9. Whole-body imaging modalities in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carty, Fiona; Shortt, Conor P; Shelly, Martin J; Eustace, Stephen J; O'Connell, Martin J

    2010-03-01

    This article outlines the expanding approaches to whole-body imaging in oncology focusing on whole-body MRI and comparing it to emerging applications of whole-body CT, scintigraphy, and above all PET CT imaging. Whole-body MRI is widely available, non-ionizing and rapidly acquired, and inexpensive relative to PET CT. While it has many advantages, WBMRI is non-specific and, when compared to PET CT, is less sensitive. This article expands each of these issues comparing individual modalities as they refer to specific cancers.

  10. Pediatric Body Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Devasenathipathy; Goyal, Ankur; Sharma, Raju; Gupta, Arun Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a radiation-free imaging modality with excellent contrast resolution and multiplanar capabilities. Since ionizing radiation is an important concern in the pediatric population, MRI serves as a useful alternative to computed tomography (CT) and also provides additional clues to diagnosis, not discernible on other investigations. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), urography, angiography, enterography, dynamic multiphasic imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging provide wealth of information. The main limitations include, long scan time, need for sedation/anesthesia, cost and lack of widespread availability. With the emergence of newer sequences and variety of contrast agents, MRI has become a robust modality and may serve as a one-stop shop for both anatomical and functional information. PMID:26916887

  11. Media Images: Do They Influence College Students' Body Image?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Gina Jarman

    2009-01-01

    Body image perception and body mass index (BMI) among college students exposed and not exposed to photographs of models were compared. Classes were assigned to receive a presentation with or without photographs of models incorporated. Students (n = 184) completed a survey about body/weight satisfaction, height, weight, and the Contour Drawing…

  12. Lice, body with stool (Pediculus humanus) (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... capitis ), or the pubic area ( Phthirus pubis ). Some body lice may carry diseases such as epidemic typhus, relapsing fever, or trench fever. (Image courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control and ...

  13. Calculating body frame size (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... boned category. Determining frame size: To determine the body frame size, measure the wrist with a tape measure and use the following chart to determine whether the person is small, medium, or large boned. Women: Height under 5'2" Small = wrist size less ...

  14. Electronic imaging of the human body.

    OpenAIRE

    Vannier, M. W.; Yates, R. E.; Whitestone, J.

    1992-01-01

    The Human Engineering Division of the Armstrong Laboratory (USAF); the Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology; the Washington University School of Medicine; and the Lister-Hill National Center for Biomedical Communication, National Library of Medicine are sponsoring a working group on electronic imaging of the human body. Electronic imaging of the surface of the human body has been pursued and developed by a number of disciplines including radiology, forensics, surgery, engineering, medical educ...

  15. Body image satisfaction among female college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Goswami

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine body image satisfaction among newly entrant women students in a professional institution. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study using body image satisfaction described in words was undertaken, which also explored relationship with body mass index (BMI and other selected co-variables such as socio-demographic details, overall satisfaction in life, and particularly in academic/professional life, current health status using 5-item based Likert scale. Height, weight, hip and waist circumference measurement was carried out using standard protocol. Data collection was carried through personal interview using pre-designed, pre-tested semi-structured interview schedule by female investigators during August-September 2010 and analysis carried out by computing percentages and Chi-square test. Results: Out of 96 study samples, 16.66%, 51.04%, and 32.29% girl students perceived their body image as fair, good and excellent, respectively while overall 13.54% were dissatisfied with their body image. The body image satisfaction had significant relationship with image perception ( P<0.001, current general health status ( P<0.001 and self weight assessment ( P<0.001. Mother′s education had a statistically significant ( P=0.004 but negative relationship with outcome variable. Students with low weight (BMI <18.5 kg/m2 had a significantly higher (85.71% prevalence of body image satisfaction while overweight students (BMI≤23 kg/m2 had a significantly higher (54.54% prevalence of dissatisfaction ( P<0.001. Discussion: High body image satisfaction is reported in this study and was found to be significantly related to anthropometric measurements. On an encouraging note, this level needs to be preserved for overall mental and healthy development of students. Proactive preventive measures could be initiated on personality development, acceptance of self and individual differences while maintaining optimum weight and active life style.

  16. Media Impact on Students’ Body Image

    OpenAIRE

    Asumadu-Sarkodie, Samuel; Owusu, Phebe Asantewaa

    2015-01-01

    Media promotion of the ideal body as slimness for women and muscularity for men, has led to increasing numbers of both genders reporting dissatisfaction with their bodies and trying to change using unhealthy eating habits. This research was conducted in University for Development Studies, Tamale campus. The main goal was to assess the impact of the media on university students’ attitude toward body image. The objectives of the study is to, determine whether there was any association between b...

  17. 7 T Whole Body Imaging: Preliminary Results

    OpenAIRE

    Vaughan, J. Thomas; Snyder, Carl J.; DelaBarre, Lance J.; Bolan, Patrick J.; Tian, Jinfeng; Bolinger, Lizann; Adriany, Gregor; Andersen, Peter; Strupp, John; Ugurbil, Kamil

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of whole body imaging at 7 T. To achieve this objective, new technology and methods were developed. Radio frequency field distribution and specific absorption rate were first explored through numerical modeling. A body coil was then designed and built. Multi-channel transmit and receive coils were also developed and implemented. With this new technology in hand, an imaging survey of the “landscape” of the human body at 7 T was con...

  18. Feminist identity, body image, and disordered eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowsky, Hannah M; Eisenberg, Marla E; Bucchianeri, Michaela M; Piran, Niva; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    Using data from a community-based sample (Project EAT-III), this study (N = 1241; mean age = 25.2) examined the relationship of feminist identity with body image and disordered eating. Feminist-identified women reported significantly higher body satisfaction than non-feminist women and women who did not identify as feminists but held feminist beliefs. However, feminist-identified women did not differ from non-feminist women in disordered eating. Women holding feminist beliefs and non-feminist women did not differ in body satisfaction. Our findings suggest that self-identification as a feminist may promote positive body image in young adult women, but may be insufficient to change behaviors. PMID:26694553

  19. Whole body MR imaging: applications in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, C; Brennan, S; Ford, S; Eustace, S

    2006-04-01

    This article reviews technique and clinical applications of whole body MR imaging as a diagnostic tool in cancer staging. In particular the article reviews its role as an alternative to scintigraphy (bone scan and PET) in staging skeletal spread of disease, its role in assessing total tumour burden, its role in multiple myeloma and finally its evolving non oncologic role predominantly assessing total body composition.

  20. Children's perceptions of eating and body image

    OpenAIRE

    S. Robinson

    1999-01-01

    Concerns about children's eating problems such as obesity, unhealthy eating, dieting and eating disorders have been rising in recent years because of their detrimental effects on children's health. By exploring nine year old children's perceptions of body image, their perceptions of the link between body size and food, and their perceptions of the control of children's eating, this study seeks to contribute to an understanding of why children may develop these eating problems. 98 children u...

  1. [Body image of adolescents in rural cities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Valter Paulo Neves; Conti, Maria Aparecida; Bastos, Ronaldo Rocha; Laus, Maria Fernanda; Almeida, Sebastião de Sousa; Ferreira, Maria Elisa Caputo

    2014-06-01

    The scope of this article is to evaluate the body image of adolescents from rural cities and its relationship with nutritional status, sex and the adolescent phase. Adolescents of both sexes participated in the cross-sectional study. Body image was evaluated through the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) and the Figure Rating Scale (FRS) for adolescents. Weight and height were measured for the evaluation of body mass index (BMI). Stages of adolescence were classified by age. Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were conducted. Four hundred and forty-five adolescents (190 boys and 255 girls), with a mean age of 16.44 comprised the sample. Higher risk of body dissatisfaction was found among overweight and obese participants (BSQ: OR = 3.359 p < 0.001; ESA: OR = 1.572 p = 0.387) and the female sex (BSQ: OR = 3.694 p < 0.001; ESA: OR = 0.922, p = 0.840). Participants from the intermediary and final stages of adolescence revealed a lesser risk of dissatisfaction compared to those from the initial phase. Body dissatisfaction was related to overweight and obesity, to the female sex and to the initial period of adolescence. Intervention research is required to control the factors that influence excessive adolescent body dissatisfaction. PMID:24897479

  2. Body Image Disturbance in Selected Groups of Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loosemore, Douglas J.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined satisfaction with body image in sample of 18 male college hockey players, 18 male college body builders, and 18 college students in a psychology class using measures of body image distortion and body image dissatisfaction. Found marked levels of distortion and dissatisfaction in body builders, but not in other two groups. (Author/ABL)

  3. Body Image, Relationships and Sexuality After Amputation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Body Image, Relationships and Sexuality after Amputation Original article by Sandra Houston, PhD First Step - Volume 4, 2005 Translated into plain language by Helen Osborne of Health Literacy Consulting Text size Larger text Smaller text Java Required Print page Save and share ...

  4. Body image, eating disorders, and the media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Marjorie J; Strasburger, Victor C

    2008-12-01

    Adolescence is a time of tremendous change in physical appearance. Many adolescents report dissatisfaction with their body shape and size. Forming one's body image is a complex process, influenced by family, peers, and media messages. Increasing evidence shows that the combination of ubiquitous ads for foods and emphasis on female beauty and thinness in both advertising and programming leads to confusion and dissatisfaction for many young people. Sociocultural factors, specifically media exposure, play an important role in the development of disordered body image. Of significant concern, studies have revealed a link between media exposure and the likelihood of having symptoms of disordered eating or a frank eating disorder. Pediatricians and other adults must work to promote media education and make media healthier for young people. More research is needed to identify the most vulnerable children and adolescents.

  5. Reclaiming body image: the hidden burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis-Helmich, J J

    1992-01-01

    At the age of 4, I incurred a major burn injury that left 45% of my body with permanent scars. Normal clothing covers most of the scars. I was able to reclaim a positive body image through a gradual process of verbal and "body" disclosure. As an adult, I joined a burn survivors' self-help group; as a result of talking with other burn survivors, my self expectations increased. Later, I joined a facilitated group in which nudity and personal growth were the norm. In this group, I was the only person who had experienced a major physical trauma. I replaced my strongly held beliefs that others could not accept my unclothed, burn-injured body with the belief that some persons can, and I came to a personal understanding of why others could not. Fun, exercise, and relaxation led to a reclamation of positive feelings about my unclothed body and allowed my femininity and the character of my body image to emerge and become integrated. PMID:1572860

  6. Whole-body intravoxel incoherent motion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the technical feasibility of whole-body intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) imaging. Whole-body MR images of eight healthy volunteers were acquired at 3T using a spin-echo echo-planar imaging sequence with eight b-values. Coronal parametrical whole-body maps of diffusion (D), pseudodiffusion (D*), and the perfusion fraction (Fp) were calculated. Image quality was rated qualitatively by two independent radiologists, and inter-reader reliability was tested with intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs). Region of interest (ROI) analysis was performed in the brain, liver, kidney, and erector spinae muscle. Depiction of anatomic structures was rated as good on D maps and good to fair on D* and Fp maps. Exemplary mean D (10-3 mm2/s), D* (10-3 mm2/s) and Fp (%) values (± standard deviation) of the renal cortex were as follows: 1.7 ± 0.2; 15.6 ± 6.5; 20.9 ± 4.4. Inter-observer agreement was ''substantial'' to ''almost perfect'' (ICC = 0.80 - 0.92). The coefficient of variation of D* was significantly lower with the proposed algorithm compared to the conventional algorithm (p < 0.001), indicating higher stability. The proposed IVIM protocol allows computation of parametrical maps with good to fair image quality. Potential future clinical applications may include characterization of widespread disease such as metastatic tumours or inflammatory myopathies. (orig.)

  7. Image Quality Stability of Whole-body Diffusion Weighted Imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-bin Chen; Chun-miao Hu; Jing Zhong; Fei Sun

    2009-01-01

    To assess the reproducibility of whole-body diffusion weighted imaging (WB-DWI) technique in healthy volunteers under normal breathing with background body signal suppression. Methods WB-DWI was performed on 32 healthy volunteers twice within two-week period using short TI inversion-recovery diffusion-weighted echo-planar imaging sequence and built-in body coil. The volunteers were scanned across six stations continuously covering the entire body from the head to the feet under normal breathing. The bone apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and exponential ADC (eADC) of regions of interest (ROIs) were measured. We analyzed correlation of the results using paired-t-test to assess the reproducibility of the WB-DWl technique.Results We were successful in collecting and analyzing data of 64 WB-DWI images. There was no significant difference in bone ADC and eADC of 824 ROIs between the paired observers and paired scans (P>0.05). Most of the images from all stations were of diagnostic quality.Conclusion The measurements of bone ADC and eADC have good reproducibility. WB-DWI technique under normal breathing with background body signal suppression is adequate.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging of the body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, C.B.; Hricak, H.

    1987-01-01

    This text provides reference to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the body. Beginning with explanatory chapters on the physics, instrumentation, and interpretation of MRI, it proceeds to the normal anatomy of the neck, thorax, abdomen, and pelvis. Other chapters cover magnetic resonance imaging of blood flow, the larynx, the lymph nodes, and the spine, as well as MRI in obstetrics. The text features detailed coverage of magnetic resonance imaging of numerous disorders and disease states, including neck disease, thoracic disease; breast disease; congenital and acquired heart disease; vascular disease; diseases of the liver, pancreas, and spleen; diseases of the kidney, adrenals, and retroperitoneum; diseases of the male and female pelvis; and musculoskeletal diseases. Chapters on the biological and environmental hazards of MRI, the current clinical status of MRI in comparison to other imaging modalities, and economic considerations are also included.

  9. Toward a Theoretical Model of Women's Body Image Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choate, Laura Hensley

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses women's body image resilience. Body image dissatisfaction is prevalent among girls and women. Girls as young as 6 years old experience negative body image, and there is evidence that women struggle with body concerns throughout the life cycle (Lewis & Cachelin, 2001; Smolak, 2002; Striegel-Moore & Franko, 2002). In fact,…

  10. Body Image in Female Professional and Amateur Dancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollatou, Elisana; Bakali, Nikoleta; Theodorakis, Yannis; Goudas, Marios

    2010-01-01

    Body image is considered to be an obscure, mental representation of body shape, size and form which is influenced by a variety of factors that operate over varying time spans. Research has shown that professional female dancers may face preoccupations with their body image and weight. The present study aimed to investigate how body image was…

  11. Effects of Negative Body Image on Our Lives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟良锴

    2015-01-01

    <正>According to Wikipedia,body image can be defined as"a person’s perception of the aesthetics or sexual attractiveness of his or her own body".Body image can be influenced by many factors such as media,social values,culture,gender.These influences can lead to both positive and negative body images.The positive body image shows people’s satisfaction with their

  12. Body Image and Sexuality in Women with Pelvic Organ Prolapse

    OpenAIRE

    Zielinski, Ruth; LOW, Lisa KANE; TUMBARELLO, Julie; Miller, Janis M.

    2009-01-01

    Body image, including how a woman views her genitals, has been shown to impact sexuality. Currently, there are no valid and reliable questionnaires to assess body image specific to women with genital changes from pelvic organ prolapse. The purpose of this study was to assess implementation of a body image questionnaire in women with pelvic organ prolapse. The Vaginal Changes Sexual and Body Esteem Scale showed utility and potential for demonstrating change in body image after prolapse surgery.

  13. Factors associated with body image distortion in Korean adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Hyun, Mi-Yeul; Jung, Young-Eun; Kim, Moon-Doo; Kwak, Young-Sook; Hong, Sung-Chul; Bahk, Won-Myong; Yoon, Bo-Hyun; Yoon, Hye Won; Yoo, Bora

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Body image incorporates cognitive and affective components as well as behaviors related to own body perception. This study evaluated the occurrence of body image distortion and its correlates in Korean adolescents. Methods In a school-based cross-sectional survey, a total of 2,117 adolescents were recruited. They filled out self-completing questionnaires on body image distortion, eating attitudes, and behaviors (Eating Attitude Test-26) and related factors. Results Body image distorti...

  14. Whole body MR imaging in diabetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weckbach, Sabine [Department of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167 Mannheim (Germany)], E-mail: sabine.weckbach@umm.de; Schoenberg, Stefan O. [Department of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167 Mannheim (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    Diabetes mellitus is a major cardiovascular risk factor and one of the major causes for morbidity and mortality worldwide. Diabetic complications have not only major impact on the quality of life of diabetic patients, but are also potentially life-threatening. Therefore prevention, diagnosis and therapy of these long-term complications are of high importance. However, diagnosis of the variety of complications from diabetes mellitus remains a diagnostic challenge and usually several diagnostic steps are necessary to diagnose or exclude these complications. In the last years whole body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) including whole body magnetic resonance angiography (WB-MRA) has been introduced for cardiovascular imaging and is now increasingly applied in clinical routine for the workup of patients with cardiovascular disease and for cardiovascular screening. The article summarizes rationales for WB-MRI in diabetes mellitus, technical concepts of disease specific cardiovascular WB-MRI in diabetes mellitus and discusses potential clinical consequences.

  15. Marketing importance of women's body image

    OpenAIRE

    Zuzana KŘÍŽOVÁ

    2011-01-01

    This thesis deals with research of the marketing importance of women's body image. The research methods including quantitative research performed by assisted interviewing and content analysis of printed advertisements in five magazines targeted on female population were used. The aims of the interviewing are to determine the current physical condition of Czech women and their views on the display "ideal" of feminine beauty in advertising. The content analysis finds out "ideal" state of physic...

  16. Body image v marketingu

    OpenAIRE

    Michelík, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Today's era depicts life of consumer society with the growing battle for customers. Every single person in this world wants to have a solid life and look pretty. Advertisements, which display handsome and slender people are all around us and they influence our consumer behavior. We tend to equilibrate these ideals by buying the most diverse products and even attempt to achieve the alleged feeling of happiness. This thesis is focused on Body image in which explains individual consumer behavior...

  17. Etic aspects of childrens body image

    OpenAIRE

    Bokaová, Katarína

    2010-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with marketing communication focused on children, particulary with the impact on children's body image. It reflects the regulation of advertising in terms of legal and ethical issues. It seeks to examine the manipulability of children in decision-making process and the impact of advertising and media on their healthy development. The role of the thesis is to highlight the importance of careful monitoring of the marketing development and its negative impact on childr...

  18. The Relationships among Body Image, Body Mass Index, Exercise, and Sexual Functioning in Heterosexual Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Angela D.; Byers, E. Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Problems related to negative body image are very common among young women. In this study, we examined the relationship between women's body image and their sexual functioning over and above the effects of physical exercise and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of 214 university women. Low situational body image dysphoria and low body…

  19. [How relevant are diagnostics and therapy in body image disorder?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vocks, Silja; Bauer, Anika

    2015-01-01

    Body image-related interventions become increasingly important in the treatment of anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Previous studies concerning body image disturbance conducted by means of diverse research methods focused on different components of body image - the perceptive, cognitive-emotional and the behavioral component. However, regarding the etiology, maintenance and treatment of body image disturbance in eating disorders, many questions remain unanswered. An integrative perspective on the different body image components within a theoretical framework as well as the development of specific body image-related interventions according to individual indications would be desirable. PMID:25594272

  20. Whole-body intravoxel incoherent motion imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filli, Lukas; Wurnig, Moritz C.; Eberhardt, Christian; Guggenberger, Roman; Boss, Andreas [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Luechinger, Roger [University and ETH Zurich, Institute of Biomedical Technology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-07-15

    To investigate the technical feasibility of whole-body intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) imaging. Whole-body MR images of eight healthy volunteers were acquired at 3T using a spin-echo echo-planar imaging sequence with eight b-values. Coronal parametrical whole-body maps of diffusion (D), pseudodiffusion (D*), and the perfusion fraction (F{sub p}) were calculated. Image quality was rated qualitatively by two independent radiologists, and inter-reader reliability was tested with intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs). Region of interest (ROI) analysis was performed in the brain, liver, kidney, and erector spinae muscle. Depiction of anatomic structures was rated as good on D maps and good to fair on D* and F{sub p} maps. Exemplary mean D (10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s), D* (10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) and F{sub p} (%) values (± standard deviation) of the renal cortex were as follows: 1.7 ± 0.2; 15.6 ± 6.5; 20.9 ± 4.4. Inter-observer agreement was ''substantial'' to ''almost perfect'' (ICC = 0.80 - 0.92). The coefficient of variation of D* was significantly lower with the proposed algorithm compared to the conventional algorithm (p < 0.001), indicating higher stability. The proposed IVIM protocol allows computation of parametrical maps with good to fair image quality. Potential future clinical applications may include characterization of widespread disease such as metastatic tumours or inflammatory myopathies. (orig.)

  1. Diffusion-weighted imaging in pediatric body magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavhan, Govind B; Caro-Dominguez, Pablo

    2016-05-01

    Diffusion-weighted MRI is being increasingly used in pediatric body imaging. Its role is still emerging. It is used for detection of tumors and abscesses, differentiation of benign and malignant tumors, and detection of inflamed bowel segments in inflammatory bowel disease in children. It holds great promise in the assessment of therapy response in body tumors, with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value as a potential biomarker. Significant overlap of ADC values of benign and malignant processes and less reproducibility of ADC measurements are hampering its widespread use in clinical practice. With standardization of the technique, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is likely to be used more frequently in clinical practice. We discuss the principles and technique of DWI, selection of b value, qualitative and quantitative assessment, and current status of DWI in evaluation of disease processes in the pediatric body. PMID:27229502

  2. Seymour Fisher contributions to research on body image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.R.L. Ribeiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to systematically review Seymour Fisher contributions to research on body image. A literature review of his work on body perception, distorted body image, body boundary, assigned meanings to specific body areas, and general body awareness was carried out on four of the books written by the author. Fisher correlated those variables with defense mechanisms, adaptation, and body anxiety. Moreover, he also considered the roles played by culture and personality on the complex phenomenon of body experience. This review intends to disseminate Seymour Fisher contributions among Brazilian researchers on body image.

  3. Fat talk and its relationship with body image disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Jacqueline; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew

    2016-09-01

    Although past studies have highlighted fat talk as relevant to body image disturbance, the majority of these have only investigated the link between fat talk and body esteem, to the exclusion of other body image constructs. One hundred and ninety-nine women completed an online survey measuring levels of appearance-based comparisons, body surveillance, thin ideal internalization, body esteem, and fat talk (FT-body concerns and FT-body comparisons). Results showed that fat talk made a significant contribution in explaining additional variance in body esteem above the other three body image factors, with FT-body concerns in particular making the highest unique contribution. Hierarchical regression analyses suggest that fat talk should be viewed as an independent psychosocial predictor of body esteem in both theoretical and therapeutic contexts. Future research should explore these relationships from a longitudinal perspective, and also clarify the nuances in the relationships by investigating the nature of women's everyday body image experiences. PMID:27286565

  4. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging: assessment of skeletal metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynagh, Michael R; Colleran, Gabrielle C; Tavernaraki, Katarina; Eustace, Stephen J; Kavanagh, Eoin C

    2010-03-01

    The concept of a rapid whole-body imaging technique with high resolution and the absence of ionizing radiation for the assessment of osseous metastatic disease is a desirable tool. This review article outlines the current perspective of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in the assessment of skeletal metastatic disease, with comparisons made to alternative whole-body imaging modalities.

  5. Body Image of Anorexic, Obese, and Normal Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Crystal; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Investigated disturbances in body image perception with anorexic, obese and control groups. Significant difference was found among the groups in perception of present-self body image, body image at plus 10 pounds, and minus 10 pounds. A directional trend was noted in anorexic overestimation and obese underestimation on the total concept of body…

  6. Light on Body Image Treatment: Acceptance Through Mindfulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Tiffany M.

    2004-01-01

    The treatment of body image has to be multifaceted and should be directed toward the treatment of the whole individual - body, mind, and spirit - with an ultimate culmination of acceptance and compassion for the self. This article presents information on a mindful approach to the treatment of body image as it pertains to concerns with body size…

  7. The Fantastical Body and the Vulnerability of Comfort: Alternative Models for Understanding Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springgay, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    Arguing for new models of inquiry that interrogate body image from the perspective of intercorporeality, this article explores a research study conducted in a secondary school art class. Shifting analysis from the representation of body image to a tactile, sensuous, and experiential understanding of body image, I highlight the contradictions and…

  8. An Investigation into the body image of women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla Khorshid

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the body image of women in menopause. The sample of the study consisted of 200 women in menopause. The data was collected by using a questionnaire and a Scale for Body Image. The mean body image score of the women was found to be 139.46 ± 20.8 points. There was no significant difference between the body image scale average score for women according to age group, marital status, profession, education level, place of residence, financial status, their number of the children, or whether or not they had had hysterectomy surgery. There was no relationship between body image scale points and time since undergoing hysterectomy or reaching menopause. The women who body images are high, may be have positive health behaviours for their health prevention and protection. In our study, body image of women reaching menopause was found to be generally positive.

  9. BodyWise: evaluating a pilot body image group for patients with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountford, Victoria A; Brown, Amy; Bamford, Bryony; Saeidi, Saeideh; Morgan, John F; Lacey, Hubert

    2015-01-01

    Body image disturbance can be enduring and distressing to individuals with eating disorders and effective treatments remain limited. This pilot study evaluated a group-based treatment-BodyWise-developed for use in full and partial hospitalization with patients with anorexia nervosa at low weight. A partial crossover waitlist design was used. BodyWise (N = 50) versus treatment as usual (N = 40) were compared on standardized measures of body image disturbance. Results demonstrated significant improvement in the group compared to treatment as usual for the primary outcome measure (Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire Shape Concern subscale) and other manifestations of body image disturbance including body checking and body image quality of life. BodyWise appeared acceptable to participants, and was easy to deliver within the pragmatics of a busy eating disorder service. There is potential for its wider dissemination as a precursor to more active body image interventions.

  10. Body image and healthy lifestyle behaviors of university students

    OpenAIRE

    Michele S. Bednarzyk; Tracy L. Wright; Kathaleen C. Bloom

    2013-01-01

    Background: Body image, one’s perception of personal physical appearance, can be positive or negative, leading to body satisfaction or body dissatisfaction. Body satisfaction and dissatisfaction affect individuals of all ages and have the potential to impact lifestyle choices. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between body image and healthy lifestyle behaviors. Participants: Undergraduate students at a state university in the southeastern United States. Me...

  11. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, Dana K; Reel, Justine J; Greenleaf, Christy

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty) that affect one's body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one's body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender) to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise). Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed. PMID:26347007

  12. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, Dana K; Reel, Justine J; Greenleaf, Christy

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty) that affect one's body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one's body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender) to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise). Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed.

  13. Negative Body Image Associated with Changes in the Visual Body Appearance Increases Pain Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Michihiro Osumi; Ryota Imai; Kozo Ueta; Satoshi Nobusako; Shu Morioka

    2014-01-01

    Changing the visual body appearance by use of as virtual reality system, funny mirror, or binocular glasses has been reported to be helpful in rehabilitation of pain. However, there are interindividual differences in the analgesic effect of changing the visual body image. We hypothesized that a negative body image associated with changing the visual body appearance causes interindividual differences in the analgesic effect although the relationship between the visual body appearance and analg...

  14. Body Image Disturbance in Patients with Acne Vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowe, Whitney P.; Crerand, Canice E.; Margolis, David J.; Shalita, Alan R.

    2011-01-01

    Psychosocial outcome measures, which attempt to examine acne from the patient's perspective, have become increasingly important in dermatology research. One such measure is the Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire. The authors' primary aim was to determine the validity and internal consistency of the Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire in patients with acne vulgaris. The secondary aim was to investigate the relationship between body image disturbance and quality of life. This cross-sectional investigation included 52 consecutive acne patients presenting to an outpatient dermatology clinic. Subjects completed the Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire, Skindex-16, and other body image and psychosocial functioning measures. An objective assessment of acne was performed. The Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire was internally consistent and converged with other known body image indices. Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire scores also correlated with Skindex-16 scores, confirming that quality of life and body image are related psychosocial constructs. The Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire appears to be an accurate instrument that can assess appearance-related concern and impairment in patients with acne vulgaris. Limitations include a small sample size and the cross-sectional design. PMID:21779418

  15. Body image disturbance in patients with acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowe, Whitney P; Doyle, Amanda K; Crerand, Canice E; Margolis, David J; Shalita, Alan R

    2011-07-01

    Psychosocial outcome measures, which attempt to examine acne from the patient's perspective, have become increasingly important in dermatology research. One such measure is the Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire. The authors' primary aim was to determine the validity and internal consistency of the Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire in patients with acne vulgaris. The secondary aim was to investigate the relationship between body image disturbance and quality of life. This cross-sectional investigation included 52 consecutive acne patients presenting to an outpatient dermatology clinic. Subjects completed the Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire, Skindex-16, and other body image and psychosocial functioning measures. An objective assessment of acne was performed. The Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire was internally consistent and converged with other known body image indices. Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire scores also correlated with Skindex-16 scores, confirming that quality of life and body image are related psychosocial constructs. The Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire appears to be an accurate instrument that can assess appearance-related concern and impairment in patients with acne vulgaris. Limitations include a small sample size and the cross-sectional design. PMID:21779418

  16. Effects of Media on Female Body Image: Myth or Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryla, Karen Y.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the media's influence on female body image. differentiating between the effects of print and electronic media. Results suggest that print media have a direct, immediate, and negative effect on female body image, while no such relationship exists for electronic media. Results also indicate that exploring only exposure to media images is…

  17. A system and method for imaging body areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goethals, F.P.C.

    2013-01-01

    The invention relates to a system for imaging one or more external human body areas comprising a photographic device configured to acquire, store and output an image or images of the one or more body areas. The invention also relates to a method for determining a probable disease state of an externa

  18. Whole-body diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwee, Thomas C. [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands)], E-mail: thomaskwee@gmail.com; Takahara, Taro [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands); Department of Radiology, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Kanagawa (Japan); Ochiai, Reiji [Department of Radiology, Koga Hospital 21, Kurume, Fukuoka (Japan); Katahira, Kazuhiro [Department of Radiology, Kumamoto University School of Medicine, Honjo, Kumamoto (Japan); Van Cauteren, Marc [Philips Healthcare Asia Pacific, Shinagawa, Tokyo (Japan); Imai, Yutaka [Department of Radiology, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Kanagawa (Japan); Nievelstein, Rutger A.J.; Luijten, Peter R. [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2009-06-15

    Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) provides information on the diffusivity of water molecules in the human body. Technological advances and the development of the concept of diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging with background body signal suppression (DWIBS) have opened the path for routine clinical whole-body DWI. Whole-body DWI allows detection and characterization of both oncological and non-oncological lesions throughout the entire body. This article reviews the basic principles of DWI and the development of whole-body DWI, illustrates its potential clinical applications, and discusses its limitations and challenges.

  19. Perception of body image and sexuality for women with mastectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Charlotte Brun; Laursen, Birgitte Schantz

    Background Having cancer and having one breast removed can affect all aspects of a woman's life. The literature shows that many women experience an altered body image and sexuality, loss of femininity, a feeling of less sexual attractiveness and decline in self-esteem. Furthermore mastectomy can...... affect women's perception of quality of life and psychosocial state.In Denmark, no previous studies have focused on perception of body image and sexuality in the acute phase after mastectomy. Furthermore, no study addresses the influence of perceived body image and sexuality on the decision to have....... Objectives The aim is to explore perceived body image and sexuality after having had mastectomy in the acute phase. Further, the aim is to focus on body image and sexuality as determinants for whether women choose reconstruction or not. Insight into women's perceived body image and sexuality is valuable...

  20. Body Image Disturbance in Patients with Acne Vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Bowe, Whitney P; Doyle, Amanda K.; Crerand, Canice E.; Margolis, David J.; Shalita, Alan R.

    2011-01-01

    Psychosocial outcome measures, which attempt to examine acne from the patient's perspective, have become increasingly important in dermatology research. One such measure is the Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire. The authors' primary aim was to determine the validity and internal consistency of the Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire in patients with acne vulgaris. The secondary aim was to investigate the relationship between body image disturbance and quality of life. This cross-sectional...

  1. Body image and prosthesis satisfaction in the lower limb amputee.

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Craig; Fox, Jezz

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the relationship between prosthesis satisfaction and body image in lower limb prosthesis users, and the gendered variations within these relationships. Method: A total of 44 valid responses were obtained to an Internet survey regarding prosthesis satisfaction, body image, and phantom pain. Spearman Rho correlations were calculated for these three domains. Results: Moderate to high negative correlations were observed between Body Image Disturbance and Prosthesis Sa...

  2. Art and the Body Image: about Self and Stereotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Mónica

    2015-01-01

    Today's man is socially absorbed by problematic body issues and everything that this means and involves. Literature, publicity, science, technology and medicine compound these issues in a form of this theme that has never been seen before. In the artistic framework, body image is constantly suffering modifications. Body image in sculpture unfolds itself, assuming different messages and different forms. The body is a synonym of subject, an infinite metaphorical history of our looks...

  3. Body image dissatisfaction among rural and urban adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Glaner

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To identify the prevalence of body image dissatisfaction among adolescents living in rural and urban areas, and to analyze the influence of demographic and anthropometric variables on body image dissatisfaction. A total of 629 adolescents aged 13 to 17 years from urban and rural areas participated in the study. Demographic variables (gender, age, area of residence, anthropometric measurements (body weight, height, skinfold thickness and body image data were collected. BMI (underweight: 25 kg/m² and the sum of two skinfold thicknesses, Σ2SF (girls: low: 36 mm; boys: low: 25 mm were then calculated. The prevalence of body image dissatisfaction was similar (p≥0,05 among rural (64,2% and urban adolescents (62,8%. Boys wished to increase the size of their body silhouette (41,3%, whereas girls wished to reduce it (50,5% (p<0,001. Adolescents with low and excess weight based on BMI and with high Σ2SF presented a 3,14, 8,45 and 2,08 times higher chance of body image dissatisfaction, respectively. A high prevalence of body image dissatisfaction was observed among adolescents from rural and urban areas. An unhealthy nutritional status and body adiposity increase the chances of body image dissatisfaction. These findings emphasize the social pressure on girls to remain slim and on boys to attain an athletic body.

  4. Style and Body Language in the Moving Image

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lennard Højbjerg

    2013-01-01

    Audio visual style has a complex multi-functionality and the important part of this deals with the way that the character body is visualized and how body language is implemented in the moving image. With a number of examples of contemporary film and television, the article will line up of key...... issues of body language in the moving image. This article describes two important aspects of body language in visual media—how visual style mediates the body expressions of fictional character and real persons in news on television and how aspects of the visual style always represent bodily presence...... in the moving image...

  5. Human Body Image Edge Detection Based on Wavelet Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇; 付小莉

    2003-01-01

    Human dresses are different in thousands way.Human body image signals have big noise, a poor light and shade contrast and a narrow range of gray gradation distribution. The application of a traditional grads method or gray method to detect human body image edges can't obtain satisfactory results because of false detections and missed detections. According to tte peculiarity of human body image, dyadic wavelet transform of cubic spline is successfully applied to detect the face and profile edges of human body image and Mallat algorithm is used in the wavelet decomposition in this paper.

  6. An Investigation into the body image of women

    OpenAIRE

    Leyla Khorshid; İsmet Eşer; Yıldız Denat; Şebnem Çınar

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the body image of women in menopause. The sample of the study consisted of 200 women in menopause. The data was collected by using a questionnaire and a Scale for Body Image. The mean body image score of the women was found to be 139.46 ± 20.8 points. There was no significant difference between the body image scale average score for women according to age group, marital status, profession, education level, place of residence, financial status, t...

  7. Body image dissatisfaction and its relationship with physical activity and body mass index in Brazilian adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Maria F. Laus; Telma M. Braga Costa; Almeida, Sebastião S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate body image dissatisfaction and its relationship with physical activity and body mass index in a Brazilian sample of adolescents. Methods: A total of 275 adolescents (139 boys and 136 girls) between the ages of 14 and 18 years completed measures of body image dissatisfaction through the Contour Drawing Scale and current physical activity by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Weight and height were also measured for subsequent calculation of body mass inde...

  8. Adolescent Body Image Distortion: A Consideration of Immigrant Generational Status, Immigrant Concentration, Sex and Body Dissatisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimber, Melissa; Georgiades, Katholiki; Couturier, Jennifer; Jack, Susan M; Wahoush, Olive

    2015-11-01

    Immigrant adolescents represent a significant and growing proportion of the population in the United States. Yet, little is known about their experiences of body image distortion. This is particularly concerning given that body image distortion has been identified as a significant and modifiable risk factor for a number of mental illnesses, including depression and eating disorders. This study uses multi-level modeling to examine the associations between immigrant generational status, neighborhood immigrant concentration, sex, body dissatisfaction and risk for body image distortion. Data come from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and includes 10,962 11-19 year olds (49.6 % female). First generation immigrant females were significantly more likely than 3rd generation-or-later adolescents to experience underweight body image distortion. There was no association between neighborhood immigrant concentration and risk for body image distortion. Body dissatisfaction was associated with greater risk for underweight and overweight body image distortion, with the magnitude of underweight distortion risk significantly greater among 1st generation immigrants. Interventions that encourage the development of a healthy body image have the potential to reduce the onset and duration of body image distortion among immigrant and non-immigrant adolescents. PMID:26194338

  9. Sociocultural influences on body image and body changes among adolescent boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Marita P; Ricciardelli, Lina A

    2003-02-01

    In 2 studies, the authors evaluated the role of parents, peers, and the media in body image and body-change strategies among adolescent boys and girls. The respondents for Study 1 (423 boys and 377 girls) completed the Body Image and Body Change Inventory (L. A. Ricciardelli & M. P. McCabe, 2002) and the Perceived Sociocultural Influences on Body Image and Body Change Questionnaire (M. P. McCabe & L. A. Ricciardelli, 2001b). Body mass index and age were also included in the analyses. Regression analyses demonstrated that sociocultural influences and feedback from the participant's best male friend were important predictors for all body-change strategies among boys. For girls, sociocultural influences and feedback from the participant's best female friend and mother were important predictors for body-change strategies. The most consistent predictor of weight loss, weight gain, and strategies to increase muscles was body-image importance. In Study 2, the authors examined the influence of the same sociocultural variables, as well as negative affect and puberty on body image and body-change strategies among a second group of 199 boys and 267 girls. The results demonstrated that a broad range of sociocultural influences predicted body-change strategies for boys and girls, with negative affect also having a unique influence for boys but not for girls. Puberty played a minor role, once other sociocultural variables were entered into the regression equation. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:12617344

  10. Beyond muscles: unexplored parts of men's body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, Marika; Martins, Yolanda; Churchett, Libby

    2008-11-01

    Thus far the study of men's body image has been largely restricted to the dimensions of adiposity and muscularity. The aim of this study was to investigate in a systematic way multiple aspects of men's body images, in particular, head hair, body hair, height and penis size, in addition to body weight and muscularity. Questionnaires were completed online by 200 heterosexual men. It was found that men were dissatisfied with all six aspects of their bodies, and worried primarily about body weight, penis size and height. In addition, aspects of weight, muscularity, height and penis size, but not head or body hair, were related to overall appearance self-esteem. It was concluded that men's body image is both multi-faceted and complex.

  11. Cognitive-Behavioral Body Image Therapy for Body Dysmorphic Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, James C.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Randomly assigned 54 body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) subjects to cognitive behavior therapy or no treatment. BDD symptoms were significantly decreased in therapy subjects and the disorder was eliminated in 82 percent of cases at posttreatment and 77 percent at follow-up. Subjects' overall psychological symptoms and self-esteem also improved. (RJM)

  12. Altered Visual Adaptation to Body Shape in Eating Disorders: Implications for Body Image Distortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Harald M; Rickmeyer, Constanze; Hummel, Dennis; Ernst, Mareike; Grabhorn, Ralph

    2016-07-01

    Previous research has shown that after adapting to a thin body, healthy participants (HP) perceive pictures of their own bodies as being fatter and vice versa. This aftereffect might contribute to the development of perceptual body image disturbances in eating disorders (ED).In the present study, HP and ED completed a behavioral experiment to rate manipulated pictures of their own bodies after adaptation to thin or fat body pictures. After adapting to a thin body, HP judged a thinner than actual body picture to be the most realistic and vice versa, resembling a typical aftereffect. ED only showed such an adaptation effect when they adapted to fat body pictures.The reported results indicate a relationship between body image distortion in ED and visual body image adaptation. It can be suspected that due to a pre-existing, long-lasting adaptation to thin body shapes in ED, an additional visual adaption to thin body shapes cannot be induced. Hence this pre-existing adaptation to thin body shapes could induce perceptual body image distortions in ED. PMID:26921409

  13. Body image dissatisfaction and its relationship with physical activity and body mass index in Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria F. Laus

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate body image dissatisfaction and its relationship with physical activity and body mass index in a Brazilian sample of adolescents. Methods: A total of 275 adolescents (139 boys and 136 girls between the ages of 14 and 18 years completed measures of body image dissatisfaction through the Contour Drawing Scale and current physical activity by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Weight and height were also measured for subsequent calculation of body mass index. Results: Boys and girls differed significantly regarding body image dissatisfaction, with girls reporting higher levels of dissatisfaction. Underweight and eutrophic boys preferred to be heavier, while those overweight preferred be thinner and, in contrast, girls desired to be thinner even when they are of normal weight. Conclusion: Body image dissatisfaction was strictly related to body mass index, but not to physical activity.

  14. Disordered eating behaviors and body image in male athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Reistenbach Goltz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify disordered eating behaviors and body image dissatisfaction, as well as their relationship to body fat (BF, among male athletes in high risk sports for eating disorders. Methods: One hundred and fifty-six male athletes were divided into the following categories: weight-class sports, sports where leanness improves performance, and sports with aesthetic ideals. BF was assessed and three questionnaires were used: the Eating Attitudes Test; the Bulimic Investigatory Test, Edinburgh; the Body Shape Questionnaire. Results: Disordered eating behaviors and body image dissatisfaction were found in 43 (27.6% and 23 athletes (14.7%, respectively, and an association was detected between the two variables (p < 0.001. Athletes with and without disordered eating behaviors did not differ in %BF (11.0±5.2% and 9.8±4.0%, respectively; p = 0.106. However, athletes with body image dissatisfaction had higher %BF than those who were satisfied (12.6±5.9% and 9.7±3.9%, respectively; p = 0.034. There were no differences in BF, frequency of disordered eating behaviors, and body image dissatisfaction between sports categories. Conclusion: Nearly one-quarter of athletes showed disordered eating behaviors, which was associated with body image dissatisfaction. Athletes with higher %BF were more likely to be dissatisfied with body image. There was no difference in eating behavior and body image between athletes from different sports categories.

  15. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voelker DK

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Dana K Voelker,1 Justine J Reel,2 Christy Greenleaf3 1West Virginia University, College of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences, Morgantown, WV, 2University of North Carolina Wilmington, College of Health and Human Services, Wilmington, NC, 3University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, College of Health Sciences, Milwaukee, WI, USA Abstract: Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty that affect one’s body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one’s body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise. Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed. Keywords: adolescence, eating disorders, obesity, bullying, puberty, physical activity

  16. Cross-Cultural Examination of Women's Body Image Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, R. John; And Others

    The media's portrayal of the ideal body image has been shown to be a large determinant of one's body image perception. The desire to be excessively thin can be conceived of as an artifact of White-American culture largely due to the media's influence. This study looks at cultures that have had limited exposure to the American ideal and examines…

  17. University hosts Eating Issues and Body Image Awareness Week

    OpenAIRE

    Gehrt, Katie

    2010-01-01

    The Virginia Tech Eating Disorders Task Force will host the Eating Issues and Body Image Awareness Week through Feb. 26. The event features a variety of activities to encourage participants to identify and practice healthy eating and body image attitudes. The activities are free and open to the public.

  18. The Affective Consequences of Minimizing Women's Body Image Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosson, Jennifer K.; Pinel, Elizabeth C.; Thompson, J. Kevin

    2008-01-01

    We propose that women regularly anticipate and receive messages from others that trivialize the severity of their body image concerns. Moreover, we suggest that these minimizing messages can heighten women's negative affective reactions to body image threats, particularly if they internalize them. Two studies provided support for these ideas. In…

  19. Battling Body Image: Confessions of a Health Educator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasberry, Catherine N.

    2008-01-01

    As a college health educator, the author knows much about healthy behaviors. In spite of this, however, the author discusses finding herself struggling with the same problems of body image that her students express. With a variety of influences tied to negative body image, it is important that college health professionals create a plan of action…

  20. Gender Attitudes, Feminist Identity, and Body Images among College Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, Thomas F.; Ancis, Julie R.; Strachan, Melissa D.

    1997-01-01

    Examines how women's body-image experiences relate to their own gender attitudes and ideologies. Responses from 122 undergraduate women reveal minimal relationships between body-image attitudes and either feminist identity or adherence to traditional gender beliefs at individual/stereotypic or societal levels. Male-female social interactions…

  1. Treatment of Body Image Dissatisfaction among Women with Bulimia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwers, Mariette

    1990-01-01

    Sees body image dissatisfaction as contributing to development and maintenance of bulimia nervosa and bulimic's desire for thinness breeding low self-esteem, feelings of inadequacy, and resistance to recovery. Offers treatment suggestions for body image dissatisfaction as it relates to bulimia. Advises counselors to be satisfied with their own…

  2. Adolescent Attitudes Toward Body Image and Anorexic Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Carol Lee; Fodor, Iris Goldstein

    1986-01-01

    Explored the relationship between anorexic behavior and selected dimensions of body image predictor variables, selected dimensions of body image, physical attractiveness, self-esteem, and physical effectiveness). Results indicated that the dimension of self-esteem was the major factor in the prediction of anorexic behaviors as measured by the…

  3. Body image and day-to-day social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezlek, J B

    1999-10-01

    Participants maintained a social interaction diary and completed a measure of body image. Body image was found to have three factors, body attractiveness, social attractiveness (how attractive people believed others found them to be), and general attractiveness. For both men and women, self-perceptions of body attractiveness and of social attractiveness were positively related to the intimacy they found in interaction. Self-perceptions of social attractiveness were positively related to women's confidence in social interaction and their perceived influence over interaction, whereas for men, confidence and influence were unrelated to social attractiveness. For both men and women, body image was unrelated to how enjoyable people found interactions to be and was weakly related to how responsive they felt others were to them. For both men and women, body image was also unrelated to how socially active people were and to the relative distribution of same- and opposite-sex interactions.

  4. Body Image and the Female Adolescent Oncology Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burg, Alison Joy

    2016-01-01

    Female adolescent oncology patients undergo many physical changes throughout treatment that have challenging psychological, emotional, and social implications. Body image for this population is a subject that tends to be overlooked in the midst of the cancer experience. This article will examine the complex concept of body image and discuss why female adolescent patients are at such high risk for negative body image. Assessment and care strategies are needed to foster a positive body image, resiliency, and overall well-being. Although survivorship studies may offer insightful information about the effects of the cancer journey on long-term body image, focus should be on prevention and holistic care as part of the treatment itself. The health care team, especially nursing professionals, should acknowledge, recognize, and address this vital issue as a critical part of oncology care.

  5. Exploring the complexities of body image experiences in middle age and older adult women within an exercise context: The simultaneous existence of negative and positive body images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, K Alysse; Cline, Lindsay E; Gammage, Kimberley L

    2016-06-01

    Despite many body changes that accompany the aging process, the extant research is limited on middle age and older adults' body image experiences. The purpose of the present study was to explore how body image is represented for middle age and older adult women. Using thematic analysis, 10 women over the age of 55 were interviewed within an exercise context. The following themes were found: body dissatisfaction, body satisfaction despite ageist stereotypes, neutral body image within cohort, and positive body image characteristics. Negative and positive body images were experienced simultaneously, with neutral experiences expressed as low levels of dissatisfaction. This supports the contention that negative and positive body images exist on separate continuums and neutral body image is likely on the same continuum as negative body image. Programs that foster a social support network to reduce negative body image and improve positive body image in older female populations are needed. PMID:26989980

  6. Exploring the complexities of body image experiences in middle age and older adult women within an exercise context: The simultaneous existence of negative and positive body images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, K Alysse; Cline, Lindsay E; Gammage, Kimberley L

    2016-06-01

    Despite many body changes that accompany the aging process, the extant research is limited on middle age and older adults' body image experiences. The purpose of the present study was to explore how body image is represented for middle age and older adult women. Using thematic analysis, 10 women over the age of 55 were interviewed within an exercise context. The following themes were found: body dissatisfaction, body satisfaction despite ageist stereotypes, neutral body image within cohort, and positive body image characteristics. Negative and positive body images were experienced simultaneously, with neutral experiences expressed as low levels of dissatisfaction. This supports the contention that negative and positive body images exist on separate continuums and neutral body image is likely on the same continuum as negative body image. Programs that foster a social support network to reduce negative body image and improve positive body image in older female populations are needed.

  7. Body image quality of life in eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Ignacio Jáuregui Lobera; Patricia Bolaños Ríos

    2011-01-01

    Ignacio Jáuregui Lobera1, Patricia Bolaños Ríos21Department of Nutrition and Bromatology, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, Spain; 2Behavior Sciences Institute, Seville, SpainPurpose: The objective was to examine how body image affects quality of life in an eating-disorder (ED) clinical sample, a non-ED clinical sample, and a nonclinical sample. We hypothesized that ED patients would show the worst body image quality of life. We also hypothesized that body...

  8. Body image altered by psoriasis. A study based on individual interviews and a model for body image

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoury, Lina R; Danielsen, Patricia L; Skiveren, Jette

    2014-01-01

    Background: Visible psoriasis skin symptoms have a severe psychological impact on quality of life. To improve clinical approaches, methods of assessing these aspects are needed. Objectives: To investigate the influence of psoriasis on patients' body image based on the Body Image Model (BIM). Meth...

  9. Refinement of the tripartite influence model for men: dual body image pathways to body change behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylka, Tracy L

    2011-06-01

    Although muscularity and body fat concerns are central to conceptualizing men's body image, they have not been examined together within existing structural models. This study refined the tripartite influence model (Thompson, Heinberg, Altabe, & Tantleff-Dunn, 1999) by including dual body image pathways (muscularity and body fat dissatisfaction) to engagement in muscular enhancement and disordered eating behaviors, respectively, and added dating partners as a source of social influence. Latent variable structural equation modeling analyses supported this quadripartite model in 473 undergraduate men. Nonsignificant paths were trimmed and two unanticipated paths were added. Muscularity dissatisfaction and body fat dissatisfaction represented dual body image pathways to men's engagement in muscularity enhancement behaviors and disordered eating behaviors, respectively. Pressures to be mesomorphic from friends, family, media, and dating partners made unique contributions to the model. Internalization of the mesomorphic ideal, muscularity dissatisfaction, and body fat dissatisfaction played key meditational roles within the model. PMID:21664886

  10. Medical Imaging of Mummies and Bog Bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels

    2010-01-01

    and bog bodies could be studied non-destructively. This article describes the history of mummy radiography and CT scanning, and some of the problems and opportunities involved in applying these techniques, derived for clinical use, on naturally and artificially preserved ancient human bodies. Unless...

  11. Prevalence and correlates of body image dissatisfaction in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Rebecca L; Tinker, Lesley; Liu, Jingmin; Gray, James; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Manson, JoAnn E; Margolis, Karen L

    2016-01-01

    Dissatisfaction with one's body image is widespread and can have serious health consequences; however, research about its prevalence and correlates in older women is limited. We analyzed data from 75,256 women participating in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study, a longitudinal study of postmenopausal women's health. Measures used in the study were collected at baseline and/or the third year of follow-up between 1993 and 2002. The majority of participants (83%) in this study were dissatisfied with their bodies because they perceived themselves as heavier than their ideal. Overall, the multiple and significant correlates of body image dissatisfaction explained 36.2% of the variance in the body image dissatisfaction score, with body mass index (BMI) and change in BMI being the two most important contributors to explaining the variance. The results of this study suggest future research should focus on the utility of interventions to reduce dissatisfaction with body image in postmenopausal women that target either maintenance of a lower BMI through diet and exercise, and/or body acceptance. Further, future research should aim to identify factors in addition to body size that drive body image dissatisfaction. PMID:26219698

  12. Body image and healthy lifestyle behaviors of university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele S. Bednarzyk

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Body image, one’s perception of personal physical appearance, can be positive or negative, leading to body satisfaction or body dissatisfaction. Body satisfaction and dissatisfaction affect individuals of all ages and have the potential to impact lifestyle choices. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between body image and healthy lifestyle behaviors. Participants: Undergraduate students at a state university in the southeastern United States. Methods: An email was sent, providing a link to an online survey that included: demographic, body image, and screen time questions; the Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity tool; and the Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile II. Results: 1,056 usable surveys were returned. The participants were primarily Caucasian females (75% who were college juniors or seniors (65.5%. The majority (71% indicated they were satisfied with their body, although many (60.3% wanted to alter it. Most (65.1% had a normal BMI. Only 23.3% meet physical activity guidelines. Healthy lifestyle behaviors were engaged in “sometimes” and “often, but not routinely.” Body image was correlated with healthy lifestyle behaviors. Conclusions: Programs and resources focusing on promotion of positive body image, appropriate physical activity, and healthy eating behaviors should be the norm on college campuses. 

  13. Whole-body imaging at 7T: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, J Thomas; Snyder, Carl J; DelaBarre, Lance J; Bolan, Patrick J; Tian, Jinfeng; Bolinger, Lizann; Adriany, Gregor; Andersen, Peter; Strupp, John; Ugurbil, Kamil

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of whole-body imaging at 7T. To achieve this objective, new technology and methods were developed. Radio frequency (RF) field distribution and specific absorption rate (SAR) were first explored through numerical modeling. A body coil was then designed and built. Multichannel transmit and receive coils were also developed and implemented. With this new technology in hand, an imaging survey of the "landscape" of the human body at 7T was conducted. Cardiac imaging at 7T appeared to be possible. The potential for breast imaging and spectroscopy was demonstrated. Preliminary results of the first human body imaging at 7T suggest both promise and directions for further development. PMID:19097214

  14. Thought–shape fusion and body image in eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jáuregui-Lobera I

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera,1 Patricia Bolaños-Ríos,2 Inmaculada Ruiz-Prieto21Department of Nutrition and Bromatology, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, Spain; 2Behavioral Sciences Institute, Seville, SpainPurpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships among thought–shape fusion (TSF, specific instruments to assess body image disturbances, and body image quality of life in eating disorder patients in order to improve the understanding of the links between body image concerns and a specific bias consisting of beliefs about the consequences of thinking about forbidden foods.Patients and methods: The final sample included 76 eating disorder patients (mean age 20.13 ± 2.28 years; 59 women and seven men. After having obtained informed consent, the following questionnaires were administered: Body Appreciation Scale (BAS, Body Image Quality of Life Inventory (BIQLI-SP, Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ, Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R and Thought-Shape Fusion Questionnaire (TSF-Q.Results: Significant correlations were found between TSF-Q and body image-related variables. Those with higher scores in TSF showed higher scores in the BSQ (P < 0.0001, Eating Disorder Inventory – Drive for Thinness (EDI-DT (P < 0.0001, and Eating Disorder Inventory – Body Dissatisfaction (EDI-BD (P < 0.0001. The same patients showed lower scores in the BAS (P < 0.0001. With respect to the psychopathological variables, patients with high TSF obtained higher scores in all SCL-90-R subscales as well as in the STAI.Conclusion: The current study shows the interrelations among different body image-related variables, TSF, and body image quality of life.Keywords: cognitive distortions, quality of life, body appreciation, psychopathology, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa

  15. Body Image Ideal among Males and Females: Sociocultural Influences and Focus on Different Body Parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Jacqueline N; McCabe, Marita P

    2002-11-01

    Past research has obtained mixed findings in relation to gender differences and other factors that shape ideal body image. The current study was designed to investigate these differences further, using a digital body image program to assess body image individually. As expected, females desired a body that was smaller than their current size, whereas males were split between wanting a smaller and larger body. The perceived messages from peers and parents were consistent with the individual's ideal image. Gender differences were also found with ratings of attractiveness and effectiveness. Females rated messages from peers and parents as more important than did males. For both males and females, opposite sex peers were the most important influences, and parents the least important. PMID:22113409

  16. Thought–shape fusion and body image in eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio; Bolaños-Ríos, Patricia; Ruiz-Prieto, Inmaculada

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships among thought–shape fusion (TSF), specific instruments to assess body image disturbances, and body image quality of life in eating disorder patients in order to improve the understanding of the links between body image concerns and a specific bias consisting of beliefs about the consequences of thinking about forbidden foods. Patients and methods The final sample included 76 eating disorder patients (mean age 20.13 ± 2.28 years; 5...

  17. Liking them thin: adolescents' favorite television characters and body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te'eni-Harari, Tali; Eyal, Keren

    2015-01-01

    Considering the alarming worldwide increases in eating disorders among adolescents, thought to be linked with body image, this study uses social cognitive theory as a framework to combine the examination of adolescent body image with the topic of mediated characters. The study places a new focus in this realm on favorite television characters, extending past research on general social comparison tendencies or comparisons with unfamiliar mediated models. A survey of 756 students in Grades 7-8 and 10-11 identified their favorite same-gender television characters as well as the adolescents' body image and social comparison with the characters. The survey was accompanied by a content analysis of the favorite characters and their body sizes. Adolescents' favorite television characters were mostly identified as thin or average in body size. The thinner the characters, the more adolescents self-compared with them. The discrepancy between the adolescents' body size and that of their favorite characters significantly and negatively predicted adolescents' body image both directly and indirectly through its relationship with social comparison with the character. The study finds that television characters are important references for adolescents and may serve as targets for social comparison in the context of body image.

  18. Liking them thin: adolescents' favorite television characters and body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te'eni-Harari, Tali; Eyal, Keren

    2015-01-01

    Considering the alarming worldwide increases in eating disorders among adolescents, thought to be linked with body image, this study uses social cognitive theory as a framework to combine the examination of adolescent body image with the topic of mediated characters. The study places a new focus in this realm on favorite television characters, extending past research on general social comparison tendencies or comparisons with unfamiliar mediated models. A survey of 756 students in Grades 7-8 and 10-11 identified their favorite same-gender television characters as well as the adolescents' body image and social comparison with the characters. The survey was accompanied by a content analysis of the favorite characters and their body sizes. Adolescents' favorite television characters were mostly identified as thin or average in body size. The thinner the characters, the more adolescents self-compared with them. The discrepancy between the adolescents' body size and that of their favorite characters significantly and negatively predicted adolescents' body image both directly and indirectly through its relationship with social comparison with the character. The study finds that television characters are important references for adolescents and may serve as targets for social comparison in the context of body image. PMID:25832319

  19. The effects of body exposure on self-body image and esthetic appreciation in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzato, Valentina; Mian, Emanuel; Mele, Sonia; Tognana, Giulia; Todisco, Patrizia; Urgesi, Cosimo

    2016-03-01

    Repeated exposures to thin-idealized body shapes may alter women's perceptions of what normal (e.g., accepted) and ideal (e.g., desired) bodies in a cultural environment look like. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether exposure to thin and round body shapes may change the subsequent esthetic appreciation of others' bodies and the perceptual and cognitive-affective dimensions of self-body image in patients suffering from anorexia nervosa (AN). Thirteen AN patients and 13 matched healthy controls were exposed to pictures of either thin or round unfamiliar body models and, before and after exposure, they were required to either express liking judgments about round and slim figures of unfamiliar bodies (esthetic task) or to adjust distorted pictures of their own body to their perceptual (How do you see yourself?), affective (How do you feel yourself?), metacognitive (How do others see you?) and ideal (How would you like to look like?) body image (self-body adjustment task). Brief exposures to round models increased liking judgments of round figures in both groups. However, only in AN patients, exposure to round models induced an increase in thin figures liking, which positively correlated with their preoccupation with dieting. Furthermore, exposure to round bodies in AN patients, but not in controls, increased the distortion for the perceptual body image and decreased the size of the ideal one. No differences between the two groups were obtained after adaptation to thin models. Our results suggest that AN patients' perception of their own and others' body is more easily malleable by exposure to round figures as compared to controls. Crucially, this mechanism may strongly contribute to the development and maintenance of self-body image disturbances. PMID:26586269

  20. Body image and health behaviors: is there a relationship between lifestyles and positive body image?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanon, A; Tomassoni, R; Gargano, M; Granai, M G

    2016-01-01

    The study illustrates a research on the relationship between body image and lifestyles in a sample of 262 young amateur athletes that have a regular attendance of a gym in Cassino (Central Italy). The following questionnaires were used: Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ34), International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), Short form 12 items (SF12). The participants were 257 (response rate 98.1%) mainly of young age (18-24 years, 63.8%), single (72%), with a senior high school diploma (57.2%), students (63%). For almost all the BSQ-34 questionnaire items differences for gender were found, with Females more worried than males. 187 (72.8%) reported some vigorous activity during a week, 207 (80.5%) some moderate activity, and 229 (89.1%) walking. The participants had a median PCS score of 54.2 (range: 24.5-64.8) and a median MCS score of 43.8 (range: 9.3 - 58.7). The mean score of the Mediterranean diet was 4.8 (median = 5; Range = 1-8), and only 72 individuals (11.7%) had optimal score (over or equal to 6). PMID:27424512

  1. Young adult women's experiences of body image after bariatric surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froulund Jensen, Janet; Petersen, Mette H; Larsen, Tine B;

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To understand the lived experience of body image in young women after obesity surgery. BACKGROUND: Quantitative studies have documented that health-related quality of life and body image are improved after bariatric surgery, probably due to significant weight loss. Female obesity surgery...... candidates are likely to be motivated by dissatisfaction regarding physical appearance. However, little is known about the experience of the individual woman, leaving little understanding of the association between bariatric surgery and changes in health-related quality of life and body image. DESIGN...... synthesized into one major theme: on the edge of control, that is describing these women's feelings of being on the edge of balance between control and loss of control. CONCLUSION: Perception of control may be an essential aspect of body image and the key to understanding these young women's feelings...

  2. Weight status and the perception of body image in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardner RM

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rick M Gardner Department of Psychology, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO, USA Abstract: Understanding the role of body size in relation to the accuracy of body image perception in men is an important topic because of the implications for avoiding and treating obesity, and it may serve as a potential diagnostic criterion for eating disorders. The early research on this topic produced mixed findings. About one-half of the early studies showed that obese men overestimated their body size, with the remaining half providing accurate estimates. Later, improvements in research technology and methodology provided a clearer indication of the role of weight status in body image perception. Research in our laboratory has also produced diverse findings, including that obese subjects sometimes overestimate their body size. However, when examining our findings across several studies, obese subjects had about the same level of accuracy in estimating their body size as normal-weight subjects. Studies in our laboratory also permitted the separation of sensory and nonsensory factors in body image perception. In all but one instance, no differences were found overall between the ability of obese and normal-weight subjects to detect overall changes in body size. Importantly, however, obese subjects are better at detecting changes in their body size when the image is distorted to be too thin as compared to too wide. Both obese and normal-weight men require about a 3%–7% change in the width of their body size in order to detect the change reliably. Correlations between a range of body mass index values and body size estimation accuracy indicated no relationship between these variables. Numerous studies in other laboratories asked men to place their body size into discrete categorizes, ranging from thin to obese. Researchers found that overweight and obese men underestimate their weight status, and that men are less accurate in their categorizations than

  3. Marketingový význam body image

    OpenAIRE

    Svoboda, Matěj

    2014-01-01

    This master thesis focuses on proving the relevance and importance of body image in marketing. In theoretical part the thesis initially outlines basic marketing knowledge with special concentration on marketing research and segmentation. Next, sources of data and methodology used in the analytical part are described. In the analytical part itself the thesis firstly proves the relevance of body image as a segmentation variable on a few examples. First variable used for segmentation is the natu...

  4. FOOD BEHAVIOR, BODY IMAGE AND ANTHROPOMETRIC INDICES OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Márcia Regina Pereira MONTEIRO; Viviane Ferreira ZANIRATI; Mariana Lage de Oliveira ANDRADE; Silva, Roberta Ribeiro

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess food behavior, self-image perception and anthropometric indices of college students. This was a cross-sectional study with 54 students in a public university. The lifestyle and self-image perception was collected using a standardized questionnaire tested. Food behavior was evaluated through the Eating Attitudes Test. Body composition was assessed for Body Mass Index (BMI), circumferences, skinfold analysis and bioelectrical impedan...

  5. Correlates of Body Image in Polish Weight Trainers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guszkowska Monika

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine body image and body satisfaction in Polish adult men involved in resistance training and to investigate their relationships with objective anthropometric and training characteristics. Methods. The study included 176 males aged 18-31 years with 1-14 years resistance training experience. The Figure Rating Scale, Body Satisfaction Scale and a self-designed questionnaire were administered. Results. Approximately 62% of the participants would like to be more muscular, only 29% accepted their appearance and 9% would like to be less muscular. The body selected as the personal ideal (M = 5.34 was less muscular than the body considered by the participants to be ideal by other men (normative body; M = 6.07 and was more muscular than the body thought to be most attractive to women (M = 5.10. Actual and ideal body muscularity correlated positively with age and body mass, height and BMI. Dissatisfaction with trunk and motor characteristics correlated positively with ideal body and the body considered most attractive to women as well as with the discrepancy indices between the above factors and the actual body. Conclusions. Men regularly involved in resistance training were found to strive for a muscular physique. The normative body, the physique believed to be desired by other men, was more muscular than what was considered preferential to women. However, the latter constitutes a stronger determinant of the level of body satisfaction in men engaged in resistance training.

  6. Body image and body change: Predictive factors in an Iranian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behshid Garrusi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Body concerns and its health consequences such as eating disorders and harmful body change activities are mentioned in Asian countries. This study evaluates factors contributing to body image/shape changes in an Iranian population. Methods: In this cross-sectional study we focused on four main body change activity (diet, exercise, substance use, and surgery and their risk factors such as demographic variables, Body Mass Index (BMI, Media, Body-Esteem, Perceived Socio-cultural Pressure, Body dissatisfaction and, Self-Esteem. Approximately, 1,200 individuals between 14-55 years old participated in this study. We used a multistage sampling method. In each region, the first household was selected at random. The probability of outcomes was estimated from logistic models. Results: About 54.3% of respondents were females. The mean (SD of age was 31.06 (10.24 years. Variables such as gender, age, BMI, use of media and socio cultural factors as, body dissatisfaction, body-esteem and pressure by relatives were the main factors that influenced body change methods. In particular we have seen that male are 53% less likely to follow surgical treatments, but 125% were more likely to use substances. Conclusions: Investigation of body concern and its health related problem should be assessed in cultural context. For effectiveness of interventional programs and reducing harmful body image/shape changes activities, socio-cultural background should be noted.

  7. Feminist Pedagogy, Body Image, and the Dance Technique Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Sherrie; Oliver, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the evolution of feminist consciousness in dance technique class as related to body image, the myth of the perfect body, and the development of feminist pedagogy. Western concert dance forms have often been taught in a manner where imitating the teacher is primary in the learning process. In this traditional scenario,…

  8. The Impact of Teasing on Children's Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostanski, Marion; Gullone, Eleonora

    2007-01-01

    Being teased about one's physical appearance in childhood has been found to have a strong impact on the way in which adolescent and adult women perceive their bodies. Teasing is also strongly related to self-esteem in children. However, little is known about the impact of teasing on the development of body image in childhood. Through a…

  9. Predictors of Changes in Body Image Concerns of Chinese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Jackson, Todd

    2009-01-01

    This nine-month prospective study tested the extent to which risk factors implicated in recent accounts of body dissatisfaction predicted changes in body image concerns of adolescent boys and girls in China. A sample of 593 Chinese adolescents (217 boys, 376 girls) completed measures of weight esteem, appearance esteem and physical stature concern…

  10. Whole-body MR imaging in tumor staging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eustace, S. [Cappagh National Orthopaedic and Mater Misericordiae Hospitals, Dublin (Ireland)

    2003-11-01

    Recent refinements allow widespread use of turboSTIR MRI as a whole-body imaging tool and, in particular, as a powerful oncologic screening tool. Whole-body MRI screening can play a primary role in assessing skeletal metastases, as well as metastatic breast and lung carcinoma. (orig.)

  11. Childhood Abuse, Body Image Disturbance, and Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaaf, Kristin K.; McCanne, Thomas R.

    1994-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among childhood sexual and physical abuse, body image disturbance, and eating disorder symptomatology in college students, of whom 29 had been sexually abused, 32 physically abused, and 29 nonabused. There was no evidence that child sexual or physical abuse was associated with the development of body image…

  12. Body image in the mass media

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Iris Bazán; Rosinella Miño

    2015-01-01

    The concern about weight that characterizes most modern women stemmed from the medical research that showed the relationship between obesity and diseases such as hypertension or cardiovascular disease. As shown by the American filmmaker Michael Moore in his documentary film “Sicko” in 2007, large US health companies financially rewarded those with a thinner body and sanctioned overweight people because they had higher risks of disease and thus generate losses to their companies. From there, t...

  13. Examination of body checking, body image dissatisfaction, and negative affect using Ecological momentary assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefano, Emily C; Hudson, Danae L; Whisenhunt, Brooke L; Buchanan, Erin M; Latner, Janet D

    2016-08-01

    Research has shown that non-clinical women, particularly those with high body concern, engage in frequent body checking behaviors. The purpose of this study was to use ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to examine the frequency and correlates of body checking behavior, including its association with body image dissatisfaction and negative affect, in non-clinical women with high body concern. Undergraduate female participants with high body concern (n=22) were assessed five times per day for five days via text messages sent to their smart phones. During each assessment, participants reported the number of times they engaged in eight different body checking behaviors and their current level of negative affect and body dissatisfaction. After aggregation, a total of 3064 body checking behaviors were reported by the sample during the five-day period. All participants reported engaging in body checking at least once per day, with a mean of 27.85 checking behaviors per day. Hierarchical Linear Modeling revealed that body checking significantly predicted both body dissatisfaction and negative affect. These results provide preliminary support for the cognitive behavioral theory of eating disorders, suggesting that as women engage in more frequent body checking behaviors, they also experience higher levels of body dissatisfaction and negative affect. PMID:27086048

  14. Body image and quality of life in a Spanish population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Jáuregui Lobera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ignacio Jáuregui Lobera1, Patricia Bolaños Ríos21Department of Nutrition and Bromatology, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, Spain; 2Behavior Science Institute, Seville, SpainPurpose: The aim of the current study was to analyze the psychometric properties, factor structure, and internal consistency of the Spanish version of the Body Image Quality of Life Inventory (BIQLI-SP as well as its test–retest reliability. Further objectives were to analyze different relationships with key dimensions of psychosocial functioning (ie, self-esteem, presence of psychopathological symptoms, eating and body image-related problems, and perceived stress and to evaluate differences in body image quality of life due to gender.Patients and methods: The sample comprised 417 students without any psychiatric history, recruited from the Pablo de Olavide University and the University of Seville. There were 140 men (33.57% and 277 women (66.43%, and the mean age was 21.62 years (standard deviation = 5.12. After obtaining informed consent from all participants, the following questionnaires were administered: BIQLI, Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2, Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ, Self-Esteem Scale (SES, and Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R.Results: The BIQLI-SP shows adequate psychometric properties, and it may be useful to determine the body image quality of life in different physical conditions. A more positive body image quality of life is associated with better self-esteem, better psychological wellbeing, and fewer eating-related dysfunctional attitudes, this being more evident among women.Conclusion: The BIQLI-SP may be useful to determine the body image quality of life in different contexts with regard to dermatology, cosmetic and reconstructive surgery, and endocrinology, among others. In these fields of study, a new trend has emerged to assess body image-related quality of life.Keywords: body appreciation, wellbeing, self-esteem, social

  15. Body image and correlation with body composition and attrition rate in the TIGER study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Body image can be a very important part of determining an individual's outlook and behavior. Previous research has shown that the degree of satisfaction women have with their bodies may vary across race and may have a significant impact on an individual's motivation and commitment to a regular exer...

  16. Psychosocial Aspects of Body Mass and Body Image among Rural American Indian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Denise L.; Sontag, Lisa M.; Salvato, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the psychosocial risks associated with body weight (BMI) and body image in a southeastern, rural Lumbee American Indian community. A total of 134 adolescents (57% female) were surveyed over 2 years at ages of 13 and 15 years. On average, boys (55%) were more likely to be overweight or obese than were girls (31%). BMI was…

  17. Relationship between Body Image and Body Mass Index in College Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Julia A.; Christie, Catherine; Chally, Pamela

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: The authors examined cognitive and affective dimensions of body image of a randomized sample of 188 college men on the basis of body mass index (BMI). Methods: They conducted chi-square tests and ANOVAs to determine differences between 4 BMI groups (underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese) on demographics and…

  18. Marketingový výzham body image

    OpenAIRE

    Hejdová, Miroslava

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Body image may be regarded as a very useful tool in marketing strategies. In the theoretic part of the thesis, body image topic is discussed from the women and men's perspective. Main aspects which could be used in marketing are stressed. 1) The first aim of the thesis is to support or explode a theory about current slim ideal in women and athletic body in men and furthermore struggling of men and women to fulfill this ideal by dieting or exercise. 2) The second aim is to find how ...

  19. Body image in the mass media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Iris Bazán

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The concern about weight that characterizes most modern women stemmed from the medical research that showed the relationship between obesity and diseases such as hypertension or cardiovascular disease. As shown by the American filmmaker Michael Moore in his documentary film “Sicko” in 2007, large US health companies financially rewarded those with a thinner body and sanctioned overweight people because they had higher risks of disease and thus generate losses to their companies. From there, the emphasis on weight control and low-calorie dieting -and its association with health- reached unexpected limits. Mass Media had and have a leading role on this growing concern about weight. This article analyzes the effects of media on the aesthetic / healthy ideal, which contribute to the construction of a woman captured by endless demands. These social requirements are associated with perfection, the predominance of the aesthetic, healthy body and eternal youth, which would guarantee success. What relationship have television, women’s magazines, Internet, advertising and even children’s toys with the expansion of “the culture of light”, the ideal body and healthy behavior are some of the questions that will be addressed in this Article. To contribute to a better understanding of this phenomenon, we will make a bibliographic and Media exploration. Finally, as a possible solution to the problem, a strategy of state intervention on the current market model for promoting good use of information and prevention of Eating Disorders and other diseases related to poor diet is proposed. 

  20. Body image and subjective well-being in Portuguese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, António; Gaspar de Matos, Margarida; Diniz, José Alves

    2013-01-01

    The study examines the impact of body image in adolescents' well-being. Well-being was assessed with the scale Kidscreen10, with the Cantril ladder for satisfaction with life and with an ad hoc happiness scale. The study presents data on adolescent health from the Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC)/World Health Organization study in Portugal (2006), with a sample of 4,877 adolescents, average age of 14 years old and gender distribution at 49,6% males. Portuguese adolescents showed differences between gender and age group regarding their body image-related satisfaction/dissatisfaction and self-perceived body image, being that both components have a direct impact on the levels of well-being. The male gender has better results in the perception of body image and, consequently, well-being. The largest inter-gender differences for well-being is at 15 years of age. The main predictors of well-being are the look and body satisfaction/dissatisfaction, with greater importance on the affective component. This research highlights the importance of body image for adolescents' well-being, as well as to prepare educational strategies adapted to adolescents' age and gender, by helping them to develop skills concerning self-knowledge and caring for their look. PMID:23866210

  1. Influential sources affecting Bangkok adolescent body image perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thianthai, Chulanee

    2006-01-01

    The study of body image-related problems in non-Western countries is still very limited. Thus, this study aims to identify the main influential sources and show how they affect the body image perceptions of Bangkok adolescents. The researcher recruited 400 Thai male and female adolescents in Bangkok, attending high school to freshmen level, ranging from 16-19 years, to participate in this study. Survey questionnaires were distributed to every student and follow-up interviews conducted with 40 students. The findings showed that there are eight main influential sources respectively ranked from the most influential to the least influential: magazines, television, peer group, familial, fashion trend, the opposite gender, self-realization and health knowledge. Similar to those studies conducted in Western countries, more than half of the total percentage was the influence of mass media and peer groups. Bangkok adolescents also internalized Western ideal beauty through these mass media channels. Alike studies conducted in the West, there was similarities in the process of how these influential sources affect Bangkok adolescent body image perception, with the exception of familial source. In conclusion, taking the approach of identifying the main influential sources and understanding how they affect adolescent body image perceptions can help prevent adolescents from having unhealthy views and taking risky measures toward their bodies. More studies conducted in non-Western countries are needed in order to build a cultural sensitive program, catered to the body image problems occurring in adolescents within that particular society. PMID:17340854

  2. Foreign esophageal body impaction: multimodality imaging diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lucas, Enrique Marco; Ruiz-Delgado, María Luisa; García-Barón, Pedro Lastra; Sádaba, Pablo; Pagola, Miguel Angel

    2004-02-01

    We report a case of a portion of bran bread impacted in the cervical esophagus in an 88-year-old woman. A complete radiologic study including ultrasonography, computed tomography, and barium swallow was performed. These techniques confirmed and localized the foreign body, which was endoscopically removed. A complete radiologic assessment can guarantee the usefulness of esophagoscopy to avoid significant morbidity from unnecessary procedures in a patient in poor clinical condition. Ultrasonography and computed tomography are attractive and profitable options in these cases. PMID:15290496

  3. Body image and HIV: implications for support and care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, L

    1998-06-01

    Very little formal research has looked at body image change over the course of HIV illness or assessed the implications of changes for support interactions. There are three main spheres of influence on body image: the physical, psychological and the social. HIV shares some of these aspects with other chronic or fatal illnesses, but has specific elements which are distinctive, such as particular physical manifestations and the negative impact of media, social representations and stigma resulting in a radically altered experience for an HIV-positive body. This paper outlines preliminary findings using a body image measure designed specifically for use in HIV. The results suggest that people with HIV may experience significant feelings of contamination, brought about through internalization of stigma and representations, in addition to physical decline as illness progresses. PMID:9743739

  4. Ethics in marketing communication with a focus on body image

    OpenAIRE

    Mužíková, Iveta

    2012-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with ethics in marketing communication with a focus on body image only. The aim of the thesis is to find out what the effects of constantly imaging the ideal of beauty on the psyche of consumers. The health of consumers and society is the reason why we talk about ethics. Therefore, in this area is the issue of ethics entirely appropriate. The thesis deals with the issue of body image in marketing communications from marketer's point of view and also from consumer's ...

  5. Body Image Dissatisfaction and Distortion, Steroid Use, and Sex Differences in College Age Bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Mark Anthony; Phelps, LeAddelle

    2001-01-01

    Compares college age bodybuilders by sex and steroid intake on two variables: body image dissatisfaction and body image distortion. Results reveal only a significant effect for gender on body distortion. No steroid-use differences were apparent for either body image dissatisfaction or body image distortion. Analyses indicate that female…

  6. Predicting body appreciation in young women: An integrated model of positive body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Rachel; Tiggemann, Marika; Clark, Levina

    2016-09-01

    This study examined a range of predictors, based on previous theoretical models, of positive body image in young adult women. Participants were 266 women who completed an online questionnaire measuring body appreciation, activity participation, media consumption, perceived body acceptance by others, self-compassion, and autonomy. Potential mechanisms in predicting body appreciation assessed were self-objectification, social appearance comparison, and thin-ideal internalisation. Results indicated that greater perceived body acceptance by others and self-compassion, and lower appearance media consumption, self-objectification, social comparison, and thin-ideal internalisation were related to greater body appreciation. An integrated model showed that appearance media (negatively) and non-appearance media and self-compassion (positively) were associated with lower self-objectification, social comparison, and thin-ideal internalisation, which in turn related to greater body appreciation. Additionally, perceived body acceptance by others was directly associated with body appreciation. The results contribute to an understanding of potential pathways of positive body image development, thereby highlighting possible intervention targets.

  7. Predicting body appreciation in young women: An integrated model of positive body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Rachel; Tiggemann, Marika; Clark, Levina

    2016-09-01

    This study examined a range of predictors, based on previous theoretical models, of positive body image in young adult women. Participants were 266 women who completed an online questionnaire measuring body appreciation, activity participation, media consumption, perceived body acceptance by others, self-compassion, and autonomy. Potential mechanisms in predicting body appreciation assessed were self-objectification, social appearance comparison, and thin-ideal internalisation. Results indicated that greater perceived body acceptance by others and self-compassion, and lower appearance media consumption, self-objectification, social comparison, and thin-ideal internalisation were related to greater body appreciation. An integrated model showed that appearance media (negatively) and non-appearance media and self-compassion (positively) were associated with lower self-objectification, social comparison, and thin-ideal internalisation, which in turn related to greater body appreciation. Additionally, perceived body acceptance by others was directly associated with body appreciation. The results contribute to an understanding of potential pathways of positive body image development, thereby highlighting possible intervention targets. PMID:27240100

  8. TO STUDY THE BODY IMAGE AMO NG THE ADOLESCENT AGE GROUP AND ITS CORRELATION WITH BODY MASS INDEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keziah

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Body image or satisfaction with physical appearance has been established as an important aspect of self - worth and mental health across lifespan . Given the fact that physical appearance is a multifaceted structural concept that depends not only on inner biological , but also psychological and socio - cultural components , body image is conceived as one’s attitudinal dispositions toward the physical self . The purpose of this study is to evaluate the body image satisfaction - dissa tisfaction among adolescent age group , to correlate the components of body image with body mass index and the influence of parents , peers and mass media on body image .

  9. Weight status and the perception of body image in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Rick M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the role of body size in relation to the accuracy of body image perception in men is an important topic because of the implications for avoiding and treating obesity, and it may serve as a potential diagnostic criterion for eating disorders. The early research on this topic produced mixed findings. About one-half of the early studies showed that obese men overestimated their body size, with the remaining half providing accurate estimates. Later, improvements in research technology and methodology provided a clearer indication of the role of weight status in body image perception. Research in our laboratory has also produced diverse findings, including that obese subjects sometimes overestimate their body size. However, when examining our findings across several studies, obese subjects had about the same level of accuracy in estimating their body size as normal-weight subjects. Studies in our laboratory also permitted the separation of sensory and nonsensory factors in body image perception. In all but one instance, no differences were found overall between the ability of obese and normal-weight subjects to detect overall changes in body size. Importantly, however, obese subjects are better at detecting changes in their body size when the image is distorted to be too thin as compared to too wide. Both obese and normal-weight men require about a 3%–7% change in the width of their body size in order to detect the change reliably. Correlations between a range of body mass index values and body size estimation accuracy indicated no relationship between these variables. Numerous studies in other laboratories asked men to place their body size into discrete categorizes, ranging from thin to obese. Researchers found that overweight and obese men underestimate their weight status, and that men are less accurate in their categorizations than are women. Cultural influences have been found to be important, with body size underestimations occurring in cultures

  10. Considering an affect regulation framework for examining the association between body dissatisfaction and positive body image in Black older adolescent females: does body mass index matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Jennifer B; Butler-Ajibade, Phoebe; Robinson, Seronda A

    2014-09-01

    The present study provided an initial evaluation of an affect regulation model describing the association between body dissatisfaction and two contemporary measures of positive body image among 247 Black college-bound older adolescent females. We further tested whether possessing a higher body mass index (BMI) would strengthen these associations. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate BMI. Respondents also completed a culturally-sensitive figure rating scale along with assessments of body appreciation and body image flexibility. Results indicated a robust positive association between the two measures of positive body image; BMI was the strongest predictor of both body appreciation and body image flexibility with body size discrepancy (current minus ideal) contributing incremental variance to both models tested. Implications for improving our understanding of the association between positive and negative body image and bolstering positive body image to promote health-protective behaviors among Black young women at this developmental juncture are discussed. PMID:25079011

  11. Considering an affect regulation framework for examining the association between body dissatisfaction and positive body image in Black older adolescent females: does body mass index matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Jennifer B; Butler-Ajibade, Phoebe; Robinson, Seronda A

    2014-09-01

    The present study provided an initial evaluation of an affect regulation model describing the association between body dissatisfaction and two contemporary measures of positive body image among 247 Black college-bound older adolescent females. We further tested whether possessing a higher body mass index (BMI) would strengthen these associations. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate BMI. Respondents also completed a culturally-sensitive figure rating scale along with assessments of body appreciation and body image flexibility. Results indicated a robust positive association between the two measures of positive body image; BMI was the strongest predictor of both body appreciation and body image flexibility with body size discrepancy (current minus ideal) contributing incremental variance to both models tested. Implications for improving our understanding of the association between positive and negative body image and bolstering positive body image to promote health-protective behaviors among Black young women at this developmental juncture are discussed.

  12. Body image quality of life in eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Jáuregui Lobera

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Ignacio Jáuregui Lobera1, Patricia Bolaños Ríos21Department of Nutrition and Bromatology, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, Spain; 2Behavior Sciences Institute, Seville, SpainPurpose: The objective was to examine how body image affects quality of life in an eating-disorder (ED clinical sample, a non-ED clinical sample, and a nonclinical sample. We hypothesized that ED patients would show the worst body image quality of life. We also hypothesized that body image quality of life would have a stronger negative association with specific ED-related variables than with other psychological and psychopathological variables, mainly among ED patients. On the basis of previous studies, the influence of gender on the results was explored, too.Patients and methods: The final sample comprised 70 ED patients (mean age 22.65 ± 7.76 years; 59 women and 11 men; 106 were patients with other psychiatric disorders (mean age 28.20 ± 6.52; 67 women and 39 men, and 135 were university students (mean age 21.57 ± 2.58; 81 women and 54 men, with no psychiatric history. After having obtained informed consent, the following questionnaires were administered: Body Image Quality of Life Inventory-Spanish version (BIQLI-SP, Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2, Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ, Self-Esteem Scale (SES, and Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R.Results: The ED patients' ratings on the BIQLI-SP were the lowest and negatively scored (BIQLI-SP means: +20.18, +5.14, and —6.18, in the student group, the non-ED patient group, and the ED group, respectively. The effect of body image on quality of life was more negative in the ED group in all items of the BIQLI-SP. Body image quality of life was negatively associated with specific ED-related variables, more than with other psychological and psychopathological variables, but not especially among ED patients.Conclusion: Body image quality of life was affected not only by specific pathologies related to body

  13. Healthy appearances--distorted body images? Young adults negotiating body motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liimakka, Satu

    2014-02-01

    Drawing on focus group discussions, this article explores how young, Finnish university students view the cultural ideals of health and appearance. The young adults noted how body practices aiming at health can turn into unhealthy obsessions. As a result, a healthy-looking body may serve to cover an underlying body image distortion. Health and well-being were defined as appropriate motives for engaging in body projects, while appearance as a motive was questioned. I argue that the current promotion of health may cause individuals to experience pressure to outwardly appear healthy at the cost of neglecting the subjective experience of well-being, and that this may especially influence young women.

  14. Relationship of body image and creative dance movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, R N; Scannell, E D

    1995-08-01

    Findings supporting the proposition that dance movement improves a person's body image have been contradictory. Previous work focussed on styles such as ballet, jazz, and modern dance but it is arguable that creative dance movement, with its less structured approach and absence of predetermined performance standards, will have a positive influence on body image. This study examine scores on the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire of 112 women between 18 and 69 years who had been actively participating in creative dance movement courses for periods ranging from two weeks to 16.5 years. Subjects experienced in creative dance movement were more satisfied with their appearance, fitness, and body parts than subjects with less than five years of experience. Differences in evaluation of health were not clearly established. Given this analysis and the potential for wide-spread clinical use of creative dance movement with people having body-image disturbances, empirical research on the relationship between creative dance movement and body image is warranted. PMID:8532452

  15. RANZAR Body Systems Framework of diagnostic imaging examination descriptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A unified and logical system of descriptors for diagnostic imaging examinations and procedures is a desirable resource for radiology in Australia and New Zealand and is needed to support core activities of RANZCR. Existing descriptor systems available in Australia and New Zealand (including the Medicare DIST and the ACC Schedule) have significant limitations and are inappropriate for broader clinical application. An anatomically based grid was constructed, with anatomical structures arranged in rows and diagnostic imaging modalities arranged in columns (including nuclear medicine and positron emission tomography). The grid was segregated into five body systems. The cells at the intersection of an anatomical structure row and an imaging modality column were populated with short, formulaic descriptors of the applicable diagnostic imaging examinations. Clinically illogical or physically impossible combinations were ‘greyed out’. Where the same examination applied to different anatomical structures, the descriptor was kept identical for the purposes of streamlining. The resulting Body Systems Framework of diagnostic imaging examination descriptors lists all the reasonably common diagnostic imaging examinations currently performed in Australia and New Zealand using a unified grid structure allowing navigation by both referrers and radiologists. The Framework has been placed on the RANZCR website and is available for access free of charge by registered users. The Body Systems Framework of diagnostic imaging examination descriptors is a system of descriptors based on relationships between anatomical structures and imaging modalities. The Framework is now available as a resource and reference point for the radiology profession and to support core College activities.

  16. Negative body image associated with changes in the visual body appearance increases pain perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michihiro Osumi

    Full Text Available Changing the visual body appearance by use of as virtual reality system, funny mirror, or binocular glasses has been reported to be helpful in rehabilitation of pain. However, there are interindividual differences in the analgesic effect of changing the visual body image. We hypothesized that a negative body image associated with changing the visual body appearance causes interindividual differences in the analgesic effect although the relationship between the visual body appearance and analgesic effect has not been clarified. We investigated whether a negative body image associated with changes in the visual body appearance increased pain. Twenty-five healthy individuals participated in this study. To evoke a negative body image, we applied the method of rubber hand illusion. We created an "injured rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with pain, a "hairy rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with embarrassment, and a "twisted rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with deviation from the concept of normality. We also created a "normal rubber hand" as a control. The pain threshold was measured while the participant observed the rubber hand using a device that measured pain caused by thermal stimuli. Body ownership experiences were elicited by observation of the injured rubber hand and hairy rubber hand as well as the normal rubber hand. Participants felt more unpleasantness by observing the injured rubber hand and hairy rubber hand than the normal rubber hand and twisted rubber hand (p<0.001. The pain threshold was lower under the injured rubber hand condition than with the other conditions (p<0.001. We conclude that a negative body appearance associated with pain can increase pain sensitivity.

  17. Negative body image associated with changes in the visual body appearance increases pain perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osumi, Michihiro; Imai, Ryota; Ueta, Kozo; Nobusako, Satoshi; Morioka, Shu

    2014-01-01

    Changing the visual body appearance by use of as virtual reality system, funny mirror, or binocular glasses has been reported to be helpful in rehabilitation of pain. However, there are interindividual differences in the analgesic effect of changing the visual body image. We hypothesized that a negative body image associated with changing the visual body appearance causes interindividual differences in the analgesic effect although the relationship between the visual body appearance and analgesic effect has not been clarified. We investigated whether a negative body image associated with changes in the visual body appearance increased pain. Twenty-five healthy individuals participated in this study. To evoke a negative body image, we applied the method of rubber hand illusion. We created an "injured rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with pain, a "hairy rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with embarrassment, and a "twisted rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with deviation from the concept of normality. We also created a "normal rubber hand" as a control. The pain threshold was measured while the participant observed the rubber hand using a device that measured pain caused by thermal stimuli. Body ownership experiences were elicited by observation of the injured rubber hand and hairy rubber hand as well as the normal rubber hand. Participants felt more unpleasantness by observing the injured rubber hand and hairy rubber hand than the normal rubber hand and twisted rubber hand (ppain threshold was lower under the injured rubber hand condition than with the other conditions (pnegative body appearance associated with pain can increase pain sensitivity.

  18. Negative Body Image Associated with Changes in the Visual Body Appearance Increases Pain Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osumi, Michihiro; Imai, Ryota; Ueta, Kozo; Nobusako, Satoshi; Morioka, Shu

    2014-01-01

    Changing the visual body appearance by use of as virtual reality system, funny mirror, or binocular glasses has been reported to be helpful in rehabilitation of pain. However, there are interindividual differences in the analgesic effect of changing the visual body image. We hypothesized that a negative body image associated with changing the visual body appearance causes interindividual differences in the analgesic effect although the relationship between the visual body appearance and analgesic effect has not been clarified. We investigated whether a negative body image associated with changes in the visual body appearance increased pain. Twenty-five healthy individuals participated in this study. To evoke a negative body image, we applied the method of rubber hand illusion. We created an “injured rubber hand” to evoke unpleasantness associated with pain, a “hairy rubber hand” to evoke unpleasantness associated with embarrassment, and a “twisted rubber hand” to evoke unpleasantness associated with deviation from the concept of normality. We also created a “normal rubber hand” as a control. The pain threshold was measured while the participant observed the rubber hand using a device that measured pain caused by thermal stimuli. Body ownership experiences were elicited by observation of the injured rubber hand and hairy rubber hand as well as the normal rubber hand. Participants felt more unpleasantness by observing the injured rubber hand and hairy rubber hand than the normal rubber hand and twisted rubber hand (p<0.001). The pain threshold was lower under the injured rubber hand condition than with the other conditions (p<0.001). We conclude that a negative body appearance associated with pain can increase pain sensitivity. PMID:25210738

  19. Poor body image and alcohol use in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzhauer, Cathryn Glanton; Zenner, Ashley; Wulfert, Edelgard

    2016-02-01

    Two studies were conducted to examine the association between body image and alcohol use. Of interest was the extent to which alcohol outcome expectancies act as a moderator in this relationship, particularly in women. In Study 1, 421 college students (175 men, 246 women) provided self-report data on body image, social expressiveness expectancies, and average weekly alcohol use; the data were examined using a moderation model. Results showed that women with poor body image and high social expressiveness expectancies reported a significantly greater amount of average weekly alcohol consumption, whereas no such interaction was observed for men. Study 2 tested the same moderation model with 67 female participants; however, this second study utilized an in-lab behavioral measure of alcohol consumption as the outcome variable. The second study replicated results from Study 1, showing that women with overweight body image and alcohol-related high social expressiveness expectancies consumed significantly more beer during a taste rating task than women with other combinations of these variables. Taken together, the results of Studies 1 and 2 indicate that, specifically for women, an overweight body image and positive expectancies about the social, confidence-enhancing benefits of alcohol act as risk factors for excessive drinking. PMID:26348220

  20. FOOD BEHAVIOR, BODY IMAGE AND ANTHROPOMETRIC INDICES OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Regina Pereira MONTEIRO

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The aim of this study was to assess food behavior, self-image perception and anthropometric indices of college students. This was a cross-sectional study with 54 students in a public university. The lifestyle and self-image perception was collected using a standardized questionnaire tested. Food behavior was evaluated through the Eating Attitudes Test. Body composition was assessed for Body Mass Index (BMI, circumferences, skinfold analysis and bioelectrical impedance (BIA. The statistics tests used were Chi-square and Pearson correlation (p< 0.05. The students had 19 to 27 years old, 96.3% were non-smokers, 46.3% drank alcoholic beverages and 37.0% practiced regular physical activity. Most of the students (75.5% were considered normal weight (BMI but the body fat percentage was found to be above average. Regarding self- image perception, 40.7% felt overweight. Observing food behavior results, 12.0% were at risk of developing eating disorders. Positive correlations were verifi ed between BMI with skinfold and skinfold with bioelectrical impedance. It was concluded that a considerable number of the college students assessed had a distorted self-image perception. Many of them had normal weight but with high body fat percentage. This study is relevant to investigate the risk of eating disorders and body image perception as part of the nutritional assessment.

  1. Factors associated with body image distortion in Korean adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun MY

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mi-Yeul Hyun,1 Young-Eun Jung,2 Moon-Doo Kim,2 Young-Sook Kwak,2 Sung-Chul Hong,3 Won-Myong Bahk,4 Bo-Hyun Yoon,5 Hye Won Yoon,6 Bora Yoo61College of Nursing, Jeju National University, Jeju, Korea; 2Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Jeju National University, Jeju, Korea; 3Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Jeju National University, Jeju, Korea; 4Department of Psychiatry, Yeouido St Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea; 5Department of Psychiatry, Naju National Hospital, Naju, Korea; 6School of Medicine, Jeju National University, Jeju, KoreaPurpose: Body image incorporates cognitive and affective components as well as behaviors related to own body perception. This study evaluated the occurrence of body image distortion and its correlates in Korean adolescents.Methods: In a school-based cross-sectional survey, a total of 2,117 adolescents were recruited. They filled out self-completing questionnaires on body image distortion, eating attitudes, and behaviors (Eating Attitude Test-26 and related factors.Results: Body image distortions were found in 51.8 percent of adolescents. Univariate analyses showed that boys and older adolescents had higher rates of body image distortion. In the multivariate analyses, body image distortion was associated with high risk for eating disorders (odds ratio [OR] =1.69; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11–2.58; P=0.015 and being over weight (OR =33.27; 95% CI 15.51–71.35; P<0.001 or obese (OR =9.37; 95% CI 5.06–17.34; P<0.001.Conclusion: These results suggest that body image distortion is relatively common in Korean adolescents, which has implications for adolescents at risk of developing eating disorders.Keywords: body image distortion, high risk for eating disorders, Korean adolescent

  2. [Images and representations of the female body in Brazilian magazines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Márcia Rebeca Rocha; de Oliveira, Jeane Freitas; do Nascimento, Enilda Rosendo; Carvalho, Evanilda Souza de Santana

    2013-06-01

    This documentary, qualitative, descriptive study has the objective to analyze images and representations of the female body and their relation to drug use in the content of articles published in four magazines with national circulation (Veja, Isto E, Boa Forma, Claúdia). The articles selected were submitted to the technique of content analysis, with three thematic groups identified: the body as an incentive to use drugs; risks to the body resulting from drug use; and the search for the perfect body through drug use. The data showed that the media reproduces rigid aesthetic standards, exposing women to social and health offenses that stimulate drug use, either autonomously or by prescription. The search for beauty and the appeal to feminine eroticism, published through the communication channels analyzed limit the social importance of women by using images that link them to the status of sexual object.

  3. [Images and representations of the female body in Brazilian magazines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Márcia Rebeca Rocha; de Oliveira, Jeane Freitas; do Nascimento, Enilda Rosendo; Carvalho, Evanilda Souza de Santana

    2013-06-01

    This documentary, qualitative, descriptive study has the objective to analyze images and representations of the female body and their relation to drug use in the content of articles published in four magazines with national circulation (Veja, Isto E, Boa Forma, Claúdia). The articles selected were submitted to the technique of content analysis, with three thematic groups identified: the body as an incentive to use drugs; risks to the body resulting from drug use; and the search for the perfect body through drug use. The data showed that the media reproduces rigid aesthetic standards, exposing women to social and health offenses that stimulate drug use, either autonomously or by prescription. The search for beauty and the appeal to feminine eroticism, published through the communication channels analyzed limit the social importance of women by using images that link them to the status of sexual object. PMID:24015463

  4. Relationship Between Body Image Discrepancy and Intuitive Eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoor, Kesha Dorsey; Madanat, Hala

    2016-04-01

    Dieting is widespread among college women despite being ineffective and harmful long term. Intuitive eating is a dieting alternative that teaches eating in response to hunger and satiety cues. It has been associated with improved physical and psychological health and studied in association with various body image dimensions. A sample of college first years completed baseline measurements during an intuitive eating intervention to test the association between intuitive eating and body image discrepancy (BID). BID represents whether a respondent believes her current body is larger or smaller than ideal. Greater BID was negatively associated with intuitive eating (p ≤ .05); participants who believed that their current bodies were larger than ideal were less likely to attend to hunger and satiety cues than participants who expressed little or no BID. These women should be targeted in future weight management interventions in order to avoid negative health outcomes of dieting. PMID:27052661

  5. Effects of cognitive behavioral counseling on body Image following mastectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simin Fadaei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Surgical treatment of breast cancer may cause body image alterations. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of cognitive behavioral counseling on body image among Iranian women with primary breast cancer. Methods: In this quasi-experimental designed study, 72 patients diagnosed as breast cancer and surgically treated were enrolled in Isfahan, Iran. The patients were entered the study by convenience sampling method and were randomly di-vided in two groups of intervention (n = 32 and control (n = 40. The intervention group received consultation based on Ellis rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT method for 6 sessions during 3 weeks. The control group did not re-ceive any consultation Paired t-test was used to compare the changes in groups and independent t-test was conducted to compare two groups. The average values represented as mean ± standard deviation. Results: Before the study, the body image score was not significantly different between the intervention (16 97 ± 5 44 and control (15 95 ± 4 66 groups (t = 0 86, P = 0 395. The body image score was significantly lower in the interven-tion group (9 03 ± 6 11 compared to control group (17 18 ± 5 27 after the intervention (t = -6 07, P < 0 001. Conclusions: Since a woman′s body image influences her breast cancer treatment decision, oncology professionals need to recognize the value of a woman′s favorite about appearance and body image. This study emphasizes the impor-tance of offering consultation in breast cancer patients.

  6. Disordered eating behaviors and body image in male athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Reistenbach Goltz; Lucia Marques Stenzel; Cláudia Dornelles Schneider

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To identify disordered eating behaviors and body image dissatisfaction, as well as their relationship to body fat (BF), among male athletes in high risk sports for eating disorders. Methods: One hundred and fifty-six male athletes were divided into the following categories: weight-class sports, sports where leanness improves performance, and sports with aesthetic ideals. BF was assessed and three questionnaires were used: the Eating Attitudes Test; the Bulimic Investigatory Test,...

  7. Racial differences in predictors of college women's body image attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, S M

    1994-01-01

    African-American and Euro-American women from three predominantly Euro-American colleges in the southeast U.S. between 17 and 23 years of age completed instruments assessing body image attitudes, social competence, sex-role attitudes, racial identity, and a measure of family and personal characteristics. Analyses revealed race differences on all body image measures with the exception of appearance evaluation which was influenced by family income and race. Specifically, African-American women reported more satisfaction with and positive feelings towards their bodies and less dissatisfaction than Euro-American women. Unlike Euro-Americans, African-American women attached importance to fitness and health. The relationship between personal/physical factors and body image was stronger for African-American than Euro-American women. Additionally, personal/physical characteristics were the best model of appearance evaluation for African-American women, whereas personal/physical and sociodemographic factors best predicted this measure for Euro-American women. The results are discussed in relation to body image norms and standards of the African-American subculture and middle-class, Euro-American mainstream culture. PMID:7941613

  8. Altering Visual Perception Abnormalities: A Marker for Body Image Concern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca L Beilharz

    Full Text Available The body image concern (BIC continuum ranges from a healthy and positive body image, to clinical diagnoses of abnormal body image, like body dysmorphic disorder (BDD. BDD and non-clinical, yet high-BIC participants have demonstrated a local visual processing bias, characterised by reduced inversion effects. To examine whether this bias is a potential marker of BDD, the visual processing of individuals across the entire BIC continuum was examined. Dysmorphic Concern Questionnaire (DCQ; quantified BIC scores were expected to correlate with higher discrimination accuracy and faster reaction times of inverted stimuli, indicating reduced inversion effects (occurring due to increased local visual processing. Additionally, an induced global or local processing bias via Navon stimulus presentation was expected to alter these associations. Seventy-four participants completed the DCQ and upright-inverted face and body stimulus discrimination task. Moderate positive associations were revealed between DCQ scores and accuracy rates for inverted face and body stimuli, indicating a graded local bias accompanying increases in BIC. This relationship supports a local processing bias as a marker for BDD, which has significant assessment implications. Furthermore, a moderate negative relationship was found between DCQ score and inverted face accuracy after inducing global processing, indicating the processing bias can temporarily be reversed in high BIC individuals. Navon stimuli were successfully able to alter the visual processing of individuals across the BIC continuum, which has important implications for treating BDD.

  9. Altering Visual Perception Abnormalities: A Marker for Body Image Concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilharz, Francesca L; Atkins, Kelly J; Duncum, Anna J F; Mundy, Matthew E

    2016-01-01

    The body image concern (BIC) continuum ranges from a healthy and positive body image, to clinical diagnoses of abnormal body image, like body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). BDD and non-clinical, yet high-BIC participants have demonstrated a local visual processing bias, characterised by reduced inversion effects. To examine whether this bias is a potential marker of BDD, the visual processing of individuals across the entire BIC continuum was examined. Dysmorphic Concern Questionnaire (DCQ; quantified BIC) scores were expected to correlate with higher discrimination accuracy and faster reaction times of inverted stimuli, indicating reduced inversion effects (occurring due to increased local visual processing). Additionally, an induced global or local processing bias via Navon stimulus presentation was expected to alter these associations. Seventy-four participants completed the DCQ and upright-inverted face and body stimulus discrimination task. Moderate positive associations were revealed between DCQ scores and accuracy rates for inverted face and body stimuli, indicating a graded local bias accompanying increases in BIC. This relationship supports a local processing bias as a marker for BDD, which has significant assessment implications. Furthermore, a moderate negative relationship was found between DCQ score and inverted face accuracy after inducing global processing, indicating the processing bias can temporarily be reversed in high BIC individuals. Navon stimuli were successfully able to alter the visual processing of individuals across the BIC continuum, which has important implications for treating BDD. PMID:27003715

  10. Altering Visual Perception Abnormalities: A Marker for Body Image Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncum, Anna J. F.; Mundy, Matthew E.

    2016-01-01

    The body image concern (BIC) continuum ranges from a healthy and positive body image, to clinical diagnoses of abnormal body image, like body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). BDD and non-clinical, yet high-BIC participants have demonstrated a local visual processing bias, characterised by reduced inversion effects. To examine whether this bias is a potential marker of BDD, the visual processing of individuals across the entire BIC continuum was examined. Dysmorphic Concern Questionnaire (DCQ; quantified BIC) scores were expected to correlate with higher discrimination accuracy and faster reaction times of inverted stimuli, indicating reduced inversion effects (occurring due to increased local visual processing). Additionally, an induced global or local processing bias via Navon stimulus presentation was expected to alter these associations. Seventy-four participants completed the DCQ and upright-inverted face and body stimulus discrimination task. Moderate positive associations were revealed between DCQ scores and accuracy rates for inverted face and body stimuli, indicating a graded local bias accompanying increases in BIC. This relationship supports a local processing bias as a marker for BDD, which has significant assessment implications. Furthermore, a moderate negative relationship was found between DCQ score and inverted face accuracy after inducing global processing, indicating the processing bias can temporarily be reversed in high BIC individuals. Navon stimuli were successfully able to alter the visual processing of individuals across the BIC continuum, which has important implications for treating BDD. PMID:27003715

  11. Anorexia nervosa and body dysmorphic disorder: A comparison of body image concerns and explicit and implicit attractiveness beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, A S; Thomas, J J; Greenberg, J L; Elliott, C M; Matheny, N L; Wilhelm, S

    2015-06-01

    Although body image is central to the etiological models of anorexia nervosa and body dysmorphic disorder, studies comparing body image and beliefs about attractiveness between the disorders are rare. Sixty-nine individuals (anorexia nervosa: n=24, body dysmorphic disorder: n=23, healthy controls: n=22) completed self-report measures (body image and general psychopathology), diagnostic interviews, and Go/No-Go Association tasks measuring implicit associations. Compared to controls, both clinical groups exhibited greater negative body image, a more negative attitude toward their physical selves, and more dysfunctional coping strategies (psattractiveness (psattractive to be successful") might be a fruitful target for therapy across both disorders. PMID:25920044

  12. Imaging spectrometry of the Earth and other solar system bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vane, Gregg

    1993-01-01

    Imaging spectrometry is a relatively new tool for remote sensing of the Earth and other bodies of the solar system. The technique dates back to the late 1970's and early 1980's. It is a natural extension of the earlier multi-spectral imagers developed for remote sensing that acquire images in a few, usually broad spectral bands. Imaging spectrometers combine aspects of classical spectrometers and imaging systems, making it possible to acquire literally hundreds of images of an object, each image in a separate, narrow spectral band. It is thus possible to perform spectroscopy on a pixel-by-pixel basis with the data acquired with an imaging spectrometer. Two imaging spectrometers have flown in space and several others are planned for future Earth and planetary missions. The French-built Phobos Infrared Spectrometer (ISM) was part of the payload of the Soviet Mars mission in 1988, and the JPL-built Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) is currently en route to Jupiter aboard the Galileo spacecraft. Several airborne imaging spectrometers have been built in the past decade including the JPL-built Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) which is the only such sensor that covers the full solar reflected portion of the spectrum in narrow, contiguous spectral bands. NASA plans two imaging spectrometers for its Earth Observing System, the Moderate and the High Resolution Imaging Spectrometers (MODIS and HIRIS). A brief overview of the applications of imaging spectrometry to Earth science will be presented to illustrate the value of the tool to remote sensing and indicate the types of measurements that are required. The system design for AVIRS and a planetary imaging spectrometer will be presented to illustrate the engineering considerations and challenges that must be met in building such instruments. Several key sensor technology areas will be discussed in which miniaturization and/or enhanced performance through micromachining and nanofabrication may

  13. Multimodal Correlative Preclinical Whole Body Imaging and Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akselrod-Ballin, Ayelet; Dafni, Hagit; Addadi, Yoseph; Biton, Inbal; Avni, Reut; Brenner, Yafit; Neeman, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Segmentation of anatomical structures and particularly abdominal organs is a fundamental problem for quantitative image analysis in preclinical research. This paper presents a novel approach for whole body segmentation of small animals in a multimodal setting of MR, CT and optical imaging. The algorithm integrates multiple imaging sequences into a machine learning framework, which generates supervoxels by an efficient hierarchical agglomerative strategy and utilizes multiple SVM-kNN classifiers each constrained by a heatmap prior region to compose the segmentation. We demonstrate results showing segmentation of mice images into several structures including the heart, lungs, liver, kidneys, stomach, vena cava, bladder, tumor, and skeleton structures. Experimental validation on a large set of mice and organs, indicated that our system outperforms alternative state of the art approaches. The system proposed can be generalized to various tissues and imaging modalities to produce automatic atlas-free segmentation, thereby enabling a wide range of applications in preclinical studies of small animal imaging. PMID:27325178

  14. The body image in ancient tragedy: a verbal visuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisana De Carli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, two tragedies of Sophocles and two others from Seneca are analyzed in order to identify the visuality given to the body through the word, image built for the character’s body, their levels of meaning and reverberation in text and scene. This information can be characterized as internal rubric because such data supports the scene’s construction. Thus, structure and content engender enhancing body's significance on scene either by its presence or a verbal visual, figuring a semantic occupation, which configures as one of the marks of the ancient theater.

  15. Japanese version of cutaneous body image scale: translation and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higaki, Yuko; Watanabe, Ikuko; Masaki, Tomoko; Kamo, Toshiko; Kawashima, Makoto; Satoh, Toshihiko; Saitoh, Shiroh; Nohara, Michiko; Gupta, Madhulika A

    2009-09-01

    Cutaneous body image, defined as the individual's mental perception of the appearance of their skin, hair and nails, is an important psychodermatological element in skin diseases. To measure individuals' cutaneous body image, a practical and accurate instrument is necessary. In this study, we translated the Cutaneous Body Image Scale (CBIS), a 7-item instrument originally created by Gupta et al. in 2004, into Japanese using a forward- and back-translation method and evaluated the reliability and validity of the instrument by psychometric tests. A total of 298 healthy adults (64 men and 234 women, aged 28.9 +/- 9.9 years) and 165 dermatology patients (56.7% eczema/dermatitis, 9.8% acne, 7.5% alopecia, 6.9% psoriasis, 19.1% skin tumor/fleck/other) (30 men and 135 women, aged 37.9 +/- 15.2 years) responded to the Japanese version of the CBIS. The internal-consistency reliability of the instrument was high (Cronbach's alpha, healthy adults 0.88, patients 0.84). The CBIS measure demonstrates good test-retest reliability (healthy adults gamma = 0.92, P Skindex-16 in healthy adults (gamma = -0.397 and -0.373, respectively) and in patients (gamma = -0.431 and -0.38, respectively). A stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that an emotional aspect of skin-condition related quality of life was the best predictor of cutaneous body image in both healthy adults and patients (beta = -0.31 and -0.41, respectively) followed by "body dissatisfaction" (beta = -0.17, and -0.23, respectively). Adjusted R(2) was 0.246 in healthy adults and 0.264 in patients. These were consistent with the results from the original the CBIS. These results suggest that the Japanese version of the CBIS is a reliable and valid instrument to measure the cutaneous body image of Japanese adults and also dermatology patients. PMID:19712274

  16. Self-Concept and Body Image of Turkish High School Male Athletes and Nonathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asci, F. Hulya; Gokment, Hulya; Tiryaki, Gul; Asci, Alper

    1997-01-01

    Examines differences in self-concept and body image satisfaction and the relation between self-concept and body image among high school athletes (n=174) and nonathletes (n=174). Results suggest that those exhibiting a positive body image were more confident in school, athletic events, and general life than those with a negative body image. (RJM)

  17. Encouraging Lifelong Healthy Habits for a Positive Body Image in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Christine

    This article discusses issues related to body image in adolescents, explaining what school practitioners can do to encourage lifelong healthy habits that enhance body image. Body image is the picture of physical self carried in the mind's eye. This impression can have little resemblance to how a teen actually looks. Body image culturalization is…

  18. Three-dimensional coherence of the conscious body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Matthew R

    2015-01-01

    We experience our body as a coherent object in the three-dimensional (3-D) world. In contrast, the body is represented in somatosensory cortex as a fragmented collection of two-dimensional (2-D) maps. Recent results have suggested that some forms of higher level body representations maintain this fragmentation, for example by showing different patterns of distortion for two surfaces of a single body part, such as the palmar and dorsal hand surfaces. This study investigated the 3-D coherence of the conscious body image of the hand by comparing perceptual biases of perceived hand shape on the dorsal and palmar surfaces. Participants made forced-choice judgements of whether observed hand images were thinner or wider than their own left or right hand, and perceptual distortions of the hand image were assessed by fitting psychometric functions. The results suggested that the hand is consciously represented as a fully coherent, 3-D object. Specifically: (a) Similar overall levels of distortion were found on the palmar and dorsal hand surfaces, (b) comparable laterality effects were found on both surfaces (left hand represented as wider than right hand), and (c) the magnitude of distortions were strongly correlated across the two surfaces. Whereas other recent results have suggested that perceptual abilities such as position sense, tactile size perception, and tactile localization may rely on fragmented, 2-D representations of individual skin surfaces, the present results suggest that, in striking contrast, the conscious body image represents the body (or, at least the hand) as a coherent, 3-D object. PMID:25311046

  19. Senses of body image in adolescents in elementary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lídia de Abreu Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE : To comprehend the perception of body image in adolescence. METHODS : A qualitative study was conducted with eight focus groups with 96 students of both sexes attending four public elementary school institutions in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil, in 2013. An interview guide with questions about the adolescents’ feelings in relation to: their bodies, standards of idealized beauty, practice of physical exercise and sociocultural influences on self-image. In the data analysis we sought to understand and interpret the meanings and contradictions of narratives, understanding the subjects’ context and reasons and the internal logic of the group. RESULTS : Three thematic categories were identified. The influence of media on body image showed the difficulty of achieving the perfect body and is viewed with suspicion in face of standards of beauty broadcast; the importance of a healthy body was observed as standards of beauty and good looks were closely linked to good physical condition and result from having a healthy body; the relationship between the standard of beauty and prejudice, as people who are not considered attractive, having small physical imperfections, are discriminated against and can be rejected or even excluded from society. CONCLUSIONS : The standard of perfect body propagated by media influences adolescents’ self-image and, consequently, self-esteem and is considered an unattainable goal, corresponding to a standard of beauty described as artificial and unreal. However, it causes great suffering and discrimination against those who do not feel they are attractive, which can lead to health problems resulting from low self-esteem.

  20. Senses of body image in adolescents in elementary school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Maria Lídia de Abreu; Taquette, Stella Regina; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To comprehend the perception of body image in adolescence. METHODS A qualitative study was conducted with eight focus groups with 96 students of both sexes attending four public elementary school institutions in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil, in 2013. An interview guide with questions about the adolescents’ feelings in relation to: their bodies, standards of idealized beauty, practice of physical exercise and sociocultural influences on self-image. In the data analysis we sought to understand and interpret the meanings and contradictions of narratives, understanding the subjects’ context and reasons and the internal logic of the group. RESULTS Three thematic categories were identified. The influence of media on body image showed the difficulty of achieving the perfect body and is viewed with suspicion in face of standards of beauty broadcast; the importance of a healthy body was observed as standards of beauty and good looks were closely linked to good physical condition and result from having a healthy body; the relationship between the standard of beauty and prejudice, as people who are not considered attractive, having small physical imperfections, are discriminated against and can be rejected or even excluded from society. CONCLUSIONS The standard of perfect body propagated by media influences adolescents’ self-image and, consequently, self-esteem and is considered an unattainable goal, corresponding to a standard of beauty described as artificial and unreal. However, it causes great suffering and discrimination against those who do not feel they are attractive, which can lead to health problems resulting from low self-esteem. PMID:25119938

  1. The Body Image Of Physically Active And Inactive Women

    OpenAIRE

    Guszkowska Monika

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The aim of the study was to compare the image of the body, the level of its acceptance and satisfaction with it, as well as anxiety about one’s physical appearance and overall self-esteem in a group of adult women who did fitness exercise and those who were physically inactive.

  2. Body image hos mastektomiopererede kvinder, med og uden rekonstruktion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Charlotte Brun; Gregersen, Anette Møller; Damgaard, Helle;

    2012-01-01

    Baggrund: I Danmark er incidensen for brystkræft ca. 5.000 årligt. Kvinder, der er mastektomiopereret, risikerer ubalance i body image. De kan føle sig amputeret, lemlæstede, mindre kvindelige og mindre seksuelt attraktive. De kan frygte at se sig selv i spejlet. De kan opleve, at kroppen ikke er...... hel. Mange undersøgelser er kvantitative og kun få har undersøgt kvindernes oplevelse af body image kvalitativt. Formål: At opnå indsigt i danske mastektomiopererede kvinders oplevelse af body image, med fokus på den akutte fase samt år efter operationen, hvor beslutningen om valg eller fravalg af...... rekonstruktion var taget. Metode: Undersøgelsen var fænomenologisk hermeneutisk, idet hensigten var at opnå indsigt i kvinders oplevelser af body image relateret til mastektomi. Fund: Undersøgelsen resulterede i tre temaer, der følger Bob Price begreber. Kropsrealiteten viste sig som ”en krop, der ikke var hel...

  3. Body Image and Physical Activity in British Secondary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Michael J.; Al-Nakeeb, Yahya; Nevill, Alan; Jones, Marc V.

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between children's body image and physical activity and examined any variation in these variables. Two hundred and seventy seven British secondary school children aged 11 to 14 (mean age [plus or minus] SD = 12.5 [plus or minus] 0.8 years) participated in this study. Results indicated no significant…

  4. Adolescent Girls: Factors Influencing Low and High Body Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffee, Lynn; Mahle Lutter, Judy

    1995-01-01

    Past research on women has indicated that a fear of becoming fat emerges during adolescence and continues into adulthood. This study focused on factors associated with negative or positive body image, such as weight, physical activity, teasing, comparison to others and racial identity. Data was drawn from an eight-page questionnaire completed by…

  5. Sociocultural Influences on Body Image Concerns of Young Chinese Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Todd; Chen, Hong

    2008-01-01

    This research assessed the extent to which sociocultural factors implicated in explanations of weight dissatisfaction among young Western females extend to sources of body image concern in emerging adult and adolescent males from the People's Republic of China. In Study 1, 219 Mainland Chinese male university students completed measures of stature…

  6. Body Image and First Sexual Intercourse in Late Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilenko, Sara A.; Rama, Nilam; Lefkowitz, Eva S.

    2011-01-01

    Sexual behavior is associated with body image, but the directionality of this association is unclear. This study used longitudinal data from a sample of previously abstinent college students (N = 100, 45% female, 49% European American, 26% Latino American, 25% African American) to test whether satisfaction with appearance changed after first…

  7. Perception of body image and sexuality for women with mastectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H D; Gregersen, A M; Thorup, Charlotte Brun;

    Background Having cancer and having one breast removed can affect all aspects of a woman's life. The literature shows that many women experience an altered body image and sexuality, loss of femininity, a feeling of less sexual attractiveness and decline in self-esteem. Furthermore mastectomy can...

  8. The Body-Image of Physically Abused and Normal Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorth, Craig W.; Harway, Michele

    1981-01-01

    Compared the human figure drawings of physically abused adolescents with those of normal adolescents. Significant differences were found between the drawings of the two groups including erasure, clothing, detail, fingers, symmetry, and arm position. The drawings of the physically abused adolescents seemed to be indicative of poor body image.…

  9. The Body Image Of Physically Active And Inactive Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guszkowska Monika

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of the study was to compare the image of the body, the level of its acceptance and satisfaction with it, as well as anxiety about one’s physical appearance and overall self-esteem in a group of adult women who did fitness exercise and those who were physically inactive.

  10. Appearance-based exercise motivation moderates the relationship between exercise frequency and positive body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, Kristin J; Tylka, Tracy L

    2014-03-01

    Individuals with a positive body image appreciate their bodies, hold an internal perspective of their bodies, and are satisfied with the functionality of their bodies. Research shows that positive body image is more complex than the absence of body dissatisfaction. Although exercise reduces women's body dissatisfaction, very little research has explored how, or even whether, exercise is associated with positive body image. Therefore, we examined whether exercise frequency was positively related to three aspects of positive body image (body appreciation, internal body orientation, and functional body satisfaction) among 321 college women. Appearance-based exercise motivation (the extent exercise is pursued to influence weight or shape) was hypothesized to moderate these associations. Hierarchical moderated regression analyses showed that exercise frequency was related to higher positive body image, but high levels of appearance-based exercise motivation weakened these relationships. Thus, messages promoting exercise need to de-emphasize weight loss and appearance for positive body image.

  11. Body Image, self-esteem, and clothing of men and women aged 55 years and older

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Jinsook

    1993-01-01

    Although there are many studies regarding body image of younger people, there have been few studies on that of older people. Since today's culture considers the young, thin body image ideal, it is important to investigate body image of older people and the relationships between their body image, self esteem, and clothing behavior. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between 1) body-cathexis and self-esteem, 2) body-cathexis and clothing behavio...

  12. Analysis of the Relationship between Physical Self-Concept and Body Image Dissatisfaction in Female Students

    OpenAIRE

    Sirus Alipoor; Ali M. Goodarzi; Maryam Z. Nezhad; Lale Zaheri

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Body image is a psychological construct which refers to self-concept including self image and feelings an individual perceives about his or her body. Body image can significantly affect the way an individual perceives about his or her body. Studies on relationship between physical self-concept and body image in some countries showed that the women's body dissatisfaction has led to increase in eating disorders. The question was raised whether such a relationship may exist in...

  13. The Encultured Body: Policy Implications for Healthy Body Image and Disordered Eating Behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskill, Deanne, Ed.; Sanders, Fran, Ed.

    The purpose of this publication is to provide discussion of some of the most difficult and controversial issues surrounding body image and eating disorders, specifically, anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. It includes contributions from a number of nationally and internationally recognized clinicians and researchers in the field. It also…

  14. Living into the imagined body: how the diagnostic image confronts the lived body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Devan

    2013-06-01

    In this paper I will show how the medical image, presented to the patient by the physician, participates in medicine's cold culture of abstraction, objectification and mandated normativity. I begin by giving a brief account of the use of anatomical imaging since the Renaissance to show how images have historically functioned in contrast to how they are currently used in medical practice. Next, I examine how contemporary medical imaging techniques participate in a kind of knowledge production that objectifies the human body. Finally, I elucidate how physicians ought to place the medical image within the context of the lived body so as to create a healing relationship with the patient. In all this I hope to show that the medical image, far from a piece of objective data, testifies to the interplay of particular beliefs, practices and doctrines contemporary medicine holds dear. To best treat her patient, the physician must appreciate the influence of these images and appropriately place them within the context of the patient's lived experience.

  15. Body image and personality: associations between the Big Five Personality Factors, actual-ideal weight discrepancy, and body appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Tran, Ulrich S; Brooks, Louise Hoffmann; Kanaan, Laura; Luesse, Ellen-Marlene; Nader, Ingo W; Pietschnig, Jakob; Stieger, Stefan; Voracek, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Studies have suggested associations between personality dimensions and body image constructs, but these have not been conclusively established. In two studies, we examined direct associations between the Big Five dimensions and two body image constructs, actual-ideal weight discrepancy and body appreciation. In Study 1, 950 women completed measures of both body image constructs and a brief measure of the Big Five dimensions. In Study 2,339 women completed measures of the body image constructs and a more reliable measure of the Big Five. Both studies showed that Neuroticism was significantly associated with actual-ideal weight discrepancy (positively) and body appreciation (negatively) once the effects of body mass index and social status had been accounted for. These results are consistent with the suggestion that Neuroticism is a trait of public health significance requiring attention by body image scholars.

  16. Personality and individual difference correlates of positive body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Hadji-Michael, Maria; Furnham, Adrian

    2008-09-01

    In the present study, 101 women and 106 men from a community sample of British adults completed the Body Appreciation Scale (BAS), along with a battery of individual difference measures and demographics. Contrary to previous findings, there were no sex differences in BAS scores, either before or after controlling for individual differences in other measures. The results also showed that, moderating for participants' sex, self-assessed attractiveness, educational qualifications, neuroticism, extraversion, and BMI were all significant predictors of body appreciation. In addition, higher media consumption and higher (male-stereotypic) instrumentality were associated with, but did not predict, higher body appreciation. These results are discussed in relation to the extant work on body image.

  17. Food choice criteria in adolescents according to body image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousana K. Papadopoulou

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent obesity has increased worldwide, while the percentage of adolescents who are dissatisfied with their body image has also increased. Disturbed body image is an important criterion for eating disturbances. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of body image on the food choice criteria of adolescents. The participants consisted of 1003 students (495 boys and 508 girls from High and Junior High schools in Thessaloniki, with mean age of 14.6±1.5 years. The sample for our study was chosen with stratified sampling plan. Data was collected with the use of a questionnaire regarding the food choice criteria, based on the studies of Lappalainen et al. (1998, Steptoe et al. (1995, Contento et al. (1995 and Worsley and Leitch (1981. Body image was assessed using Contento et al. (1995 questionnaire. The difference between desired and real body weight was used to estimate the desire of body weight change. The SPSS computer program was used for the statistical analysis. Chi square (X2 test was used to assess the differences between subgroups. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results showed that 35.9% of the adolescents (45% females and 26.6% males wanted to lose weight, while 14% (6.3% females and 22% males wished to gain weight. The remaining 50.1% (48.7% females and 51.4% males wanted to maintain their body weight. Food appearance constituted a more important criterion for the adolescents who wished to gain weight compared to those who wished to maintain their weight and the adolescents who wanted to lose weight. Dietary value was more important for the individuals who wanted to lose weight, than those who wished to maintain their weight and those who wished to gain weight. Overall, the majority of the girls was dissatisfied with their body image and wanted to lose weight. More boys wished to gain weight compared to girls. Adolescents who wished to lose weight seemed more concerned about food dietary value than

  18. Body image, body dissatisfaction and weight status in south asian children: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duda Joan L

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is a continuing problem in the UK and South Asian children represent a group that are particularly vulnerable to its health consequences. The relationship between body dissatisfaction and obesity is well documented in older children and adults, but is less clear in young children, particularly South Asians. A better understanding of this relationship in young South Asian children will inform the design and delivery of obesity intervention programmes. The aim of this study is to describe body image size perception and dissatisfaction, and their relationship to weight status in primary school aged UK South Asian children. Methods Objective measures of height and weight were undertaken on 574 predominantly South Asian children aged 5-7 (296 boys and 278 girls. BMI z-scores, and weight status (underweight, healthy weight, overweight or obese were calculated based on the UK 1990 BMI reference charts. Figure rating scales were used to assess perceived body image size (asking children to identify their perceived body size and dissatisfaction (difference between perceived current and ideal body size. The relationship between these and weight status were examined using multivariate analyses. Results Perceived body image size was positively associated with weight status (partial regression coefficient for overweight/obese vs. non-overweight/obese was 0.63 (95% CI 0.26-0.99 and for BMI z-score was 0.21 (95% CI 0.10-0.31, adjusted for sex, age and ethnicity. Body dissatisfaction was also associated with weight status, with overweight and obese children more likely to select thinner ideal body size than healthy weight children (adjusted partial regression coefficient for overweight/obese vs. non-overweight/obese was 1.47 (95% CI 0.99-1.96 and for BMI z-score was 0.54 (95% CI 0.40-0.67. Conclusions Awareness of body image size and increasing body dissatisfaction with higher weight status is established at a young age in

  19. Mexican American Female Adolescent Self-Esteem: The Effect of Body Image, Exercise Behavior, and Body Fatness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Bobby; Semper, Tom; Jorgensen, Layne

    1997-01-01

    A study of 254 Mexican American eighth-grade girls in south Texas found that girls' self-esteem was positively related to body image and exercise involvement and negatively related to body fatness. This population displayed somewhat distorted body image, which was the strongest predictor of self-esteem. Contains 43 references. (SV)

  20. Exploring adolescent views of body image: the influence of media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurr, Shelley; Berry, Lois; Walker, Keith

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present findings from two parallel qualitative studies that used focus groups to explore adolescent views of psychological wellness and healthy bodies. Nine focus groups were held with 46 adolescents aged 16-19 years from two Mid-Western Canadian high schools. Both studies were designed with an interpretive humanist perspective and then a 6-step thematic approach was used to analyze the data. Common themes emerging in the focus group discussions in both studies included the negative impact of media on adolescent body image and pressure to conform to the Western views of physical appearance. These findings illustrate the need for nurses to understand the influence of the media on adolescents' views of their body image and to incorporate protocols for assessment, education, and counseling of adolescents on the healthy usage of media into their pediatric clinical practice. Through consistent participation in the development and implementation of health policies, nurses play a critical role in supporting adolescents to develop healthy views of body image.

  1. Media images, body dissatisfaction, and disordered eating in adolescent women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrist, Linda C

    2003-01-01

    This article examines the literature related to the media, body image, and diet/weight issues in children and young women. The media holds an awesome power to influence young women, bombarding them with images of abnormally thin models who seem to represent the ideal. When the majority of adolescents inevitably fail to achieve the extremely thin image they crave, body dissatisfaction results, and disordered eating can begin. Emerging research in the pediatric and adolescent literature demonstrates that children as young as 5 are already anxious about their bodies, and want to be thinner. This obsessive interest in body weight is only fueled by a dramatic increase in the number of Internet Web sites devoted to disordered eating. Unfortunately many of the Web sites are "pro-ana" (pro anorexia) and "pro-mia" (pro bulimia); these Web sites encourage young people at risk to begin starving themselves, or to begin binge-purging. As nurses know, each of these scenarios can lead to serious illness, and sometimes to death. PMID:12629318

  2. Healthy appearances--distorted body images? Young adults negotiating body motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liimakka, Satu

    2014-02-01

    Drawing on focus group discussions, this article explores how young, Finnish university students view the cultural ideals of health and appearance. The young adults noted how body practices aiming at health can turn into unhealthy obsessions. As a result, a healthy-looking body may serve to cover an underlying body image distortion. Health and well-being were defined as appropriate motives for engaging in body projects, while appearance as a motive was questioned. I argue that the current promotion of health may cause individuals to experience pressure to outwardly appear healthy at the cost of neglecting the subjective experience of well-being, and that this may especially influence young women. PMID:23283598

  3. Social trajectory and body image satisfaction in childbearing women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Ana; Alves, Luís; Alves, Elisabete; Silva, Susana; Barros, Henrique; Azevedo, Ana

    2015-06-01

    Advantaged socioeconomic position (SEP) is associated with lower body image satisfaction (BIS) among women. However, motherhood and social trajectory (an individual's path from childhood SEP to adulthood SEP) could change this relationship. We aimed to assess the association between social trajectory and BIS immediately before getting pregnant in primiparous and multiparous mothers of a birth cohort. The birth cohort Generation XXI was assembled after delivery, in Porto, in 2005-2006. This analysis includes 5,470 women. Women's and their parents' education were used as indicators of adulthood and childhood SEP, respectively. Social trajectory was classified as stable-high, upward, stable-low, downward, according to both education variables. BIS was assessed with Stunkard silhouettes immediately after birth as the difference between perceived body size before the index pregnancy and ideal body size. Odds ratios (OR) between social trajectory and BIS were computed using multinomial logistic regression (women satisfied with body image were the outcome reference category), adjusting for age and prepregnancy body mass index. In primiparous women, no association was found between childhood SEP, adulthood SEP or social trajectory and feeling too small or too large regarding their ideal figure. Multiparous women with a downward social trajectory presented a higher likelihood of dissatisfaction [too small: adjusted OR 2.21, 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) 1.10-4.46; too large: adjusted OR 1.64, 95 % CI 1.07-2.51]. Downward social trajectory was associated with a higher likelihood of dissatisfaction with body image in multiparae, while there was no effect among primiparae. PMID:25359096

  4. Body image perception of African immigrants in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toselli, Stefania; Rinaldo, Natascia; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional disorders are now spreading worldwide both in developed and developing countries. Body image ideals and dissatisfaction have been linked to a number of poor health outcomes, including nutritional disorders. While previous studies have offered insight into weight status and body image perception of immigrants in North America, very few studies have analysed these aspects in migrants from Africa to Europe. Our review examines the effects of the migration process on beauty ideals and body dissatisfaction in African immigrants in Europe compared to residents in their own countries. The PubMed, PsycINFO and Google Scholar databases were searched for studies published from January 2000 till November 2015. Of the 730 titles identified, 26 met the inclusion criteria and were included in the present review. Among African residents, the body preferences depend on the country of residence and their socio-cultural status. Ethnic groups living in great isolation or with low incomes still have an ancestral idea of beauty, preferring a shapely body. However ethnic groups living in urban areas are moving toward Westernization of beauty ideals, preferring underweight or normal weight bodies. This review highlights that both residents and migrants are at high risk of nutritional disorders due to the adoption of Western beauty ideals. The results suggest that body dissatisfaction and BMI are increasing from Southern Africa to Europe according to a geographical gradient (described for females by Spearman's coefficient and linear regression, respectively). We emphasize the need for monitoring of the weight and psychological status of immigrants and the development of specific preventive strategies in European countries. PMID:27558365

  5. What is and what is not positive body image? Conceptual foundations and construct definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylka, Tracy L; Wood-Barcalow, Nichole L

    2015-06-01

    A decade ago, research on positive body image as a unique construct was relatively nonexistent, and now this area is flourishing. How and why did positive body image scholarship emerge? What is known about this contemporary construct? This article situates and contextualizes positive body image within Cash's scholarship, eating disorder prevention efforts, feminist influences, strength-based disciplines within psychology, and Buddhism. Extracting insights from quantitative and qualitative research, this article demonstrates that positive body image is (a) distinct from negative body image; (b) multifaceted (including body appreciation, body acceptance/love, conceptualizing beauty broadly, adaptive investment in appearance, inner positivity, interpreting information in a body-protective manner); (c) holistic; (d) stable and malleable; (e) protective; (f) linked to self-perceived body acceptance by others; and (g) shaped by social identities. Complementing what positive body image is, this article further details what positive body image is not to provide a more nuanced understanding of this construct. PMID:25921657

  6. What is and what is not positive body image? Conceptual foundations and construct definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylka, Tracy L; Wood-Barcalow, Nichole L

    2015-06-01

    A decade ago, research on positive body image as a unique construct was relatively nonexistent, and now this area is flourishing. How and why did positive body image scholarship emerge? What is known about this contemporary construct? This article situates and contextualizes positive body image within Cash's scholarship, eating disorder prevention efforts, feminist influences, strength-based disciplines within psychology, and Buddhism. Extracting insights from quantitative and qualitative research, this article demonstrates that positive body image is (a) distinct from negative body image; (b) multifaceted (including body appreciation, body acceptance/love, conceptualizing beauty broadly, adaptive investment in appearance, inner positivity, interpreting information in a body-protective manner); (c) holistic; (d) stable and malleable; (e) protective; (f) linked to self-perceived body acceptance by others; and (g) shaped by social identities. Complementing what positive body image is, this article further details what positive body image is not to provide a more nuanced understanding of this construct.

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging susceptibility artifacts due to metallic foreign bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Silke; Adams, William H; Narak, Jill; Thomas, William B

    2011-01-01

    Susceptibility artifacts due to metallic foreign bodies may interfere with interpretation of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies. Additionally, migration of metallic objects may pose a risk to patients undergoing MR imaging. Our purpose was to investigate prevalence, underlying cause, and diagnostic implications of susceptibility artifacts in small animal MR imaging and report associated adverse effects. MR imaging studies performed in dogs and cats between April 2008 and March 2010 were evaluated retrospectively for the presence of susceptibility artifacts associated with metallic foreign bodies. Studies were performed using a 1.0 T scanner. Severity of artifacts was graded as 0 (no interference with area of interest), 1 (extension of artifact to area of interest without impairment of diagnostic quality), 2 (impairment of diagnostic quality but diagnosis still possible), or 3 (severe involvement of area of interest resulting in nondiagnostic study). Medical records were evaluated retrospectively to identify adverse effects. Susceptibility artifacts were present in 99/754 (13.1%) of MR imaging studies and were most common in examinations of the brachial plexus, thorax, and cervical spine. Artifacts were caused by identification microchips, ballistic fragments, skin staples/suture material, hemoclips, an ameroid constrictor, and surgical hardware. Three studies were nondiagnostic due to the susceptibility artifact. Adverse effects were not documented.

  8. Body Image And Sensation Seeking In Gym-Goers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlegel Petr

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to explore a relation between Body image (PSPP and Sensation Seeking (SSS-V and to determine gym-goers based on these entities. The research file (N = 182 consisted of gym-goers aged between 24 – 45. The comparison of the tests showed a weak relation (0.25 between PSPP and SST tests and also among the individual subscales. The comparison of men and women did not come up with any significant differences. In terms of Body image, the file showed above-average results, in the case of Sensation Seeking, its score was average. The outcome of our findings is that there is no marked relation between PSPP and SST and the same goes for men and women.

  9. Images and bodies subject: sexuality in advertising campaign be stupid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Luiz Menegazzi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the portrayal of sexuality and gender in contemporary advertising by the image and it focuses on visual analysis of the case study of the campaign Be Stupid, the clothing brand Diesel. Examines some of the ads clearer suggestions to the theme of sexuality, about fifteen images, running between 2010 and 2011em many countries, including Brazil, having won the controversial impact of media such as magazines, billboards and especially the Internet. Perform a survey of theoretical and methodological aspects that facilitate the action of reading and deciphering the images, mainly based on the theory Flusser conceptions of technical image, apparatus, with a view to focus on media production, broadcasting, and formats distribution. These advertising images as visual anthropological objects who discourse through the triad body, image and media conditions of power and surveillance, eroticism, stereotypes and cultural life of the spectacle. Contextualizes the scenario analysis within the postmodern perspective, the society of advanced capitalism and diffuse power and media, marked by profound changes in the scale of the feeling of their individual identities unstable. With an emphasis on Foucauldian theory, discusses the concepts of identity, gender intelligible and cultural practices of subjection of the individual mechanisms for language and sexuality. Discusses how is the construction of visual messages of sexuality and gender roles specified by the images and search on it, demonstrating the wider aspects of visual advertising messages today.

  10. The relationship of body image attitudes to personality traits and subjective quality of life

    OpenAIRE

    Miškinytė, Audronė

    2011-01-01

    The literature review of doctoral dissertation discusses body image and body image attitudes, reviews psychological theories of body image attitude development, and discusses possible sources and causes of the development of a thin body ideal and body dissatisfaction. It also reviews the research of other authors concerning the relationship of body dissatisfaction to gender, age and some personality traits. Empirical part of the dissertation is focused on the description of a quantitative stu...

  11. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Voelker DK; Reel JJ; Greenleaf C

    2015-01-01

    Dana K Voelker,1 Justine J Reel,2 Christy Greenleaf3 1West Virginia University, College of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences, Morgantown, WV, 2University of North Carolina Wilmington, College of Health and Human Services, Wilmington, NC, 3University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, College of Health Sciences, Milwaukee, WI, USA Abstract: Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including tran...

  12. Body image and quality of life in a Spanish population

    OpenAIRE

    Ignacio Jáuregui Lobera; Patricia Bolaños Ríos

    2011-01-01

    Ignacio Jáuregui Lobera1, Patricia Bolaños Ríos21Department of Nutrition and Bromatology, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, Spain; 2Behavior Science Institute, Seville, SpainPurpose: The aim of the current study was to analyze the psychometric properties, factor structure, and internal consistency of the Spanish version of the Body Image Quality of Life Inventory (BIQLI-SP) as well as its test–retest reliability. Further objectives were to analyz...

  13. Diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging with background body signal suppression (DWIBS): features and potential applications in oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwee, Thomas C.; Takahara, Taro; Nievelstein, Rutger A.J.; Luijten, Peter R. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Ochiai, Reiji [Koga Hospital 21, Department of Radiology, Kurume (Japan)

    2008-09-15

    Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) provides functional information and can be used for the detection and characterization of pathologic processes, including malignant tumors. The recently introduced concept of ''diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging with background body signal suppression'' (DWIBS) now allows acquisition of volumetric diffusion-weighted images of the entire body. This new concept has unique features different from conventional DWI and may play an important role in whole-body oncological imaging. This review describes and illustrates the basics of DWI, the features of DWIBS, and its potential applications in oncology. (orig.)

  14. Body image during pregnancy: an evaluation of the suitability of the body attitudes questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuller-Tyszkiewicz Matthew

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Available data suggest that body dissatisfaction is common during pregnancy and may even be a precursor to post-natal depression. However, in order to accurately identify at-risk women, it is essential to first establish that body image measures function appropriately in pregnant populations. Our study examines the suitability of the Body Attitudes Questionnaire (BAQ for measuring body dissatisfaction among pregnant women by comparing the psychometric functioning of the BAQ: (1 across key phases of pregnancy, and (2 between pregnant and non-pregnant women. Methods A total of 176 pregnant women from Melbourne, Victoria filled out a questionnaire battery containing demographic questions and the Body Attitudes Questionnaire at 16, 24, and 32 weeks during pregnancy. A comparison group of 148 non-pregnant women also completed the questionnaire battery at Time 1. Evaluations of the psychometric properties of the BAQ consisted of a series of measurement invariance tests conducted within a structural equation modelling framework. Results Although the internal consistency and factorial validity of the subscales of the BAQ were established across time and also in comparisons between pregnant and non-pregnant women, measurement invariance tests showed non-invariant item intercepts across pregnancy and also in comparison with the non-pregnant subgroup. Inspection of modification indices revealed a complex, non-uniform pattern of differences in item intercepts across groups. Conclusions Collectively, our findings suggest that comparisons of body dissatisfaction between pregnant and non-pregnant women (at least based on the BAQ are likely to be conflated by differential measurement biases that serve to undermine attempts to accurately assess level of body dissatisfaction. Researchers should be cautious in assessments of body dissatisfaction among pregnant women until a suitable measure has been established for use in this population. Given

  15. Body Image: Relationhsip to Attachment, Body Mass Index and Dietary Practices among College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Sira, Natalia

    2003-01-01

    ABSTRACT Body image or satisfaction with physical appearance has been established as an important aspect of self-worth and mental health across the life span. It is related to self-esteem, sexuality, family relationships and identity. Given the fact that physical appearance is a multifaceted structural concept that depends, not only on inner-biological, but also a psychological and socio-cultural components, the purpose of this study was to examine variables that are related to and infl...

  16. The impact of thin idealized media images on body satisfaction: does body appreciation protect women from negative effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliwell, Emma

    2013-09-01

    This article examines whether positive body image can protect women from negative media exposure effects. University women (N=112) were randomly allocated to view advertisements featuring ultra-thin models or control images. Women who reported high levels of body appreciation did not report negative media exposure effects. Furthermore, the protective role of body appreciation was also evident among women known to be vulnerable to media exposure. Women high on thin-ideal internalization and low on body appreciation reported appearance-discrepancies that were more salient and larger when they viewed models compared to the control group. However, women high on thin-ideal internalization and also high on body appreciation rated appearance-discrepancies as less important and no difference in size than the control group. The results support the notion that positive body image protects women from negative environmental appearance messages and suggests that promoting positive body image may be an effective intervention strategy.

  17. Abnormalities in visual processing amongst students with body image concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy E., Matthew; Sadusky, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) appear to possess abnormalities in the way they observe and discriminate visual information. A pre-occupation with perceived defects in appearance has been attributed to a local visual processing bias. We studied the nature of visual bias in individuals who may be at risk of developing BDD – those with high body image concerns (BICs) – by using inverted stimulus discrimination. Inversion disrupts global, configural information in favor of local, feature-based processing. 40 individuals with high BIC and 40 low BIC controls performed a discrimination task with upright and inverted faces, bodies, and scenes. Individuals with high BIC discriminated inverted faces and bodies faster than controls, and were also more accurate when discriminating inverted bodies and scenes. This reduction in inversion effect for high BIC individuals may be due to a stimulus-general local, detail-focused processing bias, which may be associated with maladaptive fixation on small features in their appearance. PMID:25157299

  18. Objective estimation of body condition score by modeling cow body shape from digital images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzaro, G; Caccamo, M; Ferguson, J D; Battiato, S; Farinella, G M; Guarnera, G C; Puglisi, G; Petriglieri, R; Licitra, G

    2011-04-01

    Body condition score (BCS) is considered an important tool for management of dairy cattle. The feasibility of estimating the BCS from digital images has been demonstrated in recent work. Regression machines have been successfully employed for automatic BCS estimation, taking into account information of the overall shape or information extracted on anatomical points of the shape. Despite the progress in this research area, such studies have not addressed the problem of modeling the shape of cows to build a robust descriptor for automatic BCS estimation. Moreover, a benchmark data set of images meant as a point of reference for quantitative evaluation and comparison of different automatic estimation methods for BCS is lacking. The main objective of this study was to develop a technique that was able to describe the body shape of cows in a reconstructive way. Images, used to build a benchmark data set for developing an automatic system for BCS, were taken using a camera placed above an exit gate from the milking robot. The camera was positioned at 3 m from the ground and in such a position to capture images of the rear, dorsal pelvic, and loin area of cows. The BCS of each cow was estimated on site by 2 technicians and associated to the cow images. The benchmark data set contained 286 images with associated BCS, anatomical points, and shapes. It was used for quantitative evaluation. A set of example cow body shapes was created. Linear and polynomial kernel principal component analysis was used to reconstruct shapes of cows using a linear combination of basic shapes constructed from the example database. In this manner, a cow's body shape was described by considering her variability from the average shape. The method produced a compact description of the shape to be used for automatic estimation of BCS. Model validation showed that the polynomial model proposed in this study performs better (error=0.31) than other state-of-the-art methods in estimating BCS even at the

  19. The Relationship Between Body Image and Domains of Sexual Functioning Among Heterosexual, Emerging Adult Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Quinn-Nilas, MA

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: Findings from this study suggest important linkages between body image and sexual functioning constructs and indicates that interventions to improve body image could have concomitant benefits related to sexual experience.

  20. Human body motion capture from multi-image video sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Apuzzo, Nicola

    2003-01-01

    In this paper is presented a method to capture the motion of the human body from multi image video sequences without using markers. The process is composed of five steps: acquisition of video sequences, calibration of the system, surface measurement of the human body for each frame, 3-D surface tracking and tracking of key points. The image acquisition system is currently composed of three synchronized progressive scan CCD cameras and a frame grabber which acquires a sequence of triplet images. Self calibration methods are applied to gain exterior orientation of the cameras, the parameters of internal orientation and the parameters modeling the lens distortion. From the video sequences, two kinds of 3-D information are extracted: a three-dimensional surface measurement of the visible parts of the body for each triplet and 3-D trajectories of points on the body. The approach for surface measurement is based on multi-image matching, using the adaptive least squares method. A full automatic matching process determines a dense set of corresponding points in the triplets. The 3-D coordinates of the matched points are then computed by forward ray intersection using the orientation and calibration data of the cameras. The tracking process is also based on least squares matching techniques. Its basic idea is to track triplets of corresponding points in the three images through the sequence and compute their 3-D trajectories. The spatial correspondences between the three images at the same time and the temporal correspondences between subsequent frames are determined with a least squares matching algorithm. The results of the tracking process are the coordinates of a point in the three images through the sequence, thus the 3-D trajectory is determined by computing the 3-D coordinates of the point at each time step by forward ray intersection. Velocities and accelerations are also computed. The advantage of this tracking process is twofold: it can track natural points

  1. Body Image Perception and Self-esteem During Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema Inanir

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study is to examine the change in body image perception (BIP and evaluate self-esteem levels during pregnancy. Material and Methods: This study includes totally 180 females having similar demographic features, i.e. 30 non-pregnant (control group and 50 pregnant women from each trimester (first, second and third trimester groups at an Obstetrics Outpatient Department of a university hospital. BIP and self-esteem scores have been compared among the groups. Data relating to all participants have been obtained by using socio-demographic data form, body image scale and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES. Results: All demographic features have been found to be similar among the groups. The body mass index (BMI was higher in the third trimester of pregnancy compared to other groups; whereas BIP was significantly worse in the third trimester group compared to the first trimester and control groups (P < .05. There was a negative correlation between trimesters of pregnancy and BIP (Rho = -0.221; P = .003. Self-esteem was detected at a relatively higher level in first trimester group compared to the second and third trimester groups (P < .05. Conclusion: BIP levels have declined during the pregnancy period and self-esteem has been observed at a higher level in the first trimester compared to the advanced trimesters of pregnancy.

  2. Whole body MR imaging in neurofibromatosis type 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meerbeeck, S.F.L. van [Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Ghent University, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)], E-mail: stephen.vm@rad-vanmeerbeeck.be; Verstraete, K.L. [Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Ghent University, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)], E-mail: koenraad.verstraete@ugent.be; Janssens, S.; Mortier, G. [Department of Medical Genetics, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2009-02-15

    Objective: To assess the value of whole body MR imaging in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Materials and methods: 24 patients (15-59 years; mean and median 36 years; 7 males; 17 females) with genetically proven neurofibromatosis type 1 were examined with whole body MR imaging. Axial and coronal T1- and fat-suppressed T2-weighted images (slice thickness 6-12 mm) were acquired on a 1.5 T MR unit (Symphony; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). The images were reviewed by 2 radiologists: 1 senior, 1 junior. The criterion for a neurofibroma was a mass lesion with low signal intensity on T1 and high signal intensity on T2, along the course of a nerve. The location, size, general morphology and course along plexuses and nerves were evaluated. Cutaneous and subcutaneous neurofibromas were defined as 'superficial' neurofibromas. The other neurofibromas were regarded as 'deep' neurofibromas. Results: There were no major problems to differentiate neurofibromas from lymph nodes, vessels or cysts. The latter three were easily recognised by their typical shape and location, whereas neurofibromas occurred in regions where no mass lesion was anatomically expected. There was no relation between age and total number of neurofibromas throughout the body. Classification according to location and number of neurofibromas: 8 patients had only superficial neurofibromas, 1 only deep and 15 both superficial and deep lesions. Twelve patients had less than 15 neurofibromas and 12 had more. Classification according to course: in 8 patients the neurofibromas occurred along plexuses or proximal part of the intercostal nerves; in 16 patients the lesions were more peripheral. Classification according to morphology: 4 patients had plexiform neurofibromas and 20 patients had multiple solitary lesions. Twelve of these 20 patients had less than 15 lesions, and 8 had more. In 2 patients multiple solitary neurofibromas occurred along the nerve in a chain configuration. In one

  3. Female body dissatisfaction after exposure to overweight and thin media images : The role of body mass index and neuroticism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalley, Simon E.; Buunk, Abraham P.; Umit, Turul

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to thin media images is thought to play a significant role in the development of body image dissatisfaction (BID) amongst females. In this study we examined whether individual differences in body mass index (BMI) and neuroticism can make females more vulnerable to BID upon exposure to overw

  4. Diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging with background body signal suppression (DWIBS): features and potential applications in oncology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwee, T.C.; Takahara, T.; Ochiai, Reiji; Nievelstein, R.A.J.; Luijten, P.R.

    2008-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) provides functional information and can be used for the detection and characterization of pathologic processes, including malignant tumors. The recently introduced concept of “diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging with background body signal suppre

  5. Body Image v kontextu soudobé společnosti

    OpenAIRE

    Rolínek, Igor

    2008-01-01

    The thesis focuses on body image - defines the main characteristics of this area, describes cultural influences and body image history and explains basic quantitative values (Body Mass Index, Waist Hip Ratio, Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis). Furthemore the thesis deals with media influence on body ideal formation process, especially in gay subculture. The research part explores recent situation of body image in gay subculture compared with heterosexual males. This section includes the conte...

  6. Body image in obese patients before and after stable weight reduction following bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adami, G F; Meneghelli, A; Bressani, A; Scopinaro, N

    1999-03-01

    The role of possessing an abnormal body weight in the body image alterations of obese patients was evaluated in bariatric surgery subjects prior to and at long term after operation, when body weight and shape had become steadily normalized. Body image was assessed by the body dissatisfaction scale of the Eating Disorders Inventory, the Body Shape Questionnaire, and the Body Attitude Questionnaire. When the individuals were obese, a sharply impaired body image was observed; following operation, weight loss corresponded to normalization of body dissatisfaction, feeling of fatness, and physical attractiveness, whereas body disparagement and salience of shape, although improved in comparison to preoperative data, remained significantly different from that of controls. In the obese patients, some aspects of body image alterations are substantially accounted for by overweight status; other aspects reflect inner feelings, which are partially independent of the actual body weight and shape. PMID:10193918

  7. Images that we consume, images that consume us: body affections in the era of virtuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel de Oliveira Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the influence of images on the body reconfigurations in contemporary times. To draw an initial understanding of it, it is presented a critical evaluation of three phenomena: the imperative of the perfect physique, the impeccable skin an esthetic and the logic of the body as a commodity. This analysis seeks to establish connections between these processes, placing them as components of the complex web that is the current visual culture. 

  8. The role of body image in prenatal and postpartum depression: a critical review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Marushka L.; Ertel, Karen A.; Dole, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Maternal depression increases risk of adverse perinatal outcomes, and recent evidence suggests that body image may play an important role in depression. This systematic review identifies studies of body image and perinatal depression with the goal of elucidating the complex role that body image plays in prenatal and postpartum depression, improving measurement, and informing next steps in research. We conducted a literature search of the PubMed database (1996– 2014) for English language studies of (1) depression, (2) body image, and (3) pregnancy or postpartum. In total, 19 studies matched these criteria. Cross-sectional studies consistently found a positive association between body image dissatisfaction and perinatal depression. Prospective cohort studies found that body image dissatisfaction predicted incident prenatal and postpartum depression; findings were consistent across different aspects of body image and various pregnancy and postpartum time periods. Prospective studies that examined the reverse association found that depression influenced the onset of some aspects of body image dissatisfaction during pregnancy, but few evaluated the postpartum onset of body image dissatisfaction. The majority of studies found that body image dissatisfaction is consistently but weakly associated with the onset of prenatal and postpartum depression. Findings were less consistent for the association between perinatal depression and subsequent body image dissatisfaction. While published studies provide a foundation for understanding these issues, methodologically rigorous studies that capture the perinatal variation in depression and body image via instruments validated in pregnant women, consistently adjust for important confounders, and include ethnically diverse populations will further elucidate this association. PMID:25895137

  9. Body Image Dissatisfaction in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sumona; Zhao, Ying-Qi; Shah, Samir A.; Esposti, Silvia Degli; Lidofsky, Sheldon; Shapiro, Jason; LeLeiko, Neil; Bright, Renee; Law, Meaghan; Moniz, Heather; Samad, Zahid; Merrick, Marjorie; Sands, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the fact that the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and their treatments may affect physical appearance, the effect of IBD on body image is poorly understood. The aims of this study were to determine whether body image dissatisfaction (BID) changes over time in patients with IBD and to examine the demographic and disease-related variables associated with decreased body image. Methods Adults aged 18 and above in the Ocean State Crohn's and Colitis Area Registry with at least 2 years of follow-up were eligible for this study. All patients were enrolled within 6 months of IBD diagnosis and followed prospectively. BID was assessed using a modified version of the Adapted Satisfaction With Appearance (ASWAP) questionnaire. Total ASWAP scores and 2 sub-scores were calculated. To assess for changes over time, general linear models for correlated data were used for continuous outcomes and generalized estimating equations were used for discrete outcomes. Results Two hundred seventy-four patients were studied. BID was found to be stable over time among men and women with IBD despite overall improvements in disease activity. No differences were found in BID according to IBD subtype. Female gender, greater disease activity, higher symptom burden, longer duration of steroid use, dermatologic and musculoskeletal manifestations of IBD, and ileocolonic disease location among patients with Crohn's disease were associated with greater BID. Greater BID was associated with lower health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Conclusions BID remains stable in an incident cohort of IBD despite improved disease activity and is associated with lower HRQOL PMID:25569736

  10. [The modern body image as ethical device for biomedical enhancement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitsameter, C

    2013-01-01

    Ovid's "De medicamine faciei feminae" contains the astonishing sentence "Culta placent - all that is artificial is beautiful". In his "Éloge du maquillage" Baudelaire, buidling on Ovid's argument, states that first culture as picture and construction of beauty brings forth the truth of Nature and claims that cosmetics that allow errors of beauty to disappear artificially produce the true fulfillment of human nature. The present article looks into the historical roots of the body images that have emerged in modern times and attempts to derive structural devices for an ethical assessment of the potential we have to enhance human nature.

  11. Impressions of female body: representations of women and body-image in the brazilian press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulce Helena Mazer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the representations of women and bodyimage in the brazilian press and it questions the sexual divisions in the society by the images published in the media. It also presents an iconological analysisof the photographs in six editions of the periodical Folha de São Paulo in 2012, randomly chosen. From a critical theory and analysis it shows that the image of women, which has long been used as merchandise in advertising, is increasingly perceived by print journalism as a decoy for readers. The use of certain female images in the media reinforces stereotypes and builds limits for the understanding of more complex contexts. The hypothesis that the female body-image is used in the press in order to determine positions from recurrent aesthetic patterns can be confirmed. The paper also describes the three main female stereotypes in the media, based on three major pictorial stereotypes in history, being the madona, the seductive and the politician (HIGONNET, 1991. It expresses the confirmation of the superlative visibility of some groups of women and the invisibility of others. The survey reveals that, despite the assumption that they are very imagetically represented in newspapers, women are under-represented, especially in news photographs. It shows that the editorship of the “culture” and “varieties” sections are exceptions, because those special fragments are considered “light”, referring to art, music, dance, celebrities, television, film and cultural activities” (HEDLER, 2011. We conclude that even in a visual culture, visibility is not guaranteed at all. This research enables to deconstructthe concept that it´s normal to use certain images as representations of such a heterogeneous group like women. We expect to expand the horizon of the discussion about the leading roles for women in the society and their relationship to the images produced about them in the newspapers.

  12. Solenoid coil for mouse-model MRI with a clinical 3-Tesla imager: body imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Hidalgo, S. S.; D. Jirak; S.E. Solis; Rodríguez, A.O.

    2009-01-01

    A solenoid coil was built for magnetic resonance imaging of the mice. A coil prototype composed of 5 turns, with a length of 4 cm and 2.5 cm radius was developed to acquire (whole) body mouse magnetic resonance images at 130 MHz and an insertable gradient coil set. Coil performance was measured using the Q factor for both the loaded and unloaded cases were 161.67 and 178.03, respectively. These Q factors compare very well with those values reported in the literature. The images were acquired ...

  13. The externality of the inside: body images of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmied, V; Lupton, D

    2001-03-01

    This paper draws on literature, empirical data and a range of theoretical perspectives on the maternal body to examine understandings of the relationship between a pregnant woman and her foetus, with a particular focus on the body images used by women to represent this relationship. Psychoanalytic and nursing accounts of the relationship between mother and foetus have often described a symbiotic 'oneness' or unity during pregnancy. Such accounts, however, stress the temporary nature of this unity and identify a series of 'stages' of separation or 'polarisation' between mother and foetus during pregnancy. In contrast, many of the 25 women who participated in our interview study of new motherhood described a confusion of the boundary between self and foetus. For many women the experience of pregnancy and the relationship with the unborn baby was ambiguous and uncertain. Importantly, none of these women described her relationship with the foetus as a series of developmental stages, but rather saw it as fluctuating throughout pregnancy. These findings are more consistent with the work of feminist theorists who describe pregnancy as a dynamic and fluid merging of the inside and the outside of the body/self.

  14. Does nutritional status interfere with adolescents' body image perception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Karla L; Sousa, Ana L L; Carneiro, Carolina S; Nascente, Flávia M N; Póvoa, Thaís I R; Souza, Weimar K S B; Jardim, Thiago S V; Jardim, Paulo C B V

    2014-08-01

    Adolescents' body image (BI) may not match their nutritional status. This study selected representative sample of healthy adolescents aged between 12 and 18 from public and private schools. Anthropometric measures were performed in order to calculate the body mass index (BMI) percentile. The silhouette scale proposed by Childress was used to evaluate BI, making it possible to assess BI satisfaction and BI distortion. The sample was composed of 1168 adolescents with a mean age of 14.7 years; 52.9% were female, 50.9% were fair-skinned, 62.4% had consumed or still consume alcohol and 67% attended public school. Male adolescents presented more overweight and obesity (28.4%) (pbody weight and 82.5% of those underweight wished to gain body weight. BI distortion was identified, since 35% of the adolescents who were underweight did not regard themselves thin, 39.1% of the overweight individuals and 62.1% of the obese did not see themselves in their adequate classifications. Adolescents with overweight/obesity were those who presented higher dissatisfaction with BI, mainly the females. Male individuals presented a greater wish of gaining weight. BI distortion was present in adolescents of all classes of BMI percentile. PMID:25064308

  15. Media Influences on Body Image and Disordered Eating among Indigenous Adolescent Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Marita P.; Ricciardelli, Lina; Mellor, David; Ball, Kylie

    2005-01-01

    There has been no previous investigation of body image concerns and body change strategies among indigenous Australians. This study was designed to investigate the level of body satisfaction, body change strategies, and perceived media messages about body change strategies among 50 indigenous (25 males, 25 females) and 50 non-indigenous (25 males,…

  16. Body image disturbance in binge eating disorder: a comparison of obese patients with and without binge eating disorder regarding the cognitive, behavioral and perceptual component of body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewer, Merle; Nasrawi, Nadia; Schroeder, Dorothea; Vocks, Silja

    2016-03-01

    Whereas the manifestation of body image disturbance in binge eating disorder (BED) has been intensively investigated concerning the cognitive-affective component, with regard to the behavioral and the perceptual components of body image disturbance in BED, research is limited and results are inconsistent. Therefore, the present study assessed body image disturbance in BED with respect to the different components of body image in a sample of obese females (n = 31) with BED compared to obese females without an eating disorder (n = 28). The Eating Disorder Inventory-2, the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, the Body Image Avoidance Questionnaire and the Body Checking Questionnaire as well as a Digital Photo Distortion Technique based on a picture of each participant taken under standardized conditions were employed. Using two-sample t tests, we found that the participants with BED displayed significantly greater impairments concerning the cognitive-affective component of body image than the control group. Concerning the behavioral component, participants with BED reported more body checking and avoidance behavior than the controls, but group differences failed to reach significance after the Bonferroni corrections. Regarding the perceptual component, a significant group difference was found for the perceived "ideal" figure, with the individuals suffering from BED displaying a greater wish for a slimmer ideal figure than the control group. These results support the assumption that body image disturbance is a relevant factor in BED, similar to other eating disorders. PMID:26178486

  17. Body image disturbance in binge eating disorder: a comparison of obese patients with and without binge eating disorder regarding the cognitive, behavioral and perceptual component of body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewer, Merle; Nasrawi, Nadia; Schroeder, Dorothea; Vocks, Silja

    2016-03-01

    Whereas the manifestation of body image disturbance in binge eating disorder (BED) has been intensively investigated concerning the cognitive-affective component, with regard to the behavioral and the perceptual components of body image disturbance in BED, research is limited and results are inconsistent. Therefore, the present study assessed body image disturbance in BED with respect to the different components of body image in a sample of obese females (n = 31) with BED compared to obese females without an eating disorder (n = 28). The Eating Disorder Inventory-2, the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, the Body Image Avoidance Questionnaire and the Body Checking Questionnaire as well as a Digital Photo Distortion Technique based on a picture of each participant taken under standardized conditions were employed. Using two-sample t tests, we found that the participants with BED displayed significantly greater impairments concerning the cognitive-affective component of body image than the control group. Concerning the behavioral component, participants with BED reported more body checking and avoidance behavior than the controls, but group differences failed to reach significance after the Bonferroni corrections. Regarding the perceptual component, a significant group difference was found for the perceived "ideal" figure, with the individuals suffering from BED displaying a greater wish for a slimmer ideal figure than the control group. These results support the assumption that body image disturbance is a relevant factor in BED, similar to other eating disorders.

  18. Analysis of the Relationship between Physical Self-Concept and Body Image Dissatisfaction in Female Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirus Alipoor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Body image is a psychological construct which refers to self-concept including self image and feelings an individual perceives about his or her body. Body image can significantly affect the way an individual perceives about his or her body. Studies on relationship between physical self-concept and body image in some countries showed that the women's body dissatisfaction has led to increase in eating disorders. The question was raised whether such a relationship may exist in Iran. Approach: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between physical self-concept and body Image dissatisfaction in female. The importance of body image in Iranian culture has, recently, became more significant to the extent that tremendous expenditure of time, effort and money has been paid by people, particularly by women, seeking to alert their appearances to resemble an idea image. A survey of 140 female students selected through random sampling was conducted in Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, southern Iran. To collect data, a questionnaire including Demographic Information form the Physical Self-Perception Profile (PSPP and Nine Figure Silhouette Scale was used. The physical self-perception profile have five subscales, which were sport competence (SPORT, body attractiveness (BODY, physical condition (CONDITION and physical strength (STRENGTH and one subscale that assesses a global perception of overall Physical Self-Worth (PSW. Results: The finding of the research indicated that there is a significant negative correlation between the physical self-concept and body image dissatisfaction. The correlations magnitude ranged between 0.49-0.79 for body image dissatisfaction. Body image dissatisfaction correlated strongest with physical self-worth and with body physical self-concept in female students in Iran. Thinness had the most influential impact on body image dissatisfaction. The findings also showed discrepancy between the

  19. Effects of a single session of physical exercise on body state image

    OpenAIRE

    Attilio Carraro; Alessandra Nart; Stefano Scarpa

    2010-01-01

    Despite the fact that athletes and physically active persons are generally more satisfied with their bodies than sedentary people, physical activity seems to exert both negative and positive influences on body image. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a single session of exercise in state body image modification. In particular, we observed if a single session of sport or fitness activity could have a positive influence on state body image, considered as an episodic, evalua...

  20. Bodies in nature: Associations between exposure to nature, connectedness to nature, and body image in U.S. adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Barron, David; Weis, Laura; Furnham, Adrian

    2016-09-01

    Here, we sought to replicate previous work showing a relationship between connectedness to nature and body appreciation, and extend it by examining associations between exposure to natural environments and other body image-related variables. An online sample of 399 U.S. women and men (Mage=34.55 years) completed measures of body appreciation, connectedness to nature, nature exposure, appearance investment, sociocultural attitudes towards appearance, and self-esteem. Path analysis showed that nature exposure and connectedness to nature, respectively, were associated with body appreciation in women and men, both directly and indirectly via self-esteem. Connectedness to nature also mediated the link between nature exposure and body appreciation. In men, but not women, the link between connectedness to nature and body appreciation was also mediated by appearance investment and internalisation of a muscular ideal. These results may point to novel methods for promoting more positive body image in adults through engagement with nature. PMID:27476147

  1. The Influence of Societal Factors on Female Body Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteath, Sheryl A.; McCabe, Marita P.

    1997-01-01

    Investigates the influence of societal factors on Western women's perceptions of their bodies. Finds that women typically underestimate their body size and want smaller bodies; two-fifths of women expressed negative feelings about their bodies; and that body satisfaction is best explained by societal influences, self-esteem and body mass index.…

  2. Image combination enhancement method for X-ray compton back-scattering security inspection body scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As for X-ray Compton Back-Scattering (CBS) body scanner, image clearness is very important for the performance of detecting the contraband hidden on the body. A new image combination enhancement method is provided based on characteristics of CBS body images and points of human vision. After processed by this method, the CBS image will be obviously improved with clear levels, distinct outline and uniform background. (authors)

  3. Body Image Satisfaction, Eating Attitudes and Perceptions of Female Body Silhouettes in Rural South African Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titilola M Pedro

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the associations between BMI, disordered eating attitude, body dissatisfaction in female adolescents, and descriptive attributes assigned to silhouettes of varying sizes in male and female adolescents, aged 11 to 15, in rural South Africa. Height and weight were measured to determine BMI. Age and sex-specific cut-offs for underweight and overweight/obesity were determined using the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs. Body image satisfaction using Feel-Ideal Discrepancy (FID scores, Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26, and perceptual female silhouettes were collected through self-administered questionnaires in 385 adolescents from the Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System (HSDSS. Participants self-reported their Tanner pubertal stage and were classified as early pubertal ( 2. Mid to post pubertal boys and girls were significantly heavier, taller, and had higher BMI values than their early pubertal counterparts (all p<0.001. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher in the girls than the boys in both pubertal stages. The majority (83.5% of the girls demonstrated body dissatisfaction (a desire to be thinner or fatter. The girls who wanted to be fatter had a significantly higher BMI than the girls who wanted to be thinner (p<0.001. There were no differences in EAT-26 scores between pubertal groups, within the same sex, and between boys and girls within the two pubertal groups. The majority of the boys and the girls in both pubertal groups perceived the underweight silhouettes to be "unhappy" and "weak" and the majority of girls in both pubertal groups perceived the normal silhouettes to be the "best". These findings suggest a need for policy intervention that will address a healthy body size among South African adolescents.

  4. Body Image Satisfaction, Eating Attitudes and Perceptions of Female Body Silhouettes in Rural South African Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro, Titilola M; Micklesfield, Lisa K; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen M; Pettifor, John M; Norris, Shane A

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to examine the associations between BMI, disordered eating attitude, body dissatisfaction in female adolescents, and descriptive attributes assigned to silhouettes of varying sizes in male and female adolescents, aged 11 to 15, in rural South Africa. Height and weight were measured to determine BMI. Age and sex-specific cut-offs for underweight and overweight/obesity were determined using the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs. Body image satisfaction using Feel-Ideal Discrepancy (FID) scores, Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), and perceptual female silhouettes were collected through self-administered questionnaires in 385 adolescents from the Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System (HSDSS). Participants self-reported their Tanner pubertal stage and were classified as early pubertal ( 2). Mid to post pubertal boys and girls were significantly heavier, taller, and had higher BMI values than their early pubertal counterparts (all p<0.001). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher in the girls than the boys in both pubertal stages. The majority (83.5%) of the girls demonstrated body dissatisfaction (a desire to be thinner or fatter). The girls who wanted to be fatter had a significantly higher BMI than the girls who wanted to be thinner (p<0.001). There were no differences in EAT-26 scores between pubertal groups, within the same sex, and between boys and girls within the two pubertal groups. The majority of the boys and the girls in both pubertal groups perceived the underweight silhouettes to be "unhappy" and "weak" and the majority of girls in both pubertal groups perceived the normal silhouettes to be the "best". These findings suggest a need for policy intervention that will address a healthy body size among South African adolescents. PMID:27171420

  5. Negative Body-Image Bias in College Women as a Function of Self-Awareness and Self-Reported Body Dissatisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebowitz Elkoubi, Allison

    2009-01-01

    Research on body image and body image disturbance has met with great debate and inconsistency regarding definition, conceptualization, and measurement. The fundamental understanding of body image ranges from being a perceptual or visual concept to actually representing attitudes or judgments individuals hold regarding their bodies. The present…

  6. RF Device for Acquiring Images of the Human Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaier, Todd C.; McGrath, William R.

    2010-01-01

    A safe, non-invasive method for forming images through clothing of large groups of people, in order to search for concealed weapons either made of metal or not, has been developed. A millimeter wavelength scanner designed in a unique, ring-shaped configuration can obtain a full 360 image of the body with a resolution of less than a millimeter in only a few seconds. Millimeter waves readily penetrate normal clothing, but are highly reflected by the human body and concealed objects. Millimeter wave signals are nonionizing and are harmless to human tissues when used at low power levels. The imager (see figure) consists of a thin base that supports a small-diameter vertical post about 7 ft (=2.13 m) tall. Attached to the post is a square-shaped ring 2 in. (=5 cm) wide and 3 ft (=91 cm) on a side. The ring is oriented horizontally, and is supported halfway along one side by a connection to a linear bearing on the vertical post. A planar RF circuit board is mounted to the inside of each side of the ring. Each circuit board contains an array of 30 receivers, one transmitter, and digitization electronics. Each array element has a printed-circuit patch antenna coupled to a pair of mixers by a 90 coupler. The mixers receive a reference local oscillator signal to a subharmonic of the transmitter frequency. A single local oscillator line feeds all 30 receivers on the board. The resulting MHz IF signals are amplified and carried to the edge of the board where they are demodulated and digitized. The transmitted signal is derived from the local oscillator at a frequency offset determined by a crystal oscillator. One antenna centrally located on each side of the square ring provides the source illumination power. The total transmitted power is less than 100 mW, resulting in an exposure level that is completely safe to humans. The output signals from all four circuit boards are fed via serial connection to a data processing computer. The computer processes the approximately 1-MB

  7. Effects of a single session of physical exercise on body state image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attilio Carraro

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that athletes and physically active persons are generally more satisfied with their bodies than sedentary people, physical activity seems to exert both negative and positive influences on body image. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a single session of exercise in state body image modification. In particular, we observed if a single session of sport or fitness activity could have a positive influence on state body image, considered as an episodic, evaluative and affective perception of the own physical appearance. Results showed an increase of the mean state body image rate (assessed with the Body Image States Scales, BISS after a one-hour session of sport or fitness activities in a sample of 295 individuals. Intensity and fun seemed to be key-factors in state body image enhancement. These findings could have significant implications in the treatment of BI disturbances and in their prevention.

  8. Psychological and Cortisol Responses to and Recovery From Exposure to a Body Image Threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larkin Lamarche

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The majority of body image research has failed to measure what occurs beyond the immediate presentation of a body image threat, or after a body image threat is no longer present. This is particularly true for physiological outcomes. The present study examined psychological and cortisol responses to, and recovery from, a body composition assessment as a social-evaluative body image threat. Women (N = 64 were randomized into either a control or threat group. Participants completed a measure of social physique anxiety and provided a sample of saliva (to assess cortisol at baseline, and immediately following and 20 min following their condition. The threat group reported higher social physique anxiety following the threat in comparison with both baseline levels and recovery levels. Cortisol was higher immediately following the threat in comparison with baseline levels. Findings support the inclusion of a recovery time point in body image research to provide a more complete picture of the psychobiology of body image experiences.

  9. Metacognition and Body Image in Predicting Alexithymia in Substance Abusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babaei

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Substance dependency is one of the biggest problems and worries of the world. It stunts the growth of society and causes various problems such as reduction in public health, increase in mortality, rise in social and domestic traumas, loss of educational and occupational opportunities, involvement with the judicial system, and development of the substance-abuse cycle. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the role of metacognition and body image in predicting alexithymia in substance abusers. Patients and Methods The research sample included addicts (males and females aged 10 to 70 years who referred to the addiction treatment and counseling centers of three Iranian cities of Zahedan, Sari, and Neyriz. Participants were selected by random sampling. The metacognitive strategy questionnaire (MCQ-30, physical self-description questionnaire (PSDQ, and Toronto alexithymia scale (TAS-20 were used for data collection. The hypotheses were tested using the Pearson’s correlation method and regression analysis. Results According to the results of the current study, the highest correlation was between alexithymia and the cognitive awareness subscale (r = 0.305; P < 0.01.There was no significant correlation between alexithymia and body image. Based on the multiple regression analysis, the three predictors explained 11% of the variance (R2 = 0. 11, F = 3.981; P < 0.01. Cognitive awareness significantly predicted 9% of the variance (β = 0.305; P < 0.01, and the other subscales predicted about 2%. Conclusions These findings demonstrated that metacognition had an important role in predicting alexithymia in the substance abusers, which underscores the necessity of precautionary measures.

  10. Tiny dancer: Body image and dancer identity in female modern dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, Susan W; Petracca, Gina

    2010-09-01

    Dance has been found to both enhance and undermine body image. Most of the literature has focused on ballet dancers and has neglected the role of identity as a dancer. This study assessed general and dance specific body image and dancer identity in 77 female modern dancers. Compared to samples of non-clinical college women, this sample had higher body appreciation and lower drive for thinness and self-objectification. White dancers in the sample also had positive levels of dancer body efficacy/acceptance whereas as non-White dancers had negative levels of this variable. Identity as a dancer was negatively correlated with body appreciation and dancer body perceptions and not related to the number of years of dance experience. Of general and dance specific body image, body appreciation emerged as the unique predictor. The findings warrant further research on positive body image, modern dancers, and identity. PMID:20650693

  11. Assessing the Landscape: Body Image Values and Attitudes among Middle School Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosick, Tracy L.; Talbert-Johnson, Carolyn; Myers, Melissa J.; Angelo, Renee

    2013-01-01

    Background: Body image refers to an individual's thoughts and feelings about his or her body and physical appearance. To date, several qualitative and quantitative findings implicate sociocultural influences, such as the media or parental pressure, in shaping female adolescents' body image perceptions. Overall, there is not much quantitative…

  12. Application of a Relational Model to Understanding Body Image in College Women and Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanftner, Jennifer L.; Ryan, William J.; Pierce, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Relational cultural theory was examined in relation to body image in two samples of college women (n = 102) and men (n = 78) from a Midwestern university. Participants completed measures of mutuality and body image satisfaction. Results revealed that low mutuality with mothers and fathers predicted body dissatisfaction in both men and women, and…

  13. The Influence of Fashion Magazines on the Body Image Satisfaction of College Women: An Exploratory Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Sherry L.; Hamilton, Heather; Jacobs, Meija; Angood, Laurie M.; Dwyer, Deanne Hovde

    1997-01-01

    Examines the impact of exposure to fashion magazines on women's (n=24) body image satisfaction. Results indicate that women who viewed fashion magazines prior to completing a body image satisfaction survey, preferred to weigh less, and were less satisfied with their bodies, than peers (n=15) who read news magazines before the survey. (RJM)

  14. TO STUDY THE BODY IMAGE AMO NG THE ADOLESCENT AGE GROUP AND ITS CORRELATION WITH BODY MASS INDEX

    OpenAIRE

    Keziah; Gurmeet; Jugesh

    2015-01-01

    Body image or satisfaction with physical appearance has been established as an important aspect of self - worth and mental health across lifespan . Given the fact that physical appearance is a multifaceted structural concept that depends not only on inner biological , but also psychological and socio - cultural components , body image is conceived as one’s attitudinal dispositions toward the physical self . The purpose of this study is to eva...

  15. Body image in transgender young people: Findings from a qualitative, community based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Jenifer K; Doty, Jennifer L; Catalpa, Jory M; Ola, Cindy

    2016-09-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the ways in which transgender youth experience their bodies with regard to gender and body size. Ninety transgender youth and young adults completed in-depth interviews in eight metropolitan areas of the United States, Canada, and Ireland. Using a queer perspective, qualitative analyses revealed two broad conceptual categories: body dissatisfaction and body satisfaction. Within these categories, participants focused on body issues related to gender characteristics and body size. Findings revealed evidence of self-criticism and social distress related to body image dissatisfaction and self-acceptance and social acceptance related to body image satisfaction. Data demonstrated how gender, body size, and the intersection of gender and body size influenced personal perceptions of body dissatisfaction and satisfaction. Developmental processes were evident: participants further along in consolidating a gender identity described gaining a sense of social awareness, self-acceptance, and body satisfaction reflecting a sense of resilience. PMID:27352103

  16. PET imaging predicts future body weight and cocaine preference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deficits in dopamine D2/D3 receptor (D2R/D3R) binding availability using PET imaging have been reported in obese humans and rodents. Similar deficits have been reported in cocaine-addicts and cocaine-exposed primates. We found that D2R/D3R binding availability negatively correlated with measures of body weight at the time of scan (ventral striatum), at 1 (ventral striatum) and 2 months (dorsal and ventral striatum) post scan in rats. Cocaine preference was negatively correlated with D2R/D3R binding availability 2 months (ventral striatum) post scan. Our findings suggest that inherent deficits in striatal D2R/D3R signaling are related to obesity and drug addiction susceptibility and that ventral and dorsal striatum serve dissociable roles in maintaining weight gain and cocaine preference. Measuring D2R/D3R binding availability provides a way for assessing susceptibility to weight gain and cocaine abuse in rodents and given the translational nature of PET imaging, potentially primates and humans.

  17. PET imaging predicts future body weight and cocaine preference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaelides M.; Wang G.; Michaelides M.; Thanos P.K. Kim R.; Cho J.; Ananth M.; Wang G.-J.; Volkow N.D.

    2011-08-28

    Deficits in dopamine D2/D3 receptor (D2R/D3R) binding availability using PET imaging have been reported in obese humans and rodents. Similar deficits have been reported in cocaine-addicts and cocaine-exposed primates. We found that D2R/D3R binding availability negatively correlated with measures of body weight at the time of scan (ventral striatum), at 1 (ventral striatum) and 2 months (dorsal and ventral striatum) post scan in rats. Cocaine preference was negatively correlated with D2R/D3R binding availability 2 months (ventral striatum) post scan. Our findings suggest that inherent deficits in striatal D2R/D3R signaling are related to obesity and drug addiction susceptibility and that ventral and dorsal striatum serve dissociable roles in maintaining weight gain and cocaine preference. Measuring D2R/D3R binding availability provides a way for assessing susceptibility to weight gain and cocaine abuse in rodents and given the translational nature of PET imaging, potentially primates and humans.

  18. Changing Body Image and Well-Being: Following the Experience of Massive Weight Loss and Body Contouring Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Gilmartin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the perception of changing body image and well-being for patients who had undergone plastic surgery following massive weight loss. The exploratory, qualitative study was undertaken with 20 patients from one teaching hospital in the south of England. Semi-structured interviews were carried out and a thematic analysis of the data undertaken. The results provide important insights regarding body contouring influencing body image change and the adjustment process involved. The ability to pursue self-esteem and the accruing social benefits is emphasized in the interrelated sub themes including social acceptance, undoing depression and sexual vitality. Body contouring surgery following massive weight loss appears to facilitate improvement in body image and well-being. Adjustment to the changing body image is both empowering and challenging. Supportive educational programmes need to be developed to assist this transition to a more positive body image and appreciation; these could usefully include access to and involvement with patient support groups.

  19. Con-forming bodies: the interplay of machines and bodies and the implications of agency in medical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Lisa A

    2016-06-01

    Attending to the material discursive constructions of the patient body within cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging in radiotherapy treatments, in this paper I describe how bodies and machines co-create images. Using an analytical framework inspired by Science and Technology Studies and Feminist Technoscience, I describe the interplay between machines and bodies and the implications of materialities and agency. I argue that patients' bodies play a part in producing scans within acceptable limits of machines as set out through organisational arrangements. In doing so I argue that bodies are fabricated into the order of work prescribed and embedded within and around the CBCT system, becoming, not only the subject of resulting images, but part of that image. The scan is not therefore a representation of a passive subject (a body) but co-produced by the work of practitioners and patients who actively control (and contort) and discipline their body according to protocols and instructions and the CBCT system. In this way I suggest they are 'con-forming' the CBCT image. A Virtual Abstract of this paper can be found at: https://youtu.be/qysCcBGuNSM. PMID:26596682

  20. Con-forming bodies: the interplay of machines and bodies and the implications of agency in medical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Lisa A

    2016-06-01

    Attending to the material discursive constructions of the patient body within cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging in radiotherapy treatments, in this paper I describe how bodies and machines co-create images. Using an analytical framework inspired by Science and Technology Studies and Feminist Technoscience, I describe the interplay between machines and bodies and the implications of materialities and agency. I argue that patients' bodies play a part in producing scans within acceptable limits of machines as set out through organisational arrangements. In doing so I argue that bodies are fabricated into the order of work prescribed and embedded within and around the CBCT system, becoming, not only the subject of resulting images, but part of that image. The scan is not therefore a representation of a passive subject (a body) but co-produced by the work of practitioners and patients who actively control (and contort) and discipline their body according to protocols and instructions and the CBCT system. In this way I suggest they are 'con-forming' the CBCT image. A Virtual Abstract of this paper can be found at: https://youtu.be/qysCcBGuNSM.

  1. Changing Body Image and Well-Being: Following the Experience of Massive Weight Loss and Body Contouring Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmartin, Jo; Long, Andrew F.; Soldin, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the perception of changing body image and well-being for patients who had undergone plastic surgery following massive weight loss. The exploratory, qualitative study was undertaken with 20 patients from one teaching hospital in the south of England. Semi-structured interviews were carried out and a thematic analysis of the data undertaken. The results provide important insights regarding body contouring influencing body image change and the adjustment process involved. The ability to pursue self-esteem and the accruing social benefits is emphasized in the interrelated sub themes including social acceptance, undoing depression and sexual vitality. Body contouring surgery following massive weight loss appears to facilitate improvement in body image and well-being. Adjustment to the changing body image is both empowering and challenging. Supportive educational programmes need to be developed to assist this transition to a more positive body image and appreciation; these could usefully include access to and involvement with patient support groups. PMID:27429267

  2. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging: a useful additional sequence in paediatric imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laffan, Eoghan E.; O' Connor, Rachael; Ryan, Stephanie P.; Donoghue, Veronica B. [Department of Radiology, Children' s University Hospital, Temple Street, 1, Dublin (Ireland)

    2004-06-01

    Background: Whole-body MR (WBMR) imaging allows the acquisition of images of the entire body in a matter of minutes. Its use has primarily been in the evaluation of possible metastases in the setting of a known primary tumour. Objective: To document the value of WBMR imaging in ten children in whom this was added as an additional sequence when the primary diagnosis had not yet been made. Materials and methods: Ten children, age range 4 months-15 years (mean 7 years 4 months) had WBMR imaging after initial MR showed an abnormality that raised the possibility of systemic disease. Initial scanning was of the brain (n=1), spine (n=2), retroperitoneum (n=4), hips (n=1), femur (n=1) and wrist (n=1). Results: Abnormalities were detected in eight patients. Two patients had acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, and another had an anaplastic lymphoma, unsuspected prior to the WBMR. Two patients had a previously undiagnosed neuroblastoma with bone marrow metastases. Two patients had Langerhans' cell histiocytosis. Another had multiple bone lesions due to cystic angiomatosis. Conclusions: WBMR imaging may be a useful additional sequence in children in whom a systemic and especially a bone marrow abnormality is suspected. (orig.)

  3. Body Image Concerns in College-Aged Male Physical Education Students: A Descriptive Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Michele S.; Esco, Michael R.; Willifo, Hank

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine body image concerns in college-aged male physical education majors. Sixty volunteers completed validated body image instruments including two-dimensional figure drawings. In general, the sample reported that they preferred a larger, more muscular physique reflective of male images that currently abound the…

  4. Body Image and Self-Esteem among Adolescent Girls: Testing the Influence of Sociocultural Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Daniel; Vignoles, Vivian L.; Dittmar, Helga

    2005-01-01

    In Western cultures, girls' self-esteem declines substantially during middle adolescence, with changes in body image proposed as a possible explanation. Body image develops in the context of sociocultural factors, such as unrealistic media images of female beauty. In a study of 136 U.K. girls aged 11-16, experimental exposure to either ultra-thin…

  5. Body Dysmorphic Disorder and Other Clinically Significant Body Image Concerns in Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatients: Prevalence and Clinical Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyl, Jennifer; Kittler, Jennifer; Phillips, Katharine A.; Hunt, Jeffrey I.

    2006-01-01

    Background: This study assessed prevalence and clinical correlates of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), eating disorders (ED), and other clinically significant body image concerns in 208 consecutively admitted adolescent inpatients. It was hypothesized that adolescents with BDD would have higher levels of depression, anxiety, and suicidality.…

  6. Development of multi-dimensional body image scale for malaysian female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Yit Siew; Taib, Mohd Nasir Mohd; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Khor, Geok Lin

    2008-01-01

    The present study was conducted to develop a Multi-dimensional Body Image Scale for Malaysian female adolescents. Data were collected among 328 female adolescents from a secondary school in Kuantan district, state of Pahang, Malaysia by using a self-administered questionnaire and anthropometric measurements. The self-administered questionnaire comprised multiple measures of body image, Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26; Garner & Garfinkel, 1979) and Rosenberg Self-esteem Inventory (Rosenberg, 1965). The 152 items from selected multiple measures of body image were examined through factor analysis and for internal consistency. Correlations between Multi-dimensional Body Image Scale and body mass index (BMI), risk of eating disorders and self-esteem were assessed for construct validity. A seven factor model of a 62-item Multi-dimensional Body Image Scale for Malaysian female adolescents with construct validity and good internal consistency was developed. The scale encompasses 1) preoccupation with thinness and dieting behavior, 2) appearance and body satisfaction, 3) body importance, 4) muscle increasing behavior, 5) extreme dieting behavior, 6) appearance importance, and 7) perception of size and shape dimensions. Besides, a multidimensional body image composite score was proposed to screen negative body image risk in female adolescents. The result found body image was correlated with BMI, risk of eating disorders and self-esteem in female adolescents. In short, the present study supports a multi-dimensional concept for body image and provides a new insight into its multi-dimensionality in Malaysian female adolescents with preliminary validity and reliability of the scale. The Multi-dimensional Body Image Scale can be used to identify female adolescents who are potentially at risk of developing body image disturbance through future intervention programs. PMID:20126371

  7. The Relations among Body Image, Physical Attractiveness, and Body Mass in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Gianine D.; Lewis, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Examined body dissatisfaction, physical attractiveness, and body mass index in adolescents at 13, 15, and 18 years of age. Found that sex differences in body dissatisfaction emerged between 13 and 15 years and were maintained. Girls' body dissatisfaction increased, whereas boys' decreased. Body dissatisfaction was weakly related to others' rating…

  8. "Exercise to be fit, not skinny": The effect of fitspiration imagery on women's body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, Marika; Zaccardo, Mia

    2015-09-01

    Fitspiration is an online trend designed to inspire viewers towards a healthier lifestyle by promoting exercise and healthy food. The present study aimed to experimentally investigate the impact of fitspiration images on women's body image. Participants were 130 female undergraduate students who were randomly assigned to view either a set of Instagram fitspiration images or a control set of travel images presented on an iPad. Results showed that acute exposure to fitspiration images led to increased negative mood and body dissatisfaction and decreased state appearance self-esteem relative to travel images. Importantly, regression analyses showed that the effects of image type were mediated by state appearance comparison. Thus it was concluded that fitspiration can have negative unintended consequences for body image. The results offer support to general sociocultural models of media effects on body image, and extend these to "new" media.

  9. "Exercise to be fit, not skinny": The effect of fitspiration imagery on women's body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, Marika; Zaccardo, Mia

    2015-09-01

    Fitspiration is an online trend designed to inspire viewers towards a healthier lifestyle by promoting exercise and healthy food. The present study aimed to experimentally investigate the impact of fitspiration images on women's body image. Participants were 130 female undergraduate students who were randomly assigned to view either a set of Instagram fitspiration images or a control set of travel images presented on an iPad. Results showed that acute exposure to fitspiration images led to increased negative mood and body dissatisfaction and decreased state appearance self-esteem relative to travel images. Importantly, regression analyses showed that the effects of image type were mediated by state appearance comparison. Thus it was concluded that fitspiration can have negative unintended consequences for body image. The results offer support to general sociocultural models of media effects on body image, and extend these to "new" media. PMID:26176993

  10. Aggression and body image concerns among anabolic androgenic steroid users, contemplators, and controls in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenssen, Ida Heimly; Johannessen, Kim Berg

    2015-01-01

    AAS users and contemplators were investigated for differences in aggression and body image concern. Prevalence rates were sought as a secondary aim. 396 male adolescents at Norwegian high schools completed a questionnaire battery during school hours. Prevalence of AAS use showed 4.0%; AAS contemplation showed 5.1%. No significant differences between the AAS users and contemplators were found on levels of aggression and body image concern. AAS users and contemplators reported significantly higher levels of aggression and body image concern compared nonusing controls. AAS contemplators enhance understanding of AAS use by representing psychosocial factors contributing to increased aggression, and AAS use or risk thereof indicative of an aggressive personality profile. Body image concerns for AAS users and contemplators may indicate that AAS use does not diminish body image concern, and that body image concern is a risk factor for AAS use. This is supportive of previous research.

  11. Body image v televizních reklamách

    OpenAIRE

    Bednaříková, Jana

    2009-01-01

    Target of my final thesis is to explore elements of body image in TV commercials. In the thesis I focused on body image, marketing communication and advertisement. I tried to map what are people like in TV spots through content analysis. I did also analyze marketing research data of Market & Media & Lifestyle agency. I chose those data with due regard for perception of body image by consumers and I focused on TV advertisements issues.

  12. Strength Training Improves Body Image and Physical Activity Behaviors Among Midlife and Older Rural Women

    OpenAIRE

    Seguin, Rebecca A; Eldridge, Galen; Lynch, Wesley; Paul, Lynn C.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of strength training on body image is understudied. The Strong Women Program, a 10-week, twice weekly strength-training program, was provided by Extension agents to 341 older rural women (62±12 years); changes in body image and other psychosocial variables were evaluated. Paired-sample t-test analyses were conducted to assess mean differences pre- to post-program. Strength training was associated with significant improvements in several dimensions of body image, health-related qual...

  13. The Relationship Between Body Image and Domains of Sexual Functioning Among Heterosexual, Emerging Adult Women

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Quinn-Nilas, MA; Lindsay Benson, MSc; Robin R. Milhausen, PhD; Andrea C. Buchholz, PhD; Melissa Goncalves, BA

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Research suggests that body image affects sexual functioning, but the relationship between specific types of body image (evaluative, affective, and behavioral) and domains of sexual functioning (desire, arousal, and orgasm) has not been investigated. Aim: To determine whether, and to what degree, body image concerns (evaluative, affective, and behavioral) influence aspects of women’s sexual functioning (desire, arousal, and orgasm). Methods: Eighty-eight sexually active wo...

  14. Development and validation of parenting measures for body image and eating patterns in childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Damiano, Stephanie R; Hart, Laura M.; Paxton, Susan J

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence-based parenting interventions are important in assisting parents to help their children develop healthy body image and eating patterns. To adequately assess the impact of parenting interventions, valid parent measures are required. The aim of this study was to develop and assess the validity and reliability of two new parent measures, the Parenting Intentions for Body image and Eating patterns in Childhood (Parenting Intentions BEC) and the Knowledge Test for Body image an...

  15. Investigation of eating disorders in cancer patients and its relevance with body image

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein, Seyyed Abbas; Bahrami, Masoud; Mohamadirizi, Shahla; Paknaad, Zamzam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Eating disorder is one of the most common health problems with clinical and psychological consequences, which can affect body image in cancer patients. Similar studies in this area for checking the status of this disorder and its relevance with body image in patients with cancer are limited. Therefore, this study was designed with the aim of determination of eating disorders in patients with cancer and their relevance with body image. Materials and Methods: The research was a cros...

  16. The role of body image in prenatal and postpartum depression: a critical review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Silveira, Marushka L.; Ertel, Karen A.; Dole, Nancy; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Maternal depression increases risk of adverse perinatal outcomes, and recent evidence suggests that body image may play an important role in depression. This systematic review identifies studies of body image and perinatal depression with the goal of elucidating the complex role that body image plays in prenatal and postpartum depression, improving measurement, and informing next steps in research. We conducted a literature search of the PubMed database (1996– 2014) for English language studi...

  17. Body Image and Eating Disorders among Female Students: A Pilot Nutritional Psychology Study in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comfort Nora Ntim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Body image and eating disorders have emerged as an essential facet of bio-psychosocial well-being. Although considered less prevalent in Ghana than in the West, body image and eating disorders are issues of global concern. One hundred (100 female participants with a mean age of approximately 21 years were recruited after informed consent for this pilot study. Results showed a positive correlation between body image and eating disorders. In addition, there was no significant difference between the levels of university education on female body image and eating distortions in Ghana. These findings underscore the importance for more future studies in nutritional psychology and related clinical management.

  18. Body image and personality among British men: associations between the Big Five personality domains, drive for muscularity, and body appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benford, Karis; Swami, Viren

    2014-09-01

    The present study examined associations between the Big Five personality domains and measures of men's body image. A total of 509 men from the community in London, UK, completed measures of drive for muscularity, body appreciation, the Big Five domains, and subjective social status, and provided their demographic details. The results of a hierarchical regression showed that, once the effects of participant body mass index (BMI) and subjective social status had been accounted for, men's drive for muscularity was significantly predicted by Neuroticism (β=.29). In addition, taking into account the effects of BMI and subjective social status, men's body appreciation was significantly predicted by Neuroticism (β=-.35) and Extraversion (β=.12). These findings highlight potential avenues for the development of intervention approaches based on the relationship between the Big Five personality traits and body image.

  19. Psychological predictors of body image dissatisfaction in women suffering from eating discorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brytek-Matera, A

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify factors influencing body image dissatisfaction in female patients with anorexia and bulimia nervosa. 61 women, aged 16 to 31, (M = 21.69; SD = 3.85) filled questionnaires evaluating dissatisfaction with their body (Body Dissatisfaction Scale by Garner & al., 1984), attitudes about the body (Body Attitude Test by Probst & al., 1995), avoidance with regard to body image (Body Image Avoidance Questionnaire by Rosen & al., 1991), negative mood states (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale by Zigmond and Snaith, 1983) as well as self-esteem (Self-Esteem Inventory by Coopersmith, 1984). Negative appreciation of body size, symptoms of depression, grooming and weighting, lack of familiarity with one's own body, as well as low self-esteem in general, could predict the body image dissatisfaction among eating disordered women. The fact of knowing the most important determinants of body image could give indications for the prevention of the cognitive distortions concerning body image. PMID:20653188

  20. Considering an Affect Regulation Framework for Examining the Association Between Body Dissatisfaction and Positive Body Image in Black Older Adolescent Females: Does Body Mass Index Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Webb, Jennifer B.; Butler-Ajibade, Phoebe; Robinson, Seronda A.

    2014-01-01

    The present study provided an initial evaluation of an affect regulation model describing the association between body dissatisfaction and two contemporary measures of positive body image among 247 Black college-bound older adolescent females. We further tested whether possessing a higher body mass index (BMI) would strengthen these associations. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate BMI. Respondents also completed a culturally-sensitive figure rating scale along with assessm...

  1. Yoga and positive body image: A test of the Embodiment Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlo, Leeann; Tiggemann, Marika

    2016-09-01

    The study aimed to test the Embodiment Model of Positive Body Image (Menzel & Levine, 2011) within the context of yoga. Participants were 193 yoga practitioners (124 Iyengar, 69 Bikram) and 127 university students (non-yoga participants) from Adelaide, South Australia. Participants completed questionnaire measures of positive body image, embodiment, self-objectification, and desire for thinness. Results showed yoga practitioners scored higher on positive body image and embodiment, and lower on self-objectification than non-yoga participants. In support of the embodiment model, the relationship between yoga participation and positive body image was serially mediated by embodiment and reduced self-objectification. Although Bikram practitioners endorsed appearance-related reasons for participating in yoga more than Iyengar practitioners, there were no significant differences between Iyengar and Bikram yoga practitioners on body image variables. It was concluded that yoga is an embodying activity that can provide women with the opportunity to cultivate a favourable relationship with their body. PMID:27434106

  2. Impact of body habitus on quantitative and qualitative image quality in whole-body FDG-PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsumi, Mitsuaki; Clark, Paul A.; Nakamoto, Yuji; Wahl, Richard L. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, 601 N. Caroline St., Rm 3223, Baltimore, MD 21287-0817 (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Obtaining consistent high image quality is desirable for clinical positron emission tomography (PET). Body morphology may impact image quality. The purpose of this study was to define the average and the range of body sizes in patients undergoing tumor PET studies in our center and to determine how the body habitus affects the statistical and visual quality of PET images. Height, weight, body surface area (BSA), and body mass index (BMI) were determined in 101 male and 101 female patients (group 1) referred for clinical PET. The summed total counts from three consecutive transaxial slices on non-attenuation-corrected (NAC) 2D fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET images, which included the largest liver section and no lesions, were determined and compared with body morphology and injected doses (ID) in a representative group of 30 male and 30 female patients (group 2) spanning a range of body morphologies. The visual quality of images was also evaluated using a scoring system by three readers. The average height, weight, and BSA were greater in male than in female patients, but the average BMI was not different between them in group 1. The largest value of weight or BMI was more than four times the smallest value in female patients. The total true counts were best correlated with ID/weight (mCi/kg) in group 2 (r=0.929, P<0.0001). Intermediate to high total counts (930,000 or more) corresponded to ID/weight of 0.22 or higher. The average visual score was positively correlated with the total counts ({rho}=0.63, P<0.0001) and with ID/weight ({rho}=0.68, P<0.0001) on NAC images. The image quality in 22 (84.6%) of 26 patients with intermediate to high total counts was adequate to good, whereas that in 21 (61.8%) of 34 patients with lower total counts was suboptimal. A wide variety of body morphologies was observed in patients referred for clinical FDG-PET tumor studies in our center. The total counts and average image visual score were negatively correlated with

  3. The Small Bodies Imager Browser --- finding asteroid and comet images without pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, E.; Sykes, M.; Davis, D.; Neese, C.

    2014-07-01

    To facilitate accessing and downloading spatially resolved imagery of asteroids and comets in the NASA Planetary Data System (PDS), we have created the Small Bodies Image Browser. It is a HTML5 webpage that runs inside a standard web browser needing no installation (http://sbn.psi.edu/sbib/). The volume of data returned by spacecraft missions has grown substantially over the last decade. While this wealth of data provides scientists with ample support for research, it has greatly increased the difficulty of managing, accessing and processing these data. Further, the complexity necessary for a long-term archive results in an architecture that is efficient for computers, but not user friendly. The Small Bodies Image Browser (SBIB) is tied into the PDS archive of the Small Bodies Asteroid Subnode hosted at the Planetary Science Institute [1]. Currently, the tool contains the entire repository of the Dawn mission's encounter with Vesta [2], and we will be adding other datasets in the future. For Vesta, this includes both the level 1A and 1B images for the Framing Camera (FC) and the level 1B spectral cubes from the Visual and Infrared (VIR) spectrometer, providing over 30,000 individual images. A key strength of the tool is providing quick and easy access of these data. The tool allows for searches based on clicking on a map or typing in coordinates. The SBIB can show an entire mission phase (such as cycle 7 of the Low Altitude Mapping Orbit) and the associated footprints, as well as search by image name. It can focus the search by mission phase, resolution or instrument. Imagery archived in the PDS are generally provided by missions in a single or narrow range of formats. To enhance the value and usability of this data to researchers, SBIB makes these available in these original formats as well as PNG, JPEG and ArcGIS compatible ISIS cubes [3]. Additionally, we provide header files for the VIR cubes so they can be read into ENVI without additional processing. Finally

  4. Illustrating the body: Cross-sectional and prospective investigations of the impact of life drawing sessions on body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren

    2016-01-30

    Life drawing sessions, where individuals produce drawings of the human figure from observations of a live model, may contain embodying elements that promote healthier body image. Two pilot studies were conducted to test this hypothesis. In Study 1, 138 individuals recruited from life drawing sessions in London, UK, estimated how many sessions they had attended in their lifetime and completed measures of negative and positive body image. In women, greater attendance was significantly associated with higher body appreciation and lower drive for thinness and social physique anxiety. In men, greater attendance was significantly associated with higher body appreciation, but not drive for muscularity or social physique anxiety. In Study 2, 37 women took part in a life drawing session for the first time. Compared to pre-session scores, participants had significantly more positive state body image and appearance satisfaction after the session. The findings of these studies suggest that life drawing may promote healthier body image, particularly among women, but further research is needed.

  5. Illustrating the body: Cross-sectional and prospective investigations of the impact of life drawing sessions on body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren

    2016-01-30

    Life drawing sessions, where individuals produce drawings of the human figure from observations of a live model, may contain embodying elements that promote healthier body image. Two pilot studies were conducted to test this hypothesis. In Study 1, 138 individuals recruited from life drawing sessions in London, UK, estimated how many sessions they had attended in their lifetime and completed measures of negative and positive body image. In women, greater attendance was significantly associated with higher body appreciation and lower drive for thinness and social physique anxiety. In men, greater attendance was significantly associated with higher body appreciation, but not drive for muscularity or social physique anxiety. In Study 2, 37 women took part in a life drawing session for the first time. Compared to pre-session scores, participants had significantly more positive state body image and appearance satisfaction after the session. The findings of these studies suggest that life drawing may promote healthier body image, particularly among women, but further research is needed. PMID:26657309

  6. Body Image and Westernization Trends among Japanese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Hailey E.; Reel, Justine J.; Galli, Nick A.; Crookston, Benjamin T.; Miyairi, Maya

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims: The purpose of this project was to examine body dissatisfaction and the degree of acculturation to Western media body ideals among Japanese adolescents. Furthermore, sex differences in body esteem were examined between male and female participants. Methods: Male and female participants (N=158) aged 15 to 18 years in Okinawa,…

  7. Is subjective perception of negative body image among adolescents associated with bullying?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holubcikova, Jana; Kolarcik, Peter; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents' body image dissatisfaction has an adverse effect on peer relationships. It may lead to changes in behaviour (aggressive or passive) and consequently to bullying behaviour. Our aim was to assess the association between body image dissatisfaction and involvement in bullying and whether th

  8. NetTweens: The Internet and Body Image Concerns in Preteenage Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, Marika; Slater, Amy

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between media exposure and body image concerns in preteenage girls, with a particular focus on the Internet. A sample of 189 girls (aged 10-12 years) completed questionnaire measures of media consumption and body image concerns. Nearly all girls (97.5%) had access to the Internet in their home.…

  9. Sexuality and body image in long-term survivors of testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossen, Philip; Pedersen, A F; Zachariae, R;

    2012-01-01

    This study explores sexual function and the influence of different treatment modalities on sexual function and body image among long-term survivors of testicular cancer (TCSs).......This study explores sexual function and the influence of different treatment modalities on sexual function and body image among long-term survivors of testicular cancer (TCSs)....

  10. The Practical Application of Promoting Positive Body Image on a College Campus: Insights from Freshmen Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Jackson, TeriSue; Reel, Justine J.; Thackeray, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Background: Body image disturbances and disordered eating behaviors are prevalent across college campuses and can lead to psychological and physical health consequences. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to gain formative research on the promotion of positive body image on a university campus with the goal of developing educational programs.…

  11. Strength Training Improves Body Image and Physical Activity Behaviors among Midlife and Older Rural Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguin, Rebecca A.; Eldridge, Galen; Lynch, Wesley; Paul, Lynn C.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of strength training on body image is understudied. The Strong Women Program, a 10-week, twice weekly strength-training program, was provided by Extension agents to 341 older rural women (62 ± 12 years); changes in body image and other psychosocial variables were evaluated. Paired-sample t-test analyses were conducted to assess mean…

  12. Influence of Appearance-Related TV Commercials on Body Image State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legenbauer, Tanja; Ruhl, Ilka; Vocks, Silja

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of media exposure on body image state in eating-disordered (ED) patients. The attitudinal and perceptual components of body image are assessed, as well as any associations with dysfunctional cognitions and behavioral consequences. Twenty-five ED patients and 25 non-ED controls (ND) viewed commercials either…

  13. Body image change and improved eating self-regulation in a weight management intervention in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sardinha Luís B

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful weight management involves the regulation of eating behavior. However, the specific mechanisms underlying its successful regulation remain unclear. This study examined one potential mechanism by testing a model in which improved body image mediated the effects of obesity treatment on eating self-regulation. Further, this study explored the role of different body image components. Methods Participants were 239 overweight women (age: 37.6 ± 7.1 yr; BMI: 31.5 ± 4.1 kg/m2 engaged in a 12-month behavioral weight management program, which included a body image module. Self-reported measures were used to assess evaluative and investment body image, and eating behavior. Measurements occurred at baseline and at 12 months. Baseline-residualized scores were calculated to report change in the dependent variables. The model was tested using partial least squares analysis. Results The model explained 18-44% of the variance in the dependent variables. Treatment significantly improved both body image components, particularly by decreasing its investment component (f2 = .32 vs. f2 = .22. Eating behavior was positively predicted by investment body image change (p Conclusions Results suggest that improving body image, particularly by reducing its salience in one's personal life, might play a role in enhancing eating self-regulation during weight control. Accordingly, future weight loss interventions could benefit from proactively addressing body image-related issues as part of their protocols.

  14. Weight, Weight-Related Aspects of Body Image, and Depression in Early Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rierdan, Jill; Koff, Elissa

    1997-01-01

    Examines the hypothesis that early adolescent girls (N=175) with more negative weight-related body images would report higher levels of depressive symptoms. Results indicate that the more subjective and personal measures of weight-related body image discontent (weight dissatisfaction and weight concerns) were associated with increased depressive…

  15. Counseling Adolescent Girls for Body Image Resilience: Strategies for School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choate, Laura Hensley

    2007-01-01

    Because body image dissatisfaction is such a pervasive problem in adolescent girls, school counselors need to develop effective prevention programs in this area. In this article, a model to promote girls' body image resilience is presented. The model identifies five protective factors that contribute to girls' abilities to resist sociocultural…

  16. Perceptions of Body Image and Psychosocial Development: An Examination of First-Year Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Jennifer Lynne

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to help higher education practitioners and researchers better understand the role that body image plays in first-year traditional-aged college females' development of physical competence and also provide new insights regarding the role that body image plays in the psychosocial development of first-year…

  17. Cognitive Behavior Therapy with Body Image Exposure for Bulimia Nervosa: A Case Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delinsky, Sherrie S.; Wilson, G. Terence

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for bulimia nervosa (BN). However, among patients with BN, symptom improvement is more pronounced for behavioral eating symptoms (i.e., bingeing and purging) than for body image disturbance, and the persistence of body image disturbance is associated with relapse. The need for more…

  18. Sexuality and body image in younger women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schover, L R

    1994-01-01

    Breast cancer has the potential to be most devastating to the sexual function and self-esteem of premenopausal women. Nevertheless, not one study has systematically compared the impact of breast cancer treatment on sexual issues across age groups. Research shows that younger women with breast cancer have more severe emotional distress than older cohorts. In a group of patients seeking sexual rehabilitation in a cancer center, younger couples were more distressed, but also had the best prognosis with treatment. In theory, loss of a breast or poor breast appearance would be more distressing to women whose youth gives them high expectations for physical beauty. Seeking new dating relationships after breast cancer treatment is a special stressor for single women. Potential infertility also may impact on a woman's self-concept as a sexual person. Systemic treatment disrupts sexual function by causing premature menopause, with estrogen loss leading to vaginal atrophy and androgen loss perhaps decreasing sexual desire and arousability. Research on mastectomy versus breast conservation across all ages of women has demonstrated that general psychological distress, marital satisfaction, and overall sexual frequency and function do not differ between the two treatment groups. Women with breast conservation do rate their body image more highly and are more comfortable with nudity and breast caressing. There is some evidence that breast conservation offers more psychological "protection" for younger women. Research on the impact of breast reconstruction is sparse, but reveals similar patterns. Future studies should use rigorous methodology and focus on the impact of premature menopause and the effectiveness of sexual rehabilitation for younger women. PMID:7999462

  19. The Thin-Youth Ideal: Should We Talk About Aging Anxiety in Relation to Body Image?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendron, Tracey L; Lydecker, Janet

    2016-04-01

    College students' attitudes about the pervasive thin ideal have been well-studied, but the relationship between the thin ideal and youth ideal in young adults forming life-long health attitudes is understudied. This cross-sectional study examined body image, aging anxiety, ageism, and gender in a sample of 485 undergraduate students. Results from this study demonstrate associations among components of objectified body consciousness (surveillance, shame, and control), body image avoidance, aging anxiety (fear of older people, psychological concerns, physical appearance, and fear of losses), ageism, and gender. Educational efforts that address body image in relation to aging anxiety and ageism are discussed. PMID:27076487

  20. Empowerment, feminism, and self-efficacy: relationships to body image and disordered eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsaul, Jessica A E; Curtin, Lisa; Bazzini, Doris; Martz, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Sociocultural norms pertaining to an ideal of thinness for women likely play a role in the development and maintenance of disturbance in body image, and by extension, disordered eating. However, competing norms associated with feminism may buffer women from pressures associated with achieving the thin ideal. The present study explored the relationship between feminist ideology, empowerment, and self-efficacy relative to body image and eating behavior with a sample of U.S. undergraduate women (N=318) attending a southeastern U.S. mid-sized university. In planned hierarchical multiple regression analyses, endorsement of feminist ideology predicted perceptions of positive body image, but did not appear to predict disordered eating. Self-efficacy emerged as a robust predictor of positive body image and lower disordered eating even after controlling for perceptions of personal empowerment and feminism. Results, although limited by correlational data, suggest that self-efficacy may protect college-aged women from disordered eating and negative body image.

  1. Body image in cancer survivors : a systematic review of case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann, Vicky; Hagedoorn, Mariet; Tuinman, Marrit A.

    2015-01-01

    There is common consensus that cancer and its treatment can impair the body, but combined evidence of the previous literature in cancer survivors is missing. Therefore, we reviewed body image in cancer survivors and focused on case-control studies, in order to draw conclusions as to whether body ima

  2. Perceived Body Image Satisfaction: Impact on Romantic Relationships of African American Adult Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, Candy H.

    2009-01-01

    The size, shape and physical attractiveness of a woman's body are linked to her sexuality. As women age, changes occur to their bodies that may cause them anxiety over the socially constructed body image norms that are promoted within this society. Researchers posit that the standard of our culture seems to create more problems for women as they…

  3. Body Image across the Life Span in Adult Women: The Role of Self-Objectification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, Marika; Lynch, Jessica E.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated body image across life span in cross-section of women ages 20-84 years. Found that although body dissatisfaction remained stable, self-objectification, habitual body monitoring, appearance anxiety, and disordered eating all significantly decreased with age. Self- objectification mediated the relationship between age and disordered…

  4. Body image a jeho úloha v marketingu

    OpenAIRE

    Lubura, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Main goal of this thesis was to prove, that body image has significant effect on consumer behaviour, so it has an unquestionable marketing role as well. Secondary objective was to confirm media influence on body image perception and self assessment in that regard (which could have a strong impact on consumer behaviour as well), and to reveal beauty and body ideal preferences amongst Czech society. Main data source for this purposes will be quantitative survey, which will be complemented by re...

  5. Vzájemná interakce problematiky body image a médií

    OpenAIRE

    Adamcová, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    The main topic of my Bachelor's thesis is to describe the influence that mass media has on the perception of the human body, especially in young women. Initially discussed here are the various kinds of media exposure including TV, newspapers, magazines and now the Internet. The paper also examines the influence of body image on politics and politicians' appearance. As well as the influence of body image on children's programming whose affects in many ways already shape future generations. Bas...

  6. Body image in women with HIV: a cross-sectional evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Becerra Karen; Lee Daniel; Harrity Shawn; Huang Jeannie S; Santos Rosanne; Mathews W Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background HIV lipodystrophy syndrome is a recognized complication of potent antiretroviral therapy and is characterized by often dramatic changes in various body fat stores, both central and peripheral. Given prior findings of heightened body image dysphoria among HIV-infected men with lipodystrophy as compared to HIV-infected men without lipodystrophy, we sought to determine body image among HIV-infected and HIV-negative women and to determine the relationship of HIV and lipodystro...

  7. Whole-body MR imaging. Practical issues, clinical applications, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eustace, S J; Walker, R; Blake, M; Yucel, E K

    1999-05-01

    Whole-body MR imaging is in evolution, and although accepting and recognizing limitations, it is likely that both technique and incurred acquisition times will shorten over the next decade. Although the development of dedicated whole-body MR scanners appears to offer the greatest promise for the future, the development of moving table tops, optimized pulse sequences, and advances in gradient technology now facilitate practical whole-body MR imaging using existing clinical systems.

  8. Negativní body image a poruchy příjmu potravy

    OpenAIRE

    Švecová, Lucie

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is finding out if and how much negative body image influences eating disorders. The body image is influenced by the contemporary ideal of beauty, which was historically formed. The influence of the contemporary cult of a skinny body has a biological argument, that slimmer people are healthier. Models, who are representing this ideal are often accused to be the reason of increase in frequency of present day diseases, like eating disorders. The most known eating disorders...

  9. Effects of a physical exercise session on state body image: The influence of pre-experimental body dissatisfaction and concerns about weight and shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vocks, S; Hechler, T; Rohrig, S; Legenbauer, T

    2009-07-01

    The effects of a physical exercise session on state body image and mood were examined. In a cross-over design, participants were randomised to two groups starting either with physical exercise (PE; experimental condition) or with reading a newspaper (RN; control condition). Before and after PE and RN, participants (N = 65) rated their body dimensions using a digital photo distortion technique and indicated their attitudinal body image and mood. Participants' judgements of their 'felt' body dimensions and attitudes toward their own body were affected differently by PE and RN, indicating that participants felt slightly slimmer and were more satisfied with their bodies after PE. Exercise-induced changes in body perception were greater, the higher the pre-experimental drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction and weight/shape concerns were. Especially in those participants with higher body image disturbances, physical exercise can have a reinforcing effect on immediate body image and mood improvement. PMID:20205022

  10. Body image satisfaction and depression in midlife women: the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN)

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Kathryn L.; Janssen, Imke; Appelhans, Bradley M.; Kazlauskaite, Rasa; Karavolos, Kelly; Dugan, Sheila A.; Avery, Elizabeth A.; Shipp-Johnson, Karla J.; Powell, Lynda H.; Kravitz, Howard M.

    2014-01-01

    With aging, women's bodies undergo changes that can affect body image perception, yet little is known about body image in midlife. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between body image and depressive symptoms in Caucasian and African–American midlife women from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Chicago site. Body image was measured using the Stunkard Adult Female Figure Rating Scale, and a clinically significant level of depressive symptoms was defined as...

  11. Factors associated with body image dissatisfaction and distortion among Iranian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikniaz, Zeinab; Mahdavi, Reza; Amiri, Samira; Ostadrahimi, Alireza; Nikniaz, Leila

    2016-08-01

    The prevalence of body image dissatisfaction is considered high in both developed and developing countries. It has been shown that many factors affect the body image dissatisfaction. However, because of the economical and cultural differences, it seems that these affecting factors should be determined in each region. So, the present study was designed to evaluate the prevalence and associated factors with body image dissatisfaction and distortion among Iranian women. Body image perception was analyzed in 500 women through the Stunkard figure rating system. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used for assessing physical activity level. The information about age, marital status and socioeconomic status was recorded by general questionnaire. The one-way ANOVA and regression were used for statistical analysis. By increasing the BMI categories from underweight to obesity, participants tended to perceive their body size thinner than real body size. The regression models indicated that the body image distortion was significantly increased with increasing the BMI (p=0.002) and physical activity level (p=0.008). Besides, dissatisfaction by being heavier than ideal was significantly associated with higher BMI (OR (95% CI). 1.21 (1.03, 1.17)). Considering the high prevalence of body image dissatisfaction among Iranian women, for preventing psychological problems and eating disorders, appropriate public health programs for increasing awareness about healthy body size were needed. PMID:27046301

  12. Factors associated with body image dissatisfaction and distortion among Iranian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikniaz, Zeinab; Mahdavi, Reza; Amiri, Samira; Ostadrahimi, Alireza; Nikniaz, Leila

    2016-08-01

    The prevalence of body image dissatisfaction is considered high in both developed and developing countries. It has been shown that many factors affect the body image dissatisfaction. However, because of the economical and cultural differences, it seems that these affecting factors should be determined in each region. So, the present study was designed to evaluate the prevalence and associated factors with body image dissatisfaction and distortion among Iranian women. Body image perception was analyzed in 500 women through the Stunkard figure rating system. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used for assessing physical activity level. The information about age, marital status and socioeconomic status was recorded by general questionnaire. The one-way ANOVA and regression were used for statistical analysis. By increasing the BMI categories from underweight to obesity, participants tended to perceive their body size thinner than real body size. The regression models indicated that the body image distortion was significantly increased with increasing the BMI (p=0.002) and physical activity level (p=0.008). Besides, dissatisfaction by being heavier than ideal was significantly associated with higher BMI (OR (95% CI). 1.21 (1.03, 1.17)). Considering the high prevalence of body image dissatisfaction among Iranian women, for preventing psychological problems and eating disorders, appropriate public health programs for increasing awareness about healthy body size were needed.

  13. Obesity, Body Image, Depression, and Weight-control Behaviour Among Female University Students in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Eun Mi; Choi, Seung Bae

    2014-01-01

    Background: Obesity has become epidemic worldwide and 31.0% of Korean adults are obese. Obesity is the main cause of chronic diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension, cardiac disease, and cancer. The purpose of the study was to examine obesity, body image, depression, and weight-control behaviour among Korean female university students and investigate the differences in body image, depression, and weight-control behaviour with respect to obesity. Methods: This study examined obesity, body image, depression, and weight control in 700 female university students from 4 universities in South Korea. To evaluate obesity, both objective obesity (body mass index [BMI]) and subjective obesity (subjectively perceived) were measured. Results: There was a significant difference between objective and subjective obesity (χ2 = 231.280, P < 0.001). In addition, the objective obesity group had the lowest body image score (F = 19.867, P < 0.001) and difference in weight-control behaviour (F = 3.145, P = 0.045). Further, the subjective obesity group had the lowest body image score (F = 58.281, P < 0.001). The results revealed a statistically significant difference in body image and weight-control behaviour with respect to objective obesity. Conclusion: Objective and subjective obesity was negatively associated with body image, and no relationships between objective or subjective obesity and depression. PMID:25337594

  14. Incongruence in body image and body mass index: A surrogate risk marker in Black women for type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rynal Devanathan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Excess weight contributes to the development and progression of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Distorted body image amongst urban Black women and the perception that thinness is linked with HIV, may however be compounding the problem, particularly in areas with a high HIV burden.Objectives: This study aimed to compare the perception of body image in urban Black women with and without T2DM.Methods: A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted on 328 Black women systematically sampled into two groups (with and without T2DM. Body mass index (BMI (weight [kg]/height[m2] was determined and the adapted Stunkard Body Image Silhouettes for Black women was used to determine perceived body image (PBI.Results: Seventy-two per cent had T2DM and in this group 89% were obese, with a mean BMI of 39.5 kg/m2 (s.d. ± 8.5. In the non-diabetes group (NDG 44% were obese, with a mean BMIof 31.3 kg/m2 (s.d. ± 9.0 Black women underestimated their body image across all weight categories (p < 0.05. Both groups (99% of the study group also perceived thinness as being associated with HIV.Conclusions: This study identified an incongruence between PBI and actual BMI amongst urban Black women. This, combined with their belief that thinness is associated with HIV, places those with T2DM at risk of secondary complications arising from diabetes mellitus, and those without diabetes mellitus at a higher risk of developing T2DM. A discrepancy between PBI and BMI may therefore serve as a risk marker to alert clinicians to use a more ethno-cultural specific approach in engaging with urban Black women regarding weight loss strategies in the future.

  15. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in children: state of the art

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Reis Teixeira; Jorge Elias Junior; Marcello Henrique Nogueira-Barbosa; Marcos Duarte Guimarães; Edson Marchiori; Marcel Koenigkam Santos

    2015-01-01

    Whole-body imaging in children was classically performed with radiography, positron-emission tomography, either combined or not with computed tomography, the latter with the disadvantage of exposure to ionizing radiation. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in association with the recently developed metabolic and functional techniques such as diffusion-weighted imaging, has brought the advantage of a comprehensive evaluation of pediatric patients without the risks inherent to ionizin...

  16. The media's impact on body image: Implications for prevention and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw, J.; Waller, G.

    1995-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that media images of “ideal” female models have an impact upon women's body image, leading to dissatisfaction and perceptual distortion. The evidence for this link between media presentation and body image distortion is reviewed, and theoretical models are advanced to explain the link. In particular, women's use of social comparison in establishing their self-concept seems to be an important psychological construct in understanding the impact of the media upon...

  17. Targeted contrast agents--an adjunct to whole-body imaging: current concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foran, Paul; Bolster, Ferdia; Crosbie, Ian; MacMahon, Peter; O'Kennedy, Richard; Eustace, Stephen J

    2010-03-01

    This article reviews the potential use of a combination of whole-body imaging and targeted contrast agents in improving diagnostics, with a particular focus on oncology imaging. It looks at the rationale for nanoparticles and their development as targeted contrast agents. It subsequently describes many of the advances made thus far in developing tissue-specific contrast agents capable of targeting tumors that combined with whole-body imaging may enable superior cancer detection and characterization.

  18. Comparative effects of Facebook and conventional media on body image dissatisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Rachel; Blaszczynski, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Background Appearance comparison has consistently been shown to engender body image dissatisfaction. To date, most studies have demonstrated this relationship between appearance comparison and body image dissatisfaction in the context of conventional media images depicting the thin-ideal. Social comparison theory posits that people are more likely to compare themselves to similar others. Since social media forums such as Facebook involve one’s peers, the current study aimed to determine wheth...

  19. Distortion correction in whole-body imaging of live mice using a 1-Tesla compact magnetic resonance imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to establish a distortion correction applicable to whole-body imaging of live mice. All magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were acquired on a compact 1-T permanent magnet unit for mouse imaging using a T1-weighted, three-dimensional (3D) fast low-angle shot sequence. We assessed geometric distortion in MR images of a small 3D grid phantom and determined 3D image transformations for distortion correction. The developed distortion correction was applied to MR images of the 3D grid phantom acquired on another day, and the correction was validated. A two-dimensional (2D) grid phantom was imaged with a mouse to investigate the applicability of the distortion correction to whole-body mouse imaging. Obvious geometric distortion was observed in the MR images of the 3D grid phantom. The application of the developed 3D phantom-based distortion correction reduced distortion in the images of the 3D grid phantom acquired on another day. Geometric distortion was observed in the MR images of the 2D grid phantom acquired together with the mouse. The 3D phantom-based correction decreased the distortion substantially, regardless of mouse positioning. The developed distortion correction can reduce distortion in whole-body imaging of live mice and may enhance the capabilities of MRI in small animal experiments. (author)

  20. Body Image Distortion and Exposure to Extreme Body Types: Contingent Adaptation and Cross Adaptation for Self and Other.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Kevin R; Mond, Jonathan M; Stevenson, Richard J; Stephen, Ian D

    2016-01-01

    Body size misperception is common amongst the general public and is a core component of eating disorders and related conditions. While perennial media exposure to the "thin ideal" has been blamed for this misperception, relatively little research has examined visual adaptation as a potential mechanism. We examined the extent to which the bodies of "self" and "other" are processed by common or separate mechanisms in young women. Using a contingent adaptation paradigm, experiment 1 gave participants prolonged exposure to images both of the self and of another female that had been distorted in opposite directions (e.g., expanded other/contracted self), and assessed the aftereffects using test images both of the self and other. The directions of the resulting perceptual biases were contingent on the test stimulus, establishing at least some separation between the mechanisms encoding these body types. Experiment 2 used a cross adaptation paradigm to further investigate the extent to which these mechanisms are independent. Participants were adapted either to expanded or to contracted images of their own body or that of another female. While adaptation effects were largest when adapting and testing with the same body type, confirming the separation of mechanisms reported in experiment 1, substantial misperceptions were also demonstrated for cross adaptation conditions, demonstrating a degree of overlap in the encoding of self and other. In addition, the evidence of misperception of one's own body following exposure to "thin" and to "fat" others demonstrates the viability of visual adaptation as a model of body image disturbance both for those who underestimate and those who overestimate their own size.

  1. Body Image Distortion and Exposure to Extreme Body Types: Contingent Adaptation and Cross Adaptation for Self and Other

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R. Brooks

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Body size misperception is common amongst the general public and is a core component of eating disorders and related conditions. While perennial media exposure to the thin ideal has been blamed for this misperception, relatively little research has examined visual adaptation as a potential mechanism. We examined the extent to which the bodies of self and other are processed by common or separate mechanisms in young women. Using a contingent adaptation paradigm, experiment 1 gave participants prolonged exposure to images both of the self and of another female that had been distorted in opposite directions (e.g. expanded other/contracted self, and assessed the aftereffects using test images both of the self and other. The directions of the resulting perceptual biases were contingent on the test stimulus, establishing at least some separation between the mechanisms encoding these body types. Experiment 2 used a cross adaptation paradigm to further investigate the extent to which these mechanisms are independent. Participants were adapted either to expanded or to contracted images of their own body or that of another female. While adaptation effects were largest when adapting and testing with the same body type, confirming the separation of mechanisms reported in experiment 1, substantial misperceptions were also demonstrated for cross adaptation conditions, demonstrating a degree of overlap in the encoding of self and other. In addition, the evidence of misperception of one’s own body following exposure to thin and to fat others demonstrates the viability of visual adaptation as a model of body image disturbance both for those who underestimate and those who overestimate their own size.

  2. Body Image Distortion and Exposure to Extreme Body Types: Contingent Adaptation and Cross Adaptation for Self and Other.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Kevin R; Mond, Jonathan M; Stevenson, Richard J; Stephen, Ian D

    2016-01-01

    Body size misperception is common amongst the general public and is a core component of eating disorders and related conditions. While perennial media exposure to the "thin ideal" has been blamed for this misperception, relatively little research has examined visual adaptation as a potential mechanism. We examined the extent to which the bodies of "self" and "other" are processed by common or separate mechanisms in young women. Using a contingent adaptation paradigm, experiment 1 gave participants prolonged exposure to images both of the self and of another female that had been distorted in opposite directions (e.g., expanded other/contracted self), and assessed the aftereffects using test images both of the self and other. The directions of the resulting perceptual biases were contingent on the test stimulus, establishing at least some separation between the mechanisms encoding these body types. Experiment 2 used a cross adaptation paradigm to further investigate the extent to which these mechanisms are independent. Participants were adapted either to expanded or to contracted images of their own body or that of another female. While adaptation effects were largest when adapting and testing with the same body type, confirming the separation of mechanisms reported in experiment 1, substantial misperceptions were also demonstrated for cross adaptation conditions, demonstrating a degree of overlap in the encoding of self and other. In addition, the evidence of misperception of one's own body following exposure to "thin" and to "fat" others demonstrates the viability of visual adaptation as a model of body image disturbance both for those who underestimate and those who overestimate their own size. PMID:27471447

  3. Body Image Distortion and Exposure to Extreme Body Types: Contingent Adaptation and Cross Adaptation for Self and Other

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Kevin R.; Mond, Jonathan M.; Stevenson, Richard J.; Stephen, Ian D.

    2016-01-01

    Body size misperception is common amongst the general public and is a core component of eating disorders and related conditions. While perennial media exposure to the “thin ideal” has been blamed for this misperception, relatively little research has examined visual adaptation as a potential mechanism. We examined the extent to which the bodies of “self” and “other” are processed by common or separate mechanisms in young women. Using a contingent adaptation paradigm, experiment 1 gave participants prolonged exposure to images both of the self and of another female that had been distorted in opposite directions (e.g., expanded other/contracted self), and assessed the aftereffects using test images both of the self and other. The directions of the resulting perceptual biases were contingent on the test stimulus, establishing at least some separation between the mechanisms encoding these body types. Experiment 2 used a cross adaptation paradigm to further investigate the extent to which these mechanisms are independent. Participants were adapted either to expanded or to contracted images of their own body or that of another female. While adaptation effects were largest when adapting and testing with the same body type, confirming the separation of mechanisms reported in experiment 1, substantial misperceptions were also demonstrated for cross adaptation conditions, demonstrating a degree of overlap in the encoding of self and other. In addition, the evidence of misperception of one's own body following exposure to “thin” and to “fat” others demonstrates the viability of visual adaptation as a model of body image disturbance both for those who underestimate and those who overestimate their own size. PMID:27471447

  4. Eating Disorders and Body Image of Undergraduate Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ousley, Louise; Cordero, Elizabeth Diane; White, Sabina

    2008-01-01

    Eating disorders and body dissatisfaction among undergraduate men are less documented and researched than are eating disorders and body dissatisfaction among undergraduate women. Objective and Participants: In this study, the authors examined these issues in undergraduate men to identify similarities and differences between this population and…

  5. The four-dimensional mouse whole-body phantoms and its application in medical imaging research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medical imaging simulation is a powerful tool for characterizing,evaluating,and optimizing medical imaging devices and techniques. A vital aspect of simulation is to have a realistic phantom or model of the subject's anatomy. Four-dimensional mouse whole-body phantoms provide realistic models of the mouse anatomy and physiology for imaging studies. When combined with accurate models for the imaging process,are capable of providing a wealth of realistic imaging data from subjects with various anatomies and motions (cardiac and respiratory) in health and disease. With this ability, the four-dimensional mouse whole-body phantoms have enormous potential to study the effects of anatomical, physiological and physical factors on medical and small animal imaging and to research new instrumentation, image acquisition strategies, image processing, reconstruction methods, image visualization and interpretation techniques. (authors)

  6. Image artifacts from MR-based attenuation correction in clinical, whole-body PET/MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Sune H; Holm, Søren; Hansen, Adam E;

    2013-01-01

    Integrated whole-body PET/MRI tomographs have become available. PET/MR imaging has the potential to supplement, or even replace combined PET/CT imaging in selected clinical indications. However, this is true only if methodological pitfalls and image artifacts arising from novel MR-based attenuation...

  7. Adolescent Overweight, Obesity and Chronic Disease-Related Health Practices: Mediation by Body Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilda Farhat

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: To examine whether body image mediates the association between overweight/obesity and chronic disease-related health practices (CDRHP, including lack of physical activity (PA, infrequent breakfast consumption (IBC, screen-based media use (SBM, and smoking. Methods: The 2006 Health Behaviors in School-Age Children survey was administered to a nationally representative sample of US students (n = 8,028 in grades 6-10 (mean age = 14.3 years. Outcome variables included self-reported measures of PA, SBM, IBC, and smoking. Body image was assessed with 5 items from the Body Investment Scale (α = 0.87 asking for agreement/disagreement with statements about one's body. Stratifying on gender, an initial regression model estimated the association between overweight/obesity and CDRHP. Mediation models that included body image were then compared to the initial model to determine the role of body image in the relationship between overweight/obesity and CDRHP. Results: Among boys, body image mediated the relationships of overweight/obesity with SBM, and of obesity with IBC. Among girls, it mediated the relationships of obesity with PA, IBC, and smoking, and of overweight with SBM. Conclusion: As the prevalence of overweight/obesity among adolescent boys and girls remains high, efforts to improve their body image could result in less frequent engagement in CDRHP.

  8. Body image dissatisfaction and its relationship with physical activity and nutritional status in university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Pinheiro Ferrari

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of body image dissatisfaction with physical activity level and nutritional status in freshmen from a public Brazilian university. A total of 832 university students (485 men with a mean age of 20.1 years (standard deviation = 4.6 participated in the study. Self-reported body weight and height were used for the calculation of body mass index. The students responded to the Body Shape Questionnaire and International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Fisher’s exact test, considering p < .05. The prevalence of body image dissatisfaction and physical inactivity was 10.1% and 14.5%, respectively. No significant association was observed between body image dissatisfaction and physical activity level. Body image dissatisfaction was associated with nutritional status in both genders (p < .05. University students with excess body weight should be encouraged to pursue a healthier lifestyle in order to promote an adequate nutritional status and also to improve their body image.

  9. The Relationship of Body Image with Psychological Distress in Women with Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Moradi Manesh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Surgery and adjuvant therapies lead to body image problems and psychological distress in young women with breast cancer. The goal of this study was to examine the relationship of body image with psychological distress in women with breast cancer. Methods: This correlation study was carried out on 294 women with breast cancer at Imam Reza Hospital of Kermanshah, Iran, in 2011. The selection of the participants was based on purposive sampling. The Body image was assessed by BIS. The Psychological distress was assessed by DASS-21. The collected data was analyzed by Pearson correlation and Independent sample test. Results: Results showed that body image had a significant positive relationship with psychological distress (P < 0.001. Furthermore, younger women had greater trouble about body image and experienced greater psychological distress compared to elder women. Conclusion: This study showed that dissatisfaction about body image accompanied psychological distress. Also, younger women experience greater difficulties about body image and psychological distress. Therefore, suitable psychological interventions are recommended.

  10. Body Image Disturbance in Acromegaly Patients Compared to Nonfunctioning Pituitary Adenoma Patients and Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen M. Conaglen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Excess growth hormone secretion in adults results in acromegaly, a condition in which multiple physical changes occur including bony and soft tissue overgrowth. Over time these changes can markedly alter a person’s appearance. The aim of this study was to compare body image disturbance in patients with acromegaly to those with nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFAs and controls and assess the impact of obesity in these groups. Methods. A cross-sectional survey including quality of life, body image disturbance, anxiety and depression measures, growth hormone, and BMI measurement was carried out. Results. The groups did not differ with respect to body image disturbance. However separate analysis of obese participants demonstrated relationships between mood scales, body image disturbance, and pain issues, particularly for acromegaly patients. Conclusions. While the primary hypothesis that acromegaly might be associated with body image disturbance was not borne out, we have shown that obesity together with acromegaly and NFA can be associated with body image issues, suggesting that BMI rather than primary diagnosis might better indicate whether patients might experience body image disturbance problems.

  11. Examining the impact of acculturative stress on body image disturbance among Hispanic college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Chloe V; Harter, Stephanie L

    2012-07-01

    This study investigated the impact of acculturative stress on psychological well-being and body image disturbance in a sample of female and male Hispanic individuals. The unique protective effects of differing social support sources, including family and peer support, were examined against acculturative stress and body image disturbance. A total of 399 participants of Hispanic origin were recruited from Texas Tech University in West Texas. Students completed a battery of measures of acculturative stress and internalization of the thin ideal, as well as perceived social support. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that acculturative stress is a significant positive predictor of body image disturbance among Hispanic college students. Thin ideal internalization was found to mediate this relationship such that acculturative stress was associated with heightened body image disturbance through its impact on thin ideal internalization. Social support significantly reduced acculturative stress as well as body image disturbance but did not moderate the relation between these 2 factors. Results highlight the importance of considering acculturative stress as a strong predictor of body image disturbance among college students of Hispanic origin. The mechanisms of influence of acculturative stress on body image disturbance are discussed in relation to thin ideal internalization. The protective role of social support on these negative psychological outcomes is also clarified. This study is the first to examine these issues in a sample of female and male Hispanic college students and provides avenues for clinical interventions and future trials with diverse populations.

  12. Whole Body Computed Tomography with Advanced Imaging Techniques: A Research Tool for Measuring Body Composition in Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharma Purushothaman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of computed tomography (CT to evaluate obesity in canines is limited. Traditional CT image analysis is cumbersome and uses prediction equations that require manual calculations. In order to overcome this, our study investigated the use of advanced image analysis software programs to determine body composition in dogs with an application to canine obesity research. Beagles and greyhounds were chosen for their differences in morphology and propensity to obesity. Whole body CT scans with regular intervals were performed on six beagles and six greyhounds that were subjected to a 28-day weight-gain protocol. The CT images obtained at days 0 and 28 were analyzed using software programs OsiriX, ImageJ, and AutoCAT. The CT scanning technique was able to differentiate bone, lean, and fat tissue in dogs and proved sensitive enough to detect increases in both lean and fat during weight gain over a short period. A significant difference in lean : fat ratio was observed between the two breeds on both days 0 and 28 (P<0.01. Therefore, CT and advanced image analysis proved useful in the current study for the estimation of body composition in dogs and has the potential to be used in canine obesity research.

  13. Relationship between body mass index and women's body image, self-esteem and eating behaviours in pregnancy: a cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shloim, Netalie; Hetherington, Marion M; Rudolf, Mary; Feltbower, Richard G

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the relationship between self-esteem, restrained eating, body image and body mass index during pregnancy. A total of 110 pregnant Israeli and UK women completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Questionnaire, the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire, scales to assess body image and demographics. Body mass index was calculated from antenatal records. Regression modelling determined the relationship between variables, countries and body mass index categories. High correlations were found between body image and body mass index with significantly higher body dissatisfaction for Israeli women. Self-esteem scores for pregnant women were similar to those reported for non-pregnant women. Poorer body image and higher prevalence of restrained eating were found in healthy weight Israeli women.

  14. A Meta-Analytic Review of Stand-Alone Interventions to Improve Body Image.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica M Alleva

    Full Text Available Numerous stand-alone interventions to improve body image have been developed. The present review used meta-analysis to estimate the effectiveness of such interventions, and to identify the specific change techniques that lead to improvement in body image.The inclusion criteria were that (a the intervention was stand-alone (i.e., solely focused on improving body image, (b a control group was used, (c participants were randomly assigned to conditions, and (d at least one pretest and one posttest measure of body image was taken. Effect sizes were meta-analysed and moderator analyses were conducted. A taxonomy of 48 change techniques used in interventions targeted at body image was developed; all interventions were coded using this taxonomy.The literature search identified 62 tests of interventions (N = 3,846. Interventions produced a small-to-medium improvement in body image (d+ = 0.38, a small-to-medium reduction in beauty ideal internalisation (d+ = -0.37, and a large reduction in social comparison tendencies (d+ = -0.72. However, the effect size for body image was inflated by bias both within and across studies, and was reliable but of small magnitude once corrections for bias were applied. Effect sizes for the other outcomes were no longer reliable once corrections for bias were applied. Several features of the sample, intervention, and methodology moderated intervention effects. Twelve change techniques were associated with improvements in body image, and three techniques were contra-indicated.The findings show that interventions engender only small improvements in body image, and underline the need for large-scale, high-quality trials in this area. The review identifies effective techniques that could be deployed in future interventions.

  15. Persistent body image disturbance following recovery from eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Eshkevari, E.; Rieger, E; Longo, Matthew R.; Haggard, P; Treasure, J

    2014-01-01

    Background: It has been previously found that individuals with an eating disorder experience the rubber hand illusion (RHI) significantly more strongly than healthy controls on both perceptual (proprioceptive drift) and subjective (self-report embodiment questionnaire) measures. Such heightened sensitivity to visual information about the body, and reduced somatosensory information processing about the body, indicate an increased malleability of the bodily self. The aim of the present study wa...

  16. Height and Body image- a study of young women’s handball

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Synnøve Endal

    2015-01-01

    English abstract: Purpose: the purpose of this study is to look into how the participants of the study feel about their body image in relation to their height, and if handball can prove tall girls with an enclave or social network. Going through literature on body-image, sport, health and public health it became apparent that many studies have been done based on weight and BMI. Height on the other hand, is a factor which is hardly examined at all in the literature on body-image, especially re...

  17. Relationship between social and personal variables, body image, and wellbeing at work of nutritionists

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Michele Cristina; De Castro Coelho, Lucíola; Asakura, Leiko; Molina Cohrs, Frederico; Sachs, Anita; Sávio, Karín; De Cássia Akutsu, Rita

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate wellbeing in a random sample of nutritionists, using body image, and social and personal variables as causal factors, in an exploratory, crosssectional study. Statistical treatments included descriptive analyses, t-tests, ANOVAs, and linear regressions. The 242 participants perceived themselves frequently in a wellbeing state at work (M=3.8); 25.6% of participants presented a mildly distorted body image, 14.5% a moderately distorted body image, a...

  18. Internet Pornography Use and Sexual Body Image in a Dutch Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranney, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Objectives A commonly attributed cause of sexual body image dissatisfaction is pornography use. This relationship has received little verification. Methods The relationship between sexual body image dissatisfaction and Internet pornography use was tested using a large-N sample of Dutch respondents. Results/Conclusion Penis size dissatisfaction is associated with pornography use. The relationship between pornography use and breast size dissatisfaction is null. These results support prior speculation and self-reports about the relationship between pornography use and sexual body image among men. These results also support a prior null finding of the relationship between breast size satisfaction for women and pornography use. PMID:26918066

  19. EXPLORER: Changing the molecular imaging paradigm with total-body PET/CT (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Simon R.; Badawi, Ramsey D.; Jones, Terry

    2016-04-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is the highest sensitivity technique for human whole-body imaging studies. However, current clinical PET scanners do not make full use of the available signal, as they only permit imaging of a 15-25 cm segment of the body at one time. Given the limited sensitive region, whole-body imaging with clinical PET scanners requires relatively long scan times and subjects the patient to higher than necessary radiation doses. The EXPLORER initiative aims to build a 2-meter axial length PET scanner to allow imaging the entire subject at once, capturing nearly the entire available PET signal. EXPLORER will acquire data with ~40-fold greater sensitivity leading to a six-fold increase in reconstructed signal-to-noise ratio for imaging the total body. Alternatively, total-body images with the EXPLORER scanner will be able to be acquired in ~30 seconds or with ~0.15 mSv injected dose, while maintaining current PET image quality. The superior sensitivity will open many new avenues for biomedical research. Specifically for cancer applications, high sensitivity PET will enable detection of smaller lesions. Additionally, greater sensitivity will allow imaging out to 10 half-lives of positron emitting radiotracers. This will enable 1) metabolic ultra-staging with FDG by extending the uptake and clearance time to 3-5 hours to significantly improve contrast and 2) improved kinetic imaging with short-lived radioisotopes such as C-11, crucial for drug development studies. Frequent imaging studies of the same subject to study disease progression or to track response to therapy will be possible with the low dose capabilities of the EXPLORER scanner. The low dose capabilities will also open up new imaging possibilities in pediatrics and adolescents to better study developmental disorders. This talk will review the basis for developing total-body PET, potential applications, and review progress to date in developing EXPLORER, the first total-body PET scanner.

  20. Tumor glucose metabolism imaged in vivo in small animals with whole-body photoacoustic computed tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Chatni, Muhammad Rameez; Xia, Jun; Sohn, Rebecca; Maslov, Konstantin; Guo, Zijian; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Kun; Xia, Younan; Anastasio, Mark; Arbeit, Jeffrey; Wang, Lihong V.

    2012-01-01

    With the increasing use of small animals for human disease studies, small-animal whole-body molecular imaging plays an important role in biomedical research. Currently, none of the existing imaging modalities can provide both anatomical and glucose molecular information, leading to higher costs of building dual-modality systems. Even with image co-registration, the spatial resolution of the molecular imaging modality is not improved. Utilizing a ring-shaped confocal photoacoustic computed tom...

  1. Book review: The becoming of bodies: girls, images, experience by Rebecca Coleman

    OpenAIRE

    Shephard, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between bodies and images has long occupied feminism, and this book offers an alternative framework for analysis. Thinking through her original empirical research with teenage girls, involving focus groups, individual interviews and image-making sessions, Rebecca Coleman moves from a consideration of media images – the focus of much feminist research – to examine images more widely; as mirrors, photographs, glimpses, comments, imagination. Nicole Shephard finds that the book ...

  2. Three dimensional analysis of coelacanth body structure by computer graphics and X-ray CT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Naoki (Jikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine); Hamada, Takashi

    1990-06-01

    Three dimensional imaging processes were applied for the structural and functional analyses of the modern coelacanth (Latimeria chalumnae). Visualization of the obtained images is performed with computer graphics on the basis of serial images by an X-ray CT scanning method. Reconstruction of three dimensional images of the body structure of coelacanth using the volume rendering and surface rendering methods provides us various information about external and internal shapes of this exquisite fish. (author).

  3. Differences in the Nature of Body Image Disturbances between Female Obese Individuals with versus without a Comorbid Binge Eating Disorder: An Exploratory Study Including Static and Dynamic Aspects of Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legenbauer, Tanja; Vocks, Silja; Betz, Sabrina; Puigcerver, Maria Jose Baguena; Benecke, Andrea; Troje, Nikolaus F.; Ruddel, Heinz

    2011-01-01

    Various components of body image were measured to assess body image disturbances in patients with obesity. To overcome limitations of previous studies, a photo distortion technique and a biological motion distortion device were included to assess static and dynamic aspects of body image. Questionnaires assessed cognitive-affective aspects, bodily…

  4. DWIBS: Diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging with background body signal suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahara, T. [Tokai Univ. Hospital, Isehara City, Kangawa Prefecture (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    The DWIBS protocol provides results similar to Positron Emission Tomography (PET) for evaluating lesions in the body. It is relatively fast, and requires no contrast agent or ionizing radiation. (orig.)

  5. [Leonardo da Vinci the first human body imaging specialist. A brief communication on the thorax oseum images].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicero, Raúl; Criales, José Luis; Cardoso, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    The impressive development of computed tomography (CT) techniques such as the three dimensional helical CT produces a spatial image of the thoracic skull. At the beginning of the 16th century Leonardo da Vinci drew with great precision the thorax oseum. These drawings show an outstanding similarity with the images obtained by three dimensional helical CT. The cumbersome task of the Renaissance genius is a prime example of the careful study of human anatomy. Modern imaging techniques require perfect anatomic knowledge of the human body in order to generate exact interpretations of images. Leonardo's example is alive for anybody devoted to modern imaging studies.

  6. Posturographic destabilization in eating disorders in female patients exposed to body image related phobic stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forghieri, M; Monzani, D; Mackinnon, A; Ferrari, S; Gherpelli, C; Galeazzi, G M

    2016-08-26

    Human postural control is dependent on the central integration of vestibular, visual and proprioceptive inputs. Psychological states can affect balance control: anxiety, in particular, has been shown to influence balance mediated by visual stimuli. We hypothesized that patients with eating disorders would show postural destabilization when exposed to their image in a mirror and to the image of a fashion model representing their body ideal in comparison to body neutral stimuli. Seventeen females patients attending a day centre for the treatment of eating disorders were administered psychometric measures of body dissatisfaction, anxiety, depression and underwent posturographic measures with their eyes closed, open, watching a neutral stimulus, while exposed to a full length mirror and to an image of a fashion model corresponding to their body image. Results were compared to those obtained by eighteen healthy subjects. Eating disordered patients showed higher levels of body dissatisfaction and higher postural destabilization than controls, but this was limited to the conditions in which they were exposed to their mirror image or a fashion model image. Postural destabilization under these conditions correlated with measures of body dissatisfaction. In eating disordered patients, body related stimuli seem to act as phobic stimuli in the posturographic paradigm used. If confirmed, this has the potential to be developed for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

  7. Examination of the relationship between the body image and self-esteem of female adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesile Oktan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at an examination of the relationship between level of content with body image and self-esteem among female adolescents. In the study, descriptive method was employed. The sample group of the study is 300 secondary school female students between 16-18 years of age. Body Cathexis Scale and Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory were applied to the adolescents in the sample group. Results have shown that there are a high level, negative and significant relationship between the body image and self-esteem (r=-0,365, p<.01 of female adolescents. Findings also illustrate that an increase in female adolescents’ content with their body image leads to an increase in their self-esteem. Results of the study revealed that female adolescents with positive body image have a high level of self-esteem and so female adolescents with negative body image have a low level of self-esteem. In this respect, in this study, the importance of female adolescents’ realistic appreciation concerned with their body image is discussed.

  8. Posturographic destabilization in eating disorders in female patients exposed to body image related phobic stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forghieri, M; Monzani, D; Mackinnon, A; Ferrari, S; Gherpelli, C; Galeazzi, G M

    2016-08-26

    Human postural control is dependent on the central integration of vestibular, visual and proprioceptive inputs. Psychological states can affect balance control: anxiety, in particular, has been shown to influence balance mediated by visual stimuli. We hypothesized that patients with eating disorders would show postural destabilization when exposed to their image in a mirror and to the image of a fashion model representing their body ideal in comparison to body neutral stimuli. Seventeen females patients attending a day centre for the treatment of eating disorders were administered psychometric measures of body dissatisfaction, anxiety, depression and underwent posturographic measures with their eyes closed, open, watching a neutral stimulus, while exposed to a full length mirror and to an image of a fashion model corresponding to their body image. Results were compared to those obtained by eighteen healthy subjects. Eating disordered patients showed higher levels of body dissatisfaction and higher postural destabilization than controls, but this was limited to the conditions in which they were exposed to their mirror image or a fashion model image. Postural destabilization under these conditions correlated with measures of body dissatisfaction. In eating disordered patients, body related stimuli seem to act as phobic stimuli in the posturographic paradigm used. If confirmed, this has the potential to be developed for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. PMID:27397012

  9. Posturographic stabilisation of healthy subjects exposed to full-length mirror image is inversely related to body-image preoccupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeazzi, Gian Maria; Monzani, Daniele; Gherpelli, Chiara; Covezzi, Roberta; Guaraldi, Gian Paolo

    2006-12-13

    Affective states, anxiety in particular, have been shown to negatively influence human postural control efficiency as measured by posturographic means, while exposure to a full-length mirror image of one's body exerts a stabilizing effect. We tested the hypothesis that body image concerns and preoccupations would relate negatively to this stabilising effect. Sixty-six healthy students, who screened negative for psychiatric disorders, completed rating scales for anxiety, depression and body image concerns. Posturography recordings of body sway were taken under three conditions: with eyes closed, looking at a vertical bar and looking at a full-length mirror. The Eyes Open/Mirror Stabilometric Quotient [EOMQ=(sway path with eyes closed/sway path looking at the mirror)x100], an index of how much postural control is stabilized by mirror feedback in comparison to the visual vertical bar condition, was significantly inversely related to body image concerns and preoccupations, and to trait anxiety. This finding confirms the impact of emotional factors on human postural control, which warrant further studies. If confirmed in clinical populations characterized by high levels of body image disturbances, e.g. eating disorders, it could lead to developments in the assessment and monitoring of these patients.

  10. Body image in women with HIV: a cross-sectional evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becerra Karen

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV lipodystrophy syndrome is a recognized complication of potent antiretroviral therapy and is characterized by often dramatic changes in various body fat stores, both central and peripheral. Given prior findings of heightened body image dysphoria among HIV-infected men with lipodystrophy as compared to HIV-infected men without lipodystrophy, we sought to determine body image among HIV-infected and HIV-negative women and to determine the relationship of HIV and lipodystrophy with body image. Our a priori hypothesis was that women with HIV and lipodystrophy would have significantly poorer body image as compared to women without HIV and to women with HIV without lipodystrophy. Results 116 women responded to two previously validated self-report instruments (Body Image Quality of Life Index (BIQLI and the Situational Inventory of Body-Image Dysphoria – Short Form (SIBID-S on body image. 62 (53% subjects HIV-infected women were recruited at the university-based HIV clinic. 54 (47% subjects HIV-negative female controls were recruited from another study evaluating bone density in otherwise healthy controls. 96% identified their sexual orientation as women having sex with men. Among the HIV-infected group, 36 reported the presence of lipodystrophic characteristics and 26 reported no lipodystrophic changes. Agreement regarding the presence of lipodystrophy between physician and subject was 0.67 as measured by the kappa coefficient of agreement. Compared to HIV-negative women, HIV-positive women demonstrated poor body image as measured by BIQLI (p = 0.0009. Compared with HIV-infected women who denied lipodystrophy, HIV-infected women with self-reported lipodystrophy demonstrated poor body image as measured by BIQLI (p = 0.02 and SIBID-S scales (p = 0.001. Conclusion We demonstrate that HIV and lipodystrophy status among women is associated with poor body image. Universal efforts should be made in the HIV medical community to

  11. Air flow-assisted ionization imaging mass spectrometry method for easy whole-body molecular imaging under ambient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhigang; He, Jiuming; Chen, Yi; He, Jingjing; Gong, Tao; Tang, Fei; Wang, Xiaohao; Zhang, Ruiping; Huang, Lan; Zhang, Lianfeng; Lv, Haining; Ma, Shuanggang; Fu, Zhaodi; Chen, Xiaoguang; Yu, Shishan; Abliz, Zeper

    2013-03-01

    Whole-body molecular imaging is able to directly map spatial distribution of molecules and monitor its biotransformation in intact biological tissue sections. Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS), a label-free molecular imaging method, can be used to image multiple molecules in a single measurement with high specificity. Herein, a novel easy-to-implement, whole-body IMS method was developed with air flow-assisted ionization in a desorption electrospray ionization mode. The developed IMS method can effectively image molecules in a large whole-body section in open air without sample pretreatment, such as chemical labeling, section division, or matrix deposition. Moreover, the signal levels were improved, and the spatial assignment errors were eliminated; thus, high-quality whole-body images were obtained. With this novel IMS method, in situ mapping analysis of molecules was performed in adult rat sections with picomolar sensitivity under ambient conditions, and the dynamic information of molecule distribution and its biotransformation was provided to uncover molecular events at the whole-animal level. A global view of the differential distribution of an anticancer agent and its metabolites was simultaneously acquired in whole-body rat and model mouse bearing neuroglioma along the administration time. The obtained drug distribution provided rich information for identifying the targeted organs and predicting possible tumor spectrum, pharmacological activity, and potential toxicity of drug candidates.

  12. Body Image for Women: Conceptualization, Assessment, and a Test of its Importance to Sexual Dysfunction and Medical Illness

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Barbara L.; LeGRAND, JOSEPH

    1991-01-01

    The content and valence of women’s body image attitudes, general and enduring positive or negative feelings about the body, are studied with psychometric analyses of measures and contrasted groups. Data from two frequently used measures (Body Image Scale, Derogatis & Melisaratos, 1979; Body Satisfaction Scale, Berscheid, Walster & Bohrnstedt, 1973) provided an evaluation of the construct and the assessment of body image. Two studies are provided. The construct analyses suggest two contents fo...

  13. Images and bodies subject: sexuality in advertising campaign be stupid

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas Luiz Menegazzi

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the portrayal of sexuality and gender in contemporary advertising by the image and it focuses on visual analysis of the case study of the campaign Be Stupid, the clothing brand Diesel. Examines some of the ads clearer suggestions to the theme of sexuality, about fifteen images, running between 2010 and 2011em many countries, including Brazil, having won the controversial impact of media such as magazines, billboards and especially the Internet. Perform a survey of theoret...

  14. Narrating rural lesbian lives: body image and lesbian community in central Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, Megan R; Chmielewski, Jennifer F

    2011-01-01

    Research on women's body image has focused on the sexual objectification that women experience in society. The present study explored how rural lesbian women experience their bodies and how lesbian communities, as safe havens from the dominant heterosexual culture, contribute to their body image. Ten lesbians living in central Pennsylvania were interviewed for this study. Interviews were analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis, which aims to explore individuals' experiences and examine how they make sense of their world. The resulting themes focus on participants' descriptions of their feelings about their bodies, the role that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities played in their sense of body image, and the difficulties of finding these communities in the central Pennsylvania area. PMID:21491311

  15. The Effects of Playing with Thin Dolls on Body Image and Food Intake in Young Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2010-01-01

    This study experimentally tested the effects of playing with thin dolls on body image and food intake in 6- to 10-year-old Dutch girls (N = 117). Girls were randomly assigned to play with a thin doll, an average-sized doll, or Legos in a no doll control condition. After 10 min, they participated in a taste-test and completed questionnaires about body image. No differences were found between conditions for any of the body image variables. However, girls who played with the average-sized doll ate significantly more food than girls in other exposure conditions. Although no support was found for the assumption that playing with thin dolls influences body image, the dolls directly affected actual food intake in these young girls. PMID:21212808

  16. 'Retouch free': The effect of labelling media images as not digitally altered on women's body dissatisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, Marika; Slater, Amy; Smyth, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of 'retouch free' labels on thin ideal fashion images on women's body dissatisfaction. This represents an experimental analogue to current practice by some fashion magazines. Participants were 224 female undergraduates who viewed a set of fashion shoots with either no label, or a label indicating that the image had not been digitally altered. Results indicated that, although body dissatisfaction increased after exposure to the thin ideal images, there was no significant effect of label type on mood or body dissatisfaction. It was concluded that labelling images as digitally unaltered appears neither helpful nor harmful in terms of body dissatisfaction. Nevertheless, more extensive research is required to guide the most effective use of labels. PMID:24094477

  17. Changes in Representation of Body Image as a Function of Menarcheal Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koff, Elissa; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The significance of menarche for girls' body image and sexual identification was investigated by assessing human figure drawings produced by 87 adolescent girls on two occasions, six months apart. (Author/MP)

  18. Whole-body diffusion-weighted imaging for staging malignant lymphoma in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CT is currently the mainstay in staging malignant lymphoma in children, but the risk of second neoplasms due to ionizing radiation associated with CT is not negligible. Whole-body MRI techniques and whole-body diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in particular, may be a good radiation-free alternative to CT. DWI is characterized by high sensitivity for the detection of lesions and allows quantitative assessment of diffusion that may aid in the evaluation of malignant lymphomas. This article will review whole-body MRI techniques for staging malignant lymphoma with emphasis on whole-body DWI. Furthermore, future considerations and challenges in whole-body DWI will be discussed. (orig.)

  19. Body of children’s representation in the images of transition cycle textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Essau Martínez Bello

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Textbooks are social vehicles. This study aimed at analyzing the way the body of children is represented in the transition cycle textbooks. Images were analyzed based on categories and indicators. They represented both genres equally carrying out different activities in varied settings. Disabled bodies did not appear. Social and cultural constructions of the body are key to discuss results in terms of the required attention to body diversity. Besides, it also highlights the role of social and educational agents at carrying out critical processes about meanings conveyed by textbooks and their influence on the body awareness and children performance in the transition cycle of preschool education.

  20. Contact-free determination of human body segment parameters by means of videometric image processing of an anthropomorphic body model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatze, Herbert; Baca, Arnold

    1993-01-01

    The development of noninvasive techniques for the determination of biomechanical body segment parameters (volumes, masses, the three principal moments of inertia, the three local coordinates of the segmental mass centers, etc.) receives increasing attention from the medical sciences (e,.g., orthopaedic gait analysis), bioengineering, sport biomechanics, and the various space programs. In the present paper, a novel method is presented for determining body segment parameters rapidly and accurately. It is based on the video-image processing of four different body configurations and a finite mass-element human body model. The four video images of the subject in question are recorded against a black background, thus permitting the application of shape recognition procedures incorporating edge detection and calibration algorithms. In this way, a total of 181 object space dimensions of the subject's body segments can be reconstructed and used as anthropometric input data for the mathematical finite mass- element body model. The latter comprises 17 segments (abdomino-thoracic, head-neck, shoulders, upper arms, forearms, hands, abdomino-pelvic, thighs, lower legs, feet) and enables the user to compute all the required segment parameters for each of the 17 segments by means of the associated computer program. The hardware requirements are an IBM- compatible PC (1 MB memory) operating under MS-DOS or PC-DOS (Version 3.1 onwards) and incorporating a VGA-board with a feature connector for connecting it to a super video windows framegrabber board for which there must be available a 16-bit large slot. In addition, a VGA-monitor (50 - 70 Hz, horizontal scan rate at least 31.5 kHz), a common video camera and recorder, and a simple rectangular calibration frame are required. The advantage of the new method lies in its ease of application, its comparatively high accuracy, and in the rapid availability of the body segment parameters, which is particularly useful in clinical practice

  1. Expand Your Horizon: A programme that improves body image and reduces self-objectification by training women to focus on body functionality

    OpenAIRE

    Alleva, Jessica M; Martijn, Carolien; Gerard J.P. van Breukelen; Jansen, Anita; Karos, Kai

    2015-01-01

    This study tested Expand Your Horizon, a programme designed to improve body image by training women to focus on the functionality of their body using structured writing assignments. Eighty-one women (Mage=22.77) with a negative body image were randomised to the Expand Your Horizon programme or to an active control programme. Appearance satisfaction, functionality satisfaction, body appreciation, and self-objectification were measured at pretest, posttest, and one-week follow-up. Following the...

  2. "BE"ing a Certain Way: Seeking "Body Image" in Canadian Health and Physical Education Curriculum Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Lorayne; Thomson, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Body image is an individual's emotional response to one's appearance including size and shape; this response may not be helpful in the pursuit of overall health and well-being. This policy analysis examines the treatment of body image in Canadian Health and Physical Education (HPE) curriculum policies using a body image analysis framework…

  3. The Impact of Body Image and Afrocentric Appearance on Sexual Refusal Self-Efficacy in Early Adolescent African American Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plybon, Laura E.; Holmer, Heidi; Hunter, Alexis; Sheffield, Charity; Stephens, Christopher; Cavolo, Lucas

    2009-01-01

    Research examining the association between body image and sexual risk-taking has been mostly limited to clinical and/or White female samples. It is unclear whether body image plays a role in sexual risk-taking among African American early adolescent females. Moreover, research has neglected to consider body image within a cultural and ethnic…

  4. Adolescent Athleticism, Exercise, Body Image, and Dietary Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainey, Cheryl J.; McKeown, Robert E.; Sargent, Roger G.; Valois, Robert F.

    1998-01-01

    Investigated relationships between physical activity and athletic participation and body-size perceptions, diet, and weight-control practice among high school students, noting racial and gender differences. Surveys indicated that diet quality improved and weight-loss attempts increased as physical activity and athletic participation increased.…

  5. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging: emerging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colleran, Gabrielle C; Moynagh, Michael R; Tavernaraki, Katarina; Shelly, Martin J; Eustace, Stephen J; Kavanagh, Eoin C

    2010-03-01

    Beyond established roles in the assessment of skeletal metastatic disease, in muscle diseases and in myeloma, WBMRI has the potential to offer many further valuable clinical applications. This article presents an overview of emerging clinical applications of WBMRI emphasizing its role in the assessment of musculoskeletal ailments, ranging from the assessment of arthropathy through to body composition research.

  6. Health Perceptions, Self and Body Image, Physical Activity and Nutrition among Undergraduate Students in Israel

    OpenAIRE

    Liat Korn; Ester Gonen; Yael Shaked; Moria Golan

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study examines health perceptions, self and body image, physical exercise and nutrition among undergraduate students. METHODS: A structured, self-reported questionnaire was administered to more than 1500 students at a large academic institute in Israel. The study population was heterogenic in both gender and fields of academic study. RESULTS: High correlations between health perceptions, appropriate nutrition, and positive self and body image were found. The relationships betwee...

  7. Body image in obese children: Effects produced by physical exercise program

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, E.; S. Márquez-Rosa; Bernal, F; N. Camberos; J. A. Paz

    2015-01-01

    Body image self-perception in obese children is important since it can encourage behaviors leading to social isolation and cause an increase in food intake. The objective of this study was to determine the changes produced in the level of body image satisfaction and the variation in anthropometric indicators of young children in the State of Sonora, Mexico after participating in a program of 40 sessions of physical exercise with an average caloric expenditure of 267 Kcal per session. 119 chil...

  8. Body image and its relationship with sexual function and marital adjustment in infertile women

    OpenAIRE

    Karamidehkordi, Akram; Roudsari, Robab Latifnejad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Body image is related to cognitive, emotional, and physical aspects of women's life. Therefore, it is expected to have an important role in women's sexual health and marital adjustment too. This issue seems to be salient in infertile women who suffer from psychological consequences of infertility. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship of body image with sexual function and marital adjustment in infertile women in 2011 in Mashhad, Iran. Materials and Methods: Thi...

  9. Development of multi-dimensional body image scale for malaysian female adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Chin, Yit Siew; Taib, Mohd Nasir Mohd; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Khor, Geok Lin

    2008-01-01

    The present study was conducted to develop a Multi-dimensional Body Image Scale for Malaysian female adolescents. Data were collected among 328 female adolescents from a secondary school in Kuantan district, state of Pahang, Malaysia by using a self-administered questionnaire and anthropometric measurements. The self-administered questionnaire comprised multiple measures of body image, Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26; Garner & Garfinkel, 1979) and Rosenberg Self-esteem Inventory (Rosenberg, 1965...

  10. Body image in older men with or at-risk for HIV infection

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, A.; HOWARD, A. A.; Klein, R S; SCHOENBAUM, E. E.; Buono, D; Webber, M P

    2007-01-01

    We performed a cross-sectional analysis of factors associated with negative body image among 550 older men with or at-risk for HIV infection, including demographics, depression, illicit drug use, and antiretroviral therapy adherence. Overall, 31 per cent of participants reported negative body image, which was independently associated with increased BMI, self-rated fair/poor health, depression, and erectile dysfunction, but not HIV status. Screening for and treating depression, sexual dysfunct...

  11. The Effect of Body Image Threat on Smoking Motivation Among College Women: Mediation by Negative Affect

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez Khoury, Elena N.; Litvin, Erika B.; Brandon, Thomas H.

    2009-01-01

    Previous descriptive, correlational, and quasi-experimental research has established that weight concerns and negative body image are associated with tobacco smoking, cessation, and relapse among young women. A recent experimental study found that activation of negative body image cognitions produced urges to smoke (Lopez, Drobes, Thompson, & Brandon, 2008). The current study intended to replicate and extend these experimental findings by examining the role of negative affect as a mediator of...

  12. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging: techniques, clinical indications, and future applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R E; Eustace, S J

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews developments in both pulse sequence design and gradient technology that facilitate rapid imaging of the whole body. It discusses its application in patients with bone marrow neoplasms, including metastases, lymphoma, and myeloma and emphasizes the value of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in patients with known vertebral lesions to detect other bone lesions that are easier to biopsy. It outlines possible applications in well-defined clinical situations, including pregnancy and unknown primary tumor.

  13. Masculinity and femininity in the divergence of male body image concerns

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Stuart B.; Rieger, Elizabeth; Karlov, Lisa; Touyz, Stephen W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Given recent assertions suggesting that gender role endorsement may be relevant in the divergence of male body image concerns, this study examined the self-reported gender role endorsement in opposing dimensional extremes of male body image disorders, namely, muscle dysmorphia and anorexia nervosa. This study further examined the relationship between gender role endorsement and eating disordered and muscle dysmorphia disorder pathology. Methodology Participants were 21 male muscle ...

  14. Body Image Disturbance and Health Behaviors among Sexual Minority Men Living with HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blashill, Aaron J.; Goshe, Brett M.; Robbins, Gregory K.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Safren, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Body image disturbance is a common experience for sexual minority men living with HIV, and is associated with poor self-care behaviors. However, to date, no known cohesive theoretical model has been advanced to understand the possible antecedents and outcomes of body image disturbance in this population. Thus, the goal of the current study was to test a biopsychosocial model of body image and self-care behaviors among sexual minority men living with HIV. Methods Participants were 106 gay and bisexual men living with HIV who completed a battery of self-report measures including assessment of body image disturbance, depression, lipodystrophy, appearance orientation, condom use self-efficacy, antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, and HIV sexual transmission risk behaviors. Bayesian estimation was employed to assess model fit and direct and indirect pathways within the model. Results The data fit the model well, with all theorized pathways being significant. Lipodystrophy severity and appearance orientation were associated with elevated body image disturbance. In turn, body image disturbance was related to poorer ART adherence and increased HIV sexual transmission risk behaviors, through the mechanisms of elevated depressive symptoms and poor condom use self-efficacy. Conclusions Elevated body image disturbance among sexual minority men living with HIV is associated with important biopsychosocial variables, which in turn are related to poorer ART adherence and increased HIV sexual transmission risk behaviors. Integrative psychosocial interventions addressing co-occurring body image disturbance, depression, and HIV self-care behaviors may be a fruitful area of future clinical practice and research. PMID:24977311

  15. Validation of the instrument "Body image after breast cancer" in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina de Oliveira Gonçalves; Maria da Consolação Gomes Cunha Fernandes Tavares; Angela Nogueira Neves Betanho Campana; César Cabello

    2014-01-01

    The body image is an important aspect to be considered during the treatment of women with breast cancer. Therefore, we understand the importance of the quality of an instrument that evaluates this condition. The instrument validated in this study can bring new possibilities of studying the effects of cancer treatments on body image. Validation of the questionnaire, translation, cultural adaptation and pre-tests were done with women with breast cancer residents of the States of Alagoas, Pernam...

  16. Body image and depressive symptoms in patients with head and neck cancer: an important relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jie; Dietrich, Mary S.; Murphy, Barbara; Ridner, Sheila H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between body image and depressive symptoms in patients who have been treated for head and neck cancer. Methods This is a prospective, longitudinal analysis. Body image and depressive symptoms were measured in patients diagnosed with head and neck cancer at baseline, end of treatment, 6 weeks post-treatment, and 12 weeks post-treatment. Body image was measured using the Body Image Quality of Life Inventory, and depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Results Forty-three individuals diagnosed with head and neck cancer participated in this study. The majority of participants were male, Caucasian, and married or living with a partner. Participants ranged from age 32 to 78 years (M=57.8 years, SD=10.5 years). At 12 weeks post-treatment, body image scores were statistically significantly higher than they were at the end of treatment (p=0.016) and 6 weeks post-treatment (p=0.032). Statistically significant increases in levels of depressive symptoms were observed at the end of treatment (p<0.001) and 6 weeks post-treatment (p=0.036) with a return to baseline by the 12-week post-treatment assessment (p=0.115). Body image and depressive symptoms were statistically significantly associated at the end of treatment, 6 weeks post-treatment, and 12 weeks post-treatment (rs −0.32 to −0.56, p <0.05). Conclusions This study supports early assessment of body image in patients with head and neck cancer. Additionally, the association between poorer body image and increased depressive symptoms is key in understanding the symptom clusters that patients with head and neck cancer experience. PMID:24925049

  17. Altered Sexuality and Body Image after Gynecological Cancer Treatment: How Can Psychologists Help?

    OpenAIRE

    Sacerdoti, Rebecca Caldwell; Lagana’, Luciana; Koopman, Cheryl

    2010-01-01

    Once medical treatment for gynecological cancer is completed, what happens to patients’ sexuality and body image? Due to the delicate nature of the cancer site, treating this cancer typically affects sexual functioning and body image adversely, making it critical to identify the concerns of these patients and do so in a manner less restrictive than paper-and-pencil assessment. To gain a deeper understanding of the phenomenological experiences in question, we interviewed nine gynecological can...

  18. Body Image Distortions, Weight, and Depression in Adolescent Boys: Longitudinal Trajectories into Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Blashill, Aaron J.; Wilhelm, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Depressive symptoms are common among the U.S. population, yet research into prospective risk factors of depression among men is limited. Distorted body image is also prevalent among adolescent boys, and may be linked with elevated depression; however, longitudinal associations have rarely been measured. Thus, the aim of the current study was to assess the prospective relationship between forms of body image distortion and depressive symptoms among adolescent boys, into adulthood. Data were ex...

  19. Thought–shape fusion and body image in eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera,1 Patricia Bolaños-Ríos,2 Inmaculada Ruiz-Prieto21Department of Nutrition and Bromatology, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, Spain; 2Behavioral Sciences Institute, Seville, SpainPurpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships among thought–shape fusion (TSF), specific instruments to assess body image disturbances, and body image quality of life in eating disorder patients in order to improve the understandi...

  20. Social Factors Influencing Women’s Body Image in Isfahan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Keyvanara

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction   In the modern world, there is more short relationship among people. Therefore know themselves more with physical and visible characteristics rather than different or similarities in ascribed and achieved characteristics. The appearance of an individual is considered a sign identity. By the other words, what we can see in appearance account as main source of communication, interpretation. Among all of these characteristics, body constitutes the most direct and accessible base that can carry and play different forms of lifestyle and identity, so it is essential. It is perceived that body is a social and cultural reality. Therefore it is conceptualized by sociological theories such as social regulation, social symbols. This research applied the sociological theory of symbolic interaction and social structure of body in order to explain socialization of body and main concepts of the body. These theories portray that family, media, school and peers could influence on socialization. Body image is constituted in the life careers women. They learn how look at their body, how managed their body and how change their bodies. This process passed from family especially in childhood career, school and peers especially in adolescent career and finally media throughout of their life. The overall aim of this study is to explore of social factors influence on women to perception of body image. Alongside with the main aim, this research also seeks to test some hypothesis. The main hypothesis included: 1- there is relationship between spouse attitude and body image in women, 2- there is relationship between women body image and their socialization such as family, school, friends and media, and 3- there is relationship between women body image and age, educational level and marital status.     Materials and Methods   This is a survey research that adopts a descriptive and analytic method. Statistic society is women of 18 to 40 year-old the city

  1. Online quantitative analysis of multispectral images of human body tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is developed for online monitoring of structural and morphological parameters of biological tissues (haemoglobin concentration, degree of blood oxygenation, average diameter of capillaries and the parameter characterising the average size of tissue scatterers), which involves multispectral tissue imaging, image normalisation to one of its spectral layers and determination of unknown parameters based on their stable regression relation with the spectral characteristics of the normalised image. Regression is obtained by simulating numerically the diffuse reflectance spectrum of the tissue by the Monte Carlo method at a wide variation of model parameters. The correctness of the model calculations is confirmed by the good agreement with the experimental data. The error of the method is estimated under conditions of general variability of structural and morphological parameters of the tissue. The method developed is compared with the traditional methods of interpretation of multispectral images of biological tissues, based on the solution of the inverse problem for each pixel of the image in the approximation of different analytical models. (biomedical optics)

  2. Whole-body multispectral photoacoustic imaging of adult zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Na; Guo, Heng; Qi, Weizhi; Zhang, Zhiwei; Rong, Jian; Yuan, Zhen; Ge, Wei; Jiang, Huabei; Xi, Lei

    2016-01-01

    The zebrafish, an ideal vertebrate for studying developmental biology and genetics, is increasingly being used to understand human diseases, due to its high similarity to the human genome and its optical transparency during embryonic stages. Once the zebrafish has fully developed, especially wild-type breeds, conventional optical imaging techniques have difficulty in imaging the internal organs and structures with sufficient resolution and penetration depth. Even with established mutant lines that remain transparent throughout their life cycle, it is still challenging for purely optical imaging modalities to visualize the organs of juvenile and adult zebrafish at a micro-scale spatial resolution. In this work, we developed a non-invasive three-dimensional photoacoustic imaging platform with an optimized illumination pattern and a cylindrical-scanning-based data collection system to image entire zebrafish with micro-scale resolutions of 80 μm and 600 μm in the lateral and axial directions, respectively. In addition, we employed a multispectral strategy that utilized excitation wavelengths from 690 nm to 930 nm to statistically quantify the relative optical absorption spectrum of major organs. PMID:27699119

  3. Impressions of female body: representations of women and body-image in the brazilian press

    OpenAIRE

    Dulce Helena Mazer

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the representations of women and bodyimage in the brazilian press and it questions the sexual divisions in the society by the images published in the media. It also presents an iconological analysisof the photographs in six editions of the periodical Folha de São Paulo in 2012, randomly chosen. From a critical theory and analysis it shows that the image of women, which has long been used as merchandise in advertising, is increasingly perceived by print journalism as a ...

  4. Gender and race matter: the importance of considering intersections in Black women's body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capodilupo, Christina M; Kim, Suah

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, body image literature has used race as a variable to explain ethnic-specific differences in body satisfaction and the prevalence of eating disorders. Instead of employing race as an explanatory variable, the present study utilized a qualitative method to explore the relationships among race, ethnicity, culture, discrimination, and body image for African American and Black women. The purpose of the study was to gain a deeper understanding of how race and gender interface with and inform body image. Women were recruited through community centers in a major metropolitan city and represented a diversity of ethnicities. In total, 26 women who identified racially as Black (mean age = 26 years) participated in 6 focus groups, which explored body ideals, societal messages, cultural values, racism, and sexism. Narrative data from the focus groups were analyzed using grounded theory. The central category, Body/Self Image, was informed by perceptions of and feelings about not only weight and shape but also hair, skin, and attitude. Three additional categories, each with multiple properties, emerged: Interpersonal Influences, Experiences of Oppression, and Media Messages. These categories interact to explain the central category of Body/Self Image, and an emergent theory is presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Gender and race matter: the importance of considering intersections in Black women's body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capodilupo, Christina M; Kim, Suah

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, body image literature has used race as a variable to explain ethnic-specific differences in body satisfaction and the prevalence of eating disorders. Instead of employing race as an explanatory variable, the present study utilized a qualitative method to explore the relationships among race, ethnicity, culture, discrimination, and body image for African American and Black women. The purpose of the study was to gain a deeper understanding of how race and gender interface with and inform body image. Women were recruited through community centers in a major metropolitan city and represented a diversity of ethnicities. In total, 26 women who identified racially as Black (mean age = 26 years) participated in 6 focus groups, which explored body ideals, societal messages, cultural values, racism, and sexism. Narrative data from the focus groups were analyzed using grounded theory. The central category, Body/Self Image, was informed by perceptions of and feelings about not only weight and shape but also hair, skin, and attitude. Three additional categories, each with multiple properties, emerged: Interpersonal Influences, Experiences of Oppression, and Media Messages. These categories interact to explain the central category of Body/Self Image, and an emergent theory is presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24188651

  6. Segmentation of vertebral bodies in CT and MR images based on 3D deterministic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štern, Darko; Vrtovec, Tomaž; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2011-03-01

    The evaluation of vertebral deformations is of great importance in clinical diagnostics and therapy of pathological conditions affecting the spine. Although modern clinical practice is oriented towards the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques, as they can provide a detailed 3D representation of vertebrae, the established methods for the evaluation of vertebral deformations still provide only a two-dimensional (2D) geometrical description. Segmentation of vertebrae in 3D may therefore not only improve their visualization, but also provide reliable and accurate 3D measurements of vertebral deformations. In this paper we propose a method for 3D segmentation of individual vertebral bodies that can be performed in CT and MR images. Initialized with a single point inside the vertebral body, the segmentation is performed by optimizing the parameters of a 3D deterministic model of the vertebral body to achieve the best match of the model to the vertebral body in the image. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated on five CT (40 vertebrae) and five T2-weighted MR (40 vertebrae) spine images, among them five are normal and five are pathological. The results show that the proposed method can be used for 3D segmentation of vertebral bodies in CT and MR images and that the proposed model can describe a variety of vertebral body shapes. The method may be therefore used for initializing whole vertebra segmentation or reliably describing vertebral body deformations.

  7. Body Image as a Mediator of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlenkamp, Jennifer J.; Brausch, Amy M.

    2012-01-01

    Attitudes towards the body have been largely overlooked as a potential risk factor for adolescent non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) despite theorizing that a negative body image may play a critical role in the development of this behavior. The current study used structural equation modeling to evaluate the fit of a theoretical model specifying body…

  8. Body image in cancer survivors : a systematic review of case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann, Vicky; Hagedoorn, Mariët; Tuinman, Marrit A

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: There is common consensus that cancer and its treatment can impair the body, but combined evidence of the previous literature in cancer survivors is missing. Therefore, we reviewed body image in cancer survivors and focused on case-control studies, in order to draw conclusions as to whether

  9. Measuring outcomes in plastic surgery: body image and quality of life in abdominoplasty patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Michael A; Pruzinsky, Thomas; Cash, Thomas F; Persing, John A

    2003-08-01

    Abdominoplasty is an increasingly common aesthetic surgery procedure that has yet to be evaluated using the most recently developed and psychometrically sophisticated measures of body image and quality-of-life outcomes. This study prospectively evaluated 30 consecutive female abdominoplasty patients, preoperatively and postoperatively, using measures of body image, psychological investment in appearance, and general psychosocial functioning. One-way repeated-measures (pretest versus posttest) analyses of variance revealed significant positive postsurgical changes on the Appearance Evaluation subscale of the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire. Mean scores for the questionnaire's Body Areas Satisfaction Scale improved postoperatively (p < 0.001). Scores for the Body Exposure and Sexual Relations Questionnaire also improved significantly (p < 0.001) postoperatively. These findings indicate significant improvements in body image outcome, including positive changes in patients' evaluations of their overall appearance, their average body image dissatisfaction, and their experiences of self-consciousness and avoidance of body exposure during sexual activities. As predicted, no changes were seen on any measure of psychological investment in appearance or on patients' reports of general psychosocial functioning (self-esteem, satisfaction with life, or social anxiety). PMID:12900625

  10. Predictors and Health-Related Outcomes of Positive Body Image in Adolescent Girls: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Rachel; Tiggemann, Marika; Clark, Levina

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate prospective predictors and health-related outcomes of positive body image in adolescent girls. In so doing, the modified acceptance model of intuitive eating was also examined longitudinally. A sample of 298 girls aged 12 to 16 years completed a questionnaire containing measures of body appreciation, potential…

  11. Body Image Dissatisfaction and Eating Disturbances among Children and Adolescents: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Prevention Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skemp-Arlt, Karen M.

    2006-01-01

    Body image dissatisfaction and eating disturbances are prevalent among youths and are beginning at an increasingly younger age. The glorification of the ideal, thin body type surrounds youths, in direct contrast to the increasing rates of overweight and obesity among the same population. The messages that children and adolescents are receiving are…

  12. Young Girls' Eating Attitudes and Body Image Dissatisfaction: Associations with Communication and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kichler, Jessica C.; Crowther, Janis H.

    2009-01-01

    The relationships among communication, modeling, body image dissatisfaction, and maladaptive eating attitudes and behaviors in preadolescent girls were investigated in a cross-sectional study of 69 girls in fourth through sixth grade and their mothers. Participants completed questionnaires assessing familial and peer influences, body image…

  13. Who's that Girl: Television's Role in the Body Image Development of Young White and Black Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schooler, Deborah; Ward, L. Monique; Merriwether, Ann; Caruthers, Allison

    2004-01-01

    Although findings indicate a connection between frequent media use and greater body dissatisfaction, little attention has focused on the role of race. Accordingly, this study investigates the relation between television viewing and body image among 87 Black and 584 White women. Participants reported monthly viewing amounts of mainstream and…

  14. Psychobehavioral Attributes of Body Image in College Freshmen and Seniors: Implications for Long-Term Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, James E.; Partridge, Julie A.; Maurer-Starks, Suanne

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Understanding and assessing behavioral risk factors, particularly among college populations, is challenging for health educators. Similarly, issues affecting mental health remain unclear in terms of how body image evolves year to year in college students. A better understanding of how students perceive their bodies and to what extent…

  15. Acculturation, Body Image, Self-Esteem, and Eating-Disorder Symptomatology in Adolescent Mexican American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, Greg W.; Kashubeck, Susan

    1996-01-01

    Investigated the relationship among acculturation, body image, self-esteem, and eating disorder symptomatology in 120 Mexican-American adolescent women. Findings indicate that acculturation levels were not related to anorexic or bulimic symptomatology, self-esteem, body dissatisfaction or thinness of ideal and attractive figures. Also, lower…

  16. Body image, eating disorders, and the relationship to adolescent media use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benowitz-Fredericks, Carson A; Garcia, Kaylor; Massey, Meredith; Vasagar, Brintha; Borzekowski, Dina L G

    2012-06-01

    Historically and currently, media messages around body shape and size emphasize the importance of being below-average weight for women and hypermuscular for men. The media messages around physical appearance are not realistic for most and lead to body dissatisfaction for most adolescents. Interventions designed to mitigate the influence of negative media messages on adolescents' body image are presented; however, most have shown limited success.

  17. Prevalence and magnitude of body weight and image dissatisfaction among women in dietetics majors

    OpenAIRE

    Arroyo Izaga, Marta; Basabe, Nekane; Serrano, Leticia; Sánchez, Celia; Ansotegui Alday, Laura; Rocandio Pablo, Ana María

    2010-01-01

    [EN] Some authors have suggested that body weight dissatisfaction may be high in students majoring in dietetics. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine the extent of body weight and image dissatisfaction in a sample of women in dietetics major. Additionally, predictors of magnitude of body weight dissatisfaction were analyzed. Participants were 62 volunteers with normalweight whose mean age was 21.87±1.89 years old (nonrandom sample). The assessment instruments included anthropometric...

  18. Body image, eating disorders, and the relationship to adolescent media use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benowitz-Fredericks, Carson A; Garcia, Kaylor; Massey, Meredith; Vasagar, Brintha; Borzekowski, Dina L G

    2012-06-01

    Historically and currently, media messages around body shape and size emphasize the importance of being below-average weight for women and hypermuscular for men. The media messages around physical appearance are not realistic for most and lead to body dissatisfaction for most adolescents. Interventions designed to mitigate the influence of negative media messages on adolescents' body image are presented; however, most have shown limited success. PMID:22643174

  19. Body image and weight management: young people, internet advertisements and pharmacists

    OpenAIRE

    Luevorasirikul, Kanokrat

    2007-01-01

    Media promotion of the ideal body as slimness for women and muscularity for men, has led to increasing numbers of both genders reporting dissatisfaction with their bodies and trying to change using weight control products. It has been suggested that pharmacists can play a key role in promoting healthy lifestyles and weight management. The main aim of the research study was to examine the impact of media on body image perception and to investigate the role of pharmacists in weight man...

  20. Muscle dysmorphia: Could it be classified as an addiction to body image?

    OpenAIRE

    FOSTER, ANDREW C.; Shorter, Gillian W.; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Muscle dysmorphia (MD) describes a condition characterised by a misconstrued body image in which individuals who interpret their body size as both small or weak even though they may look normal or highly muscular. MD has been conceptualized as a type of body dysmorphic disorder, an eating disorder, and obsessive–compulsive disorder symptomatology. Method and aim Through a review of the most salient literature on MD, this paper proposes an alternative classification of MD – the ‘Add...

  1. Predictors and health-related outcomes of positive body image in adolescent girls: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Rachel; Tiggemann, Marika; Clark, Levina

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate prospective predictors and health-related outcomes of positive body image in adolescent girls. In so doing, the modified acceptance model of intuitive eating was also examined longitudinally. A sample of 298 girls aged 12 to 16 years completed a questionnaire containing measures of body appreciation, potential predictors, and a range of health outcomes, at 2 time points separated by 1 year. Longitudinal change regression models showed that perceived body acceptance by others (positively), self-objectification and social comparison (negatively), and body appreciation (positively) prospectively predicted intuitive eating 1 year later, consistent with the acceptance model of intuitive eating. Perceived body acceptance by others was the only proposed predictor to prospectively predict an increase in body appreciation over time. Time 1 body appreciation prospectively predicted a decrease in dieting, alcohol, and cigarette use, and an increase in physical activity 1 year later. In particular, girls with low body appreciation were more likely than girls with high body appreciation to take up alcohol and cigarette use between time points. The results highlight body appreciation as an important target for interventions designed to prevent or delay the uptake of alcohol and cigarette consumption among girls. More broadly, they suggest that a positive body image can confer considerable benefit for adolescent girls. PMID:26727595

  2. Body image, visual working memory and visual mental imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Darling

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Body dissatisfaction (BD is a highly prevalent feature amongst females in society, with the majority of individuals regarding themselves to be overweight compared to their personal ideal, and very few self-describing as underweight. To date, explanations of this dramatic pattern have centred on extrinsic social and media factors, or intrinsic factors connected to individuals’ knowledge and belief structures regarding eating and body shape, with little research examining links between BD and basic cognitive mechanisms. This paper reports a correlational study in which visual and executive cognitive processes that could potentially impact on BD were assessed. Visual memory span and self-rated visual imagery were found to be predictive of BD, alongside a measure of inhibition derived from the Stroop task. In contrast, spatial memory and global precedence were not related to BD. Results are interpreted with reference to the influential multi-component model of working memory.

  3. Does Liposuction Improve Body Image and Symptoms of Eating Disorders?

    OpenAIRE

    Saariniemi, Kai M. M.; Asko M. Salmi; Peltoniemi, Hilkka H.; Charpentier, Pia; Kuokkanen, Hannu O. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Unpleasant attention to unfavorable fat may have harmful psychological effects in terms of body dissatisfaction. As a consequence, this may cause abnormal eating regulation. It has been noted that women interested in liposuction self-report more eating problems. As far as we know, there are no prospective studies with standardized instruments providing sufficient data regarding the effects of aesthetic liposuction on various aspects of quality of life. Nevertheless, publications o...

  4. Body image in Brazil: recent advances in the state of knowledge and methodological issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Laus

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze Brazilian literature on body image and the theoretical and methodological advances that have been made. METHODS A detailed review was undertaken of the Brazilian literature on body image, selecting published articles, dissertations and theses from the SciELO, SCOPUS, LILACS and PubMed databases and the CAPES thesis database. Google Scholar was also used. There was no start date for the search, which used the following search terms: “body image” AND “Brazil” AND “scale(s”; “body image” AND “Brazil” AND “questionnaire(s”; “body image” AND “Brazil” AND “instrument(s”; “body image” limited to Brazil and “body image”. RESULTS The majority of measures available were intended to be used in college students, with half of them evaluating satisfaction/dissatisfaction with the body. Females and adolescents of both sexes were the most studied population. There has been a significant increase in the number of available instruments. Nevertheless, numerous published studies have used non-validated instruments, with much confusion in the use of the appropriate terms (e.g., perception, dissatisfaction, distortion. CONCLUSIONS Much more is needed to understand body image within the Brazilian population, especially in terms of evaluating different age groups and diversifying the components/dimensions assessed. However, interest in this theme is increasing, and important steps have been taken in a short space of time.

  5. Body image in Brazil: recent advances in the state of knowledge and methodological issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laus, Maria Fernanda; Kakeshita, Idalina Shiraishi; Costa, Telma Maria Braga; Ferreira, Maria Elisa Caputo; Fortes, Leonardo de Sousa; Almeida, Sebastião Sousa

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze Brazilian literature on body image and the theoretical and methodological advances that have been made. METHODS A detailed review was undertaken of the Brazilian literature on body image, selecting published articles, dissertations and theses from the SciELO, SCOPUS, LILACS and PubMed databases and the CAPES thesis database. Google Scholar was also used. There was no start date for the search, which used the following search terms: “body image” AND “Brazil” AND “scale(s)”; “body image” AND “Brazil” AND “questionnaire(s)”; “body image” AND “Brazil” AND “instrument(s)”; “body image” limited to Brazil and “body image”. RESULTS The majority of measures available were intended to be used in college students, with half of them evaluating satisfaction/dissatisfaction with the body. Females and adolescents of both sexes were the most studied population. There has been a significant increase in the number of available instruments. Nevertheless, numerous published studies have used non-validated instruments, with much confusion in the use of the appropriate terms (e.g., perception, dissatisfaction, distortion). CONCLUSIONS Much more is needed to understand body image within the Brazilian population, especially in terms of evaluating different age groups and diversifying the components/dimensions assessed. However, interest in this theme is increasing, and important steps have been taken in a short space of time. PMID:24897056

  6. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in skeletal muscle disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelly, Martin J; Bolster, Ferdia; Foran, Paul; Crosbie, Ian; Kavanagh, Eoin C; Eustace, Stephen J

    2010-03-01

    The evaluation of muscle diseases has traditionally integrated clinical with biochemical findings, occasionally resorting to muscle biopsy. This article reviews the role and imaging appearances of muscle diseases at MRI, specifically emphasising the role of WBMRI in global assessment of muscle abnormality, and in particular its role in determining distribution and extent of muscle abnormality.

  7. Parametric modelling and segmentation of vertebral bodies in 3D CT and MR spine images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štern, Darko; Likar, Boštjan; Pernuš, Franjo; Vrtovec, Tomaž

    2011-12-01

    Accurate and objective evaluation of vertebral deformations is of significant importance in clinical diagnostics and therapy of pathological conditions affecting the spine. Although modern clinical practice is focused on three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques, the established methods for evaluation of vertebral deformations are limited to measuring deformations in two-dimensional (2D) x-ray images. In this paper, we propose a method for quantitative description of vertebral body deformations by efficient modelling and segmentation of vertebral bodies in 3D. The deformations are evaluated from the parameters of a 3D superquadric model, which is initialized as an elliptical cylinder and then gradually deformed by introducing transformations that yield a more detailed representation of the vertebral body shape. After modelling the vertebral body shape with 25 clinically meaningful parameters and the vertebral body pose with six rigid body parameters, the 3D model is aligned to the observed vertebral body in the 3D image. The performance of the method was evaluated on 75 vertebrae from CT and 75 vertebrae from T2-weighted MR spine images, extracted from the thoracolumbar part of normal and pathological spines. The results show that the proposed method can be used for 3D segmentation of vertebral bodies in CT and MR images, as the proposed 3D model is able to describe both normal and pathological vertebral body deformations. The method may therefore be used for initialization of whole vertebra segmentation or for quantitative measurement of vertebral body deformations.

  8. Evaluation of whole-body MR to CT deformable image registration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akbarzadeh, A.; Gutierrez, D.; Baskin, A.; Ay, M. R.; Ahmadian, A.; Alam, N. Riahi; Loevblad, K. O.; Zaidi, H.

    2013-01-01

    Multimodality image registration plays a crucial role in various clinical and research applications. The aim of this study is to present an optimized MR to CT whole-body deformable image registration algorithm and its validation using clinical studies. A 3D intermodality registration technique based

  9. Socializing Young Readers: A Content Analysis of Body Size Images in Caldecott Medal Winners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedwick, Linda; Latham, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have examined gender issues in children's literature, but a review of the literature reveals that few studies have examined the instances of fatness in the images. Studying the fat representation in the images of children's literature is important because exposure to a variety of body types may slow the rate of children's body…

  10. Commentary on: Muscle dysmorphia: Could it be classified as an addiction to body image?

    OpenAIRE

    NIEUWOUDT, JOHANNA E.

    2014-01-01

    Background The article titled ‘Muscle dysmorphia: Could it be classified as an addiction to body image?’ used Griffiths (2005) addiction components model as the framework in which to define muscle dysmorphia (MD) as an addiction. The authors (Foster, Shorter & Griffiths, 2014) proposed that MD could be re-classified as an addiction to body image. Method and aim In response to the original article, the author of this commentary reflected on the ‘Addiction to body image’ model and the component...

  11. Body image in obese children: Effects produced by physical exercise program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Romero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Body image self-perception in obese children is important since it can encourage behaviors leading to social isolation and cause an increase in food intake. The objective of this study was to determine the changes produced in the level of body image satisfaction and the variation in anthropometric indicators of young children in the State of Sonora, Mexico after participating in a program of 40 sessions of physical exercise with an average caloric expenditure of 267 Kcal per session. 119 children were enrolled in the program; they were between the ages of 8 and 11 with a body mass index (BMI of 26.59 ± 4.2 (kg/m2. They were evaluated before and after the physical activity intervention by means of a Body Image Satisfaction (BIS Test. The results with significant changes (p ≤ 0.05 between the pre-test and post-test are in weight and height. There are also significant changes observed in self-image in 15 parts of evaluated body segments, mainly in the abdomen, chest, thighs, buttocks, waist, and hips in all children from the experimental group. The results conclude that physical exercise, in spite of not producing significant changes in BMI, can positively modify body image perception.

  12. Instrument translation and initial psychometric evaluation of the Danish Body Image Quality of Life Inventory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Trine Bernholdt; Berg, Selina Kikkenborg; Dixon, Jane;

    2016-01-01

    RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Negative body perception has been reported in a number of patient populations. No instrument in Danish for measuring body image-related concerns has been available. Without such an instrument, understanding of the phenomenon in Danish-speaking populations is limited....... The purpose of the study was thus to translate and validate a Danish version of the Body Image Quality of Life Inventory (BIQLI), in order to obtain a valid instrument applicable for healthcare research. METHODS: The study consisted of two phases: (i) instrument adaptation, including forward and back....... CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated tentative support for the validity of the Danish Body Image Quality of Life (BIQLI-DA) and found the measure to be reliable in terms of internal consistency. Further exploration of response processes and construct validity is needed....

  13. Relations among media influence, body image, eating concerns, and sexual orientation in men: A preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carper, Teresa L Marino; Negy, Charles; Tantleff-Dunn, Stacey

    2010-09-01

    The current study explored the relation between sexual orientation, media persuasion, and eating and body image concerns among 78 college men (39 gay; 39 straight). Participants completed measures of sexual orientation, eating disorder symptoms, appearance-related anxiety, perceived importance of physical attractiveness, perceptions of media influence, and media exposure. Gay men scored significantly higher on drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, and body image-related anxiety than their straight counterparts. Additionally, perceptions of media influence were higher for gay men, and significantly mediated the relation between sexual orientation and eating and body image concerns. Sexual orientation also moderated the relation between perceived media influence and beliefs regarding the importance of physical attractiveness, as this relation was significant for gay men, but not straight men. The current findings suggest that gay men's increased vulnerability to media influence partially accounts for the relatively high rate of eating pathology observed in this population.

  14. Men, muscles, and mood: the relationship between self-concept, dysphoria, and body image disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Michael B; Kaminski, Patricia L

    2009-01-01

    Beginning in the early 1990s investigations into the body image concerns of men have increased, and this study adds to extant research by examining correlates of more general body dissatisfaction (BD) and symptoms of muscle dysmorphia (MD) in particular. Three hundred four undergraduate men completed a broad-based symptom inventory, a self-concept questionnaire, and an instrument that assessed problematic body image, eating, and exercise patterns as well as specific symptoms of MD. Multiple regression analyses suggest that lower ratings of overall self-concept and higher levels of depression, anxiety, and interpersonal sensitivity are predictive of body image concerns in men. Furthermore, these variables accounted for almost twice the variance in general BD than they did for specific symptoms of MD. In addition, anorexic and bulimic behaviors, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and risk factors for interpersonal problems were also associated with symptoms of MD, even when BD was controlled. PMID:19171324

  15. Relations among media influence, body image, eating concerns, and sexual orientation in men: A preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carper, Teresa L Marino; Negy, Charles; Tantleff-Dunn, Stacey

    2010-09-01

    The current study explored the relation between sexual orientation, media persuasion, and eating and body image concerns among 78 college men (39 gay; 39 straight). Participants completed measures of sexual orientation, eating disorder symptoms, appearance-related anxiety, perceived importance of physical attractiveness, perceptions of media influence, and media exposure. Gay men scored significantly higher on drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, and body image-related anxiety than their straight counterparts. Additionally, perceptions of media influence were higher for gay men, and significantly mediated the relation between sexual orientation and eating and body image concerns. Sexual orientation also moderated the relation between perceived media influence and beliefs regarding the importance of physical attractiveness, as this relation was significant for gay men, but not straight men. The current findings suggest that gay men's increased vulnerability to media influence partially accounts for the relatively high rate of eating pathology observed in this population. PMID:20739233

  16. Spontaneously occurring images and early memories in people with body dysmorphic disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Osman, Selen; Cooper, Myra; Hackmann, Ann; Veale, David

    2004-01-01

    A semi-structured interview assessing the presence and characteristics of spontaneous appearance-related images was designed and administered. A total of 18 patients with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) and 18 normal controls took part. The BDD patients were found to have spontaneously occurring appearance-related images that were significantly more negative, recurrent, and viewed from an observer perspective than control participants. These images were more vivid and detailed and typically in...

  17. Health perceptions, self and body image, physical activity and nutrition among undergraduate students in Israel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liat Korn

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This study examines health perceptions, self and body image, physical exercise and nutrition among undergraduate students. METHODS: A structured, self-reported questionnaire was administered to more than 1500 students at a large academic institute in Israel. The study population was heterogenic in both gender and fields of academic study. RESULTS: High correlations between health perceptions, appropriate nutrition, and positive self and body image were found. The relationships between these variables differed between the subpopulation in the sample and the different genders. Engagement in physical exercise contributed to positive body image and positive health perceptions more than engagement in healthy nutrition. Nutrition students reported higher frequencies of positive health perceptions, positive self and body image and higher engagement in physical exercise in comparison to all other students in the sample. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests, as have many before, that successful health promotion policy should reflect a collectivist rather than an individualist ethos by providing health prerequisites through a public policy of health-promotion, where the academic settings support a healthy lifestyle policy, by increasing availability of a healthy, nutritious and varied menu in the cafeterias, and offering students various activities that enhance healthy eating and exercise. IMPLICATIONS AND CONTRIBUTION: This study examined health perceptions, self-image, physical exercise and nutrition among undergraduate students and found high correlations between these topics. Nutrition students reported higher frequencies of positive health perceptions, and positive self and body image and engaged more in physical exercise when compared with all other students in the sample.

  18. Waif goodbye! Average-size female models promote positive body image and appeal to consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrichs, Phillippa C; Lee, Christina

    2011-10-01

    Despite consensus that exposure to media images of thin fashion models is associated with poor body image and disordered eating behaviours, few attempts have been made to enact change in the media. This study sought to investigate an effective alternative to current media imagery, by exploring the advertising effectiveness of average-size female fashion models, and their impact on the body image of both women and men. A sample of 171 women and 120 men were assigned to one of three advertisement conditions: no models, thin models and average-size models. Women and men rated average-size models as equally effective in advertisements as thin and no models. For women with average and high levels of internalisation of cultural beauty ideals, exposure to average-size female models was associated with a significantly more positive body image state in comparison to exposure to thin models and no models. For men reporting high levels of internalisation, exposure to average-size models was also associated with a more positive body image state in comparison to viewing thin models. These findings suggest that average-size female models can promote positive body image and appeal to consumers. PMID:21500105

  19. Waif goodbye! Average-size female models promote positive body image and appeal to consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrichs, Phillippa C; Lee, Christina

    2011-10-01

    Despite consensus that exposure to media images of thin fashion models is associated with poor body image and disordered eating behaviours, few attempts have been made to enact change in the media. This study sought to investigate an effective alternative to current media imagery, by exploring the advertising effectiveness of average-size female fashion models, and their impact on the body image of both women and men. A sample of 171 women and 120 men were assigned to one of three advertisement conditions: no models, thin models and average-size models. Women and men rated average-size models as equally effective in advertisements as thin and no models. For women with average and high levels of internalisation of cultural beauty ideals, exposure to average-size female models was associated with a significantly more positive body image state in comparison to exposure to thin models and no models. For men reporting high levels of internalisation, exposure to average-size models was also associated with a more positive body image state in comparison to viewing thin models. These findings suggest that average-size female models can promote positive body image and appeal to consumers.

  20. Factors associated with body image dissatisfaction among adolescents in public schools students in Salvador, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica L.P. Santana

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the prevalence of body image dissatisfaction and associated factors among students in Salvador, Brazil. Methods: A cross-sectional study involving a random sample of 1,494 (852 girls and 642 boys adolescents between 11 and 17 years of age who were students in the public schools in Salvador, Brazil. Participants completed the Body Shape Questionnaire and the Eating Attitudes Test-26. Body image was characterized as satisfactory or unsatisfactory. We obtained demographic, anthropometric and economic information and information regarding the stage of maturation, self-perception of body weight, and consumption of sweetened beverages and diet soft drinks. To identify associated factors we used Poisson regression analysis. Results: Body image dissatisfaction was present in 19.5% of the adolescents, with a prevalence of 26.6% among the girls and 10% among the boys. Independent of sex, the prevalence of body image dissatisfaction was higher among adolescents who were overweight or obese (girls, PR: 1.38, CI: 1.09-1.73 and boys, PR: 2.26, CI: 1.08-4.75, higher among those who perceived themselves as fat (girls, PR: 2.85, CI: 2.07-3.93 and boys, PR: 3.17, CI: 1.39-7.23, and higher among those who had negative attitudes toward eating (girls, PR: 2.42, CI: 1.91-3.08 and boys, PR: 4.67, CI: 2.85-7.63. A reduction in body image dissatisfaction was only identified among underweight girls (PR: 0.12, CI: 0.03-0.49. Conclusions: A high occurrence of body image dissatisfaction was observed among the adolescents, and biological and behavioral factors were associated with this dissatisfaction.

  1. Eating behavior and body image perception of pregnant women attending a high-risk outpatient center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Guimarães Nobre

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the eating behavior and body image perception in pregnant women attending a high-risk outpatient center. Methods: A quantitative, cross-sectional, observational study conducted with 28 overweight pregnant women attending the first consultation in the nutrition outpatient center of a maternity hospital in Fortaleza-CE, from December 2010 to February 2011. It has been used a pre-established form containing data on the characterization of the sample (socioeconomic, obstetric, and nutritional, the BES (Binge Eating Scale to assess binge eating and BSQ (Body Shape Questionnaire to assess the severity or absence of body image disorder. The variables were presented as mean ± standard deviation and simple frequency and percentage. The Pearson’s correlation was used to verify the relation between body image and binge eating, considering p <0.05. Results: The pregnant women studied had a mean age of 29.4 ± 6.3 years and mean gestational age of 24.6 ± 8.2 weeks. It was found a prevalence of 71.5% (n=20 of body image disorder and 17.8% (n=5 of binge eating. It was also observed a direct and significant correlation between the body image perception and the degree of binge eating (r=0.4358, p=0.020. Conclusion: The high rate of body image disorder positively related to a significant binge eating indicates an unfavorable adjustment of this group of pregnant women to alterations in weight and body shape and size, which are inherent to pregnancy, standing out as group that needs special attention by the professional team. doi:10.5020/18061230.2014.p256

  2. An adaptive diffusion-weighted whole-body magnetic resonance imaging scheme using the multistation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yeji

    2016-02-01

    Whole-body diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is a useful tool in oncology, which enables fast screening of disseminated tumors, lymph nodes or abscesses in the body. Multistation magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or continuously moving table (CMT) MRI can be performed to overcome the limited field of view (FOV) of the magnet bore in whole-body DWI. Although CMT-MRI is regarded as a more advanced form of whole-body MRI, it cannot be widely used because most of the available MR systems are not equipped with the required hardware/software to perform CMT. Thus, optimizing the multistation approach for whole-body DWI, which is more widely available and easier to perform with the existing MR systems, is worthwhile. To improve the quality of DW images acquired with the multistation approach, we used different combinations of the built-in body RF coil and the phased-array surface RF coils for reception of the signals in whole-body DWI in this work. If different coils are selectively used in the extended FOV and appropriate reconstruction algorithms are exploited, the screening ability of whole-body DWI can be improved while minimizing the patient's discomfort and the artifacts due to physiological motions.

  3. Automatic techniques for 3D reconstruction of critical workplace body postures from range imaging data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westfeld, Patrick; Maas, Hans-Gerd; Bringmann, Oliver; Gröllich, Daniel; Schmauder, Martin

    2013-11-01

    The paper shows techniques for the determination of structured motion parameters from range camera image sequences. The core contribution of the work presented here is the development of an integrated least squares 3D tracking approach based on amplitude and range image sequences to calculate dense 3D motion vector fields. Geometric primitives of a human body model are fitted to time series of range camera point clouds using these vector fields as additional information. Body poses and motion information for individual body parts are derived from the model fit. On the basis of these pose and motion parameters, critical body postures are detected. The primary aim of the study is to automate ergonomic studies for risk assessments regulated by law, identifying harmful movements and awkward body postures in a workplace.

  4. Reducing the negative effects of media exposure on body image: Testing the effectiveness of subvertising and disclaimer labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, David A; Sandhu, Gaganjyot; Scott, Terri; Akbari, Yasmin

    2016-06-01

    Body image activists have proposed adding disclaimer labels to digitally altered media as a way to promote positive body image. Another approach advocated by activists is to alter advertisements through subvertising (adding social commentary to the image to undermine the message of the advertisement). We examined if body image could be enhanced by attaching Photoshop disclaimers or subvertising to thin-ideal media images of swimsuit models. In Study 1 (N=1268), adult women exposed to disclaimers or subvertising did not report higher body state satisfaction or lower drive for thinness than women exposed to unaltered images. In Study 2 (N=820), adult women who were exposed to disclaimers or subvertising did not report higher state body satisfaction or lower state social appearance comparisons than women exposed to unaltered images or to no images. These results raise questions about the effectiveness of disclaimers and subvertising for promoting body satisfaction.

  5. Reducing the negative effects of media exposure on body image: Testing the effectiveness of subvertising and disclaimer labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, David A; Sandhu, Gaganjyot; Scott, Terri; Akbari, Yasmin

    2016-06-01

    Body image activists have proposed adding disclaimer labels to digitally altered media as a way to promote positive body image. Another approach advocated by activists is to alter advertisements through subvertising (adding social commentary to the image to undermine the message of the advertisement). We examined if body image could be enhanced by attaching Photoshop disclaimers or subvertising to thin-ideal media images of swimsuit models. In Study 1 (N=1268), adult women exposed to disclaimers or subvertising did not report higher body state satisfaction or lower drive for thinness than women exposed to unaltered images. In Study 2 (N=820), adult women who were exposed to disclaimers or subvertising did not report higher state body satisfaction or lower state social appearance comparisons than women exposed to unaltered images or to no images. These results raise questions about the effectiveness of disclaimers and subvertising for promoting body satisfaction. PMID:27085112

  6. X-ray dark-field imaging for detection of foreign bodies in food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M.S.; Lauridsen, T.; Feidenhans'l, R.;

    2013-01-01

    Conventional X-ray transmission radiography has long been used for online detection of foreign bodies in food products relying on the absorption contrast between the foreign body and food product. In this paper, we present a novel approach for detection of organic foreign bodies such as paper...... and insects in two food products using X-ray dark-field imaging with a grating interferometer. The ability to detect the foreign bodies is quantified using a measure of the contrast-to-noise ratio. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd....

  7. The evaluation of body image in children with type 1 diabetes: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troncone, Alda; Prisco, Francesco; Cascella, Crescenzo; Chianese, Antonietta; Zanfardino, Angela; Iafusco, Dario

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the body image perception in children with type 1 diabetes in order to identify symptoms of disordered eating behaviours early. Children with type 1 diabetes and controls showed underestimation and dissatisfaction with body size. The patients, especially girls, were more accurate in their perception of body size than the control group. The study sheds light on some of the underlying factors that may contribute to the development of disordered eating behaviours in adolescence. The causes of the differences of perception of body size are discussed. PMID:24752557

  8. Body Image Avoidance, Body Dissatisfaction, and Eating Pathology: Is There a Difference Between Male Gym Users and Non-Gym Users?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Peta; McIntyre, Timothy; Bannatyne, Amy

    2016-03-01

    With research highlighting the increasing prevalence and severity of body image and eating disturbances in males, particularly athletes and regular gymnasium users, the current study examined body image and eating disturbances in a sample of male gym users and non-gym users (N = 180). Based on previous research, it was predicted that male gym users would report greater body image disturbance (e.g., body image avoidance and body dissatisfaction) and eating pathology, compared with non-gym users. Results of the study partially supported hypotheses, revealing body dissatisfaction and eating pathology were significantly increased in male gym users. However, no significant differences were observed in body image avoidance behaviors, though this is likely because of methodological limitations associated with psychometric measures selected. The study provides preliminary evidence that male gym users do experience subclinical eating and body image concerns, with some also experiencing clinically significant symptoms that could be precursors to the later development of an eating disorder. Results of the current study highlight the importance of educating key stakeholders within health and fitness centers, through community-based interventions, to increase awareness regarding male body image and eating disturbances.

  9. Media exposure and influence of female athlete body images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeney Christensen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The job of any form of media is to convey a message. These messages can range from a benign sales ad to deeper subliminal message of acceptable behavior.  Historically, media has taught us that men are supposed to compete in physical activities such as sport and any women who choose to do so are type casted as being lesbian or tomboys. To combat this, females often go to great lengths, including portraying themselves as sexual objects, to prove their femininity and thus lose their credibility as athletes.  The other issue that can arise from this include other female athletes concentrating more on the physique of their bodies and less on performing their athletic talents. 

  10. Validity of body image scales for Brazilian older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucilene Ferreira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to translate the Body Appreciation Scale (BAS and Aging Perceptions Questionnaire (APQ for older adults into Brazilian Portuguese, and evaluate the psychometric properties of these instruments. A sample of 606 participants aged 60 to 98 years were recruited from hospitals, rest homes, physical activity centers, leisure centers, churches/religious institutions and from the general community. All participants were personally invited and voluntarily accepted to participate in the research. A confirmatory factor analysis showed a good fit to the original APQ model and to a new bidimensional model for BAS after excluding some items. We also observed satisfactory evidence of internal consistency, convergent, discriminant, concurrent and divergent validity. Regarding validity, significant variation of scores from the two scales in both, physically active and sedentary participants was herein highlighted. In conclusion, the BAS and APQ appear to be valid and reliable scales for Brazilian researchers to study older adults.

  11. Perceived impact of body feedback from romantic partners on young adults' body image and sexual well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Kaitlyn M; Byers, E Sandra

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the messages individuals receive from their partners about their bodies and their perceived impact on body image and sexual well-being. Young adult men (n=35) and women (n=57) completed open-ended questions identifying messages they had received from partners and the impact of these messages on their body image and sexual well-being. Content coding revealed three verbal (expressions of approval and pride, challenging negative beliefs, expressions of sexual attraction/arousal/desire) and two nonverbal (physical affection, physical expressions of sexual attraction/arousal/desire) positive messages as well as one verbal (disapproval/disgust) and two nonverbal (rejection, humiliation) negative messages. Some participants reported gender-related messages (muscularity/strength, genital appearance, breast appearance, weight, and comparison to others). Positive messages were seen to increase confidence, self-acceptance, and sexual empowerment/fulfillment, whereas negative messages decreased these feelings. Our findings suggest that even everyday, seemingly neutral messages are perceived to have an important impact on young adults. PMID:27085111

  12. Perceived body image in men and women with type 2 diabetes mellitus: correlation of body mass index with the figure rating scale

    OpenAIRE

    Fox Kathleen M; Bazata Debbra D; Bays Harold E; Grandy Susan; Gavin James R

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Body mass index (BMI) is often used as an objective surrogate estimate of body fat. Increased BMI is directly associated with an increase in metabolic disease, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The Stunkard Figure Rating Scale (FRS) is a subjective measure of body fat, and self-perceptions of body image conceivably impact the development and treatment of T2DM. This study examined the self-perception of body image to various levels of BMI among those with T2DM. Metho...

  13. Sex and Age Differences in Body-Image, Self-Esteem, and Body Mass Index in Adolescents and Adults After Single-Ventricle Palliation

    OpenAIRE

    Pike, Nancy A.; Evangelista, Lorraine S.; Doering, Lynn V.; Eastwood, Jo-Ann; Lewis, Alan B.; Child, John S.

    2012-01-01

    Single-ventricle congenital heart disease (SVCHD) requires multiple palliative surgical procedures that leave visible surgical scars and physical deficits, which can alter body-image and self-esteem. This study aimed to compare sex and age differences in body-image, self-esteem, and body mass index (BMI) in adolescents and adults with SVCHD after surgical palliation with those of a healthy control group. Using a comparative, cross-sectional design, 54 adolescent and adult (26 male and 28 fema...

  14. Is the hijab protective? An investigation of body image and related constructs among British Muslim women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Miah, Jusnara; Noorani, Nazerine; Taylor, Donna

    2014-08-01

    Previous studies have reported equivocal findings concerning the impact of wearing a hijab, or Islamic head- and body-cover, on Muslim women's body image. Here, we sought to examine that impact using a larger sample of Muslim women than has been relied upon and a wider range of body image measures. A total of 587 British Muslim women completed a battery of scales assessing their frequency and conservativeness of hijab use, body image variables, attitudes towards the media and beauty ideals, importance of appearance, and religiosity. Preliminary results indicated that 218 women never used the hijab and 369 women used some form of the hijab at least rarely. Controlling for religiosity, women who wore the hijab had more positive body image, lower internalization of media messages about beauty standards, and placed less importance on appearance than women who did not wear the hijab. Among women who wore the hijab, hijab use significantly predicted weight discrepancy and body appreciation over and above religiosity. These results are discussed in terms of the possible protective impact among British Muslim women of wearing the hijab.

  15. Is the hijab protective? An investigation of body image and related constructs among British Muslim women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Miah, Jusnara; Noorani, Nazerine; Taylor, Donna

    2014-08-01

    Previous studies have reported equivocal findings concerning the impact of wearing a hijab, or Islamic head- and body-cover, on Muslim women's body image. Here, we sought to examine that impact using a larger sample of Muslim women than has been relied upon and a wider range of body image measures. A total of 587 British Muslim women completed a battery of scales assessing their frequency and conservativeness of hijab use, body image variables, attitudes towards the media and beauty ideals, importance of appearance, and religiosity. Preliminary results indicated that 218 women never used the hijab and 369 women used some form of the hijab at least rarely. Controlling for religiosity, women who wore the hijab had more positive body image, lower internalization of media messages about beauty standards, and placed less importance on appearance than women who did not wear the hijab. Among women who wore the hijab, hijab use significantly predicted weight discrepancy and body appreciation over and above religiosity. These results are discussed in terms of the possible protective impact among British Muslim women of wearing the hijab. PMID:25040005

  16. Predictors of body image during the first year postpartum:a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rallis, Sofia; Skouteris, Helen; Wertheim, Eleanor H; Paxton, Susan J

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated body image changes and possible predictors of multiple dimensions of body image in the first year postpartum. Women (N = 79) who had been followed up since early pregnancy (including reporting retrospectively about pre-pregnancy and concurrently about late pregnancy) completed questionnaires at 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months postpartum that focussed on body image measures of feeling fat, attractiveness, salience of shape and weight, and strength and fitness. Women experienced greater body dissatisfaction in the postpartum in comparison to pre-pregnancy and late pregnancy, with 6 months postpartum being the time of most body concern. In ratings of perceived current and ideal figure size, women decreased their current size ratings over the postpartum period; however, ratings of ideal figure remained stable over the three time points. The findings also revealed that higher frequency of physical comparison tendencies at 6 weeks postpartum, and depressive symptoms and dieting behaviours at 6 months postpartum were predictors of body image of different types at 12 months post birth. PMID:17613464

  17. Body image perception and attempts to change weight among female medical students at Mangalore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Assessing body image self-perception has used BMI as an indicator of nutritional status. The visual analogue scale is a highly effective instrument for assessing people′s level of dissatisfaction with their body weight while evaluating the perceptual component of body image. Objective: By knowing body mass index of female medical students, to find out their pattern of body image perception and any attempts done to change their weight. Materials and Methods: All the students residing in MBBS ladies hostel were included in this study and a questionnaire regarding body image perception, diet, physical activity and attempts to change weight was instituted. Their responses were collected, tabulated, analyzed and interpreted. Results: Among 147 study subjects, according to BMI, 25(17% were undernourished while 111(75.5% and 11(7.5% were normally nourished and overweight respectively. 35(23.8% of the subjects felt they were lean, 95(64.6% felt they were normal and 17(11.6% felt they were overweight. Regarding image satisfaction, 98(66.7% of them were satisfied with their image and out of 49 who were not satisfied 30 (20.4 % wanted to reduce weight. Skipping meals was practiced by 42 (28.6% of subjects. Conclusion: About 75.5% of the study group were having normal BMI. Most of them perceived their image correctly regarding to their weight. Most of the underweight and all overweight females were not satisfied. Underweight females preferred to gain weight and overweight females preferred to lose weight.

  18. Distress Tolerance as a Predictor of Adherence to a Yoga Intervention: Moderating Roles of BMI and Body Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Scarlett O; Hopkins, Lindsey B; Medina, Johnna L; Rosenfield, David; Powers, Mark B; Smits, Jasper A J

    2016-01-01

    This study tested whether distress tolerance, body image, and body mass index (BMI) predicted adherence to a yoga intervention. Participants were 27 women who participated in a yoga intervention as part of a randomized controlled trial. Attendance and distress tolerance were assessed weekly, and body image and BMI were measured at baseline. Multilevel modeling revealed a three-way interaction of distress tolerance, BMI, and body image (p body image concerns, distress tolerance was positively associated with adherence regardless of BMI (p = .009). However, for those with poor body image, increases in distress tolerance were associated with increases in adherence among overweight participants (p body image concerns, BMI, and their interaction. Research and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:26530475

  19. Tumor glucose metabolism imaged in vivo in small animals with whole-body photoacoustic computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatni, Muhammad Rameez; Xia, Jun; Sohn, Rebecca; Maslov, Konstantin; Guo, Zijian; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Kun; Xia, Younan; Anastasio, Mark; Arbeit, Jeffrey; Wang, Lihong V.

    2012-07-01

    With the increasing use of small animals for human disease studies, small-animal whole-body molecular imaging plays an important role in biomedical research. Currently, none of the existing imaging modalities can provide both anatomical and glucose molecular information, leading to higher costs of building dual-modality systems. Even with image co-registration, the spatial resolution of the molecular imaging modality is not improved. Utilizing a ring-shaped confocal photoacoustic computed tomography system, we demonstrate, for the first time, that both anatomy and glucose uptake can be imaged in a single modality. Anatomy was imaged with the endogenous hemoglobin contrast, and glucose metabolism was imaged with a near-infrared dye-labeled 2-deoxyglucose.

  20. Expand Your Horizon: A programme that improves body image and reduces self-objectification by training women to focus on body functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleva, Jessica M; Martijn, Carolien; Van Breukelen, Gerard J P; Jansen, Anita; Karos, Kai

    2015-09-01

    This study tested Expand Your Horizon, a programme designed to improve body image by training women to focus on the functionality of their body using structured writing assignments. Eighty-one women (Mage=22.77) with a negative body image were randomised to the Expand Your Horizon programme or to an active control programme. Appearance satisfaction, functionality satisfaction, body appreciation, and self-objectification were measured at pretest, posttest, and one-week follow-up. Following the intervention, participants in the Expand Your Horizon programme experienced greater appearance satisfaction, functionality satisfaction, and body appreciation, and lower levels of self-objectification, compared to participants in the control programme. Partial eta-squared effect sizes were of small to medium magnitude. This study is the first to show that focusing on body functionality can improve body image and reduce self-objectification in women with a negative body image. These findings provide support for addressing body functionality in programmes designed to improve body image. PMID:26280376

  1. Real Women Have Curves: A Longitudinal Investigation of TV and the Body Image Development of Latina Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schooler, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    Contextualizing Latina girls' body image development requires an appreciation of mainstream body ideals, Latino/a cultural values, and the process by which Latina girls traverse the borders between them. The current study examines how media use and acculturation act across adolescence to shape the development of body image among Latina girls.…

  2. The Effects of Gender and Family, Friend, and Media Influences on Eating Behaviors and Body Image during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ata, Rheanna N.; Ludden, Alison Bryant; Lally, Megan M.

    2007-01-01

    The current study expands upon body image research to examine how gender, self-esteem, social support, teasing, and family, friend, and media pressures relate to body image and eating-related attitudes and behaviors among male and female adolescents (N = 177). Results indicated that adolescents were dissatisfied with their current bodies: males…

  3. Lean body mass correction of standardized uptake value in simultaneous whole-body positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study explores the possibility of using simultaneous positron emission tomography—magnetic resonance imaging (PET-MRI) to estimate the lean body mass (LBM) in order to obtain a standardized uptake value (SUV) which is less dependent on the patients' adiposity. This approach is compared to (1) the commonly-used method based on a predictive equation for LBM, and (2) to using an LBM derived from PET-CT data. It is hypothesized that an MRI-based correction of SUV provides a robust method due to the high soft-tissue contrast of MRI.A straightforward approach to calculate an MRI-derived LBM is presented. It is based on the fat and water images computed from the two-point Dixon MRI primarily used for attenuation correction in PET-MRI. From these images, a water fraction was obtained for each voxel. Averaging over the whole body yielded the weight-normalized LBM. Performance of the new approach in terms of reducing variations of 18F-Fludeoxyglucose SUVs in brain and liver across 19 subjects was compared with results using predictive methods and PET-CT data to estimate the LBM.The MRI-based method reduced the coefficient of variation of SUVs in the brain by 41  ± 10% which is comparable to the reduction by the PET-CT method (35  ± 10%). The reduction of the predictive LBM method was 29  ± 8%. In the liver, the reduction was less clear, presumably due to other sources of variation.In conclusion, employing the Dixon data in simultaneous PET-MRI for calculation of lean body mass provides a brain SUV which is less dependent on patient adiposity. The reduced dependency is comparable to that obtained by CT and predictive equations. Therefore, it is more comparable across patients. The technique does not impose an overhead in measurement time and is straightforward to implement. (paper)

  4. PRELIMINARY STUDY OF FEASIBILITY OF WHOLE BODY DIFFUSION WEIGHTED IMAGING IN DIAGNOSIS OF METASTASIS OF TUMOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian-he Yang; Jian-zhong Lin; Xin Wang; Jian-hua Lu; Zhong Chen

    2008-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the feasibility of whole body diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in the diagnosis of metastatic tumor.Methods Fifty-six patients (40 males and 16 females, age ranging from 29 to 84 years with a mean age of 57 years) with a variety of primary tumors were investigated by whole body DWI combined with computed tomography (CT) and/or conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Twelve patients underwent positron emission tomography. The final diagnosis was made on the basis of CT or high resolution CT result for lung lesion and MRI or CT result for skull, abdomen and other parts. All tumors were classified into four groups by their diameter: below 1.0 cm, 1.0-1.9 cm, 2.0-2.9 cm, and above 3.0 cm. The sensitivity and specificity of whole body DWI in the detection of metastatic tumor were analyzed.Results The sensitivities of whole body DWI for screening metastasis oftlie four groups were 38%, 75%, 97%, and 100%, respectively. Whole body DWI showed the highest sensitivity and specificity for detecting metastasis of the skeletal system. It was difficult to find metastatic tumor whose diameter was below 1.0 cm, or lymph nodes located in the pelvis with diameter below 2.0 cm. Conclusions Whole body DWI is a promising method in the diagnosis ofmetastastic tumors. With the perfection of scanning parameter, whole body DWI should be a new effective whole body technique for tumor detection.

  5. Relationship between body image disturbance and incidence of depression: the SUN prospective cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Celeste

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body image disturbance is an increasing problem in Western societies and is associated with a number of mental health outcomes including anorexia, bulimia, body dysmorphia, and depression. The aim of this study was to assess the association between body image disturbance and the incidence of depression. Methods This study included 10,286 participants from a dynamic prospective cohort of Spanish university graduates, who were followed-up for a median period of 4.2 years (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra – the SUN study. The key characteristic of the study is the permanently open recruitment that started in 1999. The baseline questionnaire included information about body mass index (BMI and the nine figure schemes that were used to assess body size perception. These variables were grouped according to recommended classifications and the difference between BMI and body size perception was considered as a proxy of body image disturbance. A subject was classified as an incident case of depression if he/she was initially free of depression and reported a physician-made diagnosis of depression and/or the use of antidepressant medication in at least one of the follow-up questionnaires. The association between body image disturbance and the incidence of depression was estimated by calculating the multivariable adjusted Odds Ratio (OR and its 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI, using logistic regression models. Results The cumulative incidence of depression during follow-up in the cohort was 4.8%. Men who underestimated their body size had a high percentage of overweight and obesity (50.1% and 12.6%, respectively, whereas women who overestimated their body size had a high percentage of underweight (87.6%. The underestimation exhibited a negative association with the incidence of depression among women (OR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.54 – 0.95, but this effect disappeared after adjusting for possible confounding variables. The proportion of

  6. Perceived body image in men and women with type 2 diabetes mellitus: correlation of body mass index with the figure rating scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fox Kathleen M

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body mass index (BMI is often used as an objective surrogate estimate of body fat. Increased BMI is directly associated with an increase in metabolic disease, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. The Stunkard Figure Rating Scale (FRS is a subjective measure of body fat, and self-perceptions of body image conceivably impact the development and treatment of T2DM. This study examined the self-perception of body image to various levels of BMI among those with T2DM. Methods Respondents (n = 13,887 to the US Study to Help Improve Early evaluation and management of risk factors Leading to Diabetes (SHIELD 2006 survey self-reported their weight and height for BMI calculation. On the gender-specific Stunkard FRS, respondents selected the figure most closely resembling their body image. Spearman correlation was computed between perceived body image and BMI for men and women separately. Student's t-test analysis compared the mean BMI differences between respondents with and without T2DM. Results Men with T2DM did not significantly differ from men without diabetes mellitus in mean BMI per body image figure except at the extremes in body figures. Women with T2DM had a significantly higher BMI for the same body figure compared with women without diabetes mellitus for most figures (p Conclusions Individuals, particularly women, with T2DM may differ in their perception of body image compared with those without diabetes mellitus. It is unclear if these perceived differences increase the risk of T2DM, or if the diagnosis of T2DM alters body image perceptions.

  7. Instagram Unfiltered: Exploring Associations of Body Image Satisfaction, Instagram #Selfie Posting, and Negative Romantic Relationship Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, Jessica L; Clayton, Russell B

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the predictors and consequences associated with Instagram selfie posting. Thus, this study explored whether body image satisfaction predicts Instagram selfie posting and whether Instagram selfie posting is then associated with Instagram-related conflict and negative romantic relationship outcomes. A total of 420 Instagram users aged 18 to 62 years (M = 29.3, SD = 8.12) completed an online survey questionnaire. Analysis of a serial multiple mediator model using bootstrapping methods indicated that body image satisfaction was sequentially associated with increased Instagram selfie posting and Instagram-related conflict, which related to increased negative romantic relationship outcomes. These findings suggest that when Instagram users promote their body image satisfaction in the form of Instagram selfie posts, risk of Instagram-related conflict and negative romantic relationship outcomes might ensue. Findings from the current study provide a baseline understanding to potential and timely trends regarding Instagram selfie posting.

  8. Overweight, body image and bullying--an epidemiological study of 11- to 15-years olds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brixval, Carina S; Rayce, Signe L B; Rasmussen, Mette;

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between weight status and exposure to bullying among 11-, 13- and 15-year-old Danish school children. Furthermore, the purpose was to investigate the potentially mediating effect of body image. METHODS: Data from the Danish...... ORs were 1.89 (1.25-2.85) in overweight and 2.74 (0.96-7.82) in obese girls. The mediation analyses showed that body image fully mediated the associations between weight status and exposure to bullying in both boys and girls. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that overweight and obese boys and girls...... are of higher odds of being exposed to bullying than their normal weight peers. Moreover, this study finds that body image may statistically explain this association between overweight and exposure to bullying. However, the study is cross-sectional, and hypotheses of possibilities for opposite causality...

  9. Self-compassion, body image, and disordered eating: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Tosca D; Park, Crystal L; Gorin, Amy

    2016-06-01

    Self-compassion, treating oneself as a loved friend might, demonstrates beneficial associations with body image and eating behaviors. In this systematic review, 28 studies supporting the role of self-compassion as a protective factor against poor body image and eating pathology are reviewed. Findings across various study designs consistently linked self-compassion to lower levels of eating pathology, and self-compassion was implicated as a protective factor against poor body image and eating pathology, with a few exceptions. These findings offer preliminary support that self-compassion may protect against eating pathology by: (a) decreasing eating disorder-related outcomes directly; (b) preventing initial occurrence of a risk factor of a maladaptive outcome; (c) interacting with risk factors to interrupt their deleterious effects; and (d) disrupting the mediational chain through which risk factors operate. We conclude with suggestions for future research that may inform intervention development, including the utilization of research designs that better afford causal inference. PMID:27038782

  10. New possibilities in the prevention of eating disorders: The introduction of positive body image measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piran, Niva

    2015-06-01

    Delineating positive psychological processes in inhabiting the body, as well as quantitative measures to assess them, can facilitate progress in the field of prevention of eating disorders by expanding outcome evaluation of prevention interventions, identifying novel mediators of change, and increasing highly needed research into protective factors. Moreover, enhancing positive ways of inhabiting the body may contribute toward the maintenance of gains of prevention interventions. Integrated social etiological models to eating disorders that focus on gender and other social variables, such as the Developmental Theory of Embodiment (Piran & Teall, 2012a), can contribute to positive body image intervention development and research within the prevention field. Using the Developmental Theory of Embodiment as a lens, this article explores whether existing prevention programs (i.e., Cognitive Dissonance and Media Smart) may already work to promote positive body image, and whether prevention programs need to be expanded toward this goal.

  11. Negative comparisons about one's appearance mediate the relationship between Facebook usage and body image concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardouly, Jasmine; Vartanian, Lenny R

    2015-01-01

    Use of social media, such as Facebook, is pervasive among young women. Body dissatisfaction is also highly prevalent in this demographic. The present study examined the relationship between Facebook usage and body image concerns among female university students (N=227), and tested whether appearance comparisons on Facebook in general, or comparisons to specific female target groups (family members, close friends, distant peers [women one may know but do not regularly socialize with], celebrities) mediated this relationship. Results showed a positive relationship between Facebook usage and body image concerns, which was mediated by appearance comparisons in general, frequency of comparisons to close friends and distant peers, and by upward comparisons (judging one's own appearance to be worse) to distant peers and celebrities. Thus, young women who spend more time on Facebook may feel more concerned about their body because they compare their appearance to others (especially to peers) on Facebook. PMID:25462886

  12. New possibilities in the prevention of eating disorders: The introduction of positive body image measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piran, Niva

    2015-06-01

    Delineating positive psychological processes in inhabiting the body, as well as quantitative measures to assess them, can facilitate progress in the field of prevention of eating disorders by expanding outcome evaluation of prevention interventions, identifying novel mediators of change, and increasing highly needed research into protective factors. Moreover, enhancing positive ways of inhabiting the body may contribute toward the maintenance of gains of prevention interventions. Integrated social etiological models to eating disorders that focus on gender and other social variables, such as the Developmental Theory of Embodiment (Piran & Teall, 2012a), can contribute to positive body image intervention development and research within the prevention field. Using the Developmental Theory of Embodiment as a lens, this article explores whether existing prevention programs (i.e., Cognitive Dissonance and Media Smart) may already work to promote positive body image, and whether prevention programs need to be expanded toward this goal. PMID:25886711

  13. Understanding adolescent girls’ vulnerability to the impact of the mass media on body image and restrained eating behaviour: the role of media type, body perfect internalisation and materialism

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Beth Teresa

    2012-01-01

    There is a strong body of psychological research implicating the mass media in the aetiology of adolescent girls’ negative body image and eating behaviours. The present thesis aims to extend this research by examining potential factors – namely, media type, body perfect internalisation and materialism – that make girls more vulnerable to the negative impact of the mass media. An initial meta-analysis (Chapter 3) collated the findings of existing research examining the impact of ‘body perf...

  14. Characteristic analysis on susceptibility weighted imaging of intravitreous foreign body of autologous eyelashes in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yun-jun; CHENG Jing-liang; WANG Juan; ZHANG Yong; LI Hua-li

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the characteristics of susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) of the intravitreous foreign body of autologous eyelashes in rabbits.Methods: A total of 12 New Zealand white rabbits,either sex, weighing 2.5-3.5 kg, and provided by the Experimental Animal Center of Henan Province were employed in this study. For each rabbit, 5 autologous eyelashes (1 cm in length and 0.2-0.3 mm in diameter) were implanted into the right ocular vitreum, while the left control ocular vitreum received sham operation but nothing was implanted. SWI sequential test was made 2 hours postoperatively. Then the rabbits were killed and the specimens of the vitreous bodies of the rabbits were obtained. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and histological examinations were performed. Results: The autologous eyelashes in 8 ocular vitreums of rabbits showed linear low signal intensity on the magnitude images and susceptibility weighted images, but linear high signal intensity on the phase images. Among the 12experimental rabbits, 5 eyelashes in the right vitreum were completely shown in 3 rabbits, partly shown in 5 rabbits (2eyelashes shown in 3 rabbits and 3 eyelashes shown in 2rabbits), and not shown in 4 rabbits. Conclusions: SWI of the foreign body ofintravitreous autologous eyelashes in rabbits has its own characteristics. The combined application of SWI sequential magnitude images, susceptibility weighted images and phase images is helpful to the detection and diagnosis of intravitreous autologous eyelashes in rabbits.

  15. Small-animal whole-body imaging using a photoacoustic full ring array system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jun; Guo, Zijian; Aguirre, Andres; Zhu, Quing; Wang, Lihong V.

    2011-03-01

    In this report, we present a novel 3D photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) system for small-animal whole-body imaging. The PACT system, based on a 512-element full-ring transducer array, received photoacoustic signals primarily from a 2-mm-thick slice. The light was generated by a pulse laser, and can either illuminate from the top or be reshaped to illuminate the sample from the side, using a conical lens and an optical condenser. The PACT system was capable of acquiring an in-plane image in 1.6 s; by scanning the sample in the elevational direction, a 3D tomographic image could be constructed. We tested the system by imaging a cylindrical phantom made of human hairs immersed in a scattering medium. The reconstructed image achieved an in-plane resolution of 0.1 mm and an elevational resolution of 1 mm. After deconvolution in the elevational direction, the 3D image was found to match well with the phantom. The system was also used to image a baby mouse in situ; the spinal cord and ribs can be seen easily in the reconstructed image. Our results demonstrate that the PACT system has the potential to be used for fast small-animal whole-body tomographic imaging.

  16. The Effect of Short-Term Aerobic Exercise on Depression and Body Image in Iranian Women

    OpenAIRE

    Sareh Zarshenas; Parsa Houshvar; Ali Tahmasebi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of short-term aerobic exercise on depression symptoms and body image attitudes among Iranian women. In this quasiexperimental study, 82 females were assigned to experimental group (aerobic exercise group, n = 41) or control group (waiting list, n = 41) and evaluated by Beck Depression Inventory-second edition (BDI-II) and Multidimensional Body Self-Relation Questionnaire (MBSRQ), respectively. The experimental group received four-week aero...

  17. MR Spectroscopy and Perfusion MR Imaging Findings of Intracranial Foreign Body Granuloma: a Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Seung Won; Kim, Sang Joon; Kim, Sun Mi; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Choi, Choong Gon; Lee, Deok Hee; Lee, Jung Kyo [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun Ju [Philips Healthcare, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    We report a case of intracranial foreign body granuloma that showed features of a high grade tumor on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. However, the relative cerebral blood volume was not increased in the enhancing mass on perfusion MRI and the choline/creatine ratio only slightly increased on MR spectroscopy. The results suggest that the lesion is benign in nature. Perfusion MRI and MR spectroscopy may be helpful to differentiate a foreign body granuloma from a neoplastic condition

  18. BODY IMAGE U DÍVEK OD 15ti DO 18ti LET

    OpenAIRE

    OUŘEDNÍKOVÁ, Zuzana

    2008-01-01

    My thesis on Body image with girls at the age range 15 -18 deals with problems of body self-conception. This age period, belonging to the developmental period of adolescence, is characteristic of numerous noticeable crises, which concern psychosocial, physical, and sexual development. My work describes the particularities of developmental period of adolescence as well as historical evolution of the ideal of beauty. Last but not least it deals with the influence of the society, especially medi...

  19. Book review: Making ‘postmodern’ mothers: pregnant embodiment, baby bumps and body image

    OpenAIRE

    O'Branski, Megan

    2013-01-01

    "Making Postmodern Mothers: Pregnant Embodiment, Baby Bumps and Body Image." Meredith Nash. Palgrave Macmillan. November 2012. --- This book aims to provide a multi-disciplinary, empirical account of pregnant embodiment and how it fits into wider sociological and feminist discourses about gender, bodies, ‘fat’, feminism, and motherhood. The study draws on original qualitative data based on interviews with pregnant women, their partners, and maternity industry professionals. ‘Postmodern’ p...

  20. MR Spectroscopy and Perfusion MR Imaging Findings of Intracranial Foreign Body Granuloma: a Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Seung Won; Kim, Sang Joon; Kim, Sun Mi; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Choi, Choong Gon; Lee, Deok Hee; Kim, Eun Ju; Lee, Jung-Kyo

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of intracranial foreign body granuloma that showed features of a high grade tumor on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. However, the relative cerebral blood volume was not increased in the enhancing mass on perfusion MRI and the choline/creatine ratio only slightly increased on MR spectroscopy. The results suggest that the lesion is benign in nature. Perfusion MRI and MR spectroscopy may be helpful to differentiate a foreign body granuloma from a neoplastic condition.

  1. Investigation of eating disorders in cancer patients and its relevance with body image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossein, Seyyed Abbas; Bahrami, Masoud; Mohamadirizi, Shahla; Paknaad, Zamzam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Eating disorder is one of the most common health problems with clinical and psychological consequences, which can affect body image in cancer patients. Similar studies in this area for checking the status of this disorder and its relevance with body image in patients with cancer are limited. Therefore, this study was designed with the aim of determination of eating disorders in patients with cancer and their relevance with body image. Materials and Methods: The research was a cross-correlation study. It was carried out in Sayed-Al-Shohada Hospital affiliated to the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2013. Two hundred and ten patients with cancer were selected and were asked tocomplete the demographic and disease characteristics questionnaire, the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ), and eating disorders questionnaire. SPSS statistical software, version 14 was used for statistical analysis’-Test, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Pearson correlation coefficient were used for analyzing the obtained data. Results: The mean values of age, body mass index (BMI), and duration of illness were 48.2 ± 13.20 years, 24.6 ± 4.6kg/m2, and 25.64 ± 21.24months, respectively. Most patients were married (87%), without university education (96%), unemployed (67%), and with incomes below their requirement (52%). Most patients were diagnosed with breast cancer (36.5%). They received chemotherapy as the main treatment (56.2%). In addition, mean ± SD of eating disorders and body image were 12.84 ± 4.7 and184.40 ± 43.68, respectively. Also, 49.7% of patients with cancer had an eating disorder. Among these, 29% had experiences of anorexia and 20.7% had bulimia. There was a significant negative correlation between the score of body image and eating disorders (r = −0.47, P = 0.01). Conclusions: Findings of this study showed that most patients with cancer had experienced symptoms of eating disorders. This may lead to a negative impact on

  2. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in children: state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Reis Teixeira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Whole-body imaging in children was classically performed with radiography, positron-emission tomography, either combined or not with computed tomography, the latter with the disadvantage of exposure to ionizing radiation. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, in association with the recently developed metabolic and functional techniques such as diffusion-weighted imaging, has brought the advantage of a comprehensive evaluation of pediatric patients without the risks inherent to ionizing radiation usually present in other conventional imaging methods. It is a rapid and sensitive method, particularly in pediatrics, for detecting and monitoring multifocal lesions in the body as a whole. In pediatrics, it is utilized for both oncologic and non-oncologic indications such as screening and diagnosis of tumors in patients with genetic syndromes, evaluation of disease extent and staging, evaluation of therapeutic response and post-therapy follow-up, evaluation of non neoplastic diseases such as multifocal osteomyelitis, vascular malformations and syndromes affecting multiple regions of the body. The present review was aimed at describing the major indications of whole-body MRI in pediatrics added of technical considerations.

  3. Whole Body Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Diagnosis of Parsonage Turner Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, M.; Twair, A.; Nelson, E.; Brennan, D.; Eustace, S. [Cappagh National Orthopaedic Hospital Finglas, Dublin (Ireland)

    2004-08-01

    Purpose: To describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with suspected Parsonage Turner syndrome and to emphasize the value of an additional whole body MR scan to improve specificity of this diagnosis. Material and Methods: Three patients with proven Parsonage Turner syndrome referred for conventional MRI of the shoulder girdle and additional whole body turboSTIR MRI were included for study. Results: In each case, imaging revealed edema in the muscles of the shoulder girdle. Whole body turboSTIR MRI scan confirmed localized unilateral changes in each case improving specificity and confidence in the diagnosis of Parsonage Turner syndrome in each case. Conclusion: Whole body turboSTIR MR imaging is a useful diagnostic tool in the evaluation of patients with suspected Parsonage Turner syndrome. Inclusion of the brain, neck, brachial plexus, and extremity musculature at whole body imaging allows differentiation from polymyositis and elimination of additional causes of shoulder girdle pain and weakness including gross lesions in the brain, neck, and brachial plexus by a single non-invasive study.

  4. Imaging methods for analyzing body composition in human obesity and cardiometabolic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabolt, Lynn A; Welch, E Brian; Silver, Heidi J

    2015-09-01

    Advances in the technological qualities of imaging modalities for assessing human body composition have been stimulated by accumulating evidence that individual components of body composition have significant influences on chronic disease onset, disease progression, treatment response, and health outcomes. Importantly, imaging modalities have provided a systematic method for differentiating phenotypes of body composition that diverge from what is considered normal, that is, having low bone mass (osteopenia/osteoporosis), low muscle mass (sarcopenia), high fat mass (obesity), or high fat with low muscle mass (sarcopenic obesity). Moreover, advances over the past three decades in the sensitivity and quality of imaging not just to discern the amount and distribution of adipose and lean tissue but also to differentiate layers or depots within tissues and cells is enhancing our understanding of distinct mechanistic, metabolic, and functional roles of body composition within human phenotypes. In this review, we focus on advances in imaging technologies that show great promise for future investigation of human body composition and how they are being used to address the pandemic of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. PMID:26250623

  5. Female college students and cosmetic surgery: an investigation of experiences, attitudes, and body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwer, David B; Cash, Thomas F; Magee, Leanne; Williams, Emily Fleming; Thompson, J Kevin; Roehrig, Megan; Tantleff-Dunn, Stacey; Agliata, Allison Kanter; Wilfley, Denise E; Amidon, Amy D; Anderson, Drew A; Romanofski, Michelle

    2005-03-01

    This large, multisite study investigated female college students' experiences with and attitudes about cosmetic surgery. The study also assessed the relationship between several aspects of body image, including appearance satisfaction and investment and symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder, and interest in cosmetic surgery. Thirty (5 percent) of the 559 women surveyed reported that they had undergone cosmetic surgery. Two thirds of respondents reported knowing someone who had received cosmetic surgery, and approximately one third indicated that a family member had undergone surgery. Overall, participants held relatively favorable attitudes about surgery. Regression analysis suggested that a greater psychological investment in physical appearance and greater internalization of mass media images of beauty predicted more favorable attitudes toward cosmetic surgery. Fourteen women (2.5 percent) screened positive for body dysmorphic disorder based on the nature and severity of their self-reported body-image concerns. Results of this study provide new information on young women's experiences and attitudes about cosmetic surgery and how these attitudes relate to body image. PMID:15731697

  6. Whole Body Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Diagnosis of Parsonage Turner Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with suspected Parsonage Turner syndrome and to emphasize the value of an additional whole body MR scan to improve specificity of this diagnosis. Material and Methods: Three patients with proven Parsonage Turner syndrome referred for conventional MRI of the shoulder girdle and additional whole body turboSTIR MRI were included for study. Results: In each case, imaging revealed edema in the muscles of the shoulder girdle. Whole body turboSTIR MRI scan confirmed localized unilateral changes in each case improving specificity and confidence in the diagnosis of Parsonage Turner syndrome in each case. Conclusion: Whole body turboSTIR MR imaging is a useful diagnostic tool in the evaluation of patients with suspected Parsonage Turner syndrome. Inclusion of the brain, neck, brachial plexus, and extremity musculature at whole body imaging allows differentiation from polymyositis and elimination of additional causes of shoulder girdle pain and weakness including gross lesions in the brain, neck, and brachial plexus by a single non-invasive study

  7. Body Image in Eating Disorders: The Influence of Exposure to Virtual-Reality Environments.

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez Maldonado, José; Ferrer, Marta; Caqueo-Urízar, A.; Moreno, E.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article was to study the effect of virtual-reality exposure to situations that are emotionally significant for patients with eating disorders (ED) on the stability of body-image distortion and body-image dissatisfaction. A total of 85 ED patients and 108 non-ED students were randomly exposed to four experimental virtual environments: a kitchen with low-calorie food, a kitchen with high-calorie food, a restaurant with low-calorie food, and a restaurant with high-calorie food. I...

  8. Body weight/image perceptions and prevalence of obesity among adolescents-Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ramesh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity can be seen as the first wave of a defined cluster of non communicable diseases called "New World Syndrome" creating an enormous socioeconomic and public health burden in poorer countries. The rising prevalence of childhood/adolescent obesity cannot be addressed by a single etiology. Multiple factors plays role and among them perception on body weight and image plays vital role in adolescents. So the objective of this study was to know the perceptions of adolescents on their body weight and body image. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among students of high schools of Thiruvananthapuram city corporation, Kerala, India. The sample size of this study was 1718 and the technique adopted is multistage and stratified random sampling. Data was collected using pre designed and pretested semi-structured questionnaire which is self-administered. Body mass index was calculated based on physical measurements such as height and weight using standard methods. Results: This study revealed that 67.3% of study subjects underestimated their body weight and 15.5% over estimated their body weight. The prevalence of overweight/obesity is high among those who underestimated their body weight (18.7% compared to subjects who overestimated (6.7% but the prevalence of underweight is high among the subjects who overestimated their body weight (60.8% compared to subjects who underestimated (22%. Conclusion: Schools are probably the ideal medium of intervention as they are central to children′s lives and information can be relatively quickly dissipated through this channel and Helping adolescents to attain a realistic, positive perception of their body weight and image through health education.

  9. Joint detection and segmentation of vertebral bodies in CT images by sparse representation error minimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korez, Robert; Likar, Boštjan; Pernuš, Franjo; Vrtovec, Tomaž

    2016-03-01

    Automated detection and segmentation of vertebral bodies from spinal computed tomography (CT) images is usually a prerequisite step for numerous spine-related medical applications, such as diagnosis, surgical planning and follow-up assessment of spinal pathologies. However, automated detection and segmentation are challenging tasks due to a relatively high degree of anatomical complexity, presence of unclear boundaries and articulation of vertebrae with each other. In this paper, we describe a sparse representation error minimization (SEM) framework for joint detection and segmentation of vertebral bodies in CT images. By minimizing the sparse representation error of sampled intensity values, we are able to recover the oriented bounding box (OBB) and segmentation binary mask for each vertebral body in the CT image. The performance of the proposed SEM framework was evaluated on five CT images of the thoracolumbar spine. The resulting Euclidean distance of 1:75+/-1:02 mm, computed between the center points of recovered and corresponding reference OBBs, and Dice coefficient of 92:3+/-2:7%, computed between the resulting and corresponding reference segmentation binary masks, indicate that the proposed framework can successfully detect and segment vertebral bodies in CT images of the thoracolumbar spine.

  10. Whole-body MRT imaging. 2. tot. rev. and enl. ed.; Ganzkoerper MR-Tomographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rummeny, E.J.; Reimer, P.; Heindel, W. (eds.)

    2006-07-01

    The new edition again presents a comprehensive picture of MR imaging and data acquisition. The reader is enabled to produce her own findings at short notice, and she is supported in understanding and reference. New contents are: Side effects and artefacts; functional MRT imaging of the kidneys; bone marrow and spinal cord imaging; more details on the peripheral skeletal system; whole-body MRT and MRA including 3-Tesla-MR; comparative findings of other imaging procedures; more than 100 tables for higher certainty in differential diagnosis; more than 1000 high-quality images; valuable clinical background information on all indications; summary presentations of the state of knowledge at the end of each chapter as well as specific information on MRT imaging etc. (orig.)

  11. Body image concerns of psoriasis patients as reflected in human figure drawings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichtman, S R; Burnett, J W; Robinson, H M

    1981-10-01

    Human figure drawings of patients with severe (n = 85) and mild (n = 38) psoriasis were compared on dimensions of nudity, sexual overemphasis, and omissions of exposed body parts. For female patients significant differences were found for percentages of undressed figures and omissions. For male patients only omissions were significant. When compared to 30 patients with other mild dermatologic conditions, mildly affected psoriatic males drew significantly fewer omissions. Discussion of results focussed on body image concerns of dermatology patients as related to issues of nudity, sexuality, and exhibition of exposed body parts. PMID:7288544

  12. Examination of the relationship between the body image and self-esteem of female adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Oktan, Vesile; Şahin, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at an examination of the relationship between level of content with body image and self-esteem among female adolescents. In the study, descriptive method was employed. The sample group of the study is 300 secondary school female students between 16-18 years of age. Body Cathexis Scale and Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory were applied to the adolescents in the sample group. Results have shown that there are a high level, negative and significant relationship between the body i...

  13. A review of body image influences on men's fitness goals and supplement use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreary, Donald R; Hildebrandt, Thomas B; Heinberg, Leslie J; Boroughs, Michael; Thompson, J Kevin

    2007-12-01

    Men's fitness goals are influenced by the lens through which they view their bodies, which is different from the way women view their bodies. Their increased focus on a muscular, hairless body means that they exercise to enhance their physical bulk and are more likely to engage in depilatory behaviors. In addition, the drive for muscularity may be associated with an increased risk anabolic-androgenic steroids and other nutritional supplements whose utility not clearly demonstrated. In the extreme, the drive for muscularity may manifest itself as a form of body dysmorphic disorder referred to as muscle dysmorphia. However, not all men focus on their muscularity. Gay men are more likely than heterosexual men to experience a desire to be thin and are at greater risk for eating and body image disorders. These issues are discussed in this article. PMID:19482812

  14. Gamma camera imaging for studying intestinal absorption and whole-body distribution of selenomethionine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan L.; Sjögreen-Gleisner, Katarina; Elema, Dennis Ringkjøbing;

    2014-01-01

    Se metabolism in humans is not well characterised. Currently, the estimates of Se absorption, whole-body retention and excretion are being obtained from balance and tracer studies. In the present study, we used gamma camera imaging to evaluate the whole-body retention and distribution of radiolab......Se metabolism in humans is not well characterised. Currently, the estimates of Se absorption, whole-body retention and excretion are being obtained from balance and tracer studies. In the present study, we used gamma camera imaging to evaluate the whole-body retention and distribution...... of radiolabelled selenomethionine (SeMet), the predominant form of Se present in foods. A total of eight healthy young men participated in the study. After consumption of a meal containing 4MBq [75Se]L-SeMet ([75Se]SeMet), whole-body gamma camera scanning was performed for 45 min every hour over a 6 h period......]SeMet was retained within the body after 7 d. In contrast, the measured excretion in urine and faeces for the 7 d period was 8•2 (SD 1•1)% of the activity. Time–activity curves were generated for the whole body, stomach, liver, abdomen (other than the stomach and the liver), brain and femoral muscles. Gamma camera...

  15. Turning eating psychopathology risk factors into action: the pervasive effect of body image-related cognitive fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Cláudia; Palmeira, Lara; Trindade, Inês A.

    2014-01-01

    Body image dissatisfaction and unfavourable social comparisons are significant risk factors to eating psychopathology. Nevertheless, the impact of these negative experiences depends on the cognitive and emotional processes involved. Previous research has shown that cognitive fusion is a nuclear process linked to psychological inflexibility, but its role on body image and eating difficulties remains unclear. This study aims to explore a model of the mediational role of body image-related cogni...

  16. The Role of Socio-Physical Anxiety, Body Image, and Self Esteem in Prediction of the Eating Disorder in Sportswomen

    OpenAIRE

    Aidin Valizade; Saeed Ariapooran

    2012-01-01

    Background: Socio-physical anxiety, body image, and self esteem are variables that play an important role on eating disorders. The purpose of this research was the role of socio-physical anxiety, body image and self esteem in prediction of the eating disorders in sportswomen.Materials and Method: 181 of aerobic and physical readiness sportswomen were selected by clustered sampling method and filled the questionnaire containing eating disorder, socio-physical anxiety, body image concern and se...

  17. The Korean Version of the Body Image Scale-Reliability and Validity in a Sample of Breast Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Khang, Dongwoo; Rim, Hyo-Deog; Woo, Jungmin

    2013-01-01

    Objective The Body Image Scale (BIS) developed in collaboration with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Study Group is a brief questionnaire for measuring body image concerns in patients with cancer. This study sought to assess the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the Body Image Scale (K-BIS). Methods The participants consisted of 155 postoperative breast cancer patients (56 breast conserving surgery, 56 mastectomy, and 43 o...

  18. Body image satisfaction and the view of active old women about the influence of physical exercise in their self-image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josinéia Gresele Coradini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to analyze the body image satisfaction with 24 active elderly women, and to understand the view of these people about the connection between physical exercise and their body image. All of them answered to the scale proposed by Stunkard, Sorenson and Schlusinger, 1983 and to a semi-structured interview. 87.50% of the women were unsatisfied about the body image. From the reading and analysis of the speeches, it was formed two major categories and four subcategories. Thus, most of the elderly women are unsatisfied about their body image, but the proportionate benefits by the exercises are recognized.

  19. Enhancing positive body image: An evaluation of a cognitive behavioral therapy intervention and an exploration of the role of body shame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassone, Sarah; Lewis, Vivienne; Crisp, Dimity A

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of a 6-week cognitive-behavioral group intervention in promoting the development of positive body image. The study also examined if, in accordance with the objectification theory, participants who reported higher levels of body shame would (a) report higher levels of body dissatisfaction, and (b) demonstrate less improvement in response to the Positive Bodies program. A total of 52 women aged 17-54 years completed self-report measures of self-esteem, body area satisfaction, body image quality of life, body shame, and self-surveillance at the commencement and conclusion of the program. The results provided preliminary support for the overall effectiveness of the program. Contrary to predictions, higher body shame was associated with greater improvements in indicators of body image over time. Further comparisons with a control or treatment comparison group are required; however, the results support benefits for individuals with body dissatisfaction, particularly those reporting higher levels of body shame. PMID:27348593

  20. 自我差异和身体意象%Self-discrepancy and body image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈颜; 缪绍疆

    2015-01-01

    Objective To review the correlation between self-discrepancy and body image based on the papers published before 2014 at home and abroad,with an attempt to provide an new idea for body image disorder.Methods Major online database including Sciencedirect,Springer,CNKI,and Wan Fang datebase were searched in January 2014.The key words we used are "body image"," body dissatisfaction"," body self-discrepancy" and so on.Results Totally 40 studies enrolled,the analysis show self-discrepancy is an important mechanism to affect body image,and body self-discrepancies has been found to be associated with body-related behaviors,emotional experience and eating disorder.Conclusion self-discrepancies are cognitive structures,which can influence ongoing information processing without individual' s awareness,resulting in Cognitive biases and body image disorder.Further research is needed exploring the discriminate validity of the body self,the method of measurement an so on.%目的 以国内外2014年以前发表的针对自我差异与身体意象关系的文献,综述自我差异与身体意象关系等方面的重要研究成果,为今后身体意象失调患者的治疗提供新的视角.方法 2014年1月在Sciencedirect、Springer、中国知网、万方数据库等数据库,以“自我差异”、“身体意象”等为检索词,从自我差异理论的视角来分析身体意象失调问题.结果 检索文献826篇,纳入文献40篇.结果显示自我差异是影响身体意象失调的重要机制,而且身体自我差异与个体的行为、情绪、进食障碍等有着密切关系.结论 自我差异是一种重要的认知结构,自发地影响个体的信息处理过程,从而可能导致认知偏差和身体意象失调.未来的研究可就身体自我的区分效度、测量方法等作进一步探讨.