WorldWideScience

Sample records for body image

  1. Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help your child have a healthy body image Cosmetic surgery Breast surgery Botox Liposuction Varicose or spider veins Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) Eating disorders Anorexia nervosa Binge eating ... nervosa Cosmetics and your health Depression during and after pregnancy ...

  2. Body Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The high-tech art of digital signal processing (DSP) was pioneered at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in the mid-1960s for use in the Apollo Lunar Landing Program. Designed to computer enhance pictures of the Moon, this technology became the basis for the Landsat Earth resources satellites and subsequently has been incorporated into a broad range of Earthbound medical and diagnostic tools. DSP is employed in advanced body imaging techniques including Computer-Aided Tomography, also known as CT and CATScan, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). CT images are collected by irradiating a thin slice of the body with a fan-shaped x-ray beam from a number of directions around the body's perimeter. A tomographic (slice-like) picture is reconstructed from these multiple views by a computer. MRI employs a magnetic field and radio waves, rather than x-rays, to create images.

  3. Body Weight and Body Image

    OpenAIRE

    McFarlane Traci; Olmsted Marion P

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Health Issue Body weight is of physical and psychological importance to Canadian women; it is associated with health status, physical activity, body image, and self-esteem. Although the problems associated with overweight and obesity are indeed serious, there are also problems connected to being underweight. Weight prejudice and the dieting industry intensify body image concerns for Canadian women and can have a major negative impact on self-esteem. Key Findings Women have lower BMIs...

  4. Adolescence and Body Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinshenker, Naomi

    2002-01-01

    Discusses body image among adolescents, explaining that today's adolescents are more prone to body image distortions and dissatisfaction than ever and examining the historical context; how self-image develops; normative discontent; body image distortions; body dysmorphic disorder (BDD); vulnerability of boys (muscle dysmorphia); who is at risk;…

  5. Media and Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Media and Body Image Home For Patients Search FAQs Media and Body ... and Body Image TFAQ002, June 2016 PDF Format Media and Body Image Especially For Teens How can the media make ...

  6. Adolescence and body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinshenker, Naomi

    2002-05-01

    Concerns about body image range from a normal desire to look attractive to a pathological concern with thinness or physical perfection. Today, more than ever, adolescents in America are prone to body image distortions and dissatisfaction. The reasons for this are multi-determined and include the influence of the media and cultural expectations, as well as a discrepancy between an adolescent's own physical characteristics and the expectations of his or her social environment. Adolescents with severe body image distortions are vulnerable to developing serious psychiatric disorders that can have life-threatening consequences. Schools can help by providing guidance and information in a time of uncertainty. PMID:12046161

  7. Body Image Concerns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Ansari, Walid; Dibba, Emily; Stock, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the socio-demographic, lifestyle and well-being variables that are associated with body image concerns (BIC) and whether these associations differed between female and male students. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey; 3,706 undergraduate students......, perceived health, depressive symptoms) on the other. RESULTS: More females (35%) than males (8%) reported being moderately or markedly concerned with their body image. For both genders, BIC was associated with a higher level of depressive symptoms and to variable extents, with nutrition and year...... (2,699 females, 765 males) from seven universities in the UK completed a self-administered questionnaire that assessed socio-demographic, lifestyle, well-being and BIC based on the Body Shape Questionnaire developed by Cooper et al. Multifactorial logistic regression analysis examined the odds ratios...

  8. Culture and body image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Alves

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the relationship between culture and body image. We intend to know how socio-cultural factors influence the levels of satisfaction with body image. The emphasis is given to the cultural values as represented by the sociocultural norms of societies such as the United States of America and Europe. It is argued that through the media, the values of these industrialized societies are dissipated throughout the world provoking cultural changes and uniformization of behavioural standards. From the literature review, it is possible to conclude that body dissatisfaction is a reality to both sexes and a direct result of the non-conformity to cultural-esthetical patterns promoted by the profit-oriented societies.

  9. Body image inflexibility mediates the relationship between body image evaluation and maladaptive body image coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Serafino G

    2016-03-01

    Body image inflexibility, the unwillingness to experience negative appearance-related thoughts and emotions, is associated with negative body image and eating disorder symptoms. The present study investigated whether body image inflexibility mediated the relationship between body image evaluation and maladaptive body image coping strategies (appearance-fixing and experiential avoidance) in a college and community sample comprising 156 females aged 18-51 years (M=22.76, SD=6.96). Controlling for recruitment source (college vs. community), body image inflexibility fully mediated the relationship between body image evaluation and maladaptive body image coping strategies. Results indicated that an unwillingness to experience negative appearance-related thoughts and emotions is likely responsible for negative body image evaluation's relationship to appearance-fixing behaviours and experiential avoidance. Findings support extant evidence that interventions that explicitly target body image inflexibility, such as Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, may have utility in treating body dissatisfaction in nonclinical populations. PMID:26595857

  10. Body Image and Body Dysmorphic Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas-Aragones, Lucia; Marron, Servando E

    2016-08-23

    Most people would like to change something about their bodies and the way that they look, but for some it becomes an obsession. A healthy skin plays an important role in a person's physical and mental wellbeing, whereas a disfiguring appearance is associated with body image concerns. Skin diseases such as acne, psoriasis and vitiligo produce cosmetic disfigurement and patients suffering these and other visible skin conditions have an increased risk of depression, anxiety, feelings of stigmatization and self-harm ideation. Body image affects our emotions, thoughts, and behaviours in everyday life, but, above all, it influences our relationships. Furthermore, it has the potential to influence our quality of life. Promotion of positive body image is highly recommended, as it is important in improving people's quality of life, physical health, and health-related behaviors. Dermatologists have a key role in identifying body image concerns and offering patients possible treatment options. PMID:27283435

  11. Imaging body armor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harcke, H Theodore; Schauer, David A; Harris, Robert M; Campman, Steven C; Lonergan, Gael J

    2002-04-01

    This study examined the feasibility of performing radiographic studies on patients wearing standard-issue body armor. The Kevlar helmet, fragmentation vest, demining suit sleeve, and armor plate were studied with plain film and computed tomography in a simulated casualty situation. We found that the military helmet contains metal screws and metal clips in the headband, but diagnostic computed tomographic images can be obtained. Kevlar, the principal component of soft armor, has favorable photon attenuation characteristics. Plate armor of composite material also did not limit radiographic studies. Therefore, when medically advantageous, patients can be examined radiographically while wearing standard military body armor. Civilian emergency rooms should be aware of these observations because law enforcement officers wear similar protective armor. PMID:11977874

  12. Implicit beliefs about ideal body image predict body image dissatisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Heider, Niclas; Spruyt, Adriaan; De Houwer, Jan

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether implicit measures of actual and ideal body image can be used to predict body dissatisfaction in young female adults. Participants completed two Implicit Relational Assessment Procedures (IRAPs) to examine their implicit beliefs concerning actual (e.g., I am thin) and desired ideal body image (e.g., I want to be thin). Body dissatisfaction was examined via self-report questionnaires and rating scales. As expected, differences in body dissatisfaction exerted a differential i...

  13. Implicit Beliefs about Ideal Body Image Predict Body Image Dissatisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niclas eHeider

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We examined whether implicit measures of actual and ideal body image can be used to predict body dissatisfaction in young female adults. Participants completed two Implicit Relational Assessment Procedures (IRAPs to examine their implicit beliefs concerning actual (e.g., I am thin and desired ideal body image (e.g., I want to be thin. Body dissatisfaction was examined via self-report questionnaires and rating scales. As expected, differences in body dissatisfaction exerted a differential influence on the two IRAP scores. Specifically, the implicit belief that one is thin was lower in participants who exhibited a high degree of body dissatisfaction than in participants who exhibited a low degree of body dissatisfaction. In contrast, the implicit desire to be thin (i.e., thin ideal body image was stronger in participants who exhibited a high level of body dissatisfaction than in participants who were less dissatisfied with their body. Adding further weight to the idea that both IRAP measures captured different underlying constructs, we also observed that they correlated differently with body mass index, explicit body dissatisfaction, and explicit measures of actual and ideal body image. More generally, these findings underscore the advantage of using implicit measures that incorporate relational information relative to implicit measures that allow for an assessment of associative relations only.

  14. Body Image of Pakistani Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Jalees

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how media exposure, self-esteem, and religiosity influence body image of Pakistan consumers. The underpinning of this study is based on Social Comparison Theory with two additional variables (religiosity and self-esteem for understanding understand consumer attitude towards body image. A self-administered questionnaire was used. 193 persons responded at mall intercepts. The Conceptual framework was empirically tested through SEM. A positive relationship between exposure to media and body image was found while negative influence was found between self-esteem and body image. No relationship was found between religiosity and body image. The results showed mixed outcomes as compared to past studies. The scope of this study is limited to one city only and hence the finding could not be generalized. Future researcher may use a larger sample drawn throughout Pakistan, and by examining whether body image perception varies ethnically, age and gender. Media exposure is affecting the traditional norms and values of Pakistan culture and body image. The obsessions of the media and thin body image have to be controlled and this requires policy changes. Corporate sector might take initiative by not selecting ultra-thin models. They might also sponsors public service messages showing ill effects of being ultra-thin, and showing that the ultra-thin models are not real but is results of artworks and camera angles. Social Comparison Theory with two addition variable religiosity and self-esteem has been successfully extended/empirically tested in the domain of Pakistan culture.

  15. Body Image of Pakistani Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Tariq Jalees; Ernest C de Run

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how media exposure, self esteem, and religiosity influence body image of Pakistan consumers.The underpinning of this study is based on Social Comparison Theory with two additional variables (religiosity and self esteem) for understanding understand consumer attitude towards body image. A self administered questionnaire was used. 193 persons responded at mall intercepts. The Conceptual framework was empirically tested through SEM. A positive relationship between exposure to...

  16. Body Image and Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janete Maximiano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Eating disorders should be understood in a multidimensional perspective, emphasizing a biopsicossocial context. In these pathologies it`s the body, in the first instance, that reveals the disease, being in this way the target of the conflict, revealing a disturbed body experience and as a consequence a weak conception of their personal body image. The body image is conceptualised as a subjective image that the individuals form in their own mind, about their body, in relation with differ- ent contexts of life. The intent of the studies is to comprehend the level of body image disturbance, which have concluded that in the majority of the cases, significant changes on perceptive capacity of the patients do not exist. In this way it`s important to study in a more effective and qualitative way the affective and personal factors. The authors pretend with this bibliographic revision, make a research of body image assessment to the Eating Disorders (Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa, and to reflect which are the best ones to adapt for Portuguese reality.

  17. Guy's Guide to Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2 • 3 • 4 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Body Dysmorphic Disorder Are Steroids Worth the Risk? Delayed Puberty How Can I Improve My Self-Esteem? Body Image and Self-Esteem Help! Is This ...

  18. [Obesity: stigmatization, discrimination, body image].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzl, Johann F

    2016-03-01

    Obesity is a heterogeneous condition with multifactorial genesis (genetic predisposition, life-style, psychosocial situation), but there is a relatively homogeneous negative stereotype of obese individuals, because overweight and obesity are seen as self-inflicted disorders caused by physical inactivity and disorderd eating behavior. Obese individuals are confronted with far-reaching stigmatization and discrimination. Typical stereotypes are laziness, unattractiveness, work refusal. This negative image by the environment contributes to negative self-awareness and self-stigmatization, accompanied by a poor self-esteem and feelings of poor self-control and reduced self-efficacy, resulting in poor constructive coping strategies for overweight reduction. In addition, a disturbed body image combined with deep dissatisfaction with their own body is often found in many obese individuals. There is not always a close connection between body weight and body dissatisfaction. Young women and individuals with a binge eating disorder often show an increased body dissatisfaction as well. PMID:26883770

  19. Very Young Children's Body Image: Bodies and Minds under Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birbeck, David; Drummond, Murray

    2006-01-01

    In recent years research has recognised that notions of body image, body image ideals and body dissatisfaction develop much earlier than was once thought. Forty-seven children (25 male; 22 female) aged between 5 and 6 years were interviewed on three occasions over 12 months regarding their perceptions of body image. The interviews revealed…

  20. Body Image in the Dance Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Wendy

    2008-01-01

    Although some research has shown that dance enhances body image and self-esteem, other research shows that it sometimes has the opposite effect and causes dancers to develop a negative body image and even eating disorders. In dance, body image is not only about maintaining a certain weight; it can also refer to specific perceived body flaws.…

  1. Marketing importance of body image

    OpenAIRE

    Novák, Erik

    2010-01-01

    In China, applicants for flight attendant job voluntarily visit the hospital to break the tibia bone, into which is inserted gradually the expanding facility to ultimately adds the necessary centimeters to them to have chase to become flight attendants. The physical appearance seems to play in our lives increasingly greater role. How far we can go and what we can do to make us look better? Bachelor's work "The Marekting Importance of Body Image" introduces the reader with a theoretical part o...

  2. Television Images and Adolescent Girls' Body Image Disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botta, Renee A.

    1999-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship on the effects of media images on adolescents, using social-comparison theory and critical-viewing theory. Finds that media do have an impact on body-image disturbance. Suggests that body-image processing is the key to understanding how television images affect adolescent girls' body-image attitudes and behaviors. (SR)

  3. Workshop on Body Image: Creating or Reinventing a Positive Body Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Christine

    This paper examines the culturization of body image and the impact of body image on women and men, noting that the strict definition of body size has made many women and men dissatisfied with their bodies. The first section defines body image and culturization, explaining how the current media images put tremendous pressure on men and women that…

  4. Body Talk: Body Image Commentary on Queerty.com.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Joseph; Grimm, Josh

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we conducted a content analysis of 243 photographic images of men published on the gay male-oriented blog Queerty.com. We also analyzed 435 user-generated comments from a randomly selected 1-year sample. Focusing on images' body types, we found that the range of body types featured on the blog was quite narrow-the vast majority of images had very low levels of body fat and very high levels of muscularity. Users' body image-related comments typically endorsed and celebrated images; critiques of images were comparatively rare. Perspectives from objectification theory and social comparison theory suggest that the images and commentary found on the blog likely reinforce unhealthy body image in gay male communities. PMID:26849832

  5. Implicit body representations and the conscious body image

    OpenAIRE

    Longo, M. R.; Haggard, P.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that somatosensory processing relies on a class of implicit body representations showing large distortions of size and shape. The relation between these representations and the conscious body image remains unclear. Dissociations have been reported in the clinical literature on eating disorders between different body image measures, with larger and more consistent distortions found with depictive measures, in which participants compare their body to a visual depict...

  6. The Becoming of Bodies: Girls, media effects, and body image

    OpenAIRE

    Coleman, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    The relations between women's bodies and images have long interested and occupied feminist theoretical and empirical work. Recently, much feminist research has focused on the relations between girls' and young women's bodies and images in “the media.” Underpinning much of this research, I argue, is an oppositional model of subject/object onto which bodies and images are mapped. Developing Deleuze's concept of becoming and exploring my own research with a small number of white British teenage ...

  7. The Dimensionality of Body Image Disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgan, Richard J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined personality variables in 75 male and 75 female college students. Found two dimensions underlying body image disturbance variables, one loading on body image dissatisfaction and one loading on body image disturbance. Low negative correlation between two factors suggests that distortion and dissatisfaction are fairly distinct and that body…

  8. Body Image and Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help a Friend Who Cuts? Body Image and Self-Esteem KidsHealth > For Teens > Body Image and Self-Esteem ... really bring down your self-esteem . Why Are Self-Esteem and Body Image Important? Self-esteem is all ...

  9. MR imaging of the body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rummeny, Ernst J. [Rechts der Isar Hospital, TU Muenchen (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Reimer, Peter [Karlsruhe Municipal Hospital (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Heindel, Walter [Muenster Univ. Hospital (Germany). Dept. of Clinical Radiology

    2009-07-01

    Since magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was first introduced into clinical medicine more than 25 years ago, tremendous advances have been made both in the technology and in the clinical applications of the method, particularly during the last 10 years. MRI is now a core imaging modality and represents an extremely effective method of diagnosing various diseases in every region of the body. The advances made in recent years have optimized techniques for examining the chest and heart, abdominal organs, urogenital system, and musculoskeletal system. Higher magnetic fields and total body examinations are becoming clinical realities. In view of these dynamic developments, there is, of course, a need for continuous learning. The present volume provides systematic coverage of the various disease entities that can be identified on MRI, with clearly organized tables and charts listing the details of examination strategies at a glance. Along with the outstanding illustrations, the book offers a conceptual framework for everyday use. This book may help experienced colleagues, as well as residents and fellows, to understand the physical basis for MRI, and it may be able to guide them not only in the correct choice of techniques, but also in the appropriate and rational use of contrast media. MRI has a bright future in clinical diagnosis and scientific research, and this book provides an excellent reflection of the current state of the specialty.

  10. MR imaging of the body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was first introduced into clinical medicine more than 25 years ago, tremendous advances have been made both in the technology and in the clinical applications of the method, particularly during the last 10 years. MRI is now a core imaging modality and represents an extremely effective method of diagnosing various diseases in every region of the body. The advances made in recent years have optimized techniques for examining the chest and heart, abdominal organs, urogenital system, and musculoskeletal system. Higher magnetic fields and total body examinations are becoming clinical realities. In view of these dynamic developments, there is, of course, a need for continuous learning. The present volume provides systematic coverage of the various disease entities that can be identified on MRI, with clearly organized tables and charts listing the details of examination strategies at a glance. Along with the outstanding illustrations, the book offers a conceptual framework for everyday use. This book may help experienced colleagues, as well as residents and fellows, to understand the physical basis for MRI, and it may be able to guide them not only in the correct choice of techniques, but also in the appropriate and rational use of contrast media. MRI has a bright future in clinical diagnosis and scientific research, and this book provides an excellent reflection of the current state of the specialty

  11. The evolution of whole-body imaging.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moran, Deirdre E

    2012-02-01

    This article reviews the evolution of whole-body imaging, discussing the history and development of radiography, nuclear medicine, computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET), combined PET-CT, and magnetic resonance imaging. The obstacles hindering progress toward whole-body imaging using each of these modalities, and the technical advances that were developed to overcome them, are reviewed. The effectiveness and the limitations of whole-body imaging with each of these techniques are also briefly discussed.

  12. Body image in non-western societies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Edmonds

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses a range of body modification and conceptions of the body in non-Western societies. It also analyzes difficulties in applying the primarily Western psychological notion of body image to different societies. Body modification is a near human universal, but has many meanings and

  13. Importance of body image in marketing communication

    OpenAIRE

    Váradyová, Monika

    2010-01-01

    The thesis dedicated to the issue of body image in the context of marketing communication emphasizing female body imaging in advertising. The aim of Master's thesis is to identify differences in the perception of beauty between the German and Czechoslovak culture. The theoretical part is intended to explain the body image issues, including historical development. Furthermore points out the influence of mass media on women's physical self-concept. The practical part deals with content analysis...

  14. The Becoming of Bodies: Girls, Images, Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Coleman, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between bodies and images has long occupied feminism. The becoming of bodies explores the way in which this relationship has primarily been approached and offers an alternative framework for analysis. Thinking through her original empirical research with teenage girls, involving focus groups, individual interviews and image-making sessions, Coleman moves from a consideration of media images, the focus of much feminist research, to examine images more widely; as mirrors, p...

  15. Calculating body frame size (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Body frame size is determined by a person's wrist circumference in relation to his height. For example, a man ... would fall into the small-boned category. Determining frame size: To determine the body frame size, measure ...

  16. Characterizing Body Image in Youth with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Megan L; Dallas, Ronald H; Porter, Jerlym S; Tang, Li; Sun, Yilun; Magdovitz-Frankfurt, Paige; Gaur, Aditya H

    2016-08-01

    Emerging research in adults with HIV suggests negative body image may be found at a higher rate in this group. To date, few studies have examined body image in adolescents living with HIV. This exploratory study aimed to characterize body image perceptions among youth living with HIV. Adolescents (n = 143; age range 16-24 years; 69 % male) completed an Audio Computer Assisted Self-Interview Questionnaire that assessed body image, psychosocial, medical and sociodemographic information. Medical history and physical functioning information were abstracted from medical records. Results showed normative global body image on the Multidimensional Body Self-Relations Questionnaire-Appearance Scales. Some subscale elevations were observed; including decreased interest in self-care and appearance, as well as concerns with individual body areas. Overall, youth reported preference for own body shape on the Figure Rating Scale; however, 41 % of youth classified as "overweight" per CDC body mass index reported contentment with current body size. Further, 47 % of youth classified as "normal" weight desired to have larger body size. Youth identified as men who have sex with men most often reported desiring larger body size. Implications for clinical care are discussed. PMID:26721247

  17. Body enhancement : body images, vulnerability and moral responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Dikken, A.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this explorative study is to show that it is highly relevant to integrate cultural and personal body images into the ethical debate on human enhancement. The current debate has little attention for the motivations to make use of technology to alter the human body, such as cultural i

  18. The -Curvature Images of Convex Bodies and -Projection Bodies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Songjun Lv; Gangsong Leng

    2008-08-01

    Associated with the -curvature image defined by Lutwak, some inequalities for extended mixed -affine surface areas of convex bodies and the support functions of -projection bodies are established. As a natural extension of a result due to Lutwak, an -type affine isoperimetric inequality, whose special cases are -Busemann–Petty centroid inequality and -affine projection inequality, respectively, is established. Some -mixed volume inequalities involving -projection bodies are also established.

  19. Body image distortions in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Christina T; Longo, Matthew R; Haggard, Patrick

    2013-10-01

    Distortions of body image have often been investigated in clinical disorders. Much of this literature implicitly assumes healthy adults maintain an accurate body image. We recently developed a novel, implicit, and quantitative measure of body image - the Body Image Task (BIT). Here, we report a large-scale analysis of performance on this task by healthy adults. In both an in-person and an online version of the BIT, participants were presented with an image of a head as an anchoring stimulus on a computer screen, and told to imagine that the head was part of a mirror image of themselves in a standing position. They were then instructed to judge where, relative to the head, each of several parts of their body would be located. The relative positions of each landmark can be used to construct an implicit perceptual map of bodily structure. We could thus measure the internally-stored body image, although we cannot exclude contributions from other representations. Our results show several distortions of body image. First, we found a large and systematic over-estimation of width relative to height. These distortions were similar for both males and females, and did not closely track the idiosyncrasies of individual participant's own bodies. Comparisons of individual body parts showed that participants overestimated the width of their shoulders and the length of their upper arms, relative to their height, while underestimating the lengths of their lower arms and legs. Principal components analysis showed a clear spatial structure to the distortions, suggesting spatial organisation and segmentation of the body image into upper and lower limb components that are bilaterally integrated. These results provide new insight into the body image of healthy adults, and have implications for the study and rehabilitation of clinical populations. PMID:23933684

  20. Body Image, Media, and Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenne, Jennifer L.; Beresin, Eugene V.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Eating disorders, including obesity, are a major public health problem today. Throughout history, body image has been determined by various factors, including politics and media. Exposure to mass media (television, movies, magazines, Internet) is correlated with obesity and negative body image, which may lead to disordered eating. The…

  1. Investigating Adolescent Stress and Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kristen M.; Byrne, Don G.; Rieger, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent stress is clearly implicated in the development of mental health problems. However, its role in dysfunctional body image, which rises markedly in adolescence, has not been investigated. The present study examined the link between stress and body image, as well as self-esteem and depressive symptoms, in 533 high school students in grades…

  2. Bodily Deviations and Body Image in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhjalmsson, Runar; Kristjansdottir, Gudrun; Ward, Dianne S.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents with unusually sized or shaped bodies may experience ridicule, rejection, or exclusion based on their negatively valued bodily characteristics. Such experiences can have negative consequences for a person's image and evaluation of self. This study focuses on the relationship between bodily deviations and body image and is based on a…

  3. Sexual Abuse and Body Image Distortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byram, Victoria; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Female undergraduates (n=100) were surveyed concerning body percept and past experience with sexual abuse. Body size overestimation was greater in noneating-disordered women who had relatively unhealthy eating attitudes. Overall findings suggested that age at time of abuse and body image are only associated where there is a degree of eating…

  4. 'Body image is for girls': a qualitative study of boys' body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Duane A; Tiggemann, Marika

    2006-07-01

    Although a considerable and informative literature on boys' body image is beginning to emerge, this literature has been guided strongly by theorizing about female body image. The present study aimed to gain access to boys' own ideas and terminology regarding their body image. The participants (aged 14 to 16 years) said that they are satisfied with their appearance, but some conceded their physical appearance to be more important than they like to admit. Boys do not believe that the mass media influences their body image and said they do not talk about body image because it is a feminine or gay issue. PMID:16769736

  5. Pediatric Body Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Devasenathipathy; Goyal, Ankur; Sharma, Raju; Gupta, Arun Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a radiation-free imaging modality with excellent contrast resolution and multiplanar capabilities. Since ionizing radiation is an important concern in the pediatric population, MRI serves as a useful alternative to computed tomography (CT) and also provides additional clues to diagnosis, not discernible on other investigations. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), urography, angiography, enterography, dynamic multiphasic imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging provide wealth of information. The main limitations include, long scan time, need for sedation/anesthesia, cost and lack of widespread availability. With the emergence of newer sequences and variety of contrast agents, MRI has become a robust modality and may serve as a one-stop shop for both anatomical and functional information. PMID:26916887

  6. Lice, body with stool (Pediculus humanus) (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... capitis ), or the pubic area ( Phthirus pubis ). Some body lice may carry diseases such as epidemic typhus, relapsing fever, or trench fever. (Image courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control and ...

  7. Media Images: Do They Influence College Students' Body Image?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Gina Jarman

    2009-01-01

    Body image perception and body mass index (BMI) among college students exposed and not exposed to photographs of models were compared. Classes were assigned to receive a presentation with or without photographs of models incorporated. Students (n = 184) completed a survey about body/weight satisfaction, height, weight, and the Contour Drawing…

  8. Electronic imaging of the human body.

    OpenAIRE

    Vannier, M. W.; Yates, R. E.; Whitestone, J.

    1992-01-01

    The Human Engineering Division of the Armstrong Laboratory (USAF); the Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology; the Washington University School of Medicine; and the Lister-Hill National Center for Biomedical Communication, National Library of Medicine are sponsoring a working group on electronic imaging of the human body. Electronic imaging of the surface of the human body has been pursued and developed by a number of disciplines including radiology, forensics, surgery, engineering, medical educ...

  9. Body image satisfaction among female college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Goswami

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine body image satisfaction among newly entrant women students in a professional institution. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study using body image satisfaction described in words was undertaken, which also explored relationship with body mass index (BMI and other selected co-variables such as socio-demographic details, overall satisfaction in life, and particularly in academic/professional life, current health status using 5-item based Likert scale. Height, weight, hip and waist circumference measurement was carried out using standard protocol. Data collection was carried through personal interview using pre-designed, pre-tested semi-structured interview schedule by female investigators during August-September 2010 and analysis carried out by computing percentages and Chi-square test. Results: Out of 96 study samples, 16.66%, 51.04%, and 32.29% girl students perceived their body image as fair, good and excellent, respectively while overall 13.54% were dissatisfied with their body image. The body image satisfaction had significant relationship with image perception ( P<0.001, current general health status ( P<0.001 and self weight assessment ( P<0.001. Mother′s education had a statistically significant ( P=0.004 but negative relationship with outcome variable. Students with low weight (BMI <18.5 kg/m2 had a significantly higher (85.71% prevalence of body image satisfaction while overweight students (BMI≤23 kg/m2 had a significantly higher (54.54% prevalence of dissatisfaction ( P<0.001. Discussion: High body image satisfaction is reported in this study and was found to be significantly related to anthropometric measurements. On an encouraging note, this level needs to be preserved for overall mental and healthy development of students. Proactive preventive measures could be initiated on personality development, acceptance of self and individual differences while maintaining optimum weight and active life style.

  10. Medical Imaging of Mummies and Bog Bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels

    2010-01-01

    and bog bodies could be studied non-destructively. This article describes the history of mummy radiography and CT scanning, and some of the problems and opportunities involved in applying these techniques, derived for clinical use, on naturally and artificially preserved ancient human bodies. Unless...... severely degraded, bone is quite readily visualized, but accurate imaging of preserved soft tissues, and pathological lesions therein, may require considerable post-image capture processing of CT data....

  11. Media Impact on Students’ Body Image

    OpenAIRE

    Asumadu-Sarkodie, Samuel; Owusu, Phebe Asantewaa

    2015-01-01

    Media promotion of the ideal body as slimness for women and muscularity for men, has led to increasing numbers of both genders reporting dissatisfaction with their bodies and trying to change using unhealthy eating habits. This research was conducted in University for Development Studies, Tamale campus. The main goal was to assess the impact of the media on university students’ attitude toward body image. The objectives of the study is to, determine whether there was any association between b...

  12. Body image in different periods of adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Valter Paulo N. Miranda; Maria Aparecida Conti; Pedro Henrique B. de Carvalho; Ronaldo Rocha Bastos; Ferreira, Maria Elisa C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To analyze body image in different periods of adolescence. Methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled students aged ten to 19 years old of public schools in small districts of Minas Gerais, Southeast Brazil. The Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ), the Body Dissatisfaction Assessment Scale for Teenagers and the Silhouette Scale for Teenagers (SST) were used. Adolescence phases were classified according to the subjects' ages. Weight and height were measured in order to calculate t...

  13. 7 T Whole Body Imaging: Preliminary Results

    OpenAIRE

    Vaughan, J. Thomas; Snyder, Carl J.; DelaBarre, Lance J.; Bolan, Patrick J.; Tian, Jinfeng; Bolinger, Lizann; Adriany, Gregor; Andersen, Peter; Strupp, John; Ugurbil, Kamil

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of whole body imaging at 7 T. To achieve this objective, new technology and methods were developed. Radio frequency field distribution and specific absorption rate were first explored through numerical modeling. A body coil was then designed and built. Multi-channel transmit and receive coils were also developed and implemented. With this new technology in hand, an imaging survey of the “landscape” of the human body at 7 T was con...

  14. Imaging of drug smuggling by body packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sica, Giacomo; Guida, Franco; Bocchini, Giorgio; Iaselli, Francesco; Iadevito, Isabella; Scaglione, Mariano

    2015-02-01

    Body packing, pushing, and stuffing are hazardous practices with complex medicolegal and social implications. A radiologist plays both a social and a medicolegal role in their assessment, and it should not be limited only to the identification of the packages but must also provide accurate information about their number and their exact location so as to prevent any package remains in the body packer. Radiologists must also be able to recognize the complications associated with these risky practices. Imaging assessment of body packing is performed essentially through plain abdominal X-ray and computed tomography scans. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging, although with some advantages, actually have a limited use. PMID:25639176

  15. Feminist identity, body image, and disordered eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowsky, Hannah M; Eisenberg, Marla E; Bucchianeri, Michaela M; Piran, Niva; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    Using data from a community-based sample (Project EAT-III), this study (N = 1241; mean age = 25.2) examined the relationship of feminist identity with body image and disordered eating. Feminist-identified women reported significantly higher body satisfaction than non-feminist women and women who did not identify as feminists but held feminist beliefs. However, feminist-identified women did not differ from non-feminist women in disordered eating. Women holding feminist beliefs and non-feminist women did not differ in body satisfaction. Our findings suggest that self-identification as a feminist may promote positive body image in young adult women, but may be insufficient to change behaviors. PMID:26694553

  16. Emotional state, state nutrition and body image

    OpenAIRE

    Veiga-Branco, Augusta; Pereira, Filomena; Tavares, Mariline; Mendes, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Literature exposes the relationship between body dissatisfaction and low self-esteem, depression and changes in eating behavior (Silva, 2009). Depression is strongly associated with anxiety and stress, which in turn, are directly related to changes in appetite and food preferences, reflected in the nutritional status of individuals (Gomes, 2010). To characterize the perception of body image and nutritional and emotional state of outpatients in Nutrition consultation; K...

  17. Children's perceptions of eating and body image

    OpenAIRE

    S. Robinson

    1999-01-01

    Concerns about children's eating problems such as obesity, unhealthy eating, dieting and eating disorders have been rising in recent years because of their detrimental effects on children's health. By exploring nine year old children's perceptions of body image, their perceptions of the link between body size and food, and their perceptions of the control of children's eating, this study seeks to contribute to an understanding of why children may develop these eating problems. 98 children u...

  18. Body Image Disturbance in Selected Groups of Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loosemore, Douglas J.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined satisfaction with body image in sample of 18 male college hockey players, 18 male college body builders, and 18 college students in a psychology class using measures of body image distortion and body image dissatisfaction. Found marked levels of distortion and dissatisfaction in body builders, but not in other two groups. (Author/ABL)

  19. Teaching Body Image to EFL Teenagers

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Miss Victoria L

    2010-01-01

    An extract of an Upper-Intermediate EFL coursebook for teenage learners I designed in partial requirement for MA Applied Linguistics & English Language Teaching. The material is centred about the topic of 'Body Image' and includes a focus on learner training; infinitives & gerunds; skimming and scanning reading tasks; intensive listening practice; giving opinions/speculating; rhyming words.

  20. Body Image, Relationships and Sexuality After Amputation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Body Image, Relationships and Sexuality after Amputation Original article by Sandra Houston, PhD First Step - Volume 4, 2005 Translated into plain language by Helen Osborne of Health Literacy Consulting Text size Larger text Smaller text Java Required Print page Save and share ...

  1. Reclaiming body image: the hidden burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis-Helmich, J J

    1992-01-01

    At the age of 4, I incurred a major burn injury that left 45% of my body with permanent scars. Normal clothing covers most of the scars. I was able to reclaim a positive body image through a gradual process of verbal and "body" disclosure. As an adult, I joined a burn survivors' self-help group; as a result of talking with other burn survivors, my self expectations increased. Later, I joined a facilitated group in which nudity and personal growth were the norm. In this group, I was the only person who had experienced a major physical trauma. I replaced my strongly held beliefs that others could not accept my unclothed, burn-injured body with the belief that some persons can, and I came to a personal understanding of why others could not. Fun, exercise, and relaxation led to a reclamation of positive feelings about my unclothed body and allowed my femininity and the character of my body image to emerge and become integrated. PMID:1572860

  2. Body image in different periods of adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Paulo N. Miranda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze body image in different periods of adolescence. Methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled students aged ten to 19 years old of public schools in small districts of Minas Gerais, Southeast Brazil. The Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ, the Body Dissatisfaction Assessment Scale for Teenagers and the Silhouette Scale for Teenagers (SST were used. Adolescence phases were classified according to the subjects' ages. Weight and height were measured in order to calculate the body mass index and the nutritional status. Results were analyzed by logistic regression. Results: The study emolled 531 teenagers (318 females. The average age was 15.6± 2 .2 years and 84.6% were eutrophic. The prevalence of body dissatisfaction varied from 28.9% (BSQ to 78.9% (SST. Overweight adolescents presented greater dissatisfaction (BSQ: OR 3.66, p<0.001; SST: OR 4.108, p<0.001. Dissatisfaction also occurred for females and those at the early adolescence (p<0.05. Conclusions: A low prevalence of dissatisfaction with the body image was observed among adolescents in small towns of Minas Gerais; however, most of them wished a different silhouette than the current one. The results showed that younger adolescents had higher dissatisfaction than their peers, as well as female and overweighed adolescents.

  3. Whole-body intravoxel incoherent motion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the technical feasibility of whole-body intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) imaging. Whole-body MR images of eight healthy volunteers were acquired at 3T using a spin-echo echo-planar imaging sequence with eight b-values. Coronal parametrical whole-body maps of diffusion (D), pseudodiffusion (D*), and the perfusion fraction (Fp) were calculated. Image quality was rated qualitatively by two independent radiologists, and inter-reader reliability was tested with intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs). Region of interest (ROI) analysis was performed in the brain, liver, kidney, and erector spinae muscle. Depiction of anatomic structures was rated as good on D maps and good to fair on D* and Fp maps. Exemplary mean D (10-3 mm2/s), D* (10-3 mm2/s) and Fp (%) values (± standard deviation) of the renal cortex were as follows: 1.7 ± 0.2; 15.6 ± 6.5; 20.9 ± 4.4. Inter-observer agreement was ''substantial'' to ''almost perfect'' (ICC = 0.80 - 0.92). The coefficient of variation of D* was significantly lower with the proposed algorithm compared to the conventional algorithm (p < 0.001), indicating higher stability. The proposed IVIM protocol allows computation of parametrical maps with good to fair image quality. Potential future clinical applications may include characterization of widespread disease such as metastatic tumours or inflammatory myopathies. (orig.)

  4. Image Quality Stability of Whole-body Diffusion Weighted Imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-bin Chen; Chun-miao Hu; Jing Zhong; Fei Sun

    2009-01-01

    To assess the reproducibility of whole-body diffusion weighted imaging (WB-DWI) technique in healthy volunteers under normal breathing with background body signal suppression. Methods WB-DWI was performed on 32 healthy volunteers twice within two-week period using short TI inversion-recovery diffusion-weighted echo-planar imaging sequence and built-in body coil. The volunteers were scanned across six stations continuously covering the entire body from the head to the feet under normal breathing. The bone apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and exponential ADC (eADC) of regions of interest (ROIs) were measured. We analyzed correlation of the results using paired-t-test to assess the reproducibility of the WB-DWl technique.Results We were successful in collecting and analyzing data of 64 WB-DWI images. There was no significant difference in bone ADC and eADC of 824 ROIs between the paired observers and paired scans (P>0.05). Most of the images from all stations were of diagnostic quality.Conclusion The measurements of bone ADC and eADC have good reproducibility. WB-DWI technique under normal breathing with background body signal suppression is adequate.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging of the body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, C.B.; Hricak, H.

    1987-01-01

    This text provides reference to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the body. Beginning with explanatory chapters on the physics, instrumentation, and interpretation of MRI, it proceeds to the normal anatomy of the neck, thorax, abdomen, and pelvis. Other chapters cover magnetic resonance imaging of blood flow, the larynx, the lymph nodes, and the spine, as well as MRI in obstetrics. The text features detailed coverage of magnetic resonance imaging of numerous disorders and disease states, including neck disease, thoracic disease; breast disease; congenital and acquired heart disease; vascular disease; diseases of the liver, pancreas, and spleen; diseases of the kidney, adrenals, and retroperitoneum; diseases of the male and female pelvis; and musculoskeletal diseases. Chapters on the biological and environmental hazards of MRI, the current clinical status of MRI in comparison to other imaging modalities, and economic considerations are also included.

  6. Toward a Theoretical Model of Women's Body Image Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choate, Laura Hensley

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses women's body image resilience. Body image dissatisfaction is prevalent among girls and women. Girls as young as 6 years old experience negative body image, and there is evidence that women struggle with body concerns throughout the life cycle (Lewis & Cachelin, 2001; Smolak, 2002; Striegel-Moore & Franko, 2002). In fact,…

  7. Body Image in Female Professional and Amateur Dancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollatou, Elisana; Bakali, Nikoleta; Theodorakis, Yannis; Goudas, Marios

    2010-01-01

    Body image is considered to be an obscure, mental representation of body shape, size and form which is influenced by a variety of factors that operate over varying time spans. Research has shown that professional female dancers may face preoccupations with their body image and weight. The present study aimed to investigate how body image was…

  8. The Relationships among Body Image, Body Mass Index, Exercise, and Sexual Functioning in Heterosexual Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Angela D.; Byers, E. Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Problems related to negative body image are very common among young women. In this study, we examined the relationship between women's body image and their sexual functioning over and above the effects of physical exercise and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of 214 university women. Low situational body image dysphoria and low body…

  9. Body Image and Sexuality in Women with Pelvic Organ Prolapse

    OpenAIRE

    Zielinski, Ruth; Low, Lisa Kane; Tumbarello, Julie; MILLER, JANIS M.

    2009-01-01

    Body image, including how a woman views her genitals, has been shown to impact sexuality. Currently, there are no valid and reliable questionnaires to assess body image specific to women with genital changes from pelvic organ prolapse. The purpose of this study was to assess implementation of a body image questionnaire in women with pelvic organ prolapse. The Vaginal Changes Sexual and Body Esteem Scale showed utility and potential for demonstrating change in body image after prolapse surgery.

  10. Effects of Negative Body Image on Our Lives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟良锴

    2015-01-01

    <正>According to Wikipedia,body image can be defined as"a person’s perception of the aesthetics or sexual attractiveness of his or her own body".Body image can be influenced by many factors such as media,social values,culture,gender.These influences can lead to both positive and negative body images.The positive body image shows people’s satisfaction with their

  11. Factors associated with body image distortion in Korean adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Hyun, Mi-Yeul; Jung, Young-Eun; Kim, Moon-Doo; Kwak, Young-Sook; Hong, Sung-Chul; Bahk, Won-Myong; Yoon, Bo-Hyun; Yoon, Hye Won; Yoo, Bora

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Body image incorporates cognitive and affective components as well as behaviors related to own body perception. This study evaluated the occurrence of body image distortion and its correlates in Korean adolescents. Methods In a school-based cross-sectional survey, a total of 2,117 adolescents were recruited. They filled out self-completing questionnaires on body image distortion, eating attitudes, and behaviors (Eating Attitude Test-26) and related factors. Results Body image distorti...

  12. Whole body MR imaging in diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diabetes mellitus is a major cardiovascular risk factor and one of the major causes for morbidity and mortality worldwide. Diabetic complications have not only major impact on the quality of life of diabetic patients, but are also potentially life-threatening. Therefore prevention, diagnosis and therapy of these long-term complications are of high importance. However, diagnosis of the variety of complications from diabetes mellitus remains a diagnostic challenge and usually several diagnostic steps are necessary to diagnose or exclude these complications. In the last years whole body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) including whole body magnetic resonance angiography (WB-MRA) has been introduced for cardiovascular imaging and is now increasingly applied in clinical routine for the workup of patients with cardiovascular disease and for cardiovascular screening. The article summarizes rationales for WB-MRI in diabetes mellitus, technical concepts of disease specific cardiovascular WB-MRI in diabetes mellitus and discusses potential clinical consequences.

  13. Etic aspects of childrens body image

    OpenAIRE

    Bokaová, Katarína

    2010-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with marketing communication focused on children, particulary with the impact on children's body image. It reflects the regulation of advertising in terms of legal and ethical issues. It seeks to examine the manipulability of children in decision-making process and the impact of advertising and media on their healthy development. The role of the thesis is to highlight the importance of careful monitoring of the marketing development and its negative impact on childr...

  14. Body image v marketingu

    OpenAIRE

    Michelík, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Today's era depicts life of consumer society with the growing battle for customers. Every single person in this world wants to have a solid life and look pretty. Advertisements, which display handsome and slender people are all around us and they influence our consumer behavior. We tend to equilibrate these ideals by buying the most diverse products and even attempt to achieve the alleged feeling of happiness. This thesis is focused on Body image in which explains individual consumer behavior...

  15. Marketing importance of women's body image

    OpenAIRE

    Zuzana KŘÍŽOVÁ

    2011-01-01

    This thesis deals with research of the marketing importance of women's body image. The research methods including quantitative research performed by assisted interviewing and content analysis of printed advertisements in five magazines targeted on female population were used. The aims of the interviewing are to determine the current physical condition of Czech women and their views on the display "ideal" of feminine beauty in advertising. The content analysis finds out "ideal" state of physic...

  16. [How relevant are diagnostics and therapy in body image disorder?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vocks, Silja; Bauer, Anika

    2015-01-01

    Body image-related interventions become increasingly important in the treatment of anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Previous studies concerning body image disturbance conducted by means of diverse research methods focused on different components of body image - the perceptive, cognitive-emotional and the behavioral component. However, regarding the etiology, maintenance and treatment of body image disturbance in eating disorders, many questions remain unanswered. An integrative perspective on the different body image components within a theoretical framework as well as the development of specific body image-related interventions according to individual indications would be desirable. PMID:25594272

  17. Whole-body intravoxel incoherent motion imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filli, Lukas; Wurnig, Moritz C.; Eberhardt, Christian; Guggenberger, Roman; Boss, Andreas [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Luechinger, Roger [University and ETH Zurich, Institute of Biomedical Technology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-07-15

    To investigate the technical feasibility of whole-body intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) imaging. Whole-body MR images of eight healthy volunteers were acquired at 3T using a spin-echo echo-planar imaging sequence with eight b-values. Coronal parametrical whole-body maps of diffusion (D), pseudodiffusion (D*), and the perfusion fraction (F{sub p}) were calculated. Image quality was rated qualitatively by two independent radiologists, and inter-reader reliability was tested with intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs). Region of interest (ROI) analysis was performed in the brain, liver, kidney, and erector spinae muscle. Depiction of anatomic structures was rated as good on D maps and good to fair on D* and F{sub p} maps. Exemplary mean D (10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s), D* (10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) and F{sub p} (%) values (± standard deviation) of the renal cortex were as follows: 1.7 ± 0.2; 15.6 ± 6.5; 20.9 ± 4.4. Inter-observer agreement was ''substantial'' to ''almost perfect'' (ICC = 0.80 - 0.92). The coefficient of variation of D* was significantly lower with the proposed algorithm compared to the conventional algorithm (p < 0.001), indicating higher stability. The proposed IVIM protocol allows computation of parametrical maps with good to fair image quality. Potential future clinical applications may include characterization of widespread disease such as metastatic tumours or inflammatory myopathies. (orig.)

  18. Diffusion-weighted imaging in pediatric body magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavhan, Govind B; Caro-Dominguez, Pablo

    2016-05-01

    Diffusion-weighted MRI is being increasingly used in pediatric body imaging. Its role is still emerging. It is used for detection of tumors and abscesses, differentiation of benign and malignant tumors, and detection of inflamed bowel segments in inflammatory bowel disease in children. It holds great promise in the assessment of therapy response in body tumors, with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value as a potential biomarker. Significant overlap of ADC values of benign and malignant processes and less reproducibility of ADC measurements are hampering its widespread use in clinical practice. With standardization of the technique, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is likely to be used more frequently in clinical practice. We discuss the principles and technique of DWI, selection of b value, qualitative and quantitative assessment, and current status of DWI in evaluation of disease processes in the pediatric body. PMID:27229502

  19. Light on Body Image Treatment: Acceptance Through Mindfulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Tiffany M.

    2004-01-01

    The treatment of body image has to be multifaceted and should be directed toward the treatment of the whole individual - body, mind, and spirit - with an ultimate culmination of acceptance and compassion for the self. This article presents information on a mindful approach to the treatment of body image as it pertains to concerns with body size…

  20. The Fantastical Body and the Vulnerability of Comfort: Alternative Models for Understanding Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springgay, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    Arguing for new models of inquiry that interrogate body image from the perspective of intercorporeality, this article explores a research study conducted in a secondary school art class. Shifting analysis from the representation of body image to a tactile, sensuous, and experiential understanding of body image, I highlight the contradictions and…

  1. Technical aspect of integrated body imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concerning the integrated body imaging, an optimization of technical aspect in each modarities, such as radiation burden, labour turnover and cost effectiveness should also be considered, in diagnostic process. After investigation on these items, we decided to recommend that imagings of Ultrasound, radionuclide and plain X-ray film should be the first choice for screening, then, CT and X-ray contrast study be the second selected choice and lastly, elaborated contrast angiography be the last one to be selected, if it is necessary. As the increase of information dimension is appeared to be accompanied by the increasing burden in various technical aspect, technical effort to extract more information than those at present at the same burden should be worthwise in future. (author)

  2. Image fusion between whole body FDG PET images and whole body MRI images using a full-automatic mutual information-based multimodality image registration software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We attempted image fusion between whole body PET and whole body MRI of thirty patients using a full-automatic mutual information (MI) -based multimodality image registration software and evaluated accuracy of this method and impact of the coregistrated imaging on diagnostic accuracy. For 25 of 30 fused images in body area, translating gaps were within 6 mm in all axes and rotating gaps were within 2 degrees around all axes. In head and neck area, considerably much gaps caused by difference of head inclination at imaging occurred in 16 patients, however these gaps were able to decrease by fused separately. In 6 patients, diagnostic accuracy using PET/MRI fused images was superior compared by PET image alone. This work shows that whole body FDG PET images and whole body MRI images can be automatically fused using MI-based multimodality image registration software accurately and this technique can add useful information when evaluating FDG PET images. (author)

  3. Body image dissatisfaction among rural and urban adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    M.F. Glaner; E.L. Petroski; A. Pelegrini

    2009-01-01

    To identify the prevalence of body image dissatisfaction among adolescents living in rural and urban areas, and to analyze the influence of demographic and anthropometric variables on body image dissatisfaction. A total of 629 adolescents aged 13 to 17 years from urban and rural areas participated in the study. Demographic variables (gender, age, area of residence), anthropometric measurements (body weight, height, skinfold thickness) and body image data were collected. BMI (underweight: 25 ...

  4. Body image and healthy lifestyle behaviors of university students

    OpenAIRE

    Michele S. Bednarzyk; Tracy L. Wright; Kathaleen C. Bloom

    2013-01-01

    Background: Body image, one’s perception of personal physical appearance, can be positive or negative, leading to body satisfaction or body dissatisfaction. Body satisfaction and dissatisfaction affect individuals of all ages and have the potential to impact lifestyle choices. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between body image and healthy lifestyle behaviors. Participants: Undergraduate students at a state university in the southeastern United States. Me...

  5. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, Dana K; Reel, Justine J; Greenleaf, Christy

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty) that affect one's body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one's body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender) to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise). Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed. PMID:26347007

  6. Body Image Disturbance in Patients with Acne Vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowe, Whitney P.; Crerand, Canice E.; Margolis, David J.; Shalita, Alan R.

    2011-01-01

    Psychosocial outcome measures, which attempt to examine acne from the patient's perspective, have become increasingly important in dermatology research. One such measure is the Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire. The authors' primary aim was to determine the validity and internal consistency of the Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire in patients with acne vulgaris. The secondary aim was to investigate the relationship between body image disturbance and quality of life. This cross-sectional investigation included 52 consecutive acne patients presenting to an outpatient dermatology clinic. Subjects completed the Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire, Skindex-16, and other body image and psychosocial functioning measures. An objective assessment of acne was performed. The Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire was internally consistent and converged with other known body image indices. Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire scores also correlated with Skindex-16 scores, confirming that quality of life and body image are related psychosocial constructs. The Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire appears to be an accurate instrument that can assess appearance-related concern and impairment in patients with acne vulgaris. Limitations include a small sample size and the cross-sectional design. PMID:21779418

  7. Body image disturbance in patients with acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowe, Whitney P; Doyle, Amanda K; Crerand, Canice E; Margolis, David J; Shalita, Alan R

    2011-07-01

    Psychosocial outcome measures, which attempt to examine acne from the patient's perspective, have become increasingly important in dermatology research. One such measure is the Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire. The authors' primary aim was to determine the validity and internal consistency of the Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire in patients with acne vulgaris. The secondary aim was to investigate the relationship between body image disturbance and quality of life. This cross-sectional investigation included 52 consecutive acne patients presenting to an outpatient dermatology clinic. Subjects completed the Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire, Skindex-16, and other body image and psychosocial functioning measures. An objective assessment of acne was performed. The Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire was internally consistent and converged with other known body image indices. Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire scores also correlated with Skindex-16 scores, confirming that quality of life and body image are related psychosocial constructs. The Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire appears to be an accurate instrument that can assess appearance-related concern and impairment in patients with acne vulgaris. Limitations include a small sample size and the cross-sectional design. PMID:21779418

  8. Whole-body diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwee, Thomas C. [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands)], E-mail: thomaskwee@gmail.com; Takahara, Taro [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands); Department of Radiology, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Kanagawa (Japan); Ochiai, Reiji [Department of Radiology, Koga Hospital 21, Kurume, Fukuoka (Japan); Katahira, Kazuhiro [Department of Radiology, Kumamoto University School of Medicine, Honjo, Kumamoto (Japan); Van Cauteren, Marc [Philips Healthcare Asia Pacific, Shinagawa, Tokyo (Japan); Imai, Yutaka [Department of Radiology, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Kanagawa (Japan); Nievelstein, Rutger A.J.; Luijten, Peter R. [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2009-06-15

    Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) provides information on the diffusivity of water molecules in the human body. Technological advances and the development of the concept of diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging with background body signal suppression (DWIBS) have opened the path for routine clinical whole-body DWI. Whole-body DWI allows detection and characterization of both oncological and non-oncological lesions throughout the entire body. This article reviews the basic principles of DWI and the development of whole-body DWI, illustrates its potential clinical applications, and discusses its limitations and challenges.

  9. Body image and body change: Predictive factors in an Iranian population

    OpenAIRE

    Behshid Garrusi; Saeide Garousi; Baneshi, Mohammad R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Body concerns and its health consequences such as eating disorders and harmful body change activities are mentioned in Asian countries. This study evaluates factors contributing to body image/shape changes in an Iranian population. Methods: In this cross-sectional study we focused on four main body change activity (diet, exercise, substance use, and surgery) and their risk factors such as demographic variables, Body Mass Index (BMI), Media, Body-Esteem, Perceived Socio-cultura...

  10. Effects of Media on Female Body Image: Myth or Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryla, Karen Y.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the media's influence on female body image. differentiating between the effects of print and electronic media. Results suggest that print media have a direct, immediate, and negative effect on female body image, while no such relationship exists for electronic media. Results also indicate that exploring only exposure to media images is…

  11. A system and method for imaging body areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goethals, F.P.C.

    2013-01-01

    The invention relates to a system for imaging one or more external human body areas comprising a photographic device configured to acquire, store and output an image or images of the one or more body areas. The invention also relates to a method for determining a probable disease state of an externa

  12. Perception of body image and sexuality for women with mastectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H D; Gregersen, A M; Thorup, Charlotte Brun;

    Background Having cancer and having one breast removed can affect all aspects of a woman's life. The literature shows that many women experience an altered body image and sexuality, loss of femininity, a feeling of less sexual attractiveness and decline in self-esteem. Furthermore mastectomy can...... affect women's perception of quality of life and psychosocial state.In Denmark, no previous studies have focused on perception of body image and sexuality in the acute phase after mastectomy. Furthermore, no study addresses the influence of perceived body image and sexuality on the decision to have....... Objectives The aim is to explore perceived body image and sexuality after having had mastectomy in the acute phase. Further, the aim is to focus on body image and sexuality as determinants for whether women choose reconstruction or not. Insight into women's perceived body image and sexuality is valuable...

  13. Art and the Body Image: about Self and Stereotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Mónica

    2015-01-01

    Today's man is socially absorbed by problematic body issues and everything that this means and involves. Literature, publicity, science, technology and medicine compound these issues in a form of this theme that has never been seen before. In the artistic framework, body image is constantly suffering modifications. Body image in sculpture unfolds itself, assuming different messages and different forms. The body is a synonym of subject, an infinite metaphorical history of our looks...

  14. Body Image Disturbance in Patients with Acne Vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Bowe, Whitney P; Doyle, Amanda K.; Crerand, Canice E.; Margolis, David J.; Shalita, Alan R.

    2011-01-01

    Psychosocial outcome measures, which attempt to examine acne from the patient's perspective, have become increasingly important in dermatology research. One such measure is the Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire. The authors' primary aim was to determine the validity and internal consistency of the Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire in patients with acne vulgaris. The secondary aim was to investigate the relationship between body image disturbance and quality of life. This cross-sectional...

  15. Body image and prosthesis satisfaction in the lower limb amputee.

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Craig; Fox, Jezz

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the relationship between prosthesis satisfaction and body image in lower limb prosthesis users, and the gendered variations within these relationships. Method: A total of 44 valid responses were obtained to an Internet survey regarding prosthesis satisfaction, body image, and phantom pain. Spearman Rho correlations were calculated for these three domains. Results: Moderate to high negative correlations were observed between Body Image Disturbance and Prosthesis Sa...

  16. Body image dissatisfaction among rural and urban adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Glaner

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To identify the prevalence of body image dissatisfaction among adolescents living in rural and urban areas, and to analyze the influence of demographic and anthropometric variables on body image dissatisfaction. A total of 629 adolescents aged 13 to 17 years from urban and rural areas participated in the study. Demographic variables (gender, age, area of residence, anthropometric measurements (body weight, height, skinfold thickness and body image data were collected. BMI (underweight: 25 kg/m² and the sum of two skinfold thicknesses, Σ2SF (girls: low: 36 mm; boys: low: 25 mm were then calculated. The prevalence of body image dissatisfaction was similar (p≥0,05 among rural (64,2% and urban adolescents (62,8%. Boys wished to increase the size of their body silhouette (41,3%, whereas girls wished to reduce it (50,5% (p<0,001. Adolescents with low and excess weight based on BMI and with high Σ2SF presented a 3,14, 8,45 and 2,08 times higher chance of body image dissatisfaction, respectively. A high prevalence of body image dissatisfaction was observed among adolescents from rural and urban areas. An unhealthy nutritional status and body adiposity increase the chances of body image dissatisfaction. These findings emphasize the social pressure on girls to remain slim and on boys to attain an athletic body.

  17. Style and Body Language in the Moving Image

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lennard Højbjerg

    2013-01-01

    Audio visual style has a complex multi-functionality and the important part of this deals with the way that the character body is visualized and how body language is implemented in the moving image. With a number of examples of contemporary film and television, the article will line up of key...... issues of body language in the moving image. This article describes two important aspects of body language in visual media—how visual style mediates the body expressions of fictional character and real persons in news on television and how aspects of the visual style always represent bodily presence...... in the moving image...

  18. Body image dissatisfaction and its relationship with physical activity and body mass index in Brazilian adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Maria F. Laus; Telma M. Braga Costa; Sebastião S. Almeida

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate body image dissatisfaction and its relationship with physical activity and body mass index in a Brazilian sample of adolescents. Methods: A total of 275 adolescents (139 boys and 136 girls) between the ages of 14 and 18 years completed measures of body image dissatisfaction through the Contour Drawing Scale and current physical activity by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Weight and height were also measured for subsequent calculation of body mass inde...

  19. Human Body Image Edge Detection Based on Wavelet Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇; 付小莉

    2003-01-01

    Human dresses are different in thousands way.Human body image signals have big noise, a poor light and shade contrast and a narrow range of gray gradation distribution. The application of a traditional grads method or gray method to detect human body image edges can't obtain satisfactory results because of false detections and missed detections. According to tte peculiarity of human body image, dyadic wavelet transform of cubic spline is successfully applied to detect the face and profile edges of human body image and Mallat algorithm is used in the wavelet decomposition in this paper.

  20. Adolescent Body Image Distortion: A Consideration of Immigrant Generational Status, Immigrant Concentration, Sex and Body Dissatisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimber, Melissa; Georgiades, Katholiki; Couturier, Jennifer; Jack, Susan M; Wahoush, Olive

    2015-11-01

    Immigrant adolescents represent a significant and growing proportion of the population in the United States. Yet, little is known about their experiences of body image distortion. This is particularly concerning given that body image distortion has been identified as a significant and modifiable risk factor for a number of mental illnesses, including depression and eating disorders. This study uses multi-level modeling to examine the associations between immigrant generational status, neighborhood immigrant concentration, sex, body dissatisfaction and risk for body image distortion. Data come from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and includes 10,962 11-19 year olds (49.6 % female). First generation immigrant females were significantly more likely than 3rd generation-or-later adolescents to experience underweight body image distortion. There was no association between neighborhood immigrant concentration and risk for body image distortion. Body dissatisfaction was associated with greater risk for underweight and overweight body image distortion, with the magnitude of underweight distortion risk significantly greater among 1st generation immigrants. Interventions that encourage the development of a healthy body image have the potential to reduce the onset and duration of body image distortion among immigrant and non-immigrant adolescents. PMID:26194338

  1. Body image altered by psoriasis. A study based on individual interviews and a model for body image

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoury, Lina R; Danielsen, Patricia L; Skiveren, Jette

    2014-01-01

    Background: Visible psoriasis skin symptoms have a severe psychological impact on quality of life. To improve clinical approaches, methods of assessing these aspects are needed. Objectives: To investigate the influence of psoriasis on patients' body image based on the Body Image Model (BIM...... on patient body image were identified: body coverage, sexual inhibitions, the influence of social support, reduced exercise activity and a negative self-image. Furthermore, information obtained through the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) questionnaires did not entirely reflect statements from patients...... made during interviews. Conclusion: An altered body image has a psychosocial impact on patients with visible psoriasis that may result in increased body coverage, sexual inhibitions and reduced exercise activity. This further affects self-image negatively and influences how people with psoriasis handle...

  2. Sociocultural influences on body image and body changes among adolescent boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Marita P; Ricciardelli, Lina A

    2003-02-01

    In 2 studies, the authors evaluated the role of parents, peers, and the media in body image and body-change strategies among adolescent boys and girls. The respondents for Study 1 (423 boys and 377 girls) completed the Body Image and Body Change Inventory (L. A. Ricciardelli & M. P. McCabe, 2002) and the Perceived Sociocultural Influences on Body Image and Body Change Questionnaire (M. P. McCabe & L. A. Ricciardelli, 2001b). Body mass index and age were also included in the analyses. Regression analyses demonstrated that sociocultural influences and feedback from the participant's best male friend were important predictors for all body-change strategies among boys. For girls, sociocultural influences and feedback from the participant's best female friend and mother were important predictors for body-change strategies. The most consistent predictor of weight loss, weight gain, and strategies to increase muscles was body-image importance. In Study 2, the authors examined the influence of the same sociocultural variables, as well as negative affect and puberty on body image and body-change strategies among a second group of 199 boys and 267 girls. The results demonstrated that a broad range of sociocultural influences predicted body-change strategies for boys and girls, with negative affect also having a unique influence for boys but not for girls. Puberty played a minor role, once other sociocultural variables were entered into the regression equation. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:12617344

  3. Cognitive-Behavioral Body Image Therapy for Body Dysmorphic Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, James C.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Randomly assigned 54 body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) subjects to cognitive behavior therapy or no treatment. BDD symptoms were significantly decreased in therapy subjects and the disorder was eliminated in 82 percent of cases at posttreatment and 77 percent at follow-up. Subjects' overall psychological symptoms and self-esteem also improved. (RJM)

  4. Carotid Body Tumor Imaging:"Paraganglioma, Chemidectoma"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Jalalshokouhi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Carotid body tumor is a rare benign tumor originating from cells of neural crest tissue. It could present with Horner's syndrome. This tumor is rare and comprises 0.5% of all neoplasms. A familial incidence with autosomal dominant transmission has been reported. "nI have a series of five patients from a known family with one death during surgery because of carotid artery rupturing, others were diagnosed by color Doppler US and dynamic CT scan. Generally, it is sporadic and more frequently seen in high-altitude living people."nSex incidence is approximately equal, "little bit more frequent in the female"."nA characteristic saddle deformity is seen in invasive angiography."nSymptoms are nonspecific; such as, headache, dizziness, tinnitus, loss of hearing acuity, hoarseness, vocal cord or hypoglossal nerve paralysis and syncope. Horner's syndrome is due to sympathetic chain involvement."nThree stages or types of disease have been described by Shambling and colleagues "nFirst, minimally involved internal carotid artery "sub-adventitial""nSecond, partial incorporation of the sheath of internal carotid artery"nThe third type is encircling of internal carotid artery with dense adherence"nImaging: High frequency, high-resolution ultrasonography and color Doppler study are necessary to see blood flow in the artery, bifurcation widening and blood flow in the tumor (low resistance."nSpiral dynamic X-ray CT: Spiral CT with MPR'S and 3D-angiography is the best imaging to show tumor vascularity and the internal carotid lumen."nDSA or invasive angiography is used for preoperative embolization (larger than 2 cm just before surgery (gold standard."nMRI with dynamic and without GD and MRA could replace X-ray CT scan."nTreatment is surgery, embolization and radiation therapy."nNinety-seven patients have been reported from Iran by Mohammad Taghi Salehian as an original article."nRare statements: A malignant unilateral chemodectoma may

  5. Altered Visual Adaptation to Body Shape in Eating Disorders: Implications for Body Image Distortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Harald M; Rickmeyer, Constanze; Hummel, Dennis; Ernst, Mareike; Grabhorn, Ralph

    2016-07-01

    Previous research has shown that after adapting to a thin body, healthy participants (HP) perceive pictures of their own bodies as being fatter and vice versa. This aftereffect might contribute to the development of perceptual body image disturbances in eating disorders (ED).In the present study, HP and ED completed a behavioral experiment to rate manipulated pictures of their own bodies after adaptation to thin or fat body pictures. After adapting to a thin body, HP judged a thinner than actual body picture to be the most realistic and vice versa, resembling a typical aftereffect. ED only showed such an adaptation effect when they adapted to fat body pictures.The reported results indicate a relationship between body image distortion in ED and visual body image adaptation. It can be suspected that due to a pre-existing, long-lasting adaptation to thin body shapes in ED, an additional visual adaption to thin body shapes cannot be induced. Hence this pre-existing adaptation to thin body shapes could induce perceptual body image distortions in ED. PMID:26921409

  6. Many Men Have Body Image Issues, Too

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... journal Psychology of Men & Masculinity . Gender differences in "body dissatisfaction" are shrinking, likely because of media influence, said ... at higher risk than straight men for developing body dissatisfaction. But those studies were based on small, biased ...

  7. Use of a Cutaneous Body Image (CBI) scale to evaluate self perception of body image in acne vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Amr, Mostafa; Kaliyadan, Feroze; Shams, Tarek

    2014-01-01

     Skin disorders such as acne, which have significant cosmetic implications, can affect the self-perception of cutaneous body image. There are many scales which measure self-perception of cutaneous body image. We evaluated the use of a simple Cutaneous Body Image (CBI) scale to assess self-perception of body image in a sample of young Arab patients affected with acne. A total of 70 patients with acne answered the CBI questionnaire. The CBI score was correlated with the severity of acne and acn...

  8. Use of 3-dimensional body scans for body-image research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domina, Tanya; Heuberger, Roschelle; MacGillivray, Maureen

    2008-04-01

    This preliminary study explored the use of highly realistic 3-dimensional body-scan images as a potential tool, taking advantage of a much more specific and expanded representation of the entire body. Traditionally, body-image research makes use of various contour drawing scales whose 2-dimensional figures increase proportionately and do not match the shape of many women. The study tested whether body-scanned images (N = 85) could be consistently "matched" to individual figures on a contour drawing scale. Internal consistency and interrater reliability were calculated and high coefficients were observed (alpha = .97, kappa = .80). The potential of utilizing 3-dimensional images either as more realistic somatotypes in contour-rating scales or as a measurement of body-image satisfaction using computer manipulation of a digital image is discussed. PMID:18556919

  9. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voelker DK

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Dana K Voelker,1 Justine J Reel,2 Christy Greenleaf3 1West Virginia University, College of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences, Morgantown, WV, 2University of North Carolina Wilmington, College of Health and Human Services, Wilmington, NC, 3University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, College of Health Sciences, Milwaukee, WI, USA Abstract: Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty that affect one’s body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one’s body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise. Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed. Keywords: adolescence, eating disorders, obesity, bullying, puberty, physical activity

  10. Disordered eating behaviors and body image in male athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Reistenbach Goltz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify disordered eating behaviors and body image dissatisfaction, as well as their relationship to body fat (BF, among male athletes in high risk sports for eating disorders. Methods: One hundred and fifty-six male athletes were divided into the following categories: weight-class sports, sports where leanness improves performance, and sports with aesthetic ideals. BF was assessed and three questionnaires were used: the Eating Attitudes Test; the Bulimic Investigatory Test, Edinburgh; the Body Shape Questionnaire. Results: Disordered eating behaviors and body image dissatisfaction were found in 43 (27.6% and 23 athletes (14.7%, respectively, and an association was detected between the two variables (p < 0.001. Athletes with and without disordered eating behaviors did not differ in %BF (11.0±5.2% and 9.8±4.0%, respectively; p = 0.106. However, athletes with body image dissatisfaction had higher %BF than those who were satisfied (12.6±5.9% and 9.7±3.9%, respectively; p = 0.034. There were no differences in BF, frequency of disordered eating behaviors, and body image dissatisfaction between sports categories. Conclusion: Nearly one-quarter of athletes showed disordered eating behaviors, which was associated with body image dissatisfaction. Athletes with higher %BF were more likely to be dissatisfied with body image. There was no difference in eating behavior and body image between athletes from different sports categories.

  11. Battling Body Image: Confessions of a Health Educator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasberry, Catherine N.

    2008-01-01

    As a college health educator, the author knows much about healthy behaviors. In spite of this, however, the author discusses finding herself struggling with the same problems of body image that her students express. With a variety of influences tied to negative body image, it is important that college health professionals create a plan of action…

  12. The Affective Consequences of Minimizing Women's Body Image Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosson, Jennifer K.; Pinel, Elizabeth C.; Thompson, J. Kevin

    2008-01-01

    We propose that women regularly anticipate and receive messages from others that trivialize the severity of their body image concerns. Moreover, we suggest that these minimizing messages can heighten women's negative affective reactions to body image threats, particularly if they internalize them. Two studies provided support for these ideas. In…

  13. University hosts Eating Issues and Body Image Awareness Week

    OpenAIRE

    Gehrt, Katie

    2010-01-01

    The Virginia Tech Eating Disorders Task Force will host the Eating Issues and Body Image Awareness Week through Feb. 26. The event features a variety of activities to encourage participants to identify and practice healthy eating and body image attitudes. The activities are free and open to the public.

  14. Cross-Cultural Examination of Women's Body Image Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, R. John; And Others

    The media's portrayal of the ideal body image has been shown to be a large determinant of one's body image perception. The desire to be excessively thin can be conceived of as an artifact of White-American culture largely due to the media's influence. This study looks at cultures that have had limited exposure to the American ideal and examines…

  15. Body-wide anatomy recognition in PET/CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huiqian; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Odhner, Dewey; Tong, Yubing; Zhao, Liming; Torigian, Drew A.

    2015-03-01

    With the rapid growth of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT)-based medical applications, body-wide anatomy recognition on whole-body PET/CT images becomes crucial for quantifying body-wide disease burden. This, however, is a challenging problem and seldom studied due to unclear anatomy reference frame and low spatial resolution of PET images as well as low contrast and spatial resolution of the associated low-dose CT images. We previously developed an automatic anatomy recognition (AAR) system [15] whose applicability was demonstrated on diagnostic computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) images in different body regions on 35 objects. The aim of the present work is to investigate strategies for adapting the previous AAR system to low-dose CT and PET images toward automated body-wide disease quantification. Our adaptation of the previous AAR methodology to PET/CT images in this paper focuses on 16 objects in three body regions - thorax, abdomen, and pelvis - and consists of the following steps: collecting whole-body PET/CT images from existing patient image databases, delineating all objects in these images, modifying the previous hierarchical models built from diagnostic CT images to account for differences in appearance in low-dose CT and PET images, automatically locating objects in these images following object hierarchy, and evaluating performance. Our preliminary evaluations indicate that the performance of the AAR approach on low-dose CT images achieves object localization accuracy within about 2 voxels, which is comparable to the accuracies achieved on diagnostic contrast-enhanced CT images. Object recognition on low-dose CT images from PET/CT examinations without requiring diagnostic contrast-enhanced CT seems feasible.

  16. Characteristic imaging features of body packers: a pictorial essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ab Hamid, Suzana; Abd Rashid, Saiful Nizam; Mohd Saini, Suraini

    2012-06-01

    The drug-trafficking business has risen tremendously because of the current increased demand for illegal narcotics. The smugglers conceal the drugs in their bodies (body packers) in order to bypass the tight security at international borders. A suspected body packer will normally be sent to the hospital for imaging investigations to confirm the presence of drugs in the body. Radiologists, therefore, need to be familiar with and able to identify drug packets within the human body because they shoulder the legal responsibilities. This pictorial essay describes the characteristic imaging features of drug packets within the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:22415809

  17. Exploring the complexities of body image experiences in middle age and older adult women within an exercise context: The simultaneous existence of negative and positive body images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, K Alysse; Cline, Lindsay E; Gammage, Kimberley L

    2016-06-01

    Despite many body changes that accompany the aging process, the extant research is limited on middle age and older adults' body image experiences. The purpose of the present study was to explore how body image is represented for middle age and older adult women. Using thematic analysis, 10 women over the age of 55 were interviewed within an exercise context. The following themes were found: body dissatisfaction, body satisfaction despite ageist stereotypes, neutral body image within cohort, and positive body image characteristics. Negative and positive body images were experienced simultaneously, with neutral experiences expressed as low levels of dissatisfaction. This supports the contention that negative and positive body images exist on separate continuums and neutral body image is likely on the same continuum as negative body image. Programs that foster a social support network to reduce negative body image and improve positive body image in older female populations are needed. PMID:26989980

  18. Body image quality of life in eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Ignacio Jáuregui Lobera; Patricia Bolaños Ríos

    2011-01-01

    Ignacio Jáuregui Lobera1, Patricia Bolaños Ríos21Department of Nutrition and Bromatology, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, Spain; 2Behavior Sciences Institute, Seville, SpainPurpose: The objective was to examine how body image affects quality of life in an eating-disorder (ED) clinical sample, a non-ED clinical sample, and a nonclinical sample. We hypothesized that ED patients would show the worst body image quality of life. We also hypothesized that body...

  19. Refinement of the tripartite influence model for men: dual body image pathways to body change behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylka, Tracy L

    2011-06-01

    Although muscularity and body fat concerns are central to conceptualizing men's body image, they have not been examined together within existing structural models. This study refined the tripartite influence model (Thompson, Heinberg, Altabe, & Tantleff-Dunn, 1999) by including dual body image pathways (muscularity and body fat dissatisfaction) to engagement in muscular enhancement and disordered eating behaviors, respectively, and added dating partners as a source of social influence. Latent variable structural equation modeling analyses supported this quadripartite model in 473 undergraduate men. Nonsignificant paths were trimmed and two unanticipated paths were added. Muscularity dissatisfaction and body fat dissatisfaction represented dual body image pathways to men's engagement in muscularity enhancement behaviors and disordered eating behaviors, respectively. Pressures to be mesomorphic from friends, family, media, and dating partners made unique contributions to the model. Internalization of the mesomorphic ideal, muscularity dissatisfaction, and body fat dissatisfaction played key meditational roles within the model. PMID:21664886

  20. Body-image perceptions across sex and age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullari, S; Rohrer, J M; Bahm, C

    1998-12-01

    Weight dissatisfaction, body dissatisfaction, and body-image distortion measures were used with 98 fifth and eighth graders and 57 undergraduate students. Measures included the Piers-Harris Self-concept Scale and the Kids Eating Disorder Survey for the young children, the Interpersonal Behavior Survey, and a seven-item mistaken beliefs scale for the college sample. Body dissatisfaction and Body-image distortion were assessed with a figure-drawing procedure. Significant differences in both weight dissatisfaction and body dissatisfaction were found between males and females in the eighth grade and undergraduate groups. There were no significant sex differences in body-image distortion in the fifth or eighth grades, but significant differences in body-image distortion between men and women were found in the college sample. The direction of body-image distortion for both the 20 men and the 37 women was consistent with their ideal weight. In the college sample, there was a significant correlation between body-image dissatisfaction and self-confidence for the women but not for the men. PMID:9885045

  1. Development of a human body RMN imaging device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaging device for human body is studied in this thesis. The section images presented are got by a projection-reconstruction method associated to a section plane selection by an oscillating gradient application. Different stages of the machine development are presented: - design and calculation of a resistive magnet for very homogeneous field imaging - design of gradient coils for imaging magnets - realization of control and acquisition interfaces - realization of imaging software in real time

  2. Body image during pregnancy: an evaluation of the suitability of the body attitudes questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Fuller-Tyszkiewicz Matthew; Skouteris Helen; Watson Brittany; Hill Briony

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Available data suggest that body dissatisfaction is common during pregnancy and may even be a precursor to post-natal depression. However, in order to accurately identify at-risk women, it is essential to first establish that body image measures function appropriately in pregnant populations. Our study examines the suitability of the Body Attitudes Questionnaire (BAQ) for measuring body dissatisfaction among pregnant women by comparing the psychometric functioning of the B...

  3. Body image and healthy lifestyle behaviors of university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele S. Bednarzyk

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Body image, one’s perception of personal physical appearance, can be positive or negative, leading to body satisfaction or body dissatisfaction. Body satisfaction and dissatisfaction affect individuals of all ages and have the potential to impact lifestyle choices. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between body image and healthy lifestyle behaviors. Participants: Undergraduate students at a state university in the southeastern United States. Methods: An email was sent, providing a link to an online survey that included: demographic, body image, and screen time questions; the Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity tool; and the Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile II. Results: 1,056 usable surveys were returned. The participants were primarily Caucasian females (75% who were college juniors or seniors (65.5%. The majority (71% indicated they were satisfied with their body, although many (60.3% wanted to alter it. Most (65.1% had a normal BMI. Only 23.3% meet physical activity guidelines. Healthy lifestyle behaviors were engaged in “sometimes” and “often, but not routinely.” Body image was correlated with healthy lifestyle behaviors. Conclusions: Programs and resources focusing on promotion of positive body image, appropriate physical activity, and healthy eating behaviors should be the norm on college campuses. 

  4. Thought–shape fusion and body image in eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jáuregui-Lobera I

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera,1 Patricia Bolaños-Ríos,2 Inmaculada Ruiz-Prieto21Department of Nutrition and Bromatology, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, Spain; 2Behavioral Sciences Institute, Seville, SpainPurpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships among thought–shape fusion (TSF, specific instruments to assess body image disturbances, and body image quality of life in eating disorder patients in order to improve the understanding of the links between body image concerns and a specific bias consisting of beliefs about the consequences of thinking about forbidden foods.Patients and methods: The final sample included 76 eating disorder patients (mean age 20.13 ± 2.28 years; 59 women and seven men. After having obtained informed consent, the following questionnaires were administered: Body Appreciation Scale (BAS, Body Image Quality of Life Inventory (BIQLI-SP, Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ, Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R and Thought-Shape Fusion Questionnaire (TSF-Q.Results: Significant correlations were found between TSF-Q and body image-related variables. Those with higher scores in TSF showed higher scores in the BSQ (P < 0.0001, Eating Disorder Inventory – Drive for Thinness (EDI-DT (P < 0.0001, and Eating Disorder Inventory – Body Dissatisfaction (EDI-BD (P < 0.0001. The same patients showed lower scores in the BAS (P < 0.0001. With respect to the psychopathological variables, patients with high TSF obtained higher scores in all SCL-90-R subscales as well as in the STAI.Conclusion: The current study shows the interrelations among different body image-related variables, TSF, and body image quality of life.Keywords: cognitive distortions, quality of life, body appreciation, psychopathology, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa

  5. Whole-body imaging at 7T: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, J Thomas; Snyder, Carl J; DelaBarre, Lance J; Bolan, Patrick J; Tian, Jinfeng; Bolinger, Lizann; Adriany, Gregor; Andersen, Peter; Strupp, John; Ugurbil, Kamil

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of whole-body imaging at 7T. To achieve this objective, new technology and methods were developed. Radio frequency (RF) field distribution and specific absorption rate (SAR) were first explored through numerical modeling. A body coil was then designed and built. Multichannel transmit and receive coils were also developed and implemented. With this new technology in hand, an imaging survey of the "landscape" of the human body at 7T was conducted. Cardiac imaging at 7T appeared to be possible. The potential for breast imaging and spectroscopy was demonstrated. Preliminary results of the first human body imaging at 7T suggest both promise and directions for further development. PMID:19097214

  6. Microwave non-contact imaging of subcutaneous human body tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kletsov, Andrey; Chernokalov, Alexander; Khripkov, Alexander; Cho, Jaegeol; Druchinin, Sergey

    2015-10-01

    A small-size microwave sensor is developed for non-contact imaging of a human body structure in 2D, enabling fitness and health monitoring using mobile devices. A method for human body tissue structure imaging is developed and experimentally validated. Subcutaneous fat tissue reconstruction depth of up to 70 mm and maximum fat thickness measurement error below 2 mm are demonstrated by measurements with a human body phantom and human subjects. Electrically small antennas are developed for integration of the microwave sensor into a mobile device. Usability of the developed microwave sensor for fitness applications, healthcare, and body weight management is demonstrated. PMID:26609415

  7. Thought–shape fusion and body image in eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio; Bolaños-Ríos, Patricia; Ruiz-Prieto, Inmaculada

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships among thought–shape fusion (TSF), specific instruments to assess body image disturbances, and body image quality of life in eating disorder patients in order to improve the understanding of the links between body image concerns and a specific bias consisting of beliefs about the consequences of thinking about forbidden foods. Patients and methods The final sample included 76 eating disorder patients (mean age 20.13 ± 2.28 years; 5...

  8. Liking them thin: adolescents' favorite television characters and body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te'eni-Harari, Tali; Eyal, Keren

    2015-01-01

    Considering the alarming worldwide increases in eating disorders among adolescents, thought to be linked with body image, this study uses social cognitive theory as a framework to combine the examination of adolescent body image with the topic of mediated characters. The study places a new focus in this realm on favorite television characters, extending past research on general social comparison tendencies or comparisons with unfamiliar mediated models. A survey of 756 students in Grades 7-8 and 10-11 identified their favorite same-gender television characters as well as the adolescents' body image and social comparison with the characters. The survey was accompanied by a content analysis of the favorite characters and their body sizes. Adolescents' favorite television characters were mostly identified as thin or average in body size. The thinner the characters, the more adolescents self-compared with them. The discrepancy between the adolescents' body size and that of their favorite characters significantly and negatively predicted adolescents' body image both directly and indirectly through its relationship with social comparison with the character. The study finds that television characters are important references for adolescents and may serve as targets for social comparison in the context of body image. PMID:25832319

  9. The effects of body exposure on self-body image and esthetic appreciation in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzato, Valentina; Mian, Emanuel; Mele, Sonia; Tognana, Giulia; Todisco, Patrizia; Urgesi, Cosimo

    2016-03-01

    Repeated exposures to thin-idealized body shapes may alter women's perceptions of what normal (e.g., accepted) and ideal (e.g., desired) bodies in a cultural environment look like. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether exposure to thin and round body shapes may change the subsequent esthetic appreciation of others' bodies and the perceptual and cognitive-affective dimensions of self-body image in patients suffering from anorexia nervosa (AN). Thirteen AN patients and 13 matched healthy controls were exposed to pictures of either thin or round unfamiliar body models and, before and after exposure, they were required to either express liking judgments about round and slim figures of unfamiliar bodies (esthetic task) or to adjust distorted pictures of their own body to their perceptual (How do you see yourself?), affective (How do you feel yourself?), metacognitive (How do others see you?) and ideal (How would you like to look like?) body image (self-body adjustment task). Brief exposures to round models increased liking judgments of round figures in both groups. However, only in AN patients, exposure to round models induced an increase in thin figures liking, which positively correlated with their preoccupation with dieting. Furthermore, exposure to round bodies in AN patients, but not in controls, increased the distortion for the perceptual body image and decreased the size of the ideal one. No differences between the two groups were obtained after adaptation to thin models. Our results suggest that AN patients' perception of their own and others' body is more easily malleable by exposure to round figures as compared to controls. Crucially, this mechanism may strongly contribute to the development and maintenance of self-body image disturbances. PMID:26586269

  10. Body image and body change: Predictive factors in an Iranian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behshid Garrusi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Body concerns and its health consequences such as eating disorders and harmful body change activities are mentioned in Asian countries. This study evaluates factors contributing to body image/shape changes in an Iranian population. Methods: In this cross-sectional study we focused on four main body change activity (diet, exercise, substance use, and surgery and their risk factors such as demographic variables, Body Mass Index (BMI, Media, Body-Esteem, Perceived Socio-cultural Pressure, Body dissatisfaction and, Self-Esteem. Approximately, 1,200 individuals between 14-55 years old participated in this study. We used a multistage sampling method. In each region, the first household was selected at random. The probability of outcomes was estimated from logistic models. Results: About 54.3% of respondents were females. The mean (SD of age was 31.06 (10.24 years. Variables such as gender, age, BMI, use of media and socio cultural factors as, body dissatisfaction, body-esteem and pressure by relatives were the main factors that influenced body change methods. In particular we have seen that male are 53% less likely to follow surgical treatments, but 125% were more likely to use substances. Conclusions: Investigation of body concern and its health related problem should be assessed in cultural context. For effectiveness of interventional programs and reducing harmful body image/shape changes activities, socio-cultural background should be noted.

  11. Correlates of Body Image in Polish Weight Trainers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guszkowska Monika

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine body image and body satisfaction in Polish adult men involved in resistance training and to investigate their relationships with objective anthropometric and training characteristics. Methods. The study included 176 males aged 18-31 years with 1-14 years resistance training experience. The Figure Rating Scale, Body Satisfaction Scale and a self-designed questionnaire were administered. Results. Approximately 62% of the participants would like to be more muscular, only 29% accepted their appearance and 9% would like to be less muscular. The body selected as the personal ideal (M = 5.34 was less muscular than the body considered by the participants to be ideal by other men (normative body; M = 6.07 and was more muscular than the body thought to be most attractive to women (M = 5.10. Actual and ideal body muscularity correlated positively with age and body mass, height and BMI. Dissatisfaction with trunk and motor characteristics correlated positively with ideal body and the body considered most attractive to women as well as with the discrepancy indices between the above factors and the actual body. Conclusions. Men regularly involved in resistance training were found to strive for a muscular physique. The normative body, the physique believed to be desired by other men, was more muscular than what was considered preferential to women. However, the latter constitutes a stronger determinant of the level of body satisfaction in men engaged in resistance training.

  12. Body image perception among multi-ethnic male university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Body image perception among multi-ethnic male university students

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate student self-rating towards body dissatisfaction, drive formuscularity and self-esteem, as well as to investigate their relationship. Results from a sample of293 male students from University Malaysia Sabah showed a significant positive relationshipbetween body dissatisfaction and drive for muscularity (r = .22, p < .01. An interesting result wasthat body dissatisfaction is positively correlated with higher self-esteem (r = .142, p <.05, whichwas assumed that body dissatisfaction alone was a poor predictor of self-esteem. Culture has itsrole affecting the values people place on different aspects of the body. By using One-way ANOVA,study found the significant ethnic difference in body dissatisfaction (F(3, 289 = 3.779, p < .05 anddrive for muscularity (F(3, 289 = 5.116, p < .05. However, the majority of them hold positiveperception to their body parts, exhibiting a healthy body image perception

  13. Weight status and the perception of body image in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardner RM

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rick M Gardner Department of Psychology, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO, USA Abstract: Understanding the role of body size in relation to the accuracy of body image perception in men is an important topic because of the implications for avoiding and treating obesity, and it may serve as a potential diagnostic criterion for eating disorders. The early research on this topic produced mixed findings. About one-half of the early studies showed that obese men overestimated their body size, with the remaining half providing accurate estimates. Later, improvements in research technology and methodology provided a clearer indication of the role of weight status in body image perception. Research in our laboratory has also produced diverse findings, including that obese subjects sometimes overestimate their body size. However, when examining our findings across several studies, obese subjects had about the same level of accuracy in estimating their body size as normal-weight subjects. Studies in our laboratory also permitted the separation of sensory and nonsensory factors in body image perception. In all but one instance, no differences were found overall between the ability of obese and normal-weight subjects to detect overall changes in body size. Importantly, however, obese subjects are better at detecting changes in their body size when the image is distorted to be too thin as compared to too wide. Both obese and normal-weight men require about a 3%–7% change in the width of their body size in order to detect the change reliably. Correlations between a range of body mass index values and body size estimation accuracy indicated no relationship between these variables. Numerous studies in other laboratories asked men to place their body size into discrete categorizes, ranging from thin to obese. Researchers found that overweight and obese men underestimate their weight status, and that men are less accurate in their categorizations than

  14. Young adult women's experiences of body image after bariatric surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froulund Jensen, Janet; Petersen, Mette H; Larsen, Tine B;

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To understand the lived experience of body image in young women after obesity surgery. BACKGROUND: Quantitative studies have documented that health-related quality of life and body image are improved after bariatric surgery, probably due to significant weight loss. Female obesity surgery...... candidates are likely to be motivated by dissatisfaction regarding physical appearance. However, little is known about the experience of the individual woman, leaving little understanding of the association between bariatric surgery and changes in health-related quality of life and body image. DESIGN...... synthesized into one major theme: on the edge of control, that is describing these women's feelings of being on the edge of balance between control and loss of control. CONCLUSION: Perception of control may be an essential aspect of body image and the key to understanding these young women's feelings...

  15. Senses of body image in adolescents in elementary school

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Lídia de Abreu Silva; Stella Regina Taquette; Evandro Silva Freire Coutinho

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE : To comprehend the perception of body image in adolescence. METHODS : A qualitative study was conducted with eight focus groups with 96 students of both sexes attending four public elementary school institutions in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil, in 2013. An interview guide with questions about the adolescents’ feelings in relation to: their bodies, standards of idealized beauty, practice of physical exercise and sociocultural influences on self-image. In the d...

  16. Associations between childhood sexual abuse, substance use and body image

    OpenAIRE

    Erna Björnsdóttir 1985

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Childhood sexual abuse is a very serious but fairly common offense. It is defined as touching and/or non-touching activity, performed by adult or older child. Research has found that childhood sexual abuse can affect adolescent’s substance use. Also has been found that sexual abuse is associated with lower body image. The main purpose of the current study was to investigate the associations between childhood sexual abuse, body image and substance use among adolescents. The possible m...

  17. Marketingový význam body image

    OpenAIRE

    Svoboda, Matěj

    2014-01-01

    This master thesis focuses on proving the relevance and importance of body image in marketing. In theoretical part the thesis initially outlines basic marketing knowledge with special concentration on marketing research and segmentation. Next, sources of data and methodology used in the analytical part are described. In the analytical part itself the thesis firstly proves the relevance of body image as a segmentation variable on a few examples. First variable used for segmentation is the natu...

  18. FOOD BEHAVIOR, BODY IMAGE AND ANTHROPOMETRIC INDICES OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Márcia Regina Pereira MONTEIRO; Viviane Ferreira ZANIRATI; Mariana Lage de Oliveira ANDRADE; Silva, Roberta Ribeiro

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess food behavior, self-image perception and anthropometric indices of college students. This was a cross-sectional study with 54 students in a public university. The lifestyle and self-image perception was collected using a standardized questionnaire tested. Food behavior was evaluated through the Eating Attitudes Test. Body composition was assessed for Body Mass Index (BMI), circumferences, skinfold analysis and bioelectrical impedan...

  19. Predictors of Changes in Body Image Concerns of Chinese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Jackson, Todd

    2009-01-01

    This nine-month prospective study tested the extent to which risk factors implicated in recent accounts of body dissatisfaction predicted changes in body image concerns of adolescent boys and girls in China. A sample of 593 Chinese adolescents (217 boys, 376 girls) completed measures of weight esteem, appearance esteem and physical stature concern…

  20. The Impact of Teasing on Children's Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostanski, Marion; Gullone, Eleonora

    2007-01-01

    Being teased about one's physical appearance in childhood has been found to have a strong impact on the way in which adolescent and adult women perceive their bodies. Teasing is also strongly related to self-esteem in children. However, little is known about the impact of teasing on the development of body image in childhood. Through a…

  1. Feminist Pedagogy, Body Image, and the Dance Technique Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Sherrie; Oliver, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the evolution of feminist consciousness in dance technique class as related to body image, the myth of the perfect body, and the development of feminist pedagogy. Western concert dance forms have often been taught in a manner where imitating the teacher is primary in the learning process. In this traditional scenario,…

  2. Childhood Abuse, Body Image Disturbance, and Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaaf, Kristin K.; McCanne, Thomas R.

    1994-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among childhood sexual and physical abuse, body image disturbance, and eating disorder symptomatology in college students, of whom 29 had been sexually abused, 32 physically abused, and 29 nonabused. There was no evidence that child sexual or physical abuse was associated with the development of body image…

  3. Relationship between Body Image and Body Mass Index in College Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Julia A.; Christie, Catherine; Chally, Pamela

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: The authors examined cognitive and affective dimensions of body image of a randomized sample of 188 college men on the basis of body mass index (BMI). Methods: They conducted chi-square tests and ANOVAs to determine differences between 4 BMI groups (underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese) on demographics and…

  4. Psychosocial Aspects of Body Mass and Body Image among Rural American Indian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Denise L.; Sontag, Lisa M.; Salvato, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the psychosocial risks associated with body weight (BMI) and body image in a southeastern, rural Lumbee American Indian community. A total of 134 adolescents (57% female) were surveyed over 2 years at ages of 13 and 15 years. On average, boys (55%) were more likely to be overweight or obese than were girls (31%). BMI was…

  5. Body image and correlation with body composition and attrition rate in the TIGER study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Body image can be a very important part of determining an individual's outlook and behavior. Previous research has shown that the degree of satisfaction women have with their bodies may vary across race and may have a significant impact on an individual's motivation and commitment to a regular exer...

  6. Adolescent Boys and Body Image: Weight and Muscularity Concerns as Dual Pathways to Body Dissatisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Diane Carlson; Crawford, Joy K.

    2005-01-01

    This research evaluated a dual pathway model for body dissatisfaction among adolescent boys. The study provides empirical support for the importance of distinguishing between weight and muscularity concerns in understanding male body image. A total of 128 boys from grades 8 and 11 completed a self-report questionnaire. Results indicated that…

  7. Body image in the mass media

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Iris Bazán; Rosinella Miño

    2015-01-01

    The concern about weight that characterizes most modern women stemmed from the medical research that showed the relationship between obesity and diseases such as hypertension or cardiovascular disease. As shown by the American filmmaker Michael Moore in his documentary film “Sicko” in 2007, large US health companies financially rewarded those with a thinner body and sanctioned overweight people because they had higher risks of disease and thus generate losses to their companies. From there, t...

  8. Body image and quality of life in a Spanish population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Jáuregui Lobera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ignacio Jáuregui Lobera1, Patricia Bolaños Ríos21Department of Nutrition and Bromatology, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, Spain; 2Behavior Science Institute, Seville, SpainPurpose: The aim of the current study was to analyze the psychometric properties, factor structure, and internal consistency of the Spanish version of the Body Image Quality of Life Inventory (BIQLI-SP as well as its test–retest reliability. Further objectives were to analyze different relationships with key dimensions of psychosocial functioning (ie, self-esteem, presence of psychopathological symptoms, eating and body image-related problems, and perceived stress and to evaluate differences in body image quality of life due to gender.Patients and methods: The sample comprised 417 students without any psychiatric history, recruited from the Pablo de Olavide University and the University of Seville. There were 140 men (33.57% and 277 women (66.43%, and the mean age was 21.62 years (standard deviation = 5.12. After obtaining informed consent from all participants, the following questionnaires were administered: BIQLI, Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2, Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ, Self-Esteem Scale (SES, and Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R.Results: The BIQLI-SP shows adequate psychometric properties, and it may be useful to determine the body image quality of life in different physical conditions. A more positive body image quality of life is associated with better self-esteem, better psychological wellbeing, and fewer eating-related dysfunctional attitudes, this being more evident among women.Conclusion: The BIQLI-SP may be useful to determine the body image quality of life in different contexts with regard to dermatology, cosmetic and reconstructive surgery, and endocrinology, among others. In these fields of study, a new trend has emerged to assess body image-related quality of life.Keywords: body appreciation, wellbeing, self-esteem, social

  9. Marketingový výzham body image

    OpenAIRE

    Hejdová, Miroslava

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Body image may be regarded as a very useful tool in marketing strategies. In the theoretic part of the thesis, body image topic is discussed from the women and men's perspective. Main aspects which could be used in marketing are stressed. 1) The first aim of the thesis is to support or explode a theory about current slim ideal in women and athletic body in men and furthermore struggling of men and women to fulfill this ideal by dieting or exercise. 2) The second aim is to find how ...

  10. Body image in the mass media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Iris Bazán

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The concern about weight that characterizes most modern women stemmed from the medical research that showed the relationship between obesity and diseases such as hypertension or cardiovascular disease. As shown by the American filmmaker Michael Moore in his documentary film “Sicko” in 2007, large US health companies financially rewarded those with a thinner body and sanctioned overweight people because they had higher risks of disease and thus generate losses to their companies. From there, the emphasis on weight control and low-calorie dieting -and its association with health- reached unexpected limits. Mass Media had and have a leading role on this growing concern about weight. This article analyzes the effects of media on the aesthetic / healthy ideal, which contribute to the construction of a woman captured by endless demands. These social requirements are associated with perfection, the predominance of the aesthetic, healthy body and eternal youth, which would guarantee success. What relationship have television, women’s magazines, Internet, advertising and even children’s toys with the expansion of “the culture of light”, the ideal body and healthy behavior are some of the questions that will be addressed in this Article. To contribute to a better understanding of this phenomenon, we will make a bibliographic and Media exploration. Finally, as a possible solution to the problem, a strategy of state intervention on the current market model for promoting good use of information and prevention of Eating Disorders and other diseases related to poor diet is proposed. 

  11. Carotid Body Tumor Imaging:"Paraganglioma, Chemidectoma"

    OpenAIRE

    Jalal Jalalshokouhi

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Carotid body tumor is a rare benign tumor originating from cells of neural crest tissue. It could present with Horner's syndrome. This tumor is rare and comprises 0.5% of all neoplasms. A familial incidence with autosomal dominant transmission has been reported. "nI have a series of five patients from a known family with one death during surgery because of carotid artery rupturing, others were diagnosed by color Doppler US and dynamic CT scan. Generally, it is sporadic...

  12. Foreign esophageal body impaction: multimodality imaging diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lucas, Enrique Marco; Ruiz-Delgado, María Luisa; García-Barón, Pedro Lastra; Sádaba, Pablo; Pagola, Miguel Angel

    2004-02-01

    We report a case of a portion of bran bread impacted in the cervical esophagus in an 88-year-old woman. A complete radiologic study including ultrasonography, computed tomography, and barium swallow was performed. These techniques confirmed and localized the foreign body, which was endoscopically removed. A complete radiologic assessment can guarantee the usefulness of esophagoscopy to avoid significant morbidity from unnecessary procedures in a patient in poor clinical condition. Ultrasonography and computed tomography are attractive and profitable options in these cases. PMID:15290496

  13. Body image and subjective well-being in Portuguese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, António; Gaspar de Matos, Margarida; Diniz, José Alves

    2013-01-01

    The study examines the impact of body image in adolescents' well-being. Well-being was assessed with the scale Kidscreen10, with the Cantril ladder for satisfaction with life and with an ad hoc happiness scale. The study presents data on adolescent health from the Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC)/World Health Organization study in Portugal (2006), with a sample of 4,877 adolescents, average age of 14 years old and gender distribution at 49,6% males. Portuguese adolescents showed differences between gender and age group regarding their body image-related satisfaction/dissatisfaction and self-perceived body image, being that both components have a direct impact on the levels of well-being. The male gender has better results in the perception of body image and, consequently, well-being. The largest inter-gender differences for well-being is at 15 years of age. The main predictors of well-being are the look and body satisfaction/dissatisfaction, with greater importance on the affective component. This research highlights the importance of body image for adolescents' well-being, as well as to prepare educational strategies adapted to adolescents' age and gender, by helping them to develop skills concerning self-knowledge and caring for their look. PMID:23866210

  14. Influential sources affecting Bangkok adolescent body image perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thianthai, Chulanee

    2006-01-01

    The study of body image-related problems in non-Western countries is still very limited. Thus, this study aims to identify the main influential sources and show how they affect the body image perceptions of Bangkok adolescents. The researcher recruited 400 Thai male and female adolescents in Bangkok, attending high school to freshmen level, ranging from 16-19 years, to participate in this study. Survey questionnaires were distributed to every student and follow-up interviews conducted with 40 students. The findings showed that there are eight main influential sources respectively ranked from the most influential to the least influential: magazines, television, peer group, familial, fashion trend, the opposite gender, self-realization and health knowledge. Similar to those studies conducted in Western countries, more than half of the total percentage was the influence of mass media and peer groups. Bangkok adolescents also internalized Western ideal beauty through these mass media channels. Alike studies conducted in the West, there was similarities in the process of how these influential sources affect Bangkok adolescent body image perception, with the exception of familial source. In conclusion, taking the approach of identifying the main influential sources and understanding how they affect adolescent body image perceptions can help prevent adolescents from having unhealthy views and taking risky measures toward their bodies. More studies conducted in non-Western countries are needed in order to build a cultural sensitive program, catered to the body image problems occurring in adolescents within that particular society. PMID:17340854

  15. Body image and HIV: implications for support and care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, L

    1998-06-01

    Very little formal research has looked at body image change over the course of HIV illness or assessed the implications of changes for support interactions. There are three main spheres of influence on body image: the physical, psychological and the social. HIV shares some of these aspects with other chronic or fatal illnesses, but has specific elements which are distinctive, such as particular physical manifestations and the negative impact of media, social representations and stigma resulting in a radically altered experience for an HIV-positive body. This paper outlines preliminary findings using a body image measure designed specifically for use in HIV. The results suggest that people with HIV may experience significant feelings of contamination, brought about through internalization of stigma and representations, in addition to physical decline as illness progresses. PMID:9743739

  16. Predicting body appreciation in young women: An integrated model of positive body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Rachel; Tiggemann, Marika; Clark, Levina

    2016-09-01

    This study examined a range of predictors, based on previous theoretical models, of positive body image in young adult women. Participants were 266 women who completed an online questionnaire measuring body appreciation, activity participation, media consumption, perceived body acceptance by others, self-compassion, and autonomy. Potential mechanisms in predicting body appreciation assessed were self-objectification, social appearance comparison, and thin-ideal internalisation. Results indicated that greater perceived body acceptance by others and self-compassion, and lower appearance media consumption, self-objectification, social comparison, and thin-ideal internalisation were related to greater body appreciation. An integrated model showed that appearance media (negatively) and non-appearance media and self-compassion (positively) were associated with lower self-objectification, social comparison, and thin-ideal internalisation, which in turn related to greater body appreciation. Additionally, perceived body acceptance by others was directly associated with body appreciation. The results contribute to an understanding of potential pathways of positive body image development, thereby highlighting possible intervention targets. PMID:27240100

  17. Ethics in marketing communication with a focus on body image

    OpenAIRE

    Mužíková, Iveta

    2012-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with ethics in marketing communication with a focus on body image only. The aim of the thesis is to find out what the effects of constantly imaging the ideal of beauty on the psyche of consumers. The health of consumers and society is the reason why we talk about ethics. Therefore, in this area is the issue of ethics entirely appropriate. The thesis deals with the issue of body image in marketing communications from marketer's point of view and also from consumer's ...

  18. Body Image Dissatisfaction and Distortion, Steroid Use, and Sex Differences in College Age Bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Mark Anthony; Phelps, LeAddelle

    2001-01-01

    Compares college age bodybuilders by sex and steroid intake on two variables: body image dissatisfaction and body image distortion. Results reveal only a significant effect for gender on body distortion. No steroid-use differences were apparent for either body image dissatisfaction or body image distortion. Analyses indicate that female…

  19. TO STUDY THE BODY IMAGE AMO NG THE ADOLESCENT AGE GROUP AND ITS CORRELATION WITH BODY MASS INDEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keziah

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Body image or satisfaction with physical appearance has been established as an important aspect of self - worth and mental health across lifespan . Given the fact that physical appearance is a multifaceted structural concept that depends not only on inner biological , but also psychological and socio - cultural components , body image is conceived as one’s attitudinal dispositions toward the physical self . The purpose of this study is to evaluate the body image satisfaction - dissa tisfaction among adolescent age group , to correlate the components of body image with body mass index and the influence of parents , peers and mass media on body image .

  20. Negative body image associated with changes in the visual body appearance increases pain perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michihiro Osumi

    Full Text Available Changing the visual body appearance by use of as virtual reality system, funny mirror, or binocular glasses has been reported to be helpful in rehabilitation of pain. However, there are interindividual differences in the analgesic effect of changing the visual body image. We hypothesized that a negative body image associated with changing the visual body appearance causes interindividual differences in the analgesic effect although the relationship between the visual body appearance and analgesic effect has not been clarified. We investigated whether a negative body image associated with changes in the visual body appearance increased pain. Twenty-five healthy individuals participated in this study. To evoke a negative body image, we applied the method of rubber hand illusion. We created an "injured rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with pain, a "hairy rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with embarrassment, and a "twisted rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with deviation from the concept of normality. We also created a "normal rubber hand" as a control. The pain threshold was measured while the participant observed the rubber hand using a device that measured pain caused by thermal stimuli. Body ownership experiences were elicited by observation of the injured rubber hand and hairy rubber hand as well as the normal rubber hand. Participants felt more unpleasantness by observing the injured rubber hand and hairy rubber hand than the normal rubber hand and twisted rubber hand (p<0.001. The pain threshold was lower under the injured rubber hand condition than with the other conditions (p<0.001. We conclude that a negative body appearance associated with pain can increase pain sensitivity.

  1. Body image quality of life in eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Jáuregui Lobera

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Ignacio Jáuregui Lobera1, Patricia Bolaños Ríos21Department of Nutrition and Bromatology, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, Spain; 2Behavior Sciences Institute, Seville, SpainPurpose: The objective was to examine how body image affects quality of life in an eating-disorder (ED clinical sample, a non-ED clinical sample, and a nonclinical sample. We hypothesized that ED patients would show the worst body image quality of life. We also hypothesized that body image quality of life would have a stronger negative association with specific ED-related variables than with other psychological and psychopathological variables, mainly among ED patients. On the basis of previous studies, the influence of gender on the results was explored, too.Patients and methods: The final sample comprised 70 ED patients (mean age 22.65 ± 7.76 years; 59 women and 11 men; 106 were patients with other psychiatric disorders (mean age 28.20 ± 6.52; 67 women and 39 men, and 135 were university students (mean age 21.57 ± 2.58; 81 women and 54 men, with no psychiatric history. After having obtained informed consent, the following questionnaires were administered: Body Image Quality of Life Inventory-Spanish version (BIQLI-SP, Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2, Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ, Self-Esteem Scale (SES, and Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R.Results: The ED patients' ratings on the BIQLI-SP were the lowest and negatively scored (BIQLI-SP means: +20.18, +5.14, and —6.18, in the student group, the non-ED patient group, and the ED group, respectively. The effect of body image on quality of life was more negative in the ED group in all items of the BIQLI-SP. Body image quality of life was negatively associated with specific ED-related variables, more than with other psychological and psychopathological variables, but not especially among ED patients.Conclusion: Body image quality of life was affected not only by specific pathologies related to body

  2. Relationship of body image and creative dance movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, R N; Scannell, E D

    1995-08-01

    Findings supporting the proposition that dance movement improves a person's body image have been contradictory. Previous work focussed on styles such as ballet, jazz, and modern dance but it is arguable that creative dance movement, with its less structured approach and absence of predetermined performance standards, will have a positive influence on body image. This study examine scores on the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire of 112 women between 18 and 69 years who had been actively participating in creative dance movement courses for periods ranging from two weeks to 16.5 years. Subjects experienced in creative dance movement were more satisfied with their appearance, fitness, and body parts than subjects with less than five years of experience. Differences in evaluation of health were not clearly established. Given this analysis and the potential for wide-spread clinical use of creative dance movement with people having body-image disturbances, empirical research on the relationship between creative dance movement and body image is warranted. PMID:8532452

  3. FOOD BEHAVIOR, BODY IMAGE AND ANTHROPOMETRIC INDICES OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Regina Pereira MONTEIRO

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The aim of this study was to assess food behavior, self-image perception and anthropometric indices of college students. This was a cross-sectional study with 54 students in a public university. The lifestyle and self-image perception was collected using a standardized questionnaire tested. Food behavior was evaluated through the Eating Attitudes Test. Body composition was assessed for Body Mass Index (BMI, circumferences, skinfold analysis and bioelectrical impedance (BIA. The statistics tests used were Chi-square and Pearson correlation (p< 0.05. The students had 19 to 27 years old, 96.3% were non-smokers, 46.3% drank alcoholic beverages and 37.0% practiced regular physical activity. Most of the students (75.5% were considered normal weight (BMI but the body fat percentage was found to be above average. Regarding self- image perception, 40.7% felt overweight. Observing food behavior results, 12.0% were at risk of developing eating disorders. Positive correlations were verifi ed between BMI with skinfold and skinfold with bioelectrical impedance. It was concluded that a considerable number of the college students assessed had a distorted self-image perception. Many of them had normal weight but with high body fat percentage. This study is relevant to investigate the risk of eating disorders and body image perception as part of the nutritional assessment.

  4. RANZAR Body Systems Framework of diagnostic imaging examination descriptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A unified and logical system of descriptors for diagnostic imaging examinations and procedures is a desirable resource for radiology in Australia and New Zealand and is needed to support core activities of RANZCR. Existing descriptor systems available in Australia and New Zealand (including the Medicare DIST and the ACC Schedule) have significant limitations and are inappropriate for broader clinical application. An anatomically based grid was constructed, with anatomical structures arranged in rows and diagnostic imaging modalities arranged in columns (including nuclear medicine and positron emission tomography). The grid was segregated into five body systems. The cells at the intersection of an anatomical structure row and an imaging modality column were populated with short, formulaic descriptors of the applicable diagnostic imaging examinations. Clinically illogical or physically impossible combinations were ‘greyed out’. Where the same examination applied to different anatomical structures, the descriptor was kept identical for the purposes of streamlining. The resulting Body Systems Framework of diagnostic imaging examination descriptors lists all the reasonably common diagnostic imaging examinations currently performed in Australia and New Zealand using a unified grid structure allowing navigation by both referrers and radiologists. The Framework has been placed on the RANZCR website and is available for access free of charge by registered users. The Body Systems Framework of diagnostic imaging examination descriptors is a system of descriptors based on relationships between anatomical structures and imaging modalities. The Framework is now available as a resource and reference point for the radiology profession and to support core College activities.

  5. Factors associated with body image distortion in Korean adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun MY

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mi-Yeul Hyun,1 Young-Eun Jung,2 Moon-Doo Kim,2 Young-Sook Kwak,2 Sung-Chul Hong,3 Won-Myong Bahk,4 Bo-Hyun Yoon,5 Hye Won Yoon,6 Bora Yoo61College of Nursing, Jeju National University, Jeju, Korea; 2Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Jeju National University, Jeju, Korea; 3Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Jeju National University, Jeju, Korea; 4Department of Psychiatry, Yeouido St Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea; 5Department of Psychiatry, Naju National Hospital, Naju, Korea; 6School of Medicine, Jeju National University, Jeju, KoreaPurpose: Body image incorporates cognitive and affective components as well as behaviors related to own body perception. This study evaluated the occurrence of body image distortion and its correlates in Korean adolescents.Methods: In a school-based cross-sectional survey, a total of 2,117 adolescents were recruited. They filled out self-completing questionnaires on body image distortion, eating attitudes, and behaviors (Eating Attitude Test-26 and related factors.Results: Body image distortions were found in 51.8 percent of adolescents. Univariate analyses showed that boys and older adolescents had higher rates of body image distortion. In the multivariate analyses, body image distortion was associated with high risk for eating disorders (odds ratio [OR] =1.69; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11–2.58; P=0.015 and being over weight (OR =33.27; 95% CI 15.51–71.35; P<0.001 or obese (OR =9.37; 95% CI 5.06–17.34; P<0.001.Conclusion: These results suggest that body image distortion is relatively common in Korean adolescents, which has implications for adolescents at risk of developing eating disorders.Keywords: body image distortion, high risk for eating disorders, Korean adolescent

  6. Disordered eating behaviors and body image in male athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Reistenbach Goltz; Lucia Marques Stenzel; Cláudia Dornelles Schneider

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To identify disordered eating behaviors and body image dissatisfaction, as well as their relationship to body fat (BF), among male athletes in high risk sports for eating disorders. Methods: One hundred and fifty-six male athletes were divided into the following categories: weight-class sports, sports where leanness improves performance, and sports with aesthetic ideals. BF was assessed and three questionnaires were used: the Eating Attitudes Test; the Bulimic Investigatory Test,...

  7. Effects of cognitive behavioral counseling on body Image following mastectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simin Fadaei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Surgical treatment of breast cancer may cause body image alterations. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of cognitive behavioral counseling on body image among Iranian women with primary breast cancer. Methods: In this quasi-experimental designed study, 72 patients diagnosed as breast cancer and surgically treated were enrolled in Isfahan, Iran. The patients were entered the study by convenience sampling method and were randomly di-vided in two groups of intervention (n = 32 and control (n = 40. The intervention group received consultation based on Ellis rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT method for 6 sessions during 3 weeks. The control group did not re-ceive any consultation Paired t-test was used to compare the changes in groups and independent t-test was conducted to compare two groups. The average values represented as mean ± standard deviation. Results: Before the study, the body image score was not significantly different between the intervention (16 97 ± 5 44 and control (15 95 ± 4 66 groups (t = 0 86, P = 0 395. The body image score was significantly lower in the interven-tion group (9 03 ± 6 11 compared to control group (17 18 ± 5 27 after the intervention (t = -6 07, P < 0 001. Conclusions: Since a woman′s body image influences her breast cancer treatment decision, oncology professionals need to recognize the value of a woman′s favorite about appearance and body image. This study emphasizes the impor-tance of offering consultation in breast cancer patients.

  8. Racial differences in predictors of college women's body image attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, S M

    1994-01-01

    African-American and Euro-American women from three predominantly Euro-American colleges in the southeast U.S. between 17 and 23 years of age completed instruments assessing body image attitudes, social competence, sex-role attitudes, racial identity, and a measure of family and personal characteristics. Analyses revealed race differences on all body image measures with the exception of appearance evaluation which was influenced by family income and race. Specifically, African-American women reported more satisfaction with and positive feelings towards their bodies and less dissatisfaction than Euro-American women. Unlike Euro-Americans, African-American women attached importance to fitness and health. The relationship between personal/physical factors and body image was stronger for African-American than Euro-American women. Additionally, personal/physical characteristics were the best model of appearance evaluation for African-American women, whereas personal/physical and sociodemographic factors best predicted this measure for Euro-American women. The results are discussed in relation to body image norms and standards of the African-American subculture and middle-class, Euro-American mainstream culture. PMID:7941613

  9. Altering Visual Perception Abnormalities: A Marker for Body Image Concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilharz, Francesca L; Atkins, Kelly J; Duncum, Anna J F; Mundy, Matthew E

    2016-01-01

    The body image concern (BIC) continuum ranges from a healthy and positive body image, to clinical diagnoses of abnormal body image, like body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). BDD and non-clinical, yet high-BIC participants have demonstrated a local visual processing bias, characterised by reduced inversion effects. To examine whether this bias is a potential marker of BDD, the visual processing of individuals across the entire BIC continuum was examined. Dysmorphic Concern Questionnaire (DCQ; quantified BIC) scores were expected to correlate with higher discrimination accuracy and faster reaction times of inverted stimuli, indicating reduced inversion effects (occurring due to increased local visual processing). Additionally, an induced global or local processing bias via Navon stimulus presentation was expected to alter these associations. Seventy-four participants completed the DCQ and upright-inverted face and body stimulus discrimination task. Moderate positive associations were revealed between DCQ scores and accuracy rates for inverted face and body stimuli, indicating a graded local bias accompanying increases in BIC. This relationship supports a local processing bias as a marker for BDD, which has significant assessment implications. Furthermore, a moderate negative relationship was found between DCQ score and inverted face accuracy after inducing global processing, indicating the processing bias can temporarily be reversed in high BIC individuals. Navon stimuli were successfully able to alter the visual processing of individuals across the BIC continuum, which has important implications for treating BDD. PMID:27003715

  10. Altering Visual Perception Abnormalities: A Marker for Body Image Concern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca L Beilharz

    Full Text Available The body image concern (BIC continuum ranges from a healthy and positive body image, to clinical diagnoses of abnormal body image, like body dysmorphic disorder (BDD. BDD and non-clinical, yet high-BIC participants have demonstrated a local visual processing bias, characterised by reduced inversion effects. To examine whether this bias is a potential marker of BDD, the visual processing of individuals across the entire BIC continuum was examined. Dysmorphic Concern Questionnaire (DCQ; quantified BIC scores were expected to correlate with higher discrimination accuracy and faster reaction times of inverted stimuli, indicating reduced inversion effects (occurring due to increased local visual processing. Additionally, an induced global or local processing bias via Navon stimulus presentation was expected to alter these associations. Seventy-four participants completed the DCQ and upright-inverted face and body stimulus discrimination task. Moderate positive associations were revealed between DCQ scores and accuracy rates for inverted face and body stimuli, indicating a graded local bias accompanying increases in BIC. This relationship supports a local processing bias as a marker for BDD, which has significant assessment implications. Furthermore, a moderate negative relationship was found between DCQ score and inverted face accuracy after inducing global processing, indicating the processing bias can temporarily be reversed in high BIC individuals. Navon stimuli were successfully able to alter the visual processing of individuals across the BIC continuum, which has important implications for treating BDD.

  11. Marketingový význam body image

    OpenAIRE

    Ježová, Veronika

    2010-01-01

    The thesis addresses issues of body image in a marketing context. The aim of the thesis is to affect elements of the body image of persons shown in the printed local and foreign media, determine the extent to which people look identical and how it differs. Part of the objective is to affect the factors leading consumers to solve their dissatisfaction of how they look like by looking for the help of plastic surgery. The work is divided into theoretical and analytical part, the theoretical part...

  12. The body image in ancient tragedy: a verbal visuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisana De Carli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, two tragedies of Sophocles and two others from Seneca are analyzed in order to identify the visuality given to the body through the word, image built for the character’s body, their levels of meaning and reverberation in text and scene. This information can be characterized as internal rubric because such data supports the scene’s construction. Thus, structure and content engender enhancing body's significance on scene either by its presence or a verbal visual, figuring a semantic occupation, which configures as one of the marks of the ancient theater.

  13. Three-dimensional coherence of the conscious body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Matthew R

    2015-01-01

    We experience our body as a coherent object in the three-dimensional (3-D) world. In contrast, the body is represented in somatosensory cortex as a fragmented collection of two-dimensional (2-D) maps. Recent results have suggested that some forms of higher level body representations maintain this fragmentation, for example by showing different patterns of distortion for two surfaces of a single body part, such as the palmar and dorsal hand surfaces. This study investigated the 3-D coherence of the conscious body image of the hand by comparing perceptual biases of perceived hand shape on the dorsal and palmar surfaces. Participants made forced-choice judgements of whether observed hand images were thinner or wider than their own left or right hand, and perceptual distortions of the hand image were assessed by fitting psychometric functions. The results suggested that the hand is consciously represented as a fully coherent, 3-D object. Specifically: (a) Similar overall levels of distortion were found on the palmar and dorsal hand surfaces, (b) comparable laterality effects were found on both surfaces (left hand represented as wider than right hand), and (c) the magnitude of distortions were strongly correlated across the two surfaces. Whereas other recent results have suggested that perceptual abilities such as position sense, tactile size perception, and tactile localization may rely on fragmented, 2-D representations of individual skin surfaces, the present results suggest that, in striking contrast, the conscious body image represents the body (or, at least the hand) as a coherent, 3-D object. PMID:25311046

  14. Senses of body image in adolescents in elementary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lídia de Abreu Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE : To comprehend the perception of body image in adolescence. METHODS : A qualitative study was conducted with eight focus groups with 96 students of both sexes attending four public elementary school institutions in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil, in 2013. An interview guide with questions about the adolescents’ feelings in relation to: their bodies, standards of idealized beauty, practice of physical exercise and sociocultural influences on self-image. In the data analysis we sought to understand and interpret the meanings and contradictions of narratives, understanding the subjects’ context and reasons and the internal logic of the group. RESULTS : Three thematic categories were identified. The influence of media on body image showed the difficulty of achieving the perfect body and is viewed with suspicion in face of standards of beauty broadcast; the importance of a healthy body was observed as standards of beauty and good looks were closely linked to good physical condition and result from having a healthy body; the relationship between the standard of beauty and prejudice, as people who are not considered attractive, having small physical imperfections, are discriminated against and can be rejected or even excluded from society. CONCLUSIONS : The standard of perfect body propagated by media influences adolescents’ self-image and, consequently, self-esteem and is considered an unattainable goal, corresponding to a standard of beauty described as artificial and unreal. However, it causes great suffering and discrimination against those who do not feel they are attractive, which can lead to health problems resulting from low self-esteem.

  15. Japanese version of cutaneous body image scale: translation and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higaki, Yuko; Watanabe, Ikuko; Masaki, Tomoko; Kamo, Toshiko; Kawashima, Makoto; Satoh, Toshihiko; Saitoh, Shiroh; Nohara, Michiko; Gupta, Madhulika A

    2009-09-01

    Cutaneous body image, defined as the individual's mental perception of the appearance of their skin, hair and nails, is an important psychodermatological element in skin diseases. To measure individuals' cutaneous body image, a practical and accurate instrument is necessary. In this study, we translated the Cutaneous Body Image Scale (CBIS), a 7-item instrument originally created by Gupta et al. in 2004, into Japanese using a forward- and back-translation method and evaluated the reliability and validity of the instrument by psychometric tests. A total of 298 healthy adults (64 men and 234 women, aged 28.9 +/- 9.9 years) and 165 dermatology patients (56.7% eczema/dermatitis, 9.8% acne, 7.5% alopecia, 6.9% psoriasis, 19.1% skin tumor/fleck/other) (30 men and 135 women, aged 37.9 +/- 15.2 years) responded to the Japanese version of the CBIS. The internal-consistency reliability of the instrument was high (Cronbach's alpha, healthy adults 0.88, patients 0.84). The CBIS measure demonstrates good test-retest reliability (healthy adults gamma = 0.92, P Skindex-16 in healthy adults (gamma = -0.397 and -0.373, respectively) and in patients (gamma = -0.431 and -0.38, respectively). A stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that an emotional aspect of skin-condition related quality of life was the best predictor of cutaneous body image in both healthy adults and patients (beta = -0.31 and -0.41, respectively) followed by "body dissatisfaction" (beta = -0.17, and -0.23, respectively). Adjusted R(2) was 0.246 in healthy adults and 0.264 in patients. These were consistent with the results from the original the CBIS. These results suggest that the Japanese version of the CBIS is a reliable and valid instrument to measure the cutaneous body image of Japanese adults and also dermatology patients. PMID:19712274

  16. Encouraging Lifelong Healthy Habits for a Positive Body Image in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Christine

    This article discusses issues related to body image in adolescents, explaining what school practitioners can do to encourage lifelong healthy habits that enhance body image. Body image is the picture of physical self carried in the mind's eye. This impression can have little resemblance to how a teen actually looks. Body image culturalization is…

  17. The Body Image Of Physically Active And Inactive Women

    OpenAIRE

    Guszkowska Monika

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The aim of the study was to compare the image of the body, the level of its acceptance and satisfaction with it, as well as anxiety about one’s physical appearance and overall self-esteem in a group of adult women who did fitness exercise and those who were physically inactive.

  18. The Body Image Of Physically Active And Inactive Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guszkowska Monika

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of the study was to compare the image of the body, the level of its acceptance and satisfaction with it, as well as anxiety about one’s physical appearance and overall self-esteem in a group of adult women who did fitness exercise and those who were physically inactive.

  19. Perception of body image and sexuality for women with mastectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Charlotte Brun; Laursen, Birgitte Schantz

    Background Having cancer and having one breast removed can affect all aspects of a woman's life. The literature shows that many women experience an altered body image and sexuality, loss of femininity, a feeling of less sexual attractiveness and decline in self-esteem. Furthermore mastectomy can...

  20. Body image hos mastektomiopererede kvinder, med og uden rekonstruktion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Charlotte Brun; Gregersen, Anette Møller; Damgaard, Helle;

    2012-01-01

    Baggrund: I Danmark er incidensen for brystkræft ca. 5.000 årligt. Kvinder, der er mastektomiopereret, risikerer ubalance i body image. De kan føle sig amputeret, lemlæstede, mindre kvindelige og mindre seksuelt attraktive. De kan frygte at se sig selv i spejlet. De kan opleve, at kroppen ikke er...... hel. Mange undersøgelser er kvantitative og kun få har undersøgt kvindernes oplevelse af body image kvalitativt. Formål: At opnå indsigt i danske mastektomiopererede kvinders oplevelse af body image, med fokus på den akutte fase samt år efter operationen, hvor beslutningen om valg eller fravalg af...... rekonstruktion var taget. Metode: Undersøgelsen var fænomenologisk hermeneutisk, idet hensigten var at opnå indsigt i kvinders oplevelser af body image relateret til mastektomi. Fund: Undersøgelsen resulterede i tre temaer, der følger Bob Price begreber. Kropsrealiteten viste sig som ”en krop, der ikke var hel...

  1. Body Image and First Sexual Intercourse in Late Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilenko, Sara A.; Rama, Nilam; Lefkowitz, Eva S.

    2011-01-01

    Sexual behavior is associated with body image, but the directionality of this association is unclear. This study used longitudinal data from a sample of previously abstinent college students (N = 100, 45% female, 49% European American, 26% Latino American, 25% African American) to test whether satisfaction with appearance changed after first…

  2. Sociocultural Influences on Body Image Concerns of Young Chinese Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Todd; Chen, Hong

    2008-01-01

    This research assessed the extent to which sociocultural factors implicated in explanations of weight dissatisfaction among young Western females extend to sources of body image concern in emerging adult and adolescent males from the People's Republic of China. In Study 1, 219 Mainland Chinese male university students completed measures of stature…

  3. Analysis of the Relationship between Physical Self-Concept and Body Image Dissatisfaction in Female Students

    OpenAIRE

    Sirus Alipoor; Ali M. Goodarzi; Maryam Z. Nezhad; Lale Zaheri

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Body image is a psychological construct which refers to self-concept including self image and feelings an individual perceives about his or her body. Body image can significantly affect the way an individual perceives about his or her body. Studies on relationship between physical self-concept and body image in some countries showed that the women's body dissatisfaction has led to increase in eating disorders. The question was raised whether such a relationship may exist in...

  4. Body Image, self-esteem, and clothing of men and women aged 55 years and older

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Jinsook

    1993-01-01

    Although there are many studies regarding body image of younger people, there have been few studies on that of older people. Since today's culture considers the young, thin body image ideal, it is important to investigate body image of older people and the relationships between their body image, self esteem, and clothing behavior. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between 1) body-cathexis and self-esteem, 2) body-cathexis and clothing behavio...

  5. The Encultured Body: Policy Implications for Healthy Body Image and Disordered Eating Behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskill, Deanne, Ed.; Sanders, Fran, Ed.

    The purpose of this publication is to provide discussion of some of the most difficult and controversial issues surrounding body image and eating disorders, specifically, anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. It includes contributions from a number of nationally and internationally recognized clinicians and researchers in the field. It also…

  6. Body image, body dissatisfaction and weight status in south asian children: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duda Joan L

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is a continuing problem in the UK and South Asian children represent a group that are particularly vulnerable to its health consequences. The relationship between body dissatisfaction and obesity is well documented in older children and adults, but is less clear in young children, particularly South Asians. A better understanding of this relationship in young South Asian children will inform the design and delivery of obesity intervention programmes. The aim of this study is to describe body image size perception and dissatisfaction, and their relationship to weight status in primary school aged UK South Asian children. Methods Objective measures of height and weight were undertaken on 574 predominantly South Asian children aged 5-7 (296 boys and 278 girls. BMI z-scores, and weight status (underweight, healthy weight, overweight or obese were calculated based on the UK 1990 BMI reference charts. Figure rating scales were used to assess perceived body image size (asking children to identify their perceived body size and dissatisfaction (difference between perceived current and ideal body size. The relationship between these and weight status were examined using multivariate analyses. Results Perceived body image size was positively associated with weight status (partial regression coefficient for overweight/obese vs. non-overweight/obese was 0.63 (95% CI 0.26-0.99 and for BMI z-score was 0.21 (95% CI 0.10-0.31, adjusted for sex, age and ethnicity. Body dissatisfaction was also associated with weight status, with overweight and obese children more likely to select thinner ideal body size than healthy weight children (adjusted partial regression coefficient for overweight/obese vs. non-overweight/obese was 1.47 (95% CI 0.99-1.96 and for BMI z-score was 0.54 (95% CI 0.40-0.67. Conclusions Awareness of body image size and increasing body dissatisfaction with higher weight status is established at a young age in

  7. Healthy appearances--distorted body images? Young adults negotiating body motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liimakka, Satu

    2014-02-01

    Drawing on focus group discussions, this article explores how young, Finnish university students view the cultural ideals of health and appearance. The young adults noted how body practices aiming at health can turn into unhealthy obsessions. As a result, a healthy-looking body may serve to cover an underlying body image distortion. Health and well-being were defined as appropriate motives for engaging in body projects, while appearance as a motive was questioned. I argue that the current promotion of health may cause individuals to experience pressure to outwardly appear healthy at the cost of neglecting the subjective experience of well-being, and that this may especially influence young women. PMID:23283598

  8. Control of satellite imaging arrays in multi-body regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, Lindsay Demoore

    In the current study, control strategies are investigated for spacecraft imaging formations in multi-body regimes. The specific focus of the analysis is spacecraft motion as modeled in the circular restricted three-body problem, where two large gravitational bodies affect the motion of spacecraft in their vicinity. Five equilibrium points, or libration points, exist as solutions to the differential equations of motion in the circular restricted three-body problem. A specific periodic solution to these equations is an orbit in the vicinity of a libration point, i.e., a halo orbit. Halo orbits are ideal locations for spacecraft imaging arrays as they remain at a nearly fixed distance from the larger, or primary, bodies in the system. For example, if the Sun and Earth are considered the primary bodies, a spacecraft array can be placed near a libration point on the far side of the Earth, protected from the harsh radiation of the Sun at all times. A model of image reconstruction is developed for two common satellite imaging platform designs: an interferometric sparse aperture array and an occulter-telescope formation. The resolution of an image produced by an array is largely determined by the corresponding coverage of the (u, v) plane. The (u, v) plane is not a physical plane, but rather a relationship between frequencies and amplitudes in the Fourier expansion of the electromagnetic signal from the object of interest. Coverage of the (u, v) plane is derived based on several characteristics of the spacecraft configuration and the motion in physical space. Therefore, to determine formation motion history that may be advantageous to imaging, a mathematical model relating spacecraft motion in physical space to coverage of the (u, v) plane, and thus image reconstruction, is necessary. From these models, two control algorithms are developed that increase the resolution of the images produced by the formation while exploiting multi-body dynamics to reduce satellite fuel

  9. Imaging and acetylcholinesterase inhibitor response in dementia with Lewy bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff-Radford, Jonathan; Boeve, Bradley F; Pedraza, Otto; Ferman, Tanis J; Przybelski, Scott; Lesnick, Timothy G; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Senjem, Matthew L; Smith, Glenn E; Knopman, David S; Lowe, Val; Jack, Clifford R; Petersen, Ronald C; Kantarci, Kejal

    2012-08-01

    Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are commonly used to treat patients with dementia with Lewy bodies. Hippocampal atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging and amyloid-β load on positron emission tomography are associated with the Alzheimer's disease-related pathology in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies. To date, few studies have investigated imaging markers that predict treatment response in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies. Our objective was to determine whether imaging markers of Alzheimer's disease-related pathology such as hippocampal volume, brain amyloid-β load on (11)C Pittsburgh compound B positron emission tomography predict treatment response to acetylcholinesterase inhibitors in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies. We performed a retrospective analysis on consecutive treatment-naive patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (n = 54) from the Mayo Clinic Alzheimer's Disease Research Centre who subsequently received acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and underwent magnetic resonance imaging with hippocampal volumetry. Baseline and follow-up assessments were obtained with the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale. Subjects were divided into three groups (reliable improvement, stable or reliable decline) using Dementia Rating Scale reliable change indices determined previously. Associations between hippocampal volumes and treatment response were tested with analysis of covariance adjusting for baseline Dementia Rating Scale, age, gender, magnetic resonance field strength and Dementia Rating Scale interval. Seven subjects underwent (11)C Pittsburgh compound B imaging within 12 weeks of magnetic resonance imaging. Global cortical (11)C Pittsburgh compound B retention (scaled to cerebellar retention) was calculated in these patients. Using a conservative psychometric method of assessing treatment response, there were 12 patients with reliable decline, 29 stable cases and 13 patients with reliable improvement. The improvers had significantly larger

  10. Media images, body dissatisfaction, and disordered eating in adolescent women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrist, Linda C

    2003-01-01

    This article examines the literature related to the media, body image, and diet/weight issues in children and young women. The media holds an awesome power to influence young women, bombarding them with images of abnormally thin models who seem to represent the ideal. When the majority of adolescents inevitably fail to achieve the extremely thin image they crave, body dissatisfaction results, and disordered eating can begin. Emerging research in the pediatric and adolescent literature demonstrates that children as young as 5 are already anxious about their bodies, and want to be thinner. This obsessive interest in body weight is only fueled by a dramatic increase in the number of Internet Web sites devoted to disordered eating. Unfortunately many of the Web sites are "pro-ana" (pro anorexia) and "pro-mia" (pro bulimia); these Web sites encourage young people at risk to begin starving themselves, or to begin binge-purging. As nurses know, each of these scenarios can lead to serious illness, and sometimes to death. PMID:12629318

  11. Social trajectory and body image satisfaction in childbearing women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Ana; Alves, Luís; Alves, Elisabete; Silva, Susana; Barros, Henrique; Azevedo, Ana

    2015-06-01

    Advantaged socioeconomic position (SEP) is associated with lower body image satisfaction (BIS) among women. However, motherhood and social trajectory (an individual's path from childhood SEP to adulthood SEP) could change this relationship. We aimed to assess the association between social trajectory and BIS immediately before getting pregnant in primiparous and multiparous mothers of a birth cohort. The birth cohort Generation XXI was assembled after delivery, in Porto, in 2005-2006. This analysis includes 5,470 women. Women's and their parents' education were used as indicators of adulthood and childhood SEP, respectively. Social trajectory was classified as stable-high, upward, stable-low, downward, according to both education variables. BIS was assessed with Stunkard silhouettes immediately after birth as the difference between perceived body size before the index pregnancy and ideal body size. Odds ratios (OR) between social trajectory and BIS were computed using multinomial logistic regression (women satisfied with body image were the outcome reference category), adjusting for age and prepregnancy body mass index. In primiparous women, no association was found between childhood SEP, adulthood SEP or social trajectory and feeling too small or too large regarding their ideal figure. Multiparous women with a downward social trajectory presented a higher likelihood of dissatisfaction [too small: adjusted OR 2.21, 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) 1.10-4.46; too large: adjusted OR 1.64, 95 % CI 1.07-2.51]. Downward social trajectory was associated with a higher likelihood of dissatisfaction with body image in multiparae, while there was no effect among primiparae. PMID:25359096

  12. MR imaging in congenital complicated anterior body wall defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Aim of this study was to estimate the value of postmortem MR imaging in evaluation of specimen with congenital anterior body wall defects of the museum of pathologic-anatomy. Material and Methods: We examined 19 specimen with a 1.5 Tesla unit by using T1- and T2-weighted sagittal and coronal sequences. In some specimen additional axial T2-weighted images were obtained. We evaluated the site of the bowel, the liver, the heart and presence of associated disorders. Results: The bowels were completely intraabdominal, in two specimen, completely extraabdominal in 12 specimen and in 5 specimen intra- and extraabdominal. The liver was in two specimen completely extraabdominal/in 12 completely intracorporal, and in 5 specimen intra- and extraabdominal. In 5 cases the heart was located extraanatomically. In 12 specimen we found disorders of the spine and the extremities. Congenital disorders of the kidneys were found in 6 specimen. Conclusion: MR imaging is of great value in the assessment of congenital anterior body wall defects. In the light of ultrafast sequences the role of fetal MR imaging in the evaluation of congenital body wall defects may be mandatory in the future. (orig.)

  13. Body image perception of African immigrants in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toselli, Stefania; Rinaldo, Natascia; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional disorders are now spreading worldwide both in developed and developing countries. Body image ideals and dissatisfaction have been linked to a number of poor health outcomes, including nutritional disorders. While previous studies have offered insight into weight status and body image perception of immigrants in North America, very few studies have analysed these aspects in migrants from Africa to Europe. Our review examines the effects of the migration process on beauty ideals and body dissatisfaction in African immigrants in Europe compared to residents in their own countries. The PubMed, PsycINFO and Google Scholar databases were searched for studies published from January 2000 till November 2015. Of the 730 titles identified, 26 met the inclusion criteria and were included in the present review. Among African residents, the body preferences depend on the country of residence and their socio-cultural status. Ethnic groups living in great isolation or with low incomes still have an ancestral idea of beauty, preferring a shapely body. However ethnic groups living in urban areas are moving toward Westernization of beauty ideals, preferring underweight or normal weight bodies. This review highlights that both residents and migrants are at high risk of nutritional disorders due to the adoption of Western beauty ideals. The results suggest that body dissatisfaction and BMI are increasing from Southern Africa to Europe according to a geographical gradient (described for females by Spearman's coefficient and linear regression, respectively). We emphasize the need for monitoring of the weight and psychological status of immigrants and the development of specific preventive strategies in European countries. PMID:27558365

  14. What is and what is not positive body image? Conceptual foundations and construct definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylka, Tracy L; Wood-Barcalow, Nichole L

    2015-06-01

    A decade ago, research on positive body image as a unique construct was relatively nonexistent, and now this area is flourishing. How and why did positive body image scholarship emerge? What is known about this contemporary construct? This article situates and contextualizes positive body image within Cash's scholarship, eating disorder prevention efforts, feminist influences, strength-based disciplines within psychology, and Buddhism. Extracting insights from quantitative and qualitative research, this article demonstrates that positive body image is (a) distinct from negative body image; (b) multifaceted (including body appreciation, body acceptance/love, conceptualizing beauty broadly, adaptive investment in appearance, inner positivity, interpreting information in a body-protective manner); (c) holistic; (d) stable and malleable; (e) protective; (f) linked to self-perceived body acceptance by others; and (g) shaped by social identities. Complementing what positive body image is, this article further details what positive body image is not to provide a more nuanced understanding of this construct. PMID:25921657

  15. Image-Guidance for Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The term stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) describes a recently introduced external beam radiation paradigm by which small lesions outside the brain are treated under stereotactic conditions, in a single or few fractions of high-dose radiation delivery. Similar to the treatment planning and delivery process for cranial radiosurgery, the emphasis is on sparing of adjacent normal tissues through the creation of steep dose gradients. Thus, advanced methods for assuring an accurate relationship between the target volume position and radiation beam geometry, immediately prior to radiation delivery, must be implemented. Such methods can employ imaging techniques such as planar (e.g., x-ray) or volumetric (e.g., computed tomography [CT]) approaches and are commonly summarized under the general term image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). This review summarizes clinical experience with volumetric and ultrasound based image-guidance for SBRT. Additionally, challenges and potential limitations of pre-treatment image-guidance are presented and discussed

  16. The relationship of body image attitudes to personality traits and subjective quality of life

    OpenAIRE

    Miškinytė, Audronė

    2011-01-01

    The literature review of doctoral dissertation discusses body image and body image attitudes, reviews psychological theories of body image attitude development, and discusses possible sources and causes of the development of a thin body ideal and body dissatisfaction. It also reviews the research of other authors concerning the relationship of body dissatisfaction to gender, age and some personality traits. Empirical part of the dissertation is focused on the description of a quantitative stu...

  17. Body Image And Sensation Seeking In Gym-Goers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlegel Petr

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to explore a relation between Body image (PSPP and Sensation Seeking (SSS-V and to determine gym-goers based on these entities. The research file (N = 182 consisted of gym-goers aged between 24 – 45. The comparison of the tests showed a weak relation (0.25 between PSPP and SST tests and also among the individual subscales. The comparison of men and women did not come up with any significant differences. In terms of Body image, the file showed above-average results, in the case of Sensation Seeking, its score was average. The outcome of our findings is that there is no marked relation between PSPP and SST and the same goes for men and women.

  18. Diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging with background body signal suppression (DWIBS): features and potential applications in oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwee, Thomas C.; Takahara, Taro; Nievelstein, Rutger A.J.; Luijten, Peter R. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Ochiai, Reiji [Koga Hospital 21, Department of Radiology, Kurume (Japan)

    2008-09-15

    Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) provides functional information and can be used for the detection and characterization of pathologic processes, including malignant tumors. The recently introduced concept of ''diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging with background body signal suppression'' (DWIBS) now allows acquisition of volumetric diffusion-weighted images of the entire body. This new concept has unique features different from conventional DWI and may play an important role in whole-body oncological imaging. This review describes and illustrates the basics of DWI, the features of DWIBS, and its potential applications in oncology. (orig.)

  19. Body image and quality of life in a Spanish population

    OpenAIRE

    Ignacio Jáuregui Lobera; Patricia Bolaños Ríos

    2011-01-01

    Ignacio Jáuregui Lobera1, Patricia Bolaños Ríos21Department of Nutrition and Bromatology, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, Spain; 2Behavior Science Institute, Seville, SpainPurpose: The aim of the current study was to analyze the psychometric properties, factor structure, and internal consistency of the Spanish version of the Body Image Quality of Life Inventory (BIQLI-SP) as well as its test–retest reliability. Further objectives were to analyz...

  20. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Voelker DK; Reel JJ; Greenleaf C

    2015-01-01

    Dana K Voelker,1 Justine J Reel,2 Christy Greenleaf3 1West Virginia University, College of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences, Morgantown, WV, 2University of North Carolina Wilmington, College of Health and Human Services, Wilmington, NC, 3University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, College of Health Sciences, Milwaukee, WI, USA Abstract: Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including tran...

  1. Images and bodies subject: sexuality in advertising campaign be stupid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Luiz Menegazzi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the portrayal of sexuality and gender in contemporary advertising by the image and it focuses on visual analysis of the case study of the campaign Be Stupid, the clothing brand Diesel. Examines some of the ads clearer suggestions to the theme of sexuality, about fifteen images, running between 2010 and 2011em many countries, including Brazil, having won the controversial impact of media such as magazines, billboards and especially the Internet. Perform a survey of theoretical and methodological aspects that facilitate the action of reading and deciphering the images, mainly based on the theory Flusser conceptions of technical image, apparatus, with a view to focus on media production, broadcasting, and formats distribution. These advertising images as visual anthropological objects who discourse through the triad body, image and media conditions of power and surveillance, eroticism, stereotypes and cultural life of the spectacle. Contextualizes the scenario analysis within the postmodern perspective, the society of advanced capitalism and diffuse power and media, marked by profound changes in the scale of the feeling of their individual identities unstable. With an emphasis on Foucauldian theory, discusses the concepts of identity, gender intelligible and cultural practices of subjection of the individual mechanisms for language and sexuality. Discusses how is the construction of visual messages of sexuality and gender roles specified by the images and search on it, demonstrating the wider aspects of visual advertising messages today.

  2. Body Image: Relationhsip to Attachment, Body Mass Index and Dietary Practices among College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Sira, Natalia

    2003-01-01

    ABSTRACT Body image or satisfaction with physical appearance has been established as an important aspect of self-worth and mental health across the life span. It is related to self-esteem, sexuality, family relationships and identity. Given the fact that physical appearance is a multifaceted structural concept that depends, not only on inner-biological, but also a psychological and socio-cultural components, the purpose of this study was to examine variables that are related to and infl...

  3. Anorexia nervosa and body dysmorphic disorder: A comparison of body image concerns and explicit and implicit attractiveness beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, A S; Thomas, J J; Greenberg, J L; Elliott, C M; Matheny, N L; Wilhelm, S

    2015-06-01

    Although body image is central to the etiological models of anorexia nervosa and body dysmorphic disorder, studies comparing body image and beliefs about attractiveness between the disorders are rare. Sixty-nine individuals (anorexia nervosa: n=24, body dysmorphic disorder: n=23, healthy controls: n=22) completed self-report measures (body image and general psychopathology), diagnostic interviews, and Go/No-Go Association tasks measuring implicit associations. Compared to controls, both clinical groups exhibited greater negative body image, a more negative attitude toward their physical selves, and more dysfunctional coping strategies (psbody image disturbance, this study also showed that beliefs regarding the importance of appearance (e.g., "one must be attractive to be successful") might be a fruitful target for therapy across both disorders. PMID:25920044

  4. Infection imaging using whole-body FDG-PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) for the detection of soft tissue and bone infections. Forty-five PET examinations in 39 patients (26 male, 13 female, age range 27-86 years) with suspected infectious foci were examined with whole- or partial-body PET scans using FDG. Twenty-seven scans were done in patients with soft tissue and 18 in patients with bone infections. Corrected and uncorrected transaxial PET images were acquired. Seven hundred and twelve body regions in these 45 PET scans were evaluated. Pathological findings were graded using a confidence scale from A to E (A, definitive infection; E, no infection). Disease status was defined in all patients by culture, biopsy or surgery and clinical follow-up. In 45 PET scans there were 40 true-positive, four false-positive and one false-negative findings. Twelve foci suspected to be infectious in nature on the basis of other imaging examinations were identified as negative by PET, thus representing true-negative findings. Sensitivities for the patients with soft tissue (STI) and bone infections (BI) and for the pooled data were 96%, 100% and 98%, respectively. As the calculation of specificity is not straightforward, it was calculated on a per lesion as well as on a per body region basis to permit estimation of an upper and a lower limit. On a per lesion basis, specificities were 70% (STI), 83% (BI) and 75% for the pooled data and on a per body region basis (dividing the body into 22 regions) they were 99% (STI), 99% (BI) and 99% for the pooled data. One false-negative result was found in a patient with cholangitis. It is concluded that PET appears to be a highly sensitive method to detect infectious foci. Specificity is more difficult to estimate, but is probably in the range from 70% to above 90%. (orig.)

  5. Body Image Perception and Self-esteem During Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema Inanir

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study is to examine the change in body image perception (BIP and evaluate self-esteem levels during pregnancy. Material and Methods: This study includes totally 180 females having similar demographic features, i.e. 30 non-pregnant (control group and 50 pregnant women from each trimester (first, second and third trimester groups at an Obstetrics Outpatient Department of a university hospital. BIP and self-esteem scores have been compared among the groups. Data relating to all participants have been obtained by using socio-demographic data form, body image scale and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES. Results: All demographic features have been found to be similar among the groups. The body mass index (BMI was higher in the third trimester of pregnancy compared to other groups; whereas BIP was significantly worse in the third trimester group compared to the first trimester and control groups (P < .05. There was a negative correlation between trimesters of pregnancy and BIP (Rho = -0.221; P = .003. Self-esteem was detected at a relatively higher level in first trimester group compared to the second and third trimester groups (P < .05. Conclusion: BIP levels have declined during the pregnancy period and self-esteem has been observed at a higher level in the first trimester compared to the advanced trimesters of pregnancy.

  6. Female body dissatisfaction after exposure to overweight and thin media images : The role of body mass index and neuroticism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalley, Simon E.; Buunk, Abraham P.; Umit, Turul

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to thin media images is thought to play a significant role in the development of body image dissatisfaction (BID) amongst females. In this study we examined whether individual differences in body mass index (BMI) and neuroticism can make females more vulnerable to BID upon exposure to overw

  7. Diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging with background body signal suppression (DWIBS): features and potential applications in oncology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwee, T.C.; Takahara, T.; Ochiai, Reiji; Nievelstein, R.A.J.; Luijten, P.R.

    2008-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) provides functional information and can be used for the detection and characterization of pathologic processes, including malignant tumors. The recently introduced concept of “diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging with background body signal suppre

  8. Whole body MR imaging in neurofibromatosis type 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess the value of whole body MR imaging in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Materials and methods: 24 patients (15-59 years; mean and median 36 years; 7 males; 17 females) with genetically proven neurofibromatosis type 1 were examined with whole body MR imaging. Axial and coronal T1- and fat-suppressed T2-weighted images (slice thickness 6-12 mm) were acquired on a 1.5 T MR unit (Symphony; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). The images were reviewed by 2 radiologists: 1 senior, 1 junior. The criterion for a neurofibroma was a mass lesion with low signal intensity on T1 and high signal intensity on T2, along the course of a nerve. The location, size, general morphology and course along plexuses and nerves were evaluated. Cutaneous and subcutaneous neurofibromas were defined as 'superficial' neurofibromas. The other neurofibromas were regarded as 'deep' neurofibromas. Results: There were no major problems to differentiate neurofibromas from lymph nodes, vessels or cysts. The latter three were easily recognised by their typical shape and location, whereas neurofibromas occurred in regions where no mass lesion was anatomically expected. There was no relation between age and total number of neurofibromas throughout the body. Classification according to location and number of neurofibromas: 8 patients had only superficial neurofibromas, 1 only deep and 15 both superficial and deep lesions. Twelve patients had less than 15 neurofibromas and 12 had more. Classification according to course: in 8 patients the neurofibromas occurred along plexuses or proximal part of the intercostal nerves; in 16 patients the lesions were more peripheral. Classification according to morphology: 4 patients had plexiform neurofibromas and 20 patients had multiple solitary lesions. Twelve of these 20 patients had less than 15 lesions, and 8 had more. In 2 patients multiple solitary neurofibromas occurred along the nerve in a chain configuration. In one patient a clinically

  9. Whole body MR imaging in neurofibromatosis type 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meerbeeck, S.F.L. van [Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Ghent University, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)], E-mail: stephen.vm@rad-vanmeerbeeck.be; Verstraete, K.L. [Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Ghent University, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)], E-mail: koenraad.verstraete@ugent.be; Janssens, S.; Mortier, G. [Department of Medical Genetics, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2009-02-15

    Objective: To assess the value of whole body MR imaging in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Materials and methods: 24 patients (15-59 years; mean and median 36 years; 7 males; 17 females) with genetically proven neurofibromatosis type 1 were examined with whole body MR imaging. Axial and coronal T1- and fat-suppressed T2-weighted images (slice thickness 6-12 mm) were acquired on a 1.5 T MR unit (Symphony; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). The images were reviewed by 2 radiologists: 1 senior, 1 junior. The criterion for a neurofibroma was a mass lesion with low signal intensity on T1 and high signal intensity on T2, along the course of a nerve. The location, size, general morphology and course along plexuses and nerves were evaluated. Cutaneous and subcutaneous neurofibromas were defined as 'superficial' neurofibromas. The other neurofibromas were regarded as 'deep' neurofibromas. Results: There were no major problems to differentiate neurofibromas from lymph nodes, vessels or cysts. The latter three were easily recognised by their typical shape and location, whereas neurofibromas occurred in regions where no mass lesion was anatomically expected. There was no relation between age and total number of neurofibromas throughout the body. Classification according to location and number of neurofibromas: 8 patients had only superficial neurofibromas, 1 only deep and 15 both superficial and deep lesions. Twelve patients had less than 15 neurofibromas and 12 had more. Classification according to course: in 8 patients the neurofibromas occurred along plexuses or proximal part of the intercostal nerves; in 16 patients the lesions were more peripheral. Classification according to morphology: 4 patients had plexiform neurofibromas and 20 patients had multiple solitary lesions. Twelve of these 20 patients had less than 15 lesions, and 8 had more. In 2 patients multiple solitary neurofibromas occurred along the nerve in a chain configuration. In one

  10. Body Image v kontextu soudobé společnosti

    OpenAIRE

    Rolínek, Igor

    2008-01-01

    The thesis focuses on body image - defines the main characteristics of this area, describes cultural influences and body image history and explains basic quantitative values (Body Mass Index, Waist Hip Ratio, Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis). Furthemore the thesis deals with media influence on body ideal formation process, especially in gay subculture. The research part explores recent situation of body image in gay subculture compared with heterosexual males. This section includes the conte...

  11. Dissatisfaction with body image among adolescent students: association with socio-demographic factors and nutritional status

    OpenAIRE

    Andreia Pelegrini; Raildo da Silva Coqueiro; Carmem Cristina Beck; Karoliny Debiasi Ghedin; Adair da Silva Lopes; Edio Luiz Petroski

    2014-01-01

    This article seeks to determine the prevalence of dissatisfaction with body image and its association with socio-demographic factors and nutritional status among adolescents. The following socio-demographic data, anthropometric variables, and perception of body image (n = 660) were collected. The prevalence of dissatisfaction with body image was 71.4%. Girls wished to reduce the size of their body silhouette, whereas boys wished to increase it. The desire to reduce body size was positively as...

  12. Changing Body Image and Well-Being: Following the Experience of Massive Weight Loss and Body Contouring Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Jo Gilmartin; Long, Andrew F.; Mark Soldin

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the perception of changing body image and well-being for patients who had undergone plastic surgery following massive weight loss. The exploratory, qualitative study was undertaken with 20 patients from one teaching hospital in the south of England. Semi-structured interviews were carried out and a thematic analysis of the data undertaken. The results provide important insights regarding body contouring influencing body image change and the adjustment process involved. T...

  13. Images that we consume, images that consume us: body affections in the era of virtuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel de Oliveira Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the influence of images on the body reconfigurations in contemporary times. To draw an initial understanding of it, it is presented a critical evaluation of three phenomena: the imperative of the perfect physique, the impeccable skin an esthetic and the logic of the body as a commodity. This analysis seeks to establish connections between these processes, placing them as components of the complex web that is the current visual culture. 

  14. Imaging the Human Body: Micro- and Nanostructure of Human Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Georg; Deyhle, Hans; Müller, Bert

    Computed tomography based on X-rays is known to provide the best spatial resolution of all clinical three-dimensional imaging facilities and currently reaches a fraction of a millimeter. Better spatial and density resolution is obtained by means of micro computed tomography well established in the field of materials science. It is also very supportive imaging human tissues down to the level of individual cells (Lareida et al. J. Microsc. 234:95, 2009). The article demonstrates the power of micro computed tomography for imaging parts of the human body such as teeth, inner ear, cerebellum, tumors, and urethral tissue with conventional X-ray sources and synchrotron radiation facilities in absorption and phase contrast modes. The second part of the chapter relies on scanning X-ray scattering of tooth slices (Müller et al. Eur. J. Clin. Nanomed. 3:30, 2010) to uncover the presence of nanostructures including their anisotropy and orientation. This imaging technique gives unrivalled insights for medical experts, which will have a major influence on fields such as dental and incontinence treatments.

  15. Impressions of female body: representations of women and body-image in the brazilian press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulce Helena Mazer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the representations of women and bodyimage in the brazilian press and it questions the sexual divisions in the society by the images published in the media. It also presents an iconological analysisof the photographs in six editions of the periodical Folha de São Paulo in 2012, randomly chosen. From a critical theory and analysis it shows that the image of women, which has long been used as merchandise in advertising, is increasingly perceived by print journalism as a decoy for readers. The use of certain female images in the media reinforces stereotypes and builds limits for the understanding of more complex contexts. The hypothesis that the female body-image is used in the press in order to determine positions from recurrent aesthetic patterns can be confirmed. The paper also describes the three main female stereotypes in the media, based on three major pictorial stereotypes in history, being the madona, the seductive and the politician (HIGONNET, 1991. It expresses the confirmation of the superlative visibility of some groups of women and the invisibility of others. The survey reveals that, despite the assumption that they are very imagetically represented in newspapers, women are under-represented, especially in news photographs. It shows that the editorship of the “culture” and “varieties” sections are exceptions, because those special fragments are considered “light”, referring to art, music, dance, celebrities, television, film and cultural activities” (HEDLER, 2011. We conclude that even in a visual culture, visibility is not guaranteed at all. This research enables to deconstructthe concept that it´s normal to use certain images as representations of such a heterogeneous group like women. We expect to expand the horizon of the discussion about the leading roles for women in the society and their relationship to the images produced about them in the newspapers.

  16. Media Influences on Body Image and Disordered Eating among Indigenous Adolescent Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Marita P.; Ricciardelli, Lina; Mellor, David; Ball, Kylie

    2005-01-01

    There has been no previous investigation of body image concerns and body change strategies among indigenous Australians. This study was designed to investigate the level of body satisfaction, body change strategies, and perceived media messages about body change strategies among 50 indigenous (25 males, 25 females) and 50 non-indigenous (25 males,…

  17. Does nutritional status interfere with adolescents' body image perception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Karla L; Sousa, Ana L L; Carneiro, Carolina S; Nascente, Flávia M N; Póvoa, Thaís I R; Souza, Weimar K S B; Jardim, Thiago S V; Jardim, Paulo C B V

    2014-08-01

    Adolescents' body image (BI) may not match their nutritional status. This study selected representative sample of healthy adolescents aged between 12 and 18 from public and private schools. Anthropometric measures were performed in order to calculate the body mass index (BMI) percentile. The silhouette scale proposed by Childress was used to evaluate BI, making it possible to assess BI satisfaction and BI distortion. The sample was composed of 1168 adolescents with a mean age of 14.7 years; 52.9% were female, 50.9% were fair-skinned, 62.4% had consumed or still consume alcohol and 67% attended public school. Male adolescents presented more overweight and obesity (28.4%) (pbody weight and 82.5% of those underweight wished to gain body weight. BI distortion was identified, since 35% of the adolescents who were underweight did not regard themselves thin, 39.1% of the overweight individuals and 62.1% of the obese did not see themselves in their adequate classifications. Adolescents with overweight/obesity were those who presented higher dissatisfaction with BI, mainly the females. Male individuals presented a greater wish of gaining weight. BI distortion was present in adolescents of all classes of BMI percentile. PMID:25064308

  18. Bodies in nature: Associations between exposure to nature, connectedness to nature, and body image in U.S. adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Barron, David; Weis, Laura; Furnham, Adrian

    2016-09-01

    Here, we sought to replicate previous work showing a relationship between connectedness to nature and body appreciation, and extend it by examining associations between exposure to natural environments and other body image-related variables. An online sample of 399 U.S. women and men (Mage=34.55 years) completed measures of body appreciation, connectedness to nature, nature exposure, appearance investment, sociocultural attitudes towards appearance, and self-esteem. Path analysis showed that nature exposure and connectedness to nature, respectively, were associated with body appreciation in women and men, both directly and indirectly via self-esteem. Connectedness to nature also mediated the link between nature exposure and body appreciation. In men, but not women, the link between connectedness to nature and body appreciation was also mediated by appearance investment and internalisation of a muscular ideal. These results may point to novel methods for promoting more positive body image in adults through engagement with nature. PMID:27476147

  19. Analysis of the Relationship between Physical Self-Concept and Body Image Dissatisfaction in Female Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirus Alipoor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Body image is a psychological construct which refers to self-concept including self image and feelings an individual perceives about his or her body. Body image can significantly affect the way an individual perceives about his or her body. Studies on relationship between physical self-concept and body image in some countries showed that the women's body dissatisfaction has led to increase in eating disorders. The question was raised whether such a relationship may exist in Iran. Approach: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between physical self-concept and body Image dissatisfaction in female. The importance of body image in Iranian culture has, recently, became more significant to the extent that tremendous expenditure of time, effort and money has been paid by people, particularly by women, seeking to alert their appearances to resemble an idea image. A survey of 140 female students selected through random sampling was conducted in Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, southern Iran. To collect data, a questionnaire including Demographic Information form the Physical Self-Perception Profile (PSPP and Nine Figure Silhouette Scale was used. The physical self-perception profile have five subscales, which were sport competence (SPORT, body attractiveness (BODY, physical condition (CONDITION and physical strength (STRENGTH and one subscale that assesses a global perception of overall Physical Self-Worth (PSW. Results: The finding of the research indicated that there is a significant negative correlation between the physical self-concept and body image dissatisfaction. The correlations magnitude ranged between 0.49-0.79 for body image dissatisfaction. Body image dissatisfaction correlated strongest with physical self-worth and with body physical self-concept in female students in Iran. Thinness had the most influential impact on body image dissatisfaction. The findings also showed discrepancy between the

  20. Body image disturbance in binge eating disorder: a comparison of obese patients with and without binge eating disorder regarding the cognitive, behavioral and perceptual component of body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewer, Merle; Nasrawi, Nadia; Schroeder, Dorothea; Vocks, Silja

    2016-03-01

    Whereas the manifestation of body image disturbance in binge eating disorder (BED) has been intensively investigated concerning the cognitive-affective component, with regard to the behavioral and the perceptual components of body image disturbance in BED, research is limited and results are inconsistent. Therefore, the present study assessed body image disturbance in BED with respect to the different components of body image in a sample of obese females (n = 31) with BED compared to obese females without an eating disorder (n = 28). The Eating Disorder Inventory-2, the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, the Body Image Avoidance Questionnaire and the Body Checking Questionnaire as well as a Digital Photo Distortion Technique based on a picture of each participant taken under standardized conditions were employed. Using two-sample t tests, we found that the participants with BED displayed significantly greater impairments concerning the cognitive-affective component of body image than the control group. Concerning the behavioral component, participants with BED reported more body checking and avoidance behavior than the controls, but group differences failed to reach significance after the Bonferroni corrections. Regarding the perceptual component, a significant group difference was found for the perceived "ideal" figure, with the individuals suffering from BED displaying a greater wish for a slimmer ideal figure than the control group. These results support the assumption that body image disturbance is a relevant factor in BED, similar to other eating disorders. PMID:26178486

  1. Solenoid coil for mouse-model MRI with a clinical 3-Tesla imager: body imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Hidalgo, S. S.; D. Jirak; S.E. Solis; Rodríguez, A.O.

    2009-01-01

    A solenoid coil was built for magnetic resonance imaging of the mice. A coil prototype composed of 5 turns, with a length of 4 cm and 2.5 cm radius was developed to acquire (whole) body mouse magnetic resonance images at 130 MHz and an insertable gradient coil set. Coil performance was measured using the Q factor for both the loaded and unloaded cases were 161.67 and 178.03, respectively. These Q factors compare very well with those values reported in the literature. The images were acquired ...

  2. Main differences in Body Image (BI) perception between American and Chinese consumers: selected research results

    OpenAIRE

    Dagmar Skokanová

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an observably increasing interest in one's own body appearance. By attempting to identify the main differences in body image perception within two culturally different backgrounds (the US and China), this paper examines the relationship between the way consumers perceive (ideal) body image in a particular culture, and the product categories advertised in media helping consumers achieve the ideal body image. Furthermore, these findings enable us to examine the i...

  3. Body Image Satisfaction, Eating Attitudes and Perceptions of Female Body Silhouettes in Rural South African Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titilola M Pedro

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the associations between BMI, disordered eating attitude, body dissatisfaction in female adolescents, and descriptive attributes assigned to silhouettes of varying sizes in male and female adolescents, aged 11 to 15, in rural South Africa. Height and weight were measured to determine BMI. Age and sex-specific cut-offs for underweight and overweight/obesity were determined using the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs. Body image satisfaction using Feel-Ideal Discrepancy (FID scores, Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26, and perceptual female silhouettes were collected through self-administered questionnaires in 385 adolescents from the Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System (HSDSS. Participants self-reported their Tanner pubertal stage and were classified as early pubertal ( 2. Mid to post pubertal boys and girls were significantly heavier, taller, and had higher BMI values than their early pubertal counterparts (all p<0.001. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher in the girls than the boys in both pubertal stages. The majority (83.5% of the girls demonstrated body dissatisfaction (a desire to be thinner or fatter. The girls who wanted to be fatter had a significantly higher BMI than the girls who wanted to be thinner (p<0.001. There were no differences in EAT-26 scores between pubertal groups, within the same sex, and between boys and girls within the two pubertal groups. The majority of the boys and the girls in both pubertal groups perceived the underweight silhouettes to be "unhappy" and "weak" and the majority of girls in both pubertal groups perceived the normal silhouettes to be the "best". These findings suggest a need for policy intervention that will address a healthy body size among South African adolescents.

  4. Body Image Satisfaction, Eating Attitudes and Perceptions of Female Body Silhouettes in Rural South African Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro, Titilola M; Micklesfield, Lisa K; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen M; Pettifor, John M; Norris, Shane A

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to examine the associations between BMI, disordered eating attitude, body dissatisfaction in female adolescents, and descriptive attributes assigned to silhouettes of varying sizes in male and female adolescents, aged 11 to 15, in rural South Africa. Height and weight were measured to determine BMI. Age and sex-specific cut-offs for underweight and overweight/obesity were determined using the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs. Body image satisfaction using Feel-Ideal Discrepancy (FID) scores, Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), and perceptual female silhouettes were collected through self-administered questionnaires in 385 adolescents from the Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System (HSDSS). Participants self-reported their Tanner pubertal stage and were classified as early pubertal ( 2). Mid to post pubertal boys and girls were significantly heavier, taller, and had higher BMI values than their early pubertal counterparts (all poverweight and obesity was higher in the girls than the boys in both pubertal stages. The majority (83.5%) of the girls demonstrated body dissatisfaction (a desire to be thinner or fatter). The girls who wanted to be fatter had a significantly higher BMI than the girls who wanted to be thinner (p<0.001). There were no differences in EAT-26 scores between pubertal groups, within the same sex, and between boys and girls within the two pubertal groups. The majority of the boys and the girls in both pubertal groups perceived the underweight silhouettes to be "unhappy" and "weak" and the majority of girls in both pubertal groups perceived the normal silhouettes to be the "best". These findings suggest a need for policy intervention that will address a healthy body size among South African adolescents. PMID:27171420

  5. Negative Body-Image Bias in College Women as a Function of Self-Awareness and Self-Reported Body Dissatisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebowitz Elkoubi, Allison

    2009-01-01

    Research on body image and body image disturbance has met with great debate and inconsistency regarding definition, conceptualization, and measurement. The fundamental understanding of body image ranges from being a perceptual or visual concept to actually representing attitudes or judgments individuals hold regarding their bodies. The present…

  6. Image combination enhancement method for X-ray compton back-scattering security inspection body scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As for X-ray Compton Back-Scattering (CBS) body scanner, image clearness is very important for the performance of detecting the contraband hidden on the body. A new image combination enhancement method is provided based on characteristics of CBS body images and points of human vision. After processed by this method, the CBS image will be obviously improved with clear levels, distinct outline and uniform background. (authors)

  7. RF Device for Acquiring Images of the Human Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaier, Todd C.; McGrath, William R.

    2010-01-01

    A safe, non-invasive method for forming images through clothing of large groups of people, in order to search for concealed weapons either made of metal or not, has been developed. A millimeter wavelength scanner designed in a unique, ring-shaped configuration can obtain a full 360 image of the body with a resolution of less than a millimeter in only a few seconds. Millimeter waves readily penetrate normal clothing, but are highly reflected by the human body and concealed objects. Millimeter wave signals are nonionizing and are harmless to human tissues when used at low power levels. The imager (see figure) consists of a thin base that supports a small-diameter vertical post about 7 ft (=2.13 m) tall. Attached to the post is a square-shaped ring 2 in. (=5 cm) wide and 3 ft (=91 cm) on a side. The ring is oriented horizontally, and is supported halfway along one side by a connection to a linear bearing on the vertical post. A planar RF circuit board is mounted to the inside of each side of the ring. Each circuit board contains an array of 30 receivers, one transmitter, and digitization electronics. Each array element has a printed-circuit patch antenna coupled to a pair of mixers by a 90 coupler. The mixers receive a reference local oscillator signal to a subharmonic of the transmitter frequency. A single local oscillator line feeds all 30 receivers on the board. The resulting MHz IF signals are amplified and carried to the edge of the board where they are demodulated and digitized. The transmitted signal is derived from the local oscillator at a frequency offset determined by a crystal oscillator. One antenna centrally located on each side of the square ring provides the source illumination power. The total transmitted power is less than 100 mW, resulting in an exposure level that is completely safe to humans. The output signals from all four circuit boards are fed via serial connection to a data processing computer. The computer processes the approximately 1-MB

  8. Metacognition and Body Image in Predicting Alexithymia in Substance Abusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babaei

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Substance dependency is one of the biggest problems and worries of the world. It stunts the growth of society and causes various problems such as reduction in public health, increase in mortality, rise in social and domestic traumas, loss of educational and occupational opportunities, involvement with the judicial system, and development of the substance-abuse cycle. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the role of metacognition and body image in predicting alexithymia in substance abusers. Patients and Methods The research sample included addicts (males and females aged 10 to 70 years who referred to the addiction treatment and counseling centers of three Iranian cities of Zahedan, Sari, and Neyriz. Participants were selected by random sampling. The metacognitive strategy questionnaire (MCQ-30, physical self-description questionnaire (PSDQ, and Toronto alexithymia scale (TAS-20 were used for data collection. The hypotheses were tested using the Pearson’s correlation method and regression analysis. Results According to the results of the current study, the highest correlation was between alexithymia and the cognitive awareness subscale (r = 0.305; P < 0.01.There was no significant correlation between alexithymia and body image. Based on the multiple regression analysis, the three predictors explained 11% of the variance (R2 = 0. 11, F = 3.981; P < 0.01. Cognitive awareness significantly predicted 9% of the variance (β = 0.305; P < 0.01, and the other subscales predicted about 2%. Conclusions These findings demonstrated that metacognition had an important role in predicting alexithymia in the substance abusers, which underscores the necessity of precautionary measures.

  9. TO STUDY THE BODY IMAGE AMO NG THE ADOLESCENT AGE GROUP AND ITS CORRELATION WITH BODY MASS INDEX

    OpenAIRE

    Keziah; Gurmeet; Jugesh

    2015-01-01

    Body image or satisfaction with physical appearance has been established as an important aspect of self - worth and mental health across lifespan . Given the fact that physical appearance is a multifaceted structural concept that depends not only on inner biological , but also psychological and socio - cultural components , body image is conceived as one’s attitudinal dispositions toward the physical self . The purpose of this study is to eva...

  10. Assessing the Landscape: Body Image Values and Attitudes among Middle School Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosick, Tracy L.; Talbert-Johnson, Carolyn; Myers, Melissa J.; Angelo, Renee

    2013-01-01

    Background: Body image refers to an individual's thoughts and feelings about his or her body and physical appearance. To date, several qualitative and quantitative findings implicate sociocultural influences, such as the media or parental pressure, in shaping female adolescents' body image perceptions. Overall, there is not much quantitative…

  11. Application of a Relational Model to Understanding Body Image in College Women and Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanftner, Jennifer L.; Ryan, William J.; Pierce, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Relational cultural theory was examined in relation to body image in two samples of college women (n = 102) and men (n = 78) from a Midwestern university. Participants completed measures of mutuality and body image satisfaction. Results revealed that low mutuality with mothers and fathers predicted body dissatisfaction in both men and women, and…

  12. Changing Body Image and Well-Being: Following the Experience of Massive Weight Loss and Body Contouring Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Gilmartin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the perception of changing body image and well-being for patients who had undergone plastic surgery following massive weight loss. The exploratory, qualitative study was undertaken with 20 patients from one teaching hospital in the south of England. Semi-structured interviews were carried out and a thematic analysis of the data undertaken. The results provide important insights regarding body contouring influencing body image change and the adjustment process involved. The ability to pursue self-esteem and the accruing social benefits is emphasized in the interrelated sub themes including social acceptance, undoing depression and sexual vitality. Body contouring surgery following massive weight loss appears to facilitate improvement in body image and well-being. Adjustment to the changing body image is both empowering and challenging. Supportive educational programmes need to be developed to assist this transition to a more positive body image and appreciation; these could usefully include access to and involvement with patient support groups.

  13. Body Dysmorphic Disorder and Other Clinically Significant Body Image Concerns in Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatients: Prevalence and Clinical Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyl, Jennifer; Kittler, Jennifer; Phillips, Katharine A.; Hunt, Jeffrey I.

    2006-01-01

    Background: This study assessed prevalence and clinical correlates of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), eating disorders (ED), and other clinically significant body image concerns in 208 consecutively admitted adolescent inpatients. It was hypothesized that adolescents with BDD would have higher levels of depression, anxiety, and suicidality.…

  14. The Relations among Body Image, Physical Attractiveness, and Body Mass in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Gianine D.; Lewis, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Examined body dissatisfaction, physical attractiveness, and body mass index in adolescents at 13, 15, and 18 years of age. Found that sex differences in body dissatisfaction emerged between 13 and 15 years and were maintained. Girls' body dissatisfaction increased, whereas boys' decreased. Body dissatisfaction was weakly related to others' rating…

  15. Body Image Satisfaction, Eating Attitudes and Perceptions of Female Body Silhouettes in Rural South African Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micklesfield, Lisa K.; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen M.; Pettifor, John M.; Norris, Shane A.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to examine the associations between BMI, disordered eating attitude, body dissatisfaction in female adolescents, and descriptive attributes assigned to silhouettes of varying sizes in male and female adolescents, aged 11 to 15, in rural South Africa. Height and weight were measured to determine BMI. Age and sex-specific cut-offs for underweight and overweight/obesity were determined using the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs. Body image satisfaction using Feel-Ideal Discrepancy (FID) scores, Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), and perceptual female silhouettes were collected through self-administered questionnaires in 385 adolescents from the Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System (HSDSS). Participants self-reported their Tanner pubertal stage and were classified as early pubertal ( 2). Mid to post pubertal boys and girls were significantly heavier, taller, and had higher BMI values than their early pubertal counterparts (all pbody dissatisfaction (a desire to be thinner or fatter). The girls who wanted to be fatter had a significantly higher BMI than the girls who wanted to be thinner (pbody size among South African adolescents. PMID:27171420

  16. PET imaging predicts future body weight and cocaine preference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaelides M.; Wang G.; Michaelides M.; Thanos P.K. Kim R.; Cho J.; Ananth M.; Wang G.-J.; Volkow N.D.

    2011-08-28

    Deficits in dopamine D2/D3 receptor (D2R/D3R) binding availability using PET imaging have been reported in obese humans and rodents. Similar deficits have been reported in cocaine-addicts and cocaine-exposed primates. We found that D2R/D3R binding availability negatively correlated with measures of body weight at the time of scan (ventral striatum), at 1 (ventral striatum) and 2 months (dorsal and ventral striatum) post scan in rats. Cocaine preference was negatively correlated with D2R/D3R binding availability 2 months (ventral striatum) post scan. Our findings suggest that inherent deficits in striatal D2R/D3R signaling are related to obesity and drug addiction susceptibility and that ventral and dorsal striatum serve dissociable roles in maintaining weight gain and cocaine preference. Measuring D2R/D3R binding availability provides a way for assessing susceptibility to weight gain and cocaine abuse in rodents and given the translational nature of PET imaging, potentially primates and humans.

  17. PET imaging predicts future body weight and cocaine preference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deficits in dopamine D2/D3 receptor (D2R/D3R) binding availability using PET imaging have been reported in obese humans and rodents. Similar deficits have been reported in cocaine-addicts and cocaine-exposed primates. We found that D2R/D3R binding availability negatively correlated with measures of body weight at the time of scan (ventral striatum), at 1 (ventral striatum) and 2 months (dorsal and ventral striatum) post scan in rats. Cocaine preference was negatively correlated with D2R/D3R binding availability 2 months (ventral striatum) post scan. Our findings suggest that inherent deficits in striatal D2R/D3R signaling are related to obesity and drug addiction susceptibility and that ventral and dorsal striatum serve dissociable roles in maintaining weight gain and cocaine preference. Measuring D2R/D3R binding availability provides a way for assessing susceptibility to weight gain and cocaine abuse in rodents and given the translational nature of PET imaging, potentially primates and humans.

  18. Body Image Concerns in College-Aged Male Physical Education Students: A Descriptive Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Michele S.; Esco, Michael R.; Willifo, Hank

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine body image concerns in college-aged male physical education majors. Sixty volunteers completed validated body image instruments including two-dimensional figure drawings. In general, the sample reported that they preferred a larger, more muscular physique reflective of male images that currently abound the…

  19. Body Image and Self-Esteem among Adolescent Girls: Testing the Influence of Sociocultural Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Daniel; Vignoles, Vivian L.; Dittmar, Helga

    2005-01-01

    In Western cultures, girls' self-esteem declines substantially during middle adolescence, with changes in body image proposed as a possible explanation. Body image develops in the context of sociocultural factors, such as unrealistic media images of female beauty. In a study of 136 U.K. girls aged 11-16, experimental exposure to either ultra-thin…

  20. Development of multi-dimensional body image scale for malaysian female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Yit Siew; Taib, Mohd Nasir Mohd; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Khor, Geok Lin

    2008-01-01

    The present study was conducted to develop a Multi-dimensional Body Image Scale for Malaysian female adolescents. Data were collected among 328 female adolescents from a secondary school in Kuantan district, state of Pahang, Malaysia by using a self-administered questionnaire and anthropometric measurements. The self-administered questionnaire comprised multiple measures of body image, Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26; Garner & Garfinkel, 1979) and Rosenberg Self-esteem Inventory (Rosenberg, 1965). The 152 items from selected multiple measures of body image were examined through factor analysis and for internal consistency. Correlations between Multi-dimensional Body Image Scale and body mass index (BMI), risk of eating disorders and self-esteem were assessed for construct validity. A seven factor model of a 62-item Multi-dimensional Body Image Scale for Malaysian female adolescents with construct validity and good internal consistency was developed. The scale encompasses 1) preoccupation with thinness and dieting behavior, 2) appearance and body satisfaction, 3) body importance, 4) muscle increasing behavior, 5) extreme dieting behavior, 6) appearance importance, and 7) perception of size and shape dimensions. Besides, a multidimensional body image composite score was proposed to screen negative body image risk in female adolescents. The result found body image was correlated with BMI, risk of eating disorders and self-esteem in female adolescents. In short, the present study supports a multi-dimensional concept for body image and provides a new insight into its multi-dimensionality in Malaysian female adolescents with preliminary validity and reliability of the scale. The Multi-dimensional Body Image Scale can be used to identify female adolescents who are potentially at risk of developing body image disturbance through future intervention programs. PMID:20126371

  1. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging: a useful additional sequence in paediatric imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laffan, Eoghan E.; O' Connor, Rachael; Ryan, Stephanie P.; Donoghue, Veronica B. [Department of Radiology, Children' s University Hospital, Temple Street, 1, Dublin (Ireland)

    2004-06-01

    Background: Whole-body MR (WBMR) imaging allows the acquisition of images of the entire body in a matter of minutes. Its use has primarily been in the evaluation of possible metastases in the setting of a known primary tumour. Objective: To document the value of WBMR imaging in ten children in whom this was added as an additional sequence when the primary diagnosis had not yet been made. Materials and methods: Ten children, age range 4 months-15 years (mean 7 years 4 months) had WBMR imaging after initial MR showed an abnormality that raised the possibility of systemic disease. Initial scanning was of the brain (n=1), spine (n=2), retroperitoneum (n=4), hips (n=1), femur (n=1) and wrist (n=1). Results: Abnormalities were detected in eight patients. Two patients had acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, and another had an anaplastic lymphoma, unsuspected prior to the WBMR. Two patients had a previously undiagnosed neuroblastoma with bone marrow metastases. Two patients had Langerhans' cell histiocytosis. Another had multiple bone lesions due to cystic angiomatosis. Conclusions: WBMR imaging may be a useful additional sequence in children in whom a systemic and especially a bone marrow abnormality is suspected. (orig.)

  2. Body image and body type preferences in St. Kitts, Caribbean: a cross- cultural comparison with U.S. samples regarding attitudes towards muscularity, body fat, and breast size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Peter B; Frederick, David A

    2012-01-01

    We investigated body image in St. Kitts, a Caribbean island where tourism, international media, and relatively high levels of body fat are common. Participants were men and women recruited from St. Kitts (n = 39) and, for comparison, U.S. samples from universities (n = 618) and the Internet (n = 438). Participants were shown computer generated images varying in apparent body fat level and muscularity or breast size and they indicated their body type preferences and attitudes. Overall, there were only modest differences in body type preferences between St. Kitts and the Internet sample, with the St. Kitts participants being somewhat more likely to value heavier women. Notably, however, men and women from St. Kitts were more likely to idealize smaller breasts than participants in the U.S. samples. Attitudes regarding muscularity were generally similar across samples. This study provides one of the few investigations of body preferences in the Caribbean. PMID:22995446

  3. Whole-Body MRI in Children: Current Imaging Techniques and Clinical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly used in children to evaluate the extent and distribution of various neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases. Not using ionizing radiation is a major advantage of pediatric whole-body MRI. Coronal and sagittal short tau inversion recovery imaging is most commonly used as the fundamental whole-body MRI protocol. Diffusion-weighted imaging and Dixon-based imaging, which has been recently incorporated into whole-body MRI, are promising pulse sequences, particularly for pediatric oncology. Other pulse sequences may be added to increase diagnostic capability of whole-body MRI. Of importance, the overall whole-body MRI examination time should be less than 30-60 minutes in children, regardless of the imaging protocol. Established and potentially useful clinical applications of pediatric whole-body MRI are described. PMID:26355493

  4. "Exercise to be fit, not skinny": The effect of fitspiration imagery on women's body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, Marika; Zaccardo, Mia

    2015-09-01

    Fitspiration is an online trend designed to inspire viewers towards a healthier lifestyle by promoting exercise and healthy food. The present study aimed to experimentally investigate the impact of fitspiration images on women's body image. Participants were 130 female undergraduate students who were randomly assigned to view either a set of Instagram fitspiration images or a control set of travel images presented on an iPad. Results showed that acute exposure to fitspiration images led to increased negative mood and body dissatisfaction and decreased state appearance self-esteem relative to travel images. Importantly, regression analyses showed that the effects of image type were mediated by state appearance comparison. Thus it was concluded that fitspiration can have negative unintended consequences for body image. The results offer support to general sociocultural models of media effects on body image, and extend these to "new" media. PMID:26176993

  5. Development and validation of parenting measures for body image and eating patterns in childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Damiano, Stephanie R; Hart, Laura M.; Paxton, Susan J

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence-based parenting interventions are important in assisting parents to help their children develop healthy body image and eating patterns. To adequately assess the impact of parenting interventions, valid parent measures are required. The aim of this study was to develop and assess the validity and reliability of two new parent measures, the Parenting Intentions for Body image and Eating patterns in Childhood (Parenting Intentions BEC) and the Knowledge Test for Body image an...

  6. Investigation of eating disorders in cancer patients and its relevance with body image

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein, Seyyed Abbas; Bahrami, Masoud; Mohamadirizi, Shahla; Paknaad, Zamzam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Eating disorder is one of the most common health problems with clinical and psychological consequences, which can affect body image in cancer patients. Similar studies in this area for checking the status of this disorder and its relevance with body image in patients with cancer are limited. Therefore, this study was designed with the aim of determination of eating disorders in patients with cancer and their relevance with body image. Materials and Methods: The research was a cros...

  7. Body image v televizních reklamách

    OpenAIRE

    Bednaříková, Jana

    2009-01-01

    Target of my final thesis is to explore elements of body image in TV commercials. In the thesis I focused on body image, marketing communication and advertisement. I tried to map what are people like in TV spots through content analysis. I did also analyze marketing research data of Market & Media & Lifestyle agency. I chose those data with due regard for perception of body image by consumers and I focused on TV advertisements issues.

  8. The role of body image in prenatal and postpartum depression: a critical review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Silveira, Marushka L.; Ertel, Karen A.; Dole, Nancy; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Maternal depression increases risk of adverse perinatal outcomes, and recent evidence suggests that body image may play an important role in depression. This systematic review identifies studies of body image and perinatal depression with the goal of elucidating the complex role that body image plays in prenatal and postpartum depression, improving measurement, and informing next steps in research. We conducted a literature search of the PubMed database (1996– 2014) for English language studi...

  9. Gender and Racial/Ethnic Differences in Body Image Development Among College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Gillen, Meghan M.; Lefkowitz, Eva S.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study we used longitudinal methods to examine body image development during the early part of college. Students (N = 390; 54% female) who identified as African American (32%), Latino/a American (27%), and European American (41%) completed surveys during their first, second, and third semesters at college. There were overall gender and racial/ethnic differences in all three aspects of body image, and both stability and change in body image development. Female students’ appearanc...

  10. Psychological predictors of body image dissatisfaction in women suffering from eating discorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brytek-Matera, A

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify factors influencing body image dissatisfaction in female patients with anorexia and bulimia nervosa. 61 women, aged 16 to 31, (M = 21.69; SD = 3.85) filled questionnaires evaluating dissatisfaction with their body (Body Dissatisfaction Scale by Garner & al., 1984), attitudes about the body (Body Attitude Test by Probst & al., 1995), avoidance with regard to body image (Body Image Avoidance Questionnaire by Rosen & al., 1991), negative mood states (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale by Zigmond and Snaith, 1983) as well as self-esteem (Self-Esteem Inventory by Coopersmith, 1984). Negative appreciation of body size, symptoms of depression, grooming and weighting, lack of familiarity with one's own body, as well as low self-esteem in general, could predict the body image dissatisfaction among eating disordered women. The fact of knowing the most important determinants of body image could give indications for the prevention of the cognitive distortions concerning body image. PMID:20653188

  11. Evaluating image reconstruction methods for tumor detection performance in whole-body PET oncology imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lartizien, Carole; Kinahan, Paul E.; Comtat, Claude; Lin, Michael; Swensson, Richard G.; Trebossen, Regine; Bendriem, Bernard

    2000-04-01

    This work presents initial results from observer detection performance studies using the same volume visualization software tools that are used in clinical PET oncology imaging. Research into the FORE+OSEM and FORE+AWOSEM statistical image reconstruction methods tailored to whole- body 3D PET oncology imaging have indicated potential improvements in image SNR compared to currently used analytic reconstruction methods (FBP). To assess the resulting impact of these reconstruction methods on the performance of human observers in detecting and localizing tumors, we use a non- Monte Carlo technique to generate multiple statistically accurate realizations of 3D whole-body PET data, based on an extended MCAT phantom and with clinically realistic levels of statistical noise. For each realization, we add a fixed number of randomly located 1 cm diam. lesions whose contrast is varied among pre-calibrated values so that the range of true positive fractions is well sampled. The observer is told the number of tumors and, similar to the AFROC method, asked to localize all of them. The true positive fraction for the three algorithms (FBP, FORE+OSEM, FORE+AWOSEM) as a function of lesion contrast is calculated, although other protocols could be compared. A confidence level for each tumor is also recorded for incorporation into later AFROC analysis.

  12. Optimization of Whole-Body Zebrafish Sectioning Methods for Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mass spectrometry imaging methods and protocols have become widely adapted to a variety of tissues and species. However, the mass spectrometry imaging literature contains minimal information on whole-body cryosection preparation for the zebrafish (Danio rerio), a model organism ...

  13. Impact of body habitus on quantitative and qualitative image quality in whole-body FDG-PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obtaining consistent high image quality is desirable for clinical positron emission tomography (PET). Body morphology may impact image quality. The purpose of this study was to define the average and the range of body sizes in patients undergoing tumor PET studies in our center and to determine how the body habitus affects the statistical and visual quality of PET images. Height, weight, body surface area (BSA), and body mass index (BMI) were determined in 101 male and 101 female patients (group 1) referred for clinical PET. The summed total counts from three consecutive transaxial slices on non-attenuation-corrected (NAC) 2D fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET images, which included the largest liver section and no lesions, were determined and compared with body morphology and injected doses (ID) in a representative group of 30 male and 30 female patients (group 2) spanning a range of body morphologies. The visual quality of images was also evaluated using a scoring system by three readers. The average height, weight, and BSA were greater in male than in female patients, but the average BMI was not different between them in group 1. The largest value of weight or BMI was more than four times the smallest value in female patients. The total true counts were best correlated with ID/weight (mCi/kg) in group 2 (r=0.929, P<0.0001). Intermediate to high total counts (930,000 or more) corresponded to ID/weight of 0.22 or higher. The average visual score was positively correlated with the total counts (ρ=0.63, P<0.0001) and with ID/weight (ρ=0.68, P<0.0001) on NAC images. The image quality in 22 (84.6%) of 26 patients with intermediate to high total counts was adequate to good, whereas that in 21 (61.8%) of 34 patients with lower total counts was suboptimal. A wide variety of body morphologies was observed in patients referred for clinical FDG-PET tumor studies in our center. The total counts and average image visual score were negatively correlated with weight

  14. Illustrating the body: Cross-sectional and prospective investigations of the impact of life drawing sessions on body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren

    2016-01-30

    Life drawing sessions, where individuals produce drawings of the human figure from observations of a live model, may contain embodying elements that promote healthier body image. Two pilot studies were conducted to test this hypothesis. In Study 1, 138 individuals recruited from life drawing sessions in London, UK, estimated how many sessions they had attended in their lifetime and completed measures of negative and positive body image. In women, greater attendance was significantly associated with higher body appreciation and lower drive for thinness and social physique anxiety. In men, greater attendance was significantly associated with higher body appreciation, but not drive for muscularity or social physique anxiety. In Study 2, 37 women took part in a life drawing session for the first time. Compared to pre-session scores, participants had significantly more positive state body image and appearance satisfaction after the session. The findings of these studies suggest that life drawing may promote healthier body image, particularly among women, but further research is needed. PMID:26657309

  15. Body Image and Westernization Trends among Japanese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Hailey E.; Reel, Justine J.; Galli, Nick A.; Crookston, Benjamin T.; Miyairi, Maya

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims: The purpose of this project was to examine body dissatisfaction and the degree of acculturation to Western media body ideals among Japanese adolescents. Furthermore, sex differences in body esteem were examined between male and female participants. Methods: Male and female participants (N=158) aged 15 to 18 years in Okinawa,…

  16. The Small Bodies Imager Browser --- finding asteroid and comet images without pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, E.; Sykes, M.; Davis, D.; Neese, C.

    2014-07-01

    To facilitate accessing and downloading spatially resolved imagery of asteroids and comets in the NASA Planetary Data System (PDS), we have created the Small Bodies Image Browser. It is a HTML5 webpage that runs inside a standard web browser needing no installation (http://sbn.psi.edu/sbib/). The volume of data returned by spacecraft missions has grown substantially over the last decade. While this wealth of data provides scientists with ample support for research, it has greatly increased the difficulty of managing, accessing and processing these data. Further, the complexity necessary for a long-term archive results in an architecture that is efficient for computers, but not user friendly. The Small Bodies Image Browser (SBIB) is tied into the PDS archive of the Small Bodies Asteroid Subnode hosted at the Planetary Science Institute [1]. Currently, the tool contains the entire repository of the Dawn mission's encounter with Vesta [2], and we will be adding other datasets in the future. For Vesta, this includes both the level 1A and 1B images for the Framing Camera (FC) and the level 1B spectral cubes from the Visual and Infrared (VIR) spectrometer, providing over 30,000 individual images. A key strength of the tool is providing quick and easy access of these data. The tool allows for searches based on clicking on a map or typing in coordinates. The SBIB can show an entire mission phase (such as cycle 7 of the Low Altitude Mapping Orbit) and the associated footprints, as well as search by image name. It can focus the search by mission phase, resolution or instrument. Imagery archived in the PDS are generally provided by missions in a single or narrow range of formats. To enhance the value and usability of this data to researchers, SBIB makes these available in these original formats as well as PNG, JPEG and ArcGIS compatible ISIS cubes [3]. Additionally, we provide header files for the VIR cubes so they can be read into ENVI without additional processing. Finally

  17. Family, Self, and Sociocultural Contributions to Body-Image Attitudes of African-American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Shanette M.

    1995-01-01

    Factors that influenced body-image attitudes were studied in 90 African American college women. Data analyses indicated that self and sociocultural variables were associated with evaluation of physical appearance, fitness, and investment in health. The relationship of family variables to body-image attitude is discussed. (SLD)

  18. Is subjective perception of negative body image among adolescents associated with bullying?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holubcikova, Jana; Kolarcik, Peter; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents' body image dissatisfaction has an adverse effect on peer relationships. It may lead to changes in behaviour (aggressive or passive) and consequently to bullying behaviour. Our aim was to assess the association between body image dissatisfaction and involvement in bullying and whether th

  19. Gender and Age Patterns in Emotional Expression, Body Image, and Self-Esteem: A Qualitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polce-Lynch, Mary; Myers, Barbara J.; Kilmartin, Christopher T.; Forssmann-Falck, Renate; Kliewer, Wendy

    1998-01-01

    Used written narratives to examine gender and age patterns in body image, emotional expression, and self-esteem for 209 students in grades 5, 8, and 12. Results indicate that boys restrict emotional expression in adolescence, whereas girls increase emotional expression in the same period. Girls also are more influenced by body image. (SLD)

  20. Cognitive Behavior Therapy with Body Image Exposure for Bulimia Nervosa: A Case Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delinsky, Sherrie S.; Wilson, G. Terence

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for bulimia nervosa (BN). However, among patients with BN, symptom improvement is more pronounced for behavioral eating symptoms (i.e., bingeing and purging) than for body image disturbance, and the persistence of body image disturbance is associated with relapse. The need for more…

  1. The Practical Application of Promoting Positive Body Image on a College Campus: Insights from Freshmen Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Jackson, TeriSue; Reel, Justine J.; Thackeray, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Background: Body image disturbances and disordered eating behaviors are prevalent across college campuses and can lead to psychological and physical health consequences. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to gain formative research on the promotion of positive body image on a university campus with the goal of developing educational programs.…

  2. NetTweens: The Internet and Body Image Concerns in Preteenage Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, Marika; Slater, Amy

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between media exposure and body image concerns in preteenage girls, with a particular focus on the Internet. A sample of 189 girls (aged 10-12 years) completed questionnaire measures of media consumption and body image concerns. Nearly all girls (97.5%) had access to the Internet in their home.…

  3. Perceptions of Body Image and Psychosocial Development: An Examination of First-Year Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Jennifer Lynne

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to help higher education practitioners and researchers better understand the role that body image plays in first-year traditional-aged college females' development of physical competence and also provide new insights regarding the role that body image plays in the psychosocial development of first-year…

  4. Influence of Appearance-Related TV Commercials on Body Image State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legenbauer, Tanja; Ruhl, Ilka; Vocks, Silja

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of media exposure on body image state in eating-disordered (ED) patients. The attitudinal and perceptual components of body image are assessed, as well as any associations with dysfunctional cognitions and behavioral consequences. Twenty-five ED patients and 25 non-ED controls (ND) viewed commercials either…

  5. Strength Training Improves Body Image and Physical Activity Behaviors among Midlife and Older Rural Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguin, Rebecca A.; Eldridge, Galen; Lynch, Wesley; Paul, Lynn C.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of strength training on body image is understudied. The Strong Women Program, a 10-week, twice weekly strength-training program, was provided by Extension agents to 341 older rural women (62 ± 12 years); changes in body image and other psychosocial variables were evaluated. Paired-sample t-test analyses were conducted to assess mean…

  6. Counseling Adolescent Girls for Body Image Resilience: Strategies for School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choate, Laura Hensley

    2007-01-01

    Because body image dissatisfaction is such a pervasive problem in adolescent girls, school counselors need to develop effective prevention programs in this area. In this article, a model to promote girls' body image resilience is presented. The model identifies five protective factors that contribute to girls' abilities to resist sociocultural…

  7. Prevalence of body image dissatisfaction and associated factors among physical education students

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa Pinheiro Ferrari; Edio Luiz Petroski; Diego Augusto Santos Silva

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of and factors associated with body image dissatisfaction among physical education students enrolled in a public university. METHODS: This study evaluated 236 students and assessed body image perception (silhouette scale), sociodemographic variables (sex, age, parental education, marital status, university course, work, living arrangement, study shift, and income), physical activity level (International Physical Activity Questionnaire - Short Version), d...

  8. Current Conceptualisation of Body Image Dissatisfaction: Have We Got It Wrong?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostanski, Marion; Fisher, Adrian; Gullone, Eleonora

    2004-01-01

    Background: This study addresses limitations of previous research by examining the prevalence of body image dissatisfaction within two developmental periods: childhood and adolescence. Methods: A sample of 448 boys and 508 girls completed self-report measures of global body image dissatisfaction. Weight and height of all participants were also…

  9. A Program To Promote Positive Body Image: A 1-Year Follow-Up Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVey, Gail L.; Davis, Ron

    2002-01-01

    Evaluated the effectiveness of a program designed to promote body image satisfaction and prevent eating problems in young adolescent girls over a 1-year period. Found no program effect. Found instead, significant increases in body image satisfaction and decreases in eating problem scores over time for participants in both the prevention and…

  10. Sexuality and body image in younger women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schover, L R

    1994-01-01

    Breast cancer has the potential to be most devastating to the sexual function and self-esteem of premenopausal women. Nevertheless, not one study has systematically compared the impact of breast cancer treatment on sexual issues across age groups. Research shows that younger women with breast cancer have more severe emotional distress than older cohorts. In a group of patients seeking sexual rehabilitation in a cancer center, younger couples were more distressed, but also had the best prognosis with treatment. In theory, loss of a breast or poor breast appearance would be more distressing to women whose youth gives them high expectations for physical beauty. Seeking new dating relationships after breast cancer treatment is a special stressor for single women. Potential infertility also may impact on a woman's self-concept as a sexual person. Systemic treatment disrupts sexual function by causing premature menopause, with estrogen loss leading to vaginal atrophy and androgen loss perhaps decreasing sexual desire and arousability. Research on mastectomy versus breast conservation across all ages of women has demonstrated that general psychological distress, marital satisfaction, and overall sexual frequency and function do not differ between the two treatment groups. Women with breast conservation do rate their body image more highly and are more comfortable with nudity and breast caressing. There is some evidence that breast conservation offers more psychological "protection" for younger women. Research on the impact of breast reconstruction is sparse, but reveals similar patterns. Future studies should use rigorous methodology and focus on the impact of premature menopause and the effectiveness of sexual rehabilitation for younger women. PMID:7999462

  11. Alexithymia and its relationships with body checking and body image in a non-clinical female sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Berardis, Domenico; Carano, Alessandro; Gambi, Francesco; Campanella, Daniela; Giannetti, Paola; Ceci, Anna; Mancini, Enrico; La Rovere, Raffaella; Cicconetti, Alessandra; Penna, Laura; Di Matteo, Danilo; Scorrano, Barbara; Cotellessa, Carla; Salerno, Rosa Maria; Serroni, Nicola; Ferro, Filippo Maria

    2007-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate in a non-clinical sample of undergraduate women, the relationships between alexithymia, body checking and body image, identifying predictive factors associated with the possible risk of developing an Eating Disorder (ED). The Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), Body Checking Questionnaire (BCQ), Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ), Interaction Anxiousness Scale (IAS), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were completed by 254 undergraduate females. We found that alexithymics had more consistent body checking behaviors and higher body dissatisfaction than nonalexithymics. In addition, alexithymics also reported a higher potential risk for ED (higher scores on EAT-26) when compared to nonalexithymics. Difficulty in identifying and describing feelings subscales of TAS-20, Overall appearance and Specific Body Parts subscales of BCQ as well as lower self-esteem was associated with higher ED risk in a linear regression analysis. Thus, a combination of alexithymia, low self-esteem, body checking behaviors and body dissatisfaction may be a risk factor for symptoms of ED at least in a non-clinical sample of university women. PMID:17606227

  12. Body Image across the Life Span in Adult Women: The Role of Self-Objectification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, Marika; Lynch, Jessica E.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated body image across life span in cross-section of women ages 20-84 years. Found that although body dissatisfaction remained stable, self-objectification, habitual body monitoring, appearance anxiety, and disordered eating all significantly decreased with age. Self- objectification mediated the relationship between age and disordered…

  13. Perceived Body Image Satisfaction: Impact on Romantic Relationships of African American Adult Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, Candy H.

    2009-01-01

    The size, shape and physical attractiveness of a woman's body are linked to her sexuality. As women age, changes occur to their bodies that may cause them anxiety over the socially constructed body image norms that are promoted within this society. Researchers posit that the standard of our culture seems to create more problems for women as they…

  14. Body image in cancer survivors : a systematic review of case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann, Vicky; Hagedoorn, Mariet; Tuinman, Marrit A.

    2015-01-01

    There is common consensus that cancer and its treatment can impair the body, but combined evidence of the previous literature in cancer survivors is missing. Therefore, we reviewed body image in cancer survivors and focused on case-control studies, in order to draw conclusions as to whether body ima

  15. Negativní body image a poruchy příjmu potravy

    OpenAIRE

    Švecová, Lucie

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is finding out if and how much negative body image influences eating disorders. The body image is influenced by the contemporary ideal of beauty, which was historically formed. The influence of the contemporary cult of a skinny body has a biological argument, that slimmer people are healthier. Models, who are representing this ideal are often accused to be the reason of increase in frequency of present day diseases, like eating disorders. The most known eating disorders...

  16. Body image a jeho úloha v marketingu

    OpenAIRE

    Lubura, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Main goal of this thesis was to prove, that body image has significant effect on consumer behaviour, so it has an unquestionable marketing role as well. Secondary objective was to confirm media influence on body image perception and self assessment in that regard (which could have a strong impact on consumer behaviour as well), and to reveal beauty and body ideal preferences amongst Czech society. Main data source for this purposes will be quantitative survey, which will be complemented by re...

  17. Factors associated with body image dissatisfaction among adolescents in public schools students in Salvador, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Mônica L.P. Santana; Rita de Cássia R. Silva; Ana M. O. Assis; Raich, Rosa M.; Maria Ester P. C. Machado; Elizabete J. Pinto; Lia T. L. P. de Moraes; Hugo da C. Ribeiro Júnior

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To identify the prevalence of body image dissatisfaction and associated factors among students in Salvador, Brazil. Methods: A cross-sectional study involving a random sample of 1,494 (852 girls and 642 boys) adolescents between 11 and 17 years of age who were students in the public schools in Salvador, Brazil. Participants completed the Body Shape Questionnaire and the Eating Attitudes Test-26. Body image was characterized as satisfactory or unsatisfactory. We obtained demographic...

  18. Vzájemná interakce problematiky body image a médií

    OpenAIRE

    Adamcová, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    The main topic of my Bachelor's thesis is to describe the influence that mass media has on the perception of the human body, especially in young women. Initially discussed here are the various kinds of media exposure including TV, newspapers, magazines and now the Internet. The paper also examines the influence of body image on politics and politicians' appearance. As well as the influence of body image on children's programming whose affects in many ways already shape future generations. Bas...

  19. Body image perception among multi-ethnic male university students

    OpenAIRE

    Body image perception among multi-ethnic male university students

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate student self-rating towards body dissatisfaction, drive formuscularity and self-esteem, as well as to investigate their relationship. Results from a sample of293 male students from University Malaysia Sabah showed a significant positive relationshipbetween body dissatisfaction and drive for muscularity (r = .22, p < .01). An interesting result wasthat body dissatisfaction is positively correlated with higher self-esteem (r = .142, p

  20. Body Image Distortion and Exposure to Extreme Body Types: Contingent Adaptation and Cross Adaptation for Self and Other.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Kevin R; Mond, Jonathan M; Stevenson, Richard J; Stephen, Ian D

    2016-01-01

    Body size misperception is common amongst the general public and is a core component of eating disorders and related conditions. While perennial media exposure to the "thin ideal" has been blamed for this misperception, relatively little research has examined visual adaptation as a potential mechanism. We examined the extent to which the bodies of "self" and "other" are processed by common or separate mechanisms in young women. Using a contingent adaptation paradigm, experiment 1 gave participants prolonged exposure to images both of the self and of another female that had been distorted in opposite directions (e.g., expanded other/contracted self), and assessed the aftereffects using test images both of the self and other. The directions of the resulting perceptual biases were contingent on the test stimulus, establishing at least some separation between the mechanisms encoding these body types. Experiment 2 used a cross adaptation paradigm to further investigate the extent to which these mechanisms are independent. Participants were adapted either to expanded or to contracted images of their own body or that of another female. While adaptation effects were largest when adapting and testing with the same body type, confirming the separation of mechanisms reported in experiment 1, substantial misperceptions were also demonstrated for cross adaptation conditions, demonstrating a degree of overlap in the encoding of self and other. In addition, the evidence of misperception of one's own body following exposure to "thin" and to "fat" others demonstrates the viability of visual adaptation as a model of body image disturbance both for those who underestimate and those who overestimate their own size. PMID:27471447

  1. Body Image Distortion and Exposure to Extreme Body Types: Contingent Adaptation and Cross Adaptation for Self and Other

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Kevin R.; Mond, Jonathan M.; Stevenson, Richard J.; Stephen, Ian D.

    2016-01-01

    Body size misperception is common amongst the general public and is a core component of eating disorders and related conditions. While perennial media exposure to the “thin ideal” has been blamed for this misperception, relatively little research has examined visual adaptation as a potential mechanism. We examined the extent to which the bodies of “self” and “other” are processed by common or separate mechanisms in young women. Using a contingent adaptation paradigm, experiment 1 gave participants prolonged exposure to images both of the self and of another female that had been distorted in opposite directions (e.g., expanded other/contracted self), and assessed the aftereffects using test images both of the self and other. The directions of the resulting perceptual biases were contingent on the test stimulus, establishing at least some separation between the mechanisms encoding these body types. Experiment 2 used a cross adaptation paradigm to further investigate the extent to which these mechanisms are independent. Participants were adapted either to expanded or to contracted images of their own body or that of another female. While adaptation effects were largest when adapting and testing with the same body type, confirming the separation of mechanisms reported in experiment 1, substantial misperceptions were also demonstrated for cross adaptation conditions, demonstrating a degree of overlap in the encoding of self and other. In addition, the evidence of misperception of one's own body following exposure to “thin” and to “fat” others demonstrates the viability of visual adaptation as a model of body image disturbance both for those who underestimate and those who overestimate their own size. PMID:27471447

  2. Incongruence in body image and body mass index: A surrogate risk marker in Black women for type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rynal Devanathan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Excess weight contributes to the development and progression of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Distorted body image amongst urban Black women and the perception that thinness is linked with HIV, may however be compounding the problem, particularly in areas with a high HIV burden.Objectives: This study aimed to compare the perception of body image in urban Black women with and without T2DM.Methods: A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted on 328 Black women systematically sampled into two groups (with and without T2DM. Body mass index (BMI (weight [kg]/height[m2] was determined and the adapted Stunkard Body Image Silhouettes for Black women was used to determine perceived body image (PBI.Results: Seventy-two per cent had T2DM and in this group 89% were obese, with a mean BMI of 39.5 kg/m2 (s.d. ± 8.5. In the non-diabetes group (NDG 44% were obese, with a mean BMIof 31.3 kg/m2 (s.d. ± 9.0 Black women underestimated their body image across all weight categories (p < 0.05. Both groups (99% of the study group also perceived thinness as being associated with HIV.Conclusions: This study identified an incongruence between PBI and actual BMI amongst urban Black women. This, combined with their belief that thinness is associated with HIV, places those with T2DM at risk of secondary complications arising from diabetes mellitus, and those without diabetes mellitus at a higher risk of developing T2DM. A discrepancy between PBI and BMI may therefore serve as a risk marker to alert clinicians to use a more ethno-cultural specific approach in engaging with urban Black women regarding weight loss strategies in the future.

  3. Body composition and body image perception in portuguese and spanish college students: comparative study between overweight /obese and normal weight women

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Elza; Lacerda, Fernanda; Valador, Natacha; Ferro-Lebres, Vera; Arroyo, Marta

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate body image perception and compare with real measures of body composition between overweight/obese and normal weight women college students. Subjects: The reported sample included 600 students from Portugal and Spain. Material and Methods: The anthropometry variables: weight, height, skinfolds, circumferences and body mass index, waist-hip ratio, percentage of body fat and fat-free mass- FFM were compared with reference values. The body image perception an...

  4. Factors associated with body image dissatisfaction and distortion among Iranian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikniaz, Zeinab; Mahdavi, Reza; Amiri, Samira; Ostadrahimi, Alireza; Nikniaz, Leila

    2016-08-01

    The prevalence of body image dissatisfaction is considered high in both developed and developing countries. It has been shown that many factors affect the body image dissatisfaction. However, because of the economical and cultural differences, it seems that these affecting factors should be determined in each region. So, the present study was designed to evaluate the prevalence and associated factors with body image dissatisfaction and distortion among Iranian women. Body image perception was analyzed in 500 women through the Stunkard figure rating system. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used for assessing physical activity level. The information about age, marital status and socioeconomic status was recorded by general questionnaire. The one-way ANOVA and regression were used for statistical analysis. By increasing the BMI categories from underweight to obesity, participants tended to perceive their body size thinner than real body size. The regression models indicated that the body image distortion was significantly increased with increasing the BMI (p=0.002) and physical activity level (p=0.008). Besides, dissatisfaction by being heavier than ideal was significantly associated with higher BMI (OR (95% CI). 1.21 (1.03, 1.17)). Considering the high prevalence of body image dissatisfaction among Iranian women, for preventing psychological problems and eating disorders, appropriate public health programs for increasing awareness about healthy body size were needed. PMID:27046301

  5. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in children: state of the art

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Reis Teixeira; Jorge Elias Junior; Marcello Henrique Nogueira-Barbosa; Marcos Duarte Guimarães; Edson Marchiori; Marcel Koenigkam Santos

    2015-01-01

    Whole-body imaging in children was classically performed with radiography, positron-emission tomography, either combined or not with computed tomography, the latter with the disadvantage of exposure to ionizing radiation. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in association with the recently developed metabolic and functional techniques such as diffusion-weighted imaging, has brought the advantage of a comprehensive evaluation of pediatric patients without the risks inherent to ionizin...

  6. Comparative effects of Facebook and conventional media on body image dissatisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Rachel; Blaszczynski, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Background Appearance comparison has consistently been shown to engender body image dissatisfaction. To date, most studies have demonstrated this relationship between appearance comparison and body image dissatisfaction in the context of conventional media images depicting the thin-ideal. Social comparison theory posits that people are more likely to compare themselves to similar others. Since social media forums such as Facebook involve one’s peers, the current study aimed to determine wheth...

  7. The media's impact on body image: Implications for prevention and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw, J.; Waller, G.

    1995-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that media images of “ideal” female models have an impact upon women's body image, leading to dissatisfaction and perceptual distortion. The evidence for this link between media presentation and body image distortion is reviewed, and theoretical models are advanced to explain the link. In particular, women's use of social comparison in establishing their self-concept seems to be an important psychological construct in understanding the impact of the media upon...

  8. Eating Disorders and Body Image of Undergraduate Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ousley, Louise; Cordero, Elizabeth Diane; White, Sabina

    2008-01-01

    Eating disorders and body dissatisfaction among undergraduate men are less documented and researched than are eating disorders and body dissatisfaction among undergraduate women. Objective and Participants: In this study, the authors examined these issues in undergraduate men to identify similarities and differences between this population and…

  9. Body image dissatisfaction and its relationship with physical activity and nutritional status in university students

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa Pinheiro Ferrari; Alex Pinheiro Gordia; Cilene Rebolho Martins; Diego Augusto Santos Silva; Teresa Maria Bianchini de Quadros; Edio Luiz Petroski

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of body image dissatisfaction with physical activity level and nutritional status in freshmen from a public Brazilian university. A total of 832 university students (485 men) with a mean age of 20.1 years (standard deviation = 4.6) participated in the study. Self-reported body weight and height were used for the calculation of body mass index. The students responded to the Body Shape Questionnaire and International Physical Activity...

  10. Distortion correction in whole-body imaging of live mice using a 1-Tesla compact magnetic resonance imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to establish a distortion correction applicable to whole-body imaging of live mice. All magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were acquired on a compact 1-T permanent magnet unit for mouse imaging using a T1-weighted, three-dimensional (3D) fast low-angle shot sequence. We assessed geometric distortion in MR images of a small 3D grid phantom and determined 3D image transformations for distortion correction. The developed distortion correction was applied to MR images of the 3D grid phantom acquired on another day, and the correction was validated. A two-dimensional (2D) grid phantom was imaged with a mouse to investigate the applicability of the distortion correction to whole-body mouse imaging. Obvious geometric distortion was observed in the MR images of the 3D grid phantom. The application of the developed 3D phantom-based distortion correction reduced distortion in the images of the 3D grid phantom acquired on another day. Geometric distortion was observed in the MR images of the 2D grid phantom acquired together with the mouse. The 3D phantom-based correction decreased the distortion substantially, regardless of mouse positioning. The developed distortion correction can reduce distortion in whole-body imaging of live mice and may enhance the capabilities of MRI in small animal experiments. (author)

  11. Whole Body Computed Tomography with Advanced Imaging Techniques: A Research Tool for Measuring Body Composition in Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharma Purushothaman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of computed tomography (CT to evaluate obesity in canines is limited. Traditional CT image analysis is cumbersome and uses prediction equations that require manual calculations. In order to overcome this, our study investigated the use of advanced image analysis software programs to determine body composition in dogs with an application to canine obesity research. Beagles and greyhounds were chosen for their differences in morphology and propensity to obesity. Whole body CT scans with regular intervals were performed on six beagles and six greyhounds that were subjected to a 28-day weight-gain protocol. The CT images obtained at days 0 and 28 were analyzed using software programs OsiriX, ImageJ, and AutoCAT. The CT scanning technique was able to differentiate bone, lean, and fat tissue in dogs and proved sensitive enough to detect increases in both lean and fat during weight gain over a short period. A significant difference in lean : fat ratio was observed between the two breeds on both days 0 and 28 (P<0.01. Therefore, CT and advanced image analysis proved useful in the current study for the estimation of body composition in dogs and has the potential to be used in canine obesity research.

  12. The four-dimensional mouse whole-body phantoms and its application in medical imaging research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medical imaging simulation is a powerful tool for characterizing,evaluating,and optimizing medical imaging devices and techniques. A vital aspect of simulation is to have a realistic phantom or model of the subject's anatomy. Four-dimensional mouse whole-body phantoms provide realistic models of the mouse anatomy and physiology for imaging studies. When combined with accurate models for the imaging process,are capable of providing a wealth of realistic imaging data from subjects with various anatomies and motions (cardiac and respiratory) in health and disease. With this ability, the four-dimensional mouse whole-body phantoms have enormous potential to study the effects of anatomical, physiological and physical factors on medical and small animal imaging and to research new instrumentation, image acquisition strategies, image processing, reconstruction methods, image visualization and interpretation techniques. (authors)

  13. Image artifacts from MR-based attenuation correction in clinical, whole-body PET/MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Sune H; Holm, Søren; Hansen, Adam E;

    2013-01-01

    Integrated whole-body PET/MRI tomographs have become available. PET/MR imaging has the potential to supplement, or even replace combined PET/CT imaging in selected clinical indications. However, this is true only if methodological pitfalls and image artifacts arising from novel MR-based attenuation...

  14. Body image dissatisfaction and its relationship with physical activity and nutritional status in university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Pinheiro Ferrari

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of body image dissatisfaction with physical activity level and nutritional status in freshmen from a public Brazilian university. A total of 832 university students (485 men with a mean age of 20.1 years (standard deviation = 4.6 participated in the study. Self-reported body weight and height were used for the calculation of body mass index. The students responded to the Body Shape Questionnaire and International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Fisher’s exact test, considering p < .05. The prevalence of body image dissatisfaction and physical inactivity was 10.1% and 14.5%, respectively. No significant association was observed between body image dissatisfaction and physical activity level. Body image dissatisfaction was associated with nutritional status in both genders (p < .05. University students with excess body weight should be encouraged to pursue a healthier lifestyle in order to promote an adequate nutritional status and also to improve their body image.

  15. The Relationship of Body Image with Psychological Distress in Women with Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Moradi Manesh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Surgery and adjuvant therapies lead to body image problems and psychological distress in young women with breast cancer. The goal of this study was to examine the relationship of body image with psychological distress in women with breast cancer. Methods: This correlation study was carried out on 294 women with breast cancer at Imam Reza Hospital of Kermanshah, Iran, in 2011. The selection of the participants was based on purposive sampling. The Body image was assessed by BIS. The Psychological distress was assessed by DASS-21. The collected data was analyzed by Pearson correlation and Independent sample test. Results: Results showed that body image had a significant positive relationship with psychological distress (P < 0.001. Furthermore, younger women had greater trouble about body image and experienced greater psychological distress compared to elder women. Conclusion: This study showed that dissatisfaction about body image accompanied psychological distress. Also, younger women experience greater difficulties about body image and psychological distress. Therefore, suitable psychological interventions are recommended.

  16. Persistent body image disturbance following recovery from eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Eshkevari, E.; Rieger, E; Longo, Matthew R.; Haggard, P; Treasure, J

    2014-01-01

    Background: It has been previously found that individuals with an eating disorder experience the rubber hand illusion (RHI) significantly more strongly than healthy controls on both perceptual (proprioceptive drift) and subjective (self-report embodiment questionnaire) measures. Such heightened sensitivity to visual information about the body, and reduced somatosensory information processing about the body, indicate an increased malleability of the bodily self. The aim of the present study wa...

  17. Imaging of body packing: errors and medico-legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reginelli, Alfonso; Russo, Anna; Urraro, Fabrizio; Maresca, Duilia; Martiniello, Ciro; D'Andrea, Alfredo; Brunese, Luca; Pinto, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Body packing is the ingestion or insertion in the human body of packed illicit substances. Over the last 20 years, drug smuggling has increased global and new means of transport of narcotics have emerged. Among these, the most frequent one is the gastrointestinal tract: from mouth to anus, vagina, and ears. Cocaine is one of the most traded drugs, followed by heroin. Condoms, latex gloves, and balloons are typically used as drug packets for retention in the body. There are different radiologic modalities to detect illicit drugs in body packing: Plain radiography, computed tomography (CT), ultrasound, and magnetic resonance. Current protocols recommend the use of radiography to confirm packet retention and, in case of doubt, the use of abdominal CT scan with reduced mAs. In case of packet rupture, catastrophic effects can occur. Management of patients carrying packets of drugs is a recurrent medico-legal problem. To improve diagnostic accuracy and prevent hazardous complications, radiologists and emergency physicians should be familiar with radiologic features of body packing. The radiologist plays both a social and a medico-legal role in their assessment, and it should not be limited only to the identification of the packages but must also provide accurate information about their number and their exact location. In this review, we focus on diagnostic errors and medico-legal issues related to the radiological assessment of body packers. PMID:26063072

  18. DWIBS: Diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging with background body signal suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahara, T. [Tokai Univ. Hospital, Isehara City, Kangawa Prefecture (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    The DWIBS protocol provides results similar to Positron Emission Tomography (PET) for evaluating lesions in the body. It is relatively fast, and requires no contrast agent or ionizing radiation. (orig.)

  19. Height and Body image- a study of young women’s handball

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Synnøve Endal

    2015-01-01

    English abstract: Purpose: the purpose of this study is to look into how the participants of the study feel about their body image in relation to their height, and if handball can prove tall girls with an enclave or social network. Going through literature on body-image, sport, health and public health it became apparent that many studies have been done based on weight and BMI. Height on the other hand, is a factor which is hardly examined at all in the literature on body-image, especially re...

  20. EXPLORER: Changing the molecular imaging paradigm with total-body PET/CT (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Simon R.; Badawi, Ramsey D.; Jones, Terry

    2016-04-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is the highest sensitivity technique for human whole-body imaging studies. However, current clinical PET scanners do not make full use of the available signal, as they only permit imaging of a 15-25 cm segment of the body at one time. Given the limited sensitive region, whole-body imaging with clinical PET scanners requires relatively long scan times and subjects the patient to higher than necessary radiation doses. The EXPLORER initiative aims to build a 2-meter axial length PET scanner to allow imaging the entire subject at once, capturing nearly the entire available PET signal. EXPLORER will acquire data with ~40-fold greater sensitivity leading to a six-fold increase in reconstructed signal-to-noise ratio for imaging the total body. Alternatively, total-body images with the EXPLORER scanner will be able to be acquired in ~30 seconds or with ~0.15 mSv injected dose, while maintaining current PET image quality. The superior sensitivity will open many new avenues for biomedical research. Specifically for cancer applications, high sensitivity PET will enable detection of smaller lesions. Additionally, greater sensitivity will allow imaging out to 10 half-lives of positron emitting radiotracers. This will enable 1) metabolic ultra-staging with FDG by extending the uptake and clearance time to 3-5 hours to significantly improve contrast and 2) improved kinetic imaging with short-lived radioisotopes such as C-11, crucial for drug development studies. Frequent imaging studies of the same subject to study disease progression or to track response to therapy will be possible with the low dose capabilities of the EXPLORER scanner. The low dose capabilities will also open up new imaging possibilities in pediatrics and adolescents to better study developmental disorders. This talk will review the basis for developing total-body PET, potential applications, and review progress to date in developing EXPLORER, the first total-body PET scanner.

  1. Differences in the Nature of Body Image Disturbances between Female Obese Individuals with versus without a Comorbid Binge Eating Disorder: An Exploratory Study Including Static and Dynamic Aspects of Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legenbauer, Tanja; Vocks, Silja; Betz, Sabrina; Puigcerver, Maria Jose Baguena; Benecke, Andrea; Troje, Nikolaus F.; Ruddel, Heinz

    2011-01-01

    Various components of body image were measured to assess body image disturbances in patients with obesity. To overcome limitations of previous studies, a photo distortion technique and a biological motion distortion device were included to assess static and dynamic aspects of body image. Questionnaires assessed cognitive-affective aspects, bodily…

  2. Posturographic destabilization in eating disorders in female patients exposed to body image related phobic stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forghieri, M; Monzani, D; Mackinnon, A; Ferrari, S; Gherpelli, C; Galeazzi, G M

    2016-08-26

    Human postural control is dependent on the central integration of vestibular, visual and proprioceptive inputs. Psychological states can affect balance control: anxiety, in particular, has been shown to influence balance mediated by visual stimuli. We hypothesized that patients with eating disorders would show postural destabilization when exposed to their image in a mirror and to the image of a fashion model representing their body ideal in comparison to body neutral stimuli. Seventeen females patients attending a day centre for the treatment of eating disorders were administered psychometric measures of body dissatisfaction, anxiety, depression and underwent posturographic measures with their eyes closed, open, watching a neutral stimulus, while exposed to a full length mirror and to an image of a fashion model corresponding to their body image. Results were compared to those obtained by eighteen healthy subjects. Eating disordered patients showed higher levels of body dissatisfaction and higher postural destabilization than controls, but this was limited to the conditions in which they were exposed to their mirror image or a fashion model image. Postural destabilization under these conditions correlated with measures of body dissatisfaction. In eating disordered patients, body related stimuli seem to act as phobic stimuli in the posturographic paradigm used. If confirmed, this has the potential to be developed for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. PMID:27397012

  3. Examination of the relationship between the body image and self-esteem of female adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesile Oktan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at an examination of the relationship between level of content with body image and self-esteem among female adolescents. In the study, descriptive method was employed. The sample group of the study is 300 secondary school female students between 16-18 years of age. Body Cathexis Scale and Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory were applied to the adolescents in the sample group. Results have shown that there are a high level, negative and significant relationship between the body image and self-esteem (r=-0,365, p<.01 of female adolescents. Findings also illustrate that an increase in female adolescents’ content with their body image leads to an increase in their self-esteem. Results of the study revealed that female adolescents with positive body image have a high level of self-esteem and so female adolescents with negative body image have a low level of self-esteem. In this respect, in this study, the importance of female adolescents’ realistic appreciation concerned with their body image is discussed.

  4. Tumor glucose metabolism imaged in vivo in small animals with whole-body photoacoustic computed tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Chatni, Muhammad Rameez; Xia, Jun; Sohn, Rebecca; Maslov, Konstantin; Guo, Zijian; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Kun; Xia, Younan; Anastasio, Mark; Arbeit, Jeffrey; Wang, Lihong V.

    2012-01-01

    With the increasing use of small animals for human disease studies, small-animal whole-body molecular imaging plays an important role in biomedical research. Currently, none of the existing imaging modalities can provide both anatomical and glucose molecular information, leading to higher costs of building dual-modality systems. Even with image co-registration, the spatial resolution of the molecular imaging modality is not improved. Utilizing a ring-shaped confocal photoacoustic computed tom...

  5. Book review: The becoming of bodies: girls, images, experience by Rebecca Coleman

    OpenAIRE

    Shephard, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between bodies and images has long occupied feminism, and this book offers an alternative framework for analysis. Thinking through her original empirical research with teenage girls, involving focus groups, individual interviews and image-making sessions, Rebecca Coleman moves from a consideration of media images – the focus of much feminist research – to examine images more widely; as mirrors, photographs, glimpses, comments, imagination. Nicole Shephard finds that the book ...

  6. Expand Your Horizon: A programme that improves body image and reduces self-objectification by training women to focus on body functionality

    OpenAIRE

    Alleva, Jessica M; Martijn, Carolien; Gerard J.P. van Breukelen; Jansen, Anita; Karos, Kai

    2015-01-01

    This study tested Expand Your Horizon, a programme designed to improve body image by training women to focus on the functionality of their body using structured writing assignments. Eighty-one women (Mage=22.77) with a negative body image were randomised to the Expand Your Horizon programme or to an active control programme. Appearance satisfaction, functionality satisfaction, body appreciation, and self-objectification were measured at pretest, posttest, and one-week follow-up. Following the...

  7. Whole-body diffusion-weighted imaging for staging malignant lymphoma in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CT is currently the mainstay in staging malignant lymphoma in children, but the risk of second neoplasms due to ionizing radiation associated with CT is not negligible. Whole-body MRI techniques and whole-body diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in particular, may be a good radiation-free alternative to CT. DWI is characterized by high sensitivity for the detection of lesions and allows quantitative assessment of diffusion that may aid in the evaluation of malignant lymphomas. This article will review whole-body MRI techniques for staging malignant lymphoma with emphasis on whole-body DWI. Furthermore, future considerations and challenges in whole-body DWI will be discussed. (orig.)

  8. FEED-BACK METHOD BASED ON IMAGE PROCESSING FOR DETECTING HUMAN BODY VIA FLYING ROBOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Lavi Sefidgari

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Image-processing is one the challenging issue in robotic as well as electrical engineering research contexts. This study proposes a system for extract and tracking objects by a quadcopter’s flying robot and how to extract the human body. It is observed in image taken from real-time camera that is embedded bottom of the quadcopter, there is a variance in human behaviour being tracked or recorded such as position and, size, of the human. In the regard, the paper tries to investigate an image-processing method for tracking humans’ body, concurrently. For this process, an extraction method, which defines features to distinguish a human body, is proposed. The proposed method creates a virtual shape of bodies for recognizing the body of humans, also, generate an extractor according to its edge information. This method shows better performance in term of precision as well as speed experimentally

  9. Narrating rural lesbian lives: body image and lesbian community in central Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, Megan R; Chmielewski, Jennifer F

    2011-01-01

    Research on women's body image has focused on the sexual objectification that women experience in society. The present study explored how rural lesbian women experience their bodies and how lesbian communities, as safe havens from the dominant heterosexual culture, contribute to their body image. Ten lesbians living in central Pennsylvania were interviewed for this study. Interviews were analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis, which aims to explore individuals' experiences and examine how they make sense of their world. The resulting themes focus on participants' descriptions of their feelings about their bodies, the role that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities played in their sense of body image, and the difficulties of finding these communities in the central Pennsylvania area. PMID:21491311

  10. Images and bodies subject: sexuality in advertising campaign be stupid

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas Luiz Menegazzi

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the portrayal of sexuality and gender in contemporary advertising by the image and it focuses on visual analysis of the case study of the campaign Be Stupid, the clothing brand Diesel. Examines some of the ads clearer suggestions to the theme of sexuality, about fifteen images, running between 2010 and 2011em many countries, including Brazil, having won the controversial impact of media such as magazines, billboards and especially the Internet. Perform a survey of theoret...

  11. Changes in Representation of Body Image as a Function of Menarcheal Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koff, Elissa; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The significance of menarche for girls' body image and sexual identification was investigated by assessing human figure drawings produced by 87 adolescent girls on two occasions, six months apart. (Author/MP)

  12. Bulimia nervosa symptomatology and body image disturbance associated with distance running and weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleaves, D H; Williamson, D A; Fuller, R D

    1992-09-01

    To investigate the hypothesis that problems characteristic of eating disorders may often be associated with distance running, 20 women who had lost weight through distance running were compared with a control group who did not exercise and had not lost weight and a comparison group of bulimia nervosa patients. Dependent variables were measures of depression, bulimia nervosa symptomatology, and body image disturbance. No differences were found between the runner group and the normal controls. Bulimics differed from runners and controls on most measures. Thus, the results did not support the proposition that weight loss through running leads to problems related to eating and body image. The failure to find disturbances in body image in runners suggests that body image disturbances are not a direct result of weight loss, as suggested by some theorists. PMID:1422651

  13. 'Retouch free': The effect of labelling media images as not digitally altered on women's body dissatisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, Marika; Slater, Amy; Smyth, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of 'retouch free' labels on thin ideal fashion images on women's body dissatisfaction. This represents an experimental analogue to current practice by some fashion magazines. Participants were 224 female undergraduates who viewed a set of fashion shoots with either no label, or a label indicating that the image had not been digitally altered. Results indicated that, although body dissatisfaction increased after exposure to the thin ideal images, there was no significant effect of label type on mood or body dissatisfaction. It was concluded that labelling images as digitally unaltered appears neither helpful nor harmful in terms of body dissatisfaction. Nevertheless, more extensive research is required to guide the most effective use of labels. PMID:24094477

  14. Does Liposuction Improve Body Image and Symptoms of Eating Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmi, Asko M.; Peltoniemi, Hilkka H.; Charpentier, Pia; Kuokkanen, Hannu O. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Unpleasant attention to unfavorable fat may have harmful psychological effects in terms of body dissatisfaction. As a consequence, this may cause abnormal eating regulation. It has been noted that women interested in liposuction self-report more eating problems. As far as we know, there are no prospective studies with standardized instruments providing sufficient data regarding the effects of aesthetic liposuction on various aspects of quality of life. Nevertheless, publications on the effects of eating habits are lacking. Methods: Sixty-one consecutive women underwent aesthetic liposuction. Three outcome measures were applied at baseline and at follow-up: the eating disorder inventory, Raitasalo's modification of the Beck depression inventory, and the 15-dimensional general quality of life questionnaire. Results: The mean age at baseline was 44 years, and the mean body mass index was 26.0. Thirty-six (59%) women completed all outcome measures with a mean follow-up time of 7 months. A significant improvement from baseline to follow-up was noted in women's body satisfaction, and their overall risk for developing an eating disorder decreased significantly. Conclusion: Aesthetic liposuction results in a significantly reduced overall risk for an eating disorder in combination with improved body satisfaction. PMID:26301150

  15. "BE"ing a Certain Way: Seeking "Body Image" in Canadian Health and Physical Education Curriculum Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Lorayne; Thomson, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Body image is an individual's emotional response to one's appearance including size and shape; this response may not be helpful in the pursuit of overall health and well-being. This policy analysis examines the treatment of body image in Canadian Health and Physical Education (HPE) curriculum policies using a body image analysis framework…

  16. The Impact of Body Image and Afrocentric Appearance on Sexual Refusal Self-Efficacy in Early Adolescent African American Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plybon, Laura E.; Holmer, Heidi; Hunter, Alexis; Sheffield, Charity; Stephens, Christopher; Cavolo, Lucas

    2009-01-01

    Research examining the association between body image and sexual risk-taking has been mostly limited to clinical and/or White female samples. It is unclear whether body image plays a role in sexual risk-taking among African American early adolescent females. Moreover, research has neglected to consider body image within a cultural and ethnic…

  17. Impressions of female body: representations of women and body-image in the brazilian press

    OpenAIRE

    Dulce Helena Mazer

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the representations of women and bodyimage in the brazilian press and it questions the sexual divisions in the society by the images published in the media. It also presents an iconological analysisof the photographs in six editions of the periodical Folha de São Paulo in 2012, randomly chosen. From a critical theory and analysis it shows that the image of women, which has long been used as merchandise in advertising, is increasingly perceived by print journalism as a ...

  18. The Combined Effect of Subjective Body Image and Body Mass Index (Distorted Body Weight Perception) on Suicidal Ideation

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Jaeyong; Choi, Young; Han, Kyu-Tae; Cheon, Sung-Youn; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Sang Gyu; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Mental health disorders and suicide are an important and growing public health concern in Korea. Evidence has shown that both globally and in Korea, obesity is associated with an increased risk of developing some psychiatric disorders. Therefore, we examined the association between distorted body weight perception (BWP) and suicidal ideation. Methods: Data were obtained from the 2007-2012 Korea National Health and Nutritional Evaluation Survey (KNHANES), an annual cross-sectional ...

  19. Altered Sexuality and Body Image after Gynecological Cancer Treatment: How Can Psychologists Help?

    OpenAIRE

    Sacerdoti, Rebecca Caldwell; Lagana’, Luciana; Koopman, Cheryl

    2010-01-01

    Once medical treatment for gynecological cancer is completed, what happens to patients’ sexuality and body image? Due to the delicate nature of the cancer site, treating this cancer typically affects sexual functioning and body image adversely, making it critical to identify the concerns of these patients and do so in a manner less restrictive than paper-and-pencil assessment. To gain a deeper understanding of the phenomenological experiences in question, we interviewed nine gynecological can...

  20. The Effect of Body Image Threat on Smoking Motivation Among College Women: Mediation by Negative Affect

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez Khoury, Elena N.; Litvin, Erika B.; Brandon, Thomas H.

    2009-01-01

    Previous descriptive, correlational, and quasi-experimental research has established that weight concerns and negative body image are associated with tobacco smoking, cessation, and relapse among young women. A recent experimental study found that activation of negative body image cognitions produced urges to smoke (Lopez, Drobes, Thompson, & Brandon, 2008). The current study intended to replicate and extend these experimental findings by examining the role of negative affect as a mediator of...

  1. Body image and its relationship with sexual function and marital adjustment in infertile women

    OpenAIRE

    Karamidehkordi, Akram; Roudsari, Robab Latifnejad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Body image is related to cognitive, emotional, and physical aspects of women's life. Therefore, it is expected to have an important role in women's sexual health and marital adjustment too. This issue seems to be salient in infertile women who suffer from psychological consequences of infertility. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship of body image with sexual function and marital adjustment in infertile women in 2011 in Mashhad, Iran. Materials and Methods: Thi...

  2. Development of multi-dimensional body image scale for malaysian female adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Chin, Yit Siew; Taib, Mohd Nasir Mohd; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Khor, Geok Lin

    2008-01-01

    The present study was conducted to develop a Multi-dimensional Body Image Scale for Malaysian female adolescents. Data were collected among 328 female adolescents from a secondary school in Kuantan district, state of Pahang, Malaysia by using a self-administered questionnaire and anthropometric measurements. The self-administered questionnaire comprised multiple measures of body image, Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26; Garner & Garfinkel, 1979) and Rosenberg Self-esteem Inventory (Rosenberg, 1965...

  3. Body image in obese children: Effects produced by physical exercise program

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, E.; S. Márquez-Rosa; Bernal, F; N. Camberos; Paz, J. A. de

    2015-01-01

    Body image self-perception in obese children is important since it can encourage behaviors leading to social isolation and cause an increase in food intake. The objective of this study was to determine the changes produced in the level of body image satisfaction and the variation in anthropometric indicators of young children in the State of Sonora, Mexico after participating in a program of 40 sessions of physical exercise with an average caloric expenditure of 267 Kcal per session. 119 chil...

  4. Masculinity and femininity in the divergence of male body image concerns

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Stuart B; Rieger, Elizabeth; Karlov, Lisa; Stephen W. Touyz

    2013-01-01

    Background Given recent assertions suggesting that gender role endorsement may be relevant in the divergence of male body image concerns, this study examined the self-reported gender role endorsement in opposing dimensional extremes of male body image disorders, namely, muscle dysmorphia and anorexia nervosa. This study further examined the relationship between gender role endorsement and eating disordered and muscle dysmorphia disorder pathology. Methodology Participants were 21 male muscle ...

  5. Thought–shape fusion and body image in eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera,1 Patricia Bolaños-Ríos,2 Inmaculada Ruiz-Prieto21Department of Nutrition and Bromatology, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, Spain; 2Behavioral Sciences Institute, Seville, SpainPurpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships among thought–shape fusion (TSF), specific instruments to assess body image disturbances, and body image quality of life in eating disorder patients in order to improve the understandi...

  6. Social Factors Influencing Women’s Body Image in Isfahan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Keyvanara

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction   In the modern world, there is more short relationship among people. Therefore know themselves more with physical and visible characteristics rather than different or similarities in ascribed and achieved characteristics. The appearance of an individual is considered a sign identity. By the other words, what we can see in appearance account as main source of communication, interpretation. Among all of these characteristics, body constitutes the most direct and accessible base that can carry and play different forms of lifestyle and identity, so it is essential. It is perceived that body is a social and cultural reality. Therefore it is conceptualized by sociological theories such as social regulation, social symbols. This research applied the sociological theory of symbolic interaction and social structure of body in order to explain socialization of body and main concepts of the body. These theories portray that family, media, school and peers could influence on socialization. Body image is constituted in the life careers women. They learn how look at their body, how managed their body and how change their bodies. This process passed from family especially in childhood career, school and peers especially in adolescent career and finally media throughout of their life. The overall aim of this study is to explore of social factors influence on women to perception of body image. Alongside with the main aim, this research also seeks to test some hypothesis. The main hypothesis included: 1- there is relationship between spouse attitude and body image in women, 2- there is relationship between women body image and their socialization such as family, school, friends and media, and 3- there is relationship between women body image and age, educational level and marital status.     Materials and Methods   This is a survey research that adopts a descriptive and analytic method. Statistic society is women of 18 to 40 year-old the city

  7. Gender and race matter: the importance of considering intersections in Black women's body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capodilupo, Christina M; Kim, Suah

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, body image literature has used race as a variable to explain ethnic-specific differences in body satisfaction and the prevalence of eating disorders. Instead of employing race as an explanatory variable, the present study utilized a qualitative method to explore the relationships among race, ethnicity, culture, discrimination, and body image for African American and Black women. The purpose of the study was to gain a deeper understanding of how race and gender interface with and inform body image. Women were recruited through community centers in a major metropolitan city and represented a diversity of ethnicities. In total, 26 women who identified racially as Black (mean age = 26 years) participated in 6 focus groups, which explored body ideals, societal messages, cultural values, racism, and sexism. Narrative data from the focus groups were analyzed using grounded theory. The central category, Body/Self Image, was informed by perceptions of and feelings about not only weight and shape but also hair, skin, and attitude. Three additional categories, each with multiple properties, emerged: Interpersonal Influences, Experiences of Oppression, and Media Messages. These categories interact to explain the central category of Body/Self Image, and an emergent theory is presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24188651

  8. Predictors and health-related outcomes of positive body image in adolescent girls: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Rachel; Tiggemann, Marika; Clark, Levina

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate prospective predictors and health-related outcomes of positive body image in adolescent girls. In so doing, the modified acceptance model of intuitive eating was also examined longitudinally. A sample of 298 girls aged 12 to 16 years completed a questionnaire containing measures of body appreciation, potential predictors, and a range of health outcomes, at 2 time points separated by 1 year. Longitudinal change regression models showed that perceived body acceptance by others (positively), self-objectification and social comparison (negatively), and body appreciation (positively) prospectively predicted intuitive eating 1 year later, consistent with the acceptance model of intuitive eating. Perceived body acceptance by others was the only proposed predictor to prospectively predict an increase in body appreciation over time. Time 1 body appreciation prospectively predicted a decrease in dieting, alcohol, and cigarette use, and an increase in physical activity 1 year later. In particular, girls with low body appreciation were more likely than girls with high body appreciation to take up alcohol and cigarette use between time points. The results highlight body appreciation as an important target for interventions designed to prevent or delay the uptake of alcohol and cigarette consumption among girls. More broadly, they suggest that a positive body image can confer considerable benefit for adolescent girls. PMID:26727595

  9. Understanding the Socialized Body: A Poststructuralist Analysis of Consumers' Self-Conceptions, Body Images, and Self-Care Practices.

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Craig J; Hirschman, Elizabeth C

    1995-01-01

    The present inquiry examines the psychosocial meanings and processes that shape consumers' sense of body image and the consumption behaviors motivated by those perceptions. Poststructuralist interpretive procedures were used to analyze interviews with 30 male and female consumers, aged 6-54. This discourse analysis led to the development of three process-oriented themes: (1) the ideology of self-control, (2) the social processes of normalization and problematization, and (3) the operation of ...

  10. Predictors and Health-Related Outcomes of Positive Body Image in Adolescent Girls: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Rachel; Tiggemann, Marika; Clark, Levina

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate prospective predictors and health-related outcomes of positive body image in adolescent girls. In so doing, the modified acceptance model of intuitive eating was also examined longitudinally. A sample of 298 girls aged 12 to 16 years completed a questionnaire containing measures of body appreciation, potential…

  11. Body image in cancer survivors : a systematic review of case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann, Vicky; Hagedoorn, Mariët; Tuinman, Marrit A

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: There is common consensus that cancer and its treatment can impair the body, but combined evidence of the previous literature in cancer survivors is missing. Therefore, we reviewed body image in cancer survivors and focused on case-control studies, in order to draw conclusions as to whether

  12. Who's that Girl: Television's Role in the Body Image Development of Young White and Black Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schooler, Deborah; Ward, L. Monique; Merriwether, Ann; Caruthers, Allison

    2004-01-01

    Although findings indicate a connection between frequent media use and greater body dissatisfaction, little attention has focused on the role of race. Accordingly, this study investigates the relation between television viewing and body image among 87 Black and 584 White women. Participants reported monthly viewing amounts of mainstream and…

  13. Young Girls' Eating Attitudes and Body Image Dissatisfaction: Associations with Communication and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kichler, Jessica C.; Crowther, Janis H.

    2009-01-01

    The relationships among communication, modeling, body image dissatisfaction, and maladaptive eating attitudes and behaviors in preadolescent girls were investigated in a cross-sectional study of 69 girls in fourth through sixth grade and their mothers. Participants completed questionnaires assessing familial and peer influences, body image…

  14. Psychobehavioral Attributes of Body Image in College Freshmen and Seniors: Implications for Long-Term Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, James E.; Partridge, Julie A.; Maurer-Starks, Suanne

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Understanding and assessing behavioral risk factors, particularly among college populations, is challenging for health educators. Similarly, issues affecting mental health remain unclear in terms of how body image evolves year to year in college students. A better understanding of how students perceive their bodies and to what extent…

  15. Body Image Dissatisfaction and Eating Disturbances among Children and Adolescents: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Prevention Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skemp-Arlt, Karen M.

    2006-01-01

    Body image dissatisfaction and eating disturbances are prevalent among youths and are beginning at an increasingly younger age. The glorification of the ideal, thin body type surrounds youths, in direct contrast to the increasing rates of overweight and obesity among the same population. The messages that children and adolescents are receiving are…

  16. Body Image as a Mediator of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlenkamp, Jennifer J.; Brausch, Amy M.

    2012-01-01

    Attitudes towards the body have been largely overlooked as a potential risk factor for adolescent non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) despite theorizing that a negative body image may play a critical role in the development of this behavior. The current study used structural equation modeling to evaluate the fit of a theoretical model specifying body…

  17. The Relationship among Overexcitability, Social Coping, and Body Image Dissatisfaction: Implications for Gifted Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Heath R.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents confront a plethora of physical and emotional changes, especially those alterations surrounding puberty. Body image disturbances have become commonplace with high school students, and school personnel seem to have had little success in fighting this problem. Teenagers with body dissatisfaction may also be at risk for mental health…

  18. Acculturation, Body Image, Self-Esteem, and Eating-Disorder Symptomatology in Adolescent Mexican American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, Greg W.; Kashubeck, Susan

    1996-01-01

    Investigated the relationship among acculturation, body image, self-esteem, and eating disorder symptomatology in 120 Mexican-American adolescent women. Findings indicate that acculturation levels were not related to anorexic or bulimic symptomatology, self-esteem, body dissatisfaction or thinness of ideal and attractive figures. Also, lower…

  19. Body image, eating disorders, and the relationship to adolescent media use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benowitz-Fredericks, Carson A; Garcia, Kaylor; Massey, Meredith; Vasagar, Brintha; Borzekowski, Dina L G

    2012-06-01

    Historically and currently, media messages around body shape and size emphasize the importance of being below-average weight for women and hypermuscular for men. The media messages around physical appearance are not realistic for most and lead to body dissatisfaction for most adolescents. Interventions designed to mitigate the influence of negative media messages on adolescents' body image are presented; however, most have shown limited success. PMID:22643174

  20. Muscle dysmorphia: Could it be classified as an addiction to body image?

    OpenAIRE

    FOSTER, ANDREW C.; Shorter, Gillian W.; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Muscle dysmorphia (MD) describes a condition characterised by a misconstrued body image in which individuals who interpret their body size as both small or weak even though they may look normal or highly muscular. MD has been conceptualized as a type of body dysmorphic disorder, an eating disorder, and obsessive–compulsive disorder symptomatology. Method and aim Through a review of the most salient literature on MD, this paper proposes an alternative classification of MD – the ‘Add...

  1. Body image and weight management: young people, internet advertisements and pharmacists

    OpenAIRE

    Luevorasirikul, Kanokrat

    2007-01-01

    Media promotion of the ideal body as slimness for women and muscularity for men, has led to increasing numbers of both genders reporting dissatisfaction with their bodies and trying to change using weight control products. It has been suggested that pharmacists can play a key role in promoting healthy lifestyles and weight management. The main aim of the research study was to examine the impact of media on body image perception and to investigate the role of pharmacists in weight man...

  2. Prevalence and magnitude of body weight and image dissatisfaction among women in dietetics majors

    OpenAIRE

    Arroyo Izaga, Marta; Basabe, Nekane; Serrano, Leticia; Sánchez, Celia; Ansotegui Alday, Laura; Rocandio Pablo, Ana María

    2010-01-01

    [EN] Some authors have suggested that body weight dissatisfaction may be high in students majoring in dietetics. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine the extent of body weight and image dissatisfaction in a sample of women in dietetics major. Additionally, predictors of magnitude of body weight dissatisfaction were analyzed. Participants were 62 volunteers with normalweight whose mean age was 21.87±1.89 years old (nonrandom sample). The assessment instruments included anthropometric...

  3. Online quantitative analysis of multispectral images of human body tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is developed for online monitoring of structural and morphological parameters of biological tissues (haemoglobin concentration, degree of blood oxygenation, average diameter of capillaries and the parameter characterising the average size of tissue scatterers), which involves multispectral tissue imaging, image normalisation to one of its spectral layers and determination of unknown parameters based on their stable regression relation with the spectral characteristics of the normalised image. Regression is obtained by simulating numerically the diffuse reflectance spectrum of the tissue by the Monte Carlo method at a wide variation of model parameters. The correctness of the model calculations is confirmed by the good agreement with the experimental data. The error of the method is estimated under conditions of general variability of structural and morphological parameters of the tissue. The method developed is compared with the traditional methods of interpretation of multispectral images of biological tissues, based on the solution of the inverse problem for each pixel of the image in the approximation of different analytical models. (biomedical optics)

  4. Neural basis of a multidimensional model of body image distortion in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudio, Santino; Quattrocchi, Carlo Cosimo

    2012-09-01

    Body image distortion is a key symptom of anorexia nervosa (AN). The majority of the neuroimaging studies on body image distortion in AN conceptualized it as an unidimensional symptom. However, behavioural research considers such symptom as a multidimensional construct. Our paper systematically reviews the functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) studies on body image distortion in AN and classifies them according to a speculative model of body image distortion, that consists of the three most widely accepted components in the behavioural research: perceptive, affective and cognitive. We found that: (1) the perceptive component is mainly related to alterations of the precuneus and the inferior parietal lobe; (2) the affective component is mainly related to alterations of the prefrontal cortex, the insula and the amygdala; (3) the cognitive component has been weakly explored. These evidences seem to confirm that specific neural alterations are related to the components of the body image distortion in AN. Further neuroimaging studies are needed to better understand the complexity of the body image distortion in AN. PMID:22613629

  5. Body image, visual working memory and visual mental imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Darling

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Body dissatisfaction (BD is a highly prevalent feature amongst females in society, with the majority of individuals regarding themselves to be overweight compared to their personal ideal, and very few self-describing as underweight. To date, explanations of this dramatic pattern have centred on extrinsic social and media factors, or intrinsic factors connected to individuals’ knowledge and belief structures regarding eating and body shape, with little research examining links between BD and basic cognitive mechanisms. This paper reports a correlational study in which visual and executive cognitive processes that could potentially impact on BD were assessed. Visual memory span and self-rated visual imagery were found to be predictive of BD, alongside a measure of inhibition derived from the Stroop task. In contrast, spatial memory and global precedence were not related to BD. Results are interpreted with reference to the influential multi-component model of working memory.

  6. Relationships between body-cathexis, clothing benefits sought, and clothing behavior, and effects of importance of meeting the ideal body image and clothing attitude

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Jinsook

    1996-01-01

    Today, dissatisfaction with body image appears to be widespread. Few theoretical explanations have existed on why clothing can compensate for body dissatisfaction and on what clothing benefits are sought in relation to body satisfaction. Very limited studies exist on the relationships between satisfaction with different body areas and clothing behavior. The purpose of this study was to determine, for female college students, 1) the effects of body satisfaction on clothing benef...

  7. Body image in Brazil: recent advances in the state of knowledge and methodological issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Laus

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze Brazilian literature on body image and the theoretical and methodological advances that have been made. METHODS A detailed review was undertaken of the Brazilian literature on body image, selecting published articles, dissertations and theses from the SciELO, SCOPUS, LILACS and PubMed databases and the CAPES thesis database. Google Scholar was also used. There was no start date for the search, which used the following search terms: “body image” AND “Brazil” AND “scale(s”; “body image” AND “Brazil” AND “questionnaire(s”; “body image” AND “Brazil” AND “instrument(s”; “body image” limited to Brazil and “body image”. RESULTS The majority of measures available were intended to be used in college students, with half of them evaluating satisfaction/dissatisfaction with the body. Females and adolescents of both sexes were the most studied population. There has been a significant increase in the number of available instruments. Nevertheless, numerous published studies have used non-validated instruments, with much confusion in the use of the appropriate terms (e.g., perception, dissatisfaction, distortion. CONCLUSIONS Much more is needed to understand body image within the Brazilian population, especially in terms of evaluating different age groups and diversifying the components/dimensions assessed. However, interest in this theme is increasing, and important steps have been taken in a short space of time.

  8. Ethics and images of suffering bodies in humanitarian medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calain, Philippe

    2013-12-01

    Media representations of suffering bodies from medical humanitarian organisations raise ethical questions, which deserve critical attention for at least three reasons. Firstly, there is a normative vacuum at the intersection of medical ethics, humanitarian ethics and the ethics of photojournalism. Secondly, the perpetuation of stereotypes of illness, famine or disasters, and their political derivations are a source of moral criticism, to which humanitarian medicine is not immune. Thirdly, accidental encounters between members of the health professions and members of the press in the humanitarian arena can result in misunderstandings and moral tension. From an ethics perspective the problem can be specified and better understood through two successive stages of reasoning. Firstly, by applying criteria of medical ethics to the concrete example of an advertising poster from a medical humanitarian organisation, I observe that media representations of suffering bodies would generally not meet ethical standards commonly applied in medical practice. Secondly, I try to identify what overriding humanitarian imperatives could outweigh such reservations. The possibility of action and the expression of moral outrage are two relevant humanitarian values which can further be spelt out through a semantic analysis of 'témoignage' (testimony). While the exact balance between the opposing sets of considerations (medical ethics and humanitarian perspectives) is difficult to appraise, awareness of all values at stake is an important initial standpoint for ethical deliberations of media representations of suffering bodies. Future pragmatic approaches to the issue should include: exploring ethical values endorsed by photojournalism, questioning current social norms about the display of suffering, collecting empirical data from past or potential victims of disasters in diverse cultural settings, and developing new canons with more creative or less problematic representations of

  9. Ethics and images of suffering bodies in humanitarian medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Calain, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Media representations of suffering bodies from medical humanitarian organisations raise ethical questions, which deserve critical attention for at least three reasons. Firstly, there is a normative vacuum at the intersection of medical ethics, humanitarian ethics and the ethics of photojournalism. Secondly, the perpetuation of stereotypes of illness, famine or disasters, and their political derivations are a source of moral criticism, to which humanitarian medicine is not immune. Thirdly, acc...

  10. Does Liposuction Improve Body Image and Symptoms of Eating Disorders?

    OpenAIRE

    Saariniemi, Kai M. M.; Asko M. Salmi; Peltoniemi, Hilkka H.; Charpentier, Pia; Kuokkanen, Hannu O. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Unpleasant attention to unfavorable fat may have harmful psychological effects in terms of body dissatisfaction. As a consequence, this may cause abnormal eating regulation. It has been noted that women interested in liposuction self-report more eating problems. As far as we know, there are no prospective studies with standardized instruments providing sufficient data regarding the effects of aesthetic liposuction on various aspects of quality of life. Nevertheless, publications o...

  11. Diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging with background body signal suppression/T2-weighted image fusion of gastrointestinal cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    TOMIZAWA, MINORU; SHINOZAKI, FUMINOBU; FUGO, KAZUNORI; SUNAOSHI, TAKAFUMI; KANO, DAISUKE; TANAKA, SATOMI; OZAKI, AIKA; SUGIYAMA, ERIKO; SHITE, MISAKI; HAGA, RYOUTA; BABA, AKIRA; FUKAMIZU, YOSHIYA; FUJITA, TOSHIYUKI; KAGAYAMA, SATOSHI; HASEGAWA, RUMIKO; TOGAWA, AKIRA; SHIRAI, YOSHINORI; ICHIKI, NOBORU; MOTOYOSHI, YASUFUMI; SUGIYAMA, TAKAO; YAMAMOTO, SHIGENORI; KISHIMOTO, TAKASHI; ISHIGE, NAOKI

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging with background body signal suppression (DWIBS) yields positive results for cancer against the surrounding tissues. The combination of DWIBS and T2-weighted images (DWIBS/T2) in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal tract cancers was retrospectively analyzed in the present study. Patients were subjected to magnetic resonance imaging after cancer was diagnosed through specimens obtained via biopsy or endoscopic mucosal resection. Sixteen patients were assessed between July, 2012 and June, 2013 and the correlation between detection with DWIBS/T2 and T staging was analyzed. Regarding patients who underwent surgery, the correlation between detection with DWIBS/T2 and the diameter or depth of invasion was analyzed. All cancers that had advanced to >T2 stage were detectable by DWIBS/T2, whereas all cancers staged as T2) or invading beyond the muscularis propria.

  12. Parametric modelling and segmentation of vertebral bodies in 3D CT and MR spine images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accurate and objective evaluation of vertebral deformations is of significant importance in clinical diagnostics and therapy of pathological conditions affecting the spine. Although modern clinical practice is focused on three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques, the established methods for evaluation of vertebral deformations are limited to measuring deformations in two-dimensional (2D) x-ray images. In this paper, we propose a method for quantitative description of vertebral body deformations by efficient modelling and segmentation of vertebral bodies in 3D. The deformations are evaluated from the parameters of a 3D superquadric model, which is initialized as an elliptical cylinder and then gradually deformed by introducing transformations that yield a more detailed representation of the vertebral body shape. After modelling the vertebral body shape with 25 clinically meaningful parameters and the vertebral body pose with six rigid body parameters, the 3D model is aligned to the observed vertebral body in the 3D image. The performance of the method was evaluated on 75 vertebrae from CT and 75 vertebrae from T2-weighted MR spine images, extracted from the thoracolumbar part of normal and pathological spines. The results show that the proposed method can be used for 3D segmentation of vertebral bodies in CT and MR images, as the proposed 3D model is able to describe both normal and pathological vertebral body deformations. The method may therefore be used for initialization of whole vertebra segmentation or for quantitative measurement of vertebral body deformations.

  13. Body image, body dissatisfaction and weight status in south asian children: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Duda Joan L; Hiam Lucinda C; Pallan Miranda J; Adab Peymane

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Childhood obesity is a continuing problem in the UK and South Asian children represent a group that are particularly vulnerable to its health consequences. The relationship between body dissatisfaction and obesity is well documented in older children and adults, but is less clear in young children, particularly South Asians. A better understanding of this relationship in young South Asian children will inform the design and delivery of obesity intervention programmes. The ...

  14. Socializing Young Readers: A Content Analysis of Body Size Images in Caldecott Medal Winners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedwick, Linda; Latham, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have examined gender issues in children's literature, but a review of the literature reveals that few studies have examined the instances of fatness in the images. Studying the fat representation in the images of children's literature is important because exposure to a variety of body types may slow the rate of children's body…

  15. Body shape-based biometric recognition using millimeter wave images

    OpenAIRE

    González-Sosa, Ester; Vera-Rodríguez, Rubén; Fiérrez, Julián; Ortega-García, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works. González-Sosa, E. ; Vera-Rodríguez, R. ; Fierrez, J. ; Ortega-García, J. "Body shape-based biometric recognition using millime...

  16. Body image in obese children: Effects produced by physical exercise program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Romero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Body image self-perception in obese children is important since it can encourage behaviors leading to social isolation and cause an increase in food intake. The objective of this study was to determine the changes produced in the level of body image satisfaction and the variation in anthropometric indicators of young children in the State of Sonora, Mexico after participating in a program of 40 sessions of physical exercise with an average caloric expenditure of 267 Kcal per session. 119 children were enrolled in the program; they were between the ages of 8 and 11 with a body mass index (BMI of 26.59 ± 4.2 (kg/m2. They were evaluated before and after the physical activity intervention by means of a Body Image Satisfaction (BIS Test. The results with significant changes (p ≤ 0.05 between the pre-test and post-test are in weight and height. There are also significant changes observed in self-image in 15 parts of evaluated body segments, mainly in the abdomen, chest, thighs, buttocks, waist, and hips in all children from the experimental group. The results conclude that physical exercise, in spite of not producing significant changes in BMI, can positively modify body image perception.

  17. Combined PET/MRI: a new dimension in whole-body oncology imaging?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hybrid imaging systems providing morphological and functional data in a single session have been available for oncological imaging for some time. So far, computed tomography (CT) has been the morphological method-of-choice for inclusion into these hybrid imaging systems. However, recently, research has focused on hardware-based fusion of function with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) rather than CT. Now that the first head-only positron emission tomography (PET)/MRI systems have been installed and whole-body systems are to be expected in the near future, potential indications in clinical oncology have to be addressed. This article discusses potential indications of PET/MRI in whole-body oncology imaging. Potential advantages and disadvantages compared with currently available hybrid imaging systems will be reviewed. (orig.)

  18. Relations among media influence, body image, eating concerns, and sexual orientation in men: A preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carper, Teresa L Marino; Negy, Charles; Tantleff-Dunn, Stacey

    2010-09-01

    The current study explored the relation between sexual orientation, media persuasion, and eating and body image concerns among 78 college men (39 gay; 39 straight). Participants completed measures of sexual orientation, eating disorder symptoms, appearance-related anxiety, perceived importance of physical attractiveness, perceptions of media influence, and media exposure. Gay men scored significantly higher on drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, and body image-related anxiety than their straight counterparts. Additionally, perceptions of media influence were higher for gay men, and significantly mediated the relation between sexual orientation and eating and body image concerns. Sexual orientation also moderated the relation between perceived media influence and beliefs regarding the importance of physical attractiveness, as this relation was significant for gay men, but not straight men. The current findings suggest that gay men's increased vulnerability to media influence partially accounts for the relatively high rate of eating pathology observed in this population. PMID:20739233

  19. Instrument translation and initial psychometric evaluation of the Danish Body Image Quality of Life Inventory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Trine Bernholdt; Berg, Selina Kikkenborg; Dixon, Jane;

    2016-01-01

    RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Negative body perception has been reported in a number of patient populations. No instrument in Danish for measuring body image-related concerns has been available. Without such an instrument, understanding of the phenomenon in Danish-speaking populations is limited....... The purpose of the study was thus to translate and validate a Danish version of the Body Image Quality of Life Inventory (BIQLI), in order to obtain a valid instrument applicable for healthcare research. METHODS: The study consisted of two phases: (i) instrument adaptation, including forward and back....... CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated tentative support for the validity of the Danish Body Image Quality of Life (BIQLI-DA) and found the measure to be reliable in terms of internal consistency. Further exploration of response processes and construct validity is needed....

  20. An adaptive diffusion-weighted whole-body magnetic resonance imaging scheme using the multistation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yeji

    2016-02-01

    Whole-body diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is a useful tool in oncology, which enables fast screening of disseminated tumors, lymph nodes or abscesses in the body. Multistation magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or continuously moving table (CMT) MRI can be performed to overcome the limited field of view (FOV) of the magnet bore in whole-body DWI. Although CMT-MRI is regarded as a more advanced form of whole-body MRI, it cannot be widely used because most of the available MR systems are not equipped with the required hardware/software to perform CMT. Thus, optimizing the multistation approach for whole-body DWI, which is more widely available and easier to perform with the existing MR systems, is worthwhile. To improve the quality of DW images acquired with the multistation approach, we used different combinations of the built-in body RF coil and the phased-array surface RF coils for reception of the signals in whole-body DWI in this work. If different coils are selectively used in the extended FOV and appropriate reconstruction algorithms are exploited, the screening ability of whole-body DWI can be improved while minimizing the patient's discomfort and the artifacts due to physiological motions.

  1. Body Image Avoidance, Body Dissatisfaction, and Eating Pathology: Is There a Difference Between Male Gym Users and Non-Gym Users?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Peta; McIntyre, Timothy; Bannatyne, Amy

    2016-03-01

    With research highlighting the increasing prevalence and severity of body image and eating disturbances in males, particularly athletes and regular gymnasium users, the current study examined body image and eating disturbances in a sample of male gym users and non-gym users (N = 180). Based on previous research, it was predicted that male gym users would report greater body image disturbance (e.g., body image avoidance and body dissatisfaction) and eating pathology, compared with non-gym users. Results of the study partially supported hypotheses, revealing body dissatisfaction and eating pathology were significantly increased in male gym users. However, no significant differences were observed in body image avoidance behaviors, though this is likely because of methodological limitations associated with psychometric measures selected. The study provides preliminary evidence that male gym users do experience subclinical eating and body image concerns, with some also experiencing clinically significant symptoms that could be precursors to the later development of an eating disorder. Results of the current study highlight the importance of educating key stakeholders within health and fitness centers, through community-based interventions, to increase awareness regarding male body image and eating disturbances. PMID:25389214

  2. Waif goodbye! Average-size female models promote positive body image and appeal to consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrichs, Phillippa C; Lee, Christina

    2011-10-01

    Despite consensus that exposure to media images of thin fashion models is associated with poor body image and disordered eating behaviours, few attempts have been made to enact change in the media. This study sought to investigate an effective alternative to current media imagery, by exploring the advertising effectiveness of average-size female fashion models, and their impact on the body image of both women and men. A sample of 171 women and 120 men were assigned to one of three advertisement conditions: no models, thin models and average-size models. Women and men rated average-size models as equally effective in advertisements as thin and no models. For women with average and high levels of internalisation of cultural beauty ideals, exposure to average-size female models was associated with a significantly more positive body image state in comparison to exposure to thin models and no models. For men reporting high levels of internalisation, exposure to average-size models was also associated with a more positive body image state in comparison to viewing thin models. These findings suggest that average-size female models can promote positive body image and appeal to consumers. PMID:21500105

  3. From whole-body counting to imaging: The computer aided collimation gamma camera project (CACAO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whole-body counting is the method of choice for in vivo detection of contamination. To extend this well established method, the possible advantages of imaging radiocontaminants are examined. The use of the CACAO project is then studied. A comparison of simulated reconstructed images obtained by the CACAO project and by a conventional gamma camera used in nuclear medicine follows. Imaging a radionuclide contaminant with a geometrical sensitivity of 10-2 seems possible in the near future. (author)

  4. Spontaneously occurring images and early memories in people with body dysmorphic disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Osman, Selen; Cooper, Myra; Hackmann, Ann; Veale, David

    2004-01-01

    A semi-structured interview assessing the presence and characteristics of spontaneous appearance-related images was designed and administered. A total of 18 patients with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) and 18 normal controls took part. The BDD patients were found to have spontaneously occurring appearance-related images that were significantly more negative, recurrent, and viewed from an observer perspective than control participants. These images were more vivid and detailed and typically in...

  5. Eating behavior and body image perception of pregnant women attending a high-risk outpatient center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Guimarães Nobre

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the eating behavior and body image perception in pregnant women attending a high-risk outpatient center. Methods: A quantitative, cross-sectional, observational study conducted with 28 overweight pregnant women attending the first consultation in the nutrition outpatient center of a maternity hospital in Fortaleza-CE, from December 2010 to February 2011. It has been used a pre-established form containing data on the characterization of the sample (socioeconomic, obstetric, and nutritional, the BES (Binge Eating Scale to assess binge eating and BSQ (Body Shape Questionnaire to assess the severity or absence of body image disorder. The variables were presented as mean ± standard deviation and simple frequency and percentage. The Pearson’s correlation was used to verify the relation between body image and binge eating, considering p <0.05. Results: The pregnant women studied had a mean age of 29.4 ± 6.3 years and mean gestational age of 24.6 ± 8.2 weeks. It was found a prevalence of 71.5% (n=20 of body image disorder and 17.8% (n=5 of binge eating. It was also observed a direct and significant correlation between the body image perception and the degree of binge eating (r=0.4358, p=0.020. Conclusion: The high rate of body image disorder positively related to a significant binge eating indicates an unfavorable adjustment of this group of pregnant women to alterations in weight and body shape and size, which are inherent to pregnancy, standing out as group that needs special attention by the professional team. doi:10.5020/18061230.2014.p256

  6. Factors associated with body image dissatisfaction among adolescents in public schools students in Salvador, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica L.P. Santana

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the prevalence of body image dissatisfaction and associated factors among students in Salvador, Brazil. Methods: A cross-sectional study involving a random sample of 1,494 (852 girls and 642 boys adolescents between 11 and 17 years of age who were students in the public schools in Salvador, Brazil. Participants completed the Body Shape Questionnaire and the Eating Attitudes Test-26. Body image was characterized as satisfactory or unsatisfactory. We obtained demographic, anthropometric and economic information and information regarding the stage of maturation, self-perception of body weight, and consumption of sweetened beverages and diet soft drinks. To identify associated factors we used Poisson regression analysis. Results: Body image dissatisfaction was present in 19.5% of the adolescents, with a prevalence of 26.6% among the girls and 10% among the boys. Independent of sex, the prevalence of body image dissatisfaction was higher among adolescents who were overweight or obese (girls, PR: 1.38, CI: 1.09-1.73 and boys, PR: 2.26, CI: 1.08-4.75, higher among those who perceived themselves as fat (girls, PR: 2.85, CI: 2.07-3.93 and boys, PR: 3.17, CI: 1.39-7.23, and higher among those who had negative attitudes toward eating (girls, PR: 2.42, CI: 1.91-3.08 and boys, PR: 4.67, CI: 2.85-7.63. A reduction in body image dissatisfaction was only identified among underweight girls (PR: 0.12, CI: 0.03-0.49. Conclusions: A high occurrence of body image dissatisfaction was observed among the adolescents, and biological and behavioral factors were associated with this dissatisfaction.

  7. The evaluation of body image in children with type 1 diabetes: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troncone, Alda; Prisco, Francesco; Cascella, Crescenzo; Chianese, Antonietta; Zanfardino, Angela; Iafusco, Dario

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the body image perception in children with type 1 diabetes in order to identify symptoms of disordered eating behaviours early. Children with type 1 diabetes and controls showed underestimation and dissatisfaction with body size. The patients, especially girls, were more accurate in their perception of body size than the control group. The study sheds light on some of the underlying factors that may contribute to the development of disordered eating behaviours in adolescence. The causes of the differences of perception of body size are discussed. PMID:24752557

  8. X-ray dark-field imaging for detection of foreign bodies in food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M.S.; Lauridsen, T.; Feidenhans'l, R.;

    2013-01-01

    Conventional X-ray transmission radiography has long been used for online detection of foreign bodies in food products relying on the absorption contrast between the foreign body and food product. In this paper, we present a novel approach for detection of organic foreign bodies such as paper and...... insects in two food products using X-ray dark-field imaging with a grating interferometer. The ability to detect the foreign bodies is quantified using a measure of the contrast-to-noise ratio. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd....

  9. Reducing the negative effects of media exposure on body image: Testing the effectiveness of subvertising and disclaimer labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, David A; Sandhu, Gaganjyot; Scott, Terri; Akbari, Yasmin

    2016-06-01

    Body image activists have proposed adding disclaimer labels to digitally altered media as a way to promote positive body image. Another approach advocated by activists is to alter advertisements through subvertising (adding social commentary to the image to undermine the message of the advertisement). We examined if body image could be enhanced by attaching Photoshop disclaimers or subvertising to thin-ideal media images of swimsuit models. In Study 1 (N=1268), adult women exposed to disclaimers or subvertising did not report higher body state satisfaction or lower drive for thinness than women exposed to unaltered images. In Study 2 (N=820), adult women who were exposed to disclaimers or subvertising did not report higher state body satisfaction or lower state social appearance comparisons than women exposed to unaltered images or to no images. These results raise questions about the effectiveness of disclaimers and subvertising for promoting body satisfaction. PMID:27085112

  10. Perceived impact of body feedback from romantic partners on young adults' body image and sexual well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Kaitlyn M; Byers, E Sandra

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the messages individuals receive from their partners about their bodies and their perceived impact on body image and sexual well-being. Young adult men (n=35) and women (n=57) completed open-ended questions identifying messages they had received from partners and the impact of these messages on their body image and sexual well-being. Content coding revealed three verbal (expressions of approval and pride, challenging negative beliefs, expressions of sexual attraction/arousal/desire) and two nonverbal (physical affection, physical expressions of sexual attraction/arousal/desire) positive messages as well as one verbal (disapproval/disgust) and two nonverbal (rejection, humiliation) negative messages. Some participants reported gender-related messages (muscularity/strength, genital appearance, breast appearance, weight, and comparison to others). Positive messages were seen to increase confidence, self-acceptance, and sexual empowerment/fulfillment, whereas negative messages decreased these feelings. Our findings suggest that even everyday, seemingly neutral messages are perceived to have an important impact on young adults. PMID:27085111

  11. Media exposure and influence of female athlete body images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeney Christensen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The job of any form of media is to convey a message. These messages can range from a benign sales ad to deeper subliminal message of acceptable behavior.  Historically, media has taught us that men are supposed to compete in physical activities such as sport and any women who choose to do so are type casted as being lesbian or tomboys. To combat this, females often go to great lengths, including portraying themselves as sexual objects, to prove their femininity and thus lose their credibility as athletes.  The other issue that can arise from this include other female athletes concentrating more on the physique of their bodies and less on performing their athletic talents. 

  12. Sex and Age Differences in Body-Image, Self-Esteem, and Body Mass Index in Adolescents and Adults After Single-Ventricle Palliation

    OpenAIRE

    Pike, Nancy A.; EVANGELISTA, LORRAINE S.; Doering, Lynn V.; Eastwood, Jo-Ann; Lewis, Alan B.; Child, John S.

    2012-01-01

    Single-ventricle congenital heart disease (SVCHD) requires multiple palliative surgical procedures that leave visible surgical scars and physical deficits, which can alter body-image and self-esteem. This study aimed to compare sex and age differences in body-image, self-esteem, and body mass index (BMI) in adolescents and adults with SVCHD after surgical palliation with those of a healthy control group. Using a comparative, cross-sectional design, 54 adolescent and adult (26 male and 28 fema...

  13. Is the hijab protective? An investigation of body image and related constructs among British Muslim women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Miah, Jusnara; Noorani, Nazerine; Taylor, Donna

    2014-08-01

    Previous studies have reported equivocal findings concerning the impact of wearing a hijab, or Islamic head- and body-cover, on Muslim women's body image. Here, we sought to examine that impact using a larger sample of Muslim women than has been relied upon and a wider range of body image measures. A total of 587 British Muslim women completed a battery of scales assessing their frequency and conservativeness of hijab use, body image variables, attitudes towards the media and beauty ideals, importance of appearance, and religiosity. Preliminary results indicated that 218 women never used the hijab and 369 women used some form of the hijab at least rarely. Controlling for religiosity, women who wore the hijab had more positive body image, lower internalization of media messages about beauty standards, and placed less importance on appearance than women who did not wear the hijab. Among women who wore the hijab, hijab use significantly predicted weight discrepancy and body appreciation over and above religiosity. These results are discussed in terms of the possible protective impact among British Muslim women of wearing the hijab. PMID:25040005

  14. Expand Your Horizon: A programme that improves body image and reduces self-objectification by training women to focus on body functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleva, Jessica M; Martijn, Carolien; Van Breukelen, Gerard J P; Jansen, Anita; Karos, Kai

    2015-09-01

    This study tested Expand Your Horizon, a programme designed to improve body image by training women to focus on the functionality of their body using structured writing assignments. Eighty-one women (Mage=22.77) with a negative body image were randomised to the Expand Your Horizon programme or to an active control programme. Appearance satisfaction, functionality satisfaction, body appreciation, and self-objectification were measured at pretest, posttest, and one-week follow-up. Following the intervention, participants in the Expand Your Horizon programme experienced greater appearance satisfaction, functionality satisfaction, and body appreciation, and lower levels of self-objectification, compared to participants in the control programme. Partial eta-squared effect sizes were of small to medium magnitude. This study is the first to show that focusing on body functionality can improve body image and reduce self-objectification in women with a negative body image. These findings provide support for addressing body functionality in programmes designed to improve body image. PMID:26280376

  15. NMR - from basic physics to images of the human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a remarkable phenomenon which involves the exchange of very weak radio frequency radiation between atomic nuclei and a sensitive detecting apparatus. It was originally regarded as a rather esoteric effect of great theoretical interest, but has since proved to have an amazing range of applications over many scientific disciplines, including nuclear physics, solid state physics, all branches of chemistry, biochemistry, physiology and most recently in medical diagnosis. In this Discourse the principles of NMR and trace briefly the history of its applications are examined and illustrated. Headings are: early history; nuclear resonance; relaxation time; the chemical shift; spin-spin coupling (NMR spectra); chemical shifts in biological tissue; NMR imaging; conclusions. (author)

  16. Lean body mass correction of standardized uptake value in simultaneous whole-body positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study explores the possibility of using simultaneous positron emission tomography—magnetic resonance imaging (PET-MRI) to estimate the lean body mass (LBM) in order to obtain a standardized uptake value (SUV) which is less dependent on the patients' adiposity. This approach is compared to (1) the commonly-used method based on a predictive equation for LBM, and (2) to using an LBM derived from PET-CT data. It is hypothesized that an MRI-based correction of SUV provides a robust method due to the high soft-tissue contrast of MRI.A straightforward approach to calculate an MRI-derived LBM is presented. It is based on the fat and water images computed from the two-point Dixon MRI primarily used for attenuation correction in PET-MRI. From these images, a water fraction was obtained for each voxel. Averaging over the whole body yielded the weight-normalized LBM. Performance of the new approach in terms of reducing variations of 18F-Fludeoxyglucose SUVs in brain and liver across 19 subjects was compared with results using predictive methods and PET-CT data to estimate the LBM.The MRI-based method reduced the coefficient of variation of SUVs in the brain by 41  ± 10% which is comparable to the reduction by the PET-CT method (35  ± 10%). The reduction of the predictive LBM method was 29  ± 8%. In the liver, the reduction was less clear, presumably due to other sources of variation.In conclusion, employing the Dixon data in simultaneous PET-MRI for calculation of lean body mass provides a brain SUV which is less dependent on patient adiposity. The reduced dependency is comparable to that obtained by CT and predictive equations. Therefore, it is more comparable across patients. The technique does not impose an overhead in measurement time and is straightforward to implement. (paper)

  17. Body image perception and attempts to change weight among female medical students at Mangalore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Assessing body image self-perception has used BMI as an indicator of nutritional status. The visual analogue scale is a highly effective instrument for assessing people′s level of dissatisfaction with their body weight while evaluating the perceptual component of body image. Objective: By knowing body mass index of female medical students, to find out their pattern of body image perception and any attempts done to change their weight. Materials and Methods: All the students residing in MBBS ladies hostel were included in this study and a questionnaire regarding body image perception, diet, physical activity and attempts to change weight was instituted. Their responses were collected, tabulated, analyzed and interpreted. Results: Among 147 study subjects, according to BMI, 25(17% were undernourished while 111(75.5% and 11(7.5% were normally nourished and overweight respectively. 35(23.8% of the subjects felt they were lean, 95(64.6% felt they were normal and 17(11.6% felt they were overweight. Regarding image satisfaction, 98(66.7% of them were satisfied with their image and out of 49 who were not satisfied 30 (20.4 % wanted to reduce weight. Skipping meals was practiced by 42 (28.6% of subjects. Conclusion: About 75.5% of the study group were having normal BMI. Most of them perceived their image correctly regarding to their weight. Most of the underweight and all overweight females were not satisfied. Underweight females preferred to gain weight and overweight females preferred to lose weight.

  18. Understanding adolescent girls’ vulnerability to the impact of the mass media on body image and restrained eating behaviour: the role of media type, body perfect internalisation and materialism

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Beth Teresa

    2012-01-01

    There is a strong body of psychological research implicating the mass media in the aetiology of adolescent girls’ negative body image and eating behaviours. The present thesis aims to extend this research by examining potential factors – namely, media type, body perfect internalisation and materialism – that make girls more vulnerable to the negative impact of the mass media. An initial meta-analysis (Chapter 3) collated the findings of existing research examining the impact of ‘body perf...

  19. Real Women Have Curves: A Longitudinal Investigation of TV and the Body Image Development of Latina Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schooler, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    Contextualizing Latina girls' body image development requires an appreciation of mainstream body ideals, Latino/a cultural values, and the process by which Latina girls traverse the borders between them. The current study examines how media use and acculturation act across adolescence to shape the development of body image among Latina girls.…

  20. The Effects of Gender and Family, Friend, and Media Influences on Eating Behaviors and Body Image during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ata, Rheanna N.; Ludden, Alison Bryant; Lally, Megan M.

    2007-01-01

    The current study expands upon body image research to examine how gender, self-esteem, social support, teasing, and family, friend, and media pressures relate to body image and eating-related attitudes and behaviors among male and female adolescents (N = 177). Results indicated that adolescents were dissatisfied with their current bodies: males…

  1. PRELIMINARY STUDY OF FEASIBILITY OF WHOLE BODY DIFFUSION WEIGHTED IMAGING IN DIAGNOSIS OF METASTASIS OF TUMOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian-he Yang; Jian-zhong Lin; Xin Wang; Jian-hua Lu; Zhong Chen

    2008-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the feasibility of whole body diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in the diagnosis of metastatic tumor.Methods Fifty-six patients (40 males and 16 females, age ranging from 29 to 84 years with a mean age of 57 years) with a variety of primary tumors were investigated by whole body DWI combined with computed tomography (CT) and/or conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Twelve patients underwent positron emission tomography. The final diagnosis was made on the basis of CT or high resolution CT result for lung lesion and MRI or CT result for skull, abdomen and other parts. All tumors were classified into four groups by their diameter: below 1.0 cm, 1.0-1.9 cm, 2.0-2.9 cm, and above 3.0 cm. The sensitivity and specificity of whole body DWI in the detection of metastatic tumor were analyzed.Results The sensitivities of whole body DWI for screening metastasis oftlie four groups were 38%, 75%, 97%, and 100%, respectively. Whole body DWI showed the highest sensitivity and specificity for detecting metastasis of the skeletal system. It was difficult to find metastatic tumor whose diameter was below 1.0 cm, or lymph nodes located in the pelvis with diameter below 2.0 cm. Conclusions Whole body DWI is a promising method in the diagnosis ofmetastastic tumors. With the perfection of scanning parameter, whole body DWI should be a new effective whole body technique for tumor detection.

  2. The Role of the Nurse in the Rehabilitation of Patients with Radical Changes in Body Image Due to Burn Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Aacovou, I.

    2005-01-01

    Burn injuries are among the most serious causes of radical changes in body image. The subject of body image and self-image is essential in rehabilitation, and the nurse must be aware of the issues related to these concepts and take them seriously into account in drafting out the nursing programme. This paper defines certain key words related to body image and discusses the social context of body image. Burn injuries are considered in relation to the way each of these affects the patient's bod...

  3. Relationship between body image disturbance and incidence of depression: the SUN prospective cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Celeste

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body image disturbance is an increasing problem in Western societies and is associated with a number of mental health outcomes including anorexia, bulimia, body dysmorphia, and depression. The aim of this study was to assess the association between body image disturbance and the incidence of depression. Methods This study included 10,286 participants from a dynamic prospective cohort of Spanish university graduates, who were followed-up for a median period of 4.2 years (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra – the SUN study. The key characteristic of the study is the permanently open recruitment that started in 1999. The baseline questionnaire included information about body mass index (BMI and the nine figure schemes that were used to assess body size perception. These variables were grouped according to recommended classifications and the difference between BMI and body size perception was considered as a proxy of body image disturbance. A subject was classified as an incident case of depression if he/she was initially free of depression and reported a physician-made diagnosis of depression and/or the use of antidepressant medication in at least one of the follow-up questionnaires. The association between body image disturbance and the incidence of depression was estimated by calculating the multivariable adjusted Odds Ratio (OR and its 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI, using logistic regression models. Results The cumulative incidence of depression during follow-up in the cohort was 4.8%. Men who underestimated their body size had a high percentage of overweight and obesity (50.1% and 12.6%, respectively, whereas women who overestimated their body size had a high percentage of underweight (87.6%. The underestimation exhibited a negative association with the incidence of depression among women (OR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.54 – 0.95, but this effect disappeared after adjusting for possible confounding variables. The proportion of

  4. Tumor glucose metabolism imaged in vivo in small animals with whole-body photoacoustic computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatni, Muhammad Rameez; Xia, Jun; Sohn, Rebecca; Maslov, Konstantin; Guo, Zijian; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Kun; Xia, Younan; Anastasio, Mark; Arbeit, Jeffrey; Wang, Lihong V.

    2012-07-01

    With the increasing use of small animals for human disease studies, small-animal whole-body molecular imaging plays an important role in biomedical research. Currently, none of the existing imaging modalities can provide both anatomical and glucose molecular information, leading to higher costs of building dual-modality systems. Even with image co-registration, the spatial resolution of the molecular imaging modality is not improved. Utilizing a ring-shaped confocal photoacoustic computed tomography system, we demonstrate, for the first time, that both anatomy and glucose uptake can be imaged in a single modality. Anatomy was imaged with the endogenous hemoglobin contrast, and glucose metabolism was imaged with a near-infrared dye-labeled 2-deoxyglucose.

  5. New possibilities in the prevention of eating disorders: The introduction of positive body image measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piran, Niva

    2015-06-01

    Delineating positive psychological processes in inhabiting the body, as well as quantitative measures to assess them, can facilitate progress in the field of prevention of eating disorders by expanding outcome evaluation of prevention interventions, identifying novel mediators of change, and increasing highly needed research into protective factors. Moreover, enhancing positive ways of inhabiting the body may contribute toward the maintenance of gains of prevention interventions. Integrated social etiological models to eating disorders that focus on gender and other social variables, such as the Developmental Theory of Embodiment (Piran & Teall, 2012a), can contribute to positive body image intervention development and research within the prevention field. Using the Developmental Theory of Embodiment as a lens, this article explores whether existing prevention programs (i.e., Cognitive Dissonance and Media Smart) may already work to promote positive body image, and whether prevention programs need to be expanded toward this goal. PMID:25886711

  6. Negative comparisons about one's appearance mediate the relationship between Facebook usage and body image concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardouly, Jasmine; Vartanian, Lenny R

    2015-01-01

    Use of social media, such as Facebook, is pervasive among young women. Body dissatisfaction is also highly prevalent in this demographic. The present study examined the relationship between Facebook usage and body image concerns among female university students (N=227), and tested whether appearance comparisons on Facebook in general, or comparisons to specific female target groups (family members, close friends, distant peers [women one may know but do not regularly socialize with], celebrities) mediated this relationship. Results showed a positive relationship between Facebook usage and body image concerns, which was mediated by appearance comparisons in general, frequency of comparisons to close friends and distant peers, and by upward comparisons (judging one's own appearance to be worse) to distant peers and celebrities. Thus, young women who spend more time on Facebook may feel more concerned about their body because they compare their appearance to others (especially to peers) on Facebook. PMID:25462886

  7. Instagram Unfiltered: Exploring Associations of Body Image Satisfaction, Instagram #Selfie Posting, and Negative Romantic Relationship Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, Jessica L; Clayton, Russell B

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the predictors and consequences associated with Instagram selfie posting. Thus, this study explored whether body image satisfaction predicts Instagram selfie posting and whether Instagram selfie posting is then associated with Instagram-related conflict and negative romantic relationship outcomes. A total of 420 Instagram users aged 18 to 62 years (M = 29.3, SD = 8.12) completed an online survey questionnaire. Analysis of a serial multiple mediator model using bootstrapping methods indicated that body image satisfaction was sequentially associated with increased Instagram selfie posting and Instagram-related conflict, which related to increased negative romantic relationship outcomes. These findings suggest that when Instagram users promote their body image satisfaction in the form of Instagram selfie posts, risk of Instagram-related conflict and negative romantic relationship outcomes might ensue. Findings from the current study provide a baseline understanding to potential and timely trends regarding Instagram selfie posting. PMID:26779659

  8. Sexuality and body image in long-term survivors of testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossen, Philip; Pedersen, Anette Fischer; Zachariae, Robert;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study explores sexual function and the influence of different treatment modalities on sexual function and body image among long-term survivors of testicular cancer (TCSs). METHODS: A long-term follow-up assessment of all testicular cancer patients treated at Aarhus University...... Hospital, Denmark, from 1990 to 2000 was conducted. A total of 401 survivors (mean age: 46.6years; response rate: 66%) completed questionnaires concerning sexuality and changes in body image. Based on the treatment received, patients were categorised into one of four groups: surveillance, radiotherapy....... Seventeen percent of the long-term TCSs reported changes in body image, and this was significantly associated with all six parameters of sexual dysfunction. When comparing treatments, only the RPLND procedure was associated with sexual dysfunction in the form of ejaculatory dysfunction. CONCLUSION: Apart...

  9. Overweight, body image and bullying--an epidemiological study of 11- to 15-years olds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brixval, Carina S; Rayce, Signe L B; Rasmussen, Mette;

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between weight status and exposure to bullying among 11-, 13- and 15-year-old Danish school children. Furthermore, the purpose was to investigate the potentially mediating effect of body image. METHODS: Data from the Danish...... ORs were 1.89 (1.25-2.85) in overweight and 2.74 (0.96-7.82) in obese girls. The mediation analyses showed that body image fully mediated the associations between weight status and exposure to bullying in both boys and girls. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that overweight and obese boys and girls...... are of higher odds of being exposed to bullying than their normal weight peers. Moreover, this study finds that body image may statistically explain this association between overweight and exposure to bullying. However, the study is cross-sectional, and hypotheses of possibilities for opposite causality...

  10. Self-compassion, body image, and disordered eating: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Tosca D; Park, Crystal L; Gorin, Amy

    2016-06-01

    Self-compassion, treating oneself as a loved friend might, demonstrates beneficial associations with body image and eating behaviors. In this systematic review, 28 studies supporting the role of self-compassion as a protective factor against poor body image and eating pathology are reviewed. Findings across various study designs consistently linked self-compassion to lower levels of eating pathology, and self-compassion was implicated as a protective factor against poor body image and eating pathology, with a few exceptions. These findings offer preliminary support that self-compassion may protect against eating pathology by: (a) decreasing eating disorder-related outcomes directly; (b) preventing initial occurrence of a risk factor of a maladaptive outcome; (c) interacting with risk factors to interrupt their deleterious effects; and (d) disrupting the mediational chain through which risk factors operate. We conclude with suggestions for future research that may inform intervention development, including the utilization of research designs that better afford causal inference. PMID:27038782

  11. Body Image in Young Gender Dysphoric Adults: A European Multi-Center Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Inga; Nieder, Timo O; Cerwenka, Susanne; Briken, Peer; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Cuypere, GrietDe; Haraldsen, Ira R Hebold; Richter-Appelt, Hertha

    2016-04-01

    The alteration of sex-specific body features and the establishment of a satisfactory body image are known to be particularly relevant for individuals with Gender Dysphoria (GD). The aim of the study was to first develop new scales and examine the psychometric properties of the Hamburg Body Drawing Scale (Appelt & Strauß 1988). For the second part of this study, the satisfaction with different body features in young GD adults before cross-sex treatment were compared to female and male controls. Data collection took place within the context of the European Network for the Investigation of Gender Incongruence (ENIGI) including 135 female-to-male (FtMs) and 115 male-to-female (MtFs) young GD adults and 235 female and 379 male age-adjusted controls. The five female and six male body feature subscales revealed good internal consistency. The ENIGI sample reported less satisfaction with overall appearance (d = 0.30) and with all of their body features than controls, but no subgroup differences for sexual orientation (FtM and MtF) and Age of Onset (FtM) were found. Body dissatisfaction was higher with regard to sex-specific body features (largest effect sizes of d = 3.21 for Genitalia in FtMs and d = 2.85 for Androgen-responsive features and genitalia in MtFs) than with those that appeared less related to the natal sex (d = 0.64 for Facial features in FtMs and d = 0.59 for Body shape in MtFs). Not only medical body modifying interventions, but also psychosocial guidance with regard to body image might be helpful for GD individuals before transitioning. PMID:25836027

  12. MR Spectroscopy and Perfusion MR Imaging Findings of Intracranial Foreign Body Granuloma: a Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Seung Won; Kim, Sang Joon; Kim, Sun Mi; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Choi, Choong Gon; Lee, Deok Hee; Lee, Jung Kyo [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun Ju [Philips Healthcare, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    We report a case of intracranial foreign body granuloma that showed features of a high grade tumor on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. However, the relative cerebral blood volume was not increased in the enhancing mass on perfusion MRI and the choline/creatine ratio only slightly increased on MR spectroscopy. The results suggest that the lesion is benign in nature. Perfusion MRI and MR spectroscopy may be helpful to differentiate a foreign body granuloma from a neoplastic condition

  13. MR Spectroscopy and Perfusion MR Imaging Findings of Intracranial Foreign Body Granuloma: a Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a case of intracranial foreign body granuloma that showed features of a high grade tumor on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. However, the relative cerebral blood volume was not increased in the enhancing mass on perfusion MRI and the choline/creatine ratio only slightly increased on MR spectroscopy. The results suggest that the lesion is benign in nature. Perfusion MRI and MR spectroscopy may be helpful to differentiate a foreign body granuloma from a neoplastic condition

  14. Book review: Making ‘postmodern’ mothers: pregnant embodiment, baby bumps and body image

    OpenAIRE

    O'Branski, Megan

    2013-01-01

    "Making Postmodern Mothers: Pregnant Embodiment, Baby Bumps and Body Image." Meredith Nash. Palgrave Macmillan. November 2012. --- This book aims to provide a multi-disciplinary, empirical account of pregnant embodiment and how it fits into wider sociological and feminist discourses about gender, bodies, ‘fat’, feminism, and motherhood. The study draws on original qualitative data based on interviews with pregnant women, their partners, and maternity industry professionals. ‘Postmodern’ p...

  15. BODY IMAGE U DÍVEK OD 15ti DO 18ti LET

    OpenAIRE

    OUŘEDNÍKOVÁ, Zuzana

    2008-01-01

    My thesis on Body image with girls at the age range 15 -18 deals with problems of body self-conception. This age period, belonging to the developmental period of adolescence, is characteristic of numerous noticeable crises, which concern psychosocial, physical, and sexual development. My work describes the particularities of developmental period of adolescence as well as historical evolution of the ideal of beauty. Last but not least it deals with the influence of the society, especially medi...

  16. MR Spectroscopy and Perfusion MR Imaging Findings of Intracranial Foreign Body Granuloma: a Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Seung Won; Kim, Sang Joon; Kim, Sun Mi; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Choi, Choong Gon; Lee, Deok Hee; Kim, Eun Ju; Lee, Jung-Kyo

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of intracranial foreign body granuloma that showed features of a high grade tumor on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. However, the relative cerebral blood volume was not increased in the enhancing mass on perfusion MRI and the choline/creatine ratio only slightly increased on MR spectroscopy. The results suggest that the lesion is benign in nature. Perfusion MRI and MR spectroscopy may be helpful to differentiate a foreign body granuloma from a neoplastic condition.

  17. The Effect of Short-Term Aerobic Exercise on Depression and Body Image in Iranian Women

    OpenAIRE

    Sareh Zarshenas; Parsa Houshvar; Ali Tahmasebi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of short-term aerobic exercise on depression symptoms and body image attitudes among Iranian women. In this quasiexperimental study, 82 females were assigned to experimental group (aerobic exercise group, n = 41) or control group (waiting list, n = 41) and evaluated by Beck Depression Inventory-second edition (BDI-II) and Multidimensional Body Self-Relation Questionnaire (MBSRQ), respectively. The experimental group received four-week aero...

  18. Eating disorders, body image, and dichotomous thinking among Japanese and Russian college women

    OpenAIRE

    Atsushi Oshio; Tatiana Meshkova

    2012-01-01

    This study explored cross-cultural differences between Japan and Russia in terms of women’s body images, proneness to eating disorders, and the effects of dichotomous thinking. Participants included 419 Japanese and 187 Russian college women who completed the Dichotomous Thinking Inventory (DTI), the 26-item version of the Eating Attitudes Test, and responses regarding nine figures representing female body shapes. The mean age of the participants was 19.8 years, with no significant age differ...

  19. Characteristic analysis on susceptibility weighted imaging of intravitreous foreign body of autologous eyelashes in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yun-jun; CHENG Jing-liang; WANG Juan; ZHANG Yong; LI Hua-li

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the characteristics of susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) of the intravitreous foreign body of autologous eyelashes in rabbits.Methods: A total of 12 New Zealand white rabbits,either sex, weighing 2.5-3.5 kg, and provided by the Experimental Animal Center of Henan Province were employed in this study. For each rabbit, 5 autologous eyelashes (1 cm in length and 0.2-0.3 mm in diameter) were implanted into the right ocular vitreum, while the left control ocular vitreum received sham operation but nothing was implanted. SWI sequential test was made 2 hours postoperatively. Then the rabbits were killed and the specimens of the vitreous bodies of the rabbits were obtained. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and histological examinations were performed. Results: The autologous eyelashes in 8 ocular vitreums of rabbits showed linear low signal intensity on the magnitude images and susceptibility weighted images, but linear high signal intensity on the phase images. Among the 12experimental rabbits, 5 eyelashes in the right vitreum were completely shown in 3 rabbits, partly shown in 5 rabbits (2eyelashes shown in 3 rabbits and 3 eyelashes shown in 2rabbits), and not shown in 4 rabbits. Conclusions: SWI of the foreign body ofintravitreous autologous eyelashes in rabbits has its own characteristics. The combined application of SWI sequential magnitude images, susceptibility weighted images and phase images is helpful to the detection and diagnosis of intravitreous autologous eyelashes in rabbits.

  20. Investigation of eating disorders in cancer patients and its relevance with body image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossein, Seyyed Abbas; Bahrami, Masoud; Mohamadirizi, Shahla; Paknaad, Zamzam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Eating disorder is one of the most common health problems with clinical and psychological consequences, which can affect body image in cancer patients. Similar studies in this area for checking the status of this disorder and its relevance with body image in patients with cancer are limited. Therefore, this study was designed with the aim of determination of eating disorders in patients with cancer and their relevance with body image. Materials and Methods: The research was a cross-correlation study. It was carried out in Sayed-Al-Shohada Hospital affiliated to the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2013. Two hundred and ten patients with cancer were selected and were asked tocomplete the demographic and disease characteristics questionnaire, the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ), and eating disorders questionnaire. SPSS statistical software, version 14 was used for statistical analysis’-Test, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Pearson correlation coefficient were used for analyzing the obtained data. Results: The mean values of age, body mass index (BMI), and duration of illness were 48.2 ± 13.20 years, 24.6 ± 4.6kg/m2, and 25.64 ± 21.24months, respectively. Most patients were married (87%), without university education (96%), unemployed (67%), and with incomes below their requirement (52%). Most patients were diagnosed with breast cancer (36.5%). They received chemotherapy as the main treatment (56.2%). In addition, mean ± SD of eating disorders and body image were 12.84 ± 4.7 and184.40 ± 43.68, respectively. Also, 49.7% of patients with cancer had an eating disorder. Among these, 29% had experiences of anorexia and 20.7% had bulimia. There was a significant negative correlation between the score of body image and eating disorders (r = −0.47, P = 0.01). Conclusions: Findings of this study showed that most patients with cancer had experienced symptoms of eating disorders. This may lead to a negative impact on

  1. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in children: state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Reis Teixeira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Whole-body imaging in children was classically performed with radiography, positron-emission tomography, either combined or not with computed tomography, the latter with the disadvantage of exposure to ionizing radiation. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, in association with the recently developed metabolic and functional techniques such as diffusion-weighted imaging, has brought the advantage of a comprehensive evaluation of pediatric patients without the risks inherent to ionizing radiation usually present in other conventional imaging methods. It is a rapid and sensitive method, particularly in pediatrics, for detecting and monitoring multifocal lesions in the body as a whole. In pediatrics, it is utilized for both oncologic and non-oncologic indications such as screening and diagnosis of tumors in patients with genetic syndromes, evaluation of disease extent and staging, evaluation of therapeutic response and post-therapy follow-up, evaluation of non neoplastic diseases such as multifocal osteomyelitis, vascular malformations and syndromes affecting multiple regions of the body. The present review was aimed at describing the major indications of whole-body MRI in pediatrics added of technical considerations.

  2. Whole Body Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Diagnosis of Parsonage Turner Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, M.; Twair, A.; Nelson, E.; Brennan, D.; Eustace, S. [Cappagh National Orthopaedic Hospital Finglas, Dublin (Ireland)

    2004-08-01

    Purpose: To describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with suspected Parsonage Turner syndrome and to emphasize the value of an additional whole body MR scan to improve specificity of this diagnosis. Material and Methods: Three patients with proven Parsonage Turner syndrome referred for conventional MRI of the shoulder girdle and additional whole body turboSTIR MRI were included for study. Results: In each case, imaging revealed edema in the muscles of the shoulder girdle. Whole body turboSTIR MRI scan confirmed localized unilateral changes in each case improving specificity and confidence in the diagnosis of Parsonage Turner syndrome in each case. Conclusion: Whole body turboSTIR MR imaging is a useful diagnostic tool in the evaluation of patients with suspected Parsonage Turner syndrome. Inclusion of the brain, neck, brachial plexus, and extremity musculature at whole body imaging allows differentiation from polymyositis and elimination of additional causes of shoulder girdle pain and weakness including gross lesions in the brain, neck, and brachial plexus by a single non-invasive study.

  3. Whole Body Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Diagnosis of Parsonage Turner Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with suspected Parsonage Turner syndrome and to emphasize the value of an additional whole body MR scan to improve specificity of this diagnosis. Material and Methods: Three patients with proven Parsonage Turner syndrome referred for conventional MRI of the shoulder girdle and additional whole body turboSTIR MRI were included for study. Results: In each case, imaging revealed edema in the muscles of the shoulder girdle. Whole body turboSTIR MRI scan confirmed localized unilateral changes in each case improving specificity and confidence in the diagnosis of Parsonage Turner syndrome in each case. Conclusion: Whole body turboSTIR MR imaging is a useful diagnostic tool in the evaluation of patients with suspected Parsonage Turner syndrome. Inclusion of the brain, neck, brachial plexus, and extremity musculature at whole body imaging allows differentiation from polymyositis and elimination of additional causes of shoulder girdle pain and weakness including gross lesions in the brain, neck, and brachial plexus by a single non-invasive study

  4. Imaging methods for analyzing body composition in human obesity and cardiometabolic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabolt, Lynn A; Welch, E Brian; Silver, Heidi J

    2015-09-01

    Advances in the technological qualities of imaging modalities for assessing human body composition have been stimulated by accumulating evidence that individual components of body composition have significant influences on chronic disease onset, disease progression, treatment response, and health outcomes. Importantly, imaging modalities have provided a systematic method for differentiating phenotypes of body composition that diverge from what is considered normal, that is, having low bone mass (osteopenia/osteoporosis), low muscle mass (sarcopenia), high fat mass (obesity), or high fat with low muscle mass (sarcopenic obesity). Moreover, advances over the past three decades in the sensitivity and quality of imaging not just to discern the amount and distribution of adipose and lean tissue but also to differentiate layers or depots within tissues and cells is enhancing our understanding of distinct mechanistic, metabolic, and functional roles of body composition within human phenotypes. In this review, we focus on advances in imaging technologies that show great promise for future investigation of human body composition and how they are being used to address the pandemic of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. PMID:26250623

  5. Female college students and cosmetic surgery: an investigation of experiences, attitudes, and body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwer, David B; Cash, Thomas F; Magee, Leanne; Williams, Emily Fleming; Thompson, J Kevin; Roehrig, Megan; Tantleff-Dunn, Stacey; Agliata, Allison Kanter; Wilfley, Denise E; Amidon, Amy D; Anderson, Drew A; Romanofski, Michelle

    2005-03-01

    This large, multisite study investigated female college students' experiences with and attitudes about cosmetic surgery. The study also assessed the relationship between several aspects of body image, including appearance satisfaction and investment and symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder, and interest in cosmetic surgery. Thirty (5 percent) of the 559 women surveyed reported that they had undergone cosmetic surgery. Two thirds of respondents reported knowing someone who had received cosmetic surgery, and approximately one third indicated that a family member had undergone surgery. Overall, participants held relatively favorable attitudes about surgery. Regression analysis suggested that a greater psychological investment in physical appearance and greater internalization of mass media images of beauty predicted more favorable attitudes toward cosmetic surgery. Fourteen women (2.5 percent) screened positive for body dysmorphic disorder based on the nature and severity of their self-reported body-image concerns. Results of this study provide new information on young women's experiences and attitudes about cosmetic surgery and how these attitudes relate to body image. PMID:15731697

  6. Small-animal whole-body imaging using a photoacoustic full ring array system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jun; Guo, Zijian; Aguirre, Andres; Zhu, Quing; Wang, Lihong V.

    2011-03-01

    In this report, we present a novel 3D photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) system for small-animal whole-body imaging. The PACT system, based on a 512-element full-ring transducer array, received photoacoustic signals primarily from a 2-mm-thick slice. The light was generated by a pulse laser, and can either illuminate from the top or be reshaped to illuminate the sample from the side, using a conical lens and an optical condenser. The PACT system was capable of acquiring an in-plane image in 1.6 s; by scanning the sample in the elevational direction, a 3D tomographic image could be constructed. We tested the system by imaging a cylindrical phantom made of human hairs immersed in a scattering medium. The reconstructed image achieved an in-plane resolution of 0.1 mm and an elevational resolution of 1 mm. After deconvolution in the elevational direction, the 3D image was found to match well with the phantom. The system was also used to image a baby mouse in situ; the spinal cord and ribs can be seen easily in the reconstructed image. Our results demonstrate that the PACT system has the potential to be used for fast small-animal whole-body tomographic imaging.

  7. Body weight/image perceptions and prevalence of obesity among adolescents-Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ramesh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity can be seen as the first wave of a defined cluster of non communicable diseases called "New World Syndrome" creating an enormous socioeconomic and public health burden in poorer countries. The rising prevalence of childhood/adolescent obesity cannot be addressed by a single etiology. Multiple factors plays role and among them perception on body weight and image plays vital role in adolescents. So the objective of this study was to know the perceptions of adolescents on their body weight and body image. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among students of high schools of Thiruvananthapuram city corporation, Kerala, India. The sample size of this study was 1718 and the technique adopted is multistage and stratified random sampling. Data was collected using pre designed and pretested semi-structured questionnaire which is self-administered. Body mass index was calculated based on physical measurements such as height and weight using standard methods. Results: This study revealed that 67.3% of study subjects underestimated their body weight and 15.5% over estimated their body weight. The prevalence of overweight/obesity is high among those who underestimated their body weight (18.7% compared to subjects who overestimated (6.7% but the prevalence of underweight is high among the subjects who overestimated their body weight (60.8% compared to subjects who underestimated (22%. Conclusion: Schools are probably the ideal medium of intervention as they are central to children′s lives and information can be relatively quickly dissipated through this channel and Helping adolescents to attain a realistic, positive perception of their body weight and image through health education.

  8. Impact of today's media on university student's body image in Pakistan: a conservative, developing country's perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Khan Hussain I; Khalid Salema; Khan Amad N; Jabeen Mehnaz

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Living in a world greatly controlled by mass media makes it impossible to escape its pervading influence. As media in Pakistan has been free in the true sense of the word for only a few years, its impact on individuals is yet to be assessed. Our study aims to be the first to look at the effect media has on the body image of university students in a conservative, developing country like Pakistan. Also, we introduced the novel concept of body image dissatisfaction as being b...

  9. Body Image in Eating Disorders: The Influence of Exposure to Virtual-Reality Environments.

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez Maldonado, José; Ferrer, Marta; Caqueo-Urízar, A.; Moreno, E.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article was to study the effect of virtual-reality exposure to situations that are emotionally significant for patients with eating disorders (ED) on the stability of body-image distortion and body-image dissatisfaction. A total of 85 ED patients and 108 non-ED students were randomly exposed to four experimental virtual environments: a kitchen with low-calorie food, a kitchen with high-calorie food, a restaurant with low-calorie food, and a restaurant with high-calorie food. I...

  10. Overweight, Thinness, Body Self-Image and Eating Strategies of 2,121 Italian Teenagers.

    OpenAIRE

    Roberta Guarino; Alberto Pellai; Luca Bassoli; Mario Cozzi; Maria Angela Di Sanzo; Daniela Campra; Andrea Guala

    2005-01-01

    This study describes the prevalence rate of overweight and thinness in a population of teens living in two different areas of Italy and explores the body self-image perception and unhealthy eating behaviours and strategies to lose weight. A questionnaire was administered to a sample of 2,121 teenage students (1,084 males; 1,037 females). Results showed that teen females and males build and perceive their body images in very different ways. Most of the overall sample perceived their weight as ...

  11. Changes in body image during inpatient treatment for eating disorders predict outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsen, Marit; Rø, Øyvind

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated changes and predictors during inpatient treatment of 55 adult in a transdiagnostic sample of patients with eating disorders. Patients were assessed at admission and discharge with the Body Attitude Test (BAT), Symptom Check List 90 Revised, Circumplex of Interpersonal Problems, Body Mass Index (BMI) and Eating Disorder Inventory 2 (EDI-2). Significant changes were found in all measures. Regression analyses showed that BAT changes during treatment were the strongest predictor of EDI-2 changes. No predictors of changes in BMI were found. Improvement of body image is important for the efficacy of inpatient treatment. PMID:22703568

  12. Body image concerns of psoriasis patients as reflected in human figure drawings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichtman, S R; Burnett, J W; Robinson, H M

    1981-10-01

    Human figure drawings of patients with severe (n = 85) and mild (n = 38) psoriasis were compared on dimensions of nudity, sexual overemphasis, and omissions of exposed body parts. For female patients significant differences were found for percentages of undressed figures and omissions. For male patients only omissions were significant. When compared to 30 patients with other mild dermatologic conditions, mildly affected psoriatic males drew significantly fewer omissions. Discussion of results focussed on body image concerns of dermatology patients as related to issues of nudity, sexuality, and exhibition of exposed body parts. PMID:7288544

  13. Body Image a jeho dopad na zdraví spotřebitelů

    OpenAIRE

    Paničová, Maja

    2009-01-01

    The aim of Bachelor's thesis is to introduce the issue of body image. This thesis will focus on the problem of displaying male and female bodies in the media and how much are consumers influenced by the "cult of thinness". As a result of this cult, many people are on a diet. In recent years, they are also increasingly undergoing cosmetic surgery. The aim of the practical part will be find out how consumers feel about their physical appearance - how they are satisfied with their body and what ...

  14. Examination of the relationship between the body image and self-esteem of female adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Oktan, Vesile; Şahin, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at an examination of the relationship between level of content with body image and self-esteem among female adolescents. In the study, descriptive method was employed. The sample group of the study is 300 secondary school female students between 16-18 years of age. Body Cathexis Scale and Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory were applied to the adolescents in the sample group. Results have shown that there are a high level, negative and significant relationship between the body i...

  15. Monitoring of whole body cryotherapy effects by thermal imaging: preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholewka, Armand; Drzazga, Zofia; Sieroń, Aleksander

    In whole body cryotherapy the whole human body is exposed to low temperature below -100 degrees C in a special room called cryogenic chamber for a very short period of time (2-3 minutes). The impact of cold can cause many different biochemical and physiological reactions of the organism. The skin temperature response due to whole body cryotherapy was studied by means of infrared measurements. The thermograms of chosen body parts of patients suffering from low back pain were performed before and after whole body cooling on the 1(st), 5(th) and the last (10(th)) day of medical treatment. Infrared imaging performed after cold impact owing to the enhancement of the skin temperature profile may reveal a slight decrease of the inflammatory states as a result of the 10 sessions of cryotherapy. PMID:17643893

  16. Whole-body MRT imaging. 2. tot. rev. and enl. ed.; Ganzkoerper MR-Tomographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rummeny, E.J.; Reimer, P.; Heindel, W. (eds.)

    2006-07-01

    The new edition again presents a comprehensive picture of MR imaging and data acquisition. The reader is enabled to produce her own findings at short notice, and she is supported in understanding and reference. New contents are: Side effects and artefacts; functional MRT imaging of the kidneys; bone marrow and spinal cord imaging; more details on the peripheral skeletal system; whole-body MRT and MRA including 3-Tesla-MR; comparative findings of other imaging procedures; more than 100 tables for higher certainty in differential diagnosis; more than 1000 high-quality images; valuable clinical background information on all indications; summary presentations of the state of knowledge at the end of each chapter as well as specific information on MRT imaging etc. (orig.)

  17. Dietary behaviors and body image recognition of college students according to the self-rated health condition

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Mi Joung; Lim, Ye Rom; Kwak, Ho Kyung

    2008-01-01

    This study was done to investigate the relationship between the perception of body image, body weight satisfaction or dietary behavior and self-rated health status in Korean college students. Subjects, 285 college students, were divided into three groups (healthy, normal, and unhealthy) according to the answer for the self-rated health question. Information about demographic status, self-rated health condition, height and weight, perception of body image, satisfaction of body weight, concern ...

  18. Automated recognition of body cavities in torso X-ray CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, it has become even more important to understand the normal anatomical structures of the human body in the field of radiological image anatomy. The recognition of body cavities is useful when organ extraction is performed. However, it is difficult to perform organ extraction and to obtain a clear understanding of anatomical structures based on CT values. For example, the distributions of the CT numbers of muscle and organs overlap each other. Therefore, the recognition of the body cavity domain can reduce the range of internal organ extraction and simplify organ segmentation. The purpose of the present study was to develop an automated method for recognizing the body cavities in torso X-ray CT images. Our body cavity recognition method is based on skeletal positions and is performed by extracting the borders of the thoracic cavity, abdominal cavity, and pelvic cavity. This method detects the initial and final points of such borders and searches for the shortest path on the surfaces of the skeletal structures. It then generates the boundary surfaces of the thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic cavities by drawing straight lines between the shortest paths and the centers of the paths. The body cavities located between the superior thoracic aperture and the diaphragm, the diaphragm and the pelvic inlet, and the pelvic inlet and the pelvic outlet are regarded as the thoracic cavity, the abdominal cavity, and the pelvic cavity, respectively. The method was applied to 20 cases in which torso X-ray CT images were obtained. The results showed that the body cavities were extracted correctly in most cases: the thoracic cavity in 17 cases, the abdominal cavity in 19 cases, and the pelvic cavity in 18 cases. We confirmed that our proposed method is effective for recognizing these body cavities. As one of the applications of our study, segmentation of muscle, fat, and the rectum in CT images was performed using the information obtained for body cavity structures. The results

  19. Turning eating psychopathology risk factors into action: the pervasive effect of body image-related cognitive fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Cláudia; Palmeira, Lara; Trindade, Inês A.

    2014-01-01

    Body image dissatisfaction and unfavourable social comparisons are significant risk factors to eating psychopathology. Nevertheless, the impact of these negative experiences depends on the cognitive and emotional processes involved. Previous research has shown that cognitive fusion is a nuclear process linked to psychological inflexibility, but its role on body image and eating difficulties remains unclear. This study aims to explore a model of the mediational role of body image-related cogni...

  20. The Korean Version of the Body Image Scale-Reliability and Validity in a Sample of Breast Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Khang, Dongwoo; Rim, Hyo-Deog; Woo, Jungmin

    2013-01-01

    Objective The Body Image Scale (BIS) developed in collaboration with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Study Group is a brief questionnaire for measuring body image concerns in patients with cancer. This study sought to assess the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the Body Image Scale (K-BIS). Methods The participants consisted of 155 postoperative breast cancer patients (56 breast conserving surgery, 56 mastectomy, and 43 o...

  1. The Role of Socio-Physical Anxiety, Body Image, and Self Esteem in Prediction of the Eating Disorder in Sportswomen

    OpenAIRE

    Aidin Valizade; Saeed Ariapooran

    2012-01-01

    Background: Socio-physical anxiety, body image, and self esteem are variables that play an important role on eating disorders. The purpose of this research was the role of socio-physical anxiety, body image and self esteem in prediction of the eating disorders in sportswomen.Materials and Method: 181 of aerobic and physical readiness sportswomen were selected by clustered sampling method and filled the questionnaire containing eating disorder, socio-physical anxiety, body image concern and se...

  2. Body image satisfaction and the view of active old women about the influence of physical exercise in their self-image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josinéia Gresele Coradini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to analyze the body image satisfaction with 24 active elderly women, and to understand the view of these people about the connection between physical exercise and their body image. All of them answered to the scale proposed by Stunkard, Sorenson and Schlusinger, 1983 and to a semi-structured interview. 87.50% of the women were unsatisfied about the body image. From the reading and analysis of the speeches, it was formed two major categories and four subcategories. Thus, most of the elderly women are unsatisfied about their body image, but the proportionate benefits by the exercises are recognized.

  3. Analysis of adipose tissue distribution using whole-body magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Diana; Schwarz, Tobias; Dinkel, Julien; Delorme, Stefan; Teucher, Birgit; Kaaks, Rudolf; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Heimann, Tobias

    2011-03-01

    Obesity is an increasing problem in the western world and triggers diseases like cancer, type two diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. In recent years, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become a clinically viable method to measure the amount and distribution of adipose tissue (AT) in the body. However, analysis of MRI images by manual segmentation is a tedious and time-consuming process. In this paper, we propose a semi-automatic method to quantify the amount of different AT types from whole-body MRI data with less user interaction. Initially, body fat is extracted by automatic thresholding. A statistical shape model of the abdomen is then used to differentiate between subcutaneous and visceral AT. Finally, fat in the bone marrow is removed using morphological operators. The proposed method was evaluated on 15 whole-body MRI images using manual segmentation as ground truth for adipose tissue. The resulting overlap for total AT was 93.7% +/- 5.5 with a volumetric difference of 7.3% +/- 6.4. Furthermore, we tested the robustness of the segmentation results with regard to the initial, interactively defined position of the shape model. In conclusion, the developed method proved suitable for the analysis of AT distribution from whole-body MRI data. For large studies, a fully automatic version of the segmentation procedure is expected in the near future.

  4. The effect of music video clips on adolescent boys' body image, mood, and schema activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulgrew, Kate E; Volcevski-Kostas, Diana; Rendell, Peter G

    2014-01-01

    There is limited research that has examined experimentally the effects of muscular images on adolescent boys' body image, with no research specifically examining the effects of music television. The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of viewing muscular and attractive singers in music video clips on early, mid, and late adolescent boys' body image, mood, and schema activation. Participants were 180 boys in grade 7 (mean age = 12.73 years), grade 9 (mean age = 14.40 years) or grade 11 (mean age = 16.15 years) who completed pre- and post-test measures of mood and body satisfaction after viewing music videos containing male singers of muscular or average appearance. They also completed measures of schema activation and social comparison after viewing the clips. The results showed that the boys who viewed the muscular clips reported poorer upper body satisfaction, lower appearance satisfaction, lower happiness, and more depressive feelings compared to boys who viewed the clips depicting singers of average appearance. There was no evidence of increased appearance schema activation but the boys who viewed the muscular clips did report higher levels of social comparison to the singers. The results suggest that music video clips are a powerful form of media in conveying information about the male ideal body shape and that negative effects are found in boys as young as 12 years. PMID:23443315

  5. Body image dissatisfaction and eating-related psychopathology in trans individuals: a matched control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witcomb, Gemma L; Bouman, Walter Pierre; Brewin, Nicola; Richards, Christina; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; Arcelus, Jon

    2015-07-01

    High levels of body dissatisfaction have already been reported in the trans population; however, the root of this dissatisfaction, and its association with eating disordered behaviours, has not been studied in-depth. This study aims to assess eating disorder risk by comparing 200 trans people, 200 people with eating disorders and 200 control participants' scores on three subscales of the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2) and to further explore dissatisfaction in the trans participants using the Hamburg Body Drawing Scale (HBDS). The results showed that overall participants with eating disorders scored higher than trans or control groups on all EDI-2 measures, but that trans individuals had greater body dissatisfaction than control participants and, importantly, trans males had comparable body dissatisfaction scores to eating disordered males. Drive for thinness was greater in females (cis and trans) compared with males. In relation to HBDS body dissatisfaction, both trans males and trans females reported greatest dissatisfaction not only for gender-identifying body parts but also for body shape and weight. Overall, trans males may be at particular risk for eating disordered psychopathology and other body image-related behaviours. PMID:25944170

  6. [The reorganization of the schema and body image of the amputee].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi, Ines; Gobba, Omar; Manera, Marina

    2015-01-01

    The paper deals with the psychological problems related to the amputee's experience. The stages of the reorganization of the body image and the problems that may arise, are described. In this process the phantom limb syndrome represents an important paradigm for study and reflection. PMID:26731960

  7. The Slender Imbalance: An Overview of Body Image Related Problems and Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Leslie

    The current emphasis on thinness has had a negative impact on many women and girls who suffer from a negative body image, poor self-concept, and depression, three conditions that often manifest themselves behaviorally through chronic dieting, compulsive exercise, and eating disorders. Socio-cultural factors that have contributed to this emphasis…

  8. Body Image Concerns in Young Girls: The Role of Peers and Media Prior to Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohnt, Hayley K.; Tiggemann, Marika

    2006-01-01

    Peer and media influences have been identified as important conveyors of socio-cultural ideals in adolescent and preadolescent samples. This study aims to explore peer and media influences in the body image concerns and dieting awareness of younger girls, aged 5-8 years. A sample of 128 girls was recruited from the first 4 years of formal…

  9. Parental Bonds, Anxious Attachment, Media Internalization, and Body Image Dissatisfaction: Exploring a Mediation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsiu-Lan; Mallinckrodt, Brent

    2009-01-01

    The first purpose of this study was to investigate direct links between body image dissatisfaction (BID) in college women and their memories of either parent as cold and emotionally aloof. Theory, clinical case evidence, and a small (but growing) number of studies support these links. After estimating the strength of the associations between…

  10. Body Image Distortions, Weight, and Depression in Adolescent Boys: Longitudinal Trajectories into Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blashill, Aaron J; Wilhelm, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    Depressive symptoms are common among the U.S. population, yet research into prospective risk factors of depression among men is limited. Distorted body image is also prevalent among adolescent boys, and may be linked with elevated depression; however, longitudinal associations have rarely been measured. Thus, the aim of the current study was to assess the prospective relationship between forms of body image distortion and depressive symptoms among adolescent boys, into adulthood. Data were extracted from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Participants were 2,139 U.S. adolescent boys (M age = 16) who were followed prospectively over 13-years (1996 to 2009), into adulthood. Longitudinal mixed-level modeling was employed to assess the temporal prediction of body image distortion on symptoms of depression. Results revealed that boys who were average weight and viewed themselves as either very underweight (very underweight distorted; Cohen's d = .47) or overweight (overweight distorted; Cohen's d = .29) reported significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms compared to boys who accurately viewed their weight as average; this effect remained constant over the 13-year study period. These findings indicated that distortions in body image, particularly extreme distortions, are risk factors for elevated depressive symptoms among adolescent boys, and persist into early adulthood. PMID:25383047

  11. The Mirror of Television: A Comparison of Black and White Adolescents' Body Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botta, Renee A.

    2000-01-01

    Finds that black adolescent girls were more satisfied with their bodies and had a larger personal ideal size than white adolescent girls, but engaged in no fewer eating-disordered behaviors and had no less drive to be thin; and these girls idealized television images equally and were as likely to compare themselves and their friends to television…

  12. Body-Image Perceptions: Reliability of a BMI-Based Silhouette Matching Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Michael; Ellenberg, Deborah; Crossan, Sarah

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To assess the reliability of a BMI-based Silhouette Matching Test (BMI-SMT). Methods: The perceptions of ideal and current body images of 215 ninth through twelfth graders' were assessed at 5 different schools within a mid-Atlantic state public school system. Results: Findings provided quantifiable data and discriminating measurements…

  13. Influences on Adolescent African American Females' Global Self-Esteem: Body Image and Ethnic Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnage, Barbara F.

    2004-01-01

    This study of 105 senior high school Southern African American adolescent females examined the relationship between global self-esteem, appearance evaluation (body image), and ethnic identity. As predicted, the relationship between global self-esteem, appearance evaluation (r = 0.46, p less than 0.001), and ethnic identity (r = 40, p less than…

  14. Generalized whole-body Patlak parametric imaging for enhanced quantification in clinical PET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karakatsanis, Nicolas A.; Zhou, Yun; Lodge, Martin A.; Casey, Michael E.; Wahl, Richard L.; Zaidi, Habib; Rahmim, Arman

    2015-01-01

    We recently developed a dynamic multi-bed PET data acquisition framework to translate the quantitative benefits of Patlak voxel-wise analysis to the domain of routine clinical whole-body (WB) imaging. The standard Patlak (sPatlak) linear graphical analysis assumes irreversible PET tracer uptake, ign

  15. Gender Differences in Adolescent Sport Participation, Teasing, Self-Objectification and Body Image Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Amy; Tiggemann, Marika

    2011-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in adolescent participation in sport and physical activity, in teasing experiences specific to the physical activity domain, and the relationship between adolescent physical activity and body image. A sample of 714 adolescents (332 girls, 382 boys) aged between 12 and 16 years completed measures of…

  16. U.S. Muslim Women and Body Image: Links among Objectification Theory Constructs and the Hijab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolaymat, Lana D.; Moradi, Bonnie

    2011-01-01

    This study tested tenets of objectification theory and explored the role of the hijab in body image and eating disorder symptoms with a sample of 118 Muslim women in the United States. Results from a path analysis indicated that individual differences in wearing the hijab were related negatively with reported sexual objectification experiences.…

  17. A Body Image and Disordered Eating Intervention for Women in Midlife: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Sian A.; Paxton, Susan J.; Wertheim, Eleanor H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the outcome of a body image and disordered eating intervention for midlife women. The intervention was specifically designed to address risk factors that are pertinent in midlife. Method: Participants were 61 women aged 30 to 60 years (M = 43.92, SD = 8.22) randomly assigned to intervention (n = 32) or (delayed…

  18. Ethnic Identity and Body Image among Black and White College Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugh, Eboni; Mullis, Ron; Mullis, Ann; Hicks, Mary; Peterson, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examines ethnic identity and body image in black and white college females. Participants: Researchers surveyed 118 students at 2 universities, 1 traditionally white and 1 historically black. Methods: Correlations and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) were used to investigate the relationship between race, ethnic…

  19. Classroom Approach for Managing Dietary Restraint, Negative Eating Styles, and Body Image Concerns among College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawks, Steven R.; Madanat, Hala; Smith, TeriSue; De La Cruz, Natalie

    2008-01-01

    Objective: In this exploratory study, the authors evaluated the impact of an elective college course on dieting levels, eating styles, and body image among college women. Participants: Participants were a convenience sample of 29 self-selected female students at a western university who were mostly white, normal-weight seniors with significant…

  20. Optimism and positive body image in women : The mediating role of the feared fat self

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalley, Simon E.; Vidal, Jose

    2013-01-01

    We predicted that an expectancy judgment about acquiring a feared fat self and an expectancy judgment about acquiring a hoped-for thin self would mediate dispositional optimism on positive body image. We also predicted that the mediation pathway through the feared self would be significantly stronge

  1. Spirituality among College Freshmen: Relationships To Self-Esteem, Body Image, and Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayman, Jessie Wetherbe; Kurpius, Sharon Robinson; Befort, Christy; Nicpon, Megan Foley; Hull-Blanks, Elva; Sollenberger, Sonja; Huser, Laura

    2007-01-01

    The authors investigated the relationships between spirituality, body image, self-esteem, and stress in 204 college freshmen who identified themselves as being highly spiritual. A positive relationship was found between spirituality and self-esteem. Although self-esteem was found to be negatively related to stress, spirituality served as a buffer…

  2. Sociocultural and Individual Psychological Predictors of Body Image in Young Girls: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Levina; Tiggemann, Marika

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the prospective predictors of body image in 9- to 12-year-old girls. Participants were 150 girls in Grades 4-6 with a mean age of 10.3 years. Girls completed questionnaire measures of media and peer influences (television/magazine exposure, peer appearance conversations), individual psychological variables (appearance…

  3. Eating Issues and Body Image in Elementary School: Detection and Prevention Strategies for School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Sarah I.; Levitt, Dana Heller

    2016-01-01

    Body image disturbance continues to be recognized in increasingly younger populations. Eating issues among elementary school children have become more overt and statistically prevalent in recent years. Elementary school counselors are in important positions to provide their communities with early detection information and prevention strategies.…

  4. Preventing Eating and Body Image Problems in Children and Adolescents Using the Health Promoting Schools Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dea, Jennifer; Maloney, Danielle

    2000-01-01

    Describes the Health Promoting Schools Framework and its implementation in schools to prevent eating and body image disorders, examining the efficacy of preventive school-based strategies. The framework encompasses: school curriculum, teaching, and learning; school ethos, environment, and organization; and school-community partnerships and…

  5. Peripubertal Girls' Romantic and Platonic Involvement with Boys: Associations with Body Image and Depression Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compian, Laura; Gowen, L. Kris; Hayward, Chris

    2004-01-01

    This study explored the relationship of both romantic and platonic involvement with boys, as well as pubertal status, to body image and depression symptoms among an ethnically diverse sample of sixth-grade girls. Participants were 157 early adolescent girls (ages 10-13) who completed self-report measures designed to assess girls' level of…

  6. Relations of Strength Training to Body Image among a Sample of Female University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Christine; Hilton, Wanda; Pituch, Keenan

    2002-01-01

    Evaluated college women enrolled in a strength training class before and after completion of the class, using a combination of physical fitness measures, to determine the relationship between strength training and body image. Strength training generally did not substantially change participants' weight, percentage of fat, or circumferences. Most…

  7. [The Dresden Body Image Inventory (DKB-35): validity in a clinical sample].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöhlmann, Karin; Roth, Marcus; Brähler, Elmar; Joraschky, Peter

    2014-03-01

    The Dresden Body Image Questionnaire (DKB-35) measures 5 dimensions of body image: vitality, self-acceptance, self-aggrandisement, physical closeness, and sexual fulfilment. This article presents data on the reliability and validity of the DKB-35. The sample consisted of 560 pa-tients with psychosomatic disorders. To analyse the factor structure, a confirmatory factor analysis was conducted. To examine the convergent validity, correlations between the DKB-35 scales and the Frankfurt Body Concept Scales (FKKS, [1]), the Narcissism Personality Inventory (NPI, [2]) and the self-esteem subscale of the Frankfurt Self-Concept Scales (FSKN, [3]) were computed. The 5 scales of the DKB-35 showed excellent reliability. Between the 5 DKB-35 scales and the corresponding scales of the FKKS, the NPI, and the FSKN, moderate correlations were found. The results confirm the reliability and validity of the DKB-35. Possible fields of applications and further developments are discussed. PMID:23966276

  8. Optical Body-Surface Profiling with Coded Markers for Medical Image Registration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Tzong Jeng

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a three-dimensional body-surface optical measurement technique by solving the correspondence problem with the coded markers. The coded markers are printed patterns fixed on the object to be measured. The unique code number of each marker is decoded by using computer-based image processing. Given more than 212 available codes, the three dimensional profile of the torso surface is well approximated with the coded markers. In addition, the focal length and the camera location are found automatically by using the fiducial coded markers at given locations. The proposed body-surface measurement method is suitable for solving the registration problem for non-anatomical medical images such as body-surface potential maps (BSPM and magnetocardiograms (MCG.

  9. Detection of contraband concealed on the body using x-ray imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gerald J.

    1997-01-01

    In an effort to avoid detection, smugglers and terrorists are increasingly using the body as a vehicle for transporting illicit drugs, weapons, and explosives. This trend illustrates the natural tendency of traffickers to seek the path of least resistance, as improved interdiction technology and operational effectiveness have been brought to bear on other trafficking avenues such as luggage, cargo, and parcels. In response, improved technology for human inspection is being developed using a variety of techniques. ASE's BodySearch X-ray Inspection Systems uses backscatter x-ray imaging of the human body to quickly, safely, and effectively screen for drugs, weapons, and explosives concealed on the body. This paper reviews the law enforcement and social issues involved in human inspections, and briefly describes the ASE BodySearch systems. Operator training, x-ray image interpretation, and maximizing systems effectiveness are also discussed. Finally, data collected from operation of the BodySearch system in the field is presented, and new law enforcement initiatives which have come about due to recent events are reviewed.

  10. Systematic measurements of whole-body imaging dose distributions in image-guided radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haelg, Roger A.; Besserer, Juergen; Schneider, Uwe [Radiotherapie Hirslanden AG, Institute for Radiotherapy, Aarau 5000 (Switzerland); Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Zurich 8057 (Switzerland) and Radiotherapie Hirslanden AG, Institute for Radiotherapy, Aarau 5000 (Switzerland)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: The full benefit of the increased precision of contemporary treatment techniques can only be exploited if the accuracy of the patient positioning is guaranteed. Therefore, more and more imaging modalities are used in the process of the patient setup in clinical routine of radiation therapy. The improved accuracy in patient positioning, however, results in additional dose contributions to the integral patient dose. To quantify this, absorbed dose measurements from typical imaging procedures involved in an image-guided radiation therapy treatment were measured in an anthropomorphic phantom for a complete course of treatment. The experimental setup, including the measurement positions in the phantom, was exactly the same as in a preceding study of radiotherapy stray dose measurements. This allows a direct combination of imaging dose distributions with the therapy dose distribution. Methods: Individually calibrated thermoluminescent dosimeters were used to measure absorbed dose in an anthropomorphic phantom at 184 locations. The dose distributions from imaging devices used with treatment machines from the manufacturers Accuray, Elekta, Siemens, and Varian and from computed tomography scanners from GE Healthcare were determined and the resulting effective dose was calculated. The list of investigated imaging techniques consisted of cone beam computed tomography (kilo- and megavoltage), megavoltage fan beam computed tomography, kilo- and megavoltage planar imaging, planning computed tomography with and without gating methods and planar scout views. Results: A conventional 3D planning CT resulted in an effective dose additional to the treatment stray dose of less than 1 mSv outside of the treated volume, whereas a 4D planning CT resulted in a 10 times larger dose. For a daily setup of the patient with two planar kilovoltage images or with a fan beam CT at the TomoTherapy unit, an additional effective dose outside of the treated volume of less than 0.4 mSv and 1

  11. State-resolved imaging of CO from propenal photodissociation: Signatures of concerted three-body dissociation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    State-selected DC sliced images of propenal photodissociation show clear signatures of a novel synchronous concerted three-body dissociation of propenal recently proposed by Lee and co-workers to give C2H2 + H2 + CO [S. H. Lee, C. H. Chin, C. Chaudhuri, ChemPhysChem 12, 753 (2011)]. Unlike any prior example of a concerted 3-body dissociation event, this mechanism involves breaking three distinct bonds and yields 3 distinct molecules. DC sliced images of CO fragments were recorded for a range of rotational levels for both v = 0 and v = 1. The results show formation of two distinct CO product channels having dissimilar translational energy distributions with characteristic rovibrational state distributions. The images for CO (v = 0) show a large contribution of slower CO fragments at lower rotational levels (J = 5–25). This slow component is completely absent from the v = 1 CO images. The images for the higher rotational levels of the v = 0 and v = 1 CO are nearly identical, and this provides a basis for decomposing the two channels for v = 0. The quantum state and translational energy distributions for the slow channel are readily assigned to the 3-body dissociation based on the properties of the transition state. The faster CO fragments dominating the higher rotational levels in both v = 0 and v = 1 are attributed to formation of CH3CH + CO, also in agreement with the inferences based on previous non-state-resolved measurements with supporting theoretical calculations

  12. Body image and extreme attitudes toward weight in Brazilian schoolchildren (PeNSE 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Moreira Claro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Adolescence is a period characterized by changes such as accelerated physical growth and sexual development. Besides having to deal with these changes, adolescents are faced with beauty standards and extreme valorization of physical appearance. OBJECTIVE: This article aims to describe body image and the practice of extreme attitudes regarding weight in Brazilian students. METHODS: Data from the National Survey of School Health (PeNSE 2012 were used in this study. PeNSE 2012 has a representative sample of students in the 9th grade of elementary school in public and private schools across the country. A self-administered questionnaire on body image, practice of extreme measures in relation to weight and sociodemographic data was used. Body image and the practice of extreme attitudes were described for the total sample and according to gender. Poisson regression analyzes were used to identify differences in the practices of extreme attitudes between the different types of body image. RESULTS: More than 38% of the adolescents did not consider their body image as normal. Over 15% of the students referred to carry out extreme weight control practices, combining practices to loose and gain weight. Adolescents who considered themselves fat presented frequency of extreme practices for weight loss 92% higher than that shown by individuals who considered themselves normal. Similarly, adolescents who considered themselves thin presented frequency of extreme attitudes to gain weight (9.7% higher than that shown by students who considered themselves normal (5.6%. CONCLUSIONS: The high frequency of extreme weight control practices among Brazilian adolescents is alarming and should be subject of measures in health and education fields.

  13. Femininity, Masculinity, and Body Image Issues among College-Age Women: An In-Depth and Written Interview Study of the Mind-Body Dichotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavy, Patricia; Gnong, Andrea; Ross, Lauren Sardi

    2009-01-01

    In this article we investigate college-age women's body image issues in the context of dominant femininity and its polarization of the mind and body. We use original data collected through seven in-depth interviews and 32 qualitative written interviews with college-age women and men. We coded the data thematically applying feminist approaches to…

  14. “I Like My Body; Therefore, I Like Myself”: How Body Image Influences Self-Esteem—A Cross-Sectional Study on Italian Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Gatti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Puberty is a very important process for adolescents. Physiological changes and body modifications lead to great vulnerability. This vulnerability is connected to the adolescent’s perceptions of the uncertainty of outcomes due to the transformation of their infant body into an adult one. This cross-sectional study aims to better understand whether body image perception and satisfaction influence self-esteem in a sample of Italian male and female adolescents. A total of 242 adolescents (120 male and 122 female individuals aged 11 to 17 years (M = 13.33; SD = 1.7 completed the study measures. Quantitative and qualitative instruments were used. In particular, adolescents completed self-report questionnaires to assess their pubertal status (Pubertal Developmental Scale, Peterson, Crockett, Richards, & Boxer, 1988, their body esteem (Body Esteem Scale, Mendelson, Mendelson, & White, 2001, their body image (Body Image Satisfaction Questionnaire, Rauste-von Wright, 1989, and their self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Rosenberg,1965. Adolescent were also invited to depict themselves to assess their body representations by completing the Drawing Me test (Confalonieri, 2011. Results from MANOVAs confirm that gender and age are two factors that influence body image perception and satisfaction. SEM analyses show that good self-esteem is reached through good body satisfaction following different trajectories in male and female individuals. Data from adolescents’ body representations obtained via drawings confirm that females are more concerned about their body changes and about the appearance of secondary sexual features than males. This research, stressing the influence of various individual factors and highlighting the psychological distress and dissatisfaction of adolescents, especially females, confirms the importance of studying this topic in order to generate preventive measures to help adolescents through this developmental task.

  15. “I Like My Body; Therefore, I Like Myself”: How Body Image Influences Self-Esteem—A Cross-Sectional Study on Italian Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Gatti; Chiara Ionio; Daniela Traficante; Emanuela Confalonieri

    2014-01-01

    Puberty is a very important process for adolescents. Physiological changes and body modifications lead to great vulnerability. This vulnerability is connected to the adolescent’s perceptions of the uncertainty of outcomes due to the transformation of their infant body into an adult one. This cross-sectional study aims to better understand whether body image perception and satisfaction influence self-esteem in a sample of Italian male and female adolescents. A total of 242 adolescents (120 mal...

  16. Bones, body parts, and sex appeal: An analysis of #thinspiration images on popular social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaznavi, Jannath; Taylor, Laramie D

    2015-06-01

    The present study extends research on thinspiration images, visual and/or textual images intended to inspire weight loss, from pro-eating disorder websites to popular photo-sharing social media websites. The article reports on a systematic content analysis of thinspiration images (N=300) on Twitter and Pinterest. Images tended to be sexually suggestive and objectifying with a focus on ultra-thin, bony, scantily-clad women. Results indicated that particular social media channels and labels (i.e., tags) were characterized by more segmented, bony content and greater social endorsement compared to others. In light of theories of media influence, results offer insight into the potentially harmful effects of exposure to sexually suggestive and objectifying content in large online communities on body image, quality of life, and mental health. PMID:25880783

  17. Advantage of delayed whole-body FDG-PET imaging for tumour detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delayed imaging that coincides with the highest uptake of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) by tumour may be advantageous in oncological positron emission tomography (PET), where delineation of metastasis from normal tissue background is important. In order to identify the better imaging protocol for tumour detection, whole-body FDG-PET images acquired at 1 h and 2 h after injection were evaluated in 22 subjects, with a post-injection transmission scan at 90 min for attenuation correction. After visual interpretation, tumour uptake [tumour standardised uptake ratio (SUR)], normal tissue uptake (normal SUR) and tumour to background contrast (tumour SUR/normal tissue SUR) were evaluated in the images acquired at 1 h and at 2 h. Most malignant lesions, including primary lung cancer, metastatic mediastinal lymph nodes and lymphoma lesions, showed higher FDG uptake at 2 h than at 1 h. By contrast, benign lesions, with the exception of sarcoidosis, showed lower uptake of FDG at 2 h than at 1 h. Among normal tissues, the kidney, liver, mediastinum, lung, upper abdomen and left abdomen showed significant falls in FDG uptake from 1 h to 2 h. The lower abdomen, right abdomen and muscles (shoulder and thigh) showed no significant changes. Consequently, malignant lesions of the lung, mediastinum and upper abdomen showed significant increases in tumour to background contrast from 1 to 2 h. Three lesions (two lung cancers and a malignant lymphoma) that were equivocal on 1-h images became evident on 2-h images, changing the results of interpretation. All other malignant lesions were detected on 1-h images, but were clearer, with higher contrast, on 2-h images. Lesion-based sensitivity was improved from 92% (49/53) to 98% (52/53), and patient-based sensitivity from 78% (14/18) to 94% (17/18). It is concluded that delayed whole-body FDG-PET imaging is a better and more reliable imaging protocol for tumour detection. (orig.)

  18. Application of Multifractal Analysis to Segmentation of Water Bodies in Optical and Synthetic Aperture Radar Satellite Images

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Victor Manuel San; Figliola, Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    A method for segmenting water bodies in optical and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellite images is proposed. It makes use of the textural features of the different regions in the image for segmentation. The method consists in a multiscale analysis of the images, which allows us to study the images regularity both, locally and globally. As results of the analysis, coarse multifractal spectra of studied images and a group of images that associates each position (pixel) with its correspondin...

  19. Weight status and perception of body image in children: the effect of maternal immigrant status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gualdi-Russo Emanuela

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have shown that body image perception is an important factor in weight control and may be influenced by culture and ethnicity. The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between immigrant status of the mother and weight status and body image perception of the child. Methods In total, 2706 schoolchildren (1405 boys and 1301 girls aged 8–9 years and their mothers participated in a cross-sectional survey in Emilia-Romagna region (northern Italy. Weight and height of the children were measured and Body Mass Index (BMI was calculated. Actual and ideal body image perception by the children and by the mothers with respect to their children was evaluated according to Collins’ body image silhouettes. Results The BMI values were significantly lower in children of immigrants than in children of Italian mothers (F:17.27 vs 17.99 kg/m2; M:17.77 vs 18.13 kg/m2. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was lower, and the prevalence of underweight higher, in children of immigrant mothers than in those of Italian mothers (overweight- F:21.3 vs 29.1%; M. 28.3 vs 31.4%; underweight- F:5.16 vs 3.84%; M:6.63 vs 2.82%. The children's body image perception was consistent with the differing pattern of nutritional status. In the comparison between actual and ideal figures, the Feel-Ideal Difference Index (FID scores resulted different between the subsample with foreign-born mother in comparison to the native one (significantly lower in daughters of immigrants (FID- F: 0.31 vs 0.57; M: 0.35 vs 0.32. There were significant differences in the choice of the ideal figure of the child between immigrant mothers and Italian mothers (FID- F: -0.05 vs 0.19; M: -0.35 vs −0.03: the ideal figure values were higher in the immigrant mothers of male children and lower in the Italian mothers of female children. Conclusion Our results suggest that cultural and behavioral factors linked to ethnicity play an important role in the

  20. Testing parallel laser image scaling for remotely measuring body dimensions on mantled howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrickman, Nancy L; Schreier, Amy L; Glander, Kenneth E

    2015-08-01

    Body size is a fundamental variable for many studies in primate biology. However, obtaining body dimensions of wild primates through live capture is difficult and costly, so developing an alternative inexpensive and non-invasive method is crucial. Parallel laser image scaling for remotely measuring body size has been used with some success in marine and terrestrial animals, but only one arboreal primate. We further tested the efficacy of this method on the arboreal mantled howling monkey (Alouatta palliata) in La Pacifica, Costa Rica. We calculated interobserver error, as well as the method's repeatability when measuring the same animal on different occasions. We also compared measurements obtained physically through live capture with measurements obtained remotely using parallel laser image scaling. Our results show that the different types of error for the remote technique are minimal and comparable with the error rates observed in physical methods, with the exception of some dimensions that vary depending on the animals' posture. We conclude that parallel laser image scaling can be used to remotely obtain body dimensions if careful consideration is given to factors such as species-specific morphology and postural habits. PMID:25931319

  1. Foods that are perceived as healthy or unhealthy differentially alter young women's state body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Jacqueline F; D'Anci, Kristen E; Kanarek, Robin B

    2011-10-01

    Body image can be influenced by day-to-day events, including food intake. The present study investigated the effects of foods typically perceived as "healthy" or "unhealthy" on state body image and mood. College-aged women were told the experiment was designed to assess the effects of food on cognition. Using a between-subjects design, participants consumed isocaloric amounts of foods perceived to be healthy (banana) or unhealthy (donut) or ate nothing. Next, participants completed three cognitive tasks. Prior to eating and following the cognitive tests, participants completed the BISS, POMS, the Figure Rating Scale, and the Restraint Scale. Body satisfaction decreased following intake of a donut, but was not altered in the other conditions. Depression scores significantly decreased after intake of either a donut or banana, but did not decrease in the no-food condition. Tension scores decreased significantly after consumption of a banana and in the no-food condition, but did not decrease following consumption of a donut. These results indicate that intake of a food that is perceived as unhealthy negatively affects state body image. PMID:21669241

  2. Defining the Effects of Television on the Body Image on the basis of Adolescents’ Opinions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berrin Dinç

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effects of television on the body images of the adolescents at high school. In the study, mixed method was used. Out of 1222 high school students, who completed the “Scale of Satisfaction from Body Parts and Features”, 36 students participated in the study according to their scores from this scale. Qualitative data of the study was collected through semi-structured interviews and the interview data was analyzed descriptively. The results of the study revealed that the majority of the adolescents were satisfied with their bodies, yet the males reported more satisfaction than the females. Furthermore, it was seen that the adolescents emulated the ideal body types and features on television that they wanted to have or they did not have and they sometimes tried to resemble these. Moreover, it was determined that most of the adolescents compared themselves with the ideal body images on TV and they sometimes experienced disappointment and pessimism.

  3. Identification of Water Bodies in a Landsat 8 OLI Image Using a J48 Decision Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Tri Dev; Lee, Dong Ha; Yang, In Tae; Lee, Jae Kang

    2016-01-01

    Water bodies are essential to humans and other forms of life. Identification of water bodies can be useful in various ways, including estimation of water availability, demarcation of flooded regions, change detection, and so on. In past decades, Landsat satellite sensors have been used for land use classification and water body identification. Due to the introduction of a New Operational Land Imager (OLI) sensor on Landsat 8 with a high spectral resolution and improved signal-to-noise ratio, the quality of imagery sensed by Landsat 8 has improved, enabling better characterization of land cover and increased data size. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the most appropriate and practical water identification methods that take advantage of the improved image quality and use the fewest inputs based on the original OLI bands. The objective of the study is to explore the potential of a J48 decision tree (JDT) in identifying water bodies using reflectance bands from Landsat 8 OLI imagery. J48 is an open-source decision tree. The test site for the study is in the Northern Han River Basin, which is located in Gangwon province, Korea. Training data with individual bands were used to develop the JDT model and later applied to the whole study area. The performance of the model was statistically analysed using the kappa statistic and area under the curve (AUC). The results were compared with five other known water identification methods using a confusion matrix and related statistics. Almost all the methods showed high accuracy, and the JDT was successfully applied to the OLI image using only four bands, where the new additional deep blue band of OLI was found to have the third highest information gain. Thus, the JDT can be a good method for water body identification based on images with improved resolution and increased size. PMID:27420067

  4. Identification of Water Bodies in a Landsat 8 OLI Image Using a J48 Decision Tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Tri Dev; Lee, Dong Ha; Yang, In Tae; Lee, Jae Kang

    2016-01-01

    Water bodies are essential to humans and other forms of life. Identification of water bodies can be useful in various ways, including estimation of water availability, demarcation of flooded regions, change detection, and so on. In past decades, Landsat satellite sensors have been used for land use classification and water body identification. Due to the introduction of a New Operational Land Imager (OLI) sensor on Landsat 8 with a high spectral resolution and improved signal-to-noise ratio, the quality of imagery sensed by Landsat 8 has improved, enabling better characterization of land cover and increased data size. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the most appropriate and practical water identification methods that take advantage of the improved image quality and use the fewest inputs based on the original OLI bands. The objective of the study is to explore the potential of a J48 decision tree (JDT) in identifying water bodies using reflectance bands from Landsat 8 OLI imagery. J48 is an open-source decision tree. The test site for the study is in the Northern Han River Basin, which is located in Gangwon province, Korea. Training data with individual bands were used to develop the JDT model and later applied to the whole study area. The performance of the model was statistically analysed using the kappa statistic and area under the curve (AUC). The results were compared with five other known water identification methods using a confusion matrix and related statistics. Almost all the methods showed high accuracy, and the JDT was successfully applied to the OLI image using only four bands, where the new additional deep blue band of OLI was found to have the third highest information gain. Thus, the JDT can be a good method for water body identification based on images with improved resolution and increased size. PMID:27420067

  5. The Use of Self-Pleasure: Masturbation and Body Image among African American and European American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Julie L.; Horne, Sharon G.

    2003-01-01

    The current investigation examined the relationship between masturbation and body image among 96 women seeking services at a local family planning clinic in a mid-southern U.S. city. Participants completed a questionnaire that assessed body image and masturbatory practices. Ethnic differences were found with European American women reporting…

  6. The Longitudinal Interplay of Adolescents' Self-Esteem and Body Image: A Conditional Autoregressive Latent Trajectory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Maiano, Christophe; Marsh, Herbert W.; Janosz, Michel; Nagengast, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Self-esteem and body image are central to coping successfully with the developmental challenges of adolescence. However, the current knowledge surrounding self-esteem and body image is fraught with controversy. This study attempts to clarify some of them by addressing three questions: (1) Are the intraindividual developmental trajectories of…

  7. How Has Body Image Changed? A Cross-Sectional Investigation of College Women and Men from 1983 to 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, Thomas F.; Morrow, Jennifer A.; Hrabosky, Joshua I.; Perry, April A.

    2004-01-01

    Body-image dissatisfaction is not uncommon and can adversely affect individuals' psychosocial functioning and quality of life. Various oft-cited surveys and a meta-analysis implicate a worsening of body image over the past several decades, especially among women and possibly among men. The present cross-sectional study examined changes in multiple…

  8. The Role of Body Image and Disordered Eating as Risk Factors for Depression and Suicidal Ideation in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brausch, Amy M.; Gutierrez, Peter M.

    2009-01-01

    There is much empirical literature on factors for adolescent suicide risk, but body image and disordered eating are rarely included in these models. In the current study, disordered eating and body image were examined as risk factors for suicide ideation since these factors are prevalent in adolescence, particularly for females. It was…

  9. Body Image of Dancers in Los Angeles: The Cult of Slenderness and Media Influence among Dance Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiland, Teresa L.; Murray, Darrin S.; Edley, Paige P.

    2008-01-01

    Body image and self-esteem are examined through personal stories among Los Angeles college dancers who grew up in the Hollywood culture of the cult of slenderness. The study incorporates a body image survey, eating disorder screen, and an interview process capturing dancers' lived experiences with daily pressures. Dancers reveal their experiences…

  10. Entering Adulthood: Looking at Body Image and Eating Disorders. A Curriculum for Grades 9-12. Contemporary Health Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarratano, Susan

    This module includes six lessons which focus on issues related to body image and self-esteem, eating disorders, and sensible eating habits for adolescents in grades 9-12. In lesson 1, students examine influences on body image, assess their personal traits, and trade assessments with their peers. In lesson 2, students look at pressure and…

  11. THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN MENSTRUAL CYCLE CHARACTERISTICS AND PERCEIVED BODY IMAGE: A CROSS-SECTIONAL SURVEY OF POLISH FEMALE ADOLESCENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, Maria; Trambacz-Oleszak, Sylwia

    2016-05-01

    The increasing prevalence of negative body perceptions among adolescent girls and the tendency towards wishing to be thinner have become a cultural norm in Western culture. Adolescent girls are particularly vulnerable to developing a negative body image due to physical and sexual changes occurring during puberty. This study aimed to evaluate the association between different measures of body image perceptions and different phases of the menstrual cycle after controlling for weight status and other potential confounders in Polish adolescent girls aged 12-18 years. Three-hundred and thirty participants of a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2009, normally cycling and with no eating disorders, completed a background questionnaire and the Stunkard Figure Rating Scale, and their anthropometric measurements were collected. The dependent outcome variables were measures of body image (actual body image, ideal body image and ideal-self discrepancy) and dichotomous body image perception (satisfied versus dissatisfied) adjusted for other predictor factors: socio-demographic variables, menstrual history and cycle phases, and weight status. One-way ANOVA indicated that weight status, age at menarche and menstrual cycle phase were associated with actual body image and rate of ideal-self discrepancy. Ideal body image was associated with weight status and menstrual cycle phase. General logistic regression models were constructed to evaluate associations of body dissatisfaction and all potential predictor variables. The final selected model of the multiple logistic regression analysis using the backward elimination procedure revealed that adjusted for other factors, negative body image was significantly associated with different phases of the menstrual cycle (p trend=0.033) and increasing body weight status (p trend=0.0007). The likelihood of body dissatisfaction was greatest during the premenstrual phase of the menstrual cycle (OR=2.38; 95% CI 1.06, 5.32) and among girls in

  12. Wireless image-data transmission from an implanted image sensor through a living mouse brain by intra body communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayami, Hajime; Takehara, Hiroaki; Nagata, Kengo; Haruta, Makito; Noda, Toshihiko; Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Tokuda, Takashi; Ohta, Jun

    2016-04-01

    Intra body communication technology allows the fabrication of compact implantable biomedical sensors compared with RF wireless technology. In this paper, we report the fabrication of an implantable image sensor of 625 µm width and 830 µm length and the demonstration of wireless image-data transmission through a brain tissue of a living mouse. The sensor was designed to transmit output signals of pixel values by pulse width modulation (PWM). The PWM signals from the sensor transmitted through a brain tissue were detected by a receiver electrode. Wireless data transmission of a two-dimensional image was successfully demonstrated in a living mouse brain. The technique reported here is expected to provide useful methods of data transmission using micro sized implantable biomedical sensors.

  13. The Role of the Media in Body Image Concerns among Women: A Meta-Analysis of Experimental and Correlational Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabe, Shelly; Ward, L. Monique; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2008-01-01

    Research suggests that exposure to mass media depicting the thin-ideal body may be linked to body image disturbance in women. This meta-analysis examined experimental and correlational studies testing the links between media exposure to women's body dissatisfaction, internalization of the thin ideal, and eating behaviors and beliefs with a sample…

  14. Attentional biases to body shape images in adolescents with anorexia nervosa: an exploratory eye-tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinhas, Leora; Fok, Kai-Ho; Chen, Anna; Lam, Eileen; Schachter, Reva; Eizenman, Oren; Grupp, Larry; Eizenman, Moshe

    2014-12-15

    Body image distortion (BID) plays an important role in the etiology and maintenance of anorexia nervosa (AN). Previous studies of BID in AN showed small biases in visual scanning behavior (VSB) towards images of body shapes. The aim of this study is to investigate biases in VSB when body shape images compete with images with a different theme (social interactions) for subjects׳ attention. When images of thin body shapes (TBS) were presented alongside images of social interactions, AN patients (n=13) spent significantly more time looking at TBSs rather than at social interactions, but controls (n=20) did not. When images of fat body shapes (FBS) were presented alongside images of social interactions, AN patients spent significantly more time looking at FBSs rather than at social interactions, but controls did not. When images of TBSs, FBSs and social interactions were presented alongside each other, AN patients demonstrated a hierarchy in their attention allocation, choosing to spend the most viewing time on TBS images, followed by FBS images and then images with social interactions. Under the three experimental conditions, AN patients demonstrated large biases in their visual scanning behavior (VSB). Biases in VSB may provide physiologically objective measures that characterize patients with AN. PMID:25216561

  15. a Probability-Based Statistical Method to Extract Water Body of TM Images with Missing Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Shizhong; Chen, Jiangping; Luo, Minghai

    2016-06-01

    Water information cannot be accurately extracted using TM images because true information is lost in some images because of blocking clouds and missing data stripes, thereby water information cannot be accurately extracted. Water is continuously distributed in natural conditions; thus, this paper proposed a new method of water body extraction based on probability statistics to improve the accuracy of water information extraction of TM images with missing information. Different disturbing information of clouds and missing data stripes are simulated. Water information is extracted using global histogram matching, local histogram matching, and the probability-based statistical method in the simulated images. Experiments show that smaller Areal Error and higher Boundary Recall can be obtained using this method compared with the conventional methods.

  16. Body Image Education as a Preventive Measure for Eating Disorders and Obesity in Ninth-Grade Students

    OpenAIRE

    Keith, Diana K.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity and eating disorders are major public health problems in the U.S. Prevention of these problems in childhood and adolescence is crucial to avoid medical complications and costs associated with these conditions. A growing body of research supports designing and implementing interventions to prevent obesity and eating disorders simultaneously by targeting common risk factors such as poor body image. This study explored the use of a body image education unit as a preventive measure for ob...

  17. Imaging body composition in cancer patients: visceral obesity, sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity may impact on clinical outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Yip, Connie; Dinkel, Charlotte; Mahajan, Abhishek; Siddique, Musib; Cook, Gary J.R.; Goh, Vicky

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the influence of body composition on oncological patient outcomes. Visceral obesity, sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity have been identified as adverse factors in cancer patients. Imaging quantification of body composition such as lean muscle mass and fat distribution is a potentially valuable tool. This review describes the following imaging techniques that may be used to assess body composition: dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry ...

  18. Bone dosimetry using synthetic images to represent trabecular bones of five regions of the human body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima Filho, Jose de M. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Pernambuco (IFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Vieira, Jose W. [Escola Politecnica de Pernambuco (POLI). Universidade de Pernambuco (UPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Lima, Vanildo J. de M., E-mail: vjr@ufpe.br [Departamento de Anatomia. Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Lima, Lindeval F., E-mail: lindeval@dmat.ufrr.br [Departamento de Matematica (DMAT). Universidade Federal de Roraima (UFRR), Boa Vista, RR (Brazil); Lima, Fernando R.A., E-mail: falima@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN/NE-CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Vasconcelos, Wagner E. de [Departamento de Energia Nuclear (DEN). Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    One of the greatest challenges in numerical dosimetry of ionizing radiation is to estimate the absorbed dose by bone tissue in the human body. The bone tissues of greater radiosensitivity are the red bone marrow (RBM), that consist of the hematopoietic cells, located within the trabecular bones, and the bone surface cells (BSC), called osteogenic cells. The report 70 of the ICRP lists five spongiosa regions with their respective volume percent of trabecular bone: ribs (also contemplating the clavicles and sternum), spine, long bones, pelvis and skull (also contemplating mandible). The Grupo de Pesquisa em Dosimetria Numerica (GDN/CNPq) has been built exposure computational models (ECMs) based on voxel phantoms and EGSnrc Monte Carlo code. To estimate the energy deposited in the RBM and in the BSC of a phantom, the GDN/CNPq has used a method based on micro-CT images of the five trabecular regions mentioned above. These images were provided by other research institutes and were obtained from scan of bone samples of adult. Here is the greatest difficulty in reproducing this method: besides the need for bone images of real people with micrometer resolution, the distribution of bone marrow in the human body, according to ICRP 70, varies with age. This article presents some proposals of the GDN/CNPQ for replacing in the ECMs the micro-CT images by images synthesized by the computer, based on Monte Carlo sampling. (author)

  19. Bone dosimetry using synthetic images to represent trabecular bones of five regions of the human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the greatest challenges in numerical dosimetry of ionizing radiation is to estimate the absorbed dose by bone tissue in the human body. The bone tissues of greater radiosensitivity are the red bone marrow (RBM), that consist of the hematopoietic cells, located within the trabecular bones, and the bone surface cells (BSC), called osteogenic cells. The report 70 of the ICRP lists five spongiosa regions with their respective volume percent of trabecular bone: ribs (also contemplating the clavicles and sternum), spine, long bones, pelvis and skull (also contemplating mandible). The Grupo de Pesquisa em Dosimetria Numerica (GDN/CNPq) has been built exposure computational models (ECMs) based on voxel phantoms and EGSnrc Monte Carlo code. To estimate the energy deposited in the RBM and in the BSC of a phantom, the GDN/CNPq has used a method based on micro-CT images of the five trabecular regions mentioned above. These images were provided by other research institutes and were obtained from scan of bone samples of adult. Here is the greatest difficulty in reproducing this method: besides the need for bone images of real people with micrometer resolution, the distribution of bone marrow in the human body, according to ICRP 70, varies with age. This article presents some proposals of the GDN/CNPQ for replacing in the ECMs the micro-CT images by images synthesized by the computer, based on Monte Carlo sampling. (author)

  20. A Sociological Study or the Effect of Western Values and Mass Media on Body Image (The Case of 15-and-above Years Old Women in Tabriz)

    OpenAIRE

    mohammad Abbaszadeh; MohammadBagher AlizadehAghdam; Rana pour mohammad; Nayyer Mohammadpour

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Body image is a complicated phenomenon including physiological, psychological and sociological indexes. Recently, new studies are conducted about body image. From a psychological perspective, it is defined, as "an image of the body one has in mind and the way that the body is seen". In fact, Body image is a mentality means that everyone is concerned with his /her appearance. Much of this mindset, positive or negative, roots in values of the society in which it is promoted. In ...

  1. FEED-BACK METHOD BASED ON IMAGE PROCESSING FOR DETECTING HUMAN BODY VIA FLYING ROBOT

    OpenAIRE

    Bahram Lavi Sefidgari

    2013-01-01

    Image-processing is one the challenging issue in robotic as well as electrical engineering research contexts. This study proposes a system for extract and tracking objects by a quadcopter’s flying robot and how to extract the human body. It is observed in image taken from real-time camera that is embedded bottom of the quadcopter, there is a variance in human behaviour being tracked or recorded such as position and, size, of the human. In the regard, the paper tries to investigate...

  2. Imagem corporal e bailarinas profissionais Body image of professional ballet dancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Nogueira Haas

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A imagem corporal é um tema que sempre está em evidência quando se aborda a dança em suas diferentes modalidades. A busca da imagem corporal ideal em bailarinas vai além dos parâmetros da população em geral e, na medida em que elas se tornam profissionais, a necessidade de manter o peso adequado vai aumentando. Este estudo tem como objetivo verificar o nível de satisfação de bailarinas de balé clássico e de dança jazz com sua imagem corporal, identificando as diferenças e semelhanças entre os dois grupos. Pretende-se ainda identificar semelhanças e diferenças no nível de satisfação com a imagem corporal de bailarinas clássicas de países diferentes. Trata-se de uma pesquisa de campo descritiva. A amostra foi composta por 15 bailarinas adultas profissionais de balé clássico e 16 bailarinas de dança jazz de Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, e por nove bailarinas adultas profissionais radicadas em Nova Iorque, Estados Unidos. O instrumento utilizado para avaliar o nível de satisfação com a imagem corporal foi o Questionário de Imagem Corporal - BSQ, que mede o grau de preocupação com a forma do corpo, a autodepreciação devido à aparência física e a sensação de estar gordo. Os dados foram analisados com auxílio do programa estatístico SPSS 15.0. Para a comparação dos dados foram aplicados os testes Qui-quadrado e Anova, sendo considerados significativos valores de p Body image is an issue that is always in evidence when addressing different types of dance. The search for the ideal body image among dancers goes beyond the parameters of the general population and, as they become professionals, the need to maintain the appropriate weight increases. This study aims to verify the level of satisfaction of classical ballet dancers and jazz dancers with their body image, identifying differences and similarities between the two groups. Furthermore, similarities and differences in the level of satisfaction with body image of

  3. Beauty is as beauty does: body image and self-esteem of pageant contestants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, S H; Hammond, K

    2003-09-01

    Self-esteem, dieting, and body image of 131 female beauty pageant contestants (mean age 26.0 years) from 43 states were examined by an anonymous survey. Most (89.6%) reported being a pageant finalist or winner and 55.2% had competed at the nationa/international level Over one-fourth (26%) of the women had been told or perceived they had an eating disorder which reportedly began at 16.25 years. Almost half (48.5%) reported wanting to be thinner and 57% were trying to lose weight. Higher self-esteem scores were significantly associated with increased level of competition (i.e.: from local to international pageants), but not with the number of times the women were pageant finalists or winners. Future study is warranted to determine how pageant participation influences self-esteem, body image, and the development of eating disorders. PMID:14649788

  4. The interplay of personality and negative comments about appearance in predicting body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvalem, Ingela Lundin; von Soest, Tilmann; Roald, Helge E; Skolleborg, Knut Chr

    2006-09-01

    This study investigates how personality traits in combination with frequency of and emotional reaction to negative comments about appearance while growing up are related to appearance evaluation and orientation among adult women. Nine hundred and seven participants from a representative sample of Norwegian women aged 22-55, answered questions measuring body image, personality (Big Five), and history of experiencing negative comments about appearance. Results indicated that only emotional reaction to negative comments about appearance significantly predicted both appearance evaluation and orientation, while frequency of negative comments did not. Being extrovert predicted more positive appearance evaluation and being more appearance oriented than being introvert. Scoring high on neuroticism was related to negative appearance evaluation and high appearance orientation. The findings demonstrate the importance of differentiating between the frequency and the emotional impact of teasing as well as including personality traits when studying body image. PMID:18089229

  5. Body-Based Gender Recognition Using Images from Visible and Thermal Cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dat Tien Nguyen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gender information has many useful applications in computer vision systems, such as surveillance systems, counting the number of males and females in a shopping mall, accessing control systems in restricted areas, or any human-computer interaction system. In most previous studies, researchers attempted to recognize gender by using visible light images of the human face or body. However, shadow, illumination, and time of day greatly affect the performance of these methods. To overcome this problem, we propose a new gender recognition method based on the combination of visible light and thermal camera images of the human body. Experimental results, through various kinds of feature extraction and fusion methods, show that our approach is efficient for gender recognition through a comparison of recognition rates with conventional systems.

  6. Quality of Life, Body Image and Sexual Functioning in Bariatric Surgery Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwer, David B; Steffen, Kristine J

    2015-11-01

    This article provides an overview of the literature on quality of life, body image and sexual behaviour in individuals with extreme obesity and who undergo bariatric surgery. Quality of life is a psychosocial construct that includes multiple domains, including health-related quality of life, weight-related quality of life, as well as other psychological constructs such as body image and sexual functioning. A large literature has documented the impairments in quality of life and these other domains in persons with obesity and extreme obesity in particular. These impairments are believed to play an influential role in the decision to undergo bariatric surgery. Individuals who undergo bariatric surgery typically report significant improvements in these and other areas of psychosocial functioning, often before they reach their maximum weight loss. The durability of these changes as patients maintain or regain weight, however, is largely unknown. PMID:26608946

  7. Segmentation of rodent whole-body dynamic PET images: an unsupervised method based on voxel dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maroy, Renaud; Boisgard, Raphaël; Comtat, Claude;

    2008-01-01

    method for the segmentation of rodent whole-body PET images that takes these two difficulties into account by estimating the pharmacokinetics far from organ borders. The segmentation method proved efficient on whole-body numerical rat phantom simulations, including 3-14 organs, together with......Positron emission tomography (PET) is a useful tool for pharmacokinetics studies in rodents during the preclinical phase of drug and tracer development. However, rodent organs are small as compared to the scanner's intrinsic resolution and are affected by physiological movements. We present a new...... manual delineation of organs in a large set of preclinical images. In addition, it was faster, detected more organs, and extracted organs' mean time activity curves with a better confidence on the measure than manual delineation....

  8. An automatic integrated image segmentation, registration and change detection method for water-body extraction using HSR images and GIS data

    OpenAIRE

    H.G. Sui; Chen, G.; Hua, L.

    2013-01-01

    Automatic water-body extraction from remote sense images is a challenging problem. Using GIS data to update and extract waterbody is an old but active topic. However, automatic registration and change detection of the two data sets often presents difficulties. In this paper, a novel automatic water-body extraction method is proposed. The core idea is to integrate image segmentation, image registration and change detection with GIS data as a whole processing. A new iterative segmentat...

  9. DIAGNOSTIC VALUE OF WHOLE BODY DIFFUSION WEIGHTED IMAGING FOR SCREENING PRIMARY TUMORS OF PATIENTS WITH METASTASES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tai-fu Gu; Xin-lan Xiao; Fei Sun; Jian-hua Yin; Hai Zhao

    2008-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the values of whole body diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in screening primary unknown tumor in patients with metastases.Methods Totally, 34 patients with metastases of primary unknown tumors were scanned with whole body DWI, and conventional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed if suspected lesions were detected. All the metastases including 27 cases of osseous metastases, 2 brain metastases, 2 liver metastases, 1 pulmonary multiple metastasis, 1 neck metastasis and 1 malignant ascites, were diagnosed by computed tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, or MR imaging. For the proven primary tumors diagnosed by biopsy or pathology of surgical specimens, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of the primary and metastatic lesions were measured respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of this technique for screening primary tumors were evaluated. Results We found 24 cases with suspected primary lesions, in which 23 lesions were proved to be primary tumors, and 1 was proved to be benign lesion. And no definite primary lesion was found in 10 cases on whole body DWI, but in which 1 case was diagnosed with primary tumor by biopsy later, and the other 9 cases remained unknown within follow-up of over half a year. The difference was not significant in ADC values between primary and metastatic lesions (P>0.05). The sensitivity and specificity of whole body DWI for searching primary tumors was 95.8% and 90.0%, respectively. Conclusion Combined with conventional MR scanning, whole body DWI can help to search primary lesions of patients with metastases.

  10. Body Image and quality of life of senior citizens included in a cardiac rehabilitation program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Vargas Amaral

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Most people who have to live with some kind of disease tend to adopt healthy habits and create new ways of seeing themselves. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between the index of quality of life and self perception of patients included in a cardiovascular rehabilitation program in Florianopolis/Brazil. The sample consists of 24 subjects of 62 ± 1.3 years of age, who have coronary artery disease. The Minnesota Living With Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLHFQ was used to assess the quality of life, and to identify the degree of body image discontentment the Stunkard and Sorensen questionnaire (1993 was applied. Statistical analysis was made through statistics programs and the software SPSS 11.0. The degree of association between variables was studied with Kendall test. It was verified that the higher the BMI and the current body shape, the greatest the degree of body image dissatisfaction. The emotional symptoms also appear to be significantly correlated with a desire for a smaller body shape and with indicators of lower quality of life (r = 0474 = 0735, p major 0.05. The physical symptoms were also considerably associated with the emotional symptoms. These results suggest that the variables concerning the quality of life are meaningful to significant body image and satisfaction, which seems to correlate with fewer emotional problems and better facing of the disease. Cardiovascular Rehabilitation Programs that implement physical activity in daily habits proves to be a suitable tool for improving these ailments in this post-acute phase

  11. Precise Image-Based Motion Estimation for Autonomous Small Body Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Andrew E.; Matthies, Larry H.

    1998-01-01

    Space science and solar system exploration are driving NASA to develop an array of small body missions ranging in scope from near body flybys to complete sample return. This paper presents an algorithm for onboard motion estimation that will enable the precision guidance necessary for autonomous small body landing. Our techniques are based on automatic feature tracking between a pair of descent camera images followed by two frame motion estimation and scale recovery using laser altimetry data. The output of our algorithm is an estimate of rigid motion (attitude and position) and motion covariance between frames. This motion estimate can be passed directly to the spacecraft guidance and control system to enable rapid execution of safe and precise trajectories.

  12. Yoga, Body and Image: Spirituality and Wellbeing; From Therapy to Publicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Alexander Fajardo Pulido

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The practice of yoga in Bogotá has a particular vision of the body that promotes a form of co-implicit, holistic and totalizing existence, inserted into the constant logic of a spiritual experience materialized in the individual body. This vision is directly related to a reciprocal concept of health and disease, which establishes its limits beyond the atomized and institutionalized corporal vision of Western biomedical medicine. Eastern spirituality promotes “new forms” of experiencing health and sickness, which find a commercial resonance with complimentary health service providers that grow more influential within a local context; additionally, they have also found fertile ground in the urban imaginary of Bogotá, appearing on scene with a certain body-psychic-spiritual ideal related to something beyond just well-being; an image promoted by the publishing industry and market logic in the different mass communication media

  13. Why do girls watch their weight? Sociocultural and interpersonal influences on body image and weight watching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metka Kuhar

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Body dissatisfaction, importance of thinness, dieting behaviour, and weight watching were examined through discussions with 34 girls in five focus groups and with a questionnaire survey on the sample of 184 girls. The article emphasis is on sociocultural and interpersonal influences on girl's body images and eating practices. Quantitative and qualitative results point to fashion and media as the strongest pressures to be thin for subjects. Family members and peers are beside magazines, TV programmes and numbers of clothes important source of message about the importance and attainability of thinness. Some respondents reported direct pressures to diet from friends and parents but indirect social influences were more common. These influences included social comparison, teasing, criticizing. A few girls live in a subculture of intense weight and body-shape concern that places them at risk for disordered eating behaviour.

  14. Factors related to depression and eating disorders: self-esteem, body image, and attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubb, H J; Sellers, M I; Waligroski, K

    1993-06-01

    To test hypotheses that women suffering from some form of eating disorder would experience lower self-esteem and higher depression and that women with lower self-esteem and greater depression would rate their attractiveness lower and see themselves as heavier than less depressed individuals, 42 college undergraduate women were individually administered the Eating Disorders Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory, and a Body Image/Attractiveness Perception Scale. A Pearson correlation indicated a substantial relation between scores on depression and scores on eating disorders, but nonsignificant values between self-esteem scores and scores on either eating disorders or on depression. Depression scores correlated significantly with rated body size, but not attractiveness, while self-esteem scores were significantly correlated with rated attractiveness, not body size. These results contradict literature on the relation between self-esteem and depression. Directions for additional research are discussed. PMID:8332667

  15. Body image and appearance perceptions from immigrant adolescents in Canada: An interpretive description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimber, Melissa; Georgiades, Katholiki; Jack, Susan M; Couturier, Jennifer; Wahoush, Olive

    2015-09-01

    Body dissatisfaction has been linked to a number of poor health outcomes, including eating disorders. However, very few studies have investigated body dissatisfaction among immigrant adolescents. Using inductive qualitative inquiry, this study recruited a purposeful sample of immigrant adolescents (N=18, 78% female) with an eating disorder (n=8) and without an eating disorder (n=10). All adolescents were between 16 and 19 years of age (M=16.80, SD=0.89) and were recruited from three municipalities in Ontario. Each adolescent participated in a face-to-face, qualitative interview. Content analysis revealed descriptions of body image that were similar across the sample. The main themes emerging from this work include (a) the "moderately slim" and "moderately muscular" ideal, (b) the "slim and curvy paradox," (c) "ideal" privilege, (d) having an "expected" appearance, and (e) wishful comparisons. Findings have implications for reducing appearance-related dissatisfaction among immigrant adolescents in Canada. PMID:26363357

  16. Orthorexia nervosa and self-attitudinal aspects of body image in female and male university students

    OpenAIRE

    Brytek-Matera, Anna; Donini, Lorenzo Maria; Krupa, Magdalena; Poggiogalle, Eleonora; Hay, Phillipa

    2015-01-01

    Background The present study was designed to investigate orthorexia nervosa, or the phenomenon of being preoccupied with consuming healthy food. Specific aims were to explore relationships between orthorexia features and attitudes towards body image, fitness and health in normal weight female and male university students with high levels of healthy food preoccupation, i.e. orthorexia nervosa. Methods Participants were 327 female (N = 283) and male (N = 44) students aged 18 to 25 years. All pa...

  17. Does nipple preservation in mastectomy improve satisfaction with cosmetic results, psychological adjustment, body image and sexuality?

    OpenAIRE

    Didier, F.; Radice, D.; Gandini, S; Bedolis, R.; Rotmensz, N.; Maldifassi, A.; B. Santillo; Luini, A; Galimberti, V.; Scaffidi, E.; Lupo, F.; Martella, S.; Petit, J. Y.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract We investigated the influence of nipple areolar complex (NAC) sparing in mastectomy, on patient satisfaction with cosmetic results, body-image, sexuality and psychological well-being. We developed a specific questionnaire and compared two groups of women who underwent radical mastectomy with immediate breast reconstruction (IBR). Between 2004 and 2006, 310 women with NAC preservation and 143 patients with successive NAC reconstruction were mailed the questionnaire at follo...

  18. Sports and health : the influence of motivational orientation on body image and doping behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Health is much talked about topic in today’s society, likewise with sports. Sports and exercise have been introduced has an entranceway to healthier living styles. But increasing reports about how athletes and exercisers use doping agents that are contrary to health beliefs and recommendations from the World Anti-Doping Agency are found in the media. Body Image and eating disorders has also seen a rise in media reports, especially in the sporting world. Athletes are now models and are visible...

  19. Get fit, feel great, look amazing! Regulation of exercise behaviour and body image in women

    OpenAIRE

    Hurst, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Exercising to improve one’s appearance has been consistently associated with negative body image (e.g., Tiggemann & Williamson, 2000). However, little is known about either the processes underlying this association, or the causal direction of the effects. This thesis draws upon both self-determination theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 2000) and objectification theory (Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997) in order to investigate the role of regulations for exercise and self-objectification in the link between...

  20. Body weight/image perceptions and prevalence of obesity among adolescents-Kerala, India

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh, K.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Obesity can be seen as the first wave of a defined cluster of non communicable diseases called "New World Syndrome" creating an enormous socioeconomic and public health burden in poorer countries. The rising prevalence of childhood/adolescent obesity cannot be addressed by a single etiology. Multiple factors plays role and among them perception on body weight and image plays vital role in adolescents. So the objective of this study was to know the perceptions of adolescents on t...