WorldWideScience

Sample records for body image content

  1. Body Talk: Body Image Commentary on Queerty.com.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Joseph; Grimm, Josh

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we conducted a content analysis of 243 photographic images of men published on the gay male-oriented blog Queerty.com. We also analyzed 435 user-generated comments from a randomly selected 1-year sample. Focusing on images' body types, we found that the range of body types featured on the blog was quite narrow-the vast majority of images had very low levels of body fat and very high levels of muscularity. Users' body image-related comments typically endorsed and celebrated images; critiques of images were comparatively rare. Perspectives from objectification theory and social comparison theory suggest that the images and commentary found on the blog likely reinforce unhealthy body image in gay male communities.

  2. Multisite Thrombus Imaging and Fibrin Content Estimation With a Single Whole-Body PET Scan in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasi, Francesco; Oliveira, Bruno L; Rietz, Tyson A; Rotile, Nicholas J; Naha, Pratap C; Cormode, David P; Izquierdo-Garcia, David; Catana, Ciprian; Caravan, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Thrombosis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Current diagnostic strategies rely on imaging modalities that are specific for distinct vascular territories, but a thrombus-specific whole-body imaging approach is still missing. Moreover, imaging techniques to assess thrombus composition are underdeveloped, although therapeutic strategies may benefit from such technology. Therefore, our goal was to test whether positron emission tomography (PET) with the fibrin-binding probe (64)Cu-FBP8 allows multisite thrombus detection and fibrin content estimation. Thrombosis was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats (n=32) by ferric chloride application on both carotid artery and femoral vein. (64)Cu-FBP8-PET/CT imaging was performed 1, 3, or 7 days after thrombosis to detect thrombus location and to evaluate age-dependent changes in target uptake. Ex vivo biodistribution, autoradiography, and histopathology were performed to validate imaging results. Arterial and venous thrombi were localized on fused PET/CT images with high accuracy (97.6%; 95% confidence interval, 92-100). A single whole-body PET/MR imaging session was sufficient to reveal the location of both arterial and venous thrombi after (64)Cu-FBP8 administration. PET imaging showed that probe uptake was greater in younger clots than in older ones for both arterial and venous thrombosis (P<0.0001). Quantitative histopathology revealed an age-dependent reduction of thrombus fibrin content (P<0.001), consistent with PET results. Biodistribution and autoradiography further confirmed the imaging findings. We demonstrated that (64)Cu-FBP8-PET is a feasible approach for whole-body thrombus detection and that molecular imaging of fibrin can provide, noninvasively, insight into clot composition. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Improving uptake and engagement with child body image interventions delivered to mothers: Understanding mother and daughter preferences for intervention content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbett, Kirsty M; Diedrichs, Phillippa C

    2016-12-01

    Mothers are a key influence on adolescent girls' body image. This study aimed to improve understanding of mothers' and daughters' preferences for content in body image interventions designed to assist mothers to promote positive body image among their daughters. British mother-daughter dyads (N=190) viewed descriptions of five evidence-based influences on body image (family, friends, and relationships; appearance-based teasing; media and celebrities; appearance conversations; body acceptance and care). Mothers and daughters each selected the two most important influences to learn about in these interventions. Overall, both mothers and daughters most frequently opted for family, friends, and relationships and body acceptance and care, whereas media and celebrities was their least preferred topic. While the overall sample of mothers and daughters agreed on preferences, Fisher's exact tests showed that within-dyad agreement was low. Recommendations for improving parent and child engagement with, and effectiveness of, child body image interventions delivered to parents are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Importance of body image in marketing communication

    OpenAIRE

    Váradyová, Monika

    2012-01-01

    The thesis dedicated to the issue of body image in the context of marketing communication emphasizing female body imaging in advertising. The aim of Master's thesis is to identify differences in the perception of beauty between the German and Czechoslovak culture. The theoretical part is intended to explain the body image issues, including historical development. Furthermore points out the influence of mass media on women's physical self-concept. The practical part deals with content analysis...

  5. The Impact of Body Image on the WTP Values for Reduced-Fat and Low-Salt Content Potato Chips among Obese and Non-Obese Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana de-Magistris

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess the influence of body image on consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP for potato chips carrying nutritional claims among obese and non-obese people. About 309 non-clinical individuals participated in a Real Choice Experiment. They were recruited by a company and grouped in: (i non-obese with good body image; (ii non-obese with body image dissatisfaction; (iii obese with good body image; (iv obese with body image dissatisfaction. Results indicate differences in consumers’ willingness to pay among consumer groups. Body image dissatisfaction of normal people did not influence the WTP for healthier chips. Obese people with body image dissatisfaction were willing to pay more for healthier chips (i.e., low-salt content potato chips than normal ones with body image dissatisfaction. Examining the role of knowledge in the light of how this could impact on body image is relevant to improve the health status of individuals and their diet. Knowledge about nutrition could improve the body image of obese people.

  6. The Impact of Body Image on the WTP Values for Reduced-Fat and Low-Salt Content Potato Chips among Obese and Non-Obese Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-Magistris, Tiziana; López-Galán, Belinda; Caputo, Vincenzina

    2016-12-21

    The aim of this study is to assess the influence of body image on consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) for potato chips carrying nutritional claims among obese and non-obese people. About 309 non-clinical individuals participated in a Real Choice Experiment. They were recruited by a company and grouped in: (i) non-obese with good body image; (ii) non-obese with body image dissatisfaction; (iii) obese with good body image; (iv) obese with body image dissatisfaction. Results indicate differences in consumers' willingness to pay among consumer groups. Body image dissatisfaction of normal people did not influence the WTP for healthier chips. Obese people with body image dissatisfaction were willing to pay more for healthier chips (i.e., low-salt content potato chips) than normal ones with body image dissatisfaction. Examining the role of knowledge in the light of how this could impact on body image is relevant to improve the health status of individuals and their diet. Knowledge about nutrition could improve the body image of obese people.

  7. Marketingový význam body image

    OpenAIRE

    Rašková, Barbora

    2009-01-01

    The Diploma thesis deals with the importance of body image marketing. Thesis depicts concept of body image, its evolution in time and the influence of media on people's self-concept and self-evaluation. The practical part is focused on content analysis of front-pages of specific magazine in given time period. Independent chapter concerns with analysis of consumers via data from MML-TGI database.

  8. Body image v televizních reklamách

    OpenAIRE

    Bednaříková, Jana

    2009-01-01

    Target of my final thesis is to explore elements of body image in TV commercials. In the thesis I focused on body image, marketing communication and advertisement. I tried to map what are people like in TV spots through content analysis. I did also analyze marketing research data of Market & Media & Lifestyle agency. I chose those data with due regard for perception of body image by consumers and I focused on TV advertisements issues.

  9. Development of a body image scale for Brazilian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catiane Souza

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Body image is an important parameter of body satisfaction and needs to be evaluated with instruments developed and validated for a specific population. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a scale to assess body image in Brazilian women. A scale consisting of 11 silhouettes was prepared. Content validation was performed by seven experts from different health areas. To assess repeatability (two consecutive assessments and reproducibility (reassessment after one week, an intentional sample stratified into four groups according to the characterization of Brazilian women regarding nutritional status was selected. Participants were 125 women aged 18-55 years and body mass index (BMI between 18.5 and 38.6 kg/m2. The Kappa coefficient (k was used to assess repeatability and reproducibility, considering the isolated responses of the current body, ideal body and the difference between them, assumed as satisfactory when k≥0.6. For all trials, α=0.05. During the content validation phase, the instrument developed was changed following the evaluators’ suggestions and it was considered very suitable by six of seven evaluators. The Kappa coefficient was good in isolated issues and in the difference between them in both repeatability and reproducibility. The Body Image Scale was considered a valid content, with good repeatability and reproducibility. Considering the instrument as low cost and of rapid implementation/evaluation, it may be used to evaluate the body image of Brazilian women with BMI between 18.5 and 38.6 kg/m2, in different contexts.

  10. A Sensitive Measurement for Estimating Impressions of Image-Contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Mie; Matouge, Shingo; Mori, Toshifumi; Suzuki, Noboru; Kasuga, Masao

    We have investigated Kansei Content that appeals maker's intention to viewer's kansei. An SD method is a very good way to evaluate subjective impression of image-contents. However, because the SD method is performed after subjects view the image-contents, it is difficult to examine impression of detailed scenes of the image-contents in real time. To measure viewer's impression of the image-contents in real time, we have developed a Taikan sensor. With the Taikan sensor, we investigate relations among the image-contents, the grip strength and the body temperature. We also explore the interface of the Taikan sensor to use it easily. In our experiment, a horror movie is used that largely affects emotion of the subjects. Our results show that there is a possibility that the grip strength increases when the subjects view a strained scene and that it is easy to use the Taikan sensor without its circle base that is originally installed.

  11. Marketingový význam body image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Koudelka

    2013-11-01

    body image importance in consumer life and the possible influence of medial body image mirror. Finally, substantial research line could be aimed on the advertising face. The content analysis of advertising is proper method with register units such as body mass, body type, skin type, hair type, activity, declared meaning I benefit, gender and age. The above stated research lines are involved in the solution of grant project Marketing importance of body image (GACR 402I09I0311. First analyses of MML-TGI data have discovered some interesting findings. The importance of attractive appearance is noticeable increasing but contrary the share of consumers who want to look better is decreasing. As for relation to advertising, consumers who think they are overweight stated that they could not trust in advertising. The results indicate that the commonly applied opinion about the negative influence of advertising on body image of consumers is not proved.

  12. [Perspectives on body: embodiment and body image].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shiow-Ru; Chao, Yu-Mei Yu

    2007-06-01

    "Body" is a basic concept of both the natural and human sciences. This extensive review of the literature explores the various philosophical approaches to the body, including empiricism, idealism, existentialism and phenomenology, as well as the relationship between body and mind. Embodiment and body image are the two main concepts of body addressed in this article. Merleau-Ponty's perspective on embodiment, an important new area of theory development, emphasizes that embodiment research must focus on life experiences, such as the study of body image. Using Schilder's framework of psychosocialology, this article provides a comprehensive understanding of the concept of body image and women's perspectives on the "body" in both Western culture and Eastern cultures. Body size and shape significantly influence the self-image of women. Body image is something that develops and changes throughout one's life span and is continually being constructed, destructed, and reconstructed. Personal body image has important psychological effects on the individual, especially women. This integrative review can make a significant contribution to knowledge in this area and, consequently, to related practice and research.

  13. Body Image as Strategy for Engagement in Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcisio Torres Silva

    2015-06-01

    This work intends to analyze not only how communication technologies have contributed to the emergence of such events but also how image production can be interpreted in such environments. Since the use of social media in protests caught the attention of broadcasting media in 2009 during demonstrations in Iran, a strong connection can be noticed between the content circulating through digital communication technologies and the body. For images produced during the Arab Spring, the same is observed with a series of strategies connecting body image and social mobilization. Our intention is to contribute to the debate of political images, considering the way they have been produced in contemporary society, which deals with a complex environment composed of communication technologies, social organization, and the body itself.

  14. Implicit Beliefs about Ideal Body Image Predict Body Image Dissatisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niclas eHeider

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We examined whether implicit measures of actual and ideal body image can be used to predict body dissatisfaction in young female adults. Participants completed two Implicit Relational Assessment Procedures (IRAPs to examine their implicit beliefs concerning actual (e.g., I am thin and desired ideal body image (e.g., I want to be thin. Body dissatisfaction was examined via self-report questionnaires and rating scales. As expected, differences in body dissatisfaction exerted a differential influence on the two IRAP scores. Specifically, the implicit belief that one is thin was lower in participants who exhibited a high degree of body dissatisfaction than in participants who exhibited a low degree of body dissatisfaction. In contrast, the implicit desire to be thin (i.e., thin ideal body image was stronger in participants who exhibited a high level of body dissatisfaction than in participants who were less dissatisfied with their body. Adding further weight to the idea that both IRAP measures captured different underlying constructs, we also observed that they correlated differently with body mass index, explicit body dissatisfaction, and explicit measures of actual and ideal body image. More generally, these findings underscore the advantage of using implicit measures that incorporate relational information relative to implicit measures that allow for an assessment of associative relations only.

  15. Adolescence and Body Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinshenker, Naomi

    2002-01-01

    Discusses body image among adolescents, explaining that today's adolescents are more prone to body image distortions and dissatisfaction than ever and examining the historical context; how self-image develops; normative discontent; body image distortions; body dysmorphic disorder (BDD); vulnerability of boys (muscle dysmorphia); who is at risk;…

  16. [Images and representations of the female body in Brazilian magazines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Márcia Rebeca Rocha; de Oliveira, Jeane Freitas; do Nascimento, Enilda Rosendo; Carvalho, Evanilda Souza de Santana

    2013-06-01

    This documentary, qualitative, descriptive study has the objective to analyze images and representations of the female body and their relation to drug use in the content of articles published in four magazines with national circulation (Veja, Isto E, Boa Forma, Claúdia). The articles selected were submitted to the technique of content analysis, with three thematic groups identified: the body as an incentive to use drugs; risks to the body resulting from drug use; and the search for the perfect body through drug use. The data showed that the media reproduces rigid aesthetic standards, exposing women to social and health offenses that stimulate drug use, either autonomously or by prescription. The search for beauty and the appeal to feminine eroticism, published through the communication channels analyzed limit the social importance of women by using images that link them to the status of sexual object.

  17. Developing a Hypnotic Relaxation Intervention to Improve Body Image: A Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieslak, Alison; Elkins, Gary; Banerjee, Tanima; Marsack, Jessica; Hickman, Kimberly; Johnson, Alisa; Henry, Norah; Barton, Debra

    2016-11-01

    To determine the content, feasibility, and best outcome of a mind-body intervention involving self-directed hypnotic relaxation to target body image.
. A five-week, uncontrolled, unblinded feasibility intervention study.
. Behavioral therapy offices in Ann Arbor, Michigan, and Waco, Texas.
. 10 female breast cancer survivors and 1 breast and gynecologic cancer survivor. 
. Adult women with a history of breast and gynecologic cancer and no major psychiatric history were eligible. The intervention included four face-to-face sessions with a research therapist lasting 40-60 minutes, logged home practice, one telephone check-in call at week 5, and one intervention feedback telephone call to complete the study. Descriptive statistics and paired t-tests were used to test feasibility and content validity.
. Stress from body changes as measured by the Impact of Treatment Scale, sexual function as measured by the Female Sexual Function Index, and sexual self-image as measured by the Sexual Self-Schema Scale for women were the variables of interest.
. The intervention content was confirmed. Changes in scores from the baseline to week 5 suggested that stress from body changes decreased and sexual self-schema and function improved during the intervention. Nine of the 11 women were satisfied with the intervention, and all 11 indicated that their body image improved. 
. Hypnotic relaxation therapy shows promise for improving body image and, in doing so, improving sexual health in this population. Additional testing of this intervention is warranted.
. Hypnotic relaxation therapy is feasible to improve body image and sexual health in women diagnosed with cancer and may be an important intervention that could be offered by nurses and other behavioral therapists.

  18. 'Strong is the new skinny': A content analysis of #fitspiration images on Instagram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, Marika; Zaccardo, Mia

    2018-07-01

    'Fitspiration' is an online trend designed to inspire viewers towards a healthier lifestyle by promoting exercise and healthy food. This study provides a content analysis of fitspiration imagery on the social networking site Instagram. A set of 600 images were coded for body type, activity, objectification and textual elements. Results showed that the majority of images of women contained only one body type: thin and toned. In addition, most images contained objectifying elements. Accordingly, while fitspiration images may be inspirational for viewers, they also contain a number of elements likely to have negative effects on the viewer's body image.

  19. A content analysis of thinspiration images and text posts on Tumblr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wick, Madeline R; Harriger, Jennifer A

    2018-03-01

    Thinspiration is content advocating extreme weight loss by means of images and/or text posts. While past content analyses have examined thinspiration content on social media and other websites, no research to date has examined thinspiration content on Tumblr. Over the course of a week, 222 images and text posts were collected after entering the keyword 'thinspiration' into the Tumblr search bar. These images were then rated on a variety of characteristics. The majority of thinspiration images included a thin woman adhering to culturally based beauty, often posing in a manner that accentuated her thinness or sexuality. The most common themes for thinspiration text posts included dieting/restraint, weight loss, food guilt, and body guilt. The thinspiration content on Tumblr appears to be consistent with that on other mediums. Future research should utilize experimental methods to examine the potential effects of consuming thinspiration content on Tumblr. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The association between sexual satisfaction and body image in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujols, Yasisca; Seal, Brooke N; Meston, Cindy M

    2010-02-01

    Although sexual functioning has been linked to sexual satisfaction, it only partially explains the degree to which women report being sexually satisfied. Other factors include quality of life, relational variables, and individual factors such as body image. Of the few studies that have investigated the link between body image and sexual satisfaction, most have considered body image to be a single construct and have shown mixed results. The present study assessed multiple body image variables in order to better understand which aspects of body image influence multiple domains of sexual satisfaction, including sexual communication, compatibility, contentment, personal concern, and relational concern in a community sample of women. Women between the ages of 18 and 49 years in sexual relationships (N = 154) participated in an Internet survey that assessed sexual functioning, five domains of sexual satisfaction, and several body image variables. Body image variables included the sexual attractiveness, weight concern, and physical condition subscales of the Body Esteem Scale, the appearance-based subscale of the Cognitive Distractions During Sexual Activity Scale, and body mass index. Total score of the Sexual Satisfaction Scale for Women was the main outcome measure. Sexual functioning was measured by a modified Female Sexual Function Index. Consistent with expectations, correlations indicated significant positive relationships between sexual functioning, sexual satisfaction, and all body image variables. A multiple regression analysis revealed that sexual satisfaction was predicted by high body esteem and low frequency of appearance-based distracting thoughts during sexual activity, even after controlling for sexual functioning status. Several aspects of body image, including weight concern, physical condition, sexual attractiveness, and thoughts about the body during sexual activity predict sexual satisfaction in women. The findings suggest that women who experience

  1. Swimsuit issues: promoting positive body image in young women's magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Elizabeth Reid; Moncrieff-Boyd, Jessica

    2011-08-01

    This preliminary study reviews the promotion of healthy body image to young Australian women, following the 2009 introduction of the voluntary Industry Code of Conduct on Body Image. The Code includes using diverse sized models in magazines. A qualitative content analysis of the 2010 annual 'swimsuit issues' was conducted on 10 Australian young women's magazines. Pictorial and/or textual editorial evidence of promoting diverse body shapes and sizes was regarded as indicative of the magazines' upholding aspects of the voluntary Code of Conduct for Body Image. Diverse sized models were incorporated in four of the seven magazines with swimsuit features sampled. Body size differentials were presented as part of the swimsuit features in three of the magazines sampled. Tips for diverse body type enhancement were included in four of the magazines. All magazines met at least one criterion. One magazine displayed evidence of all three criteria. Preliminary examination suggests that more than half of young women's magazines are upholding elements of the voluntary Code of Conduct for Body Image, through representation of diverse-sized women in their swimsuit issues.

  2. Aging, body image, and body shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, F Richard; Muehlenkamp, Jennifer J; Paintner, Ashley; Wasson, Kayla; Hager, Tracy; Hoverson, Fallon

    2008-10-01

    Participants were 25 older men (M age = 72 years, SD = 10 years) and 27 older women (M age = 71 years, SD = 8 years) who examined multiple line-drawing figures of babies, children, young adults, middle-aged adults, and older adults. Participants picked a number on a Likert-type scale ranging from 1 (very thin) to 9 (very obese) in response to questions including "Which is the most attractive?" and "Which figure would you most like to look like?" They also completed questionnaires about their body image and body shape. In response to the age-specific line drawings (e.g., those depicting older men and older women), older women endorsed thinner figures (e.g., picked smaller numbers) than did men. Likewise, older women reported thinking more about their body shape and appearance than did men and perceived their body image as "a little too big" in comparison with the older men who perceived their body image as "just the right size." However, a breakdown of normal and overweight women in this sample revealed that for some overweight elderly women, obesity could become a satisfactory way of life. Much as with college-aged women, the endorsement of a thinner body image by many of the older adult female participants appeared to persist into late adulthood and suggests that research into body image issues with older adults is relevant and necessary.

  3. Comparative effects of Facebook and conventional media on body image dissatisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Rachel; Blaszczynski, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Appearance comparison has consistently been shown to engender body image dissatisfaction. To date, most studies have demonstrated this relationship between appearance comparison and body image dissatisfaction in the context of conventional media images depicting the thin-ideal. Social comparison theory posits that people are more likely to compare themselves to similar others. Since social media forums such as Facebook involve one's peers, the current study aimed to determine whether the relationship between appearance comparison and body image dissatisfaction would be stronger for those exposed to social media images, compared to conventional media images. A sample of 193 female first year university students were randomly allocated to view a series of either Facebook or conventional media thin-ideal images. Participants completed questionnaires assessing pre- and post- image exposure measures of thin-ideal internalisation, appearance comparison, self-esteem, Facebook use and eating disorder risk. Type of exposure was not found to moderate the relationship between appearance comparison and changes in body image dissatisfaction. When analysed according to exposure type, appearance comparison only significantly predicted body image dissatisfaction change for those exposed to Facebook, but not conventional media. Facebook use was found to predict higher baseline body image dissatisfaction and was associated with higher eating disorder risk. The findings suggest the importance of extending the body image dissatisfaction literature by taking into account emerging social media formats. It is recommended that interventions for body image dissatisfaction and eating disorders consider appearance comparison processes elicited by thin-ideal content on social media forums, such as Facebook, in addition to conventional media.

  4. Television Images and Adolescent Girls' Body Image Disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botta, Renee A.

    1999-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship on the effects of media images on adolescents, using social-comparison theory and critical-viewing theory. Finds that media do have an impact on body-image disturbance. Suggests that body-image processing is the key to understanding how television images affect adolescent girls' body-image attitudes and behaviors. (SR)

  5. An investigation of content and media images in gay men's magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucier, Jason A; Caron, Sandra L

    2008-01-01

    This study provides an analysis of gay men's magazines, examining both the content and advertisements. Four magazine titles were selected, including The Advocate, Genre, Instinct, and Out, each targeting gay men as its target audience. These magazines were coded for both article content and advertisement content. In the advertisement analysis, both the type of advertisement and characteristics of the men depicted within the advertisement when present. The results mirror previous research findings relating to the portrayal of women, including the objectification of specific body parts and the high community standards set by the images depicted. These findings were reinforced by both the advertisements and content analyzed to include a high degree of importance being placed on having the right body type. Implications for further research are discussed.

  6. “Fitspiration” on Social Media: A Content Analysis of Gendered Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichard, Ivanka; Lim, Megan Su Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Background “Fitspiration” (also known as “fitspo”) aims to inspire individuals to exercise and be healthy, but emerging research indicates exposure can negatively impact female body image. Fitspiration is frequently accessed on social media; however, it is currently unclear the degree to which messages about body image and exercise differ by gender of the subject. Objective The aim of our study was to conduct a content analysis to identify the characteristics of fitspiration content posted across social media and whether this differs according to subject gender. Methods Content tagged with #fitspo across Instagram, Facebook, Twitter, and Tumblr was extracted over a composite 30-minute period. All posts were analyzed by 2 independent coders according to a codebook. Results Of the 415/476 (87.2%) relevant posts extracted, most posts were on Instagram (360/415, 86.8%). Most posts (308/415, 74.2%) related thematically to exercise, and 81/415 (19.6%) related thematically to food. In total, 151 (36.4%) posts depicted only female subjects and 114/415 (27.5%) depicted only male subjects. Female subjects were typically thin but toned; male subjects were often muscular or hypermuscular. Within the images, female subjects were significantly more likely to be aged under 25 years (P<.001) than the male subjects, to have their full body visible (P=.001), and to have their buttocks emphasized (P<.001). Male subjects were more likely to have their face visible in the post (P=.005) than the female subjects. Female subjects were more likely to be sexualized than the male subjects (P=.002). Conclusions Female #fitspo subjects typically adhered to the thin or athletic ideal, and male subjects typically adhered to the muscular ideal. Future research and interventional efforts should consider the potential objectifying messages in fitspiration, as it relates to both female and male body image. PMID:28356239

  7. "Fitspiration" on Social Media: A Content Analysis of Gendered Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrotte, Elise Rose; Prichard, Ivanka; Lim, Megan Su Cheng

    2017-03-29

    "Fitspiration" (also known as "fitspo") aims to inspire individuals to exercise and be healthy, but emerging research indicates exposure can negatively impact female body image. Fitspiration is frequently accessed on social media; however, it is currently unclear the degree to which messages about body image and exercise differ by gender of the subject. The aim of our study was to conduct a content analysis to identify the characteristics of fitspiration content posted across social media and whether this differs according to subject gender. Content tagged with #fitspo across Instagram, Facebook, Twitter, and Tumblr was extracted over a composite 30-minute period. All posts were analyzed by 2 independent coders according to a codebook. Of the 415/476 (87.2%) relevant posts extracted, most posts were on Instagram (360/415, 86.8%). Most posts (308/415, 74.2%) related thematically to exercise, and 81/415 (19.6%) related thematically to food. In total, 151 (36.4%) posts depicted only female subjects and 114/415 (27.5%) depicted only male subjects. Female subjects were typically thin but toned; male subjects were often muscular or hypermuscular. Within the images, female subjects were significantly more likely to be aged under 25 years (P<.001) than the male subjects, to have their full body visible (P=.001), and to have their buttocks emphasized (P<.001). Male subjects were more likely to have their face visible in the post (P=.005) than the female subjects. Female subjects were more likely to be sexualized than the male subjects (P=.002). Female #fitspo subjects typically adhered to the thin or athletic ideal, and male subjects typically adhered to the muscular ideal. Future research and interventional efforts should consider the potential objectifying messages in fitspiration, as it relates to both female and male body image. ©Elise Rose Carrotte, Ivanka Prichard, Megan Su Cheng Lim. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http

  8. Atlas of total body radionuclide imaging. Volume I and II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fordham, E.W.; Ali, A.; Turner, D.A.; Charters, J.

    1982-01-01

    This two-volume work on total body imaging may well be regarded by future historians of nuclear medicine as representing the high points in the art of total body imaging in clinical nuclear medicine. With regard to information content and volume, it is the largest collection of well-interpreted, beautifully reproduced, total body images available to date. The primary goal of this atlas is to demonstrate patterns of abnormality in both typical and less typical variations. This goal is accomplished with many well-described examples of technical artifacts, of normal variants, of common and of rare diseases, and of pitfalls in interpretations. Volume I is entirely dedicated to skeletal imaging with Tc-99m labeled phosphates or phosphonates. The volume is divided into 22 chapters, which include chapters on methodology and instrumentation, chapters on the important bone diseases and other topics such as a treatise on false-negative and false-positive scans, and soft tissue and urinary tract abnormalities recognizable on bone scintigrams

  9. Image Retargeting by Content-Aware Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Weiming; Wu, Fuzhang; Kong, Yan; Mei, Xing; Lee, Tong-Yee; Zhang, Xiaopeng

    2014-01-01

    Real-world images usually contain vivid contents and rich textural details, which will complicate the manipulation on them. In this paper, we design a new framework based on content-aware synthesis to enhance content-aware image retargeting. By detecting the textural regions in an image, the textural image content can be synthesized rather than simply distorted or cropped. This method enables the manipulation of textural & non-textural regions with different strategy since they have different...

  10. A meta-analysis of the relationships between body checking, body image avoidance, body image dissatisfaction, mood, and disordered eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D Catherine; White, Emily K; Srinivasan, Vamshek J

    2018-04-16

    Body checking (BC) and body image avoidance (BIA) have been proposed as etiological and maintaining mechanisms for eating disorder (ED) pathology. To date, no comprehensive review summarizes the relationships of BC and BIA with ED pathology, body image dissatisfaction, or mood/affect. Meta-analyses examined the relationships of BC and BIA with ED pathology, body image dissatisfaction, and mood/affect. Gender, publication status, and presence or absence of ED diagnoses were examined as potential moderators. Results showed strong relationships between BC and ED pathology (ρ = 0.588) and BC and body image dissatisfaction (ρ = 0.631) and a moderate relationship between BC and mood/affect (ρ = 0.385). Similarly, results showed strong relationships between BIA and ED pathology (ρ = 0.553) and BIA and body image dissatisfaction (ρ = 0.543) and a moderate relationship between BIA and mood/affect (ρ = 0.392). Overall, limited evidence supported publication bias; however, publication bias may exist in the relationship between BIA and body image dissatisfaction in the literature. Subgroup moderator analyses suggested that gender moderates the strength of the relationships between BC and ED pathology, body image dissatisfaction, and mood/affect and between BIA and body image dissatisfaction. Results are consistent with cognitive-behavioral models of ED pathology that suggest BC and BIA are behavioral expressions of overvaluation of weight and shape. Notably, more published research has investigated BC than BIA. Future studies, incorporating methods such as meta-analytic structural equation modeling, should examine these variables to further test cognitive-behavioral models of ED development and maintenance. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The body image in ancient tragedy: a verbal visuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisana De Carli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, two tragedies of Sophocles and two others from Seneca are analyzed in order to identify the visuality given to the body through the word, image built for the character’s body, their levels of meaning and reverberation in text and scene. This information can be characterized as internal rubric because such data supports the scene’s construction. Thus, structure and content engender enhancing body's significance on scene either by its presence or a verbal visual, figuring a semantic occupation, which configures as one of the marks of the ancient theater.

  12. How do you define body image? Exploring conceptual gaps in understandings of body image at an exercise facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, K Alysse; Gammage, Kimberley L; van Ingen, Cathy

    2017-12-01

    The definition of body image has evolved within research; however, less is known about the layperson's understanding of the construct. This study explored how members and student trainees of an exercise facility (designed for older adults, people with physical disability, and those with cardiac complications) defined body image. Nineteen participants completed a one-on-one interview, and seven of those participants took part in six additional focus group meetings. The following main themes were found: stereotypical assumptions about body image (e.g., it is solely a person's weight or merely a woman's issue), body image continua for positive and negative body image, degree of complexity of body image dimensions, broad considerations of body image (e.g., it is self-esteem), and limited knowledge about body image. These findings suggest a need for knowledge translation between researchers and the general public which informs future body image program design. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Body Image and Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janete Maximiano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Eating disorders should be understood in a multidimensional perspective, emphasizing a biopsicossocial context. In these pathologies it`s the body, in the first instance, that reveals the disease, being in this way the target of the conflict, revealing a disturbed body experience and as a consequence a weak conception of their personal body image. The body image is conceptualised as a subjective image that the individuals form in their own mind, about their body, in relation with differ- ent contexts of life. The intent of the studies is to comprehend the level of body image disturbance, which have concluded that in the majority of the cases, significant changes on perceptive capacity of the patients do not exist. In this way it`s important to study in a more effective and qualitative way the affective and personal factors. The authors pretend with this bibliographic revision, make a research of body image assessment to the Eating Disorders (Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa, and to reflect which are the best ones to adapt for Portuguese reality.

  14. Image fusion between whole body FDG PET images and whole body MRI images using a full-automatic mutual information-based multimodality image registration software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Yoshitaka; Nakano, Yoshitada; Fujibuchi, Toshiou; Isobe, Tomoko; Kazama, Toshiki; Ito, Hisao

    2006-01-01

    We attempted image fusion between whole body PET and whole body MRI of thirty patients using a full-automatic mutual information (MI) -based multimodality image registration software and evaluated accuracy of this method and impact of the coregistrated imaging on diagnostic accuracy. For 25 of 30 fused images in body area, translating gaps were within 6 mm in all axes and rotating gaps were within 2 degrees around all axes. In head and neck area, considerably much gaps caused by difference of head inclination at imaging occurred in 16 patients, however these gaps were able to decrease by fused separately. In 6 patients, diagnostic accuracy using PET/MRI fused images was superior compared by PET image alone. This work shows that whole body FDG PET images and whole body MRI images can be automatically fused using MI-based multimodality image registration software accurately and this technique can add useful information when evaluating FDG PET images. (author)

  15. Estimation of Total Body Fat from Potassium-40 Content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taha Mohamed Taha Ahmed, T.M.T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper concerns on estimation of total body fat from potassium 40 content using total body counting technique. The work performed using fast scan whole body counter. Calibration of that system for K-40 was carried out under assumption that uniformity distribution of radioactivity of potassium was distributed in 10 polyethylene bottles phantom. Different body sizes were represented by 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 polyethylene bottles; each bottle has a volume of 0.04 m3. The counting efficiency for each body size was determined. Lean body weight (LBW) was calculated for ten males and ten females using appropriate mathematical equation. Total Body Potassium, TBK for the same selected group was measured using whole body counter. A mathematical relationship between lean body weight and potassium content was deduced .Fat contents for some individuals were calculated and weight/height ratio was indicated for fatness.

  16. Comparison of whole-body-imaging methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rollo, F.D.; Hoffer, P.

    1977-01-01

    Currently there are four different devices that have found clinical utility in whole-body imaging. These are the rectilinear scanner, the multicrystal whole-body scanner, the Anger-type camera with a whole-body-imaging table, and the tomoscanner. In this text, the basic theory of operation and a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages in whole-body imaging is presented for each device. When applicable, a comparative assessment of the various devices is also presented. As with all else in life, there is no simple answer to the question ''which total body imaging device is best.'' Institutions with a very heavy total-body-imaging load may prefer to use an already available dual-headed rectilinear scanner system for these studies, rather than invest in a new instrument. Institutions with moderate total-body-imaging loads may wish to invest in moving table or moving camera devices which make total body imaging more convenient but retain the basic flexibility of the camera. The large-field Anger camera with or without motion offers another flexible option to these institutions. The laboratory with a very heavy total body imaging load may select efficiency over flexibility, thereby freeing up other instruments for additional studies. Finally, reliability as well as availability and quality of local service must be considered. After all, design features of an instrument become irrelevant when it is broken down and awaiting repair

  17. Computerized assessment of body image in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa: comparison with standardized body image assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Asaf; Amiaz, Revital; Davidson, Noa; Czerniak, Efrat; Gur, Eitan; Kiryati, Nahum; Harari, Daniel; Furst, Miriam; Stein, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    Body image disturbances are a prominent feature of eating disorders (EDs). Our aim was to test and evaluate a computerized assessment of body image (CABI), to compare the body image disturbances in different ED types, and to assess the factors affecting body image. The body image of 22 individuals undergoing inpatient treatment with restricting anorexia nervosa (AN-R), 22 with binge/purge AN (AN-B/P), 20 with bulimia nervosa (BN), and 41 healthy controls was assessed using the Contour Drawing Rating Scale (CDRS), the CABI, which simulated the participants' self-image in different levels of weight changes, and the Eating Disorder Inventory-2-Body Dissatisfaction (EDI-2-BD) scale. Severity of depression and anxiety was also assessed. Significant differences were found among the three scales assessing body image, although most of their dimensions differentiated between patients with EDs and controls. Our findings support the use of the CABI in the comparison of body image disturbances in patients with EDs vs. Moreover, the use of different assessment tools allows for a better understanding of the differences in body image disturbances in different ED types.

  18. Body Image in the Dance Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Wendy

    2008-01-01

    Although some research has shown that dance enhances body image and self-esteem, other research shows that it sometimes has the opposite effect and causes dancers to develop a negative body image and even eating disorders. In dance, body image is not only about maintaining a certain weight; it can also refer to specific perceived body flaws.…

  19. Assessing Body Image in Young Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin E. Heron

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine body image discrepancies in elementary-age children in a racially diverse sample. Body image and body image discrepancy were measured in elementary school children (N = 58 of various racial groups (35% Hispanic, 33% African American, 16% Caucasian, 14% other. Each participant was shown a set of silhouette figure drawings and reported current and ideal body sizes. Children’s body discrepancies appear to change between Grades 1 and 2. Notable discrepancies between their current and ideal figures, and their current figure and those that they believe are most attractive, are largely absent in Grade 1, but are evident in Grade 2 and older children. No substantive racial or gender differences in body image perceptions or dissatisfaction were observed in this sample. Body image dissatisfaction may begin as early as second grade in both girls and boys of various racial and ethnic backgrounds. These findings provide preliminary evidence that body discrepancies may begin much earlier than previously thought.

  20. Future directions for positive body image research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliwell, Emma

    2015-06-01

    The emergence of positive body image research during the last 10 years represents an important shift in the body image literature. The existing evidence provides a strong empirical basis for the study of positive body image and research has begun to address issues of age, gender, ethnicity, culture, development, and intervention in relation to positive body image. This article briefly reviews the existing evidence before outlining directions for future research. Specifically, six areas for future positive body image research are outlined: (a) conceptualization, (b) models, (c) developmental factors, (d) social interactions, (e) cognitive processing style, and (f) interventions. Finally, the potential role of positive body image as a protective factor within the broader body image literature is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Body image in adolescent pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaltzman, Alina; Falcon, Bani; Harrison, Megan E

    2015-04-01

    To review the existing literature on body image in adolescent pregnancy and explore concepts about the relationship between the two. A systematic review. Peer-reviewed articles were identified through MEDLINE (1946-present) and PsycINFO (1806-November 2013), conducted in any setting. Pregnant and postpartum adolescents ages 13-19 y. None. The outcome measures used in the studies reviewed varied: themes from focus groups, diary entry analysis, Pregnancy and weight gain attitude scale, Edinburgh postnatal depression scale, Parenting stress index, Eating disorder inventory, Tennessee self concept scale. The search yielded a total of 149 studies, of which 6 were relevant to the specific topic and age group. The very limited research shows a dichotomy in body image perception during pregnancy in adolescence; some studies show an increase in body image disturbance and dissatisfaction during pregnancy in adolescents, and other studies reviewed found that the majority of pregnant adolescents had positive body image and positive attitudes towards weight gain. A bidirectional link between depression and negative body image in adolescent pregnancy is suggested. The current research exploring the relationshp between body image and pregnancy in adolescence is limited, both in quality and quantity. Future research is needed to evaluate longitudinal models that will better inform about potential risk factors for body dissatisfaction during pregnancy in adolescence, including the possible role of depression. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Considerations on the correlation between real body and body image

    OpenAIRE

    Beatrice ABALAȘEI; Florin TROFIN

    2017-01-01

    very individual in the society has a representation of it’s own body in relation to the spatial cues, postural cues, time cues, etc., considered by specialists the body scheme. Throughout its development, the human being goes through different stages of organization of both the image the and body scheme. We start carrying out this study from the idea that there could be, in male individuals, a link between body representation (own image projected outwardly apparent by reference to an image pr...

  3. The Dimensionality of Body Image Disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgan, Richard J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined personality variables in 75 male and 75 female college students. Found two dimensions underlying body image disturbance variables, one loading on body image dissatisfaction and one loading on body image disturbance. Low negative correlation between two factors suggests that distortion and dissatisfaction are fairly distinct and that body…

  4. Should body image programs be inclusive? A focus group study of college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciao, Anna C; Ohls, Olivia C; Pringle, Kevin D

    2018-01-01

    Most evidence-based body image programs for college students (e.g., the Body Project) are designed for female-only audiences, although body dissatisfaction is not limited to female-identified individuals. Furthermore, programs do not explicitly discuss diversity, although individuals with marginalized gender, racial, and sexual identities may be particularly vulnerable to body image disturbances. Making programs more inclusive may increase their disseminability. This qualitative study examined the feasibility of adapting the Body Project for universal and inclusive use with college students. Participants (N = 36; M age = 21.66 years; 73% female-identified; 20% sexual minority; 23% racial minority) attended one of five semi-structured focus groups to explore the inclusivity of appearance-based cultural norms using adapted Body Project activities and discuss the feasibility of universal and inclusive interventions. Inductive qualitative content analysis with three-rater consensus identified focus group themes. There was consensus that inclusive interventions could have a positive impact (broadening perspectives, normalizing body image concerns, increasing awareness) despite potential barriers (poor diversity representation, vulnerability). There was strong consensus regarding advice for facilitating inclusive interventions (e.g., skilled facilitation, education, increasing diversity). Results suggest that inclusive body image programs are desirable and provide a framework for creating the EVERYbody Project, a program for more universal audiences. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The evolution of whole-body imaging.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moran, Deirdre E

    2012-02-01

    This article reviews the evolution of whole-body imaging, discussing the history and development of radiography, nuclear medicine, computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET), combined PET-CT, and magnetic resonance imaging. The obstacles hindering progress toward whole-body imaging using each of these modalities, and the technical advances that were developed to overcome them, are reviewed. The effectiveness and the limitations of whole-body imaging with each of these techniques are also briefly discussed.

  6. Bones, body parts, and sex appeal: An analysis of #thinspiration images on popular social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaznavi, Jannath; Taylor, Laramie D

    2015-06-01

    The present study extends research on thinspiration images, visual and/or textual images intended to inspire weight loss, from pro-eating disorder websites to popular photo-sharing social media websites. The article reports on a systematic content analysis of thinspiration images (N=300) on Twitter and Pinterest. Images tended to be sexually suggestive and objectifying with a focus on ultra-thin, bony, scantily-clad women. Results indicated that particular social media channels and labels (i.e., tags) were characterized by more segmented, bony content and greater social endorsement compared to others. In light of theories of media influence, results offer insight into the potentially harmful effects of exposure to sexually suggestive and objectifying content in large online communities on body image, quality of life, and mental health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Use of a Cutaneous Body Image (CBI) scale to evaluate self perception of body image in acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amr, Mostafa; Kaliyadan, Feroze; Shams, Tarek

    2014-01-01

    Skin disorders such as acne, which have significant cosmetic implications, can affect the self-perception of cutaneous body image. There are many scales which measure self-perception of cutaneous body image. We evaluated the use of a simple Cutaneous Body Image (CBI) scale to assess self-perception of body image in a sample of young Arab patients affected with acne. A total of 70 patients with acne answered the CBI questionnaire. The CBI score was correlated with the severity of acne and acne scarring, gender, and history of retinoids use. There was no statistically significant correlation between CBI and the other parameters - gender, acne/acne scarring severity, and use of retinoids. Our study suggests that cutaneous body image perception in Arab patients with acne was not dependent on variables like gender and severity of acne or acne scarring. A simple CBI scale alone is not a sufficiently reliable tool to assess self-perception of body image in patients with acne vulgaris.

  8. Impact of exposure to idealised male images on adolescent boys' body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Paul; Paxton, Susan J

    2004-09-01

    Research examining the impact on adolescent boys of exposure to muscular, athletic, idealised male images has been limited. This research had two aims (i) to investigate the mean effect on state body satisfaction and mood of exposure to idealised male images in adolescent boys, and, (ii) to identify individual attributes that predicted change in state body satisfaction, depression and anxiety following image exposure. One hundred and six boys (mean age=15.6 years) completed a self-report questionnaire on body image attitudes and psychological status. One week later, participants were divided into two groups, one that viewed idealised male images (experimental condition) while the other viewed non-figure advertising images (control condition). Three body satisfaction Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), and a depression and anxiety VAS were completed immediately prior to and following image exposure. In the experimental compared to control condition, there were no significant changes on Want Toned Body, Want to Change Body Shape, Depression and Anxiety VAS following image exposure. However, there was a significant improvement in Like Body Shape VAS. In the experimental group, high internalisation of the muscular, athletic ideal predicted more negative response to viewing images on the body image and Depression VAS. Prior body dissatisfaction significantly predicted negative response to Body Shape Liking and Anxiety VAS. While on average, adolescent boys in this research were not negatively affected by exposure to idealised male images, reaction to exposure is dependent on individual attributes.

  9. Future directions for positive body image research

    OpenAIRE

    Halliwell, E.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of positive body image research during the last 10 years represents an important shift in the body image literature. The existing evidence provides a strong empirical basis for the study of positive body image and research has begun to address issues of age, gender, ethnicity, culture, development, and intervention in relation to positive body image. This article briefly reviews the existing evidence before outlining directions for future research. Specifically, six areas for fu...

  10. Weighing women down: messages on weight loss and body shaping in editorial content in popular women's health and fitness magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Laura E; Knobloch-Westerwick, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to idealized body images has been shown to lower women's body satisfaction. Yet some studies found the opposite, possibly because real-life media (as opposed to image-only stimuli) often embed such imagery in messages that suggest thinness is attainable. Drawing on social cognitive theory, the current content analysis investigated editorial body-shaping and weight-loss messages in popular women's health and fitness magazines. About five thousand magazine pages published in top-selling U.S. women's health and fitness magazines in 2010 were examined. The findings suggest that body shaping and weight loss are a major topic in these magazines, contributing to roughly one-fifth of all editorial content. Assessing standards of motivation and conduct, as well as behaviors promoted by the messages, the findings reflect overemphasis on appearance over health and on exercise-related behaviors over caloric reduction behaviors and the combination of both behaviors. These accentuations are at odds with public health recommendations.

  11. Considerations on the correlation between real body and body image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice ABALAȘEI

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available very individual in the society has a representation of it’s own body in relation to the spatial cues, postural cues, time cues, etc., considered by specialists the body scheme. Throughout its development, the human being goes through different stages of organization of both the image the and body scheme. We start carrying out this study from the idea that there could be, in male individuals, a link between body representation (own image projected outwardly apparent by reference to an image presented through a questionnaire and anthropological parameters, such as body fat and body mass index. The study was conducted on a total of 28 subjects, aged 22.71 ± 2.62 years, height of 177.11 ± 6.76 cm and body weight of 73.56 ± 12.60 kg. For these subjects the body composition has been determined by electromagnetic bioimpendance technique and projection of the self was assesed through a questionnaire. After analyzing statistical data, our hypothesis was refuted by the lack of mathematical connections between the variables analyzed.

  12. Visual analytics for semantic queries of TerraSAR-X image content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza-Molina, Daniela; Alonso, Kevin; Datcu, Mihai

    2015-10-01

    the image content using semantic terms and the relations between them answering questions such as what is the percentage of urban area in a region? or what is the distribution of water bodies in a city?

  13. Association Among Internet Usage, Body Image and Eating Behaviors of Secondary School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewpradub, Natthakarn; Kiatrungrit, Komsan; Hongsanguansri, Sirichai; Pavasuthipaisit, Chosita

    2017-08-25

    Presently, the internet plays a big role in daily life, especially for adolescents. In this age group, they are more concerned about their face and body shape. Despite the numerous studies on the effect traditional media has on body image, very few have focused on the effect of newer forms of media (e.g. online media). And almost none have looked at the relationship between time spent online and body image. To study the associations between time spent on the internet, body image satisfaction and eating behaviors of students grades 7 to 12 in the Thai educational system. The sample group included 620 students, who were selected using simple random sampling from 6 secondary schools in Bangkok. Data were collected using the Media and Internet use behavior questionnaires, The Body-Esteem Scale for Adolescents and Adults: Thai version (BESAA), Drive for Muscularity Scale (DMS: males only), The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale: Thai version, Eating Attitude Test-26: Thai version (EAT-26) and the eating behaviors at risk of obesity questionnaire. Mean (sd) age of the sample was 15.7 (1.9) years, 246 participants (39.7%) were male and 374 (60.3%) were female. Using the internet and social networks for content related to body image and eating behaviors, was negatively associated with body image satisfaction but positively associated with inappropriate eating attitudes/behaviors, binging, purging, use of laxatives/diuretics and drive for muscularity with respect to behaviors and attitudes, and was associated with eating behaviors that carried a risk for obesity. Time spent on internet, especially engaged in activities related to self-image, and eating attitudes and behaviors, were associated with a decrease in body image satisfaction and problematic eating behaviors.

  14. Body Image Amongst Elite Rugby Union Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Claire; Hindle, Chloe; McLay-Cooke, Rebecca; Slater, Joanne; Brown, Rachel; Smith, Brett; Baker, Dane; Healey, Philip; Black, Katherine

    2017-11-16

    There is limited information on the risk of eating disorders and body image of elite male athletes. However, research suggests there are some athletes who have poor body image and they may be at increased risk of developing eating disorders. Therefore, the current study investigated risk of eating disorders, body image, and the relationship with age, in elite rugby union players during their pre-season training period.This cross-sectional study was undertaken at the start of the pre-season amongst elite rugby union players in New Zealand. Twenty-six professional rugby union players completed a 49-item questionnaire on body image and disordered eating. A 'body image score' was calculated from questionnaire subscales including 'drive for thinness', 'bulimia' and 'body dissatisfaction', with total scores above twenty indicative of poor body image.Body image scores varied from 8-39 out of a possible 0-100. Disordered eating behaviours were reported, including binge eating at least once a week (15%, n=4/26), pathogenic weight control use (4%, n=1/26) and avoidance of certain foods (77%, n=20/26). There was a statistically significant inverse association between the bulimia subscale and age (P = 0.034).At the start of the pre-season training period, many elite rugby union players experience disturbances in body image. The prevalence of disordered eating behaviours is of concern, and needs to be minimised due to the negative impact on health and performance. A focus on assessment and education of younger male rugby players may be required in order to reduce disordered eating patterns.

  15. The effects of aerobic- versus strength-training on body image among young women with pre-existing body image concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin Ginis, Kathleen A; Strong, Heather A; Arent, Shawn M; Bray, Steven R; Bassett-Gunter, Rebecca L

    2014-06-01

    This experiment compared the effects of aerobic-training (AT) versus strength-training (ST) on body image among young women with pre-existing body image concerns. Theory-based correlates of body image change were also examined. Participants were 46 women (M age=21.5 years), randomly assigned to an 8-week AT or ST intervention consisting of supervised exercise 3 days/week. Multidimensional measures of body image were administered pre- and post-intervention, along with measures of physical fitness, perceived fitness, and exercise self-efficacy. Women in the AT condition reported greater reductions in social physique anxiety (p=.001) and tended to report greater improvements in appearance evaluation (p=.06) than women in the ST condition. Changes in perceived fatness, perceived aerobic endurance and aerobic self-efficacy were significantly correlated with body image change (psexercise to improve body image and advancing theory to account for the effects of exercise. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Body-Image Evaluation and Body-Image Investment among Adolescents: A Test of Sociocultural and Social Comparison Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Todd G.; Kalin, Rudolf; Morrison, Melanie A.

    2004-01-01

    Sociocultural theory and social comparison theory were used to account for variations in body-image evaluation and body-image investment among male and female adolescents (N = 1,543). Exposure to magazines and television programs containing idealistic body imagery as well as frequency of self-comparison to universalistic targets (e.g., fashion…

  17. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... may include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT). top of page How is the procedure ... child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Computed Tomography (CT) - Body Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Body General ...

  18. Randomized controlled trial of an online mother-daughter body image and well-being intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrichs, Phillippa C; Atkinson, Melissa J; Garbett, Kirsty M; Williamson, Heidi; Halliwell, Emma; Rumsey, Nichola; Leckie, George; Sibley, Chris G; Barlow, Fiona Kate

    2016-09-01

    Poor body image is a public health issue. Mothers are a key influence on adolescent girls' body image. This study evaluated an accessible, scalable, low-intensity internet-based intervention delivered to mothers (Dove Self Esteem Project Website for Parents) on mothers' and their adolescent daughters' body image and psychosocial well-being. British mother-daughter dyads (N = 235) participated in a cluster randomized controlled trial (assessment-only control; mothers viewed the website without structured guidance [website-unstructured]; mothers viewed the website via a tailored pathway [website-tailored]). Dyads completed standardized self-report measures of body image, related risk factors, and psychosocial outcomes at baseline, 2 weeks post-exposure, 6-week, and 12-month follow-up. Dyadic models showed that relative to the control, mothers who viewed the website reported significantly higher self-esteem at post-exposure (website-tailored), higher weight esteem at 6-week follow-up (website-tailored), lower negative affect at 12-month follow-up (website-tailored), engaged in more self-reported conversations with their daughters about body image at post-exposure and 6-week follow-up, and were 3-4.66 times more likely to report seeking additional support for body image issues at post-exposure (website-tailored), 6-week, and 12-month (website-tailored) follow-up. Daughters whose mothers viewed the website had higher self-esteem and reduced negative affect at 6-week follow-up. There were no differences on daughters' body image, and risk factors among mothers or daughters, at post-exposure or follow-up. Tailoring website content appeared beneficial. This intervention offers a promising 'first-step' toward improving psychosocial well-being among mothers and daughters. In order to further optimize the intervention, future research to improve body image-related outcomes and to understand mechanisms for change would be beneficial. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all

  19. Body Image Issues In Lithuanian Magazines Aimed For Children And Adolescents In Relation To Body Mass Index And Body Size Perception Of 16-19 Y. Old Girls During The Last 15 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutkuviene, Janina; Misiute, Agne; Strupaite, Ieva; Paulikaite, Gintare; Pavlovskaja, Erika

    2017-03-01

    Mass media plays an important role in forming body image and makes the significant impact on body size perception in children and adolescents. The aim of present study was to reveal trends in depiction of body image cues in Lithuanian magazines aimed for children and adolescents in relation to changes of real body mass index (BMI) and body size perception of 16-19 y. old girls in the year 2000 and the 2015. Three popular journals published both in the year 2000 and the 2015, were chosen for in-depth analysis of their contents (the periodicity of different topics was counted and compared). Attention given to a healthy body image has increased and the promotion of especially skinny females’ body has decreased during the last 15 years from the dominant type in the year 2000 to depiction of slightly thin or normal body build in the 2015. However, the real BMI of 16-19 y. old Lithuanian girls has significantly increased during the 2000-2015 period (from 20.09 till 21.32 kg/m²; pimage issues in mass media (magazines aimed for adolescent girls) were in parallel with the proper self-esteem of body size in adolescent girls.

  20. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... may include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT). top of page How is the procedure performed? ... child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Computed Tomography (CT) - Body Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Body General Ultrasound ...

  1. Body image dissatisfaction among rural and urban adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Glaner

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To identify the prevalence of body image dissatisfaction among adolescents living in rural and urban areas, and to analyze the influence of demographic and anthropometric variables on body image dissatisfaction. A total of 629 adolescents aged 13 to 17 years from urban and rural areas participated in the study. Demographic variables (gender, age, area of residence, anthropometric measurements (body weight, height, skinfold thickness and body image data were collected. BMI (underweight: 25 kg/m² and the sum of two skinfold thicknesses, Σ2SF (girls: low: 36 mm; boys: low: 25 mm were then calculated. The prevalence of body image dissatisfaction was similar (p≥0,05 among rural (64,2% and urban adolescents (62,8%. Boys wished to increase the size of their body silhouette (41,3%, whereas girls wished to reduce it (50,5% (p<0,001. Adolescents with low and excess weight based on BMI and with high Σ2SF presented a 3,14, 8,45 and 2,08 times higher chance of body image dissatisfaction, respectively. A high prevalence of body image dissatisfaction was observed among adolescents from rural and urban areas. An unhealthy nutritional status and body adiposity increase the chances of body image dissatisfaction. These findings emphasize the social pressure on girls to remain slim and on boys to attain an athletic body.

  2. Perceived impact of body feedback from romantic partners on young adults' body image and sexual well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Kaitlyn M; Byers, E Sandra

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the messages individuals receive from their partners about their bodies and their perceived impact on body image and sexual well-being. Young adult men (n=35) and women (n=57) completed open-ended questions identifying messages they had received from partners and the impact of these messages on their body image and sexual well-being. Content coding revealed three verbal (expressions of approval and pride, challenging negative beliefs, expressions of sexual attraction/arousal/desire) and two nonverbal (physical affection, physical expressions of sexual attraction/arousal/desire) positive messages as well as one verbal (disapproval/disgust) and two nonverbal (rejection, humiliation) negative messages. Some participants reported gender-related messages (muscularity/strength, genital appearance, breast appearance, weight, and comparison to others). Positive messages were seen to increase confidence, self-acceptance, and sexual empowerment/fulfillment, whereas negative messages decreased these feelings. Our findings suggest that even everyday, seemingly neutral messages are perceived to have an important impact on young adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Body Image, Food Addiction, Depression, and Body Mass Index in University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şanlier, Nevin; Türközü, Duygu; Toka, Onur

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between body image, depression, food addiction and body mass index (BMI) and differences in these variables due to gender and field of education have not been studied extensively. This study was conducted on a total of 793 university students (20.19 ± 1.90 years). The Beck Depression Inventory, Yale Food Addiction, and Body Image Scale were used. It was determined that body image scores of females and individuals enrolled in health sciences programs were lower compared to those of males and those enrolled in the social sciences. There was a negative relationship between body image and depression and food addiction scores. There was a positive relationship between food addiction and depression scores, in addition to a positive relationship between food addiction and BMI.

  4. Seymour Fisher contributions to research on body image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.R.L. Ribeiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to systematically review Seymour Fisher contributions to research on body image. A literature review of his work on body perception, distorted body image, body boundary, assigned meanings to specific body areas, and general body awareness was carried out on four of the books written by the author. Fisher correlated those variables with defense mechanisms, adaptation, and body anxiety. Moreover, he also considered the roles played by culture and personality on the complex phenomenon of body experience. This review intends to disseminate Seymour Fisher contributions among Brazilian researchers on body image.

  5. Body image disturbance and skin bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Christopher A D; McLean, Shua-Kym

    2017-11-01

    This study looks at body image disturbance among Jamaicans who bleach their skin. The hypothesis states that there is a positive relationship between skin bleaching and body image disturbance. The study used a convenience sample of 160 participants with a skin bleaching group (n = 80) and a non-bleaching comparison group (n = 80). The instrument included demographic questions, the body image disturbance questionnaire (BIDQ), and questions about skin bleaching. The results of a t-test revealed that the skin bleaching group (M = 1.5255, SD = 0.42169) was not significantly different from the non-bleaching group (M = 1.4938, SD = 0.74217) in terms of body image disturbance, t(158) = 0.333, p = .740. The participants who bleached did not suffer from body image disturbance. Self-reports revealed that they bleached to acquire beauty, attract a partner, elude the police, and market skin bleaching products. The practice was fashionable and popular and it made some participants feel good, while others were fans of a popular musical artiste who bleached his skin. The majority of participants bleached because of the perceived personal, social, and entrepreneurial benefits of the practice and not because they suffered emotional distress, anxiety, and functional impairment because of their skin colour. However, there was some level of BID among the minority of participants who argued that they bleached because they wanted to be pretty so they were emotionally distressed about there body image and experienced functional impairment. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  6. Whole body imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Luca, P.C.; Stoddart, H.F.; Jeffries, D.

    1976-01-01

    A whole body imaging system rapidly forms a quality image of the bony structure, soft tissue or specific organs of a patient who has been injected with a suitable radioactive tracer chemical. A radiation detector head assembly includes a number of detector subassemblies, each having a lead collimator with tapered holes for admitting gamma radiation from a small area of the patient to a scintillation crystal that converts the gamma rays admitted by the collimator into visible or ultraviolet energy pulses. A photomultiplier converts these pulses into electrical pulses. A row of equally spaced detector subassemblies reciprocate within a nonreciprocating lead shield along the long axis of the array over a distance substantially equal to the separation between adjacent ones of the small areas. Associated electronic and electromechanical apparatus control the reciprocating motion and the longitudinal motion of the radiation detector head assembly, and process the photodetected signals to produce in a relatively short time a visible image of the radiant energy emanating from the whole body of the patient scanned

  7. Differences in body image between anorexics and in-vitro-fertilization patients - a study with Body Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkenhagen, Ada; Klapp, Burghard F.; Schoeneich, Frank; Brähler, Elmar

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of the investigation was to explore the body image disturbance of anorexics and in-vitro-fertilization patients (IvF-patients) with Body Grid and Body Identity Plot. Methods: The paper reports on an empirical study conducted with 32 anorexic patients and 30 IvF-patients. The structure of the body image was derived from the Body Grid, an idiographic approach following the Role Repertory Grid developed by George A. Kelly [17]. The representation of the body image and the degree of body-acceptance is represented graphically. Results: By the Body Grid and Body Identity Plot measures we were able to identify important differences in body image between anorexics and IvF-patients. Conclusion: The tendencies of dissociation in the body image of anorexics which we found must be seen in the sense of a specific body image disturbance which differs significantly from the body-experience profile of IvF-patients. With the grid approach it was possible to elicit the inner structure of body image and determine the acceptance of the body and integration of single body parts. PMID:19742059

  8. Attractive celebrity and peer images on Instagram: Effect on women's mood and body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Zoe; Tiggemann, Marika

    2016-12-01

    A large body of research has documented that exposure to images of thin fashion models contributes to women's body dissatisfaction. The present study aimed to experimentally investigate the impact of attractive celebrity and peer images on women's body image. Participants were 138 female undergraduate students who were randomly assigned to view either a set of celebrity images, a set of equally attractive unknown peer images, or a control set of travel images. All images were sourced from public Instagram profiles. Results showed that exposure to celebrity and peer images increased negative mood and body dissatisfaction relative to travel images, with no significant difference between celebrity and peer images. This effect was mediated by state appearance comparison. In addition, celebrity worship moderated an increased effect of celebrity images on body dissatisfaction. It was concluded that exposure to attractive celebrity and peer images can be detrimental to women's body image. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Body Image of Pakistani Consumers.

    OpenAIRE

    Tariq Jalees; Ernest C de Run

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how media exposure, self-esteem, and religiosity influence body image of Pakistan consumers. The underpinning of this study is based on Social Comparison Theory with two additional variables (religiosity and self-esteem) for understanding understand consumer attitude towards body image. A self-administered questionnaire was used. 193 persons responded at mall intercepts. The Conceptual framework was empirically tested through SEM. A positive relationship between exposure t...

  10. Does body image influence the relationship between body weight and breastfeeding maintenance in new mothers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Vivien; Keely, Alice; Denison, Fiona C

    2017-09-01

    Obese women have lower breastfeeding initiation and maintenance rates than healthy weight women. Research generally focuses on biomedical explanations for this. Psychosocial factors including body image and well-being after childbirth are less well understood as predictors of breastfeeding. In obese and healthy weight women, we investigated changes in body image between 72 hrs post-delivery and 6-8 weeks post-natal, studying how women's body image related to breastfeeding initiation and maintenance. We also investigated how psychological distress was related to body image. Longitudinal semi-structured questionnaire survey. Body image and psychological distress were assessed within 72 hrs of birth and by postal questionnaire at 6-8 weeks, for 70 obese and 70 healthy weight women initiating exclusive (breastmilk only) breastfeeding or mixed feeding (with formula milk) in hospital. Breastfeeding was re-assessed at 6-8 weeks. Obese women were less likely to exclusively breastfeed in hospital and maintain breastfeeding to 6-8 weeks. Better body image was related to maintaining breastfeeding and to lower post-natal psychological distress for all women, but education level was the most significant predictor of maintenance in multivariate regression including body image and weight status. Body image mediated, but did not moderate the relationship between weight and breastfeeding maintenance. Body image was lower overall in obese women, but all women had low body image satisfaction around childbirth, reducing further at 6-8 weeks. Health professionals should consider women's body image when discussing breastfeeding. A focus on breast function over form may support breastfeeding for all women. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Obesity can negatively affect breastfeeding initiation and maintenance, but there is little information about how psychosocial factors affect this relationship. Body image may be an important factor, but has not

  11. Body image satisfaction among female college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Goswami

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine body image satisfaction among newly entrant women students in a professional institution. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study using body image satisfaction described in words was undertaken, which also explored relationship with body mass index (BMI and other selected co-variables such as socio-demographic details, overall satisfaction in life, and particularly in academic/professional life, current health status using 5-item based Likert scale. Height, weight, hip and waist circumference measurement was carried out using standard protocol. Data collection was carried through personal interview using pre-designed, pre-tested semi-structured interview schedule by female investigators during August-September 2010 and analysis carried out by computing percentages and Chi-square test. Results: Out of 96 study samples, 16.66%, 51.04%, and 32.29% girl students perceived their body image as fair, good and excellent, respectively while overall 13.54% were dissatisfied with their body image. The body image satisfaction had significant relationship with image perception ( P<0.001, current general health status ( P<0.001 and self weight assessment ( P<0.001. Mother′s education had a statistically significant ( P=0.004 but negative relationship with outcome variable. Students with low weight (BMI <18.5 kg/m2 had a significantly higher (85.71% prevalence of body image satisfaction while overweight students (BMI≤23 kg/m2 had a significantly higher (54.54% prevalence of dissatisfaction ( P<0.001. Discussion: High body image satisfaction is reported in this study and was found to be significantly related to anthropometric measurements. On an encouraging note, this level needs to be preserved for overall mental and healthy development of students. Proactive preventive measures could be initiated on personality development, acceptance of self and individual differences while maintaining optimum weight and active life style.

  12. Media-portrayed idealized images, body shame, and appearance anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monro, Fiona; Huon, Gail

    2005-07-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects of media-portrayed idealized images on young women's body shame and appearance anxiety, and to establish whether the effects depend on advertisement type and on participant self-objectification. Participants were 39 female university students. Twenty-four magazine advertisements comprised 12 body-related and 12 non-body-related products, one half of each with, and the other one half without, idealized images. Preexposure and post exposure body shame and appearance anxiety measures were recorded. Appearance anxiety increased after viewing advertisements featuring idealized images. There was also a significant interaction between self-objectification level and idealized body (presence vs. absence). No differences emerged for body-related compared with non-body-related product advertisements. The only result for body shame was a main effect for time. Participants' body shame increased after exposure to idealized images, irrespective of advertisement type. Although our findings reveal that media-portrayed idealized images detrimentally affect the body image of young women, they highlight the individual differences in vulnerability and the different effects for different components of body image. These results are discussed in terms of their implications for the prevention and early intervention of body image and dieting-related disorders. ( Copyright 2005 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  13. Content-Based Image Retrial Based on Hadoop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DongSheng Yin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Generally, time complexity of algorithms for content-based image retrial is extremely high. In order to retrieve images on large-scale databases efficiently, a new way for retrieving based on Hadoop distributed framework is proposed. Firstly, a database of images features is built by using Speeded Up Robust Features algorithm and Locality-Sensitive Hashing and then perform the search on Hadoop platform in a parallel way specially designed. Considerable experimental results show that it is able to retrieve images based on content on large-scale cluster and image sets effectively.

  14. Body Image, Media, and Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenne, Jennifer L.; Beresin, Eugene V.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Eating disorders, including obesity, are a major public health problem today. Throughout history, body image has been determined by various factors, including politics and media. Exposure to mass media (television, movies, magazines, Internet) is correlated with obesity and negative body image, which may lead to disordered eating. The…

  15. Automatic anatomy recognition in whole-body PET/CT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Huiqian [College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, China and Medical Image Processing Group Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Udupa, Jayaram K., E-mail: jay@mail.med.upenn.edu; Odhner, Dewey; Tong, Yubing; Torigian, Drew A. [Medical Image Processing Group Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Zhao, Liming [Medical Image Processing Group Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 and Research Center of Intelligent System and Robotics, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing 400065 (China)

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: Whole-body positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) has become a standard method of imaging patients with various disease conditions, especially cancer. Body-wide accurate quantification of disease burden in PET/CT images is important for characterizing lesions, staging disease, prognosticating patient outcome, planning treatment, and evaluating disease response to therapeutic interventions. However, body-wide anatomy recognition in PET/CT is a critical first step for accurately and automatically quantifying disease body-wide, body-region-wise, and organwise. This latter process, however, has remained a challenge due to the lower quality of the anatomic information portrayed in the CT component of this imaging modality and the paucity of anatomic details in the PET component. In this paper, the authors demonstrate the adaptation of a recently developed automatic anatomy recognition (AAR) methodology [Udupa et al., “Body-wide hierarchical fuzzy modeling, recognition, and delineation of anatomy in medical images,” Med. Image Anal. 18, 752–771 (2014)] to PET/CT images. Their goal was to test what level of object localization accuracy can be achieved on PET/CT compared to that achieved on diagnostic CT images. Methods: The authors advance the AAR approach in this work in three fronts: (i) from body-region-wise treatment in the work of Udupa et al. to whole body; (ii) from the use of image intensity in optimal object recognition in the work of Udupa et al. to intensity plus object-specific texture properties, and (iii) from the intramodality model-building-recognition strategy to the intermodality approach. The whole-body approach allows consideration of relationships among objects in different body regions, which was previously not possible. Consideration of object texture allows generalizing the previous optimal threshold-based fuzzy model recognition method from intensity images to any derived fuzzy membership image, and in the process

  16. Automatic anatomy recognition in whole-body PET/CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Huiqian; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Odhner, Dewey; Tong, Yubing; Torigian, Drew A.; Zhao, Liming

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Whole-body positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) has become a standard method of imaging patients with various disease conditions, especially cancer. Body-wide accurate quantification of disease burden in PET/CT images is important for characterizing lesions, staging disease, prognosticating patient outcome, planning treatment, and evaluating disease response to therapeutic interventions. However, body-wide anatomy recognition in PET/CT is a critical first step for accurately and automatically quantifying disease body-wide, body-region-wise, and organwise. This latter process, however, has remained a challenge due to the lower quality of the anatomic information portrayed in the CT component of this imaging modality and the paucity of anatomic details in the PET component. In this paper, the authors demonstrate the adaptation of a recently developed automatic anatomy recognition (AAR) methodology [Udupa et al., “Body-wide hierarchical fuzzy modeling, recognition, and delineation of anatomy in medical images,” Med. Image Anal. 18, 752–771 (2014)] to PET/CT images. Their goal was to test what level of object localization accuracy can be achieved on PET/CT compared to that achieved on diagnostic CT images. Methods: The authors advance the AAR approach in this work in three fronts: (i) from body-region-wise treatment in the work of Udupa et al. to whole body; (ii) from the use of image intensity in optimal object recognition in the work of Udupa et al. to intensity plus object-specific texture properties, and (iii) from the intramodality model-building-recognition strategy to the intermodality approach. The whole-body approach allows consideration of relationships among objects in different body regions, which was previously not possible. Consideration of object texture allows generalizing the previous optimal threshold-based fuzzy model recognition method from intensity images to any derived fuzzy membership image, and in the process

  17. Images of a poe(rotic body scanned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Carolina Hipólito de Assis

    2014-04-01

    This study aims to determine how the poetic eroticized body is evident in the visual images of some works of the poet, translator and literary critic Brazilian Décio Pignatari, as well as put on the reintegration of this debate in the media desiring body from the critical explained by the Mexican poet and essayist Octávio Paz is work Conjunções e Disjunções (1979. To address this body lov(erotic as cut corpus study of the work: Poesia Pois é Poesia, of Décio Pignatari (2004. Poetry expressing the brand and put in concrete dialogue resulting images of translating a digital body that extends (McLuhan while communication apparatus, media convergence in the conception of art as scanned image, such as sensory, tactile, eroticized body. Attendance plastic, tangible reflecting a face that survives own image: a concrete icon.

  18. Body enhancement : body images, vulnerability and moral responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Dikken, A.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this explorative study is to show that it is highly relevant to integrate cultural and personal body images into the ethical debate on human enhancement. The current debate has little attention for the motivations to make use of technology to alter the human body, such as cultural

  19. BODY IMAGE IN CHILDHOOD: AN INTEGRATIVE LITERATURE REVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Clara Mockdece; Cipriani, Flávia Marcelle; Meireles, Juliana Fernandes Filgueiras; Morgado, Fabiane Frota da Rocha; Ferreira, Maria Elisa Caputo

    2017-01-01

    To analyse the scientific literature regarding the evaluation of body image in children through an integrative literature review. An intersection of the keywords "body image" AND "child" was conducted in Scopus, Medline and Virtual Health Library (BVS - Biblioteca Virtual de Saúde) databases. The electronic search was based on studies published from January 2013 to January 2016, in order to verify the most current investigations on the subject. Exclusion criteria were: articles in duplicate; no available summaries; not empirical; not assessing any component of body image; the sample did not consider the target age of this research (0 to 12 years old) and/or considered clinical populations; besides articles not fully available. 7,681 references were identified, and, after the exclusion criteria were implemented, 33 studies were analysed. Results showed that the perceptual and attitudinal dimensions focusing on body dissatisfaction were explored, mainly evaluated by silhouette scales. Intervention programs were developed internationally to prevent negative body image in children. The studies included in this review evaluated specific aspects of body image in children, especially body perception and body dissatisfaction. The creation of specific tools for children to evaluate body image is recommended to promote the psychosocial well being of individuals throughout human development.

  20. My 'Fat Girl Complex': a preliminary investigation of sexual health and body image in women of size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satinsky, Sonya; Dennis, Barbara; Reece, Michael; Sanders, Stephanie; Bardzell, Shaowen

    2013-01-01

    Women of size who inhabit non-normative bodies may have different experiences with body image and sexual health than women of average body size. In this exploratory study, we interviewed four women of size recruited from a larger mixed-methodological study of body image and sexuality. Each woman was interviewed twice on topics of body image, sexuality and sexual health. Reconstructive Horizon Analysis was used to analyse the content of the interviews. Women who expressed that their bodies had inherent personal and social value regardless of size did not articulate connections between body size and their sexual health. However, those women who looked externally for validation of their attractiveness struggled with acceptance of their sexuality and bodies and spoke of ways in which their body size and appearance hindered them from having the sexually healthy lives that they wanted. Findings highlight two important components of women's sexual health as participants related them to body image: the right to pleasure and the right to engage only in wanted sexual activity. Participants described how negative body attitudes affected both of these aspects of their sexual health. Interventions targeting weight-based stigma may offer a means of indirectly promoting sexual health and autonomy in women.

  1. Impacts of exposure to images of ideal bodies on male body dissatisfaction: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blond, Anna

    2008-09-01

    Research suggests that young men's body dissatisfaction increases when they see images of attractive muscular men. This article provides the first extensive review of experimental studies exposing men to advertisements or commercials featuring idealized male bodies. Impacts on body dissatisfaction were evaluated by calculating and analyzing effect sizes from 15 studies. The effect sizes indicate that exposure to images of idealized male bodies has a small but statistically significant negative impact on men's body dissatisfaction. Three studies suggest that young men who are dissatisfied with their bodies are at increased risk for negative self-evaluations when exposed to idealized images. Two studies suggest that men who are satisfied with their bodies may be protected against negative impacts from seeing such images.

  2. Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Women's Body-Image Dissatisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butters, Jonathan W.; Cash, Thomas F.

    1987-01-01

    Assigned college women with a significant level of body-image dissatisfaction to a cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) program or to a waiting-list control group. The CBT program successfully improved affective body image, weakened maladaptive body-image cognitions, and enhanced social self-esteem and feelings about physical fitness and…

  3. Studies of the body image in various psychological approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia A. Kaminskaya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to systematize modern concepts of body image and body scheme. For the analysis of theoretical models the following criteria were allocated: explication of the mechanism underlying the formation and restructuring of body image, development of certain aspects of body image which are explained by the presented concepts. Separately the issue of the difference between the body scheme and the body image is discussed that seems relevant in connection with the specific features of the neural mechanisms of body image. In the study of the phenomenological level of bodily experience the assumption that the body scheme is fragmented and has no hierarchical structure is considered. Significant differences in viewing basic mechanisms of developing the body image associated with attention to various bodily phenomena are showed. Psychodynamic, cognitive, socio-cultural, feminist and interdisciplinary approaches are analyzed, which permitted to identify mechanisms of integration-differentiation, cognitive generalization and internalization-introjection. The analysis suggests the consideration of the body image in the context of issues on the appropriation of the body. If person is considered as a tool for shaping and maintening integration of mental processes, the patterns of interconnected and interdependent changes in the processes that occur in the construction of the image of the external situation and the body image acquires a special psychological meaning. It becomes necessary to allocate correctly the structure of the integrating object in which the subject is involved during the normal course of life, and in exceptional cases, i.e. in the presence of physical defects, the sudden change of appearance, etc. These development objects determine specific form of body image and its possible distortions.

  4. Investigating Adolescent Stress and Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kristen M.; Byrne, Don G.; Rieger, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent stress is clearly implicated in the development of mental health problems. However, its role in dysfunctional body image, which rises markedly in adolescence, has not been investigated. The present study examined the link between stress and body image, as well as self-esteem and depressive symptoms, in 533 high school students in grades…

  5. Guy's Guide to Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... height). For them, puberty may add to their insecurities. Building a Better Body Image So what can ... image, but getting too focused on appearance can cause a guy to overlook the other positive parts ...

  6. Body Image Concerns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Ansari, Walid; Dibba, Emily; Stock, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the socio-demographic, lifestyle and well-being variables that are associated with body image concerns (BIC) and whether these associations differed between female and male students. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey; 3,706 undergraduate students...... (2,699 females, 765 males) from seven universities in the UK completed a self-administered questionnaire that assessed socio-demographic, lifestyle, well-being and BIC based on the Body Shape Questionnaire developed by Cooper et al. Multifactorial logistic regression analysis examined the odds ratios...

  7. Application of content-based image compression to telepathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Margaret J.; Ducksbury, Paul G.; Callagy, Grace

    2002-05-01

    Telepathology is a means of practicing pathology at a distance, viewing images on a computer display rather than directly through a microscope. Without compression, images take too long to transmit to a remote location and are very expensive to store for future examination. However, to date the use of compressed images in pathology remains controversial. This is because commercial image compression algorithms such as JPEG achieve data compression without knowledge of the diagnostic content. Often images are lossily compressed at the expense of corrupting informative content. None of the currently available lossy compression techniques are concerned with what information has been preserved and what data has been discarded. Their sole objective is to compress and transmit the images as fast as possible. By contrast, this paper presents a novel image compression technique, which exploits knowledge of the slide diagnostic content. This 'content based' approach combines visually lossless and lossy compression techniques, judiciously applying each in the appropriate context across an image so as to maintain 'diagnostic' information while still maximising the possible compression. Standard compression algorithms, e.g. wavelets, can still be used, but their use in a context sensitive manner can offer high compression ratios and preservation of diagnostically important information. When compared with lossless compression the novel content-based approach can potentially provide the same degree of information with a smaller amount of data. When compared with lossy compression it can provide more information for a given amount of compression. The precise gain in the compression performance depends on the application (e.g. database archive or second opinion consultation) and the diagnostic content of the images.

  8. Body image in non-western societies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edmonds, A.; Cash, T.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses a range of body modification and conceptions of the body in non-Western societies. It also analyzes difficulties in applying the primarily Western psychological notion of body image to different societies. Body modification is a near human universal, but has many meanings and

  9. Content Based Retrieval System for Magnetic Resonance Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trojachanets, Katarina

    2010-01-01

    The amount of medical images is continuously increasing as a consequence of the constant growth and development of techniques for digital image acquisition. Manual annotation and description of each image is impractical, expensive and time consuming approach. Moreover, it is an imprecise and insufficient way for describing all information stored in medical images. This induces the necessity for developing efficient image storage, annotation and retrieval systems. Content based image retrieval (CBIR) emerges as an efficient approach for digital image retrieval from large databases. It includes two phases. In the first phase, the visual content of the image is analyzed and the feature extraction process is performed. An appropriate descriptor, namely, feature vector is then associated with each image. These descriptors are used in the second phase, i.e. the retrieval process. With the aim to improve the efficiency and precision of the content based image retrieval systems, feature extraction and automatic image annotation techniques are subject of continuous researches and development. Including the classification techniques in the retrieval process enables automatic image annotation in an existing CBIR system. It contributes to more efficient and easier image organization in the system.Applying content based retrieval in the field of magnetic resonance is a big challenge. Magnetic resonance imaging is an image based diagnostic technique which is widely used in medical environment. According to this, the number of magnetic resonance images is enormously growing. Magnetic resonance images provide plentiful medical information, high resolution and specific nature. Thus, the capability of CBIR systems for image retrieval from large database is of great importance for efficient analysis of this kind of images. The aim of this thesis is to propose content based retrieval system architecture for magnetic resonance images. To provide the system efficiency, feature

  10. Body image satisfaction among female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Shweta; Sachdeva, Sandeep; Sachdeva, Ruchi

    2012-07-01

    To determine body image satisfaction among newly entrant women students in a professional institution. A cross-sectional study using body image satisfaction described in words was undertaken, which also explored relationship with body mass index (BMI) and other selected co-variables such as socio-demographic details, overall satisfaction in life, and particularly in academic/professional life, current health status using 5-item based Likert scale. Height, weight, hip and waist circumference measurement was carried out using standard protocol. Data collection was carried through personal interview using pre-designed, pre-tested semi-structured interview schedule by female investigators during August-September 2010 and analysis carried out by computing percentages and Chi-square test. Out of 96 study samples, 16.66%, 51.04%, and 32.29% girl students perceived their body image as fair, good and excellent, respectively while overall 13.54% were dissatisfied with their body image. The body image satisfaction had significant relationship with image perception (Passessment (Psatisfaction while overweight students (BMI≤23 kg/m(2)) had a significantly higher (54.54%) prevalence of dissatisfaction (Psatisfaction is reported in this study and was found to be significantly related to anthropometric measurements. On an encouraging note, this level needs to be preserved for overall mental and healthy development of students. Proactive preventive measures could be initiated on personality development, acceptance of self and individual differences while maintaining optimum weight and active life style.

  11. Media Images: Do They Influence College Students' Body Image?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Gina Jarman

    2009-01-01

    Body image perception and body mass index (BMI) among college students exposed and not exposed to photographs of models were compared. Classes were assigned to receive a presentation with or without photographs of models incorporated. Students (n = 184) completed a survey about body/weight satisfaction, height, weight, and the Contour Drawing…

  12. Roles of body image-related experiential avoidance and uncommitted living in the link between body image and women's quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, Inês A; Ferreira, Cláudia; Pinto-Gouveia, José

    2018-01-01

    The current study aimed to test whether the associations of body mass index, body image discrepancy, and social comparison based on physical appearance with women's psychological quality of life (QoL) would be explained by the mechanisms of body image-related experiential avoidance and patterns of uncommitted living. The sample was collected from October 2014 to March 2015 and included 737 female college students (aged between 18 and 25 years) who completed validated self-report measures. Results demonstrated that the final path model explained 43% of psychological QoL and revealed an excellent fit. Body image-related experiential avoidance had a meditational role in the association between body image discrepancy and psychological QoL. Further, the link between social comparison based on physical appearance and psychological QoL was partially mediated by body image-related experiential avoidance and uncommitted living. These findings indicate that the key mechanisms of the relationship between body image and young women's QoL were those related to maladaptive emotion regulation. It thus seems that interventions aiming to promote mental health in this population should promote acceptance of internal experiences related to physical appearance (e.g., sensations, thoughts, or emotions) and the engagement in behaviors committed to life values.

  13. Body Image v kontextu soudobé společnosti

    OpenAIRE

    Rolínek, Igor

    2008-01-01

    The thesis focuses on body image - defines the main characteristics of this area, describes cultural influences and body image history and explains basic quantitative values (Body Mass Index, Waist Hip Ratio, Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis). Furthemore the thesis deals with media influence on body ideal formation process, especially in gay subculture. The research part explores recent situation of body image in gay subculture compared with heterosexual males. This section includes the conte...

  14. My Body Looks Like That Girl's: Body Mass Index Modulates Brain Activity during Body Image Self-Reflection among Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiao; Deng, Xiao; Wen, Xin; She, Ying; Vinke, Petra Corianne; Chen, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Body image distress or body dissatisfaction is one of the most common consequences of obesity and overweight. We investigated the neural bases of body image processing in overweight and average weight young women to understand whether brain regions that were previously found to be involved in processing self-reflective, perspective and affective components of body image would show different activation between two groups. Thirteen overweight (O-W group, age = 20.31±1.70 years) and thirteen average weight (A-W group, age = 20.15±1.62 years) young women underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a body image self-reflection task. Among both groups, whole-brain analysis revealed activations of a brain network related to perceptive and affective components of body image processing. ROI analysis showed a main effect of group in ACC as well as a group by condition interaction within bilateral EBA, bilateral FBA, right IPL, bilateral DLPFC, left amygdala and left MPFC. For the A-W group, simple effect analysis revealed stronger activations in Thin-Control compared to Fat-Control condition within regions related to perceptive (including bilateral EBA, bilateral FBA, right IPL) and affective components of body image processing (including bilateral DLPFC, left amygdala), as well as self-reference (left MPFC). The O-W group only showed stronger activations in Fat-Control than in Thin-Control condition within regions related to the perceptive component of body image processing (including left EBA and left FBA). Path analysis showed that in the Fat-Thin contrast, body dissatisfaction completely mediated the group difference in brain response in left amygdala across the whole sample. Our data are the first to demonstrate differences in brain response to body pictures between average weight and overweight young females involved in a body image self-reflection task. These results provide insights for understanding the vulnerability to body image distress

  15. Body Image in Younger Breast Cancer Survivors: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Carly; Lengacher, Cecile A.; Donovan, Kristine A.; Kip, Kevin E.; Tofthagen, Cindy S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Body image is a complex issue with the potential to impact many aspects of cancer survivorship, particularly for the younger breast cancer survivor. Objective The purpose of this review is to synthesize the current state of the science for body image in younger women with breast cancer. Intervention/Methods Combinations of the terms “body image,” “sexuality intervention,” “women,” “younger women,” and “breast cancer” were searched in the PubMed, PsycInfo, CINAHL, Web of Knowledge and Science Direct databases through January 2014. Inclusion criteria for this review were: 1) original research; 2) published in English from the year 2000 forward; 3) measuring body image as an outcome variable; and 4) results included reporting of age-related outcomes. Results Thirty-six articles met the inclusion criteria. The majority of studies were cross-sectional, with extensive variation in body image assessment tools. Age and treatment type had a significant impact on body image, and poorer body image was related to physical and psychological distress, sex and intimacy, and the partnered relationship among younger women. Only one intervention study found a significant improvement in body image post-intervention. Conclusions Findings suggest body image is a complex post-treatment concern for breast cancer survivors, particularly younger women. The findings of this review are limited by the high level of variation in the methods for assessing body image. Implications for Practice Further research of interventions to address body image concerns following treatment for breast cancer is warranted. Improvement of body image may improve the quality of life of younger breast cancer survivors. PMID:25881807

  16. Proximate content of wild and cultured eel (Anguilla bicolor) in different part of body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayanti, I.; Susilo, E. S.

    2018-02-01

    Proximate content in fish varies depends on intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Intrinsic factors include species, sexual maturity, size and body parts. Extrinsic factors include habitat, season and type of food (diet). This study aimed to know the effect of fish body parts (intrinsic factor) on proximate levels in wild and cultured eel (extrinsic). The experimental design used factorial completely randomized design with two factors 2x3. The first factor is the habitat of eel (wild and cultured) and the second factor is the part of the body (head, body and tail) with five replications. The result of statistical analysis showed that there was interaction between fish habitat and body part on moisture, protein, ash and carbohydrate content (P interaction on fat content and energy (P> 0.05). The highest water content (67.02%) was found in head of wild and the lowest one (59.44%) in the tail of wild eel; The highest protein content (18.09%) was found in the body of cultured eel and the lowest one (15.72%) was in the body of wild eel; The highest ash content (3.73%) was the head of wild eel and the lowest (1.32%) was in the body of cultured eel; The highest carbohydrate (3.73%) was found in the head of cultured eel and the lowest one (0.16%) was in the body of cultured. The wild eel had higher fat content and energy than cultured one, while the fat content and energy in body and tail were higher than in head.

  17. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, Dana K; Reel, Justine J; Greenleaf, Christy

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty) that affect one's body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one's body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender) to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise). Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed.

  18. Body image satisfaction among female college students

    OpenAIRE

    Goswami, Shweta; Sachdeva, Sandeep; Sachdeva, Ruchi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine body image satisfaction among newly entrant women students in a professional institution. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study using body image satisfaction described in words was undertaken, which also explored relationship with body mass index (BMI) and other selected co-variables such as socio-demographic details, overall satisfaction in life, and particularly in academic/professional life, current health status using 5-item based Likert scale. Height, wei...

  19. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Computed Tomography (CT) - Body Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Body General Ultrasound Contrast Materials Anesthesia Safety X-ray, Interventional Radiology and ...

  20. Measurements of the total-body potassium contents. Application of reference value with the whole-body counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Tetsuo [Chiba Univ. (Japan). Inst. for Training Radiological Technicians; Saegusa, Kenji; Arimizu, Noboru; Kuniyasu, Yoshio; Itoh, Hisao

    2001-08-01

    The total-body potassium contents were measured in 405 healthy volunteers and 186 patients with whole body counter in Chiba University Hospital. The total-body potassium contents was expressed by the reference value (R value). The R value was calculated as measured potassium contents (g) divided by the body surface area (m{sup 2}) and adjusted by age and sex of healthy persons. The R value was 100.65{+-}9.22% in 405 healthy volunteers. Those of each disease were as follows: liver cirrhosis; 94.24{+-}11.22%, chronic hepatitis; 95.74{+-}11.24%, hyperthyroidism; 99.37{+-}10.8%, periodic paralysis; 82.0{+-}9.01%, Barter's syndrome; 93.99{+-}9.86%, myasthenia gravis; 97.34{+-}6.42% and hypo-potassemia; 90.64{+-}11.76%, respectively. The R values of other diseases such as uterine cancer, breast cancer, anemia, hypertension were 97.78{+-}11.5%, 99.22{+-}8.88%, 96.64{+-}12.73%, 98.5{+-}9.63% respectively. Fourteen patients showed especially lower R values under 75%. These were 1 liver cirrhosis, 3 hypertension, 1 diabetes mellitus, 3 hypo-potassemia, 1 periodic paralysis, 2 Barter's syndrome, 2 chemical poisoning, and 1 breast cancer. Follow-up study was performed in some patients with the lower R values. The result of follow-up study showed that there was a relationship between improvement of symptoms and increase of total body potassium contents. (author)

  1. Measurements of the total-body potassium contents. Application of reference value with the whole-body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Tetsuo; Saegusa, Kenji; Arimizu, Noboru; Kuniyasu, Yoshio; Itoh, Hisao

    2001-01-01

    The total-body potassium contents were measured in 405 healthy volunteers and 186 patients with whole body counter in Chiba University Hospital. The total-body potassium contents was expressed by the reference value (R value). The R value was calculated as measured potassium contents (g) divided by the body surface area (m 2 ) and adjusted by age and sex of healthy persons. The R value was 100.65±9.22% in 405 healthy volunteers. Those of each disease were as follows: liver cirrhosis; 94.24±11.22%, chronic hepatitis; 95.74±11.24%, hyperthyroidism; 99.37±10.8%, periodic paralysis; 82.0±9.01%, Barter's syndrome; 93.99±9.86%, myasthenia gravis; 97.34±6.42% and hypo-potassemia; 90.64±11.76%, respectively. The R values of other diseases such as uterine cancer, breast cancer, anemia, hypertension were 97.78±11.5%, 99.22±8.88%, 96.64±12.73%, 98.5±9.63% respectively. Fourteen patients showed especially lower R values under 75%. These were 1 liver cirrhosis, 3 hypertension, 1 diabetes mellitus, 3 hypo-potassemia, 1 periodic paralysis, 2 Barter's syndrome, 2 chemical poisoning, and 1 breast cancer. Follow-up study was performed in some patients with the lower R values. The result of follow-up study showed that there was a relationship between improvement of symptoms and increase of total body potassium contents. (author)

  2. Content Progressive Coding of Limited Bits/pixel Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Riis; Forchhammer, Søren

    1999-01-01

    A new lossless context based method for content progressive coding of limited bits/pixel images is proposed. Progressive coding is achieved by separating the image into contelnt layers. Digital maps are compressed up to 3 times better than GIF.......A new lossless context based method for content progressive coding of limited bits/pixel images is proposed. Progressive coding is achieved by separating the image into contelnt layers. Digital maps are compressed up to 3 times better than GIF....

  3. Body image in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: validation of the Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire--Scoliosis Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Joshua D; Lonner, Baron S; Crerand, Canice E; Shah, Suken A; Flynn, John M; Bastrom, Tracey; Penn, Phedra; Ahn, Jennifer; Toombs, Courtney; Bharucha, Neil; Bowe, Whitney P; Newton, Peter O

    2014-04-16

    Appearance concerns in individuals with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis can result in impairment in daily functioning, or body image disturbance. The Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire (BIDQ) is a self-reported, seven-question instrument that measures body image disturbance in general populations; no studies have specifically examined body image disturbance in those with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. This study aimed to validate a modified version of the BIDQ in a population with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and to establish discriminant validity by comparing responses of operatively and nonoperatively treated patients with those of normal controls. In the first phase, a multicenter study of forty-nine patients (mean age, fourteen years; thirty-seven female) with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis was performed to validate the BIDQ-Scoliosis version (BIDQ-S). Participants completed the BIDQ-S, Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)-22, Children's Depression Index (CDI), and Body Esteem Scale for Adolescents and Adults (BESAA) questionnaires. Descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated. In the second phase, ninety-eight patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (mean age, 15.7 years; seventy-five female) matched by age and sex with ninety-eight healthy adolescents were enrolled into a single-center study to evaluate the discriminant validity of the BIDQ-S. Subjects completed the BIDQ-S and a demographic form before treatment. Independent-sample t tests and Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated. The BIDQ-S was internally consistent (Cronbach alpha = 0.82), and corrected item total correlations ranged from 0.47 to 0.67. The BIDQ-S was significantly correlated with each domain of the SRS-22 and the total score (r = -0.50 to -0.72, p ≤ 0.001), with the CDI (r = 0.31, p = 0.03), and with the BESAA (r = 0.60, p image disturbance compared with healthy controls. To our knowledge, this user-friendly instrument is the first to

  4. Breast Hypertrophy, Reduction Mammaplasty, and Body Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Cristiane Costa; Veiga, Daniela Francescato; Garcia, Edgard da Silva; Cabral, Isaías Vieira; de Carvalho, Monique Maçais; de Brito, Maria José Azevedo; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2018-02-07

    Body image dissatisfaction is one of the major factors that motivate patients to undergo plastic surgery. However, few studies have associated body satisfaction with reduction mammaplasty. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of breast hypertrophy and reduction mammaplasty on body image. Breast hypertrophy patients, with reduction mammaplasty already scheduled between June 2013 and December 2015 (mammaplasty group, MG), were prospectively evaluated through the body dysmorphic disorder examination (BDDE), body investment scale (BIS), and breast evaluation questionnaire (BEQ55) tools. Women with normal-sized breasts were also evaluated as study controls (normal-sized breast group, NSBG). All the participants were interviewed at the initial assessment and after six months. Data were analyzed before and after six months. Each group consisted of 103 women. The MG group had a significant improvement in BDDE, BIS, and BEQ55 scores six months postoperatively (P ≤ 0.001 for the three instruments), whereas the NSBG group showed no alteration in results over time (P = 0.876; P = 0.442; and P = 0.184, respectively). In the intergroup comparison it was observed that the MG group began to invest more in the body, similarly to the NSBG group, and surpassed the level of satisfaction and body image that the women of the NSBG group had after the surgery. Reduction mammaplasty promoted improvement in body image of women with breast hypertrophy. © 2018 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com

  5. Self-enhancing effects of exposure to thin-body images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Ramona; Herman, C Peter; Polivy, Janet

    2004-04-01

    This study examines the effect of thin-body media images on mood, self-esteem, and self-image ratings of restrained and unrestrained eaters. A secondary purpose was to examine whether these effects were influenced by exposure duration. Under the guise of a perception study, participants were exposed to thin-body or control advertisements (e.g., perfume bottles) for either 7 or 150 ms and then completed a questionnaire packet. Restrained eaters reported more favorable self-image and social self-esteem (but not appearance self-esteem) scores after exposure to thin-body images than after exposure to control advertisements. The self-image and social self-esteem scores of unrestrained eaters were unaffected by advertisement type, but their appearance self-esteem scores were lower after exposure to thin-body advertisements. No differences were found for mood ratings and total self-esteem. We discuss restraint status as a moderator of the effects of thin-body images on women's body image. Copyright 2004 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 35: 333-341, 2004.

  6. Body image and anthropometric indicators in adolescents living with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Rodrigo Augustemak de Lima

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare body image and anthropometric indicators among adolescents living with HIV and healthy adolescents (control group. In addition, we verified the associations of anthropometric indicators, infection/treatment, sexual maturity, and sociodemographic characteristics with body image in adolescents living with HIV. One hundred and eleven adolescents aged 10 to 15 years were divided into those living with HIV (n = 57 and a control group (n = 54. Body image was investigated using an eight-point body silhouette scale. Body weight, height, circumferences, and skinfolds were measured. Body image dissatisfaction was found in 54.4% of the adolescents living with HIV, with 38.6% of them wishing to increase their body size. Conversely, body image dissatisfaction was due to the desire to reduce body size in the control group (40.7%. No difference between the HIV and control groups was found for the anthropometric indicators analyzed. Gender (β = -0.52, age (β = 0.18, body weight (β = 0.07, body mass index (β = -0.19, and upper arm muscle area (β = -0.08 explained 42% of the variation in the body image score of adolescents living with HIV. Thinness is the main reason for body image dissatisfaction in adolescents living with HIV. Almost half the body dissatisfaction of adolescents living with HIV was explained by demographic and anthropometric variables.

  7. Body image and borderline personality disorder among psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Randy A; Chu, Jamie W; Wiederman, Michael W

    2010-01-01

    With the exclusion of studies in individuals with eating disorders, few investigators have examined body image issues in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). In this study, we examined among psychiatric inpatients relationships between body image and BPD. In a cross-sectional sample of convenience, we surveyed 126 women in an inpatient psychiatric unit using 5 measures for body image and 2 measures for BPD. Using standardized cutoffs for BPD diagnosis, participants with BPD demonstrated a number of differentiating features with regard to body image issues. Explicitly, BPD did not seem to be related to being self-conscious about one's appearance, although BPD was related to being more self-conscious, in general. Individuals with BPD were not more invested in their appearance as a source of self-definition but evaluated their own appearance more negatively and were more likely to believe that attractiveness is an important factor for happiness and acceptance. Although BPD was not related to perceptions about the strength and competence of one's own body, those with BPD indicated less comfort and trust in their own bodies. In general, it appeared that body image measures that were more perceptually grounded were more likely to be similar to non-BPD participants, whereas body image measures that were more cognitively grounded were more likely to be statistically significantly different in comparison with non-BPD participants. Psychiatric inpatients with BPD demonstrate a number of disturbances in body image. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Disordered eating behaviors and body image in male athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Reistenbach Goltz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify disordered eating behaviors and body image dissatisfaction, as well as their relationship to body fat (BF, among male athletes in high risk sports for eating disorders. Methods: One hundred and fifty-six male athletes were divided into the following categories: weight-class sports, sports where leanness improves performance, and sports with aesthetic ideals. BF was assessed and three questionnaires were used: the Eating Attitudes Test; the Bulimic Investigatory Test, Edinburgh; the Body Shape Questionnaire. Results: Disordered eating behaviors and body image dissatisfaction were found in 43 (27.6% and 23 athletes (14.7%, respectively, and an association was detected between the two variables (p < 0.001. Athletes with and without disordered eating behaviors did not differ in %BF (11.0±5.2% and 9.8±4.0%, respectively; p = 0.106. However, athletes with body image dissatisfaction had higher %BF than those who were satisfied (12.6±5.9% and 9.7±3.9%, respectively; p = 0.034. There were no differences in BF, frequency of disordered eating behaviors, and body image dissatisfaction between sports categories. Conclusion: Nearly one-quarter of athletes showed disordered eating behaviors, which was associated with body image dissatisfaction. Athletes with higher %BF were more likely to be dissatisfied with body image. There was no difference in eating behavior and body image between athletes from different sports categories.

  9. Bodily Deviations and Body Image in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhjalmsson, Runar; Kristjansdottir, Gudrun; Ward, Dianne S.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents with unusually sized or shaped bodies may experience ridicule, rejection, or exclusion based on their negatively valued bodily characteristics. Such experiences can have negative consequences for a person's image and evaluation of self. This study focuses on the relationship between bodily deviations and body image and is based on a…

  10. My Body Looks Like That Girl’s: Body Mass Index Modulates Brain Activity during Body Image Self-Reflection among Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xin; She, Ying; Vinke, Petra Corianne; Chen, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Body image distress or body dissatisfaction is one of the most common consequences of obesity and overweight. We investigated the neural bases of body image processing in overweight and average weight young women to understand whether brain regions that were previously found to be involved in processing self-reflective, perspective and affective components of body image would show different activation between two groups. Thirteen overweight (O-W group, age = 20.31±1.70 years) and thirteen average weight (A-W group, age = 20.15±1.62 years) young women underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a body image self-reflection task. Among both groups, whole-brain analysis revealed activations of a brain network related to perceptive and affective components of body image processing. ROI analysis showed a main effect of group in ACC as well as a group by condition interaction within bilateral EBA, bilateral FBA, right IPL, bilateral DLPFC, left amygdala and left MPFC. For the A-W group, simple effect analysis revealed stronger activations in Thin-Control compared to Fat-Control condition within regions related to perceptive (including bilateral EBA, bilateral FBA, right IPL) and affective components of body image processing (including bilateral DLPFC, left amygdala), as well as self-reference (left MPFC). The O-W group only showed stronger activations in Fat-Control than in Thin-Control condition within regions related to the perceptive component of body image processing (including left EBA and left FBA). Path analysis showed that in the Fat-Thin contrast, body dissatisfaction completely mediated the group difference in brain response in left amygdala across the whole sample. Our data are the first to demonstrate differences in brain response to body pictures between average weight and overweight young females involved in a body image self-reflection task. These results provide insights for understanding the vulnerability to body image distress

  11. Body image in the person with a stoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, A

    1991-01-01

    Body image is the mental picture one has of one's physical being that develops from birth and continues throughout life and is related to different factors affecting its formation and dynamics. A crisis such as the creation of a stoma leads to an alteration in body image and an awareness of the meaning of the change in appearance and function of an individual. The individual's behavior is examined in several domains: physical, mental, emotional, social, sexual, and economical. When one domain is disturbed the others will be influenced. A person's rehabilitation after ostomy surgery is a continuous process of adaptation and is directed toward returning to a normal way of life. Many factors affect this adaptation to an alteration in body image and are relevant to the patient and family. These factors include, but are not limited to, the disease process, treatment(s), and medical and nursing care in the hospital and community. Knowledge about actual and potential problems associated with an alteration in body image enables the nurse to assess the meaning of the alteration in body image for the individual patient and family, provide counseling before and after the surgery, and intervene so that the individual will be able to adapt to an alteration in body image and return to one's previous activities of daily living and lifestyle.

  12. Content-based Image Hiding Method for Secure Network Biometric Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangjiu Che

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available For secure biometric verification, most existing methods embed biometric information directly into the cover image, but content correlation analysis between the biometric image and the cover image is often ignored. In this paper, we propose a novel biometric image hiding approach based on the content correlation analysis to protect the network-based transmitted image. By using principal component analysis (PCA, the content correlation between the biometric image and the cover image is firstly analyzed. Then based on particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm, some regions of the cover image are selected to represent the biometric image, in which the cover image can carry partial content of the biometric image. As a result of the correlation analysis, the unrepresented part of the biometric image is embedded into the cover image by using the discrete wavelet transform (DWT. Combined with human visual system (HVS model, this approach makes the hiding result perceptually invisible. The extensive experimental results demonstrate that the proposed hiding approach is robust against some common frequency and geometric attacks; it also provides an effective protection for the secure biometric verification.

  13. Deep Convolutional Neural Networks for Classifying Body Constitution Based on Face Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Er-Yang; Wen, Gui-Hua; Zhang, Shi-Jun; Li, Dan-Yang; Hu, Yang; Chang, Tian-Yuan; Wang, Qing; Huang, Bing-Lin

    2017-01-01

    Body constitution classification is the basis and core content of traditional Chinese medicine constitution research. It is to extract the relevant laws from the complex constitution phenomenon and finally build the constitution classification system. Traditional identification methods have the disadvantages of inefficiency and low accuracy, for instance, questionnaires. This paper proposed a body constitution recognition algorithm based on deep convolutional neural network, which can classify individual constitution types according to face images. The proposed model first uses the convolutional neural network to extract the features of face image and then combines the extracted features with the color features. Finally, the fusion features are input to the Softmax classifier to get the classification result. Different comparison experiments show that the algorithm proposed in this paper can achieve the accuracy of 65.29% about the constitution classification. And its performance was accepted by Chinese medicine practitioners.

  14. Human body region enhancement method based on Kinect infrared imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Fan, Yubo; Song, Xiaowei; Cai, Wenjing

    2016-10-01

    To effectively improve the low contrast of human body region in the infrared images, a combing method of several enhancement methods is utilized to enhance the human body region. Firstly, for the infrared images acquired by Kinect, in order to improve the overall contrast of the infrared images, an Optimal Contrast-Tone Mapping (OCTM) method with multi-iterations is applied to balance the contrast of low-luminosity infrared images. Secondly, to enhance the human body region better, a Level Set algorithm is employed to improve the contour edges of human body region. Finally, to further improve the human body region in infrared images, Laplacian Pyramid decomposition is adopted to enhance the contour-improved human body region. Meanwhile, the background area without human body region is processed by bilateral filtering to improve the overall effect. With theoretical analysis and experimental verification, the results show that the proposed method could effectively enhance the human body region of such infrared images.

  15. The Children's Body Image Scale: reliability and use with international standards for body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truby, Helen; Paxton, Susan J

    2008-03-01

    To test the reliability of the Children's Body Image Scale (CBIS) and assess its usefulness in the context of new body size charts for children. Participants were 281 primary schoolchildren with 50% being retested after 3 weeks. The CBIS figure scale was compared with a range of international body mass index (BMI) reference standards. Children had a high degree of body image dissatisfaction. The test-retest reliability of the CBIS was supported. The CBIS is a useful tool for assessing body image in children with sound scale properties. It can also be used to identify the body size of children, which lies outside the healthy weight range of BMI.

  16. Body image and self-esteem in somatizing patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sertoz, Ozen O; Doganavsargil, Ozge; Elbi, Hayriye

    2009-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine dissatisfaction with body appearance and bodily functions and to assess self-esteem in somatizing patients. Body image and self-esteem were investigated in 128 women; 34 of those had diagnosed somatoform disorders, 50 were breast cancer patients with total mastectomy surgery alone, and 44 were healthy subjects. Body image and self-esteem were assessed using the Body Cathexis Scale and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The two clinical groups did not differ from one another (z = -1.832, P = 0.067), but differed from healthy controls in terms of body image (somatizing patients vs healthy controls, z = -3.628, P self-esteem (z = -0.936, P = 0.349) when depressive symptoms were controlled. No statistically significant difference was observed between total mastectomy patients and healthy controls in terms of self-esteem (z = -1.727, P = 0.084). The lower levels of self-esteem in somatizing patients were largely mediated by depressive symptoms. Depressed and non-depressed somatizing patients differed significantly from healthy controls with respect to their self-esteem and body image. Somatizing patients who were dissatisfied with their bodily functions and appearance had lower levels of self-esteem and high comorbidity of depression. In clinical practice it is suggested that clinicians should take into account psychiatric comorbidity, self-esteem, and body image in somatizing patients when planning treatment approaches.

  17. Body image and body change: predictive factors in an Iranian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrusi, Behshid; Garousi, Saeide; Baneshi, Mohammad R

    2013-08-01

    Body concerns and its health consequences such as eating disorders and harmful body change activities are mentioned in Asian countries. This study evaluates factors contributing to body image/shape changes in an Iranian population. In this cross-sectional study we focused on four main body change activity (diet, exercise, substance use, and surgery) and their risk factors such as demographic variables, Body Mass Index (BMI), Media, Body-Esteem, Perceived Socio-cultural Pressure, Body dissatisfaction and, Self-Esteem. Approximately, 1,200 individuals between 14-55 years old participated in this study. We used a multistage sampling method. In each region, the first household was selected at random. The probability of outcomes was estimated from logistic models. About 54.3% of respondents were females. The mean (SD) of age was 31.06 (10.24) years. Variables such as gender, age, BMI, use of media and socio cultural factors as, body dissatisfaction, body-esteem and pressure by relatives were the main factors that influenced body change methods. In particular we have seen that male are 53% less likely to follow surgical treatments, but 125% were more likely to use substances. Investigation of body concern and its health related problem should be assessed in cultural context. For effectiveness of interventional programs and reducing harmful body image/shape changes activities, socio-cultural background should be noted.

  18. Body image and body change: Predictive factors in an Iranian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behshid Garrusi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Body concerns and its health consequences such as eating disorders and harmful body change activities are mentioned in Asian countries. This study evaluates factors contributing to body image/shape changes in an Iranian population. Methods: In this cross-sectional study we focused on four main body change activity (diet, exercise, substance use, and surgery and their risk factors such as demographic variables, Body Mass Index (BMI, Media, Body-Esteem, Perceived Socio-cultural Pressure, Body dissatisfaction and, Self-Esteem. Approximately, 1,200 individuals between 14-55 years old participated in this study. We used a multistage sampling method. In each region, the first household was selected at random. The probability of outcomes was estimated from logistic models. Results: About 54.3% of respondents were females. The mean (SD of age was 31.06 (10.24 years. Variables such as gender, age, BMI, use of media and socio cultural factors as, body dissatisfaction, body-esteem and pressure by relatives were the main factors that influenced body change methods. In particular we have seen that male are 53% less likely to follow surgical treatments, but 125% were more likely to use substances. Conclusions: Investigation of body concern and its health related problem should be assessed in cultural context. For effectiveness of interventional programs and reducing harmful body image/shape changes activities, socio-cultural background should be noted.

  19. Body Image and Body Change: Predictive Factors in an Iranian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrusi, Behshid; Garousi, Saeide; Baneshi, Mohammad R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Body concerns and its health consequences such as eating disorders and harmful body change activities are mentioned in Asian countries. This study evaluates factors contributing to body image/shape changes in an Iranian population. Methods: In this cross-sectional study we focused on four main body change activity (diet, exercise, substance use, and surgery) and their risk factors such as demographic variables, Body Mass Index (BMI), Media, Body-Esteem, Perceived Socio-cultural Pressure, Body dissatisfaction and, Self-Esteem. Approximately, 1,200 individuals between 14-55 years old participated in this study. We used a multistage sampling method. In each region, the first household was selected at random. The probability of outcomes was estimated from logistic models. Results: About 54.3% of respondents were females. The mean (SD) of age was 31.06 (10.24) years. Variables such as gender, age, BMI, use of media and socio cultural factors as, body dissatisfaction, body-esteem and pressure by relatives were the main factors that influenced body change methods. In particular we have seen that male are 53% less likely to follow surgical treatments, but 125% were more likely to use substances. Conclusions: Investigation of body concern and its health related problem should be assessed in cultural context. For effectiveness of interventional programs and reducing harmful body image/shape changes activities, socio-cultural background should be noted. PMID:24049621

  20. Human Body Image Edge Detection Based on Wavelet Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇; 付小莉

    2003-01-01

    Human dresses are different in thousands way.Human body image signals have big noise, a poor light and shade contrast and a narrow range of gray gradation distribution. The application of a traditional grads method or gray method to detect human body image edges can't obtain satisfactory results because of false detections and missed detections. According to tte peculiarity of human body image, dyadic wavelet transform of cubic spline is successfully applied to detect the face and profile edges of human body image and Mallat algorithm is used in the wavelet decomposition in this paper.

  1. Thought–shape fusion and body image in eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jáuregui-Lobera I

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera,1 Patricia Bolaños-Ríos,2 Inmaculada Ruiz-Prieto21Department of Nutrition and Bromatology, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, Spain; 2Behavioral Sciences Institute, Seville, SpainPurpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships among thought–shape fusion (TSF, specific instruments to assess body image disturbances, and body image quality of life in eating disorder patients in order to improve the understanding of the links between body image concerns and a specific bias consisting of beliefs about the consequences of thinking about forbidden foods.Patients and methods: The final sample included 76 eating disorder patients (mean age 20.13 ± 2.28 years; 59 women and seven men. After having obtained informed consent, the following questionnaires were administered: Body Appreciation Scale (BAS, Body Image Quality of Life Inventory (BIQLI-SP, Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ, Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R and Thought-Shape Fusion Questionnaire (TSF-Q.Results: Significant correlations were found between TSF-Q and body image-related variables. Those with higher scores in TSF showed higher scores in the BSQ (P < 0.0001, Eating Disorder Inventory – Drive for Thinness (EDI-DT (P < 0.0001, and Eating Disorder Inventory – Body Dissatisfaction (EDI-BD (P < 0.0001. The same patients showed lower scores in the BAS (P < 0.0001. With respect to the psychopathological variables, patients with high TSF obtained higher scores in all SCL-90-R subscales as well as in the STAI.Conclusion: The current study shows the interrelations among different body image-related variables, TSF, and body image quality of life.Keywords: cognitive distortions, quality of life, body appreciation, psychopathology, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa

  2. Childhood trauma and anorexia nervosa: From body image to embodiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malecki, Jennifer; Rhodes, Paul; Ussher, Jane

    2018-02-27

    Contemporary understandings of anorexia nervosa are framed by the body image paradigm. The body-image framework considers that women's bodily experiences are reflected through distorted mental images of their bodies or disordered thinking and behavior around food and eating. Body image has come to symbolize all that can go wrong with women's relationship with their bodies, food and eating. The problem with this approach is its failure to consider the experience of women who survived childhood abuse. Women's bodily disturbances are not easily discernible through objective measures as they lie within the inner subjective realm of the embodied 'self', and embodied emotional experience. Consideration of the different ways that women inhabit their bodies inform this paper's examination of the conceptual framework embodiment as an alternate to the body image paradigm.

  3. Body image and body composition: comparisons of young male elite soccer players and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Marta; Gonzalez-de-Suso, Jose Manuel; Sanchez, Celia; Ansotegui, Laura; Rocandio, Ana M

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate body composition and body image (perception and satisfaction) in a group of young elite soccer players and to compare the data with those of a control group (age and BMI matched). Participants were 56 volunteer males whose mean age and BMI were 19.6 (SD 1.3) years and 23.3 (SD 1.1) kg/m2, respectively. Results showed that soccer players have a higher lean mass and lower fat mass than controls. Moreover, body perception (difference between current and actual image) was more accurate in controls than in soccer players, and the results suggest a tendency for soccer players to aspire to have more muscle mass and body fat. Soccer players perceived an ideal image with significantly higher body-fat percentage than their current and actual images. There were no body-dissatisfaction differences between groups, however. Although the results are necessarily limited by the small sample size, the findings should be of interest to coaches of young elite soccer teams.

  4. Body image quality of life in eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Jáuregui Lobera

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Ignacio Jáuregui Lobera1, Patricia Bolaños Ríos21Department of Nutrition and Bromatology, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, Spain; 2Behavior Sciences Institute, Seville, SpainPurpose: The objective was to examine how body image affects quality of life in an eating-disorder (ED clinical sample, a non-ED clinical sample, and a nonclinical sample. We hypothesized that ED patients would show the worst body image quality of life. We also hypothesized that body image quality of life would have a stronger negative association with specific ED-related variables than with other psychological and psychopathological variables, mainly among ED patients. On the basis of previous studies, the influence of gender on the results was explored, too.Patients and methods: The final sample comprised 70 ED patients (mean age 22.65 ± 7.76 years; 59 women and 11 men; 106 were patients with other psychiatric disorders (mean age 28.20 ± 6.52; 67 women and 39 men, and 135 were university students (mean age 21.57 ± 2.58; 81 women and 54 men, with no psychiatric history. After having obtained informed consent, the following questionnaires were administered: Body Image Quality of Life Inventory-Spanish version (BIQLI-SP, Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2, Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ, Self-Esteem Scale (SES, and Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R.Results: The ED patients' ratings on the BIQLI-SP were the lowest and negatively scored (BIQLI-SP means: +20.18, +5.14, and —6.18, in the student group, the non-ED patient group, and the ED group, respectively. The effect of body image on quality of life was more negative in the ED group in all items of the BIQLI-SP. Body image quality of life was negatively associated with specific ED-related variables, more than with other psychological and psychopathological variables, but not especially among ED patients.Conclusion: Body image quality of life was affected not only by specific pathologies related to body

  5. Development of multi-dimensional body image scale for malaysian female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Yit Siew; Taib, Mohd Nasir Mohd; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Khor, Geok Lin

    2008-01-01

    The present study was conducted to develop a Multi-dimensional Body Image Scale for Malaysian female adolescents. Data were collected among 328 female adolescents from a secondary school in Kuantan district, state of Pahang, Malaysia by using a self-administered questionnaire and anthropometric measurements. The self-administered questionnaire comprised multiple measures of body image, Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26; Garner & Garfinkel, 1979) and Rosenberg Self-esteem Inventory (Rosenberg, 1965). The 152 items from selected multiple measures of body image were examined through factor analysis and for internal consistency. Correlations between Multi-dimensional Body Image Scale and body mass index (BMI), risk of eating disorders and self-esteem were assessed for construct validity. A seven factor model of a 62-item Multi-dimensional Body Image Scale for Malaysian female adolescents with construct validity and good internal consistency was developed. The scale encompasses 1) preoccupation with thinness and dieting behavior, 2) appearance and body satisfaction, 3) body importance, 4) muscle increasing behavior, 5) extreme dieting behavior, 6) appearance importance, and 7) perception of size and shape dimensions. Besides, a multidimensional body image composite score was proposed to screen negative body image risk in female adolescents. The result found body image was correlated with BMI, risk of eating disorders and self-esteem in female adolescents. In short, the present study supports a multi-dimensional concept for body image and provides a new insight into its multi-dimensionality in Malaysian female adolescents with preliminary validity and reliability of the scale. The Multi-dimensional Body Image Scale can be used to identify female adolescents who are potentially at risk of developing body image disturbance through future intervention programs.

  6. Whole-body MR imaging of bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, G.P.; Schoenberg, S.O.; Reiser, M.F.; Baur-Melnyk, A.

    2005-01-01

    In clinical routine, multimodality algorithms, including X-ray, computed tomography, scintigraphy and MRI, are used in case of suspected bone marrow malignancy. Skeletal scintigraphy is widely used to asses metastatic disease to the bone, CT is the technique of choice to assess criteria of osseous destruction and bone stability. MRI is the only imaging technique that allows direct visualization of bone marrow and its components with high spatial resolution. The combination of unenhanced T1-weighted-spin echo- and turbo-STIR-sequences have shown to be most useful for the detection of bone marrow abnormalities and are able to discriminate benign from malignant bone marrow changes. Originally, whole-body MRI bone marrow screening was performed in sequential scanning techniques of five body levels with time consuming coil rearrangement and repositioning of the patient. The introduction of a rolling platform mounted on top of a conventional MRI examination table facilitated whole-body MR imaging and, with the use of fast gradient echo, T1-weighted and STIR-imaging techniques, for the first time allowed whole-body imaging within less than one hour. With the development of parallel imaging techniques (PAT) in combination with global matrix coil concepts, acquisition time could be reduced substantially without compromises in spatial resolution, enabling the implementation of more complex and flexible examination protocols. Whole-body MRI represents a new alternative to the stepwise multimodality concept for the detection of metastatic disease, multiple myeloma and lymphoma of the bone with high diagnostic accuracy

  7. Feminist identity, body image, and disordered eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowsky, Hannah M.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Bucchianeri, Michaela M.; Piran, Niva; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    Using data from a community-based sample (Project EAT-III), this study (N = 1241; mean age = 25.2) examined the relationship of feminist identity with body image and disordered eating. Feminist-identified women reported significantly higher body satisfaction than non-feminist women and women who did not identify as feminists but held feminist beliefs. However, feminist-identified women did not differ from non-feminist women in disordered eating. Women holding feminist beliefs and non-feminist women did not differ in body satisfaction. Our findings suggest that self-identification as a feminist may promote positive body image in young adult women, but may be insufficient to change behaviors. PMID:26694553

  8. Feminist identity, body image, and disordered eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowsky, Hannah M; Eisenberg, Marla E; Bucchianeri, Michaela M; Piran, Niva; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    Using data from a community-based sample (Project EAT-III), this study (N = 1241; mean age = 25.2) examined the relationship of feminist identity with body image and disordered eating. Feminist-identified women reported significantly higher body satisfaction than non-feminist women and women who did not identify as feminists but held feminist beliefs. However, feminist-identified women did not differ from non-feminist women in disordered eating. Women holding feminist beliefs and non-feminist women did not differ in body satisfaction. Our findings suggest that self-identification as a feminist may promote positive body image in young adult women, but may be insufficient to change behaviors.

  9. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voelker DK

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Dana K Voelker,1 Justine J Reel,2 Christy Greenleaf3 1West Virginia University, College of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences, Morgantown, WV, 2University of North Carolina Wilmington, College of Health and Human Services, Wilmington, NC, 3University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, College of Health Sciences, Milwaukee, WI, USA Abstract: Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty that affect one’s body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one’s body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise. Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed. Keywords: adolescence, eating disorders, obesity, bullying, puberty, physical activity

  10. Body Fat Content, Distribution and Blood Glucose Concentration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    disease and 2% are due to Diabetes mellitus, 9% ... study was to examine the relationship between body fat content, ..... A meta-analysis of prospective studies. ... A.A.1., Esterhuizen, T., Gouws, E.,. Pirie, F.J., Omar, M.A. (2008). Diabetes.

  11. Information content of poisson images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cederlund, J.

    1979-04-01

    One major problem when producing images with the aid of Poisson distributed quanta is how best to compromise between spatial and contrast resolution. Increasing the number of image elements improves spatial resolution, but at the cost of fewer quanta per image element, which reduces contrast resolution. Information theory arguments are used to analyse this problem. It is argued that information capacity is a useful concept to describe an important property of the imaging device, but that in order to compute the information content of an image produced by this device some statistical properties (such as the a priori probability of the densities) of the object to be depicted must be taken into account. If these statistical properties are not known one cannot make a correct choice between spatial and contrast resolution. (author)

  12. Body Image in Transmen: Multidimensional Measurement and the Effects of Mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Grift, Tim C; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Elfering, Lian; Özer, Müjde; Bouman, Mark-Bram; Buncamper, Marlon E; Smit, Jan Maerten; Mullender, Margriet G

    2016-11-01

    Transmen are generally dissatisfied with their breasts and often opt for mastectomy. However, little is known about the specific effects of this procedure on this group's body image. To prospectively assess the effect of mastectomy on the body image of transmen, including cognitive, emotional, and behavioral aspects. During a 10-month period, all transmen applying for mastectomy were invited to participate in this study. The 33 participants completed assessments preoperatively and at least 6 months postoperatively. Participants were surveyed on body satisfaction (Body Image Scale for Transsexuals), body attitudes (Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire), appearance schemas (Appearance Schemas Inventory), situational bodily feelings (Situational Inventory of Body Image Dysphoria), body image-related quality of life (Body Image Quality of Life Inventory), and self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale). Control values were retrieved from the literature and a college sample. Before surgery, transmen reported less positive body attitudes and satisfaction, a lower self-esteem and body image-related quality of life compared with cisgender men and women. Mastectomy improved body satisfaction most strongly, although respondents reported improvements in all domains (eg, decreased dysphoria when looking in the mirror and improved feelings of self-worth). Most outcome measurements were strongly correlated. Mastectomy improves body image beyond satisfaction with chest appearance alone. Body satisfaction and feelings of "passing" in social situations are associated with a higher quality of life and self-esteem. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Body image attitude among Chinese college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kui; Liang, Rui; Ma, Zhen-Ling; Chen, Jue; Cheung, Eric F C; Roalf, David R; Gur, Ruben C; Chan, Raymond C K

    2018-03-01

    The present study aimed to examine body image attitude in Chinese college students and related psychological consequences. A silhouette-matching test was administered to 425 college students in mainland China. Self-esteem, negative emotions, subjective well-being, and eating-disorder-related weight-controlling behaviors were also measured. Only 12.9% of the participants were satisfied with their figure and the extent of body image dissatisfaction was comparable for both sexes. The majority of the female participants indicated a preference to be more slender. Their ideal figure was underweight and was far smaller than the most attractive female figure chosen by male participants. For male participants, the proportion wanting a fuller figure was comparable to that wanting a slimmer figure. Among female participants, body image dissatisfaction negatively correlated with self-esteem and subjective well-being, and positively correlated with negative emotions. Drive for thinness correlated with eating-disorder-related weight-controlling behaviors not only for females, but also for males. Body image dissatisfaction, as a diagnostic feature for major subtypes of eating disorders, may signal serious concern among Chinese college students. © 2018 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. Encouraging Lifelong Healthy Habits for a Positive Body Image in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Christine

    This article discusses issues related to body image in adolescents, explaining what school practitioners can do to encourage lifelong healthy habits that enhance body image. Body image is the picture of physical self carried in the mind's eye. This impression can have little resemblance to how a teen actually looks. Body image culturalization is…

  15. Content Based Medical Image Retrieval for Histopathological, CT and MRI Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarnambiga AYYACHAMY

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A content based approach is followed for medical images. The purpose of this study is to access the stability of these methods for medical image retrieval. The methods used in color based retrieval for histopathological images are color co-occurrence matrix (CCM and histogram with meta features. For texture based retrieval GLCM (gray level co-occurrence matrix and local binary pattern (LBP were used. For shape based retrieval canny edge detection and otsu‘s method with multivariable threshold were used. Texture and shape based retrieval were implemented using MRI (magnetic resonance images. The most remarkable characteristics of the article are its content based approach for each medical imaging modality. Our efforts were focused on the initial visual search. From our experiment, histogram with meta features in color based retrieval for histopathological images shows a precision of 60 % and recall of 30 %. Whereas GLCM in texture based retrieval for MRI images shows a precision of 70 % and recall of 20 %. Shape based retrieval for MRI images shows a precision of 50% and recall of 25 %. The retrieval results shows that this simple approach is successful.

  16. Optoacoustic multispectral imaging of radiolucent foreign bodies in tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Leland; Maswadi, Saher; Glickman, Randolph D

    2013-01-01

    Optoacoustic imaging is an emerging medical technology that uniquely combines the absorption contrast of optical imaging and the penetration depth of ultrasound. While it is not currently employed as a clinical imaging modality, the results of current research strongly support the use of optoacoustic-based methods in medical imaging. One such application is the diagnosis of the presence of soft tissue foreign bodies. Because many radiolucent foreign bodies have sufficient contrast for imaging in the optical domain, laser-induced optoacoustic imaging could be advantageous for the detection of such objects. Common foreign bodies have been scanned over a range of visible and near infrared wavelengths by using an optoacoustic method to obtain the spectroscopic properties of the materials commonly associated with these foreign bodies. The derived optical absorption spectra compared quite closely to the absorption spectra generated when using a conventional spectrophotometer. By using the probe-beam deflection technique, a novel, pressure-wave detection method, we successfully generated optoacoustic spectroscopic plots of a wooden foreign body embedded in a tissue phantom, which closely resembled the spectrum of the same object obtained in isolation. A practical application of such spectra is to assemble a library of spectroscopic data for radiolucent materials, from which specific characteristic wavelengths can be selected for use in optimizing imaging instrumentation and provide a basis for the identification of the material properties of particular foreign bodies.

  17. A content analysis of thinspiration, fitspiration, and bonespiration imagery on social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Catherine Victoria; Gavin, Jeffrey; van Steen, Tommy; Morey, Yvette

    2017-01-01

    On social media, images such as thinspiration, fitspiration, and bonespiration, are shared to inspire certain body ideals. Previous research has demonstrated that exposure to these groups of content is associated with increased body dissatisfaction and decreased self-esteem. It is therefore important that the bodies featured within these groups of content are more fully understood so that effective interventions and preventative measures can be informed, developed, and implemented. A content analysis was conducted on a sample of body-focussed images with the hashtags thinspiration, fitspiration, and bonespiration from three social media platforms. The analyses showed that thinspiration and bonespiration content contained more thin and objectified bodies, compared to fitspiration which featured a greater prevalence of muscles and muscular bodies. In addition, bonespiration content contained more bone protrusions and fewer muscles than thinspiration content. The findings suggest fitspiration may be a less unhealthy type of content; however, a subgroup of imagery was identified which idealised the extremely thin body type and as such this content should also be approached with caution. Future research should utilise qualitative methods to further develop understandings of the body ideals that are constructed within these groups of content and the motivations behind posting this content.

  18. BodiMojo: Efficacy of a Mobile-Based Intervention in Improving Body Image and Self-Compassion among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Rachel F; Donovan, Elizabeth; Cousineau, Tara; Yates, Kayla; McGowan, Kayla; Cook, Elizabeth; Lowy, Alice S; Franko, Debra L

    2018-01-18

    Mobile interventions promoting positive body image are lacking. This study presents a randomized controlled evaluation of BodiMojo, a mobile application (app) intervention grounded in self-compassion to promote positive body image. A sample of 274 adolescents, mean (SD) age = 18.36 (1.34) years, 74% female, were allocated to a control group or used BodiMojo for 6 weeks. Appearance esteem, body image flexibility, appearance comparison, mood, and self-compassion were assessed at baseline, 6, and 12 weeks. Significant time by group interactions emerged for appearance esteem and self-compassion, with appearance esteem and self-compassion increasing in the intervention relative to the control group. These findings provide preliminary support for BodiMojo, a cost-effective mobile app for positive body image.

  19. Content-based image retrieval with ontological ranking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shen-Fu; Tsai, Min-Hsuan; Huang, Thomas S.

    2010-02-01

    Images are a much more powerful medium of expression than text, as the adage says: "One picture is worth a thousand words." It is because compared with text consisting of an array of words, an image has more degrees of freedom and therefore a more complicated structure. However, the less limited structure of images presents researchers in the computer vision community a tough task of teaching machines to understand and organize images, especially when a limit number of learning examples and background knowledge are given. The advance of internet and web technology in the past decade has changed the way human gain knowledge. People, hence, can exchange knowledge with others by discussing and contributing information on the web. As a result, the web pages in the internet have become a living and growing source of information. One is therefore tempted to wonder whether machines can learn from the web knowledge base as well. Indeed, it is possible to make computer learn from the internet and provide human with more meaningful knowledge. In this work, we explore this novel possibility on image understanding applied to semantic image search. We exploit web resources to obtain links from images to keywords and a semantic ontology constituting human's general knowledge. The former maps visual content to related text in contrast to the traditional way of associating images with surrounding text; the latter provides relations between concepts for machines to understand to what extent and in what sense an image is close to the image search query. With the aid of these two tools, the resulting image search system is thus content-based and moreover, organized. The returned images are ranked and organized such that semantically similar images are grouped together and given a rank based on the semantic closeness to the input query. The novelty of the system is twofold: first, images are retrieved not only based on text cues but their actual contents as well; second, the grouping

  20. Information management for high content live cell imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Michael RH

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High content live cell imaging experiments are able to track the cellular localisation of labelled proteins in multiple live cells over a time course. Experiments using high content live cell imaging will generate multiple large datasets that are often stored in an ad-hoc manner. This hinders identification of previously gathered data that may be relevant to current analyses. Whilst solutions exist for managing image data, they are primarily concerned with storage and retrieval of the images themselves and not the data derived from the images. There is therefore a requirement for an information management solution that facilitates the indexing of experimental metadata and results of high content live cell imaging experiments. Results We have designed and implemented a data model and information management solution for the data gathered through high content live cell imaging experiments. Many of the experiments to be stored measure the translocation of fluorescently labelled proteins from cytoplasm to nucleus in individual cells. The functionality of this database has been enhanced by the addition of an algorithm that automatically annotates results of these experiments with the timings of translocations and periods of any oscillatory translocations as they are uploaded to the repository. Testing has shown the algorithm to perform well with a variety of previously unseen data. Conclusion Our repository is a fully functional example of how high throughput imaging data may be effectively indexed and managed to address the requirements of end users. By implementing the automated analysis of experimental results, we have provided a clear impetus for individuals to ensure that their data forms part of that which is stored in the repository. Although focused on imaging, the solution provided is sufficiently generic to be applied to other functional proteomics and genomics experiments. The software is available from: fhttp://code.google.com/p/livecellim/

  1. Factors associated with body image distortion in Korean adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun MY

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mi-Yeul Hyun,1 Young-Eun Jung,2 Moon-Doo Kim,2 Young-Sook Kwak,2 Sung-Chul Hong,3 Won-Myong Bahk,4 Bo-Hyun Yoon,5 Hye Won Yoon,6 Bora Yoo61College of Nursing, Jeju National University, Jeju, Korea; 2Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Jeju National University, Jeju, Korea; 3Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Jeju National University, Jeju, Korea; 4Department of Psychiatry, Yeouido St Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea; 5Department of Psychiatry, Naju National Hospital, Naju, Korea; 6School of Medicine, Jeju National University, Jeju, KoreaPurpose: Body image incorporates cognitive and affective components as well as behaviors related to own body perception. This study evaluated the occurrence of body image distortion and its correlates in Korean adolescents.Methods: In a school-based cross-sectional survey, a total of 2,117 adolescents were recruited. They filled out self-completing questionnaires on body image distortion, eating attitudes, and behaviors (Eating Attitude Test-26 and related factors.Results: Body image distortions were found in 51.8 percent of adolescents. Univariate analyses showed that boys and older adolescents had higher rates of body image distortion. In the multivariate analyses, body image distortion was associated with high risk for eating disorders (odds ratio [OR] =1.69; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11–2.58; P=0.015 and being over weight (OR =33.27; 95% CI 15.51–71.35; P<0.001 or obese (OR =9.37; 95% CI 5.06–17.34; P<0.001.Conclusion: These results suggest that body image distortion is relatively common in Korean adolescents, which has implications for adolescents at risk of developing eating disorders.Keywords: body image distortion, high risk for eating disorders, Korean adolescent

  2. Influential sources affecting Bangkok adolescent body image perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thianthai, Chulanee

    2006-01-01

    The study of body image-related problems in non-Western countries is still very limited. Thus, this study aims to identify the main influential sources and show how they affect the body image perceptions of Bangkok adolescents. The researcher recruited 400 Thai male and female adolescents in Bangkok, attending high school to freshmen level, ranging from 16-19 years, to participate in this study. Survey questionnaires were distributed to every student and follow-up interviews conducted with 40 students. The findings showed that there are eight main influential sources respectively ranked from the most influential to the least influential: magazines, television, peer group, familial, fashion trend, the opposite gender, self-realization and health knowledge. Similar to those studies conducted in Western countries, more than half of the total percentage was the influence of mass media and peer groups. Bangkok adolescents also internalized Western ideal beauty through these mass media channels. Alike studies conducted in the West, there was similarities in the process of how these influential sources affect Bangkok adolescent body image perception, with the exception of familial source. In conclusion, taking the approach of identifying the main influential sources and understanding how they affect adolescent body image perceptions can help prevent adolescents from having unhealthy views and taking risky measures toward their bodies. More studies conducted in non-Western countries are needed in order to build a cultural sensitive program, catered to the body image problems occurring in adolescents within that particular society.

  3. Anthropometric body measurements based on multi-view stereo image reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaoxin; Jia, Wenyan; Mao, Zhi-Hong; Li, Jie; Chen, Hsin-Chen; Zuo, Wangmeng; Wang, Kuanquan; Sun, Mingui

    2013-01-01

    Anthropometric measurements, such as the circumferences of the hip, arm, leg and waist, waist-to-hip ratio, and body mass index, are of high significance in obesity and fitness evaluation. In this paper, we present a home based imaging system capable of conducting anthropometric measurements. Body images are acquired at different angles using a home camera and a simple rotating disk. Advanced image processing algorithms are utilized for 3D body surface reconstruction. A coarse body shape model is first established from segmented body silhouettes. Then, this model is refined through an inter-image consistency maximization process based on an energy function. Our experimental results using both a mannequin surrogate and a real human body validate the feasibility of the proposed system.

  4. Changing Body Image and Well-Being: Following the Experience of Massive Weight Loss and Body Contouring Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Gilmartin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the perception of changing body image and well-being for patients who had undergone plastic surgery following massive weight loss. The exploratory, qualitative study was undertaken with 20 patients from one teaching hospital in the south of England. Semi-structured interviews were carried out and a thematic analysis of the data undertaken. The results provide important insights regarding body contouring influencing body image change and the adjustment process involved. The ability to pursue self-esteem and the accruing social benefits is emphasized in the interrelated sub themes including social acceptance, undoing depression and sexual vitality. Body contouring surgery following massive weight loss appears to facilitate improvement in body image and well-being. Adjustment to the changing body image is both empowering and challenging. Supportive educational programmes need to be developed to assist this transition to a more positive body image and appreciation; these could usefully include access to and involvement with patient support groups.

  5. Does the Use of Body Scanners Discriminate Overweight Flight Passengers? The Effect of Body Scanners on Body Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Laib

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Whereas the introduction of body scanners at airports has been accompanied by critical voices raising concerns that body scanners might have a negative impact on different minority groups, it has not been investigated thus far whether they might also have negative impacts on the average flight passenger and if the provision of adequate information might attenuate such negative impacts. Using a pre/post-design the current study examines the effect of a body scan in a controlled laboratory setting on the explicit and implicit body image of normal-weight and overweight people as assessed by questionnaires and an Implicit Association Test. Half of the sample received an information sheet concerning body scanners before they were scanned. While there was a negative impact of the body scan on the implicit body image of overweight participants, there was a positive impact on their explicit body image. The negative effect of the body scan was unaffected by receiving information. This study demonstrates that body scans do not only have negative effects on certain minority groups but potentially on a large proportion of the general public which suggests a critical reconsideration of the control procedures at airports, the training of the airport staff who is in charge of these procedures and the information flight passengers get about these procedures.

  6. Predicting body appreciation in young women: An integrated model of positive body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Rachel; Tiggemann, Marika; Clark, Levina

    2016-09-01

    This study examined a range of predictors, based on previous theoretical models, of positive body image in young adult women. Participants were 266 women who completed an online questionnaire measuring body appreciation, activity participation, media consumption, perceived body acceptance by others, self-compassion, and autonomy. Potential mechanisms in predicting body appreciation assessed were self-objectification, social appearance comparison, and thin-ideal internalisation. Results indicated that greater perceived body acceptance by others and self-compassion, and lower appearance media consumption, self-objectification, social comparison, and thin-ideal internalisation were related to greater body appreciation. An integrated model showed that appearance media (negatively) and non-appearance media and self-compassion (positively) were associated with lower self-objectification, social comparison, and thin-ideal internalisation, which in turn related to greater body appreciation. Additionally, perceived body acceptance by others was directly associated with body appreciation. The results contribute to an understanding of potential pathways of positive body image development, thereby highlighting possible intervention targets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Adolescent Male Athletes: Body Image, Diet, and Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Pamela S. McKay; Read, Marsha H.

    1997-01-01

    Investigates and compares football players' (n=44) and cross-country runners' (n=30) body image concerns, attitudes toward eating, and reasons for exercising. Results revealed significant differences. Football players reported a more positive body image, whereas runners indicated a greater concern for weight control and more disordered eating…

  8. Adolescent Attitudes Toward Body Image and Anorexic Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Carol Lee; Fodor, Iris Goldstein

    1986-01-01

    Explored the relationship between anorexic behavior and selected dimensions of body image predictor variables, selected dimensions of body image, physical attractiveness, self-esteem, and physical effectiveness). Results indicated that the dimension of self-esteem was the major factor in the prediction of anorexic behaviors as measured by the…

  9. Psychosocial variables and body image anxiety among tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result showed that whereas gender has no significant effect on body image anxiety, media model, peer influence and self-esteem had a significant relationship with body image anxiety. The major recommendation was that primary care physicians should help patients to value themselves as individuals as this will ...

  10. Seeing, mirroring, desiring: the impact of the analyst's pregnant body on the patient's body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakeley, Jessica

    2013-08-01

    The paper explores the impact of the analyst's pregnant body on the course of two analyses, a young man, and a young woman, specifically focusing on how each patient's visual perception and affective experience of being with the analyst's pregnant body affected their own body image and subjective experience of their body. The pre-verbal or 'subsymbolic' material evoked in the analyses contributed to a greater understanding of the patients' developmental experiences in infancy and adolescence, which had resulted in both carrying a profoundly distorted body image into adulthood. The analyst's pregnancy offered a therapeutic window in which a shift in the patient's body image could be initiated. Clinical material is presented in detail with reference to the psychoanalytic literature on the pregnant analyst, and that of the development of the body image, particularly focusing on the role of visual communication and the face. The author proposes a theory of psychic change, drawing on Bucci's multiple code theory, in which the patients' unconscious or 'subsymbolic' awareness of her pregnancy, which were manifest in their bodily responses, feeling states and dreams, as well as in the analyst s countertransference, could gradually be verbalized and understood within the transference. Thus visual perception, or 'external seeing', could gradually become 'internal seeing', or insight into unconscious phantasies, leading to a shift in the patients internal object world towards a less persecutory state and more realistic appraisal of their body image. Copyright © 2013 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  11. Body Image, Physical Attractiveness, and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noles, Steven W.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Examined the relationship between body image, global self-concept, and depression. Men and women (N=224) completed questionnaires and were videotaped and objectively rated on attractiveness. Results indicated that depressed subjects were less satisfied with their bodies and saw themselves as less physically attractive than was reported by…

  12. Negative body image associated with changes in the visual body appearance increases pain perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michihiro Osumi

    Full Text Available Changing the visual body appearance by use of as virtual reality system, funny mirror, or binocular glasses has been reported to be helpful in rehabilitation of pain. However, there are interindividual differences in the analgesic effect of changing the visual body image. We hypothesized that a negative body image associated with changing the visual body appearance causes interindividual differences in the analgesic effect although the relationship between the visual body appearance and analgesic effect has not been clarified. We investigated whether a negative body image associated with changes in the visual body appearance increased pain. Twenty-five healthy individuals participated in this study. To evoke a negative body image, we applied the method of rubber hand illusion. We created an "injured rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with pain, a "hairy rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with embarrassment, and a "twisted rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with deviation from the concept of normality. We also created a "normal rubber hand" as a control. The pain threshold was measured while the participant observed the rubber hand using a device that measured pain caused by thermal stimuli. Body ownership experiences were elicited by observation of the injured rubber hand and hairy rubber hand as well as the normal rubber hand. Participants felt more unpleasantness by observing the injured rubber hand and hairy rubber hand than the normal rubber hand and twisted rubber hand (p<0.001. The pain threshold was lower under the injured rubber hand condition than with the other conditions (p<0.001. We conclude that a negative body appearance associated with pain can increase pain sensitivity.

  13. Content dependent selection of image enhancement parameters for mobile displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoon-Gyoo; Kang, Yoo-Jin; Kim, Han-Eol; Kim, Ka-Hee; Kim, Choon-Woo

    2011-01-01

    Mobile devices such as cellular phones and portable multimedia player with capability of playing terrestrial digital multimedia broadcasting (T-DMB) contents have been introduced into consumer market. In this paper, content dependent image quality enhancement method for sharpness and colorfulness and noise reduction is presented to improve perceived image quality on mobile displays. Human visual experiments are performed to analyze viewers' preference. Relationship between the objective measures and the optimal values of image control parameters are modeled by simple lookup tables based on the results of human visual experiments. Content dependent values of image control parameters are determined based on the calculated measures and predetermined lookup tables. Experimental results indicate that dynamic selection of image control parameters yields better image quality.

  14. Whole-body intravoxel incoherent motion imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filli, Lukas; Wurnig, Moritz C.; Eberhardt, Christian; Guggenberger, Roman; Boss, Andreas [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Luechinger, Roger [University and ETH Zurich, Institute of Biomedical Technology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-07-15

    To investigate the technical feasibility of whole-body intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) imaging. Whole-body MR images of eight healthy volunteers were acquired at 3T using a spin-echo echo-planar imaging sequence with eight b-values. Coronal parametrical whole-body maps of diffusion (D), pseudodiffusion (D*), and the perfusion fraction (F{sub p}) were calculated. Image quality was rated qualitatively by two independent radiologists, and inter-reader reliability was tested with intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs). Region of interest (ROI) analysis was performed in the brain, liver, kidney, and erector spinae muscle. Depiction of anatomic structures was rated as good on D maps and good to fair on D* and F{sub p} maps. Exemplary mean D (10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s), D* (10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) and F{sub p} (%) values (± standard deviation) of the renal cortex were as follows: 1.7 ± 0.2; 15.6 ± 6.5; 20.9 ± 4.4. Inter-observer agreement was ''substantial'' to ''almost perfect'' (ICC = 0.80 - 0.92). The coefficient of variation of D* was significantly lower with the proposed algorithm compared to the conventional algorithm (p < 0.001), indicating higher stability. The proposed IVIM protocol allows computation of parametrical maps with good to fair image quality. Potential future clinical applications may include characterization of widespread disease such as metastatic tumours or inflammatory myopathies. (orig.)

  15. Personality characteristics and body image in obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarısoy, Gökhan; Atmaca, Ayşegül; Ecemiş, Gülçin; Gümüş, Kübra; Pazvantoğlu, Ozan

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the personality characteristics of obese and morbidly obese individuals with no psychiatric disorder and the correlation between these characteristics and body image and self-esteem. Sixty-nine obese individuals and 69 healthy controls, matched in age, sex and marital status, were included in the study. Psychiatric disorders were excluded for all participants using SCID-I and II. Obese and healthy volunteers were compared in terms of body image, self-esteem and personality characteristics. TCI harm avoidance scores were higher in obese individuals compared to healthy controls. Harm avoidance scores were also higher in individuals with morbid obesity compared to non-morbid individuals, while self-directedness and persistence scores were lower. Body image dissatisfaction was higher in obese individuals. There was a negative correlation in obese individuals between body image and self-esteem scale scores and harm avoidance scores, and a positive correlation with self-directedness scores. An elevated harm avoidance temperament characteristic may be correlated with obesity. Furthermore, high harm avoidance, low self-directedness and low persistence may be significant personality characteristics in a process leading to morbid obesity. In addition, harm avoidance temperament and self-directedness personality characteristics may be correlated with body image dissatisfaction and self-esteem in obese individuals. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Study on the usefulness of whole body SPECT coronal image, MIP image in 67Ga scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Seiji

    2002-01-01

    In this study, we examined the usefulness of whole body coronal images and whole body cine display MIP images (CMIP) upon which image processing was carried out after whole body SPECT in comparison to the usefulness of whole body images (WB/SC) compensated by scattered radiation in tumor/inflammation scintigraphy with 67 Ga-citrate ( 67 Ga). Image interpretation was performed for the 120 patients with confirmed diagnoses, and the accuracy of their diagnoses was studied by three nuclear medical physicians and two clinical radiological technologists by means of sensitivity, specificity and ROC analysis. The resultant data show that sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and the area under the ROC curve Az in the WB/SC were approximately 65%, 86%, 74% and 0.724, respectively, whereas sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and Az of the image reading system in which CMIP is combined with whole body coronal images reconstructed by the OS-EM method were approximately 93%, 95%, 94% and 0.860, respectively. Furthermore, coronal images reconstructed by the OS-EM method tended to be superior to those produced by the FBP method in both diagnostic accuracy and ROC analysis. In conclusion, the image reading system in which CMIP is combined with whole body coronal images reconstructed by the OS-EM method was shown to be superior in diagnostic accuracy and ROC analysis. Our data suggest that whole body SPECT is an excellent technique as an alternative to WB/SC. (author)

  17. Psychological predictors of body image dissatisfaction in women suffering from eating discorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brytek-Matera, A

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify factors influencing body image dissatisfaction in female patients with anorexia and bulimia nervosa. 61 women, aged 16 to 31, (M = 21.69; SD = 3.85) filled questionnaires evaluating dissatisfaction with their body (Body Dissatisfaction Scale by Garner & al., 1984), attitudes about the body (Body Attitude Test by Probst & al., 1995), avoidance with regard to body image (Body Image Avoidance Questionnaire by Rosen & al., 1991), negative mood states (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale by Zigmond and Snaith, 1983) as well as self-esteem (Self-Esteem Inventory by Coopersmith, 1984). Negative appreciation of body size, symptoms of depression, grooming and weighting, lack of familiarity with one's own body, as well as low self-esteem in general, could predict the body image dissatisfaction among eating disordered women. The fact of knowing the most important determinants of body image could give indications for the prevention of the cognitive distortions concerning body image.

  18. Impact of body habitus on quantitative and qualitative image quality in whole-body FDG-PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsumi, Mitsuaki; Clark, Paul A.; Nakamoto, Yuji; Wahl, Richard L. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, 601 N. Caroline St., Rm 3223, Baltimore, MD 21287-0817 (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Obtaining consistent high image quality is desirable for clinical positron emission tomography (PET). Body morphology may impact image quality. The purpose of this study was to define the average and the range of body sizes in patients undergoing tumor PET studies in our center and to determine how the body habitus affects the statistical and visual quality of PET images. Height, weight, body surface area (BSA), and body mass index (BMI) were determined in 101 male and 101 female patients (group 1) referred for clinical PET. The summed total counts from three consecutive transaxial slices on non-attenuation-corrected (NAC) 2D fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET images, which included the largest liver section and no lesions, were determined and compared with body morphology and injected doses (ID) in a representative group of 30 male and 30 female patients (group 2) spanning a range of body morphologies. The visual quality of images was also evaluated using a scoring system by three readers. The average height, weight, and BSA were greater in male than in female patients, but the average BMI was not different between them in group 1. The largest value of weight or BMI was more than four times the smallest value in female patients. The total true counts were best correlated with ID/weight (mCi/kg) in group 2 (r=0.929, P<0.0001). Intermediate to high total counts (930,000 or more) corresponded to ID/weight of 0.22 or higher. The average visual score was positively correlated with the total counts ({rho}=0.63, P<0.0001) and with ID/weight ({rho}=0.68, P<0.0001) on NAC images. The image quality in 22 (84.6%) of 26 patients with intermediate to high total counts was adequate to good, whereas that in 21 (61.8%) of 34 patients with lower total counts was suboptimal. A wide variety of body morphologies was observed in patients referred for clinical FDG-PET tumor studies in our center. The total counts and average image visual score were negatively correlated with

  19. Body image disturbance in adults treated for cancer - a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoten, Bethany A

    2016-05-01

    To report an analysis of the concept of body image disturbance in adults who have been treated for cancer as a phenomenon of interest to nurses. Although the concept of body image disturbance has been clearly defined in adolescents and adults with eating disorders, adults who have been treated for cancer may also experience body image disturbance. In this context, the concept of body image disturbance has not been clearly defined. Concept analysis. PubMed, Psychological Information Database and Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature were searched for publications from 1937 - 2015. Search terms included body image, cancer, body image disturbance, adult and concept analysis. Walker and Avant's 8-step method of concept analysis was used. The defining attributes of body image disturbance in adults who have been treated for cancer are: (1) self-perception of a change in appearance and displeasure with the change or perceived change in appearance; (2) decline in an area of function; and (3) psychological distress regarding changes in appearance and/or function. This concept analysis provides a foundation for the development of multidimensional assessment tools and interventions to alleviate body image disturbance in this population. A better understanding of body image disturbance in adults treated for cancer will assist nurses and other clinicians in identifying this phenomenon and nurse scientists in developing instruments that accurately measure this condition, along with interventions that will promote a better quality of life for survivors. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Body Image in a Sexual Context : The Relationship between Body Image and Sexual Experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brink, F.

    2017-01-01

    Given the large sociocultural emphasis on appearance and the widespread incidence of a negative body image in current society, scientific understanding of its potential psychological and physical health consequences, including sexual problems, is now of particular importance. The value of

  1. Body image and personality: associations between the Big Five Personality Factors, actual-ideal weight discrepancy, and body appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Tran, Ulrich S; Brooks, Louise Hoffmann; Kanaan, Laura; Luesse, Ellen-Marlene; Nader, Ingo W; Pietschnig, Jakob; Stieger, Stefan; Voracek, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Studies have suggested associations between personality dimensions and body image constructs, but these have not been conclusively established. In two studies, we examined direct associations between the Big Five dimensions and two body image constructs, actual-ideal weight discrepancy and body appreciation. In Study 1, 950 women completed measures of both body image constructs and a brief measure of the Big Five dimensions. In Study 2,339 women completed measures of the body image constructs and a more reliable measure of the Big Five. Both studies showed that Neuroticism was significantly associated with actual-ideal weight discrepancy (positively) and body appreciation (negatively) once the effects of body mass index and social status had been accounted for. These results are consistent with the suggestion that Neuroticism is a trait of public health significance requiring attention by body image scholars. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2012 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  2. Investigating the link between radiologists’ gaze, diagnostic decision, and image content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourassi, Georgia; Voisin, Sophie; Paquit, Vincent; Krupinski, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate machine learning for linking image content, human perception, cognition, and error in the diagnostic interpretation of mammograms. Methods Gaze data and diagnostic decisions were collected from three breast imaging radiologists and three radiology residents who reviewed 20 screening mammograms while wearing a head-mounted eye-tracker. Image analysis was performed in mammographic regions that attracted radiologists’ attention and in all abnormal regions. Machine learning algorithms were investigated to develop predictive models that link: (i) image content with gaze, (ii) image content and gaze with cognition, and (iii) image content, gaze, and cognition with diagnostic error. Both group-based and individualized models were explored. Results By pooling the data from all readers, machine learning produced highly accurate predictive models linking image content, gaze, and cognition. Potential linking of those with diagnostic error was also supported to some extent. Merging readers’ gaze metrics and cognitive opinions with computer-extracted image features identified 59% of the readers’ diagnostic errors while confirming 97.3% of their correct diagnoses. The readers’ individual perceptual and cognitive behaviors could be adequately predicted by modeling the behavior of others. However, personalized tuning was in many cases beneficial for capturing more accurately individual behavior. Conclusions There is clearly an interaction between radiologists’ gaze, diagnostic decision, and image content which can be modeled with machine learning algorithms. PMID:23788627

  3. Considering an Affect Regulation Framework for Examining the Association Between Body Dissatisfaction and Positive Body Image in Black Older Adolescent Females: Does Body Mass Index Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler-Ajibade, Phoebe; Robinson, Seronda A.

    2014-01-01

    The present study provided an initial evaluation of an affect regulation model describing the association between body dissatisfaction and two contemporary measures of positive body image among 247 Black college-bound older adolescent females. We further tested whether possessing a higher body mass index (BMI) would strengthen these associations. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate BMI. Respondents also completed a culturally-sensitive figure rating scale along with assessments of body appreciation and body image flexibility. Results indicated a robust positive association between the two measures of positive body image; BMI was the strongest predictor of both body appreciation and body image flexibility with body size discrepancy (current minus ideal) contributing incremental variance to both models tested. Implications for improving our understanding of the association between positive and negative body image and bolstering positive body image to promote health-protective behaviors among Black young women at this developmental juncture are discussed. PMID:25079011

  4. Considering an affect regulation framework for examining the association between body dissatisfaction and positive body image in Black older adolescent females: does body mass index matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Jennifer B; Butler-Ajibade, Phoebe; Robinson, Seronda A

    2014-09-01

    The present study provided an initial evaluation of an affect regulation model describing the association between body dissatisfaction and two contemporary measures of positive body image among 247 Black college-bound older adolescent females. We further tested whether possessing a higher body mass index (BMI) would strengthen these associations. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate BMI. Respondents also completed a culturally-sensitive figure rating scale along with assessments of body appreciation and body image flexibility. Results indicated a robust positive association between the two measures of positive body image; BMI was the strongest predictor of both body appreciation and body image flexibility with body size discrepancy (current minus ideal) contributing incremental variance to both models tested. Implications for improving our understanding of the association between positive and negative body image and bolstering positive body image to promote health-protective behaviors among Black young women at this developmental juncture are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Body image concerns amongst massive weight loss patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmartin, Jo

    2013-05-01

    To explore body image matters amongst patients following massive weight loss. In contemporary health care, a growing number of morbidly obese patients are seeking surgical solutions such as bariatric surgery or in other cases engaging with radical lifestyle changes. Massive weight loss can leave patients with a huge excess of lax overstretched skin that in some cases can trigger major body image dissatisfaction or depression. There is a scarcity of research about the needs of this group of patients and this is important for nursing practice. A qualitative design using in-depth interviews was employed. Twenty white adults (18 women and two men) were recruited retrospectively amongst patients who had massive weight loss by undergoing bariatric surgery or radical lifestyle changes, aged 29-63 years. All of the participants gave signed informed consent. Face-to-face in-depth interviews were conducted and transcribed verbatim. The data were analysed using thematic analysis. One core theme focusing on body image ugliness and three associated subthemes were identified: the subthemes included feeling socially marginalised, feeling depressed and sexual and intimacy difficulties. Body image matters are hugely significant and appear to have a lasting effect on emotional well-being and function, contributing to psychological distress and social isolation. Greater sensitivity is required in enabling patients to work through emotional isolation and shame that has been a part of their childhood. Furthermore more, treatments need to be accessible to this growing patient population such as reconstructive surgery. Nurses who care for massive weight loss patients need to be mindful of their psychodynamic needs and be non-judgemental and accepting. Moreover, nurses need to be aware of treatment options and be able to assess body image matters and implement quality care for this particular patient group including body image acceptance programmes and support groups. © 2013 Blackwell

  6. Comparison of body image perception, nutrition knowledge, dietary attitudes, and dietary habits between Korean and Mongolian college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdenebileg, Zolzaya; Park, So Hyun; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2018-04-01

    College students are in transition from adolescence to adulthood, and it has been reported that they show poor dietary habits. This study was conducted to compare body image perception, nutrition knowledge, dietary attitudes, dietary habits, and health-related lifestyles between Korean college students (KCS) and Mongolian college students (MCS). Subjects were 314 KCS and 280 MCS. The data includes results of self-administered questionnaires; statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS 23.0 program. With regards to body image perception, KCS perceived themselves to be fatter on current body image than ideal body image compared to MCS; 64.0% of KCS and 34.6% of MCS desired to be thinner. Total score of nutrition knowledge in KCS (17.0) was significantly higher compared to MCS (8.4) ( P correlation with dietary attitudes in MCS ( P mobile phone usage ( P < 0.001), compared to MCS. This study suggests that development of nutrition education program which is effective and proper is required to improve healthy dietary habits among college students of both countries. Essential contents should include acquirement of nutrition knowledge and a motivation for its application to actual life for KCS, and improvement of healthy dietary habits for MCS.

  7. The effects of body exposure on self-body image and esthetic appreciation in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzato, Valentina; Mian, Emanuel; Mele, Sonia; Tognana, Giulia; Todisco, Patrizia; Urgesi, Cosimo

    2016-03-01

    Repeated exposures to thin-idealized body shapes may alter women's perceptions of what normal (e.g., accepted) and ideal (e.g., desired) bodies in a cultural environment look like. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether exposure to thin and round body shapes may change the subsequent esthetic appreciation of others' bodies and the perceptual and cognitive-affective dimensions of self-body image in patients suffering from anorexia nervosa (AN). Thirteen AN patients and 13 matched healthy controls were exposed to pictures of either thin or round unfamiliar body models and, before and after exposure, they were required to either express liking judgments about round and slim figures of unfamiliar bodies (esthetic task) or to adjust distorted pictures of their own body to their perceptual (How do you see yourself?), affective (How do you feel yourself?), metacognitive (How do others see you?) and ideal (How would you like to look like?) body image (self-body adjustment task). Brief exposures to round models increased liking judgments of round figures in both groups. However, only in AN patients, exposure to round models induced an increase in thin figures liking, which positively correlated with their preoccupation with dieting. Furthermore, exposure to round bodies in AN patients, but not in controls, increased the distortion for the perceptual body image and decreased the size of the ideal one. No differences between the two groups were obtained after adaptation to thin models. Our results suggest that AN patients' perception of their own and others' body is more easily malleable by exposure to round figures as compared to controls. Crucially, this mechanism may strongly contribute to the development and maintenance of self-body image disturbances.

  8. Body Image: It's Not Just About How You See Your Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Let's be honest. As women, we can be pretty hard on ourselves, and we can be especially hard on how our bodies look. Having a negative body image can affect not only how you feel about yourself, but it can also keep you from living the life you want to have.

  9. The Use of QBIC Content-Based Image Retrieval System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Yi Wu

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The fast increase in digital images has caught increasing attention on the development of image retrieval technologies. Content-based image retrieval (CBIR has become an important approach in retrieving image data from a large collection. This article reports our results on the use and users study of a CBIR system. Thirty-eight students majored in art and design were invited to use the IBM’s OBIC (Query by Image Content system through the Internet. Data from their information needs, behaviors, and retrieval strategies were collected through an in-depth interview, observation, and self-described think-aloud process. Important conclusions are:(1)There are four types of information needs for image data: implicit, inspirational, ever-changing, and purposive. The types of needs may change during the retrieval process. (2)CBIR is suitable for the example-type query, text retrieval is suitable for the scenario-type query, and image browsing is suitable for the symbolic query. (3)Different from text retrieval, detailed description of the query condition may lead to retrieval failure more easily. (4)CBIR is suitable for the domain-specific image collection, not for the images on the Word-Wide Web.[Article content in Chinese

  10. Whole-body imaging of the musculoskeletal system: the value of MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Gerwin P.; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Baur-Melnyk, Andrea [University Hospitals Munich/Grosshadern, LMU, Institute of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany)

    2007-12-15

    In clinical practice various modalities are used for whole-body imaging of the musculoskeletal system, including radiography, bone scintigraphy, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT). Multislice CT is far more sensitive than radiographs in the assessment of trabecular and cortical bone destruction and allows for evaluation of fracture risk. The introduction of combined PET-CT scanners has markedly increased diagnostic accuracy for the detection of skeletal metastases compared with PET alone. The unique soft-tissue contrast of MRI enables for precise assessment of bone marrow infiltration and adjacent soft tissue structures so that alterations within the bone marrow may be detected before osseous destruction becomes apparent in CT or metabolic changes occur on bone scintigraphy or PET scan. Improvements in hard- and software, including parallel image acquisition acceleration, have made high resolution whole-body MRI clinically feasible. Whole-body MRI has successfully been applied for bone marrow screening of metastasis and systemic primary bone malignancies, like multiple myeloma. Furthermore, it has recently been proposed for the assessment of systemic bone diseases predisposing for malignancy (e.g., multiple cartilaginous exostoses) and muscle disease (e.g., muscle dystrophy). The following article gives an overview on state-of-the-art whole-body imaging of the musculoskeletal system and highlights present and potential future applications, especially in the field of whole-body MRI. (orig.)

  11. Retinal image quality assessment based on image clarity and content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Hamid, Lamiaa; El-Rafei, Ahmed; El-Ramly, Salwa; Michelson, Georg; Hornegger, Joachim

    2016-09-01

    Retinal image quality assessment (RIQA) is an essential step in automated screening systems to avoid misdiagnosis caused by processing poor quality retinal images. A no-reference transform-based RIQA algorithm is introduced that assesses images based on five clarity and content quality issues: sharpness, illumination, homogeneity, field definition, and content. Transform-based RIQA algorithms have the advantage of considering retinal structures while being computationally inexpensive. Wavelet-based features are proposed to evaluate the sharpness and overall illumination of the images. A retinal saturation channel is designed and used along with wavelet-based features for homogeneity assessment. The presented sharpness and illumination features are utilized to assure adequate field definition, whereas color information is used to exclude nonretinal images. Several publicly available datasets of varying quality grades are utilized to evaluate the feature sets resulting in area under the receiver operating characteristic curve above 0.99 for each of the individual feature sets. The overall quality is assessed by a classifier that uses the collective features as an input vector. The classification results show superior performance of the algorithm in comparison to other methods from literature. Moreover, the algorithm addresses efficiently and comprehensively various quality issues and is suitable for automatic screening systems.

  12. Relationship between body image and somatotype profile in young women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Rodrigues Castro

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate associations among body dissatisfaction, behaviors, feelings, and beliefs related to the body - and somatotypical profile. The sample included 142 undergraduate female students (21.81 ± 3 years who underwent to assessment of Body Mass Index and somatotype, according to the World Health Organization and Heath-Carter protocols, respectively. To assess body image the following instruments were applied: Body Shape Questionnaire, Body Attitudes Questionnaire, Body Image Avoidance Questionnaire, Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Scale, Self-Subject Silhouettes To the analysis data we proceeded to multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA one-way. As the main result, we find that body dissatisfaction, body avoidance and negative attitudes about appearance components are linked to each other and they are influenced by body profiles with mesomorphic and endomorphic predominance. We conclude that the somatotype profile can be an important predictor of changes in body image and is indicated for tracking risk groups.

  13. Body image, media, and eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenne, Jennifer L; Beresin, Eugene V

    2006-01-01

    Eating disorders, including obesity, are a major public health problem today. Throughout history, body image has been determined by various factors, including politics and media. Exposure to mass media (television, movies, magazines, Internet) is correlated with obesity and negative body image, which may lead to disordered eating. The authors attempt to explain the historical context of the problem and explore potential avenues for change. The authors review changes in ideal female body type throughout history, comment on current attitudes toward shape and weight in both men and women, and outline interventions aimed at increasing healthy habits and fostering self-esteem in youth. Throughout history, the ideal of beauty has been difficult to achieve and has been shaped by social context. Current mass media is ubiquitous and powerful, leading to increased body dissatisfaction among both men and women. Parents need to limit children's exposure to media, promote healthy eating and moderate physical activity, and encourage participation in activities that increase mastery and self-esteem. Funding for high-quality, visible advertising campaigns promoting healthy life styles may increase awareness.

  14. Body Image in Patients With Spinal Cord Injury During Inpatient Rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Diemen, Tijn; van Leeuwen, Christel; van Nes, Ilse; Geertzen, Jan; Post, Marcel

    Objectives: (1) To investigate the course of body image in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) during their first inpatient rehabilitation stay; and (2) to explore the association between demographic and injury-related variables and body image and the association between body image and

  15. Anorexia nervosa and body dysmorphic disorder: A comparison of body image concerns and explicit and implicit attractiveness beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, A S; Thomas, J J; Greenberg, J L; Elliott, C M; Matheny, N L; Wilhelm, S

    2015-06-01

    Although body image is central to the etiological models of anorexia nervosa and body dysmorphic disorder, studies comparing body image and beliefs about attractiveness between the disorders are rare. Sixty-nine individuals (anorexia nervosa: n=24, body dysmorphic disorder: n=23, healthy controls: n=22) completed self-report measures (body image and general psychopathology), diagnostic interviews, and Go/No-Go Association tasks measuring implicit associations. Compared to controls, both clinical groups exhibited greater negative body image, a more negative attitude toward their physical selves, and more dysfunctional coping strategies (ps<.001). Also, both clinical groups shared greater explicit beliefs about the importance of attractiveness (ps<.001). In addition to supporting previous research with regard to comparable body image disturbance, this study also showed that beliefs regarding the importance of appearance (e.g., "one must be attractive to be successful") might be a fruitful target for therapy across both disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Form or function: Does focusing on body functionality protect women from body dissatisfaction when viewing media images?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulgrew, Kate E; Tiggemann, Marika

    2018-01-01

    We examined whether shifting young women's ( N =322) attention toward functionality components of media-portrayed idealized images would protect against body dissatisfaction. Image type was manipulated via images of models in either an objectified body-as-object form or active body-as-process form; viewing focus was manipulated via questions about the appearance or functionality of the models. Social comparison was examined as a moderator. Negative outcomes were most pronounced within the process-related conditions (body-as-process images or functionality viewing focus) and for women who reported greater functionality comparison. Results suggest that functionality-based depictions, reflections, and comparisons may actually produce worse outcomes than those based on appearance.

  17. Imaging of drug smuggling by body packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sica, Giacomo; Guida, Franco; Bocchini, Giorgio; Iaselli, Francesco; Iadevito, Isabella; Scaglione, Mariano

    2015-02-01

    Body packing, pushing, and stuffing are hazardous practices with complex medicolegal and social implications. A radiologist plays both a social and a medicolegal role in their assessment, and it should not be limited only to the identification of the packages but must also provide accurate information about their number and their exact location so as to prevent any package remains in the body packer. Radiologists must also be able to recognize the complications associated with these risky practices. Imaging assessment of body packing is performed essentially through plain abdominal X-ray and computed tomography scans. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging, although with some advantages, actually have a limited use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Emotion regulation moderates relationships between body image concerns and psychological symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Elizabeth K; Gullone, Eleonora

    2011-06-01

    The study investigated the moderating role of emotion regulation (ER) in relationships between body image concerns and psychological symptomatology. A community sample of 533 boys and girls (11-20 years) completed measures assessing body image thoughts and feelings, domain-specific and general ER strategies, drive for thinness, and bulimic, depressive and anxiety symptoms. Results indicated that ER moderated relationships between body image concerns and both bulimic and depressive symptoms, but not relationships between body image concerns and drive for thinness or anxiety symptoms. Adolescents who reported frequent body image concerns were more likely to have higher levels of bulimic symptoms if they tended to use avoidance and internal dysfunctional ER strategies. Furthermore, adolescents who reported frequent body image concerns were more likely to have higher levels of depressive symptoms if they used positive rational acceptance and internal functional strategies infrequently. Implications of the findings for prevention and intervention are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Con-forming bodies: the interplay of machines and bodies and the implications of agency in medical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Lisa A

    2016-06-01

    Attending to the material discursive constructions of the patient body within cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging in radiotherapy treatments, in this paper I describe how bodies and machines co-create images. Using an analytical framework inspired by Science and Technology Studies and Feminist Technoscience, I describe the interplay between machines and bodies and the implications of materialities and agency. I argue that patients' bodies play a part in producing scans within acceptable limits of machines as set out through organisational arrangements. In doing so I argue that bodies are fabricated into the order of work prescribed and embedded within and around the CBCT system, becoming, not only the subject of resulting images, but part of that image. The scan is not therefore a representation of a passive subject (a body) but co-produced by the work of practitioners and patients who actively control (and contort) and discipline their body according to protocols and instructions and the CBCT system. In this way I suggest they are 'con-forming' the CBCT image. A Virtual Abstract of this paper can be found at: https://youtu.be/qysCcBGuNSM. © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  20. Cross-Cultural Examination of Women's Body Image Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, R. John; And Others

    The media's portrayal of the ideal body image has been shown to be a large determinant of one's body image perception. The desire to be excessively thin can be conceived of as an artifact of White-American culture largely due to the media's influence. This study looks at cultures that have had limited exposure to the American ideal and examines…

  1. Body image and prosthesis satisfaction in the lower limb amputee.

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Craig; Fox, Jezz

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the relationship between prosthesis satisfaction and body image in lower limb prosthesis users, and the gendered variations within these relationships. Method: A total of 44 valid responses were obtained to an Internet survey regarding prosthesis satisfaction, body image, and phantom pain. Spearman Rho correlations were calculated for these three domains. Results: Moderate to high negative correlations were observed between Body Image Disturbance and Prosthesis Sa...

  2. The impact of anal sphincter injury on perceived body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iles, David; Khan, Rabia; Naidoo, Kristina; Kearney, Rohna; Myers, Jenny; Reid, Fiona

    2017-05-01

    Obstetric anal sphincter injury is common but the effect on body image is unreported. The aim of this study was to explore patient perceived changes in body image and other psychological aspects in women attending a perineal follow-up clinic. This retrospective study analysed women's responses to a self-reported questionnaire. Consecutive women with anal sphincter injury who attended a United Kingdom Maternity Hospital perineal follow-up clinic between January 1999 and January 2012 were identified and the records obtained and reviewed. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to examine variables influencing self-reported change in body image. Questionnaires and operation notes were analysed from 422 women who attended at a median of four months after delivery. 222 (53%) reported a change in body image with 80 (19%) reporting lower self-esteem and 75 (18%) a change in their personality due to the change in body image. 248 (59%) perceived an anatomical change due to the delivery. Factors associated with increased likelihood of reporting a change in body image were reporting a perceived change in anatomy due to the delivery, adjusted OR 6.11 (3.56-10.49), anal incontinence, OR 1.97 (1.16-3.36), and delivery by forceps, OR 2.59 (1.23-5.43). This is the first study to quantify body image changes in women after anal sphincter injury sustained in childbirth. These were found to be very common, affecting up to 50% of women. The study has several limitations but it does highlight the significant psychosocial problems of negative self-esteem and personality changes associated with a perceived change in body image that has not previously been reported. It also outlines the further research questions that need to be addressed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Body image and gestational weight gain: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Briony; Skouteris, Helen; McCabe, Marita; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 50% of Australian adult women of childbearing age are overweight or obese, and, when pregnant, the majority gain excessive weight; this is also the case in the United States and other developed nations. High gestational weight gain (GWG) is the strongest predictor of maternal overweight/obesity postbirth and is also associated with an increased risk of childhood obesity. Understanding factors that contribute to excessive GWG is vital in combating obesity. The aim of the current study was to examine whether body image attitudes (eg, feeling fat, attractive, or strong and fit, and salience of weight and shape) predict GWG. Pregnant women, recruited through advertisements on pregnancy online forums and parenting magazines, completed questionnaires assessing body image, demographic variables, and GWG. The Body Attitudes Questionnaire assessed body image in early-to-middle, middle, and late pregnancy (mean of 16.8, 24.7, and 33.0 weeks' gestation, respectively). Total GWG was calculated by subtracting self-reported pre pregnancy weight from self-reported weight at 36.8 weeks' gestation. A total of 150 pregnant women responded to the study's advertisements, and 72% (n = 108) took part. After controlling for pre pregnancy body mass index (BMI), lower attractiveness in early-to-middle pregnancy was associated with higher GWG. In late pregnancy, women who had the lowest feelings of fatness had greater GWG. Body image attitudes earlier in pregnancy did not predict whether GWG recommendations were exceeded. Women of higher BMI were more likely to gain excessive weight. The findings suggest that the type and timing of pregnancy, body attitudes, and the time of pregnancy when they are noted, predict GWG. However, more research in the area is needed, including assessment of the relationship between body image concerns, GWG, and other psychosocial factors. We recommend that midwives monitor body image concerns in pregnancy to help address factors affecting GWG in at

  4. The Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Body Image Attitudes in Women

    OpenAIRE

    Sareh Zar-Shenas; Ashraf Karbalaaei-Nouri; Seyyed-Ali Hosseini; Mahdi Rahgozar; Reza Seyed-Nour; Nahaleh Moshtagh

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Sociocultural emphasis and increased interest in physical attractiveness and current attitudes body structure have increased body image dissatisfaction among women. The prevalence of body image dissatisfaction is linked with various psychological disorders and disturbances such as low self-esteem, depression and other disorders. The present study investigated the short program aerobic exercise effects on body image among women. Materials & Methods: In this interventional and qu...

  5. "My body was my temple": a narrative revealing body image experiences following treatment of a spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, K Alysse; Gammage, Kimberley L; van Ingen, Cathy; Ditor, David S

    2017-09-01

    This narrative explores the lived experience of a young woman, Rebecca, and her transitioned body image after sustaining and being treated for a spinal cord injury. Data were collected from a single semi-structured in-depth interview. Rebecca disclosed her transitioned body image experiences after sustaining a spinal cord injury and being treated by medical staff immediately following her injury. Before her injury, she described a holistic body experience and named this experience her "temple". During intensive care in the hospital, she explained her body was treated as an object. The disconnected treatment of her body led to a loss of the private self, as she described her sacred body being stripped away - her "temple" lost and in ruins. Body image may be an overlooked component of health following a spinal cord injury. This narrative emphasizes the importance of unveiling body image experiences after the treatment of a spinal cord injury to medical professionals. Lessons of the importance of considering the transitioned body experiences after a spinal cord injury may help prevent body-related depression and other subsequent health impacts. Recommendations for best practice are provided. Implications for Rehabilitation    Spinal Cord Injury   • A spinal cord injury may drastically change a person's body image, thereby significantly impacting psychological health   • More effective screening for body image within the medical/rehabilitation context is needed to help practitioners recognize distress   • Practitioners should be prepared to refer clients to distress hotlines they may need once released from treatment.

  6. Predicting drive for muscularity behavioural engagement from body image attitudes and emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tod, David; Edwards, Christian

    2013-01-01

    We examined the potential moderating effects of appearance investment, body image disturbance, and situational body image dysphoria on the drive for muscularity attitude-behaviour relationship. Participants (339 British college men, M(AGE)=20.00 years, SD=2.59) completed drive for muscularity attitude and behaviour, appearance investment, body image disturbance, and situational body image dysphoria measures. Results indicated higher levels of appearance investment, body image disturbance, and situational body image dysphoria were associated with increases in the drive for muscularity attitude's relationship with physique-enhancing behavioural engagement. Results help extend recent research that has moved beyond identifying correlates to examining ways that groups of variables interact to predict drive for muscularity behavioural engagement and may contribute to theory development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Different Facets of Body Image Disturbance in Binge Eating Disorder: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewer, Merle; Bauer, Anika

    2017-01-01

    The goal of the present review is to give an overview of the current findings on various facets of body image disturbance in Binge Eating Disorder such as body dissatisfaction, overconcern with weight and shape, body-related checking and avoidance behavior, misperception of body size, and body-related cognitive bias. In addition, treatments for a disturbed body image in BED and evidence of body image disturbance in youth with binge eating are reviewed. The results show that a disturbed body image in BED is present in the form of overconcern with weight and shape. Furthermore, there are hints that body dissatisfaction, as well as body-related checking and avoidance behavior, are also impaired. Research concerning misperception of body size in BED has been neglected so far, but first findings show that individuals with BED rate their own body shape rather accurately. Furthermore, there are first hints that body-related cognitive biases are present in individuals with BED. Moreover, in children and adolescents, there are first hints that body dissatisfaction, as well as shape and weight concerns, seem to be associated with loss of control and binge eating. Treatments aimed directly at the convertibility of a disturbed body image in BED have revealed encouraging outcomes. In conclusion, body image disturbance seems to occur in BED, and first studies show that it can be treated effectively. PMID:29182531

  8. Different Facets of Body Image Disturbance in Binge Eating Disorder: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merle Lewer

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present review is to give an overview of the current findings on various facets of body image disturbance in Binge Eating Disorder such as body dissatisfaction, overconcern with weight and shape, body-related checking and avoidance behavior, misperception of body size, and body-related cognitive bias. In addition, treatments for a disturbed body image in BED and evidence of body image disturbance in youth with binge eating are reviewed. The results show that a disturbed body image in BED is present in the form of overconcern with weight and shape. Furthermore, there are hints that body dissatisfaction, as well as body-related checking and avoidance behavior, are also impaired. Research concerning misperception of body size in BED has been neglected so far, but first findings show that individuals with BED rate their own body shape rather accurately. Furthermore, there are first hints that body-related cognitive biases are present in individuals with BED. Moreover, in children and adolescents, there are first hints that body dissatisfaction, as well as shape and weight concerns, seem to be associated with loss of control and binge eating. Treatments aimed directly at the convertibility of a disturbed body image in BED have revealed encouraging outcomes. In conclusion, body image disturbance seems to occur in BED, and first studies show that it can be treated effectively.

  9. Study on the usefulness of whole body SPECT coronal image, MIP image in {sup 67}Ga scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Seiji [Kurume Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Hospital; Ishibashi, Masatoshi; Kurata, Seiji; Morita, Seiichirou; Hayabuchi, Naofumi [Kurume Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). School of Medicine; Fukushima, Shigehiro [Kyushu Inst. of Design, Fukuoka (Japan). Graduate School of Auditory and Visual Communication Sciences; Umezaki, Noriyoshi [Daiichi Coll. of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2002-05-01

    In this study, we examined the usefulness of whole body coronal images and whole body cine display MIP images (CMIP) upon which image processing was carried out after whole body SPECT in comparison to the usefulness of whole body images (WB/SC) compensated by scattered radiation in tumor/inflammation scintigraphy with {sup 67}Ga-citrate ({sup 67}Ga). Image interpretation was performed for the 120 patients with confirmed diagnoses, and the accuracy of their diagnoses was studied by three nuclear medical physicians and two clinical radiological technologists by means of sensitivity, specificity and ROC analysis. The resultant data show that sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and the area under the ROC curve Az in the WB/SC were approximately 65%, 86%, 74% and 0.724, respectively, whereas sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and Az of the image reading system in which CMIP is combined with whole body coronal images reconstructed by the OS-EM method were approximately 93%, 95%, 94% and 0.860, respectively. Furthermore, coronal images reconstructed by the OS-EM method tended to be superior to those produced by the FBP method in both diagnostic accuracy and ROC analysis. In conclusion, the image reading system in which CMIP is combined with whole body coronal images reconstructed by the OS-EM method was shown to be superior in diagnostic accuracy and ROC analysis. Our data suggest that whole body SPECT is an excellent technique as an alternative to WB/SC. (author)

  10. Body image perception in women: prevalence and association with anthropometric indicators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Pelegrini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2014v16n1p58 The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of body image perception and its association with anthropometric indicators (body mass index, waist circumference, waist-height ratio, and conicity index in women undergoing cervical cancer screening at an institution in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina. The study included 736 women (≥ 18 years. Anthropometric variables (weight, height, waist circumference were collected for the determination of body mass index, waist-height ratio, and conicity index. Body image perception was evaluated using a nine-body silhouette scale. The prevalence of body image dissatisfaction was 73% (dissatisfaction due to excess weight = 67.4%; dissatisfaction due to thinness = 5.6%. Overweight women (PR=1.34; 95%CI=1.23-2.49, p<0.001 and women with an inadequate conicity index (PR=1.12; 95%CI =1.02-1.24, p=0.016 presented a higher prevalence of body image dissatisfaction. The prevalence of body image dissatisfaction is high and the proportion of inadequate anthropometric indicators requires attention. Moreover, body dissatisfaction was more prevalent among overweight women and women with an inadequate conicity index. These results indicate the need for interventions and for the implementation of programs designed to control body weight and to reduce cardiovascular risk factors and body image dissatisfaction in women attending primary health care centers, such as cancer screening services.

  11. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in inflammatory arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mikkel; Eshed, Iris; Althoff, Christian E.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) is a relatively new technique that can enable assessment of the overall inflammatory status of people with arthritis, but standards for image acquisition, definitions of key pathologies, and a quantification system are required. Our aim...... was to perform a systematic literature review (SLR) and to develop consensus definitions of key pathologies, anatomical locations for assessment, a set of MRI sequences and imaging planes for the different body regions, and a preliminary scoring system for WB-MRI in inflammatory arthritis. Methods: An SLR...

  12. [Effect of body image in adolescent orthodontic treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minghui, Peng; Jing, Kang; Xiao, Deng

    2017-10-01

    This study was designed to probe the psychological factors adolescent orthodontic patients, the role of body image and self-esteem in the whole process of orthodontic treatment and the impact on the efficacy and satisfaction of orthodontic. Five hundred and twenty-eight patients were selected in this study. The Aesthetic Component of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN-AC) , Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES), Negative Physical Self-General (NPS-G) and other body analysis scale study after orthodontic lasted 18-24 months were used to investigate the role of body image in adolescent orthodontic treatment. Esthetic evaluation of patients teeth after correction had been significantly improved, patient self-evaluation difference IOTN-AC doctor evaluation, Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire-tooth confidence, aesthetic concerns, psychological impact and social function were significantly improved. The improvement of the dental aesthetics component (T2 when doctors evaluate IOTN-AC) was positively correlated with the evaluation of the efficacy, and was significantly negatively correlated with the negative emotions of patients at baseline. Negative body image-dental dissatisfied-cognitive component and the affective component, the overall negative body image and negative emotions can predict patient satisfaction with treatment efficacy. Orthodontic treatment not only improves the self-aesthetic evaluation of adolescent patients, but also has a positive effect on the mental health of adolescent patients.

  13. Assessing the body image: relevance, application and instruments for oncological settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annunziata, Maria Antonietta; Giovannini, Lorena; Muzzatti, Barbara

    2012-05-01

    Body image is the sum of physical, cognitive, emotional, and relational elements that, when integrated, allow the development of a whole, healthy self-identity. Even though body image is normally studied in relation to eating disorders, it can also be influenced by other pathologies, including cancer. In oncology, an effective body image assessment is fundamental. The physical effects of cancer and cancer treatments are important and frequently irreversible also on a functional and emotional level; however, only few surveys have investigated body image in this peculiar context. An extensive literature review was carried out in PubMed and PsycINFO. We considered articles published from 1990 to 2010. Two hundred sixty-three papers matched the search criteria. Assessment methodologies included clinical interviews, self-report measures, questionnaires, symptom check lists, and graphic tests and projective techniques. After excluding the instruments that referred to eating disorders, validated only for adolescents, and/or projective and graphic tests, we found 81 articles with six questionnaires specifically dedicated to body image assessment in oncology. From our systematic review, we could identify six instruments specifically designed for assessing body image in the oncological area. In this paper, we discuss their general characteristics, psychometrics properties and the clinical implications, and body image relevance on the quality of life in cancer patients.

  14. Self-compassion moderates the relationship between body mass index and both eating disorder pathology and body image flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Allison C; Vimalakanthan, Kiruthiha; Miller, Kathryn E

    2014-09-01

    The current study examined whether self-compassion, the tendency to treat oneself kindly during distress and disappointments, would attenuate the positive relationship between body mass index (BMI) and eating disorder pathology, and the negative relationship between BMI and body image flexibility. One-hundred and fifty-three female undergraduate students completed measures of self-compassion, self-esteem, eating disorder pathology, and body image flexibility, which refers to one's acceptance of negative body image experiences. Controlling for self-esteem, hierarchical regressions revealed that self-compassion moderated the relationships between BMI and the criteria. Specifically, the positive relationship between BMI and eating disorder pathology and the negative relationship between BMI and body image flexibility were weaker the higher women's levels of self-compassion. Among young women, self-compassion may help to protect against the greater eating disturbances that coincide with a higher BMI, and may facilitate the positive body image experiences that tend to be lower the higher one's BMI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Phosphorus body content in an herbivorous fish in environments with different trophic state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita M. de Andrade Santos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Animals are believed to be homeostatic by maintaining relatively constant body nutrient content independently of changes in diet. Phosphorus (P is one of the most important elements for fishes as Loricariids, which are covered with armor-like bony plates. These species are expected to maintain nutrient homeostasis, however, in environments with low P availability they can be P-limited. The hypothesis of this study is that P concentration in body composition of an herbivorous fish, Hypostomus jaguribensis, does not change in environments with different availability of this nutrient. We conducted this study in two locations of the Curu river basin in Brazil, which differed in their nutrient concentrations: one was ultraoligotrophic and the other mesotrophic, as determined by total phosphorous concentrations and chlorophyll a in the water. We found significant differences in the body P content of the fish from the two sites: Hypostomus jaguribensis from the ultraoligotrophic site showed higher body P content, higher body weight and condition factor. This suggests that the ultraoligotrophic site is a more favorable environment for this species. The body P content was higher in intermediate sizes (between 12 and 14 cm in the ultraoligotrophic site and between 11 and 13 cm in the mesotrophic site, which can be related to biological characteristics such as the need to accumulate nutrients at the beginning of the reproductive period. Our study did not find support for strict homeostasis in this high-P demand fish species.

  16. Low-Income, African American and American Indian Children's Viewpoints on Body Image Assessment Tools and Body Satisfaction: A Mixed Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidelberger, Lindsay; Smith, Chery

    2018-03-03

    Objectives Pediatric obesity is complicated by many factors including psychological issues, such as body dissatisfaction. Body image assessment tools are used with children to measure their acceptance of their body shape or image. Limited research has been conducted with African American and American Indian children to understand their opinions on assessment tools created. This study investigated: (a) children's perception about body image and (b) differences between two body image instruments among low-income, multi-ethnic children. Methods This study uses mixed methodology including focus groups (qualitative) and body image assessment instruments (quantitative). Fifty-one children participated (25 girls, 26 boys); 53% of children identified as African American and 47% as American Indian. The average age was 10.4 years. Open coding methods were used by identify themes from focus group data. SPSS was used for quantitative analysis. Results Children preferred the Figure Rating Scale (FRS/silhouette) instrument over the Children's Body Image Scale (CBIS/photo) because their body parts and facial features were more detailed. Children formed their body image perception with influence from their parents and the media. Children verbalized that they have experienced negative consequences related to poor body image including disordered eating habits, depression, and bullying. Healthy weight children are also aware of weight-related bullying that obese and overweight children face. Conclusions for Practice Children prefer that the images on a body image assessment tool have detailed facial features and are clothed. Further research into body image assessment tools for use with African American and American Indian children is needed.

  17. Tritium content in tissue free water of Japanese bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ujeno, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Aoki, T.; Kurihara, N.

    1986-01-01

    The tritium content of tissue free water was measured in fresh, non-diseased organs (brain, lungs, liver, kidneys and muscle) removed by forensic autopsy from 4 male and 4 female bodies. Tissue free water was extracted by freeze drying and distillation and tritium measured in the absence of background radon gas. A typical count was approximately 2.70 cpm. The mean tritium content of tissue free water in all the organs examined was 2.50 + - 0.67 Bq.1/sup -1/ (67.6 + -18.2 pCi1/sup -1/). This value was much lower than that obtained for tissues from Italian bodies: the value was, however, similar to that obtained for tap water (70.2 + -28.0 pCi.1/sup -1/), rain water (77.8 + - 47.4 pCi.1/sup -1/) and tissue free water of foods (55.6 + - 26.2 pCi.1/sup -1/).

  18. Body image and quality of life in a Spanish population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Jáuregui Lobera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ignacio Jáuregui Lobera1, Patricia Bolaños Ríos21Department of Nutrition and Bromatology, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, Spain; 2Behavior Science Institute, Seville, SpainPurpose: The aim of the current study was to analyze the psychometric properties, factor structure, and internal consistency of the Spanish version of the Body Image Quality of Life Inventory (BIQLI-SP as well as its test–retest reliability. Further objectives were to analyze different relationships with key dimensions of psychosocial functioning (ie, self-esteem, presence of psychopathological symptoms, eating and body image-related problems, and perceived stress and to evaluate differences in body image quality of life due to gender.Patients and methods: The sample comprised 417 students without any psychiatric history, recruited from the Pablo de Olavide University and the University of Seville. There were 140 men (33.57% and 277 women (66.43%, and the mean age was 21.62 years (standard deviation = 5.12. After obtaining informed consent from all participants, the following questionnaires were administered: BIQLI, Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2, Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ, Self-Esteem Scale (SES, and Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R.Results: The BIQLI-SP shows adequate psychometric properties, and it may be useful to determine the body image quality of life in different physical conditions. A more positive body image quality of life is associated with better self-esteem, better psychological wellbeing, and fewer eating-related dysfunctional attitudes, this being more evident among women.Conclusion: The BIQLI-SP may be useful to determine the body image quality of life in different contexts with regard to dermatology, cosmetic and reconstructive surgery, and endocrinology, among others. In these fields of study, a new trend has emerged to assess body image-related quality of life.Keywords: body appreciation, wellbeing, self-esteem, social

  19. A thematic content analysis of #cheatmeal images on social media: Characterizing an emerging dietary trend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pila, Eva; Mond, Jonathan M; Griffiths, Scott; Mitchison, Deborah; Murray, Stuart B

    2017-06-01

    Despite the pervasive social endorsement of "cheat meals" within pro-muscularity online communities, there is an absence of empirical work examining this dietary phenomenon. The present study aimed to characterize cheat meals, and explore the meaning ascribed to engagement in this practice. Thematic content analysis was employed to code the photographic and textual elements of a sample (n = 600) that was extracted from over 1.6 million images marked with the #cheatmeal tag on the social networking site, Instagram. Analysis of the volume and type of food revealed the presence of very large quantities (54.5%) of calorie-dense foods (71.3%) that was rated to qualify as an objective binge episode. Photographic content of people commonly portrayed highly-muscular bodies (60.7%) in the act of intentional body exposure (40.0%). Meanwhile, textual content exemplified the idealization of overconsumption, a strict commitment to fitness, and a reward-based framework around diet and fitness. Collectively, these findings position cheat meals as goal-oriented dietary practices in the pursuit of physique-ideals, thus underscoring the potential clinical repercussions of this socially-endorsed dietary phenomenon. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Body Image and Self-Esteem in Normal Weight Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleghorn, Alice A.; Penner, Louis A.

    Research suggests that, in clinical samples, body image disturbances are related to severe eating disorders and problems with self-concept and self-esteem. There have been relatively few studies, however, which have empirically investigated the relation between body image and personality characteristics among normal women. This study investigated…

  1. Living into the imagined body: how the diagnostic image confronts the lived body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Devan

    2013-06-01

    In this paper I will show how the medical image, presented to the patient by the physician, participates in medicine's cold culture of abstraction, objectification and mandated normativity. I begin by giving a brief account of the use of anatomical imaging since the Renaissance to show how images have historically functioned in contrast to how they are currently used in medical practice. Next, I examine how contemporary medical imaging techniques participate in a kind of knowledge production that objectifies the human body. Finally, I elucidate how physicians ought to place the medical image within the context of the lived body so as to create a healing relationship with the patient. In all this I hope to show that the medical image, far from a piece of objective data, testifies to the interplay of particular beliefs, practices and doctrines contemporary medicine holds dear. To best treat her patient, the physician must appreciate the influence of these images and appropriately place them within the context of the patient's lived experience.

  2. Perceived Body Image, Eating Behavior, and Sedentary Activities and Body Mass Index Categories in Kuwaiti Female Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemia H. Shaban

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The State of Kuwait has a growing obesity epidemic in both genders and all age groups; however, obesity rates in the young seem to be rising. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 169 Kuwaiti female adolescents attending both private and public schools spanning the six governorates in the State of Kuwait in order to explore female adolescents’ self-image, body dissatisfaction, type of school (private versus public, TV viewing, and computer games and their relationship to body mass index. Results. Approximately half the students classified as obese perceived their body image to lie in the normal range. Females in the obese category were the most dissatisfied with their body image, followed by those in the overweight category. Eating behavior, level of physical activity, school type, television viewing, computer/video usage, and desired BMI were not significantly associated with level of obesity. Conclusion. This study was one of the few studies to assess adolescent females’ body image dissatisfaction in relation to obesity in the State of Kuwait. The results suggest that including body image dissatisfaction awareness into obesity prevention programs would be of value.

  3. Effects of the exposure to self- and other-referential bodies on state body image and negative affect in resistance-trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, Martin; Vocks, Silja; Düsing, Rainer; Waldorf, Manuel

    2017-06-01

    Previous body image research suggests that first, exposure to body stimuli can negatively affect men's body satisfaction and second, body concerns are associated with dysfunctional gaze behavior. To date, however, the effects of self- vs. other-referential body stimuli and of gaze behavior on body image in men under exposure conditions have not been investigated. Therefore, 49 weight-trained men were presented with pictures of their own and other bodies of different builds (i.e., normal, muscular, hyper-muscular) while being eye-tracked. Participants completed pre- and post-exposure measures of body image and affect. Results indicated that one's own and the muscular body negatively affected men's body image to a comparable degree. Exposure to one's own body also led to increased negative affect. Increased attention toward disliked own body parts was associated with a more negative post-exposure body image and affect. These results suggest a crucial role of critical self-examination in maintaining body dissatisfaction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Investigating the Link Between Radiologists Gaze, Diagnostic Decision, and Image Content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tourassi, Georgia [ORNL; Voisin, Sophie [ORNL; Paquit, Vincent C [ORNL; Krupinski, Elizabeth [University of Arizona

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate machine learning for linking image content, human perception, cognition, and error in the diagnostic interpretation of mammograms. Methods: Gaze data and diagnostic decisions were collected from six radiologists who reviewed 20 screening mammograms while wearing a head-mounted eye-tracker. Texture analysis was performed in mammographic regions that attracted radiologists attention and in all abnormal regions. Machine learning algorithms were investigated to develop predictive models that link: (i) image content with gaze, (ii) image content and gaze with cognition, and (iii) image content, gaze, and cognition with diagnostic error. Both group-based and individualized models were explored. Results: By pooling the data from all radiologists machine learning produced highly accurate predictive models linking image content, gaze, cognition, and error. Merging radiologists gaze metrics and cognitive opinions with computer-extracted image features identified 59% of the radiologists diagnostic errors while confirming 96.2% of their correct diagnoses. The radiologists individual errors could be adequately predicted by modeling the behavior of their peers. However, personalized tuning appears to be beneficial in many cases to capture more accurately individual behavior. Conclusions: Machine learning algorithms combining image features with radiologists gaze data and diagnostic decisions can be effectively developed to recognize cognitive and perceptual errors associated with the diagnostic interpretation of mammograms.

  5. Relationship between body mass index and women's body image, self-esteem and eating behaviours in pregnancy: a cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shloim, Netalie; Hetherington, Marion M; Rudolf, Mary; Feltbower, Richard G

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the relationship between self-esteem, restrained eating, body image and body mass index during pregnancy. A total of 110 pregnant Israeli and UK women completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Questionnaire, the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire, scales to assess body image and demographics. Body mass index was calculated from antenatal records. Regression modelling determined the relationship between variables, countries and body mass index categories. High correlations were found between body image and body mass index with significantly higher body dissatisfaction for Israeli women. Self-esteem scores for pregnant women were similar to those reported for non-pregnant women. Poorer body image and higher prevalence of restrained eating were found in healthy weight Israeli women. © The Author(s) 2013.

  6. Yoga and positive body image: A test of the Embodiment Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlo, Leeann; Tiggemann, Marika

    2016-09-01

    The study aimed to test the Embodiment Model of Positive Body Image (Menzel & Levine, 2011) within the context of yoga. Participants were 193 yoga practitioners (124 Iyengar, 69 Bikram) and 127 university students (non-yoga participants) from Adelaide, South Australia. Participants completed questionnaire measures of positive body image, embodiment, self-objectification, and desire for thinness. Results showed yoga practitioners scored higher on positive body image and embodiment, and lower on self-objectification than non-yoga participants. In support of the embodiment model, the relationship between yoga participation and positive body image was serially mediated by embodiment and reduced self-objectification. Although Bikram practitioners endorsed appearance-related reasons for participating in yoga more than Iyengar practitioners, there were no significant differences between Iyengar and Bikram yoga practitioners on body image variables. It was concluded that yoga is an embodying activity that can provide women with the opportunity to cultivate a favourable relationship with their body. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Whole-body and multispectral photoacoustic imaging of adult zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Na; Xi, Lei

    2016-10-01

    Zebrafish is a top vertebrate model to study developmental biology and genetics, and it is becoming increasingly popular for studying human diseases due to its high genome similarity to that of humans and the optical transparency in embryonic stages. However, it becomes difficult for pure optical imaging techniques to volumetric visualize the internal organs and structures of wild-type zebrafish in juvenile and adult stages with excellent resolution and penetration depth. Even with the establishment of mutant lines which remain transparent over the life cycle, it is still a challenge for pure optical imaging modalities to image the whole body of adult zebrafish with micro-scale resolution. However, the method called photoacoustic imaging that combines all the advantages of the optical imaging and ultrasonic imaging provides a new way to image the whole body of the zebrafish. In this work, we developed a non-invasive photoacoustic imaging system with optimized near-infrared illumination and cylindrical scanning to image the zebrafish. The lateral and axial resolution yield to 80 μm and 600 μm, respectively. Multispectral strategy with wavelengths from 690 nm to 930 nm was employed to image various organs inside the zebrafish. From the reconstructed images, most major organs and structures inside the body can be precisely imaged. Quantitative and statistical analysis of absorption for organs under illumination with different wavelengths were carried out.

  8. Content-Based Image Retrieval Based on Electromagnetism-Like Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid A. Jalab

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, many researchers in the field of automatic content-based image retrieval have devoted a remarkable amount of research looking for methods to retrieve the best relevant images to the query image. This paper presents a novel algorithm for increasing the precision in content-based image retrieval based on electromagnetism optimization technique. The electromagnetism optimization is a nature-inspired technique that follows the collective attraction-repulsion mechanism by considering each image as an electrical charge. The algorithm is composed of two phases: fitness function measurement and electromagnetism optimization technique. It is implemented on a database with 8,000 images spread across 80 classes with 100 images in each class. Eight thousand queries are fired on the database, and the overall average precision is computed. Experimental results of the proposed approach have shown significant improvement in the retrieval performance in regard to precision.

  9. Independent Aftereffects of Fat and Muscle: Implications for neural encoding, body space representation, and body image disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturman, Daniel; Stephen, Ian D.; Mond, Jonathan; Stevenson, Richard J; Brooks, Kevin R.

    2017-01-01

    Although research addressing body size misperception has focused on socio-cognitive processes, such as internalization of the “ideal” images of bodies in the media, the perceptual basis of this phenomenon remains largely unknown. Further, most studies focus on body size per se even though this depends on both fat and muscle mass – variables that have very different relationships with health. We tested visual adaptation as a mechanism for inducing body fat and muscle mass misperception, and assessed whether these two dimensions of body space are processed independently. Observers manipulated the apparent fat and muscle mass of bodies to make them appear “normal” before and after inspecting images from one of four adaptation conditions (increased fat/decreased fat/increased muscle/decreased muscle). Exposure resulted in a shift in the point of subjective normality in the direction of the adapting images along the relevant (fat or muscle) axis, suggesting that the neural mechanisms involved in body fat and muscle perception are independent. This supports the viability of adaptation as a model of real-world body size misperception, and extends its applicability to clinical manifestations of body image disturbance that entail not only preoccupation with thinness (e.g., anorexia nervosa) but also with muscularity (e.g., muscle dysmorphia). PMID:28071712

  10. Bread Water Content Measurement Based on Hyperspectral Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhi; Møller, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    Water content is one of the most important properties of the bread for tasting assesment or store monitoring. Traditional bread water content measurement methods mostly are processed manually, which is destructive and time consuming. This paper proposes an automated water content measurement...... for bread quality based on near-infrared hyperspectral imaging against the conventional manual loss-in-weight method. For this purpose, the hyperspectral components unmixing technology is used for measuring the water content quantitatively. And the definition on bread water content index is presented...

  11. Methods of assessment of whole body 241Am content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foltanova, S.; Malatova, I.; Klisak, J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper discuss an influence of different skull phantoms on efficiency of the measurement. Description of some methods of an assessment of the 241 Am content in the human skeleton from measurements performed over long bones of the human body is also offered. (authors)

  12. Effects of Media on Female Body Image: Myth or Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryla, Karen Y.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the media's influence on female body image. differentiating between the effects of print and electronic media. Results suggest that print media have a direct, immediate, and negative effect on female body image, while no such relationship exists for electronic media. Results also indicate that exploring only exposure to media images is…

  13. The impact of thin idealized media images on body satisfaction: does body appreciation protect women from negative effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliwell, Emma

    2013-09-01

    This article examines whether positive body image can protect women from negative media exposure effects. University women (N=112) were randomly allocated to view advertisements featuring ultra-thin models or control images. Women who reported high levels of body appreciation did not report negative media exposure effects. Furthermore, the protective role of body appreciation was also evident among women known to be vulnerable to media exposure. Women high on thin-ideal internalization and low on body appreciation reported appearance-discrepancies that were more salient and larger when they viewed models compared to the control group. However, women high on thin-ideal internalization and also high on body appreciation rated appearance-discrepancies as less important and no difference in size than the control group. The results support the notion that positive body image protects women from negative environmental appearance messages and suggests that promoting positive body image may be an effective intervention strategy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Body Image and Attachment Style Among University Students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bo, Inger Glavind

    2018-01-01

    The main focus of this study is to investigate how body image and attachment style among university students are related. We approach these different student types on a cross sectional dataset including 898 university students from Denmark, Germany, Portugal, Croatia and Czechoslovakia. Based...... on the combination of the Body Esteem Scale (BES) and the Attachment Style Scale (WASQ) we create four types: "double jeopardy students", "well-balanced students", "nurturing solitude students" and "social mirroring students". The "double jeopardy students" are students with low social attachment and a high dislike...... of their body. Based on this combination of body image and social attachment we investigate how these four student types are related to three different dimensions: parental characteristics, northern versus southern countries and different field of study....

  15. Hubungan Antara Body Image Dan Self-esteem Pada Dewasa Awal Tuna Daksa

    OpenAIRE

    Sari, Dahlia Nur Permata

    2012-01-01

    Penelitian ini meneliti mengenai pengaruh body image terhadap selfesteem pada dewasa awal tuna daksa. Hipotesis pada penelitian ini adalah adanya hubungan positif antara body image dan self-esteem pada dewasa awal tuna daksa. Semakin positif body image maka semakin tinggi self-esteem yang dimiliki, begitu juga sebaliknya, semakin negatif body image maka semakin rendah self-esteem yang dimiliki. Sampel penelitian sebanyak 30 dewasa awal tuna daksa yang memiliki cacat tubuh seteleh kelahiran. D...

  16. Weight status and the perception of body image in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardner RM

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rick M Gardner Department of Psychology, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO, USA Abstract: Understanding the role of body size in relation to the accuracy of body image perception in men is an important topic because of the implications for avoiding and treating obesity, and it may serve as a potential diagnostic criterion for eating disorders. The early research on this topic produced mixed findings. About one-half of the early studies showed that obese men overestimated their body size, with the remaining half providing accurate estimates. Later, improvements in research technology and methodology provided a clearer indication of the role of weight status in body image perception. Research in our laboratory has also produced diverse findings, including that obese subjects sometimes overestimate their body size. However, when examining our findings across several studies, obese subjects had about the same level of accuracy in estimating their body size as normal-weight subjects. Studies in our laboratory also permitted the separation of sensory and nonsensory factors in body image perception. In all but one instance, no differences were found overall between the ability of obese and normal-weight subjects to detect overall changes in body size. Importantly, however, obese subjects are better at detecting changes in their body size when the image is distorted to be too thin as compared to too wide. Both obese and normal-weight men require about a 3%–7% change in the width of their body size in order to detect the change reliably. Correlations between a range of body mass index values and body size estimation accuracy indicated no relationship between these variables. Numerous studies in other laboratories asked men to place their body size into discrete categorizes, ranging from thin to obese. Researchers found that overweight and obese men underestimate their weight status, and that men are less accurate in their categorizations than

  17. The Politics and Economics of Body Image and Sexuality in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body image is internal and external. It is seen by ourselves and by others. Social body image constructs seem to be built on what is deemed to be beautiful within our cultural contexts, which in turn is perceived as valuable and in turn has higher social standing because everyone else looks up to it. The politics of body image ...

  18. iScreen: Image-Based High-Content RNAi Screening Analysis Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Rui; Dong, Xiaonan; Levine, Beth; Xie, Yang; Xiao, Guanghua

    2015-09-01

    High-throughput RNA interference (RNAi) screening has opened up a path to investigating functional genomics in a genome-wide pattern. However, such studies are often restricted to assays that have a single readout format. Recently, advanced image technologies have been coupled with high-throughput RNAi screening to develop high-content screening, in which one or more cell image(s), instead of a single readout, were generated from each well. This image-based high-content screening technology has led to genome-wide functional annotation in a wider spectrum of biological research studies, as well as in drug and target discovery, so that complex cellular phenotypes can be measured in a multiparametric format. Despite these advances, data analysis and visualization tools are still largely lacking for these types of experiments. Therefore, we developed iScreen (image-Based High-content RNAi Screening Analysis Tool), an R package for the statistical modeling and visualization of image-based high-content RNAi screening. Two case studies were used to demonstrate the capability and efficiency of the iScreen package. iScreen is available for download on CRAN (http://cran.cnr.berkeley.edu/web/packages/iScreen/index.html). The user manual is also available as a supplementary document. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  19. Comparison of the perception of ideal body images of Ghanaian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kemrilib

    body image (CBI), and an ideal body image (IBI) for men and women. The results ... the normal BMI range and 48.4% stated that they believed men preferred a woman in the normal BMI range ... Men were significantly more likely to be satisfied with their current body ... women. [5,6]. Figural stimuli, an easy to administer self- ...

  20. Style and Body Language in the Moving Image

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lennard Højbjerg

    2013-01-01

    issues of body language in the moving image. This article describes two important aspects of body language in visual media—how visual style mediates the body expressions of fictional character and real persons in news on television and how aspects of the visual style always represent bodily presence...

  1. Microwave non-contact imaging of subcutaneous human body tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kletsov, Andrey; Chernokalov, Alexander; Khripkov, Alexander; Cho, Jaegeol; Druchinin, Sergey

    2015-10-01

    A small-size microwave sensor is developed for non-contact imaging of a human body structure in 2D, enabling fitness and health monitoring using mobile devices. A method for human body tissue structure imaging is developed and experimentally validated. Subcutaneous fat tissue reconstruction depth of up to 70 mm and maximum fat thickness measurement error below 2 mm are demonstrated by measurements with a human body phantom and human subjects. Electrically small antennas are developed for integration of the microwave sensor into a mobile device. Usability of the developed microwave sensor for fitness applications, healthcare, and body weight management is demonstrated.

  2. Body image disturbance in binge eating disorder: a comparison of obese patients with and without binge eating disorder regarding the cognitive, behavioral and perceptual component of body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewer, Merle; Nasrawi, Nadia; Schroeder, Dorothea; Vocks, Silja

    2016-03-01

    Whereas the manifestation of body image disturbance in binge eating disorder (BED) has been intensively investigated concerning the cognitive-affective component, with regard to the behavioral and the perceptual components of body image disturbance in BED, research is limited and results are inconsistent. Therefore, the present study assessed body image disturbance in BED with respect to the different components of body image in a sample of obese females (n = 31) with BED compared to obese females without an eating disorder (n = 28). The Eating Disorder Inventory-2, the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, the Body Image Avoidance Questionnaire and the Body Checking Questionnaire as well as a Digital Photo Distortion Technique based on a picture of each participant taken under standardized conditions were employed. Using two-sample t tests, we found that the participants with BED displayed significantly greater impairments concerning the cognitive-affective component of body image than the control group. Concerning the behavioral component, participants with BED reported more body checking and avoidance behavior than the controls, but group differences failed to reach significance after the Bonferroni corrections. Regarding the perceptual component, a significant group difference was found for the perceived "ideal" figure, with the individuals suffering from BED displaying a greater wish for a slimmer ideal figure than the control group. These results support the assumption that body image disturbance is a relevant factor in BED, similar to other eating disorders.

  3. A study on consciousness of adolescent girls about their body image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Dixit

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Perceived body image is an important potential predictor of nutritional status. Body image misconception during adolescence is unexplored field in Indian girls. Objectives: To study the consciousness of adolescent girls about their body image. Materials and Methods: This multistage observational study was conducted on 586 adolescent girls of age 10-19 years in Lucknow district (151 from rural, 150 from slum, and 286 from urban area of Uttar Pradesh, India. Information on desired and actual body size was collected with the help of predesigned questionnaire. Results: 20.5% of studied girls show aspiration to become thin, who already perceived their body image as too thin. 73.4% adolescent girls were satisfied with their body image, while 26.6% were dissatisfied. The dissatisfaction was higher among girls of urban (30.2% and slum (40.0% areas in comparison to rural (22.5% area. Percentage of satisfied girls was less in the 13-15 years (69.9% age groups in comparison to 10-12 years (76.5% and 16-19 years (76.4%. Among girls satisfied with their body image, 32.8% girls were found underweight, and 38.4% were stunted. Underweight girls (42.1% and stunted girls (64.9% were higher in number within satisfied girls of slum area. Among all of these adolescent girls, 32.8% of girls had overestimated their weight, while only 4.9% of girls had underestimated their weight. Conclusions: This study concludes that desire to become thin is higher in adolescent girls, even in those who already perceived their body image as too thin.

  4. [Body image disorder in 100 Tunisian female breast cancer patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faten, Ellouze; Nader, Marrakchi; Raies, Hend; Sana, Masmoudi; Amel, Mezlini; Fadhel, M'rad Mohamed

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed at tracking the prevalence of body image disorder in a population of Tunisian women followed for breast cancer and the factors associated with it. The cross-sectional study was conducted at Salah-Azaiez Institute in Tunis, over a period of four months. One hundred outpatients followed for confirmed breast cancer were recruited. The questionnaire targeted the women's sexuality and their couple relationships, along with their socio-demographic, clinical, and therapeutic characteristics. The scales used were BIS, HADS, and FSFI. The prevalence of body image disorder according to BIS was 45% with an average of 11.5±11.2 among the interrogated patients, 24.7% of which reported an alteration in their couple relationships and 47% in their sexual relations. In univariate analysis, body image disorder was associated with family support, change in couple relationship, depression and anxiety. Body image disorder and sexual dysfunction were interrelated: each of them fostered the prevalence of the other. Multivariate analysis showed that occupational activity was an independent predictor and the absence of anxiety an independent protective factor. Body image disorder was an independent predictive factor of depression and anxiety. The quality of couple relation and sexuality, along with the impact of the patient's surrounding are decisive for the protection or alteration of her body image. Copyright © 2018 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. The effect of personal grooming on self-perceived body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Paasschen, J; Walker, S C; Phillips, N; Downing, P E; Tipper, S P

    2015-02-01

    Grooming behaviours, including the application of fragranced products, are thought to reflect a means of managing social impressions and self-image. Although application of deodorants has previously been shown to make individuals appear more confident to others, few studies have specifically examined the psychological effects of such rituals on the wearer. Here, we investigated how grooming behaviours affect self-perceived body image, a central component of an individual's self-image. In two separate experiments, using a psychophysical forced choice task, male and female participants with a normal Body Mass Index (BMI) indicated whether projected life-size images of their own body were bigger or smaller than their actual size. In the experimental condition, participants applied a fragranced deodorant before performing the task, whereas in the control condition, no product was applied. Our dependent measures were the point of subjective equality (PSE), the size at which participants report their body is subjectively equal to their actual body size, and the difference limen (DL), the amount of change in body size distortion necessary for it to be reliably detected. These measurements provide an index of attitudinal and perceptual components of body image, respectively. Both male and female participants who, at baseline, overestimated their body size, made significantly more accurate judgments about their body size, as measured by the PSE, following application of a fragranced deodorant or antiperspirant than they did in the control condition. This effect was seen in the absence of differences in perceptual sensitivity to changes in body size (DL) across groups and conditions. People who underestimated their body size did not show this effect. Of note, both male and female overestimators had a significantly larger BMI than underestimators. These results demonstrate that the attitudinal component of body image is malleable and can be influenced by everyday grooming

  6. Dietary protein content affects evolution for body size, body fat and viability in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Torsten N; Overgaard, Johannes; Loeschcke, Volker

    2011-01-01

    The ability to use different food sources is likely to be under strong selection if organisms are faced with natural variation in macro-nutrient (protein, carbohydrate and lipid) availabilities. Here, we use experimental evolution to study how variable dietary protein content affects adult body...... composition and developmental success in Drosophila melanogaster. We reared flies on either a standard diet or a protein-enriched diet for 17 generations before testing them on both diet types. Flies from lines selected on protein-rich diet produced phenotypes with higher total body mass and relative lipid...... content when compared with those selected on a standard diet, irrespective of which of the two diets they were tested on. However, selection on protein-rich diet incurred a cost as flies reared on this diet had markedly lower developmental success in terms of egg-to-adult viability on both medium types...

  7. Expand Your Horizon: A programme that improves body image and reduces self-objectification by training women to focus on body functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleva, Jessica M; Martijn, Carolien; Van Breukelen, Gerard J P; Jansen, Anita; Karos, Kai

    2015-09-01

    This study tested Expand Your Horizon, a programme designed to improve body image by training women to focus on the functionality of their body using structured writing assignments. Eighty-one women (Mage=22.77) with a negative body image were randomised to the Expand Your Horizon programme or to an active control programme. Appearance satisfaction, functionality satisfaction, body appreciation, and self-objectification were measured at pretest, posttest, and one-week follow-up. Following the intervention, participants in the Expand Your Horizon programme experienced greater appearance satisfaction, functionality satisfaction, and body appreciation, and lower levels of self-objectification, compared to participants in the control programme. Partial eta-squared effect sizes were of small to medium magnitude. This study is the first to show that focusing on body functionality can improve body image and reduce self-objectification in women with a negative body image. These findings provide support for addressing body functionality in programmes designed to improve body image. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Synchrotron soft X-ray imaging and fluorescence microscopy reveal novel features of asbestos body morphology and composition in human lung tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polentarutti Maurizio

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Occupational or environmental exposure to asbestos fibres is associated with pleural and parenchymal lung diseases. A histopathologic hallmark of exposure to asbestos is the presence in lung parenchyma of the so-called asbestos bodies. They are the final product of biomineralization processes resulting in deposition of endogenous iron and organic matter (mainly proteins around the inhaled asbestos fibres. For shedding light on the formation mechanisms of asbestos bodies it is of fundamental importance to characterize at the same length scales not only their structural morphology and chemical composition but also to correlate them to the possible alterations in the local composition of the surrounding tissues. Here we report the first correlative morphological and chemical characterization of untreated paraffinated histological lung tissue samples with asbestos bodies by means of soft X-ray imaging and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF microscopy, which reveals new features in the elemental lateral distribution. Results The X-ray absorption and phase contrast images and the simultaneously monitored XRF maps of tissue samples have revealed the location, distribution and elemental composition of asbestos bodies and associated nanometric structures. The observed specific morphology and differences in the local Si, Fe, O and Mg content provide distinct fingerprints characteristic for the core asbestos fibre and the ferruginous body. The highest Si content is found in the asbestos fibre, while the shell and ferruginous bodies are characterized by strongly increased content of Mg, Fe and O compared to the adjacent tissue. The XRF and SEM-EDX analyses of the extracted asbestos bodies confirmed an enhanced Mg deposition in the organic asbestos coating. Conclusions The present report demonstrates the potential of the advanced synchrotron-based X-ray imaging and microspectroscopy techniques for studying the response of the lung tissue to the

  9. Body image, eating disorders, and the media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Marjorie J; Strasburger, Victor C

    2008-12-01

    Adolescence is a time of tremendous change in physical appearance. Many adolescents report dissatisfaction with their body shape and size. Forming one's body image is a complex process, influenced by family, peers, and media messages. Increasing evidence shows that the combination of ubiquitous ads for foods and emphasis on female beauty and thinness in both advertising and programming leads to confusion and dissatisfaction for many young people. Sociocultural factors, specifically media exposure, play an important role in the development of disordered body image. Of significant concern, studies have revealed a link between media exposure and the likelihood of having symptoms of disordered eating or a frank eating disorder. Pediatricians and other adults must work to promote media education and make media healthier for young people. More research is needed to identify the most vulnerable children and adolescents.

  10. Senses of body image in adolescents in elementary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Maria Lídia de Abreu; Taquette, Stella Regina; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire

    2014-06-01

    To comprehend the perception of body image in adolescence. A qualitative study was conducted with eight focus groups with 96 students of both sexes attending four public elementary school institutions in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil, in 2013. An interview guide with questions about the adolescents' feelings in relation to: their bodies, standards of idealized beauty, practice of physical exercise and sociocultural influences on self-image. In the data analysis we sought to understand and interpret the meanings and contradictions of narratives, understanding the subjects' context and reasons and the internal logic of the group. Three thematic categories were identified. The influence of media on body image showed the difficulty of achieving the perfect body and is viewed with suspicion in face of standards of beauty broadcast; the importance of a healthy body was observed as standards of beauty and good looks were closely linked to good physical condition and result from having a healthy body; the relationship between the standard of beauty and prejudice, as people who are not considered attractive, having small physical imperfections, are discriminated against and can be rejected or even excluded from society. The standard of perfect body propagated by media influences adolescents' self-image and, consequently, self-esteem and is considered an unattainable goal, corresponding to a standard of beauty described as artificial and unreal. However, it causes great suffering and discrimination against those who do not feel they are attractive, which can lead to health problems resulting from low self-esteem.

  11. Senses of body image in adolescents in elementary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lídia de Abreu Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE : To comprehend the perception of body image in adolescence. METHODS : A qualitative study was conducted with eight focus groups with 96 students of both sexes attending four public elementary school institutions in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil, in 2013. An interview guide with questions about the adolescents’ feelings in relation to: their bodies, standards of idealized beauty, practice of physical exercise and sociocultural influences on self-image. In the data analysis we sought to understand and interpret the meanings and contradictions of narratives, understanding the subjects’ context and reasons and the internal logic of the group. RESULTS : Three thematic categories were identified. The influence of media on body image showed the difficulty of achieving the perfect body and is viewed with suspicion in face of standards of beauty broadcast; the importance of a healthy body was observed as standards of beauty and good looks were closely linked to good physical condition and result from having a healthy body; the relationship between the standard of beauty and prejudice, as people who are not considered attractive, having small physical imperfections, are discriminated against and can be rejected or even excluded from society. CONCLUSIONS : The standard of perfect body propagated by media influences adolescents’ self-image and, consequently, self-esteem and is considered an unattainable goal, corresponding to a standard of beauty described as artificial and unreal. However, it causes great suffering and discrimination against those who do not feel they are attractive, which can lead to health problems resulting from low self-esteem.

  12. A Meta-Analytic Review of Stand-Alone Interventions to Improve Body Image.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica M Alleva

    Full Text Available Numerous stand-alone interventions to improve body image have been developed. The present review used meta-analysis to estimate the effectiveness of such interventions, and to identify the specific change techniques that lead to improvement in body image.The inclusion criteria were that (a the intervention was stand-alone (i.e., solely focused on improving body image, (b a control group was used, (c participants were randomly assigned to conditions, and (d at least one pretest and one posttest measure of body image was taken. Effect sizes were meta-analysed and moderator analyses were conducted. A taxonomy of 48 change techniques used in interventions targeted at body image was developed; all interventions were coded using this taxonomy.The literature search identified 62 tests of interventions (N = 3,846. Interventions produced a small-to-medium improvement in body image (d+ = 0.38, a small-to-medium reduction in beauty ideal internalisation (d+ = -0.37, and a large reduction in social comparison tendencies (d+ = -0.72. However, the effect size for body image was inflated by bias both within and across studies, and was reliable but of small magnitude once corrections for bias were applied. Effect sizes for the other outcomes were no longer reliable once corrections for bias were applied. Several features of the sample, intervention, and methodology moderated intervention effects. Twelve change techniques were associated with improvements in body image, and three techniques were contra-indicated.The findings show that interventions engender only small improvements in body image, and underline the need for large-scale, high-quality trials in this area. The review identifies effective techniques that could be deployed in future interventions.

  13. COMPARISSON OF DIFFERENT IN VIVO ESTIMATORS OF BODY FAT AND MUSCLE CONTENT IN ADULT CREOLE GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hania Vilar-Martinez

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of ultrasound measurements (ULT, body condition score (BCS and body mass index (BMI to predict body fat and muscle in goats. Twenty-four adult, ovariectomized, creole goats were fed individually to achieve dissimilar stable body weights (26 to 66 kg. After a six-week period of stabilization BCS was evaluated (average of 4 separate evaluations and BMI calculated (BW/(length x heightx10; average of 2 independent length and height measurements. Fat and muscle coverage over the dorsal (12-13th, lumbar (1st and coxal (1st vertebrae were measured by ultrasound imaging. Animals were slaughtered and visceral fat dissected and weighed. Left half carcass weights were obtained and muscle and fat were dissected and weighed. Left half carcass data were adjusted to whole carcass data. Simple  regression analyses were performed with ULT, BCS and BMI as predictors and visceral (VF, carcass (CF and total fat (TF, and muscle (MU as response variables. Coefficients of variation (CV were calculated for BCS and BMI estimations. ULT measurement of total tissue (fat + muscle coverage over dorsal vertebrae presented the highest predictive value for ULT measurements; thus this measurement is the only reported. Coefficients of determination (R2 for VF, CF and TF were .55, .76 and .68; .78, .82 and .87; .81, .81 and .88 for ULT, BCS and BMI as predictors. R2 for MU were .67, .84 and .76 using ULT, BCS and BMI as predictors. R2 for proportions of VF/BW, CF/BW and TF/BW were .47, .73 and .65; .75, .78 and .88; .74, .71 and .85; when ULT, BCS and BMI were used as predictors. R2 for MS/BW were ≤ .10 using ULT, BCS and BMI as predictors. CV was greater in BCS estimation as compared to BMI estimation (9.7 vs. 3.1 %. BCS and BMI were more accurate in vivo predictors than ULT for body fat content, fat as proportion of BW and body muscle content. ULT, BCS and BMI were completely worthless for predicting

  14. Body image, body dissatisfaction and weight status in south asian children: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duda Joan L

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is a continuing problem in the UK and South Asian children represent a group that are particularly vulnerable to its health consequences. The relationship between body dissatisfaction and obesity is well documented in older children and adults, but is less clear in young children, particularly South Asians. A better understanding of this relationship in young South Asian children will inform the design and delivery of obesity intervention programmes. The aim of this study is to describe body image size perception and dissatisfaction, and their relationship to weight status in primary school aged UK South Asian children. Methods Objective measures of height and weight were undertaken on 574 predominantly South Asian children aged 5-7 (296 boys and 278 girls. BMI z-scores, and weight status (underweight, healthy weight, overweight or obese were calculated based on the UK 1990 BMI reference charts. Figure rating scales were used to assess perceived body image size (asking children to identify their perceived body size and dissatisfaction (difference between perceived current and ideal body size. The relationship between these and weight status were examined using multivariate analyses. Results Perceived body image size was positively associated with weight status (partial regression coefficient for overweight/obese vs. non-overweight/obese was 0.63 (95% CI 0.26-0.99 and for BMI z-score was 0.21 (95% CI 0.10-0.31, adjusted for sex, age and ethnicity. Body dissatisfaction was also associated with weight status, with overweight and obese children more likely to select thinner ideal body size than healthy weight children (adjusted partial regression coefficient for overweight/obese vs. non-overweight/obese was 1.47 (95% CI 0.99-1.96 and for BMI z-score was 0.54 (95% CI 0.40-0.67. Conclusions Awareness of body image size and increasing body dissatisfaction with higher weight status is established at a young age in

  15. Body image dissatisfaction and dietary patterns according to nutritional status in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Ribeiro‐Silva

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion: Amongst overweight/obese adolescents, those with slight and moderate body image dissatisfaction were less likely to follow a Western‐like dietary pattern when compared with those satisfied with their body image. Additionally, in this group, adolescents with high body image dissatisfaction was more likely to follow a restrictive pattern.

  16. Adolescent Girls and Body Image: Influence of Outdoor Adventure on Healthy Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr-Wilson, Susie K.; Roberts, Nina S.

    2016-01-01

    Outdoor adventure may improve body image. However, minimal research exists on the effect outdoor adventure has on body image in adolescent girls, a demographic continually plagued by negative body image. In response, this exploratory study considered the influence of one outdoor adventure program in the San Francisco Bay Area. Through…

  17. A Study on Consciousness of Adolescent Girls About Their Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Swati; Agarwal, GG; Singh, JV; Kant, Surya; Singh, Neelam

    2011-01-01

    Background: Perceived body image is an important potential predictor of nutritional status. Body image misconception during adolescence is unexplored field in Indian girls. Objectives: To study the consciousness of adolescent girls about their body image. Materials and Methods: This multistage observational study was conducted on 586 adolescent girls of age 10–19 years in Lucknow district (151 from rural, 150 from slum, and 286 from urban area) of Uttar Pradesh, India. Information on desired and actual body size was collected with the help of predesigned questionnaire. Results: 20.5% of studied girls show aspiration to become thin, who already perceived their body image as too thin. 73.4% adolescent girls were satisfied with their body image, while 26.6% were dissatisfied. The dissatisfaction was higher among girls of urban (30.2%) and slum (40.0%) areas in comparison to rural (22.5%) area. Percentage of satisfied girls was less in the 13–15 years (69.9%) age groups in comparison to 10–12 years (76.5%) and 16–19 years (76.4%). Among girls satisfied with their body image, 32.8% girls were found underweight, and 38.4% were stunted. Underweight girls (42.1%) and stunted girls (64.9%) were higher in number within satisfied girls of slum area. Among all of these adolescent girls, 32.8% of girls had overestimated their weight, while only 4.9% of girls had underestimated their weight. Conclusions: This study concludes that desire to become thin is higher in adolescent girls, even in those who already perceived their body image as too thin. PMID:22090673

  18. Relationships between body image, sexual satisfaction, and relationship quality in romantic couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brink, Femke; Vollmann, Manja; Smeets, Monique A M; Hessen, David J; Woertman, Liesbeth

    2018-03-08

    Previous studies found important associations between body image, sexual satisfaction, and perceived romantic relationship quality, but mainly focused on one individual's perceptions rather than both partners. To take the interdependency of romantic partners into account, the present study examined these associations in romantic couples with a dyadic approach. In a cross-sectional design, 151 Dutch heterosexual couples completed an online survey measuring body image, sexual satisfaction, and perceived relationship quality. Hypotheses were tested using the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) and an APIM extended with a mediator (APIMeM), with couple members' body image as predictors, couple members' sexual satisfaction as mediators, and couple members' relationship quality as outcomes. Results indicated that within individuals, a more positive body image was linked to higher perceived romantic relationship quality through greater sexual satisfaction. No gender differences were found, implying that body image and sexual satisfaction are equally strongly associated with perceived relationship quality in women and men. Results revealed no associations of an individual's body image and sexual satisfaction with the partner's perceived relationship quality. These findings implicate that interventions focusing on developing and maintaining a positive body image may be helpful in building on a more satisfying sex life and higher perceived relationship quality. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Quantitative image reconstruction for total-body PET imaging using the 2-meter long EXPLORER scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuezhu; Zhou, Jian; Cherry, Simon R.; Badawi, Ramsey D.; Qi, Jinyi

    2017-03-01

    The EXPLORER project aims to build a 2 meter long total-body PET scanner, which will provide extremely high sensitivity for imaging the entire human body. It will possess a range of capabilities currently unavailable to state-of-the-art clinical PET scanners with a limited axial field-of-view. The huge number of lines-of-response (LORs) of the EXPLORER poses a challenge to the data handling and image reconstruction. The objective of this study is to develop a quantitative image reconstruction method for the EXPLORER and compare its performance with current whole-body scanners. Fully 3D image reconstruction was performed using time-of-flight list-mode data with parallel computation. To recover the resolution loss caused by the parallax error between crystal pairs at a large axial ring difference or transaxial radial offset, we applied an image domain resolution model estimated from point source data. To evaluate the image quality, we conducted computer simulations using the SimSET Monte-Carlo toolkit and XCAT 2.0 anthropomorphic phantom to mimic a 20 min whole-body PET scan with an injection of 25 MBq 18F-FDG. We compare the performance of the EXPLORER with a current clinical scanner that has an axial FOV of 22 cm. The comparison results demonstrated superior image quality from the EXPLORER with a 6.9-fold reduction in noise standard deviation comparing with multi-bed imaging using the clinical scanner.

  20. Development of a human body RMN imaging device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint-Jalmes, H.

    1984-03-01

    Imaging device for human body is studied in this thesis. The section images presented are got by a projection-reconstruction method associated to a section plane selection by an oscillating gradient application. Different stages of the machine development are presented: - design and calculation of a resistive magnet for very homogeneous field imaging - design of gradient coils for imaging magnets - realization of control and acquisition interfaces - realization of imaging software in real time [fr

  1. Consumer opinion on social policy approaches to promoting positive body image: Airbrushed media images and disclaimer labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskeva, Nicole; Lewis-Smith, Helena; Diedrichs, Phillippa C

    2017-02-01

    Disclaimer labels on airbrushed media images have generated political attention and advocacy as a social policy approach to promoting positive body image. Experimental research suggests that labelling is ineffective and consumers' viewpoints have been overlooked. A mixed-method study explored British consumers' ( N = 1555, aged 11-78 years) opinions on body image and social policy approaches. Thematic analysis indicated scepticism about the effectiveness of labelling images. Quantitatively, adults, although not adolescents, reported that labelling was unlikely to improve body image. Appearance diversity in media and reorienting social norms from appearance to function and health were perceived as effective strategies. Social policy and research implications are discussed.

  2. Body image dissatisfaction and dietary patterns according to nutritional status in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Silva, Rita de Cássia; Fiaccone, Rosemeire Leovigildo; Conceição-Machado, Maria Ester Pereira da; Ruiz, Ana Santos; Barreto, Maurício Lima; Santana, Mônica Leila Portela

    There is a lack of data on the association between body self-perception and eating patterns in Brazil. Thus, this study aimed to explore the relationship between body image dissatisfaction and eating patterns by the anthropometric status in adolescents. A cross-sectional study of 1496 adolescents was conducted. The participants completed the Body Shape Questionnaire. Demographic, anthropometric, and socioeconomic data were collected, as well as information regarding the pubertal development and dietary intake. Logistic regression was performed to evaluate the associations of interest. Body image dissatisfaction was identified in 19.5% of the adolescents. Three dietary patterns were identified: (1) the Western pattern was composed of sweets and sugars, soft drinks, typical dishes, pastries, fast food, beef, milk, and dairy products; (2) the Traditional pattern was composed of oils, chicken, fish, eggs, processed meat products, cereals (rice, cassava flour, pasta, etc.), baked beans, and bread; and (3) the Restrictive pattern was composed of granola, roots, vegetables, and fruit. Among overweight/obese adolescents, the data indicated a negative association of slight body image dissatisfaction (OR: 0.240 [0.100; 0.576]) and moderate body image dissatisfaction (OR: 0.235 [0.086; 0.645]) with the Western dietary pattern. Additionally, in this group, there was a positive association between high body image dissatisfaction and the Restrictive pattern (OR: 2.794 [1.178; 6.630]). Amongst overweight/obese adolescents, those with slight and moderate body image dissatisfaction were less likely to follow a Western-like dietary pattern when compared with those satisfied with their body image. Additionally, in this group, adolescents with high body image dissatisfaction was more likely to follow a restrictive pattern. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in axial spondyloarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbe, Simon; Østergaard, Mikkel; Eshed, Iris

    2018-01-01

    Objective. To investigate whether adalimumab (ADA) reduces whole-body (WB-) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indices for inflammation in the entheses, peripheral joints, sacroiliac joints, spine, and the entire body in patients with axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA). Methods. An investigator-initia...

  4. Healthy Body Image Intervention Delivered to Young Women via Facebook Groups: Formative Study of Engagement and Acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Jerod L; Manne, Sharon L; Day, Ashley K; Levonyan-Radloff, Kristine; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2018-02-20

    There is increasing interest in using social media sites such as Facebook to deliver health interventions so as to expose people to content while they are engaging in their usual social media habit. This formative intervention development study is novel in describing a preliminary test of using the secret group feature of Facebook to deliver a behavioral intervention targeting users of indoor tanning beds to reduce their risk of skin cancer. Intervention content was designed to challenge body image-related constructs associated with indoor tanning through the use of dissonance-inducing content. To evaluate engagement with and acceptability of using a secret Facebook group to deliver a healthy body image intervention to young women engaged in indoor tanning. Seventeen young women completed a baseline survey and joined a secret Facebook group with intervention content delivered via daily posts for 4 weeks. Engagement data was extracted and acceptability was measured via a follow-up survey. The study had a high retention rate (94%, [16/17]). On average, posts were viewed by 91% of participants, liked by 35%, and commented on by 26%. The average comment rate was highest (65%) for posts that elicited comments by directly posing questions or discussion topics to the group. Average intervention acceptability ratings were highly positive and participants reported feeling connected to the group and its topic. Average rates of past 1-month indoor tanning reported following the intervention were lower than the baseline rate (P=.08, Cohen d=0.47). This study is novel in demonstrating participant engagement with and acceptability of using Facebook secret groups to deliver a dissonance-inducing intervention approach that utilizes group-based discussions related to body image. The study is also unique within the field of skin cancer prevention by demonstrating the potential value of delivering an indoor tanning intervention within an interactive social media format. The findings

  5. Healthy Body Image Intervention Delivered to Young Women via Facebook Groups: Formative Study of Engagement and Acceptability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manne, Sharon L; Day, Ashley K; Levonyan-Radloff, Kristine; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2018-01-01

    Background There is increasing interest in using social media sites such as Facebook to deliver health interventions so as to expose people to content while they are engaging in their usual social media habit. This formative intervention development study is novel in describing a preliminary test of using the secret group feature of Facebook to deliver a behavioral intervention targeting users of indoor tanning beds to reduce their risk of skin cancer. Intervention content was designed to challenge body image-related constructs associated with indoor tanning through the use of dissonance-inducing content. Objective To evaluate engagement with and acceptability of using a secret Facebook group to deliver a healthy body image intervention to young women engaged in indoor tanning. Methods Seventeen young women completed a baseline survey and joined a secret Facebook group with intervention content delivered via daily posts for 4 weeks. Engagement data was extracted and acceptability was measured via a follow-up survey. Results The study had a high retention rate (94%, [16/17]). On average, posts were viewed by 91% of participants, liked by 35%, and commented on by 26%. The average comment rate was highest (65%) for posts that elicited comments by directly posing questions or discussion topics to the group. Average intervention acceptability ratings were highly positive and participants reported feeling connected to the group and its topic. Average rates of past 1-month indoor tanning reported following the intervention were lower than the baseline rate (P=.08, Cohen d=0.47). Conclusions This study is novel in demonstrating participant engagement with and acceptability of using Facebook secret groups to deliver a dissonance-inducing intervention approach that utilizes group-based discussions related to body image. The study is also unique within the field of skin cancer prevention by demonstrating the potential value of delivering an indoor tanning intervention within

  6. Body Covering and Body Image: A Comparison of Veiled and Unveiled Muslim Women, Christian Women, and Atheist Women Regarding Body Checking, Body Dissatisfaction, and Eating Disorder Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Leonie; Hartmann, Andrea S; Becker, Julia C; Kişi, Melahat; Waldorf, Manuel; Vocks, Silja

    2018-02-21

    Although Islam is the fastest growing religion worldwide, only few studies have investigated body image in Muslim women, and no study has investigated body checking. Therefore, the present study examined whether body image, body checking, and disordered eating differ between veiled and unveiled Muslim women, Christian women, and atheist women. While the groups did not differ regarding body dissatisfaction, unveiled Muslim women reported more checking than veiled Muslim and Christian women, and higher bulimia scores than Christian. Thus, prevention against eating disorders should integrate all women, irrespective of religious affiliation or veiling, with a particular focus on unveiled Muslim women.

  7. Importance of Ideal Body Image, Self-Esteem and Depression in Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Susan Kohlruss; Elovson, Allana C.

    Dissatisfaction with body image among women has become a major psychological and physical contemporary problem. This study is among the few to empirically suggest that overall body satisfaction is strongly related to perceived discrepancy of one's body image from ideal societal standards of attractiveness. This study also identifies the personal…

  8. STUDY OF BODY IMAGE IN PROFESSIONAL DANCERS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allana Alexandre Cardoso

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Body image is multidimensional, dynamic, and entirely linked to the body in motion, which entails relevant bodily concerns in the routine of professional dancers, who need to maintain their body aesthetics constantly. The objective was summarizing the scientific production on the body image of professional dancers and to understand how they perceive it. This review is composed by seven studies that investigated professional dancers of classical ballet, jazz and contemporary dance. The results demonstrate that even though they are lean and had appropriate body mass index, professional dancers are dissatisfied with their body and wish to be thinner, that is, professional dancers constitute a risk group for the development of eating disorders.

  9. Weight status and the perception of body image in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Rick M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the role of body size in relation to the accuracy of body image perception in men is an important topic because of the implications for avoiding and treating obesity, and it may serve as a potential diagnostic criterion for eating disorders. The early research on this topic produced mixed findings. About one-half of the early studies showed that obese men overestimated their body size, with the remaining half providing accurate estimates. Later, improvements in research technology and methodology provided a clearer indication of the role of weight status in body image perception. Research in our laboratory has also produced diverse findings, including that obese subjects sometimes overestimate their body size. However, when examining our findings across several studies, obese subjects had about the same level of accuracy in estimating their body size as normal-weight subjects. Studies in our laboratory also permitted the separation of sensory and nonsensory factors in body image perception. In all but one instance, no differences were found overall between the ability of obese and normal-weight subjects to detect overall changes in body size. Importantly, however, obese subjects are better at detecting changes in their body size when the image is distorted to be too thin as compared to too wide. Both obese and normal-weight men require about a 3%–7% change in the width of their body size in order to detect the change reliably. Correlations between a range of body mass index values and body size estimation accuracy indicated no relationship between these variables. Numerous studies in other laboratories asked men to place their body size into discrete categorizes, ranging from thin to obese. Researchers found that overweight and obese men underestimate their weight status, and that men are less accurate in their categorizations than are women. Cultural influences have been found to be important, with body size underestimations occurring in cultures

  10. Illustrating the body: Cross-sectional and prospective investigations of the impact of life drawing sessions on body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren

    2016-01-30

    Life drawing sessions, where individuals produce drawings of the human figure from observations of a live model, may contain embodying elements that promote healthier body image. Two pilot studies were conducted to test this hypothesis. In Study 1, 138 individuals recruited from life drawing sessions in London, UK, estimated how many sessions they had attended in their lifetime and completed measures of negative and positive body image. In women, greater attendance was significantly associated with higher body appreciation and lower drive for thinness and social physique anxiety. In men, greater attendance was significantly associated with higher body appreciation, but not drive for muscularity or social physique anxiety. In Study 2, 37 women took part in a life drawing session for the first time. Compared to pre-session scores, participants had significantly more positive state body image and appearance satisfaction after the session. The findings of these studies suggest that life drawing may promote healthier body image, particularly among women, but further research is needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Relationship of Body Image with Psychological Distress in Women with Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Moradi Manesh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Surgery and adjuvant therapies lead to body image problems and psychological distress in young women with breast cancer. The goal of this study was to examine the relationship of body image with psychological distress in women with breast cancer. Methods: This correlation study was carried out on 294 women with breast cancer at Imam Reza Hospital of Kermanshah, Iran, in 2011. The selection of the participants was based on purposive sampling. The Body image was assessed by BIS. The Psychological distress was assessed by DASS-21. The collected data was analyzed by Pearson correlation and Independent sample test. Results: Results showed that body image had a significant positive relationship with psychological distress (P < 0.001. Furthermore, younger women had greater trouble about body image and experienced greater psychological distress compared to elder women. Conclusion: This study showed that dissatisfaction about body image accompanied psychological distress. Also, younger women experience greater difficulties about body image and psychological distress. Therefore, suitable psychological interventions are recommended.

  12. Facebook and body image concern in adolescent girls: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, Marika; Slater, Amy

    2017-01-01

    The primary aim of the study was to examine the relationship across time between Facebook use and body image concern in adolescent girls. A sample of 438 girls in the first two years (Years 8 and 9) of high school (aged 13-15 years) at Time 1 completed questionnaire measures of Facebook consumption and body image concerns, and again two years later (Time 2). Facebook involvement increased substantially over the two year time period. Body image concerns also increased. Number of Facebook friends was found to prospectively predict the observed increase in drive for thinness. On the other hand, internalization and body surveillance prospectively predicted the observed increase in number of Facebook friends. It was concluded that Facebook "friendships" represent a potent sociocultural force in the body image of adolescent girls. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2017; 50:80-83). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The Effects of Immigration and Media Influence on Body Image Among Pakistani Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghir, Sheeba; Hyland, Lynda

    2017-07-01

    This study examined the role of media influence and immigration on body image among Pakistani men. Attitudes toward the body were compared between those living in Pakistan ( n = 56) and those who had immigrated to the United Arab Emirates ( n = 58). Results of a factorial analysis of variance demonstrated a significant main effect of immigrant status. Pakistani men living in the United Arab Emirates displayed poorer body image than those in the Pakistan sample. Results also indicated a second main effect of media influence.Those highly influenced by the media displayed poorer body image. No interaction effect was observed between immigrant status and media influence on body image. These findings suggest that media influence and immigration are among important risk factors for the development of negative body image among non-Western men. Interventions designed to address the negative effects of the media and immigration may be effective at reducing body image disorders and other related health problems in this population.

  14. 5 Ways to Promote a Positive Body Image for Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... physical activity. In contrast, kids with a negative body image feel more self-conscious, anxious and isolated. They are at greater risk for excessive weight gain and for eating disorders. Give your child the gift of positive body image and help prevent these problems — take the following ...

  15. Effects of cognitive behavioral counseling on body Image following mastectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simin Fadaei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Surgical treatment of breast cancer may cause body image alterations. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of cognitive behavioral counseling on body image among Iranian women with primary breast cancer. Methods: In this quasi-experimental designed study, 72 patients diagnosed as breast cancer and surgically treated were enrolled in Isfahan, Iran. The patients were entered the study by convenience sampling method and were randomly di-vided in two groups of intervention (n = 32 and control (n = 40. The intervention group received consultation based on Ellis rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT method for 6 sessions during 3 weeks. The control group did not re-ceive any consultation Paired t-test was used to compare the changes in groups and independent t-test was conducted to compare two groups. The average values represented as mean ± standard deviation. Results: Before the study, the body image score was not significantly different between the intervention (16 97 ± 5 44 and control (15 95 ± 4 66 groups (t = 0 86, P = 0 395. The body image score was significantly lower in the interven-tion group (9 03 ± 6 11 compared to control group (17 18 ± 5 27 after the intervention (t = -6 07, P < 0 001. Conclusions: Since a woman′s body image influences her breast cancer treatment decision, oncology professionals need to recognize the value of a woman′s favorite about appearance and body image. This study emphasizes the impor-tance of offering consultation in breast cancer patients.

  16. The Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Body Image Attitudes in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sareh Zar-Shenas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Sociocultural emphasis and increased interest in physical attractiveness and current attitudes body structure have increased body image dissatisfaction among women. The prevalence of body image dissatisfaction is linked with various psychological disorders and disturbances such as low self-esteem, depression and other disorders. The present study investigated the short program aerobic exercise effects on body image among women. Materials & Methods: In this interventional and quasi experimental study, 82 females among 150 women (18-45 years old referred to Enghelab and Gol sports clubs in Tehran were selected by convenient and simple sampling based on inclusive and exclusive criteria and randomly divided into two intervention and control groups. They did not participate in any exercise in last 3 months and also they did not have any physical disease and meet criteria for deficit of body image attitudes. Data collection was done by using demographic and Multidimensional Body Self-Relation Questionnaire. The intervention group participated in aerobic exercise program. These sessions lasted 3 hours per week for 4 weeks. Data were analyzed by Chi–Square, Paired T and Independent T tests. Results: There were significant differences between two groups after intervention in sub items of body image including: self-appearance evaluation (P<0.001, self-appearance orientation (P<0.001, health orientation (P=0.003, illness orientation (P=0.002, but their fitness evaluation (P=0.141, self-fitness orientation (P=0.888, health evaluation (P=0.072, self-body satisfaction (P=0.082, overweight preoccupations (P=0.167 and self-assesed weight (P=0.156 did not change clearly. Conclusion: Short periods of aerobic exercise can effectively promote body image attitudes among women, and exercise can be used as a method of treatment in occupational therapy of the disorder.

  17. [Cognitive mechanisms and self-acceptance of body image].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuel, Adriana; Bracho, Angie; Brito, Nereida; Rondón, José Eduardo; Sulbarán, Dimas

    2012-01-01

    This research proposed to investigate the effect of an intervention program to strengthen self-acceptance (positive), and a cognitive intervention program on body image. Specifically, it is based on the idea of prevention of risk factors for eating disorders from the perspective of normalcy in the prevention of body dissatisfaction. We used a 2×2 factorial design with 120 participants of both sexes, aged between 10 and 12 years, selected by stratification. To evaluate the hypothesis, we used two-way analysis of variance. The results concluded that only the cognitive intervention program affected the dependent variable body image, maintaining its statistical significance, which is revealed both in the general two-way ANOVA and when controlling the effect of the covariates, age and sex.

  18. A pilot study on body image, attractiveness and body size in Gambians living in an urban community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siervo, M; Grey, P; Nyan, O A; Prentice, A M

    2006-06-01

    We investigated the attitudinal and perceptual components of body image and its link with body mass index (BMI) in a sample of urban Gambians. We also looked at cross-cultural differences in body image and views on attractiveness between Gambians and Americans. Four groups of 50 subjects were assessed: men 14- 25y (YM); women 14-25y (YW); men 35-50y (OM); women 35-50y (OW). Socio-economic status, education, healthy lifestyle and western influences were investigated. Height and weight were measured. Body dissatisfaction was assessed with the body dissatisfaction scale of the Eating Disorder Inventory. Perceptions of body image and attractiveness were assessed using the Body Image Assessment for Obesity (BIA-O) and Figure Rating Scale (FRS). Different generations of Gambians had very different perceptions and attitudes towards obesity. Current body size was realistically perceived and largely well tolerated. Older women had a higher body discrepancy (current minus ideal body size) than other groups (pbody size until they were overweight (BMI=27.8 kg/m2), whilst OM, YM and YW started to be concerned at a BMI respectively of 22.9, 19.8 and 21.5 kg/m2. A cross-cultural comparison using published data on FRS showed that Gambians were more obesity tolerant than black and white Americans. The Gambia is a country in the early stage of demographic transitions but in urban areas there is an increase in obesity prevalence. Inherent tensions between the preservation of cultural values and traditional habits, and raising awareness of the risks of obesity, may limit health interventions to prevent weight gain.

  19. Sketching people: Prospective investigations of the impact of life drawing on body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren

    2017-03-01

    Three studies were conducted to establish the extent to which life drawing is effective at promoting positive body image. Study 1 (N=84 women) showed that life drawing had a positive impact on state body image, but only if artists observed a human model and not non-human objects. Study 2 (N=61 women, 61 men) showed that life drawing had a positive impact on state body image for women and men, irrespective of whether artists observed a sex-congruent or -incongruent model. Study 3 (N=23) showed that participating in weekly life drawing sessions for a 6-week period resulted in significantly elevated trait positive body image (body appreciation and body pride) and embodiment, and in reduced social physique anxiety; however, the intervention had no significant impact on negative body image (drive for thinness or muscularity). These results highlight the potential of life drawing for promoting positive body experiences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Medical Imaging of Mummies and Bog Bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Mummies are human remains with preservation of non-bony tissue. Mummification by natural influences results in so-called natural mummies, while mummification induced by active (human) intervention results in so-called artificial mummies, although many cultures practiced burial rites which to some...... and bog bodies could be studied non-destructively. This article describes the history of mummy radiography and CT scanning, and some of the problems and opportunities involved in applying these techniques, derived for clinical use, on naturally and artificially preserved ancient human bodies. Unless...... severely degraded, bone is quite readily visualized, but accurate imaging of preserved soft tissues, and pathological lesions therein, may require considerable post-image capture processing of CT data....

  1. Body image, self-esteem, and quality of life in patients with psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulya Nazik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the skin that may affect the visible areas of body. Hence, the quality of life, self-esteem, and body image can be affected in psoriasis patients. Objectives: We aimed in the present study to assess the effects of psoriasis on the quality of life, self-esteem, and body image. Materials and Methods: The study included 92 patients with psoriasis, along with 98 control participants. The sociodemographic characteristics of the patients were assessed, their Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI scores were calculated to determine the clinical severity of the psoriasis, and the values were recorded. In addition, Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI, Body Image Scale, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale results were evaluated. Results: When the control and psoriasis groups were evaluated regarding the DLQI, self-esteem, and body image, quality of life was found to be more negatively affected in the psoriasis group than the controls, which was statistically significant (P < 0.001, and self-esteem (P < 0.001 and body image (P < 0.001 were found to be significantly lower. Educational status significantly affected self-esteem (P < 0.001 and body image (P = 0.021, however, quality of life was not significantly affected by this parameter (P = 0.345. PASI was positively correlated with the quality of life (r = 0.703 and self-esteem (r = 0.448, however, it was negatively correlated with the body image (r = −0.423. Conclusions: Psoriasis may negatively affect quality of life, self-esteem, and body image, and may also cause psychosocial problems. An assessment of new approaches on this issue may contribute to developments in the treatment of and rehabilitation from this disease.

  2. Body Image, Self-esteem, and Quality of Life in Patients with Psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazik, Hulya; Nazik, Selcuk; Gul, Feride C

    2017-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the skin that may affect the visible areas of body. Hence, the quality of life, self-esteem, and body image can be affected in psoriasis patients. We aimed in the present study to assess the effects of psoriasis on the quality of life, self-esteem, and body image. The study included 92 patients with psoriasis, along with 98 control participants. The sociodemographic characteristics of the patients were assessed, their Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) scores were calculated to determine the clinical severity of the psoriasis, and the values were recorded. In addition, Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), Body Image Scale, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale results were evaluated. When the control and psoriasis groups were evaluated regarding the DLQI, self-esteem, and body image, quality of life was found to be more negatively affected in the psoriasis group than the controls, which was statistically significant ( P self-esteem ( P self-esteem ( P self-esteem ( r = 0.448), however, it was negatively correlated with the body image ( r = -0.423). Psoriasis may negatively affect quality of life, self-esteem, and body image, and may also cause psychosocial problems. An assessment of new approaches on this issue may contribute to developments in the treatment of and rehabilitation from this disease.

  3. Relationships among muscle dysmorphia characteristics, body image quality of life, and coping in males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tod, D; Edwards, C

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among bodybuilding dependence, muscle satisfaction, body image-related quality of life and body image-related coping strategies, and test the hypothesis that muscle dysmorphia characteristics may predict quality of life via coping strategies. Participants (294 males, Mage=20.5 years, SD=3.1) participated in a cross-sectional survey. Participants completed questionnaires assessing muscle satisfaction, bodybuilding dependence, body image-related quality of life and body image-related coping. Quality of life was correlated positively with muscle satisfaction and bodybuilding dependence but negatively with body image coping (P<0.05). Body image coping was correlated positively with bodybuilding dependence and negatively with muscle satisfaction (P<0.05). Mediation analysis found that bodybuilding dependence and muscle satisfaction predicted quality of life both directly and indirectly via body image coping strategies (as evidenced by the bias corrected and accelerated bootstrapped confidence intervals). These results provide preliminary evidence regarding the ways that muscularity concerns might influence body image-related quality of life. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Imaging Mental Representations of Sex-Typed Bodies: The Effect of Number of Trials on Image Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David James Lick

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Sex categorization is a critical process in social perception. While psychologists have long theorized that perceivers have distinct mental representations of men and women that help them to achieve efficient sex categorizations, researchers have only recently begun using reverse-correlation to visualize the content of these mental representations. The present research addresses two issues concerning this relatively new methodological tool. First, previous studies of reverse-correlation have focused almost exclusively on perceivers’ mental representations of faces. Our study demonstrates that this technique can also be used to visualize mental representations of sex-typed bodies. Second, most studies of reverse-correlation have employed a relatively large number of trials (1,000+ to capture perceivers’ mental representations of a given category. Our study demonstrated that, at least for sex-typed representations of bodies, high quality reverse-correlation images can be obtained with as few as 100 trials. Overall, our findings enhance knowledge of reverse-correlation methodology in general and sex categorization in particular, providing new information for researchers interested in using this technique to understand the complex processes underlying social perception.

  5. FOOD BEHAVIOR, BODY IMAGE AND ANTHROPOMETRIC INDICES OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Regina Pereira MONTEIRO

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The aim of this study was to assess food behavior, self-image perception and anthropometric indices of college students. This was a cross-sectional study with 54 students in a public university. The lifestyle and self-image perception was collected using a standardized questionnaire tested. Food behavior was evaluated through the Eating Attitudes Test. Body composition was assessed for Body Mass Index (BMI, circumferences, skinfold analysis and bioelectrical impedance (BIA. The statistics tests used were Chi-square and Pearson correlation (p< 0.05. The students had 19 to 27 years old, 96.3% were non-smokers, 46.3% drank alcoholic beverages and 37.0% practiced regular physical activity. Most of the students (75.5% were considered normal weight (BMI but the body fat percentage was found to be above average. Regarding self- image perception, 40.7% felt overweight. Observing food behavior results, 12.0% were at risk of developing eating disorders. Positive correlations were verifi ed between BMI with skinfold and skinfold with bioelectrical impedance. It was concluded that a considerable number of the college students assessed had a distorted self-image perception. Many of them had normal weight but with high body fat percentage. This study is relevant to investigate the risk of eating disorders and body image perception as part of the nutritional assessment.

  6. Body image in obese children: Effects produced by physical exercise program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Romero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Body image self-perception in obese children is important since it can encourage behaviors leading to social isolation and cause an increase in food intake. The objective of this study was to determine the changes produced in the level of body image satisfaction and the variation in anthropometric indicators of young children in the State of Sonora, Mexico after participating in a program of 40 sessions of physical exercise with an average caloric expenditure of 267 Kcal per session. 119 children were enrolled in the program; they were between the ages of 8 and 11 with a body mass index (BMI of 26.59 ± 4.2 (kg/m2. They were evaluated before and after the physical activity intervention by means of a Body Image Satisfaction (BIS Test. The results with significant changes (p ≤ 0.05 between the pre-test and post-test are in weight and height. There are also significant changes observed in self-image in 15 parts of evaluated body segments, mainly in the abdomen, chest, thighs, buttocks, waist, and hips in all children from the experimental group. The results conclude that physical exercise, in spite of not producing significant changes in BMI, can positively modify body image perception.

  7. Predictors of Change in Body Image in Female Participants of an Outdoor Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovey, Kate; Foland, Jody; Foley, John T.; Kniffin, Mike; Bailey, JoEllen

    2016-01-01

    Body image is an ever-changing phenomenon that has a profound effect on women's quality of life. Research related to body image is expansive, but few researchers have focused on how outdoor education may influence body image. This study examines predictors of change in body image of female participants of an outdoor education program. Twenty-eight…

  8. #fitspo or #loveyourself? The impact of fitspiration and self-compassion Instagram images on women's body image, self-compassion, and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Amy; Varsani, Neesha; Diedrichs, Phillippa C

    2017-09-01

    This study experimentally examined the impact of exposure to fitspiration images and self-compassion quotes on social media on young women's body satisfaction, body appreciation, self-compassion, and negative mood. Female undergraduate students (N=160) were randomly assigned to view either Instagram images of fitspiration, self-compassion quotes, a combination of both, or appearance-neutral images. Results showed no differences between viewing fitspiration images compared to viewing neutral images, except for poorer self-compassion among those who viewed fitspiration images. However, women who viewed self-compassion quotes showed greater body satisfaction, body appreciation, self-compassion, and reduced negative mood compared to women who viewed neutral images. Further, viewing a combination of fitspiration images and self-compassion quotes led to positive outcomes compared to viewing only fitspiration images. Trait levels of thin-ideal internalisation moderated some effects. The findings suggest that self-compassion might offer a novel avenue for attenuating the negative impact of social media on women's body satisfaction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessment of Abdominal Adipose Tissue and Organ Fat Content by Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Houchun H.; Nayak, Krishna S.; Goran, Michael I.

    2010-01-01

    As the prevalence of obesity continues to rise, rapid and accurate tools for assessing abdominal body and organ fat quantity and distribution are critically needed to assist researchers investigating therapeutic and preventive measures against obesity and its comorbidities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the most promising modality to address such need. It is non-invasive, utilizes no ionizing radiation, provides unmatched 3D visualization, is repeatable, and is applicable to subject cohorts of all ages. This article is aimed to provide the reader with an overview of current and state-of-the-art techniques in MRI and associated image analysis methods for fat quantification. The principles underlying traditional approaches such as T1-weighted imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy as well as more modern chemical-shift imaging techniques are discussed and compared. The benefits of contiguous 3D acquisitions over 2D multi-slice approaches are highlighted. Typical post-processing procedures for extracting adipose tissue depot volumes and percent organ fat content from abdominal MRI data sets are explained. Furthermore, the advantages and disadvantages of each MRI approach with respect to imaging parameters, spatial resolution, subject motion, scan time, and appropriate fat quantitative endpoints are also provided. Practical considerations in implementing these methods are also presented. PMID:21348916

  10. Effect of the Parent-Adolescent Relationship on Adolescent Boys' Body Image and Subjective Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Ofra; Shenaar-Golan, Vered

    2017-07-01

    Adolescent boys must cope with physical changes that hamper their ability to form a positive body image. Sociocultural messages influence the concepts of body image, personal appearance, and weight, encouraging men to develop lean and muscular bodies. The current study examined adolescent boys' body image and its relationship to their subjective well-being (SWB) and the effect of the parent-adolescent relationship on body image and SWB. Participating in the research were 107 adolescent boys in Israel, aged 13 to 18 years. Four questionnaires were utilized: demographic, body mass index, Body Investment Scale, and Personal Well-Being Index. The findings indicate a significant, medium positive correlation between SWB and body image. After controlling for the variable of parent-adolescent relationship, the correlation weakened, indicating that the parent-adolescent relationship has no effect on adolescent boys' SWB and body image. Body image was reported to be a predictor of SWB.

  11. Facebook use and negative body image among U.S. college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckler, Petya; Kalyango, Yusuf; Paasch, Ellen

    2017-02-01

    Young women increasingly spend time on social media, but the relationship of this exposure to body image is still in the initial stages of exploration. In this study the authors used social comparison theory to examine the relationship between time spent on Facebook and body image. A survey of 881 U.S. college women was conducted in April-May 2013. Findings showed that 10.1% had posted about weight, body image, exercise, or dieting, and 27.4% had commented on friends' posts or photos. More time on Facebook related to more frequent body and weight comparisons, more attention to the physical appearance of others, and more negative feelings about their bodies for all women. For women who wanted to lose weight, more time on Facebook also related to more disordered eating symptoms.

  12. A picture tells a thousand words: A content analysis of concussion-related images online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Osman H; Lee, Hopin; Struik, Laura L

    2016-09-01

    Recently image-sharing social media platforms have become a popular medium for sharing health-related images and associated information. However within the field of sports medicine, and more specifically sports related concussion, the content of images and meta-data shared through these popular platforms have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to analyse the content of concussion-related images and its accompanying meta-data on image-sharing social media platforms. We retrieved 300 images from Pinterest, Instagram and Flickr by using a standardised search strategy. All images were screened and duplicate images were removed. We excluded images if they were: non-static images; illustrations; animations; or screenshots. The content and characteristics of each image was evaluated using a customised coding scheme to determine major content themes, and images were referenced to the current international concussion management guidelines. From 300 potentially relevant images, 176 images were included for analysis; 70 from Pinterest, 63 from Flickr, and 43 from Instagram. Most images were of another person or a scene (64%), with the primary content depicting injured individuals (39%). The primary purposes of the images were to share a concussion-related incident (33%) and to dispense education (19%). For those images where it could be evaluated, the majority (91%) were found to reflect the Sports Concussion Assessment Tool 3 (SCAT3) guidelines. The ability to rapidly disseminate rich information though photos, images, and infographics to a wide-reaching audience suggests that image-sharing social media platforms could be used as an effective communication tool for sports concussion. Public health strategies could direct educative content to targeted populations via the use of image-sharing platforms. Further research is required to understand how image-sharing platforms can be used to effectively relay evidence-based information to patients and sports medicine

  13. Empowerment, feminism, and self-efficacy: relationships to body image and disordered eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsaul, Jessica A E; Curtin, Lisa; Bazzini, Doris; Martz, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Sociocultural norms pertaining to an ideal of thinness for women likely play a role in the development and maintenance of disturbance in body image, and by extension, disordered eating. However, competing norms associated with feminism may buffer women from pressures associated with achieving the thin ideal. The present study explored the relationship between feminist ideology, empowerment, and self-efficacy relative to body image and eating behavior with a sample of U.S. undergraduate women (N=318) attending a southeastern U.S. mid-sized university. In planned hierarchical multiple regression analyses, endorsement of feminist ideology predicted perceptions of positive body image, but did not appear to predict disordered eating. Self-efficacy emerged as a robust predictor of positive body image and lower disordered eating even after controlling for perceptions of personal empowerment and feminism. Results, although limited by correlational data, suggest that self-efficacy may protect college-aged women from disordered eating and negative body image. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A Novel Technique for Shape Feature Extraction Using Content Based Image Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanoa Jaspreet Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of technology and multimedia information, digital images are increasing very quickly. Various techniques are being developed to retrieve/search digital information or data contained in the image. Traditional Text Based Image Retrieval System is not plentiful. Since it is time consuming as it require manual image annotation. Also, the image annotation differs with different peoples. An alternate to this is Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR system. It retrieves/search for image using its contents rather the text, keywords etc. A lot of exploration has been compassed in the range of Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR with various feature extraction techniques. Shape is a significant image feature as it reflects the human perception. Moreover, Shape is quite simple to use by the user to define object in an image as compared to other features such as Color, texture etc. Over and above, if applied alone, no descriptor will give fruitful results. Further, by combining it with an improved classifier, one can use the positive features of both the descriptor and classifier. So, a tryout will be made to establish an algorithm for accurate feature (Shape extraction in Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR. The main objectives of this project are: (a To propose an algorithm for shape feature extraction using CBIR, (b To evaluate the performance of proposed algorithm and (c To compare the proposed algorithm with state of art techniques.

  15. Correlates of Bio-Psychosocial Factors on Perceived Body Image ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    person's psychosocial adjustment experiences, feelings and attitudes that is ... Brogowicz (1990) reported that 90% of university students in their study said that they ... studies have focused on the issue of body weight as it relates to body image body ... boost feelings of self-mastery, increase social support, bolster feelings of ...

  16. Self-Harm Behaviour in Adolescents: Body Image and Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktan, Vesile

    2017-01-01

    This research aimed to reveal the relationship between self-harm behaviour, body image, and self-esteem, and examined whether there was a difference between the body image and self-esteem of the adolescents who exhibited self-harm behaviour and those who did not. The study was conducted with the participation of 263 high school students--143…

  17. Body image and sexual orientation: The experiences of lesbian and bisexual women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Marie L; Telford, Elina; Tree, Jeremy J

    2017-02-01

    Western cultures promote a thin and curvaceous ideal body size that most women find difficult to achieve by healthy measures, resulting in poor body image and increased risk for eating pathology. Research focusing on body image in lesbian and bisexual women has yielded inconsistent results. In total, 11 lesbian and bisexual women were interviewed regarding their experiences with body image. Interpretative phenomenological analysis revealed that these women experienced similar mainstream pressures to conform to a thin body ideal. Furthermore, participants perceived additional pressure to conform to heteronormative standards of beauty since the normalisation of homosexuality and the increase in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender representation in mainstream media.

  18. Differences in the Nature of Body Image Disturbances between Female Obese Individuals with versus without a Comorbid Binge Eating Disorder: An Exploratory Study Including Static and Dynamic Aspects of Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legenbauer, Tanja; Vocks, Silja; Betz, Sabrina; Puigcerver, Maria Jose Baguena; Benecke, Andrea; Troje, Nikolaus F.; Ruddel, Heinz

    2011-01-01

    Various components of body image were measured to assess body image disturbances in patients with obesity. To overcome limitations of previous studies, a photo distortion technique and a biological motion distortion device were included to assess static and dynamic aspects of body image. Questionnaires assessed cognitive-affective aspects, bodily…

  19. [Understanding depressive symptoms after bariatric surgery: the role of weight, eating and body image].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Paula; Bastos, Ana Pinto; Venâncio, Carla; Vaz, Ana Rita; Brandão, Isabel; Costa, José Maia; Machado, Paulo; Conceição, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Depressive symptoms have been reported as prevalent after bariatric surgery. This study aims to analyze the role of weight, eating behaviors and body image in depressive symptomatology in bariatric surgery patients assessed post-operatively. This is a cross-sectional study including 52 bariatric surgery patients assessed post-operatively with a follow-up time ranging from 22 to 132 months. Psychological assessment included a clinical interview (Eating Disorder Examination) to assess eating disorders psychopathology, and three self-report measures: Outcome Questionnaire 45--general distress; Beck Depression Inventory--depressive symptoms; and Body Shape Questionnaire--body image. Our data show that depressive symptoms after surgery are associated with loss of control over eating, increased concerns with body image, and body mass index regain. Multiple linear regressions was tested including these variables and showed that body mass index regain after surgery, loss of control over eating and concerns with body image significantly explained 50% of the variance of post-operative depressive symptoms, being the concern with body image the most significant variable: greater dissatisfaction with body image was associated with more depressive symptoms. The results of this study showed that a subgroup of patients presents a significant weight gain after bariatric surgery, which is associated with episodes of loss of control over eating, concerns with body image and depressive symptoms. These results stress the relevance of body image concerns after surgery and the importance of clinically addressing these issues to optimize psychological functioning after bariatric surgery.

  20. Content-adaptive Image Enhancement, Based on Sky and Grass Segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zafarifar, B.; With, de P.H.N.

    2009-01-01

    Current TV image enhancement functions employ globally controlled settings. A more flexible system can be achieved if the global control is extended to incorporate semantic-level image content information. In this paper, we present a system that extends existing TV image enhancement functions with

  1. Reciprocal effects among changes in weight, body image, and other psychological factors during behavioral obesity treatment: a mediation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barata José T

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in body image and subjective well-being variables (e.g. self-esteem are often reported as outcomes of obesity treatment. However, they may, in turn, also influence behavioral adherence and success in weight loss. The present study examined associations among obesity treatment-related variables, i.e., change in weight, quality of life, body image, and subjective well-being, exploring their role as both mediators and outcomes, during a behavioral obesity treatment. Methods Participants (BMI = 31.1 ± 4.1 kg/m2; age = 38.4 ± 6.7 y were 144 women who attended a 12-month obesity treatment program and a comparison group (n = 49, who received a general health education program. The intervention included regular group meetings promoting lasting behavior changes in physical activity and dietary intake. Body image, quality of life, subjective well-being, and body weight were measured at baseline and treatment's end. Mediation was tested by multiple regression and a resampling approach to measure indirect effects. Treatment group assignment was the independent variable while changes in weight and in psychosocial variables were analyzed alternatively as mediators and as dependent variables. Results At 12 months, the intervention group had greater weight loss (-5.6 ± 6.8% vs. -1.2 ± 4.6%, p Conclusion Changes in weight and body image may reciprocally affect each other during the course of behavioral obesity treatment. No evidence of reciprocal relationships was found for the other models under analysis; however, weight changes partially explained the effects of treatment on quality of life and self-esteem. Weight and psychosocial changes co-occur during treatment and will probably influence each other dynamically, in ways not yet adequately understood. Results from this study support the inclusion of intervention contents aimed at improving body image in weight management programs.

  2. Effects of cognitive behavioral counseling on body Image following mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadaei, Simin; Janighorban, Mojgan; Mehrabi, Tayebe; Ahmadi, Sayed Ahmadi; Mokaryan, Fariborz; Gukizade, Abbas

    2011-08-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Surgical treatment of breast cancer may cause body image alterations. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of cognitive behavioral counseling on body image among Iranian women with primary breast cancer. In this quasi-experimental designed study, 72 patients diagnosed as breast cancer and surgically treated were enrolled in Isfahan, Iran. The patients were entered the study by convenience sampling method and were randomly divided in two groups of intervention (n = 32) and control (n = 40). The intervention group received consultation based on Ellis rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) method for 6 sessions during 3 weeks. The control group did not receive any consultation Paired t-test was used to compare the changes in groups and independent t-test was conducted to compare two groups. The average values represented as mean ± standard deviation. Before the study, the body image score was not significantly different between the intervention (16 97 ± 5 44) and control (15 95 ± 4 66) groups (t = 0 86, P = 0 395). The body image score was significantly lower in the interven-tion group (9 03 ± 6 11) compared to control group (17 18 ± 5 27) after the intervention (t = -6 07, P influences her breast cancer treatment decision, oncology professionals need to recognize the value of a woman's favorite about appearance and body image. This study emphasizes the importance of offering consultation in breast cancer patients.

  3. Content-based histopathology image retrieval using CometCloud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xin; Wang, Daihou; Rodero, Ivan; Diaz-Montes, Javier; Gensure, Rebekah H; Xing, Fuyong; Zhong, Hua; Goodell, Lauri; Parashar, Manish; Foran, David J; Yang, Lin

    2014-08-26

    The development of digital imaging technology is creating extraordinary levels of accuracy that provide support for improved reliability in different aspects of the image analysis, such as content-based image retrieval, image segmentation, and classification. This has dramatically increased the volume and rate at which data are generated. Together these facts make querying and sharing non-trivial and render centralized solutions unfeasible. Moreover, in many cases this data is often distributed and must be shared across multiple institutions requiring decentralized solutions. In this context, a new generation of data/information driven applications must be developed to take advantage of the national advanced cyber-infrastructure (ACI) which enable investigators to seamlessly and securely interact with information/data which is distributed across geographically disparate resources. This paper presents the development and evaluation of a novel content-based image retrieval (CBIR) framework. The methods were tested extensively using both peripheral blood smears and renal glomeruli specimens. The datasets and performance were evaluated by two pathologists to determine the concordance. The CBIR algorithms that were developed can reliably retrieve the candidate image patches exhibiting intensity and morphological characteristics that are most similar to a given query image. The methods described in this paper are able to reliably discriminate among subtle staining differences and spatial pattern distributions. By integrating a newly developed dual-similarity relevance feedback module into the CBIR framework, the CBIR results were improved substantially. By aggregating the computational power of high performance computing (HPC) and cloud resources, we demonstrated that the method can be successfully executed in minutes on the Cloud compared to weeks using standard computers. In this paper, we present a set of newly developed CBIR algorithms and validate them using two

  4. RANZAR Body Systems Framework of diagnostic imaging examination descriptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitman, Alexander D.; Penlington, Lisa; Doromal, Darren; Vukolova, Natalia; Slater, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    A unified and logical system of descriptors for diagnostic imaging examinations and procedures is a desirable resource for radiology in Australia and New Zealand and is needed to support core activities of RANZCR. Existing descriptor systems available in Australia and New Zealand (including the Medicare DIST and the ACC Schedule) have significant limitations and are inappropriate for broader clinical application. An anatomically based grid was constructed, with anatomical structures arranged in rows and diagnostic imaging modalities arranged in columns (including nuclear medicine and positron emission tomography). The grid was segregated into five body systems. The cells at the intersection of an anatomical structure row and an imaging modality column were populated with short, formulaic descriptors of the applicable diagnostic imaging examinations. Clinically illogical or physically impossible combinations were ‘greyed out’. Where the same examination applied to different anatomical structures, the descriptor was kept identical for the purposes of streamlining. The resulting Body Systems Framework of diagnostic imaging examination descriptors lists all the reasonably common diagnostic imaging examinations currently performed in Australia and New Zealand using a unified grid structure allowing navigation by both referrers and radiologists. The Framework has been placed on the RANZCR website and is available for access free of charge by registered users. The Body Systems Framework of diagnostic imaging examination descriptors is a system of descriptors based on relationships between anatomical structures and imaging modalities. The Framework is now available as a resource and reference point for the radiology profession and to support core College activities.

  5. RANZCR Body Systems Framework of diagnostic imaging examination descriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, Alexander G; Penlington, Lisa; Doromal, Darren; Slater, Gregory; Vukolova, Natalia

    2014-08-01

    A unified and logical system of descriptors for diagnostic imaging examinations and procedures is a desirable resource for radiology in Australia and New Zealand and is needed to support core activities of RANZCR. Existing descriptor systems available in Australia and New Zealand (including the Medicare DIST and the ACC Schedule) have significant limitations and are inappropriate for broader clinical application. An anatomically based grid was constructed, with anatomical structures arranged in rows and diagnostic imaging modalities arranged in columns (including nuclear medicine and positron emission tomography). The grid was segregated into five body systems. The cells at the intersection of an anatomical structure row and an imaging modality column were populated with short, formulaic descriptors of the applicable diagnostic imaging examinations. Clinically illogical or physically impossible combinations were 'greyed out'. Where the same examination applied to different anatomical structures, the descriptor was kept identical for the purposes of streamlining. The resulting Body Systems Framework of diagnostic imaging examination descriptors lists all the reasonably common diagnostic imaging examinations currently performed in Australia and New Zealand using a unified grid structure allowing navigation by both referrers and radiologists. The Framework has been placed on the RANZCR website and is available for access free of charge by registered users. The Body Systems Framework of diagnostic imaging examination descriptors is a system of descriptors based on relationships between anatomical structures and imaging modalities. The Framework is now available as a resource and reference point for the radiology profession and to support core College activities. © 2014 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  6. Gender and racial/ethnic differences in body image development among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Meghan M; Lefkowitz, Eva S

    2012-01-01

    In the present study we used longitudinal methods to examine body image development during the early part of college. Students (N=390; 54% female) who identified as African American (32%), Latino/a American (27%), and European American (41%) completed surveys during their first, second, and third semesters at college. There were overall gender and racial/ethnic differences in all three aspects of body image, and both stability and change in body image development. Female students' appearance evaluation became more positive, whereas male students' appearance evaluation showed no significant change. Individuals' body areas satisfaction increased over time, but remained stable when controlling for BMI. Appearance orientation did not change, and there were no racial/ethnic differences in body image development. Experiences in the college environment may play a role in these trends. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Higher Facebook use predicts greater body image dissatisfaction during pregnancy: The role of self-comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, S; Brown, A

    2016-09-01

    poor body image during pregnancy is a growing issue. Similarly, emerging evidence is suggesting that social media use may increase the risk of poor well-being e.g. depression, anxiety and body image concerns amongst users. Research has not examined how social media use may influence women during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to therefore to explore the relationship between body image during pregnancy and Facebook use. a cross sectional self-report questionnaire. two hundred and sixty nine pregnant women. community groups and online forums. a self-report questionnaire exploring maternal body image, use of Facebook and how mothers perceived Facebook affected their body image. Descriptive statistics were used to explore body image perceptions. Partial correlations (controlling for maternal age, education, parity and gestation) were used to explore the association between Facebook use and body image during pregnancy. negative body image was common in the sample, increased with gestation and was unrelated to pre pregnancy weight. Mothers with a Facebook account had higher body image concerns than those without a Facebook account. Of those with an account, increased Facebook use was associated with increased body image dissatisfaction, particularly in terms of postnatal concerns for how their body would look with 56.5% reporting that they frequently compared their pregnant body to other pregnant women on the site. Facebook access was frequent with 85% of participants checking it at least once per day and the average participant spending over an hour per day on the site. although causality cannot be fully explained, Facebook use may increase mother's risk of poor body image dissatisfaction during pregnancy. Mothers with already poor body image may also be drawn to the site in order to make comparisons of their appearance. the potential impact of Facebook on increasing the risk of, or promoting existing poor body image is an important message for those working to

  8. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in children: state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Reis Teixeira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Whole-body imaging in children was classically performed with radiography, positron-emission tomography, either combined or not with computed tomography, the latter with the disadvantage of exposure to ionizing radiation. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, in association with the recently developed metabolic and functional techniques such as diffusion-weighted imaging, has brought the advantage of a comprehensive evaluation of pediatric patients without the risks inherent to ionizing radiation usually present in other conventional imaging methods. It is a rapid and sensitive method, particularly in pediatrics, for detecting and monitoring multifocal lesions in the body as a whole. In pediatrics, it is utilized for both oncologic and non-oncologic indications such as screening and diagnosis of tumors in patients with genetic syndromes, evaluation of disease extent and staging, evaluation of therapeutic response and post-therapy follow-up, evaluation of non neoplastic diseases such as multifocal osteomyelitis, vascular malformations and syndromes affecting multiple regions of the body. The present review was aimed at describing the major indications of whole-body MRI in pediatrics added of technical considerations.

  9. Whole body MR imaging in diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weckbach, Sabine; Schoenberg, Stefan O.

    2009-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major cardiovascular risk factor and one of the major causes for morbidity and mortality worldwide. Diabetic complications have not only major impact on the quality of life of diabetic patients, but are also potentially life-threatening. Therefore prevention, diagnosis and therapy of these long-term complications are of high importance. However, diagnosis of the variety of complications from diabetes mellitus remains a diagnostic challenge and usually several diagnostic steps are necessary to diagnose or exclude these complications. In the last years whole body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) including whole body magnetic resonance angiography (WB-MRA) has been introduced for cardiovascular imaging and is now increasingly applied in clinical routine for the workup of patients with cardiovascular disease and for cardiovascular screening. The article summarizes rationales for WB-MRI in diabetes mellitus, technical concepts of disease specific cardiovascular WB-MRI in diabetes mellitus and discusses potential clinical consequences.

  10. Adolescent overweight, obesity and chronic disease-related health practices: mediation by body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, Tilda; Iannotti, Ronald J; Caccavale, Laura J

    2014-01-01

    To examine whether body image mediates the association between overweight/obesity and chronic disease-related health practices (CDRHP), including lack of physical activity (PA), infrequent breakfast consumption (IBC), screen-based media use (SBM), and smoking. The 2006 Health Behaviors in School-Age Children survey was administered to a nationally representative sample of US students (n = 8,028) in grades 6-10 (mean age = 14.3 years). Outcome variables included self-reported measures of PA, SBM, IBC, and smoking. Body image was assessed with 5 items from the Body Investment Scale (α = 0.87) asking for agreement/disagreement with statements about one's body. Stratifying on gender, an initial regression model estimated the association between overweight/obesity and CDRHP. Mediation models that included body image were then compared to the initial model to determine the role of body image in the relationship between overweight/obesity and CDRHP. Among boys, body image mediated the relationships of overweight/obesity with SBM, and of obesity with IBC. Among girls, it mediated the relationships of obesity with PA, IBC, and smoking, and of overweight with SBM. As the prevalence of overweight/obesity among adolescent boys and girls remains high, efforts to improve their body image could result in less frequent engagement in CDRHP. © 2013 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  11. Adolescent Overweight, Obesity and Chronic Disease-Related Health Practices: Mediation by Body Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilda Farhat

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: To examine whether body image mediates the association between overweight/obesity and chronic disease-related health practices (CDRHP, including lack of physical activity (PA, infrequent breakfast consumption (IBC, screen-based media use (SBM, and smoking. Methods: The 2006 Health Behaviors in School-Age Children survey was administered to a nationally representative sample of US students (n = 8,028 in grades 6-10 (mean age = 14.3 years. Outcome variables included self-reported measures of PA, SBM, IBC, and smoking. Body image was assessed with 5 items from the Body Investment Scale (α = 0.87 asking for agreement/disagreement with statements about one's body. Stratifying on gender, an initial regression model estimated the association between overweight/obesity and CDRHP. Mediation models that included body image were then compared to the initial model to determine the role of body image in the relationship between overweight/obesity and CDRHP. Results: Among boys, body image mediated the relationships of overweight/obesity with SBM, and of obesity with IBC. Among girls, it mediated the relationships of obesity with PA, IBC, and smoking, and of overweight with SBM. Conclusion: As the prevalence of overweight/obesity among adolescent boys and girls remains high, efforts to improve their body image could result in less frequent engagement in CDRHP.

  12. Impact of image segmentation on high-content screening data quality for SK-BR-3 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yizheng

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High content screening (HCS is a powerful method for the exploration of cellular signalling and morphology that is rapidly being adopted in cancer research. HCS uses automated microscopy to collect images of cultured cells. The images are subjected to segmentation algorithms to identify cellular structures and quantitate their morphology, for hundreds to millions of individual cells. However, image analysis may be imperfect, especially for "HCS-unfriendly" cell lines whose morphology is not well handled by current image segmentation algorithms. We asked if segmentation errors were common for a clinically relevant cell line, if such errors had measurable effects on the data, and if HCS data could be improved by automated identification of well-segmented cells. Results Cases of poor cell body segmentation occurred frequently for the SK-BR-3 cell line. We trained classifiers to identify SK-BR-3 cells that were well segmented. On an independent test set created by human review of cell images, our optimal support-vector machine classifier identified well-segmented cells with 81% accuracy. The dose responses of morphological features were measurably different in well- and poorly-segmented populations. Elimination of the poorly-segmented cell population increased the purity of DNA content distributions, while appropriately retaining biological heterogeneity, and simultaneously increasing our ability to resolve specific morphological changes in perturbed cells. Conclusion Image segmentation has a measurable impact on HCS data. The application of a multivariate shape-based filter to identify well-segmented cells improved HCS data quality for an HCS-unfriendly cell line, and could be a valuable post-processing step for some HCS datasets.

  13. Young adult women's experiences of body image after bariatric surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Janet F; Hoegh-Petersen, Mette; Larsen, Tine B

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To understand the lived experience of body image in young women after obesity surgery. BACKGROUND: Quantitative studies have documented that health-related quality of life and body image are improved after bariatric surgery, probably due to significant weight loss. Female obesity surgery...... candidates are likely to be motivated by dissatisfaction regarding physical appearance. However, little is known about the experience of the individual woman, leaving little understanding of the association between bariatric surgery and changes in health-related quality of life and body image. DESIGN...... analysed by systematic text condensation influenced by Giorgi's phenomenological method and supplemented by elements from narrative analysis. FINDINGS: The analysis revealed three concepts: solution to an unbearable problem, learning new boundaries and hopes of normalization. These revelatory concepts were...

  14. Body Image Discomfort of Adolescent and Young Adult Hematologic Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchetti, Giulia; Bellini, Simona; Bertolotti, Marina; Bona, Francesca; Biasin, Eleonora; Bertorello, Nicoletta; Tirtei, Elisa; Fagioli, Franca

    2017-06-01

    This study focuses on body image discomfort (BID) of 50 adolescent and young adult (AYA) hematologic cancer survivors (age range 15-23; 52% males). The study results were obtained through data from a self-report questionnaire: the Body Uneasiness Test. Findings differed according to gender: a greater proportion of females were in the Risk category of impaired body image than males (χ 2  = 5.258, p < 0.05). No significant body image differences were found according to the type of diagnosis or to the length of survival. To manage survivors' BIDs and to improve their quality of life, assessing BID in AYA cancer survivors is important for identifying those who might be in need of additional supportive care or a program.

  15. INTEGRATION OF SPATIAL INFORMATION WITH COLOR FOR CONTENT RETRIEVAL OF REMOTE SENSING IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikesh Kumar Singh

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available There is rapid increase in image databases of remote sensing images due to image satellites with high resolution, commercial applications of remote sensing & high available bandwidth in last few years. The problem of content-based image retrieval (CBIR of remotely sensed images presents a major challenge not only because of the surprisingly increasing volume of images acquired from a wide range of sensors but also because of the complexity of images themselves. In this paper, a software system for content-based retrieval of remote sensing images using RGB and HSV color spaces is presented. Further, we also compare our results with spatiogram based content retrieval which integrates spatial information along with color histogram. Experimental results show that the integration of spatial information in color improves the image analysis of remote sensing data. In general, retrievals in HSV color space showed better performance than in RGB color space.

  16. New developments in ultrasonic imaging of the chest and other body organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, G.W.; Anderson, A.L.

    1978-01-01

    The ultrasonic imaging system described herein was developed to measure chest-wall thickness and the percentage of fat in the chest and around other body organs. The system uses pulse-echo techniques to transmit and detect sound waves reflected from the interfaces of body organs and adjacent tissue. A computer draws these interfaces on color scans, and a code is used to exponentially average data from several points on each scan to find the average thicknesses of the chest wall and fat layers. These average thicknesses are then used to adjust x-ray calibration factors for plutonium lung counters. The correction factor for three subjects measured for fat content ranging from 12.6 to 22.2% was 18 to 41%. The ultrasonic system also defines the shape and position of the kidneys and liver so we are able to more accurately place detectors on the body during in-vivo radiation measurements. We have also developed a technique for displaying the interfaces from a series of ultrasonic chest scans to produce a topographical map that enables us to better understand the shape and contour of the lung and chest-wall interface

  17. The effects of exposure to slender and muscular images on male body dissatisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galioto, Rachel; Crowther, Janis H

    2013-09-01

    This research examined the effects of appearance-based comparisons to muscular and slender idealized male bodies and the contribution of internalization and social comparison to change in body dissatisfaction. Participants were 111 male undergraduates who completed measures of body dissatisfaction, internalization, and social comparison and viewed images of either muscular or slender men in advertisements or product-only advertisements. Results indicated that exposure to both muscular and slender images was associated with an increase in body dissatisfaction, with no significant differences in the change in body dissatisfaction between the two image conditions. Internalization and trait social comparison were each associated with an increase in body dissatisfaction; however, upward social comparison was only a significant predictor of a change in body dissatisfaction for the males who viewed muscular images. These results highlight the impact of slender models on young men's body dissatisfaction and support the examination of media literacy interventions with this population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Associations Between Positive Body Image, Sexual Liberalism, and Unconventional Sexual Practices in U.S. Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Weis, Laura; Barron, David; Furnham, Adrian

    2017-11-01

    While studies have documented robust relationships between body image and sexual health outcomes, few studies have looked beyond sexual functioning in women. Here, we hypothesized that more positive body image would be associated with greater sexual liberalism and more positive attitudes toward unconventional sexual practices. An online sample of 151 women and 164 men from the U.S. completed measures of sexual liberalism, attitudes toward unconventional sexual practices, and indices of positive body image (i.e., body appreciation, body acceptance by others, body image flexibility, and body pride), and provided their demographic details. Regression analyses indicated that, once the effects of sexual orientation, relationship status, age, and body mass index had been accounted for, higher body appreciation was significantly associated with greater sexual liberalism in women and men. Furthermore, higher body appreciation and body image flexibility were significantly associated with more positive attitudes toward unconventional sexual practices in women and men. These results may have implications for scholars working from a sex-positive perspective, particularly in terms of understanding the role body image plays in sexual attitudes and behaviors.

  19. Perceived body image in men and women with type 2 diabetes mellitus: correlation of body mass index with the figure rating scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fox Kathleen M

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body mass index (BMI is often used as an objective surrogate estimate of body fat. Increased BMI is directly associated with an increase in metabolic disease, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. The Stunkard Figure Rating Scale (FRS is a subjective measure of body fat, and self-perceptions of body image conceivably impact the development and treatment of T2DM. This study examined the self-perception of body image to various levels of BMI among those with T2DM. Methods Respondents (n = 13,887 to the US Study to Help Improve Early evaluation and management of risk factors Leading to Diabetes (SHIELD 2006 survey self-reported their weight and height for BMI calculation. On the gender-specific Stunkard FRS, respondents selected the figure most closely resembling their body image. Spearman correlation was computed between perceived body image and BMI for men and women separately. Student's t-test analysis compared the mean BMI differences between respondents with and without T2DM. Results Men with T2DM did not significantly differ from men without diabetes mellitus in mean BMI per body image figure except at the extremes in body figures. Women with T2DM had a significantly higher BMI for the same body figure compared with women without diabetes mellitus for most figures (p Conclusions Individuals, particularly women, with T2DM may differ in their perception of body image compared with those without diabetes mellitus. It is unclear if these perceived differences increase the risk of T2DM, or if the diagnosis of T2DM alters body image perceptions.

  20. An evaluation of the Aerie Real campaign: Potential for promoting positive body image?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, Alexandra D; Rodgers, Rachel F; Franko, Debra L; Jodoin, Adriana

    2016-11-01

    This study evaluated the impact on young women's body satisfaction of an advertising campaign: Aerie Real, which included images of models who were not digitally modified. In total, 200 female students were randomly allocated to view either Aerie Real images or digitally modified images from previous campaigns. In the total sample, no condition differences appeared. However, participants with high appearance comparison reported a smaller decrease in body satisfaction after viewing the Aerie Real images as compared to those viewing previous images ( p = .003). Findings provide preliminary support for the Aerie Real campaign as less deleterious form of media for body image.

  1. Body Image, self-esteem, and clothing of men and women aged 55 years and older

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Jinsook

    1993-01-01

    Although there are many studies regarding body image of younger people, there have been few studies on that of older people. Since today's culture considers the young, thin body image ideal, it is important to investigate body image of older people and the relationships between their body image, self esteem, and clothing behavior. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between 1) body-cathexis and self-esteem, 2) body-cathexis and clothing behavio...

  2. Indexing, learning and content-based retrieval for special purpose image databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Huiskes (Mark); E.J. Pauwels (Eric)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis chapter deals with content-based image retrieval in special purpose image databases. As image data is amassed ever more effortlessly, building efficient systems for searching and browsing of image databases becomes increasingly urgent. We provide an overview of the current

  3. Individual Factors Affecting Self-esteem, and Relationships Among Self-esteem, Body Mass Index, and Body Image in Patients With Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, EunJung; Song, EunJu; Shin, JungEun

    2017-12-01

    The purposes of this study were to identify correlations between body mass index, body image, and self-esteem in patients with schizophrenia and to analyse the specific factors affecting self-esteem. This study had a descriptive design, utilising a cross-sectional survey. Participants were patients with schizophrenia who were admitted to a mental health facility in South Korea. A total of 180 questionnaires were distributed, and an appropriate total sample size of 167 valid questionnaires was analysed. Self-esteem was significantly correlated with body image, the subscale of appearance orientation, and body areas satisfaction. However, body mass index exhibited no significant correlation with any variable. The variables found to have a significant explanatory power of 21.4% were appearance orientation and body areas satisfaction. The explanatory power of all factors was 33.6%. The self-esteem of patients with schizophrenia was influenced by body mass index and body image. The positive symptoms of schizophrenia can be controlled by medication, whereas negative symptoms can be improved through education and nursing care with medication. Thus, psychiatric nurses should develop education and care programs that contribute to the positive body image and self-esteem of patients with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparative effects of Facebook and conventional media on body image dissatisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Rachel; Blaszczynski, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Background Appearance comparison has consistently been shown to engender body image dissatisfaction. To date, most studies have demonstrated this relationship between appearance comparison and body image dissatisfaction in the context of conventional media images depicting the thin-ideal. Social comparison theory posits that people are more likely to compare themselves to similar others. Since social media forums such as Facebook involve one?s peers, the current study aimed to determine wheth...

  5. Content-based image retrieval: Color-selection exploited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, E.L. van den; Vuurpijl, L.G.; Kisters, P. M. F.; Schmid, J.C.M. von; Moens, M.F.; Busser, R. de; Hiemstra, D.; Kraaij, W.

    2002-01-01

    This research presents a new color selection interface that facilitates query-by-color in Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR). Existing CBIR color selection interfaces, are being judged as non-intuitive and difficult to use. Our interface copes with these problems of usability. It is based on 11

  6. Content-Based Image Retrieval: Color-selection exploited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moens, Marie-Francine; van den Broek, Egon; Vuurpijl, L.G.; de Brusser, Rik; Kisters, P.M.F.; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Kraaij, Wessel; von Schmid, J.C.M.

    2002-01-01

    This research presents a new color selection interface that facilitates query-by-color in Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR). Existing CBIR color selection interfaces, are being judged as non-intuitive and difficult to use. Our interface copes with these problems of usability. It is based on 11

  7. Total body and regional bone mineral content in hemodialysis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagiwara, Satoshi; Aratani, Hideyui; Miki, Takami; Nishizawa, Yoshiki; Okamura, Terue; Koizumi, Yoshiko; Ochi, Hironobu; Morii, Hirotoshi

    1994-01-01

    Bone mineral content (BMC) in the total body and lumbar spine was evaluated in 126 hemodialysis patients (60 males, 66 females) by dual photon absorptiometry with the Norland DBD 2600. Measurements of: 1) total body BMC divided by lean body mass (BMC TB /LBM), 2) bone mineral density (BMD) of total body, 3) BMD of four regional sections (head, trunk, pelvis, and legs), and 4) BMD of lumbar spine, generally showed a significant decrease in the hemodialysis patients compared to the reference population. However, arm BMD did not show a significant difference between patients and control populations. The z-score of BMC TB /LBM declined significantly throughout the duration of hemodialysis, although that of the lumbar spine BMD did not. It should be noted that the degree of decrease in BMC was more prominent in the total body measurement than in the lumbar spine measurement. There was preferential osteopenia of the total body in the hemodialysis patients. Although the lumbar spine BMD showed a lower value than the control population, the lumbar spine is not the recommended region to monitor the BMD change in hemodialysis patients. (author)

  8. Detecting content adaptive scaling of images for forensic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillion, Claude; Sharma, Gaurav

    2010-01-01

    Content-aware resizing methods have recently been developed, among which, seam-carving has achieved the most widespread use. Seam-carving's versatility enables deliberate object removal and benign image resizing, in which perceptually important content is preserved. Both types of modifications compromise the utility and validity of the modified images as evidence in legal and journalistic applications. It is therefore desirable that image forensic techniques detect the presence of seam-carving. In this paper we address detection of seam-carving for forensic purposes. As in other forensic applications, we pose the problem of seam-carving detection as the problem of classifying a test image in either of two classes: a) seam-carved or b) non-seam-carved. We adopt a pattern recognition approach in which a set of features is extracted from the test image and then a Support Vector Machine based classifier, trained over a set of images, is utilized to estimate which of the two classes the test image lies in. Based on our study of the seam-carving algorithm, we propose a set of intuitively motivated features for the detection of seam-carving. Our methodology for detection of seam-carving is then evaluated over a test database of images. We demonstrate that the proposed method provides the capability for detecting seam-carving with high accuracy. For images which have been reduced 30% by benign seam-carving, our method provides a classification accuracy of 91%.

  9. Japanese version of cutaneous body image scale: translation and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higaki, Yuko; Watanabe, Ikuko; Masaki, Tomoko; Kamo, Toshiko; Kawashima, Makoto; Satoh, Toshihiko; Saitoh, Shiroh; Nohara, Michiko; Gupta, Madhulika A

    2009-09-01

    Cutaneous body image, defined as the individual's mental perception of the appearance of their skin, hair and nails, is an important psychodermatological element in skin diseases. To measure individuals' cutaneous body image, a practical and accurate instrument is necessary. In this study, we translated the Cutaneous Body Image Scale (CBIS), a 7-item instrument originally created by Gupta et al. in 2004, into Japanese using a forward- and back-translation method and evaluated the reliability and validity of the instrument by psychometric tests. A total of 298 healthy adults (64 men and 234 women, aged 28.9 +/- 9.9 years) and 165 dermatology patients (56.7% eczema/dermatitis, 9.8% acne, 7.5% alopecia, 6.9% psoriasis, 19.1% skin tumor/fleck/other) (30 men and 135 women, aged 37.9 +/- 15.2 years) responded to the Japanese version of the CBIS. The internal-consistency reliability of the instrument was high (Cronbach's alpha, healthy adults 0.88, patients 0.84). The CBIS measure demonstrates good test-retest reliability (healthy adults gamma = 0.92, P emotions" and "global" scores of Skindex-16 in healthy adults (gamma = -0.397 and -0.373, respectively) and in patients (gamma = -0.431 and -0.38, respectively). A stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that an emotional aspect of skin-condition related quality of life was the best predictor of cutaneous body image in both healthy adults and patients (beta = -0.31 and -0.41, respectively) followed by "body dissatisfaction" (beta = -0.17, and -0.23, respectively). Adjusted R(2) was 0.246 in healthy adults and 0.264 in patients. These were consistent with the results from the original the CBIS. These results suggest that the Japanese version of the CBIS is a reliable and valid instrument to measure the cutaneous body image of Japanese adults and also dermatology patients.

  10. Assessment of intraocular foreign bodies by helical-CT multiplanar imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadopoulos, A.; Fotinos, A.; Maniatis, V.; Kavadias, S.; Michaelides, A.; Avouri, M.; Kalamara, C.; Stringaris, K.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of helical CT in the assessment of intraocular foreign bodies, evaluating two protocols with different collimation. We performed helical-CT studies in 30 patients. Fifteen patients were examined with 1.5-mm collimation and the other 15 patients with 3.0-mm collimation. All other imaging parameters were identical in both protocols. Multiplanar images were reconstructed. The examinations were reviewed for presence, localization and size of intraocular foreign bodies. We compare our results with the surgical data. We estimate the required examination time. In the first group (collimation 1.5 mm) an intraorbital foreign body was detected in 8 of 15 patients. In 3 of 8 patients an intraocular foreign body (all were metallic) was detected. In the second group (collimation 3.0 mm) an intraorbital foreign body was detected in 9 of 15 patients. In 8 of 9 patients an intraocular foreign body (all were metallic) was detected. Our results were confirmed by surgery in all cases. Examination time was 36 s in the first group and 18 s in the second group. Computed tomography should be considered the imaging modality of choice in the assessment of metallic intraocular foreign bodies and 3.0-mm collimation is optional, because of reduced examination time and radiation exposure. (orig.)

  11. Micro- and Macroelements Content in Soil, Plants Nectaro- Pollenifer Leaves, Pollen and Bees Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Eremia

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the fact that quality and biological value of bee products depend on the chemical composition and taking account of the environmental situation, studying the content and dynamics of micro-, macro elements composition of soil, plant, bee products and bee body have theoretical and practical interest. Our research was conducted to determine the micro-and macro elements content in soil composition, nectar-pollen plant leaves, pollen, bee bread and body. Content of micro- and macro elements were determined by atomic spectroscopy method in the laboratory of the Institute of Atomic Spectroscopy Chemistry of the ASM. It was established that the soil composition is containing 5434,69 mg/kg micronutrients in nectar-pollen plant leaves - 319,3 mg/kg, pollen - 179,04 mg/kg, pasture - 152,7 mg/kg, honey - 5,01 mg/kg and the bee body - 103,76 mg/kg. It was revealed that the total quantity of studied macro elements in soil was 6230,1 mg/kg, nectar-pollen plant leaves - 54409,9 mg/kg, pollen - 13772,74 mg/kg, pasture - 9311,2 mg/kg in bee body - 24234,2 mg/kg.

  12. The Impact of Teasing on Children's Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostanski, Marion; Gullone, Eleonora

    2007-01-01

    Being teased about one's physical appearance in childhood has been found to have a strong impact on the way in which adolescent and adult women perceive their bodies. Teasing is also strongly related to self-esteem in children. However, little is known about the impact of teasing on the development of body image in childhood. Through a…

  13. Short-term changes in affective, behavioral, and cognitive components of body image after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gail A; Hudson, Danae L; Whisenhunt, Brooke L; Stone, Megan; Heinberg, Leslie J; Crowther, Janis H

    2018-04-01

    Many bariatric surgery candidates report body image concerns before surgery. Research has reported post-surgical improvements in body satisfaction, which may be associated with weight loss. However, research has failed to comprehensively examine changes in affective, behavioral, and cognitive body image. This research examined (1) short-term changes in affective, behavioral, and cognitive components of body image from pre-surgery to 1- and 6-months after bariatric surgery, and (2) the association between percent weight loss and these changes. Participants were recruited from a private hospital in the midwestern United States. Eighty-eight females (original N = 123; lost to follow-up: n = 15 at 1-month and n = 20 at 6-months post-surgery) completed a questionnaire battery, including the Body Attitudes Questionnaire, Body Checking Questionnaire, Body Image Avoidance Questionnaire, and Body Shape Questionnaire, and weights were obtained from patients' medical records before and at 1- and 6-months post-surgery. Results indicated significant decreases in body dissatisfaction, feelings of fatness, and body image avoidance at 1- and 6-months after bariatric surgery, with the greatest magnitude of change occurring for body image avoidance. Change in feelings of fatness was significantly correlated with percent weight loss at 6-months, but not 1-month, post-surgery. These findings highlight the importance of examining short-term changes in body image from a multidimensional perspective in the effort to improve postsurgical outcomes. Unique contributions include the findings regarding the behavioral component of body image, as body image avoidance emerges as a particularly salient concern that changes over time among bariatric surgery candidates. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. An attitude of gratitude: The effects of body-focused gratitude on weight bias internalization and body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunaev, Jamie; Markey, Charlotte H; Brochu, Paula M

    2018-06-01

    Internalized weight bias and body dissatisfaction are associated with a number of negative psychological and physical health outcomes. The current study examined the effectiveness of body-focused gratitude, through a short writing exercise, as a strategy to reduce internalized weight bias and improve body image. Young adults (M age  = 22.71, SD = 2.08, 51.2% female) were randomly assigned to either a body gratitude condition (n = 185) or a control condition (n = 184). Results indicated that participants in the gratitude condition reported significantly lower weight bias internalization and significantly more favorable appearance evaluation and greater body satisfaction when compared to the control condition. These effects were in the small range (ds = 0.27-0.33), and neither gender nor BMI moderated these effects. These findings provide preliminary support for body-focused gratitude writing exercises as an effective individual-level strategy for both reducing internalized weight bias and improving body image. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Psychosocial differences associated with body weight among female adolescents: the importance of body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesa, J A; Syre, T R; Jones, E

    2000-05-01

    To determine whether overweight female adolescents differ from normal and underweight female adolescents with respect to a set of psychosocial factors, while controlling for body image. Female participants of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 3197) were selected for analysis. Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) was used to test whether overweight subjects differed from normal and underweight subjects with respect to measures of depression, self-esteem, trouble in school, school connectedness, family connectedness, sense of community, autonomy, protective factors, and grades. Stepdown F-tests and discriminant function coefficients provided information regarding the strength of specific factors in contributing to overall differences. MANOVA revealed significant differences between groups on the combined set of psychosocial factors. Self-esteem defined the difference in a positive direction while grades defined the difference inversely. When controlling for body image, multidimensional group differences were still evident; however, self-esteem was no longer a significant contributing variable. While overweight female adolescents seem to suffer from low self-esteem, it may be explained by body image. Efforts should be directed toward encouraging and supporting healthy eating patterns and physical activity while encouraging students to recognize personal strengths not related to physique.

  16. Body Image Self-Discrepancy and Depressive Symptoms Among Early Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon-Krakus, Shauna; Sabiston, Catherine M; Brunet, Jennifer; Castonguay, Andree L; Maximova, Katerina; Henderson, Mélanie

    2017-01-01

    This study examined whether body image self-discrepancy was a correlate of depressive symptoms among 556 early adolescents (45% girls; M age  = 11.65, SD = .94 years). Participants completed self-report measures of their self-perceived actual and ideal body shapes and depressive symptoms. Sex-stratified polynomial regressions were used to examine the associations between depressive symptoms and (1) agreement (i.e., similar actual and ideal body shapes); (2) discrepancy (i.e., different actual and ideal body shapes); (3) direction of discrepancy (i.e., actual > ideal or actual self-perceptions are). For both sexes, depressive symptoms were more frequent when the direction of the discrepancy was such that participants perceived their actual body was larger than their ideal body. Furthermore, depressive symptoms were more frequent when the degree of the discrepancy between actual and ideal body shape perceptions was larger. Based on these findings, body image self-discrepancy may be a risk factor for depressive symptoms among early adolescents. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Internet Pornography Use and Sexual Body Image in a Dutch Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranney, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Objectives A commonly attributed cause of sexual body image dissatisfaction is pornography use. This relationship has received little verification. Methods The relationship between sexual body image dissatisfaction and Internet pornography use was tested using a large-N sample of Dutch respondents. Results/Conclusion Penis size dissatisfaction is associated with pornography use. The relationship between pornography use and breast size dissatisfaction is null. These results support prior speculation and self-reports about the relationship between pornography use and sexual body image among men. These results also support a prior null finding of the relationship between breast size satisfaction for women and pornography use. PMID:26918066

  18. Attention biases in preoccupation with body image: An ERP study of the role of social comparison and automaticity when processing body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uusberg, Helen; Peet, Krista; Uusberg, Andero; Akkermann, Kirsti

    2018-03-17

    Appearance-related attention biases are thought to contribute to body image disturbances. We investigated how preoccupation with body image is associated with attention biases to body size, focusing on the role of social comparison processes and automaticity. Thirty-six women varying on self-reported preoccupation compared their actual body size to size-modified images of either themselves or a figure-matched peer. Amplification of earlier (N170, P2) and later (P3, LPP) ERP components recorded under low vs. high concurrent working memory load were analyzed. Women with high preoccupation exhibited an earlier bias to larger bodies of both self and peer. During later processing stages, they exhibited a stronger bias to enlarged as well as reduced self-images and a lack of sensitivity to size-modifications of the peer-image. Working memory load did not affect these biases systematically. Current findings suggest that preoccupation with body image involves an earlier attention bias to weight increase cues and later over-engagement with own figure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. NetGirls: the Internet, Facebook, and body image concern in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, Marika; Slater, Amy

    2013-09-01

    The primary aim of the study was to examine the relationship between Internet exposure and body image concern in adolescent girls, with a particular focus on the social networking site of Facebook. A sample of 1,087 girls in the first two years (Years 8 and 9) of high school (aged 13-15 years) completed questionnaire measures of Internet consumption and body image concerns. The overwhelming majority of girls (95.9%) had access to the Internet in their home. Time spent on the Internet was significantly related to internalization of the thin ideal, body surveillance, and drive for thinness. Further, 75% of the girls had a Facebook profile, and spent an average of 1.5 hours there daily. Facebook users scored significantly more highly on all body image concern measures than non-users. It was concluded that the Internet represents a potent socio-cultural medium of relevance to the body image of adolescent girls. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Body Image, Self-Esteem, and Weight-Related Criticism from Romantic Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Befort, Christie; Kurpius, Sharon E. Robinson; Hull-Blanks, Elva; Nicpon, Megan Foley; Huser, Laura; Sollenberger, Sonja

    2001-01-01

    Examines weight-related criticism from romantic partners and the importance of the romantic relationship in relation to the body image and self esteem for college freshmen women. Results reveal that self esteem and body image were positively related. Partner importance also predicted self esteem, whereas criticism did not. (Contains 55 references…

  1. Counseling Adolescent Girls for Body Image Resilience: Strategies for School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choate, Laura Hensley

    2007-01-01

    Because body image dissatisfaction is such a pervasive problem in adolescent girls, school counselors need to develop effective prevention programs in this area. In this article, a model to promote girls' body image resilience is presented. The model identifies five protective factors that contribute to girls' abilities to resist sociocultural…

  2. The media's impact on body image: Implications for prevention and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw, J.; Waller, G.

    1995-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that media images of “ideal” female models have an impact upon women's body image, leading to dissatisfaction and perceptual distortion. The evidence for this link between media presentation and body image distortion is reviewed, and theoretical models are advanced to explain the link. In particular, women's use of social comparison in establishing their self-concept seems to be an important psychological construct in understanding the impact of the media upon...

  3. Differences for gender, weight and exercise in body image disturbance and eating disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnado-Sullivan, P J; Horton, R; Savoy, S

    2006-09-01

    Differences for gender, weight, exercise frequency and type for eating disorder symptoms and body image disturbance were examined. Further understanding of male body image disturbance was the primary goal. Males (n=200) and females (n=233) completed measures to assess eating disorder symptoms and multiple components of body image disturbance. Measures were modified to be more appropriate for males. Females endorsed higher levels of eating and body concerns. Males were divided between a desire to maintain, increase or decrease their size. Higher weight and exercise frequency was associated with increased body image concern and eating disorder symptoms, particularly for males. Exercise frequency was also linked to higher self-esteem for males. Males who used muscle-enhancing supplements indicated increased social pressures and concern for appearance, and a desire to increase their size. The findings support that weight and exercise frequency affect eating disorder symptoms and body image disturbance. Males appear to exhibit body image disturbance, which is related to their current weight status. Results support the call for further development of measures that more adequately address male concerns.

  4. Body image in patients with mental disorders : Characteristics, associations with diagnosis and treatment outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffers, Mia; van Busschbach, Jooske T; Bosscher, Ruud J; Aerts, Liza C; Wiersma, Durk; Schoevers, Robert A

    Objective: Despite the increasing recognition in clinical practice of body image problems in other than appearance related mental disorders, the question remains how aspects of body image are affected in different disorders. The aim of this study was to measure body image in patients with a variety

  5. Body image and weight control in South Africans 15 years or older: SANHANES-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mchiza, Zandile J; Parker, Whadi-Ah; Makoae, Mokhantso; Sewpaul, Ronel; Kupamupindi, Takura; Labadarios, Demetre

    2015-09-30

    South African studies have suggested that differences in obesity prevalence between groups may be partly related to differences in body image and body size dissatisfaction. However, there has never been a national study that measured body image and its relationship to weight control in the country. Hence, the main aim of the study was to examine body image in relation to body mass index and weight control in South Africa. A cross-sectional survey and a secondary analyses of data were undertaken for 6 411 South Africans (15+ years) participating in the first South African National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Body image was investigated in relation to weight status and attempts to lose or gain weight. Data were analysed using STATA version 11.0. Descriptive statistics are presented as counts (numbers), percentages, means, standard error of means, and 95 % confidence intervals. Any differences in values were considered to be significantly different if the confidence intervals did not overlap. Overall, 84.5 % participants had a largely distorted body image and 45.3 % were highly dissatisfied about their body size. Overweight and obese participants under estimated their body size and desired to be thinner. On the other hand, normal- and under-weight participants over estimated their body size and desired to be fatter. Only 12.1 and 10.1 % of participants attempted to lose or gain weight, respectively, mainly by adjusting dietary intake and physical activity. Body mass index appears to influence body image and weight adjustment in South Africa. South Africans at the extreme ends of the body mass index range have a largely distorted body image and are highly dissatisfied by it. This suggests a need for health education and beneficial weight control strategies to halt the obesity epidemic in the country.

  6. Association Among Internet Usage, Body Image and Eating Behaviors of Secondary School Students

    OpenAIRE

    KAEWPRADUB, Natthakarn; KIATRUNGRIT, Komsan; HONGSANGUANSRI, Sirichai; PAVASUTHIPAISIT, Chosita

    2017-01-01

    Background Presently, the internet plays a big role in daily life, especially for adolescents. In this age group, they are more concerned about their face and body shape. Despite the numerous studies on the effect traditional media has on body image, very few have focused on the effect of newer forms of media (e.g. online media). And almost none have looked at the relationship between time spent online and body image. Aim To study the associations between time spent on the internet, body imag...

  7. Fat is fashionable and fit: A comparative content analysis of Fatspiration and Health at Every Size® Instagram images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Jennifer B; Vinoski, Erin R; Bonar, Adrienne S; Davies, Alexandria E; Etzel, Lena

    2017-09-01

    In step with the proliferation of Thinspiration and Fitspiration content disseminated in popular web-based media, the fat acceptance movement has garnered heightened visibility within mainstream culture via the burgeoning Fatosphere weblog community. The present study extended previous Fatosphere research by comparing the shared and distinct strategies used to represent and motivate a fat-accepting lifestyle among 400 images sourced from Fatspiration- and Health at Every Size ® -themed hashtags on Instagram. Images were systematically analyzed for the socio-demographic and body size attributes of the individuals portrayed alongside content reflecting dimensions of general fat acceptance, physical appearance pride, physical activity and health, fat shaming, and eating and weight loss-related themes. #fatspiration/#fatspo-tagged images more frequently promoted fat acceptance through fashion and beauty-related activism; #healthateverysize/#haes posts more often featured physically-active portrayals, holistic well-being, and weight stigma. Findings provide insight into the common and unique motivational factors and contradictory messages encountered in these fat-accepting social media communities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of moisture content distribution in wood by soft X-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, T.; Avramidis, S.; Shida, S.

    2009-01-01

    A technique for nondestructive evaluation of moisture content distribution of Japanese cedar (sugi) during drying using a newly developed soft X-ray digital microscope was investigated. Radial, tangential, and cross-sectional samples measuring 100 x 100 x 10 mm were cut from green sugi wood. Each sample was dried in several steps in an oven and upon completion of each step, the mass was recorded and a soft X-ray image was taken. The relationship between moisture content and the average grayscale value of the soft X-ray image at each step was linear. In addition, the linear regressions overlapped each other regardless of the sample sections. These results showed that soft X-ray images could accurately estimate the moisture content. Applying this relationship to a small section of each sample, the moisture content distribution was estimated from the image differential between the soft X-ray pictures obtained from the sample in question and the same sample in the oven-dried condition. Moisture content profiles for 10-mm-wide parts at the centers of the samples were also obtained. The shapes of the profiles supported the evaluation method used in this study

  9. The role of body image in prenatal and postpartum depression: a critical review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Marushka L; Ertel, Karen A; Dole, Nancy; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2015-06-01

    Maternal depression increases risk of adverse perinatal outcomes, and recent evidence suggests that body image may play an important role in depression. This systematic review identifies studies of body image and perinatal depression with the goal of elucidating the complex role that body image plays in prenatal and postpartum depression, improving measurement, and informing next steps in research. We conducted a literature search of the PubMed database (1996-2014) for English language studies of (1) depression, (2) body image, and (3) pregnancy or postpartum. In total, 19 studies matched these criteria. Cross-sectional studies consistently found a positive association between body image dissatisfaction and perinatal depression. Prospective cohort studies found that body image dissatisfaction predicted incident prenatal and postpartum depression; findings were consistent across different aspects of body image and various pregnancy and postpartum time periods. Prospective studies that examined the reverse association found that depression influenced the onset of some aspects of body image dissatisfaction during pregnancy, but few evaluated the postpartum onset of body image dissatisfaction. The majority of studies found that body image dissatisfaction is consistently but weakly associated with the onset of prenatal and postpartum depression. Findings were less consistent for the association between perinatal depression and subsequent body image dissatisfaction. While published studies provide a foundation for understanding these issues, methodologically rigorous studies that capture the perinatal variation in depression and body image via instruments validated in pregnant women, consistently adjust for important confounders, and include ethnically diverse populations will further elucidate this association.

  10. Sex and age differences in body-image, self-esteem, and body mass index in adolescents and adults after single-ventricle palliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Nancy A; Evangelista, Lorraine S; Doering, Lynn V; Eastwood, Jo-Ann; Lewis, Alan B; Child, John S

    2012-06-01

    Single-ventricle congenital heart disease (SVCHD) requires multiple palliative surgical procedures that leave visible surgical scars and physical deficits, which can alter body-image and self-esteem. This study aimed to compare sex and age differences in body-image, self-esteem, and body mass index (BMI) in adolescents and adults with SVCHD after surgical palliation with those of a healthy control group. Using a comparative, cross-sectional design, 54 adolescent and adult (26 male and 28 female) patients, age 15–50 years, with SVCHD were compared with 66 age-matched healthy controls. Body-image and self-esteem were measured using the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire–Appearance Scale and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Height and weight were collected from retrospective chart review, and BMI was calculated. Female adolescents and adult patients with SVCHD reported lower body image compared with males patients with SVCHD and healthy controls (p = 0.003). Specific areas of concern were face (p = 0.002), upper torso or chest (p = 0.002), and muscle tone (p = 0.001). Patients with SVCHD who were \\21 years of age had lower body image compared with healthy controls (p = 0.006). Self-esteem was comparable for both patients with SVCHD and healthy peers. There were no sex differences in BMI; BMI was higher in subjects[21 years of age (p = 0.01). Despite the similarities observed in self-esteem between the two groups, female patients with SVCHD\\21 years of age reported lower perceived body-image. Our findings support the need to recognize poor psychological adjustment related to low self-esteem in patients with SVCHD; female patients warrant increased scrutiny. Strategies to help patients with SVCHD cope with nonmodifiable aspects of body-image during the difficult adolescent–to–young adult years may potentially enhance self-esteem and decrease psychological distress.

  11. Breakfast food health and acute exercise: Effects on state body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Jacqueline F; Giles, Grace E; Mahoney, Caroline R; Kanarek, Robin B

    2018-05-10

    Food intake and exercise have been shown to alter body satisfaction in a state-dependent manner. One-time consumption of food perceived as unhealthy can be detrimental to body satisfaction, whereas an acute bout of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise can be beneficial. The current study examined the effect of exercise on state body image and appearance-related self-esteem following consumption of isocaloric foods perceived as healthy or unhealthy in 36 female college students (18-30 years old) in the Northeastern United States. Using a randomized-controlled design, participants attended six study sessions with breakfast conditions (healthy, unhealthy, no food) and activity (exercise, quiet rest) as within-participants factors. Body image questionnaires were completed prior to breakfast condition, between breakfast and activity conditions, and following activity condition. Results showed that consumption of an unhealthy breakfast decreased appearance self-esteem and increased body size perception, whereas consumption of a healthy breakfast did not influence appearance self-esteem but increased body size perception. Exercise did not influence state body image attitudes or perceptions following meal consumption. Study findings suggest that morning meal type, but not aerobic exercise, influence body satisfaction in college-aged females. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. The impact of image-size manipulation and sugar content on children's cereal consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyens, E; Aerts, G; Smits, T

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that portion sizes and food energy-density influence children's eating behavior. However, the potential effects of front-of-pack image-sizes of serving suggestions and sugar content have not been tested. Using a mixed experimental design among young children, this study examines the effects of image-size manipulation and sugar content on cereal and milk consumption. Children poured and consumed significantly more cereal and drank significantly more milk when exposed to a larger sized image of serving suggestion as compared to a smaller image-size. Sugar content showed no main effects. Nevertheless, cereal consumption only differed significantly between small and large image-sizes when sugar content was low. An advantage of this study was the mundane setting in which the data were collected: a school's dining room instead of an artificial lab. Future studies should include a control condition, with children eating by themselves to reflect an even more natural context. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Image combination enhancement method for X-ray compton back-scattering security inspection body scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huaiying; Zhang Yujin; Yang Lirui; Li Dong

    2011-01-01

    As for X-ray Compton Back-Scattering (CBS) body scanner, image clearness is very important for the performance of detecting the contraband hidden on the body. A new image combination enhancement method is provided based on characteristics of CBS body images and points of human vision. After processed by this method, the CBS image will be obviously improved with clear levels, distinct outline and uniform background. (authors)

  14. Female body dissatisfaction after exposure to overweight and thin media images : The role of body mass index and neuroticism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalley, Simon E.; Buunk, Abraham P.; Umit, Turul

    Exposure to thin media images is thought to play a significant role in the development of body image dissatisfaction (BID) amongst females. In this study we examined whether individual differences in body mass index (BMI) and neuroticism can make females more vulnerable to BID upon exposure to

  15. Toward imaging the body at 10.5 tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertürk, M Arcan; Wu, Xiaoping; Eryaman, Yiğitcan; Van de Moortele, Pierre-François; Auerbach, Edward J; Lagore, Russell L; DelaBarre, Lance; Vaughan, J Thomas; Uğurbil, Kâmil; Adriany, Gregor; Metzger, Gregory J

    2017-01-01

    To explore the potential of performing body imaging at 10.5 Tesla (T) compared with 7.0T through evaluating the transmit/receive performance of similarly configured dipole antenna arrays. Fractionated dipole antenna elements for 10.5T body imaging were designed and evaluated using numerical simulations. Transmit performance of antenna arrays inside the prostate, kidneys and heart were investigated and compared with those at 7.0T using both phase-only radiofrequency (RF) shimming and multi-spoke pulses. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) comparisons were also performed. A 10-channel antenna array was constructed to image the abdomen of a swine at 10.5T. Numerical methods were validated with phantom studies at both field strengths. Similar power efficiencies were observed inside target organs with phase-only shimming, but RF nonuniformity was significantly higher at 10.5T. Spokes RF pulses allowed similar transmit performance with accompanying local specific absorption rate increases of 25-90% compared with 7.0T. Relative SNR gains inside the target anatomies were calculated to be >two-fold higher at 10.5T, and 2.2-fold SNR gain was measured in a phantom. Gradient echo and fast spin echo imaging demonstrated the feasibility of body imaging at 10.5T with the designed array. While comparable power efficiencies can be achieved using dipole antenna arrays with static shimming at 10.5T; increasing RF nonuniformities underscore the need for efficient, robust, and safe parallel transmission methods. Magn Reson Med 77:434-443, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  16. The influence of dietary and whole-body nutrient content on the excretion of a vertebrate consumer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M Dalton

    Full Text Available In many contexts, nutrient excretion by consumers can impact ecosystems by altering the availability of limiting nutrients. Variation in nutrient excretion can be predicted by mass balance models, most of which are premised on two key ideas: (1 consumers maintain fixed whole-body nutrient content (i.e., %N and %P, so-called fixed homeostasis; (2 if dietary nutrients are not matched to whole-body nutrients, excesses of any nutrient are released as excretion to maintain fixed homeostasis. Mass balance models thus predict that consumer excretion should be positively correlated with diet nutrients and negatively correlated with whole-body nutrients. Recent meta-analyses and field studies, however, have often failed to find these expected patterns, potentially because of a confounding influence-flexibility in whole-body nutrient content with diet quality (flexible homeostasis. Here, we explore the impact of flexible homeostasis on nutrient excretion by comparing the N and P excretion of four genetically diverged Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata populations when reared on diets of variable P content. As predicted by mass balance, P excretion increased on the high-P diet, but, contrary to the notion of fixed homeostasis, guppy whole-body %P also increased on the high-P diet. While there was no overall correlation between excretion nutrients and whole-body nutrients, when the effect of diet on both whole-body and excretion nutrients was included, we detected the expected negative correlation between whole-body N:P and excretion N:P. This last result suggests that mass balance can predict excretion rates within species, but only if dietary effects on whole-body nutrient content are controlled. Flexible homeostasis can obscure patterns predicted by mass balance, creating an imperative to accurately capture an organism's diet quality in predicting its excretion rate.

  17. Body image satisfaction and the view of active old women about the influence of physical exercise in their self-image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josinéia Gresele Coradini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to analyze the body image satisfaction with 24 active elderly women, and to understand the view of these people about the connection between physical exercise and their body image. All of them answered to the scale proposed by Stunkard, Sorenson and Schlusinger, 1983 and to a semi-structured interview. 87.50% of the women were unsatisfied about the body image. From the reading and analysis of the speeches, it was formed two major categories and four subcategories. Thus, most of the elderly women are unsatisfied about their body image, but the proportionate benefits by the exercises are recognized.

  18. The development and validation of the Body-Image Ideals Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, T F; Szymanski, M L

    1995-06-01

    The Body-Image Ideals Questionnaire (BIQ) was developed as a unique attitudinal body-image assessment that considers one's perceived discrepancy from and degree of investment in personal ideals on multiple physical attributes. Reliability and validity of the 20-item instrument were examined for a sample of 284 college women. The results indicated that the BIQ consists of two relatively distinct and internally consistent Discrepancy and Importance subscales, as well as their multiplicative composite. The subscales' respective convergent validities vis-à-vis extant body-image measures and specific facets of personality (i.e., public self-consciousness and perfectionism) and psychosocial adjustment (i.e., social anxiety, depression, and eating disturbance) were confirmed. Evidence also supported the incremental validity of multiple self-ideal discrepancies. Effects due to socially desirable responding were inconsequential. Directions for needed basic and clinical research were identified.

  19. Body image, BMI, and physical activity in girls and boys aged 14-16 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantanista, Adam; Osiński, Wiesław; Borowiec, Joanna; Tomczak, Maciej; Król-Zielińska, Magdalena

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between body image, body mass index (BMI), and physical activity in adolescents. The study included 1702 girls and 1547 boys aged 14-16 years. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was evaluated by the Physical Activity Screening Measure. Body image was assessed using the Feelings and Attitudes Towards the Body Scale, and participants' BMI was determined based on measured height and weight. Compared to boys, girls reported more negative body image (pboys than in girls. These findings suggest that body image, rather than BMI, is important in undertaking physical activity in adolescents and should be considered when preparing programs aimed at improving physical activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Body image and physical activity among black university students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BMI was associated with overweight preoccupation and self-classified weight. Fitness orientation, health evaluation and body areas satisfaction were associated ... Key words: Body image, physical activity, black women and men, South Africa.

  1. Body image in gay and straight men: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, John F; Arcelus, Jon

    2009-11-01

    Recent research has emphasized vulnerability to eating disorders in gay men, with calls for research on causality, cultural factors and focus on a younger age cohort. This study aimed to examine body image and related eating behaviours in younger gay and straight men. Qualitative study using a sample of gay and straight male university students, applying audiotaped and transcribed depth interview subjected to interpretative phenomenological analysis. Fifteen young men (18-24) with a spectrum of sexual orientation (gay, straight and bisexual) agreed to participate. Five dominant categories emerged: body image ideal, external influences, perception of body image, dieting, mechanisms for modification (diet, exercise, cosmetics) and sexual orientation. Health and aesthetic ideals appear less divorced for young men than women, offering some degree of protection from eating disorders. Nonetheless there is widespread body dissatisfaction. Media and social influences are powerful, particularly for single gay men, but the study suggests fewer differences than similarities between gay and straight men. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  2. Exploring adolescent views of body image: the influence of media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurr, Shelley; Berry, Lois; Walker, Keith

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present findings from two parallel qualitative studies that used focus groups to explore adolescent views of psychological wellness and healthy bodies. Nine focus groups were held with 46 adolescents aged 16-19 years from two Mid-Western Canadian high schools. Both studies were designed with an interpretive humanist perspective and then a 6-step thematic approach was used to analyze the data. Common themes emerging in the focus group discussions in both studies included the negative impact of media on adolescent body image and pressure to conform to the Western views of physical appearance. These findings illustrate the need for nurses to understand the influence of the media on adolescents' views of their body image and to incorporate protocols for assessment, education, and counseling of adolescents on the healthy usage of media into their pediatric clinical practice. Through consistent participation in the development and implementation of health policies, nurses play a critical role in supporting adolescents to develop healthy views of body image.

  3. Increasing body image flexibility in a residential eating disorder facility: Correlates with symptom improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eric B; Ong, Clarissa W; Twohig, Michael P; Lensegrav-Benson, Tera; Quakenbush-Roberts, Benita

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of changes in body image psychological flexibility over the course of treatment on various outcome variables. Participants included 103 female, residential patients diagnosed with an eating disorder. Pretreatment and posttreatment data were collected that examined body image psychological flexibility, general psychological flexibility, symptom severity, and other outcome variables. Changes in body image psychological flexibility significantly predicted changes in all outcome measures except for obsessive-compulsive symptoms after controlling for body mass index, depression, and anxiety. Additionally, these results were maintained after controlling for general psychological flexibility, contributing to the incremental validity of the BI-AAQ. This study suggests that changes in body image psychological flexibility meaningfully predict changes in various treatment outcomes of interest, including eating disorder risk, quality of life, and general mental health. Findings indicate that body image psychological flexibility might be a viable target for eating disorder treatment.

  4. Body Image Distortion and Exposure to Extreme Body Types: Contingent Adaptation and Cross Adaptation for Self and Other.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Kevin R; Mond, Jonathan M; Stevenson, Richard J; Stephen, Ian D

    2016-01-01

    Body size misperception is common amongst the general public and is a core component of eating disorders and related conditions. While perennial media exposure to the "thin ideal" has been blamed for this misperception, relatively little research has examined visual adaptation as a potential mechanism. We examined the extent to which the bodies of "self" and "other" are processed by common or separate mechanisms in young women. Using a contingent adaptation paradigm, experiment 1 gave participants prolonged exposure to images both of the self and of another female that had been distorted in opposite directions (e.g., expanded other/contracted self), and assessed the aftereffects using test images both of the self and other. The directions of the resulting perceptual biases were contingent on the test stimulus, establishing at least some separation between the mechanisms encoding these body types. Experiment 2 used a cross adaptation paradigm to further investigate the extent to which these mechanisms are independent. Participants were adapted either to expanded or to contracted images of their own body or that of another female. While adaptation effects were largest when adapting and testing with the same body type, confirming the separation of mechanisms reported in experiment 1, substantial misperceptions were also demonstrated for cross adaptation conditions, demonstrating a degree of overlap in the encoding of self and other. In addition, the evidence of misperception of one's own body following exposure to "thin" and to "fat" others demonstrates the viability of visual adaptation as a model of body image disturbance both for those who underestimate and those who overestimate their own size.

  5. Supervised learning of tools for content-based search of image databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delanoy, Richard L.

    1996-03-01

    A computer environment, called the Toolkit for Image Mining (TIM), is being developed with the goal of enabling users with diverse interests and varied computer skills to create search tools for content-based image retrieval and other pattern matching tasks. Search tools are generated using a simple paradigm of supervised learning that is based on the user pointing at mistakes of classification made by the current search tool. As mistakes are identified, a learning algorithm uses the identified mistakes to build up a model of the user's intentions, construct a new search tool, apply the search tool to a test image, display the match results as feedback to the user, and accept new inputs from the user. Search tools are constructed in the form of functional templates, which are generalized matched filters capable of knowledge- based image processing. The ability of this system to learn the user's intentions from experience contrasts with other existing approaches to content-based image retrieval that base searches on the characteristics of a single input example or on a predefined and semantically- constrained textual query. Currently, TIM is capable of learning spectral and textural patterns, but should be adaptable to the learning of shapes, as well. Possible applications of TIM include not only content-based image retrieval, but also quantitative image analysis, the generation of metadata for annotating images, data prioritization or data reduction in bandwidth-limited situations, and the construction of components for larger, more complex computer vision algorithms.

  6. Advanced CUBIC protocols for whole-brain and whole-body clearing and imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susaki, Etsuo A; Tainaka, Kazuki; Perrin, Dimitri; Yukinaga, Hiroko; Kuno, Akihiro; Ueda, Hiroki R

    2015-11-01

    Here we describe a protocol for advanced CUBIC (Clear, Unobstructed Brain/Body Imaging Cocktails and Computational analysis). The CUBIC protocol enables simple and efficient organ clearing, rapid imaging by light-sheet microscopy and quantitative imaging analysis of multiple samples. The organ or body is cleared by immersion for 1-14 d, with the exact time required dependent on the sample type and the experimental purposes. A single imaging set can be completed in 30-60 min. Image processing and analysis can take whole-brain neural activities at single-cell resolution using Arc-dVenus transgenic (Tg) mice. CUBIC informatics calculated the Venus signal subtraction, comparing different brains at a whole-organ scale. These protocols provide a platform for organism-level systems biology by comprehensively detecting cells in a whole organ or body.

  7. Image content authentication based on channel coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Xu, Lei

    2008-03-01

    The content authentication determines whether an image has been tampered or not, and if necessary, locate malicious alterations made on the image. Authentication on a still image or a video are motivated by recipient's interest, and its principle is that a receiver must be able to identify the source of this document reliably. Several techniques and concepts based on data hiding or steganography designed as a means for the image authentication. This paper presents a color image authentication algorithm based on convolution coding. The high bits of color digital image are coded by the convolution codes for the tamper detection and localization. The authentication messages are hidden in the low bits of image in order to keep the invisibility of authentication. All communications channels are subject to errors introduced because of additive Gaussian noise in their environment. Data perturbations cannot be eliminated but their effect can be minimized by the use of Forward Error Correction (FEC) techniques in the transmitted data stream and decoders in the receiving system that detect and correct bits in error. This paper presents a color image authentication algorithm based on convolution coding. The message of each pixel is convolution encoded with the encoder. After the process of parity check and block interleaving, the redundant bits are embedded in the image offset. The tamper can be detected and restored need not accessing the original image.

  8. EXPLORER: Changing the molecular imaging paradigm with total-body PET/CT (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Simon R.; Badawi, Ramsey D.; Jones, Terry

    2016-04-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is the highest sensitivity technique for human whole-body imaging studies. However, current clinical PET scanners do not make full use of the available signal, as they only permit imaging of a 15-25 cm segment of the body at one time. Given the limited sensitive region, whole-body imaging with clinical PET scanners requires relatively long scan times and subjects the patient to higher than necessary radiation doses. The EXPLORER initiative aims to build a 2-meter axial length PET scanner to allow imaging the entire subject at once, capturing nearly the entire available PET signal. EXPLORER will acquire data with ~40-fold greater sensitivity leading to a six-fold increase in reconstructed signal-to-noise ratio for imaging the total body. Alternatively, total-body images with the EXPLORER scanner will be able to be acquired in ~30 seconds or with ~0.15 mSv injected dose, while maintaining current PET image quality. The superior sensitivity will open many new avenues for biomedical research. Specifically for cancer applications, high sensitivity PET will enable detection of smaller lesions. Additionally, greater sensitivity will allow imaging out to 10 half-lives of positron emitting radiotracers. This will enable 1) metabolic ultra-staging with FDG by extending the uptake and clearance time to 3-5 hours to significantly improve contrast and 2) improved kinetic imaging with short-lived radioisotopes such as C-11, crucial for drug development studies. Frequent imaging studies of the same subject to study disease progression or to track response to therapy will be possible with the low dose capabilities of the EXPLORER scanner. The low dose capabilities will also open up new imaging possibilities in pediatrics and adolescents to better study developmental disorders. This talk will review the basis for developing total-body PET, potential applications, and review progress to date in developing EXPLORER, the first total-body PET scanner.

  9. Body image dissatisfaction and its relationship with physical activity and nutritional status in university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Pinheiro Ferrari

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of body image dissatisfaction with physical activity level and nutritional status in freshmen from a public Brazilian university. A total of 832 university students (485 men with a mean age of 20.1 years (standard deviation = 4.6 participated in the study. Self-reported body weight and height were used for the calculation of body mass index. The students responded to the Body Shape Questionnaire and International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Fisher’s exact test, considering p < .05. The prevalence of body image dissatisfaction and physical inactivity was 10.1% and 14.5%, respectively. No significant association was observed between body image dissatisfaction and physical activity level. Body image dissatisfaction was associated with nutritional status in both genders (p < .05. University students with excess body weight should be encouraged to pursue a healthier lifestyle in order to promote an adequate nutritional status and also to improve their body image.

  10. Deficits in agency in schizophrenia, and additional deficits in body image, body schema and internal timing, in passivity symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyran Trent Graham

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with schizophrenia, particularly those with passivity symptoms, may not feel in control of their actions, believing them to be controlled by external agents. Cognitive operations that contribute to these symptoms may include abnormal processing in agency, as well as body representations that deal with body schema and body image. However, these operations in schizophrenia are not fully understood, and the questions of general versus specific deficits in individuals with different symptom profiles remain unanswered. Using the projected hand illusion (a digital video version of the rubber hand illusion with syn-chronous and asynchronous stroking (500 ms delay, and a hand laterality judgment task, we assessed sense of agency, body image and body schema in 53 people with clinically stable schizophrenia (with a current, past, and no history of passivity symptoms and 48 healthy controls. The results revealed a stable trait in schizophrenia with no difference be-tween clinical subgroups (sense of agency, and some quantitative (specific differences de-pending on the passivity symptom profile (body image and body schema. Specifically, a reduced sense of self-agency was a common feature of all clinical subgroups. However, subgroup comparisons showed that individuals with passivity symptoms (both current and past had significantly greater deficits on tasks assessing body image and body schema, relative to the other groups. In addition, patients with current passivity symptoms failed to demonstrate the normal reduction in body illusion typically seen with a 500 ms delay in visual feedback (asynchronous condition, suggesting internal timing problems. Altogether, the results underscore self-abnormalities in schizophrenia, provide evidence for both trait abnormalities and state changes specific to passivity symptoms, and point to a role for internal timing deficits as a mechanistic explanation for external cues becoming a possible source of self-body

  11. Health behaviours and body image of girls in the second phase of adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Liberska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The concept of body image was introduced by Paul Schilder, who recognised that this is a picture of our own body, which we create in our mind and which is the way in which the body is revealed to us. He proposed a definition centred around the cognitive aspect and assumed the relative stability of this structure. However, he highlighted the fact that the body image may be shaped by various experiences, and thus an individual can modify his own body image during life. Participants and procedure The study group consisted of 112 high school students aged 17 and 18 years. The study was conducted from March to June 2014 in Poland. Techniques: The Body Esteem Scale (BES by S. Franzoi and S. Shields was used for the purpose of the research. The scale is used to study body image. The second tool used in the research was the Health Behaviour Inventory (HBI by Z. Juczyński. Although the standards are set for adults, the same tool is frequently used in research among youth. Results It was found that only the overall health behaviour indicator correlates with body evaluation. The higher the overall health behaviour indicator was, the higher was body evaluation among the girls involved in the study. However, no significant correlation was found between body mass index (BMI and overall body evaluation. Conclusions The research demonstrated that the body image of adolescent girls significantly correlates with their health care to a large extent and with the desire to be slim to a lesser extent. This is a very positive result considering the idea of a healthy lifestyle.

  12. Intense-personal celebrity worship and body image: evidence of a link among female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltby, John; Giles, David C; Barber, Louise; McCutcheon, Lynn E

    2005-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between celebrity worship and body image within the theoretical perspective of intense para-social relationships with celebrities. Correlation and multiple regression analyses were used to examine the relationships between celebrity worship and body image. Three samples, 229 (102 males and 127 females) adolescents, 183 (88 males and 95 females) full-time university undergraduate students, and 289 (126 males and 163 females) adults were administered an amended version of the Celebrity Attitude Scale, the Attention to Body Shape Scale, and the Body Shape Questionnaire-Revised. Significant relationships were found between attitudes toward celebrities and body image only among female adolescents. Multiple regression analyses suggested that Intense-personal celebrity worship accounted for unique variance in scores in body image. Findings suggest that in female adolescents, there is an interaction between Intense-personal celebrity worship and body image between the ages of 14 and 16 years, and some tentative evidence has been found to suggest that this relationship disappears at the onset of adulthood, 17 to 20 years. Results are consistent with those authors who stress the importance of the formation of para-social relationships with media figures, and suggest that para-social relationships with celebrities perceived as having a good body shape may lead to a poor body image in female adolescents.

  13. Parallel content-based sub-image retrieval using hierarchical searching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lin; Qi, Xin; Xing, Fuyong; Kurc, Tahsin; Saltz, Joel; Foran, David J

    2014-04-01

    The capacity to systematically search through large image collections and ensembles and detect regions exhibiting similar morphological characteristics is central to pathology diagnosis. Unfortunately, the primary methods used to search digitized, whole-slide histopathology specimens are slow and prone to inter- and intra-observer variability. The central objective of this research was to design, develop, and evaluate a content-based image retrieval system to assist doctors for quick and reliable content-based comparative search of similar prostate image patches. Given a representative image patch (sub-image), the algorithm will return a ranked ensemble of image patches throughout the entire whole-slide histology section which exhibits the most similar morphologic characteristics. This is accomplished by first performing hierarchical searching based on a newly developed hierarchical annular histogram (HAH). The set of candidates is then further refined in the second stage of processing by computing a color histogram from eight equally divided segments within each square annular bin defined in the original HAH. A demand-driven master-worker parallelization approach is employed to speed up the searching procedure. Using this strategy, the query patch is broadcasted to all worker processes. Each worker process is dynamically assigned an image by the master process to search for and return a ranked list of similar patches in the image. The algorithm was tested using digitized hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained prostate cancer specimens. We have achieved an excellent image retrieval performance. The recall rate within the first 40 rank retrieved image patches is ∼90%. Both the testing data and source code can be downloaded from http://pleiad.umdnj.edu/CBII/Bioinformatics/.

  14. Body image and eating disordered behavior in a community sample of Black and Hispanic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrabosky, Joshua I; Grilo, Carlos M

    2007-01-01

    The current study examined body image concerns and eating disordered behaviors in a community sample of Black and Hispanic women. In addition, this study explored whether there are ethnic differences in the correlates or in the prediction of body image concerns. Participants were 120 (67 Black and 53 Hispanic) women who responded to advertisements to participate in a study of women and health. Participants completed a battery of established self-report measures to assess body image, eating disordered behaviors, and associated psychological domains. Black and Hispanic women did not differ significantly in their self-reports of body image, eating disordered behaviors, or associated psychological measures. Comparisons performed separately within both ethnic groups revealed significant differences by weight status, with a general graded patterning of greater concerns in obese than overweight than average weight groups. In terms of predicting body image, multiple regression analyses testing a number of variables, including BMI, performed separately for Black and Hispanic women revealed that eating concern and depressive affect were significant predictors of body image concern for both groups. Overall, Black and Hispanic women differed little in their self-reports of body image, eating-disordered features, and depressive affect. Higher weight was associated with a general pattern of increased body image concerns and features of eating disorders in both groups and with binge eating in Black women. Eating concerns and depressive affect emerged as significant independent predictors of body image for both ethnic groups.

  15. Is subjective perception of negative body image among adolescents associated with bullying?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holubcikova, Jana; Kolarcik, Peter; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    Adolescents' body image dissatisfaction has an adverse effect on peer relationships. It may lead to changes in behaviour (aggressive or passive) and consequently to bullying behaviour. Our aim was to assess the association between body image dissatisfaction and involvement in bullying and whether

  16. Whole Body Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Diagnosis of Parsonage Turner Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, M.; Twair, A.; Nelson, E.; Brennan, D.; Eustace, S.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with suspected Parsonage Turner syndrome and to emphasize the value of an additional whole body MR scan to improve specificity of this diagnosis. Material and Methods: Three patients with proven Parsonage Turner syndrome referred for conventional MRI of the shoulder girdle and additional whole body turboSTIR MRI were included for study. Results: In each case, imaging revealed edema in the muscles of the shoulder girdle. Whole body turboSTIR MRI scan confirmed localized unilateral changes in each case improving specificity and confidence in the diagnosis of Parsonage Turner syndrome in each case. Conclusion: Whole body turboSTIR MR imaging is a useful diagnostic tool in the evaluation of patients with suspected Parsonage Turner syndrome. Inclusion of the brain, neck, brachial plexus, and extremity musculature at whole body imaging allows differentiation from polymyositis and elimination of additional causes of shoulder girdle pain and weakness including gross lesions in the brain, neck, and brachial plexus by a single non-invasive study

  17. Physical activity and body image among men and boys: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett-Gunter, Rebecca; McEwan, Desmond; Kamarhie, Aria

    2017-09-01

    Three meta-analytic reviews have concluded that physical activity is positively related to body image. Historically, research regarding physical activity and body image has been disproportionately focused on female samples. For example, the most recent meta-analysis (2009) extracted 56 effect sizes for women and only 12 for men. The current paper provides an update to the literature regarding the relationship between physical activity and body image among men and boys across 84 individual effect sizes. The analysis also provides insight regarding moderator variables including participant age, and physical activity type and intensity. Overall, physical activity was positively related to body image among men and boys with various moderator variables warranting further investigation. Pragmatic implications are discussed as well as the limitations within existing research and need for additional research to further understand moderator and mediator variables. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Application of GVF snake model in segmentation of whole body bone SPECT image].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chunmei; Tian, Lianfang; Chen, Ping; Wang, Lifei; Ye, Guangchun; Mao, Zongyuan

    2008-02-01

    Limited by the imaging principle of whole body bone SPECT image, the gray value of bladder area is quite high, which affects the image's brightness, contrast and readability. In the meantime, the similarity between bladder area and focus makes it difficult for some images to be segmented automatically. In this paper, an improved Snake model, GVF Snake, is adopted to automatically segment bladder area, preparing for further processing of whole body bone SPECT images.

  19. Design Guidelines for a Content-Based Image Retrieval Color-Selection Interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggen, Berry; van den Broek, Egon; van der Veer, Gerrit C.; Kisters, Peter M.F.; Willems, Rob; Vuurpijl, Louis G.

    2004-01-01

    In Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) two query-methods exist: query-by-example and query-by-memory. The user either selects an example image or selects image features retrieved from memory (such as color, texture, spatial attributes, and shape) to define his query. Hitherto, research on CBIR

  20. NetTweens: The Internet and Body Image Concerns in Preteenage Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, Marika; Slater, Amy

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between media exposure and body image concerns in preteenage girls, with a particular focus on the Internet. A sample of 189 girls (aged 10-12 years) completed questionnaire measures of media consumption and body image concerns. Nearly all girls (97.5%) had access to the Internet in their home.…

  1. Body Image And Sensation Seeking In Gym-Goers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlegel Petr

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to explore a relation between Body image (PSPP and Sensation Seeking (SSS-V and to determine gym-goers based on these entities. The research file (N = 182 consisted of gym-goers aged between 24 – 45. The comparison of the tests showed a weak relation (0.25 between PSPP and SST tests and also among the individual subscales. The comparison of men and women did not come up with any significant differences. In terms of Body image, the file showed above-average results, in the case of Sensation Seeking, its score was average. The outcome of our findings is that there is no marked relation between PSPP and SST and the same goes for men and women.

  2. Male body image in Taiwan versus the West: Yanggang Zhiqi meets the Adonis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chi-Fu Jeffrey; Gray, Peter; Pope, Harrison G

    2005-02-01

    Body image disorders appear to be more prevalent in Western than non-Western men. Previous studies by the authors have shown that young Western men display unrealistic body ideals and that Western advertising seems to place an increasing value on the male body. The authors hypothesized that Taiwanese men would exhibit less dissatisfaction with their bodies than Western men and that Taiwanese advertising would place less value on the male body than Western media. The authors administered a computerized test of body image to 55 heterosexual men in Taiwan and compared the results to those previously obtained in an identical study in the United States and Europe. Second, they counted the number of undressed male and female models in American versus Taiwanese women's magazine advertisements. In the body image study, the Taiwanese men exhibited significantly less body dissatisfaction than their Western counterparts. In the magazine study, American magazine advertisements portrayed undressed Western men frequently, but Taiwanese magazines portrayed undressed Asian men rarely. Taiwan appears less preoccupied with male body image than Western societies. This difference may reflect 1) Western traditions emphasizing muscularity and fitness as a measure of masculinity, 2) increasing exposure of Western men to muscular male bodies in media images, and 3) greater decline in traditional male roles in the West, leading to greater emphasis on the body as a measure of masculinity. These factors may explain why body dysmorphic disorder and anabolic steroid abuse are more serious problems in the West than in Taiwan.

  3. Image of а head of law-enforcement body on micro level (empirical experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Perednya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article determines image of the head of law-enforcement body. Subjects and objects of image are described. Inhomogenuity of image is cleared up. Method of examination is shortly micro level described. It is talking about image, which is formed in mind of members of team of law-enforcement body, who are subordinated to object of image. State-of-the-art is illustrated, according to received data. Hypothesis about negative image of the head in mind of subordinates is disproved. It is shown contradiction of images in collective mind and social mind.

  4. Image-guided percutaneous removal of ballistic foreign bodies secondary to air gun injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothermund, Jacob L; Rabe, Andrew J; Zumberge, Nicholas A; Murakami, James W; Warren, Patrick S; Hogan, Mark J

    2018-01-01

    Ballistic injuries with retained foreign bodies from air guns is a relatively common problem, particularly in children and adolescents. If not removed in a timely fashion, the foreign bodies can result in complications, including pain and infection. Diagnostic methods to identify the presence of the foreign body run the entire gamut of radiology, particularly radiography, ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT). Removal of the foreign bodies can be performed by primary care, emergency, surgical, and radiologic clinicians, with or without imaging guidance. To evaluate the modalities of radiologic detection and the experience of image-guided ballistic foreign body removal related to air gun injuries within the interventional radiology department of a large pediatric hospital. A database of more than 1,000 foreign bodies that were removed with imaging guidance by the interventional radiologists at our institution was searched for ballistic foreign bodies from air guns. The location, dimensions, diagnostic modality, duration, complications and imaging modality used for removal were recorded. In addition, the use of sedation and anesthesia required for the procedures was also recorded. Sixty-one patients with ballistic foreign bodies were identified. All foreign bodies were metallic BBs or pellets. The age of the patients ranged from 5 to 20 years. The initial diagnostic modality to detect the foreign bodies was primarily radiography. The primary modality to assist in removal was US, closely followed by fluoroscopy. For the procedure, 32.7% of the patients required some level of sedation. Only two patients had an active infection at the time of the removal. The foreign bodies were primarily in the soft tissues; however, successful removal was also performed from intraosseous, intraglandular and intratendinous locations. All cases resulted in successful removal without complications. Image-guided removal of ballistic foreign bodies secondary to air guns is a very

  5. Body Image, Self-Esteem, and Depression-Proneness: Closing the Gender Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaulay, Marci; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Examines gender differences in body image and its relationship to depression-proneness and self-esteem. Findings indicate a preoccupation with body weight and appearance for both men and women, and a relationship between body satisfaction and depression-proneness. (FMW)

  6. Body Image Distortion and Exposure to Extreme Body Types: Contingent Adaptation and Cross Adaptation for Self and Other

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R. Brooks

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Body size misperception is common amongst the general public and is a core component of eating disorders and related conditions. While perennial media exposure to the thin ideal has been blamed for this misperception, relatively little research has examined visual adaptation as a potential mechanism. We examined the extent to which the bodies of self and other are processed by common or separate mechanisms in young women. Using a contingent adaptation paradigm, experiment 1 gave participants prolonged exposure to images both of the self and of another female that had been distorted in opposite directions (e.g. expanded other/contracted self, and assessed the aftereffects using test images both of the self and other. The directions of the resulting perceptual biases were contingent on the test stimulus, establishing at least some separation between the mechanisms encoding these body types. Experiment 2 used a cross adaptation paradigm to further investigate the extent to which these mechanisms are independent. Participants were adapted either to expanded or to contracted images of their own body or that of another female. While adaptation effects were largest when adapting and testing with the same body type, confirming the separation of mechanisms reported in experiment 1, substantial misperceptions were also demonstrated for cross adaptation conditions, demonstrating a degree of overlap in the encoding of self and other. In addition, the evidence of misperception of one’s own body following exposure to thin and to fat others demonstrates the viability of visual adaptation as a model of body image disturbance both for those who underestimate and those who overestimate their own size.

  7. Comparison of the perception of ideal body images of Ghanaian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of the perception of ideal body images of Ghanaian men and women. ... that Ghanaian men preferred Ghanaian women to be of the larger, traditional body size. ... of the preference of the opposite gender are significantly different.

  8. Body image v marketingu

    OpenAIRE

    Michelík, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Today's era depicts life of consumer society with the growing battle for customers. Every single person in this world wants to have a solid life and look pretty. Advertisements, which display handsome and slender people are all around us and they influence our consumer behavior. We tend to equilibrate these ideals by buying the most diverse products and even attempt to achieve the alleged feeling of happiness. This thesis is focused on Body image in which explains individual consumer behavior...

  9. Locked to a wrong body: Eating disorders as the outcome of a primary disturbance in multisensory body integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Giuseppe; Gaudio, Santino

    2018-03-01

    In his recent paper "Distorted body representations in anorexia nervosa" Gadsby (2017) discussed empirical evidence regarding anorexic patients' distorted body representations. In particular, he interpreted them using the O'Shaughnessy's long-term body image (LTB) hypothesis (O'Shaughnessy, 1998): individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) have a distorted LTB that tracks changes in the spatial content of the body and supplies this distorted content to other body representations. Even if we agree on the involvement of body memory in the distorted body representation, an open issue not fully addressed in the paper is: why AN patients do not update their LTBs to reflect their true dimensions? Our correspondence tries to answer to this question using a new neuropsychological and neurobiological theory: the Allocentric Lock Theory - ALT. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Body image flexibility: A predictor and moderator of outcome in transdiagnostic outpatient eating disorder treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellizzer, Mia L; Waller, Glenn; Wade, Tracey D

    2018-04-01

    Predictors of attrition and predictors and moderators of outcome were explored in a transdiagnostic sample of patients who received ten-session cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT-T) for nonunderweight eating disorders. Body image flexibility, a protective positive body image construct, was hypothesized to be a significant moderator. Data from two case series were combined to form a sample of 78 participants who received CBT-T. Baseline measures of body image, negative affect, personality, and motivation (readiness to change and self-efficacy) were included as potential predictors. Global eating disorder psychopathology at each assessment point (baseline, mid- and post-treatment, 1- and 3-month follow-up) was the outcome variable. Predictors of attrition were assessed using logistic regression, and multilevel modeling was applied for predictors and moderators of outcome. Body image flexibility emerged as the strongest predictor and moderator of global eating disorder psychopathology, followed by body image avoidance. Body checking, negative affect, personality beliefs, and self-efficacy were significant predictors of global eating disorder psychopathology. Higher body image flexibility predicted lower global eating disorder psychopathology at every assessment point. Further research is required to replicate findings and explore the benefit of focusing on positive body image in treatment. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Eating disorders awareness week: the effectiveness of a one-time body image dissatisfaction prevention session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridolfi, Danielle R; Vander Wal, Jillion S

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a body image dissatisfaction prevention session that provided information on body image and media literacy to college women. Participants were 81 undergraduates who were randomly assigned to attend either a body image intervention or a control intervention. Participants completed measures at pre- and post-intervention and at 4-week follow-up. The body image group improved significantly more than the control group on body shape concerns, but not on the other outcome variables. Efficacious interventions capable of reaching large numbers of women are necessary to help dispel the "normative discontent" prevalent today.

  12. The Effectiveness of a Body Image Group Counselling Program on Adolescent Girls in High School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çiğdem Keven-Akliman

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a body image group counselling program on adolescent girls in the context of Positive Psychology and Positive Psychotherapy. The sample set consisted of 22 female students, 11 in the experimental group and the other 11 in the control group, and they are all in the 9th grade and have negative body images. Research was conducted based on a pattern of a pre-test, post-test and follow-up test with control and experimental groups. A Body Image Scale, Body Image Coping Strategies Inventory and Program Evaluation Form were used as data collection tools. The positive body image group counselling program was conducted on the experimental group for ten sessions. The Wilcoxon sign rank test, Mann-Whitney U test and repeated-measure of analysis of variance (ANOVA were used for data analysis. According to the results, the program was statistically significant. Additionally, the results revealed statistically significant increases in positive body images and coping strategies in the intervention group when compared with the control group. The program may be used to increase positive body image.

  13. The Norwegian healthy body image programme: study protocol for a randomized controlled school-based intervention to promote positive body image and prevent disordered eating among Norwegian high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundgot-Borgen, Christine; Bratland-Sanda, Solfrid; Engen, Kethe M E; Pettersen, Gunn; Friborg, Oddgeir; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Kolle, Elin; Piran, Niva; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn; Rosenvinge, Jan H

    2018-03-06

    Body dissatisfaction and disordered eating raise the risk for eating disorders. In the prevention of eating disorders, many programmes have proved partly successful in using cognitive techniques to combat such risk factors. However, specific strategies to actively promote a positive body image are rarely used. The present paper outlines a protocol for a programme integrating the promotion of a positive body image and the prevention of disordered eating. Using a cluster randomized controlled mixed methods design, 30 high schools and 2481 12th grade students were allocated to the Healthy Body Image programme or to a control condition. The intervention comprised three workshops, each of 90 min with the main themes body image, media literacy, and lifestyle. The intervention was interactive in nature, and were led by trained scientists. The outcome measures include standardized instruments administered pre-post intervention, and at 3 and 12 months follow-ups, respectively. Survey data cover feasibility and implementation issues. Qualitative interviews covers experiential data about students' benefits and satisfaction with the programme. The present study is one of the first in the body image and disordered eating literature that integrates a health promotion and a disease prevention approach, as well as integrating standardized outcome measures and experiential findings. Along with mediator and moderator analyses it is expected that the Healthy Body Image programme may prove its efficacy. If so, plans are made with respect to further dissemination as well as communicating the findings to regional and national decision makers in the education and health care services. The study was registered and released at ClinicalTrials.gov 21th August 2016 with the Clinical Trial.gov ID: PRSNCT02901457 . In addition, the study is approved by the Regional Committee for Medical and Health Research Ethics.

  14. Phantom limb phenomenon as an example of body image distortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razmus Magdalena

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The perception of one’s own body, its mental representation, and emotional attitude to it are the components of so-called “body image” [1]. The aim of the research was to analyse phantom pain and non-painful phantom sensations as results of limb loss and to explain them in terms of body image distortion.

  15. Correlation between Health Perception, Body Image, and Eating Habits in High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Ichsan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mental disorders, including eating disorders, mostly begin during youth. Moreover, negative body image is found to cause unhealthy eating habits in the context of several cross-cultural settings. This study aimed to examine the correlation between health perception and body image with eating habits among high school students. Methods: A structured, anonymous questionnaire was distributed to students of a private high school in Bandung, Indonesia in June-October 2014. The questionnaire included questions about health perception, body image, eating habits, body weight and height, and also other demographic parameters. The school was selected as the study object through purposive sampling, and 140 high school students (72 male and 68 female were ramdomly selected. Results: Male and female did not show considerable differences in health perceptions. Out of 13 statements, 12 statements of male respondents showed better body image than female. While in eating habits statements, female respondents seemed to maintain healthier eating habits than male respondents. No significant correlation was observed between body image and eating habits (r=-0.015, p=0.858. There was significant correlation between health perception and eating habits (r=0.374, p<0.001. Correlation between sex and eating habits was found (p=0.020, there was not significant relationship between eating habits and Body Mass Index (BMI (p=0.368. Conclusions: The negative relationship between body image and eating habits is not significant. However there was a significant positive relationship between health perception and eating habits. Furthermore, there was correlation between sex and eating habits, while the positive relationship between eating habits and BMI was still not found.

  16. Whole Body Computed Tomography with Advanced Imaging Techniques: A Research Tool for Measuring Body Composition in Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharma Purushothaman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of computed tomography (CT to evaluate obesity in canines is limited. Traditional CT image analysis is cumbersome and uses prediction equations that require manual calculations. In order to overcome this, our study investigated the use of advanced image analysis software programs to determine body composition in dogs with an application to canine obesity research. Beagles and greyhounds were chosen for their differences in morphology and propensity to obesity. Whole body CT scans with regular intervals were performed on six beagles and six greyhounds that were subjected to a 28-day weight-gain protocol. The CT images obtained at days 0 and 28 were analyzed using software programs OsiriX, ImageJ, and AutoCAT. The CT scanning technique was able to differentiate bone, lean, and fat tissue in dogs and proved sensitive enough to detect increases in both lean and fat during weight gain over a short period. A significant difference in lean : fat ratio was observed between the two breeds on both days 0 and 28 (P<0.01. Therefore, CT and advanced image analysis proved useful in the current study for the estimation of body composition in dogs and has the potential to be used in canine obesity research.

  17. Detection of Isoflavones Content in Soybean Based on Hyperspectral Imaging Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Kezhu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Because of many important biological activities, Soybean isoflavones which has great potential for exploitation is significant to practical applications. Due to the conventional methods for determination of soybean isoflavones having long detection period, used too many reagents, couldn’t be detected on-line, and other issues, we propose hyperspectral imaging technology to detect the contents of soybean isoflavones. Based on the 40 varieties of soybeans produced in Heilongjiang province, we get the spectral reflection datum of soybean samples varied from the soybean’s hyperspectral images which are collected by the hyperspectral imaging system, and apply high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method to determine the true value of the selected samples of isoflavones. The feature wavelengths for isoflavones content prediction (1516, 1572, 1691, 1716 and 1760 nm were selected based on correlation analysis. The prediction model was established by using the method of BP neural network in order to realize the prediction of soybean isoflavones content analysis. The experimental results show that, the ANN model could predict isoflavones content of soybean samples with of 0.9679, the average relative error is 0.8032 %, and the mean square error (MSE is 0.110328, which indicates the effectiveness of the proposed method and provides a theoretical basis for the applications of hyerspectral imaging in non-destructive detection for interior quality of soybean.

  18. Evaluation of quantitative planar 90Y bremsstrahlung whole-body imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minarik, D; Ljungberg, M; Gleisner, K Sjoegreen; Segars, P

    2009-01-01

    With high-dose administration of 90 Y labeled antibodies, it is possible to image 90 Y without an admixture of 111 In. We have earlier shown that it is possible to perform quantitative 90 Y bremsstrahlung SPECT for dosimetry purposes with reasonable accuracy. However, whole-body (WB) activity quantification with the conjugate view method is not as time consuming as SPECT and has been the method of choice for dosimetry. We have investigated the possibility of using a conjugate view method where scatter-, backscatter- and septal-penetration compensations are performed by inverse filtering and attenuation correction is performed with a WB x-ray image, for total-body and organ activity quantification of 90 Y. The method was evaluated using both Monte Carlo simulated scintillation camera images using realistic source distributions, and by an experimental phantom study. The method was evaluated in terms of image quality and accuracy of the activity quantification. The experimental phantom study was performed using the RSD torso phantom with 90 Y activity uniformly distributed in the liver insert. A GE Discovery VH/Hawkeye system was used to acquire the image. The simulation study was performed for a realistic activity distribution in the NCAT anthropomorphic phantom where 90 Y bremsstrahlung images were generated using the SIMIND MC program. Two different phantom configurations and two activity distributions were simulated. To mimic the RSD phantom experiment one simulation study was also made with 90 Y activity located only in the liver. The SIMIND program was configured to resemble a GE Discovery VH/Hawkeye system. An x-ray projector program was used to generate whole-body x-ray images from the NCAT phantom for attenuation correction in the conjugate view method. Organ activities were calculated from ROIs that exactly covered the organs. Corrections for background activity, overlapping activity and source extension in the depth direction were applied on the ROI data

  19. Whole body imaging system mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carman, R.W.; Doherty, E.J.

    1980-01-01

    A radioisotope scanning apparatus for use in nuclear medicine is described in detail. The apparatus enables the quantification and spatial location of the radioactivity in a body section of a patient to be determined with high sensitivity. It consists of an array of highly focussed collimators arranged such that adjacent collimators move in the same circumferential but opposite radial directions. The explicit movements of the gantry are described in detail and may be controlled by a general purpose computer. The use of highly focussed collimators allows both a reasonable solid angle of acceptance and also high target to background images; additionally, dual radionuclide pharmaceutical studies can be performed simultaneously. It is claimed that the high sensitivity of the system permits the early diagnosis of pathological changes and the images obtained show accurately the location and shape of physiological abnormalities. (U.K.)

  20. Feminist Pedagogy, Body Image, and the Dance Technique Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Sherrie; Oliver, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the evolution of feminist consciousness in dance technique class as related to body image, the myth of the perfect body, and the development of feminist pedagogy. Western concert dance forms have often been taught in a manner where imitating the teacher is primary in the learning process. In this traditional scenario,…

  1. ImageGrouper: a group-oriented user interface for content-based image retrieval and digital image arrangement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakazato, Munehiro; Manola, L.; Huang, Thomas S.

    In content-based image retrieval (CBIR), experimental (trial-and-error) query with relevance feedback is essential for successful retrieval. Unfortunately, the traditional user interfaces are not suitable for trying different combinations of query examples. This is because first, these systems

  2. Obesity: locus of control, body image, weight loss, and age-at-onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wineman, N M

    1980-01-01

    In a retrospective investigation designed to measure locus of control, body image, and weight loss in Overeaters Anonymous members who had childhood, adolescence, or adulthood onset of obesity, 116 subjects were grouped according to age at onset of obesity and the year they joined OA. A convenience, volunteer sample of OA members completed a demographic data questionnaire, Rotter's Social Reaction. Inventory, and Secord and Jourard's Body Cathexis Scale. Significant overweight percentage differences were not found when the three age-at-onset groups were compared. Significant differences emerged, however, for adolescent-onset group persons who were categorized as "old" members; they had a larger weight loss and were more satisfied with their body image. A positive linear relationship between greater perception of internal control and a good body image was found in the entire adulthood-onset group. Weight loss and good body image of the oldest adolescent-onset group probably was the outcome of their association with a self-help group i.e., OA. Assessment of developmental issues related to the time of initial weight gain may indicate which treatment regime would be most effective.

  3. 3D high-resolution radar imaging of small body interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sava, Paul; Asphaug, Erik

    2017-10-01

    Answering fundamental questions about the origin and evolution of small planetary bodies hinges on our ability to image their interior structure in detail and at high resolution (Asphaug, 2009). We often infer internal structure from surface observations, e.g. that comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko is a primordial agglomeration of cometesimals (Massironi et al., 2015). However, the interior structure is not easily accessible without systematic imaging using, e.g., radar transmission and reflection data, as suggested by the CONSERT experiment on Rosetta. Interior imaging depends on observations from multiple viewpoints, as in medical tomography.We discuss radar imaging using methodology adapted from terrestrial exploration seismology (Sava et al., 2015). We primarily focus on full wavefield methods that facilitate high quality imaging of small body interiors characterized by complex structure and large contrasts of physical properties. We consider the case of a monostatic system (co-located transmitters and receivers) operated at two frequency bands, centered around 5 and 15 MHz, from a spacecraft in slow polar orbit around a spinning comet nucleus. Assuming that the spin period is significantly (e.g. 5x) faster than the orbital period, this configuration allows repeated views from multiple directions (Safaeinili et al., 2002)Using realistic numerical experiments, we argue that (1) the comet/asteroid imaging problem is intrinsically 3D and conventional SAR methodology does not satisfy imaging, sampling and resolution requirements; (2) imaging at different frequency bands can provide information about internal surfaces (through migration) and internal volumes (through tomography); (3) interior imaging can be accomplished progressively as data are being acquired through successive orbits around the studied object; (4) imaging resolution can go beyond the apparent radar frequency band by deconvolution of the point-spread-function characterizing the imaging system; and (5

  4. Body image and weight control in South Africans 15 years or older: SANHANES-1

    OpenAIRE

    Mchiza, Zandile J.; Parker, Whadi-ah; Makoae, Mokhantso; Sewpaul, Ronel; Kupamupindi, Takura; Labadarios, Demetre

    2015-01-01

    Background South African studies have suggested that differences in obesity prevalence between groups may be partly related to differences in body image and body size dissatisfaction. However, there has never been a national study that measured body image and its relationship to weight control in the country. Hence, the main aim of the study was to examine body image in relation to body mass index and weight control in South Africa. Methods A cross-sectional survey and a secondary analyses of...

  5. Self-Concept in Childhood: The Role of Body Image and Sport Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendo-Lázaro, Santiago; Polo-del-Río, María I.; Amado-Alonso, Diana; Iglesias-Gallego, Damián; León-del-Barco, Benito

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the differences in satisfaction with body image depending on whether the subject practices organized sport or not, as well as the gender of the children. In addition, the study aims to examine the role of body image and the practice of organized sport on the process of building the academic, social, emotional, family and physical dimensions of self-concept in childhood. To do so, a sample of 944 pupils was used. These children were attending primary school in different centers of the Autonomous Community of Extremadura (Spain) and were between 9 and 12 years of age. The main results of the study show that three out of every four children participating in this study were not satisfied with their figure and one out of every five was very dissatisfied. The satisfaction or dissatisfaction with the figure was similar in boys and girls, although it could be appreciated that the ideal body image is partly conditioned by gender stereotypes. The children most satisfied with their body image had a greater academic and physical self-concept. The children that practiced organized sports had a greater physical and emotional self-concept. The children most dissatisfied with their body image and practiced organized sports had a lower family self-concept. All these findings are discussed with reference to previous research literature. PMID:28596750

  6. Should women be "All About That Bass?": Diverse body-ideal messages and women's body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, Diana E; Ramsey, Laura R

    2017-09-01

    While most body image research emphasizes the thin ideal, a wider variety of body-ideal messages pervade U.S. popular culture today, including those promoting athleticism or curves. Two studies assessed women's reactions to messages conveying thin, athletic, and curvy ideals, compared to a control message that emphasized accepting all body types. Study 1 (N=192) surveyed women's responses to these messages and found they perceived body-acceptance and athletic messages most favorably, curvy messages more negatively, and thin messages most negatively. Further, greatest liking within each message category came from women who identified with that body type. Study 2 (N=189) experimentally manipulated exposure to these messages, then measured self-objectification and body satisfaction. Messages promoting a body-ideal caused more self-objectification than body-acceptance messages. Also, athletic messages caused more body dissatisfaction than thin messages. Together, these findings reveal the complexity of women's responses to diverse messages they receive about ideal bodies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. "Exercise to be fit, not skinny": The effect of fitspiration imagery on women's body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, Marika; Zaccardo, Mia

    2015-09-01

    Fitspiration is an online trend designed to inspire viewers towards a healthier lifestyle by promoting exercise and healthy food. The present study aimed to experimentally investigate the impact of fitspiration images on women's body image. Participants were 130 female undergraduate students who were randomly assigned to view either a set of Instagram fitspiration images or a control set of travel images presented on an iPad. Results showed that acute exposure to fitspiration images led to increased negative mood and body dissatisfaction and decreased state appearance self-esteem relative to travel images. Importantly, regression analyses showed that the effects of image type were mediated by state appearance comparison. Thus it was concluded that fitspiration can have negative unintended consequences for body image. The results offer support to general sociocultural models of media effects on body image, and extend these to "new" media. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Direct molecular analysis of whole-body animal tissue sections by MALDI imaging mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyzer, Michelle L; Chaurand, Pierre; Angel, Peggi M; Caprioli, Richard M

    2010-01-01

    The determination of the localization of various compounds in a whole animal is valuable for many applications, including pharmaceutical absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) studies and biomarker discovery. Imaging mass spectrometry is a powerful tool for localizing compounds of biological interest with molecular specificity and relatively high resolution. Utilizing imaging mass spectrometry for whole-body animal sections offers considerable analytical advantages compared to traditional methods, such as whole-body autoradiography, but the experiment is not straightforward. This chapter addresses the advantages and unique challenges that the application of imaging mass spectrometry to whole-body animal sections entails, including discussions of sample preparation, matrix application, signal normalization, and image generation. Lipid and protein images obtained from whole-body tissue sections of mouse pups are presented along with detailed protocols for the experiments.

  9. Effects of gender, age, and body mass index on fat contents and apparent diffusion coefficients in healthy parotid glands: an MRI evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Hing-Chiu; Juan, Chun-Jung; Hsu, Hsian-He; Chiu, Hui-Chu; Cheng, Cheng-Chieh; Chiu, Su-Chin; Liu, Yi-Jui; Chung, Hsiao-Wen

    2014-01-01

    To establish standard apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and the fat content as a function of age, gender and body mass index (BMI) in healthy parotid glands, and to address the influences of fat suppression on ADC measurements. A total of 100 healthy adults (gender and age evenly distributed) were prospectively recruited, with parotid fat content measured from gradient-echo images with fat-water separated using iterative decomposition with echo asymmetry and least squares (IDEAL). The ADCs were estimated using both fat-saturated and non-fat-saturated diffusion-weighted imaging via a periodically rotated overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction (PROPELLER) technique. Parotid fat content was larger in men than in women by about 10 percentage points (P < 0.005), and positively associated with BMI and age for both genders (mostly with P < 0.001). ADCs estimated with non-fat-saturated PROPELLER were significantly lower in men than in women (P < 0.005), but showed no gender difference if measured using fat-saturated PROPELLER (P = 0.840). The negative association between parotid ADC and age/BMI/fat (P < 0.001) showed greater regression slopes in non-fat-saturated PROPELLER than in fat-saturated data. Parotid fat content in healthy adults correlates positively with both age and BMI; the correlation with age is gender-dependent. Parotid ADC measurements are strongly influenced by fat saturation. (orig.)

  10. Effects of gender, age, and body mass index on fat contents and apparent diffusion coefficients in healthy parotid glands: an MRI evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Hing-Chiu [National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, Taipei (China); Duke University Medical Center, Brain Imaging and Analysis Center, Durham, NC (United States); GE Healthcare, Applied Science Laboratory, Taipei (China); Juan, Chun-Jung; Hsu, Hsian-He [National Defense Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Taipei (China); Tri-Service General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Taipei (China); Chiu, Hui-Chu [Tatung University, Graduate Institute of Design Science, Taipei (China); Cheng, Cheng-Chieh; Chiu, Su-Chin [National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, Taipei (China); Liu, Yi-Jui [Feng Chia University, Department of Automatic Control Engineering, Taichung (China); Chung, Hsiao-Wen [National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, Taipei (China); Tri-Service General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University, MD.624, Department of Electrical Engineering, Taipei (China)

    2014-09-15

    To establish standard apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and the fat content as a function of age, gender and body mass index (BMI) in healthy parotid glands, and to address the influences of fat suppression on ADC measurements. A total of 100 healthy adults (gender and age evenly distributed) were prospectively recruited, with parotid fat content measured from gradient-echo images with fat-water separated using iterative decomposition with echo asymmetry and least squares (IDEAL). The ADCs were estimated using both fat-saturated and non-fat-saturated diffusion-weighted imaging via a periodically rotated overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction (PROPELLER) technique. Parotid fat content was larger in men than in women by about 10 percentage points (P < 0.005), and positively associated with BMI and age for both genders (mostly with P < 0.001). ADCs estimated with non-fat-saturated PROPELLER were significantly lower in men than in women (P < 0.005), but showed no gender difference if measured using fat-saturated PROPELLER (P = 0.840). The negative association between parotid ADC and age/BMI/fat (P < 0.001) showed greater regression slopes in non-fat-saturated PROPELLER than in fat-saturated data. Parotid fat content in healthy adults correlates positively with both age and BMI; the correlation with age is gender-dependent. Parotid ADC measurements are strongly influenced by fat saturation. (orig.)

  11. Body image, self-esteem, and quality of life in patients with psoriasis

    OpenAIRE

    Hulya Nazik; Selcuk Nazik; Feride C Gul

    2017-01-01

    Background: Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the skin that may affect the visible areas of body. Hence, the quality of life, self-esteem, and body image can be affected in psoriasis patients. Objectives: We aimed in the present study to assess the effects of psoriasis on the quality of life, self-esteem, and body image. Materials and Methods: The study included 92 patients with psoriasis, along with 98 control participants. The sociodemographic characteristics of the patient...

  12. Factors that contribute to the body image concern of female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Wanderson Roberto; Dias, Juliana Chioda Ribeiro; Maroco, João; Campos, Juliana Alvares Duarte Bonini

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the contribution of sociodemographic and labor variables and body mass index to body image concern. In order to estimate body image concern, the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) and the Weight Concerns Scale (WCS) were applied. A confirmatory factor analysis of scales was carried out. The reason χ2 by degree of freedom ratio (χ2/df ), Comparative Fit Index (CFI), Normed Fit Index (NFI), and root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) were used. Convergent validity was assessed through the average variance extracted and composed reliability and the internal consistency through standardized Cronbach's alpha coefficient (α). A structural model was developed, and the body image concern was the second-order main construct. The model appropriation was evaluated based on the goodness-of-fit indices. The z test was used to estimate the significance of trajectories (β) using a 5% significance level. Totally, 595 female college students participated in the study, with a mean age of 20.42 ± 2.44 years. The entire model, with the inclusion of all independent variables, showed unsatisfactory adjustment and was refined. The final model presented a satisfactory adjustment (χ2/df = 5.75; CFI = 0.87; NFI = 0.85; RMSEA = 0.09) with inclusion of medication use because of studies (β = 0.08; p = 0.04), academic performance (β = 0.09; p = 0.02), economic class (β = 0.08; p = 0.03), and body mass index (β = 0.44; p concern. Medication use due to studies, academic performance, economic class and body mass index significantly contribute to body image concern.

  13. Relationship between Body Image and Psychological Well-being in Patients with Morbid Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negar Yazdani

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Morbid obesity is rising around the world. It can cause unpleasant appearance and body image. Most of the studies have aimed to evaluate the psychopathology of overweight and obesity and paying attention to mental well-being in morbid obese individuals is rare. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the relationship between body image and psychological well-being in morbid obese patients. Methods: This cross-sectional study, using simple random sampling method, was done on 124 morbid obese patients who referred to obesity clinic in Shiraz from 2016 to 2017. The data were collected by body image index and psychological well-being questionnaire. Results were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficient test, ANOVA, and Regression analysis. Results: The results showed a significant relationship between body image and psychological well-being (r=0.43 (P0.05. Conclusion: Final results indicated that body image defects caused by obesity could lie in negative psychological well-being in all aspects. This study can promote health clinicians’ knowledge in supporting of mental status of obese individuals. It is suggested that preventing and supporting intervention should be performed as effective methods for encountering and coping with psychological effects of obesity.

  14. Parental and Peer Factors Associated with Body Image Discrepancy among Fifth-Grade Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentzel, Kathryn; Elliott, Marc N.; Dittus, Patricia J.; Kanouse, David E.; Wallander, Jan L.; Pasch, Keryn E.; Franzini, Luisa; Taylor, Wendell C.; Qureshi, Tariq; Franklin, Frank A.; Schuster, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Many young adolescents are dissatisfied with their body due to a discrepancy between their ideal and actual body size, which can lead to weight cycling, eating disorders, depression, and obesity. The current study examined the associations of parental and peer factors with fifth-graders’ body image discrepancy, physical self-worth as a mediator between parental and peer factors and body image discrepancy, and how these associations vary by child’s sex. Body image discrepancy was defined as the difference between young adolescents’ self-perceived body size and the size they believe a person their age should be. Data for this study came from Healthy Passages, which surveyed 5,147 fifth graders (51 % females; 34 % African American, 35 % Latino, 24 % White, and 6 % other) and their primary caregivers from the United States. Path analyses were conducted separately for boys and girls. The findings for boys suggest father nurturance and getting along with peers are related negatively to body image discrepancy; however, for girls, fear of negative evaluation by peers is related positively to body image discrepancy. For both boys and girls, getting along with peers and fear of negative evaluation by peers are related directly to physical self-worth. In addition, mother nurturance is related positively to physical self-worth for girls, and father nurturance is related positively to physical self-worth for boys. In turn, physical self-worth, for both boys and girls, is related negatively to body image discrepancy. The findings highlight the potential of parental and peer factors to reduce fifth graders’ body image discrepancy. PMID:23334988

  15. Development of multi-dimensional body image scale for malaysian female adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Chin, Yit Siew; Taib, Mohd Nasir Mohd; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Khor, Geok Lin

    2008-01-01

    The present study was conducted to develop a Multi-dimensional Body Image Scale for Malaysian female adolescents. Data were collected among 328 female adolescents from a secondary school in Kuantan district, state of Pahang, Malaysia by using a self-administered questionnaire and anthropometric measurements. The self-administered questionnaire comprised multiple measures of body image, Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26; Garner & Garfinkel, 1979) and Rosenberg Self-esteem Inventory (Rosenberg, 1965...

  16. In vivo determination of body composition of rats using magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, H; Vasselli, J; Wu, E; Gallagher, D

    2000-05-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has potential as an instrument to measure body composition because it can discriminate various soft tissues in vivo. These soft tissues include adipose tissue, muscle, organs, and brain. We report on preliminary studies using a 4.2-tesla MRI for measuring body composition in the mouse and rat. We employed image segmentation methods that include an image correction method, a necessary requirement when the images are taken in the presence of nonuniform radio-frequency (RF) coil response. The software for 3-D data segmentation, quantification, correction, image manipulation, and visualization has been developed as a research tool. This method currently is being validated.

  17. The Study of Eating Disorders and Body Image Among Elite Martial Arts Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Taheri

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Study objective: The competitive sports environment can enhance social and cultural pressure towards having ideal body weight in weight-sensitive sports. The close relationship between body image and performance makes the elite athletes vulnerable to eating disorders. Thus, the purpose of this research was to study eating disorders and body image among weight-class elite athletes. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out with elite martial arts athletes (Karate, Taekwondo, and Judo who were considered to be of higher risk for eating disorders. 63 elite martial arts male athletes (18.59 ± 5.29 yrs, and 63 non-athlete persons (17.3 ± 3.4 yrs were recruited. Body Mass Index (BMI, Waist Hip Ratio (WHR, and Percent Body Fat (PBF were measured using caliper and meter. Eating Disorder Diagnosis Scale (EDDS and Body Image Rating Scale (BIRS were used to study eating disorders and body image among elite martial arts athletes. Results: no sign of clinical EDDS were found among the investigated athletes, and non-athletes. There were significant differences in total score of EDDS (p=0.001, eating disorder and weight concern subscales (respectively p=0.012, p=0.001 in athletes and non-athletes. Furthermore, compared with the non-athlete group, elite athlete group with middle, good, and great body images scored higher on total score and all subscales of EDDS (p ≤ 0.05. Conclusion: The results from our study show the presence of worriment about eating disorder especially body weight and eating concern in elite athletes and the early detection of it may prevent progression to severe eating disorders.

  18. Concern about aspects of body image and adjustment to early stage breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, C S; Pozo-Kaderman, C; Price, A A; Noriega, V; Harris, S D; Derhagopian, R P; Robinson, D S; Moffat, F L

    1998-01-01

    Several authors have suggested that patients adjust more poorly to breast cancer if they are heavily invested in body image as a source of their sense of self-worth. This prospective study examined this possibility, looking at two aspects of concern about body image as predictors of several indices of adjustment over the first postoperative year. At diagnosis (and again a year later) 66 women with early stage breast cancer reported how much they valued a) a sense of body integrity (or intactness) and b) a good physical appearance. The day before surgery, a week afterward, and at 3-month, 6-month, and 12-month follow ups, they reported on their mood. At presurgery and at follow ups they also rated their attractiveness and sexual desirability and reported on frequency of sexual interaction. At follow-ups they also indicated how much their illness and treatment were interfering with social and recreational activities. Initial investment in appearance was related to distress across the postsurgical year. In contrast, investment in appearance made women more resilient against deterioration in their perceptions of attractiveness. Concern about body integrity did not strongly predict emotional distress, but it related to adverse impact on social and recreational activities in the follow-up period, to deterioration in feelings of sexual desirability, and to feelings of alienation from the self (feeling "not like yourself anymore"). Body image is often thought of in terms of physical appearance, but there is also a body image pertaining to integrity, wholeness, and normal functioning. People who are greatly concerned about either aspect of their body image are vulnerable to poorer psychosocial adjustment when confronting treatment for breast cancer. The poorer adjustment takes a different form, however, depending on the nature of the patient's body-image concern.

  19. Curricular Treatment of Body Image, Self-Esteem and Self-Concept in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Antonio V.; Estévez, Manuel; Palomares, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of human development in which problems with the perception of body image, self-esteem and self-concept proliferate, while the child is studying for Secondary Education. This study analyses the curricular treatment given to body image, self-esteem and self-concept in different legislative elements in the region of Valencia…

  20. Perception of body image and sexuality for women with mastectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Charlotte Brun; Laursen, Birgitte Schantz

    affect women's perception of quality of life and psychosocial state.In Denmark, no previous studies have focused on perception of body image and sexuality in the acute phase after mastectomy. Furthermore, no study addresses the influence of perceived body image and sexuality on the decision to have...... to provide better quality nursing care to women treated with mastectomy and reconstruction. Results: It is expected that interviews, analysis and interpretation will be conducted in 2010.The results are expected to be edited and published in the beginning of 2011....

  1. Body image perceptions in women with pelvic organ prolapse: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowder, Jerry L; Ghetti, Chiara; Nikolajski, Cara; Oliphant, Sallie S; Zyczynski, Halina M

    2011-05-01

    To describe perceptions of prolapse-specific body image in women with symptomatic prolapse. Women with symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse quantification stage ≥ II prolapse participated in semistructured focus groups or self-report questionnaire. Transcripts were independently reviewed and body image themes were identified and confirmed by consensus. Twenty-five women participated in focus groups and 27 in online questionnaires. Transcript analysis revealed 3 central themes and 25 body-image related subthemes. Women living with prolapse were more likely to feel self-conscious, isolated, "different," less feminine, and less attractive. Women often changed sexual intimacy practices because of embarrassment or discomfort, and many avoided intimacy all together. Prolapse greatly affected women's personal and professional activities causing some women to adjust routines or stop activities. Women reported loss of interest in activities, distraction while performing daily/work-related tasks, and embarrassment when asking for help with activities. Themes identified in this qualitative study demonstrate the profound effect of prolapse on a woman's body image. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A daily diary study of self-compassion, body image, and eating behavior in female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Allison C; Stephen, Elizabeth

    2016-06-01

    Although self-compassion is associated with healthier body image and eating behavior, these findings have generally emerged at the between-persons level only. The present study investigated the unique contributions of within-person variability in self-compassion, and between-persons differences in self-compassion, to body image and eating behavior. Over seven days, 92 female college students completed nightly measures of self-compassion, self-esteem, dietary restraint, intuitive eating, body appreciation, body satisfaction, and state body image. Multilevel modeling revealed that within-persons, day-to-day fluctuations in self-compassion contributed to day-to-day fluctuations in body image and eating. Between-persons, participants' average levels of self-compassion across days contributed to their average levels of body image and eating over the week. Results generally held when controlling for within- and between-persons self-esteem. Evidently, the eating and body image benefits of self-compassion may come not only from being a generally self-compassionate person, but also from treating oneself more self-compassionately than usual on a given day. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The association between body mass index and physical activity, and body image, self esteem and social support in adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, Laura A; Dewey, Deborah

    2014-08-01

    To examine the associations between body mass index (BMI) and physical activity with body image, self-esteem and social support in adolescents with type 1 diabetes compared to adolescents without health conditions. We studied 46 adolescents with type 1 diabetes and 27 comparison adolescents who provided self-reports of height and weight, which were used to calculate BMI z-scores. Participants also completed validated questionnaires that assessed physical activity, body image, self-esteem and social support. No significant group differences were found between adolescents with type 1 diabetes and comparison adolescents in terms of BMI and physical activity. Examination of group and gender revealed that higher BMI was significantly associated with a less positive body image in girls with diabetes only. Higher BMI was associated with poorer self-esteem and lower levels of social support in adolescents with diabetes, particularly girls. Higher levels of physical activity were not associated with a more positive body image and no significant associations were found between physical activity and self-esteem or social support. BMI and physical activity levels of adolescents with type 1 diabetes do not differ from those of adolescents without diabetes. Higher BMI is associated with a less positive body image and poorer psychosocial outcomes, particularly in girls with diabetes. As body image concerns and various psychosocial factors could be precursors to the development of eating-disorder symptoms, future research in adolescents with diabetes with higher BMIs should examine the associations among these variables. Further, it is essential that research on body image take into account gender differences. Copyright © 2014 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Relationship between Body Image and Psychological Well-being in Patients with Morbid Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Negar; Hosseini, Sayed Vahid; Amini, Masood; Sobhani, Zahra; Sharif, Farkhondeh; Khazraei, Hajar

    2018-04-01

    Morbid obesity is rising around the world. It can cause unpleasant appearance and body image. Most of the studies have aimed to evaluate the psychopathology of overweight and obesity and paying attention to mental well-being in morbid obese individuals is rare. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the relationship between body image and psychological well-being in morbid obese patients. This cross-sectional study, using simple random sampling method, was done on 124 morbid obese patients who referred to obesity clinic in Shiraz from 2016 to 2017. The data were collected by body image index and psychological well-being questionnaire. Results were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficient test, ANOVA, and Regression analysis. The results showed a significant relationship between body image and psychological well-being (r=0.43) (Pimage and all the subscales of psychological well-being except autonomy and purpose in life (Pimage (Pimage and those of psychological well-being in different categories of body mass index (BMI) (P>0.05). Final results indicated that body image defects caused by obesity could lie in negative psychological well-being in all aspects. This study can promote health clinicians' knowledge in supporting of mental status of obese individuals. It is suggested that preventing and supporting intervention should be performed as effective methods for encountering and coping with psychological effects of obesity.

  5. Gender and race matter: the importance of considering intersections in Black women's body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capodilupo, Christina M; Kim, Suah

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, body image literature has used race as a variable to explain ethnic-specific differences in body satisfaction and the prevalence of eating disorders. Instead of employing race as an explanatory variable, the present study utilized a qualitative method to explore the relationships among race, ethnicity, culture, discrimination, and body image for African American and Black women. The purpose of the study was to gain a deeper understanding of how race and gender interface with and inform body image. Women were recruited through community centers in a major metropolitan city and represented a diversity of ethnicities. In total, 26 women who identified racially as Black (mean age = 26 years) participated in 6 focus groups, which explored body ideals, societal messages, cultural values, racism, and sexism. Narrative data from the focus groups were analyzed using grounded theory. The central category, Body/Self Image, was informed by perceptions of and feelings about not only weight and shape but also hair, skin, and attitude. Three additional categories, each with multiple properties, emerged: Interpersonal Influences, Experiences of Oppression, and Media Messages. These categories interact to explain the central category of Body/Self Image, and an emergent theory is presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Assessing the Landscape: Body Image Values and Attitudes among Middle School Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosick, Tracy L.; Talbert-Johnson, Carolyn; Myers, Melissa J.; Angelo, Renee

    2013-01-01

    Background: Body image refers to an individual's thoughts and feelings about his or her body and physical appearance. To date, several qualitative and quantitative findings implicate sociocultural influences, such as the media or parental pressure, in shaping female adolescents' body image perceptions. Overall, there is not much quantitative…

  7. Content Based Image Matching for Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deans, M. C.; Meyer, C.

    2006-12-01

    Planetary missions generate large volumes of data. With the MER rovers still functioning on Mars, PDS contains over 7200 released images from the Microscopic Imagers alone. These data products are only searchable by keys such as the Sol, spacecraft clock, or rover motion counter index, with little connection to the semantic content of the images. We have developed a method for matching images based on the visual textures in images. For every image in a database, a series of filters compute the image response to localized frequencies and orientations. Filter responses are turned into a low dimensional descriptor vector, generating a 37 dimensional fingerprint. For images such as the MER MI, this represents a compression ratio of 99.9965% (the fingerprint is approximately 0.0035% the size of the original image). At query time, fingerprints are quickly matched to find images with similar appearance. Image databases containing several thousand images are preprocessed offline in a matter of hours. Image matches from the database are found in a matter of seconds. We have demonstrated this image matching technique using three sources of data. The first database consists of 7200 images from the MER Microscopic Imager. The second database consists of 3500 images from the Narrow Angle Mars Orbital Camera (MOC-NA), which were cropped into 1024×1024 sub-images for consistency. The third database consists of 7500 scanned archival photos from the Apollo Metric Camera. Example query results from all three data sources are shown. We have also carried out user tests to evaluate matching performance by hand labeling results. User tests verify approximately 20% false positive rate for the top 14 results for MOC NA and MER MI data. This means typically 10 to 12 results out of 14 match the query image sufficiently. This represents a powerful search tool for databases of thousands of images where the a priori match probability for an image might be less than 1%. Qualitatively, correct

  8. Media Influences on Body Image and Disordered Eating among Indigenous Adolescent Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Marita P.; Ricciardelli, Lina; Mellor, David; Ball, Kylie

    2005-01-01

    There has been no previous investigation of body image concerns and body change strategies among indigenous Australians. This study was designed to investigate the level of body satisfaction, body change strategies, and perceived media messages about body change strategies among 50 indigenous (25 males, 25 females) and 50 non-indigenous (25 males,…

  9. Body image and nonsuicidal self-injury: Validation of the Body Investment Scale in participants with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, J H; Cañabate, M; García-Alandete, J; Llorca, G; Real-López, M; Beltrán, M; Pérez, S

    2018-01-01

    The Body Investment Scale (BIS) assesses body image feelings, body care, protection of the body, and comfort in touch, in order to identify and distinguish participants with self-harming and self-destructive tendencies. However, the psychometric properties of the BIS were not analysed in participants diagnosed with eating disorders. The main objective of the present study is to confirm the factor structure of the Spanish version of the BIS and analyse its psychometric properties in a sample composed of women diagnosed with eating disorders. Participants were 250 Spanish women between 12 and 60 years old (M = 26.05, SD = 11.97) diagnosed with eating disorders. A confirmatory factor analysis showed a poor fit of the original BIS. The final model showed an acceptable 4-factor structure (Body Feelings, α = .88; Body Touch, α = .82; Body Protection, α = .77; Body Care, α = .68), with a good fit to the data (SBχ 2 (246)  = 393.21, CFI = .906, IFI = .908, RMSEA = .049). The relationships between the BIS and both the Purpose-In-Life Test-10 Items and Beck Hopelessness Scale were analysed, as well as differences in the BIS score according to nonsuicidal self-injuries and suicidal ideation in the past year. The BIS is an appropriate instrument to assess the body investment dimension of body image in women with eating disorders. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Intracardiac foreign body resulting from a transmediastinal gunshot mimics an extracardiac foreign body: An image presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsun-Yi Fu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A transmediastinal gunshot wound (TMGW is one of the most severe traumatic injuries, with a high mortality rate. Prompt diagnosis and emergency surgical intervention with or without cardiopulmonary bypass are usually required to save lives. We report a particular case of TMGW in which the computed tomography imaging findings indicated an extracardiac foreign body. However, intraoperative findings revealed an intracardiac foreign body, and urgent cardiopulmonary bypass was performed to remove the foreign body. We suggest that cardiopulmonary bypass should be on standby during an exploratory sternotomy for TMGW, when the trajectory of the bullet hints at a cardiac-penetrating injury according to imaging studies and the location of the bullet remains unaffected by the patient's postural changes.

  11. Investigating the relation between women's body image and unconsummated marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Hosseini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unconsummated marriage is considered to be one of the complicated sexual issues that lead to multiple complications and problems for couples as well as the society. It is thought that this disorder is more common in traditional cultures and some religions such as Islam, Hinduism, and Judaism. The aim of this study was to determine the relation between women's body image and unconsummated marriage. Materials and Methods: This was a case-control study which was conducted among 50 women who had an unconsummated marriage (case group and 100 women who had a consummated marriage (control group in Isfahan, Iran during 2015–2016. Data were collected using the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical tests. Results: The total score of body image and all its components had no significant difference between both the groups of the case and the control (P > 0.05. Conclusions: Considering that no relation was found between body image and unconsummated marriage and the religious culture of the Iranian society with conservative sexual norms, investigating unconsummated marriage with emphasis on cultural factors is recommended. Hence, such sexual disorders would be avoided and the number of affected people and challenges can be decreased.

  12. Exploring the influence of gender-role socialization and objectified body consciousness on body image disturbance in breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boquiren, Virginia M; Esplen, Mary Jane; Wong, Jiahui; Toner, Brenda; Warner, Ellen

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to explore the relationships between gender-role socialization, objectified body consciousness and quality of life in breast cancer (BC) survivors with body image (BI) disturbance post-treatment. A total of 150 BC survivors participating in an ongoing randomized clinical trial of a group psychotherapy intervention for BI-related concerns completed a baseline battery of standardized measures including the following: Body Image Scale (BIS), Body Image after Breast Cancer Questionnaire (BIBCQ), Objectified Body Consciousness Scale (OBCS) measuring Body Shame and Surveillance, Gender-Role Socialization Scale (GRSS) measuring internalization of traditional gender roles and attitudes and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast Quality-of-Life Instrument (FACT-B). Correlational analyses were conducted between the two BI questionnaires, the two primary psychosocial variables GRSS and OBCS, and FACT-B. Path analysis was conducted on a proposed theoretical model delineating pathways between the two primary psychosocial variables and BI disturbance. Significant positive correlations were found between the two BI scales and (a) GRSS (average r = 0.53, p traditional gender roles and attitudes, who engaged in greater self-surveillance and experienced greater body shame, reported greater BI disturbance and poorer quality of life post-treatment. Women with these predispositions are likely to be more vulnerable for psychological distress and may experience poorer adjustment after BC treatment. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Body image dissatisfaction in patients undergoing breast reconstruction: Examining the roles of breast symmetry and appearance investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Irene; Reece, Gregory P; Huang, Sheng-Cheng; Mahajan, Kanika; Andon, Johnny; Khanal, Pujjal; Sun, Clement; Nicklaus, Krista; Merchant, Fatima; Markey, Mia K; Fingeret, Michelle Cororve

    2018-03-01

    Reconstruction as part of treatment for breast cancer is aimed at mitigating body image concerns after mastectomy. Although algorithms have been developed to objectively assess breast reconstruction outcomes, associations between objectively quantified breast aesthetic appearance and patient-reported body image outcomes have not been examined. Further, the role of appearance investment in explaining a patient's body image is not well understood. We investigated the extent to which objectively quantified breast symmetry and patient-reported appearance investment were associated with body image dissatisfaction in patients undergoing cancer-related breast reconstruction. Breast cancer patients in different stages of reconstruction (n = 190) completed self-report measures of appearance investment and body image dissatisfaction. Vertical extent and horizontal extent symmetry values, which are indicators of breast symmetry, were calculated from clinical photographs. Associations among breast symmetry, appearance investment, body image dissatisfaction, and patient clinical factors were examined. Multi-variable regression was used to evaluate the extent to which symmetry and appearance investment were associated with body image dissatisfaction. Vertical extent symmetry, but not horizontal extent symmetry, was associated with body image dissatisfaction. Decreased vertical extent symmetry (β = -.19, P image dissatisfaction while controlling for clinical factors. Breast symmetry and patient appearance investment both significantly contribute to an understanding of patient-reported body image satisfaction during breast reconstruction treatment. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Waif goodbye! Average-size female models promote positive body image and appeal to consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrichs, Phillippa C; Lee, Christina

    2011-10-01

    Despite consensus that exposure to media images of thin fashion models is associated with poor body image and disordered eating behaviours, few attempts have been made to enact change in the media. This study sought to investigate an effective alternative to current media imagery, by exploring the advertising effectiveness of average-size female fashion models, and their impact on the body image of both women and men. A sample of 171 women and 120 men were assigned to one of three advertisement conditions: no models, thin models and average-size models. Women and men rated average-size models as equally effective in advertisements as thin and no models. For women with average and high levels of internalisation of cultural beauty ideals, exposure to average-size female models was associated with a significantly more positive body image state in comparison to exposure to thin models and no models. For men reporting high levels of internalisation, exposure to average-size models was also associated with a more positive body image state in comparison to viewing thin models. These findings suggest that average-size female models can promote positive body image and appeal to consumers.

  15. The effectiveness of self-compassion and self-esteem writing tasks in reducing body image concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seekis, Veya; Bradley, Graham L; Duffy, Amanda

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated whether single-session self-compassion and self-esteem writing tasks ameliorate the body image concerns evoked by a negative body image induction. Ninety-six female university students aged 17-25 years (M age =19.45, SD=1.84) were randomly assigned to one of three writing treatment groups: self-compassion, self-esteem, or control. After reading a negative body image scenario, participants completed scales measuring state body appreciation, body satisfaction, and appearance anxiety. They then undertook the assigned writing task, and completed the three measures again, both immediately post-treatment and at 2-week follow-up. The self-compassion writing group showed higher post-treatment body appreciation than the self-esteem and control groups, and higher body appreciation than the control group at follow-up. At post-treatment and follow-up, self-compassion and self-esteem writing showed higher body satisfaction than the control. The groups did not differ on appearance anxiety. Writing-based interventions, especially those that enhance self-compassion, may help alleviate certain body image concerns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Body Image and Self-Esteem in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Emine; Özdilli, Kürşat; Yorulmaz, Hatice

    2013-09-01

    The study was conducted in order to investigate the effect of disease-related variables such as socio-demographic characteristics, disease complaints and use of necrosis factor (anti-TNF) on the body image and self-esteem in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The data was collected by an Introductory Information Form, Body Image Scale (PfP) BIS and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI) in 120 patients with rheumatoid arthritis and in 120 healthy controls. One-way analysis of variance, Tukey HDS analysis, t-test, Kruskal-Wallis test, the Mann-Whitney U test, and Pearson's and Spearman's correlation coefficients were used to compare the data. 60% of the control group were in the 20-44 year-age group, 75% were women and 30.8% had a bachelor's degree or above, while 60% of patient group were in the 20-44 year-age group, 71.7% were women and 36.7% had a bachelor's degree or higher education level. We observed that the body satisfaction and self-esteem levels were higher in the 20-44 age group, in those with a bachelor's degree or higher education and in the patients who had no additional disease and who did not use anti-TNF. The body satisfaction and self-esteem levels were lower in those who had been receiving treatment for longer than 5 years, who had changes in hands and body, who had gait disturbance and who had changes in family and working life. The assessment of the psychosocial needs with a holistic approach and training programs for body image and self-esteem would be advisable for patients with rheumatoid arthritis who are aged 45-59 years, who have low self-esteem, who have additional diseases, who use anti-TNF, who have changes in hands and body and who have primary-school education.

  17. [Attitude change toward body image: the role of elaboration on attitude strength].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasco, Margarita; Briñol, Pablo; Horcajo, Javier

    2010-02-01

    Attitude change toward body image: The role of elaboration on attitude strength. Attitudes toward body image have been shown to play a central role in the understanding and treating of eating disorders. In the present research, participants' attitudes toward their body image were changed through a persuasive procedure involving high mental elaboration (self-persuasion) or through a less engaging procedure involving less active participation (passive exposure). As expected, participants in these two groups showed more favourable attitudes toward their bodies than those in the control group. Despite that both treatments were equally efficient in changing attitudes, the strength associated with those attitudes was significantly different depending on the amount of thinking involved in the process of change. Specifically, attitudes were stronger in the high rather than low thinking group of treatment. This finding is important because the strength of the attitude may determine the long-term consequences of an intervention.

  18. Evaluation of whole-body MR to CT deformable image registration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akbarzadeh, A.; Gutierrez, D.; Baskin, A.; Ay, M. R.; Ahmadian, A.; Alam, N. Riahi; Loevblad, K. O.; Zaidi, H.

    2013-01-01

    Multimodality image registration plays a crucial role in various clinical and research applications. The aim of this study is to present an optimized MR to CT whole-body deformable image registration algorithm and its validation using clinical studies. A 3D intermodality registration technique based

  19. Engaging stakeholder communities as body image intervention partners: The Body Project as a case example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Carolyn Black; Perez, Marisol; Kilpela, Lisa Smith; Diedrichs, Phillippa C; Trujillo, Eva; Stice, Eric

    2017-04-01

    Despite recent advances in developing evidence-based psychological interventions, substantial changes are needed in the current system of intervention delivery to impact mental health on a global scale (Kazdin & Blase, 2011). Prevention offers one avenue for reaching large populations because prevention interventions often are amenable to scaling-up strategies, such as task-shifting to lay providers, which further facilitate community stakeholder partnerships. This paper discusses the dissemination and implementation of the Body Project, an evidence-based body image prevention program, across 6 diverse stakeholder partnerships that span academic, non-profit and business sectors at national and international levels. The paper details key elements of the Body Project that facilitated partnership development, dissemination and implementation, including use of community-based participatory research methods and a blended train-the-trainer and task-shifting approach. We observed consistent themes across partnerships, including: sharing decision making with community partners, engaging of community leaders as gatekeepers, emphasizing strengths of community partners, working within the community's structure, optimizing non-traditional and/or private financial resources, placing value on cost-effectiveness and sustainability, marketing the program, and supporting flexibility and creativity in developing strategies for evolution within the community and in research. Ideally, lessons learned with the Body Project can be generalized to implementation of other body image and eating disorder prevention programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The effects of Cross-fit, Pilates and Zumba exercise on body composition and body image of women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülsüm BAŞTUĞ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate body composition and body image of women doing CrossFit, Pilates and Zumba exercises. Material and Methods: This study was carried out to investigate body composition and body areas satisfaction of women doing CrossFit, Pilates and Zumba exercises, 80 women voluntarily being in an average age of 42.74±8.47 voluntarily participated in the research. The women were grouped into two such as experimental (n=45 and control (n=35. The women in experimental group were applied 30-70min mixed exercises (CrossFit, Plates, Zumba for 4 days in a week throughout 12 weeks to have target heart rate of 50-60%. Results: A significant difference was found between body weight and BMI pre-test and post-test values of women who were applied mixed exercise program (CrossFit, Pilates, Zumba. There was a decrease in both body weight and average means of BMI of women. A significant difference was found between body areas satisfaction pre-test and post-test values of women who were applied CrossFit, Pilates, Zumba exercise program. While pre-test value of body areas satisfaction of women who were applied mixed exercise program was determined as 31.68±6.11, its post-test value was 35.68±5.02. It is remarkable that while body weight and BMI of women doing exercises decreased, their body areas satisfaction values increased. It was indicated that the body areas satisfaction of women having weight loss increased. A significant difference was not found between body weight, BMI and body areas satisfaction pre-test and post-test values of women in control group. Conclusion: It was concluded that there were positive effects on body weight, BMI and body image.

  1. Body image during pregnancy: an evaluation of the suitability of the body attitudes questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuller-Tyszkiewicz Matthew

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Available data suggest that body dissatisfaction is common during pregnancy and may even be a precursor to post-natal depression. However, in order to accurately identify at-risk women, it is essential to first establish that body image measures function appropriately in pregnant populations. Our study examines the suitability of the Body Attitudes Questionnaire (BAQ for measuring body dissatisfaction among pregnant women by comparing the psychometric functioning of the BAQ: (1 across key phases of pregnancy, and (2 between pregnant and non-pregnant women. Methods A total of 176 pregnant women from Melbourne, Victoria filled out a questionnaire battery containing demographic questions and the Body Attitudes Questionnaire at 16, 24, and 32 weeks during pregnancy. A comparison group of 148 non-pregnant women also completed the questionnaire battery at Time 1. Evaluations of the psychometric properties of the BAQ consisted of a series of measurement invariance tests conducted within a structural equation modelling framework. Results Although the internal consistency and factorial validity of the subscales of the BAQ were established across time and also in comparisons between pregnant and non-pregnant women, measurement invariance tests showed non-invariant item intercepts across pregnancy and also in comparison with the non-pregnant subgroup. Inspection of modification indices revealed a complex, non-uniform pattern of differences in item intercepts across groups. Conclusions Collectively, our findings suggest that comparisons of body dissatisfaction between pregnant and non-pregnant women (at least based on the BAQ are likely to be conflated by differential measurement biases that serve to undermine attempts to accurately assess level of body dissatisfaction. Researchers should be cautious in assessments of body dissatisfaction among pregnant women until a suitable measure has been established for use in this population. Given

  2. Correlates of Body Image in Polish Weight Trainers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guszkowska Monika

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine body image and body satisfaction in Polish adult men involved in resistance training and to investigate their relationships with objective anthropometric and training characteristics. Methods. The study included 176 males aged 18-31 years with 1-14 years resistance training experience. The Figure Rating Scale, Body Satisfaction Scale and a self-designed questionnaire were administered. Results. Approximately 62% of the participants would like to be more muscular, only 29% accepted their appearance and 9% would like to be less muscular. The body selected as the personal ideal (M = 5.34 was less muscular than the body considered by the participants to be ideal by other men (normative body; M = 6.07 and was more muscular than the body thought to be most attractive to women (M = 5.10. Actual and ideal body muscularity correlated positively with age and body mass, height and BMI. Dissatisfaction with trunk and motor characteristics correlated positively with ideal body and the body considered most attractive to women as well as with the discrepancy indices between the above factors and the actual body. Conclusions. Men regularly involved in resistance training were found to strive for a muscular physique. The normative body, the physique believed to be desired by other men, was more muscular than what was considered preferential to women. However, the latter constitutes a stronger determinant of the level of body satisfaction in men engaged in resistance training.

  3. Prevalence of body image dissatisfaction and associated factors among physical education students

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa Pinheiro Ferrari; Edio Luiz Petroski; Diego Augusto Santos Silva

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of and factors associated with body image dissatisfaction among physical education students enrolled in a public university. METHODS: This study evaluated 236 students and assessed body image perception (silhouette scale), sociodemographic variables (sex, age, parental education, marital status, university course, work, living arrangement, study shift, and income), physical activity level (International Physical Activity Questionnaire - Short Version), d...

  4. The Effect of Media on Body Image in Pregnant and Postpartum Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M; Liechty, Toni; Collier, Kevin M; Sharp, Aubrey D; Davis, Emilie J; Kroff, Savannah L

    2018-07-01

    Much research has found that exposure to certain types of media portrayals of women can be related to body image concerns among women. The current paper focuses on the impact of certain messages on pregnant and postpartum women. These women are rarely examined in a media research context but are particularly vulnerable to body image concerns. This experimental study involved 192 pregnant or postpartum women who read a magazine containing glamorized media portrayals of pregnant/postpartum women or a control magazine. Pregnant women reported lower body image after only five minutes of exposure to the magazine with pregnant/postpartum women compared to the control group. There was no immediate effect on postpartum women. Implications for the media industry, health professionals, and women are discussed.

  5. A Virtual Reality Full Body Illusion Improves Body Image Disturbance in Anorexia Nervosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouk Keizer

    Full Text Available Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN have a persistent distorted experience of the size of their body. Previously we found that the Rubber Hand Illusion improves hand size estimation in this group. Here we investigated whether a Full Body Illusion (FBI affects body size estimation of body parts more emotionally salient than the hand. In the FBI, analogue to the RHI, participants experience ownership over an entire virtual body in VR after synchronous visuo-tactile stimulation of the actual and virtual body.We asked participants to estimate their body size (shoulders, abdomen, hips before the FBI was induced, directly after induction and at ~2 hour 45 minutes follow-up. The results showed that AN patients (N = 30 decrease the overestimation of their shoulders, abdomen and hips directly after the FBI was induced. This effect was strongest for estimates of circumference, and also observed in the asynchronous control condition of the illusion. Moreover, at follow-up, the improvements in body size estimation could still be observed in the AN group. Notably, the HC group (N = 29 also showed changes in body size estimation after the FBI, but the effect showed a different pattern than that of the AN group.The results lead us to conclude that the disturbed experience of body size in AN is flexible and can be changed, even for highly emotional body parts. As such this study offers novel starting points from which new interventions for body image disturbance in AN can be developed.

  6. Learning effective color features for content based image retrieval in dermatology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunte, Kerstin; Biehl, Michael; Jonkman, Marcel F.; Petkov, Nicolai

    We investigate the extraction of effective color features for a content-based image retrieval (CBIR) application in dermatology. Effectiveness is measured by the rate of correct retrieval of images from four color classes of skin lesions. We employ and compare two different methods to learn

  7. The Relationship between Body Image Coping Strategy and Eating Disorders among Iranian Adolescent Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Malihe Farid; Mahnaz Akbari Kamrani

    2016-01-01

    Background: Due to physical and psychological changes during puberty, most common problem of young people is body image defined as degree of size, shape and general appearance. Wrong perception of body image and dissatisfaction with body image in people can lead to eating disorders and stress. Peace of mind is in fact a mental mechanism that people use it to reduce physical and emotional strains coping with stressful situations. The aim of this study was to determine the type of coping strate...

  8. Mitochondrial monoaminoxidase activity and serotonin content in rat brain after whole-body γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savitskij, I.V.; Tsybul'skij, V.V.; Grivtsev, B.A.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that γ-irradiation of albino rats with a dose of 30 Gy leads to pronounced phase changes in monoaminoxidase activity and serotonin content in rat brain at early times after whole-body exposure. These is a similar direction of changes in the activity of the enzyme and in the content of the substrate adequate to the latter

  9. Body Image and Eating Disorders among Female Students: A Pilot Nutritional Psychology Study in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comfort Nora Ntim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Body image and eating disorders have emerged as an essential facet of bio-psychosocial well-being. Although considered less prevalent in Ghana than in the West, body image and eating disorders are issues of global concern. One hundred (100 female participants with a mean age of approximately 21 years were recruited after informed consent for this pilot study. Results showed a positive correlation between body image and eating disorders. In addition, there was no significant difference between the levels of university education on female body image and eating distortions in Ghana. These findings underscore the importance for more future studies in nutritional psychology and related clinical management.

  10. Body image perceptions in Western and post-communist countries: a cross-cultural pilot study of children and parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humenikova, Lenka; Gates, Gail E

    2008-07-01

    The development of an unrealistic ideal body image and body size dissatisfaction among children is common in Western countries, including the USA and many European nations. However, little is known about children's body image perceptions in post-communist countries. This pilot study evaluated body image perceptions in a sample of Czech school-aged children and their parents and compared them with the perceptions of American children and parents. Ninety-seven Czech and 45 American 4th-6th graders and their parents from eight urban schools participated in this study. A previously developed silhouette body image instrument was utilized in a parent questionnaire and during child interviews to measure perceived and ideal body image perceptions of children and parents. Descriptive statistics, independent t-tests and paired t-tests were used to compare differences between children's and parents' perceived and ideal body image perceptions. Associations between body image perceptions and other variables were explored using bivariate correlations. American children had a thinner ideal body image compared with Czech children (P Parent's ideal body image for their children did not differ by nationality (P = 0.858). While the pressure on children to look thinner was apparent among both American and Czech children, Czech children considered a larger body size as more ideal. A future study should evaluate body image perceptions and factors influencing these perceptions in a representative sample of Czech children and parents.

  11. Inside the Body: Medical Imaging and the Visual Arts Dentro al Corpo: Imaging Medico e Arti Visive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Di Marco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    The show of the display of the inner body has been charming the West for more than five hundred years, but it was only by the end of the 19th century that the invention of radiography allowed a radically new phenomenological experience: peering inside a living body. In the 20th century, medical imaging evolved in a spectacular manner, re-defining the way we see our bodies, literally and metaphorically (think about the new identity of the foetus, promoted by ultrasound imaging, and that of the mind, fostered by functional imaging. In this article, I try to explore some of these transformations, analyzing the work of artists who elaborate very different representations and discourses about the body, but who share the choice of using medical images and technologies.

    Lo spettacolo della messa a vista del corpo interno affascina l’Occidente da oltre cinquecento anni, ma è stato solo sul finire del XIX secolo che l’invenzione della radiografia ha permesso un’esperienza radicale sul piano fenomenologico: guardare dentro a un corpo vivo. Nel XX secolo l’imaging medico si è sviluppato in maniera vertiginosa, ridefinendo il nostro modo di vedere il corpo, letteralmente e metaforicamente (si pensi alla rinnovata identità del feto, promossa dall’ecografia, e a quella della mente, determinata dall’imaging funzionale. In questo articolo cerco di esplorare alcune di queste trasformazioni, analizzando il lavoro di artisti che ci offrono rappresentazioni e discorsi sul corpo profondamente diversi, ma che sono accomunati dalla scelta di usare nelle loro opere immagini e tecnologie mediche.

     

  12. The relationship between Facebook and Instagram appearance-focused activities and body image concerns in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Rachel; Newton-John, Toby; Slater, Amy

    2017-12-01

    The present study aimed to identify the specific social networking sites (SNS) features that relate to body image concerns in young women. A total of 259 women aged 18-29years completed questionnaire measures of SNS use (Facebook and Instagram) and body image concerns. It was found that appearance-focused SNS use, rather than overall SNS use, was related to body image concerns in young women. Specifically, greater engagement in photo activities on Facebook, but not general Facebook use, was associated with greater thin-ideal internalisation and body surveillance. Similarly, following appearance-focused accounts on Instagram was associated with thin-ideal internalisation, body surveillance, and drive for thinness, whereas following appearance-neutral accounts was not associated with any body image outcomes. Implications for future SNS research, as well as for body image and disordered eating interventions for young women, are discussed. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Optimized workflow and imaging protocols for whole-body oncologic PET/MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Shirou; Hara, Takamitsu; Nanbu, Takeyuki; Suenaga, Hiroki; Sugawara, Shigeyasu; Kuroiwa, Daichi; Sekino, Hirofumi; Miyajima, Masayuki; Kubo, Hitoshi; Oriuchi, Noboru; Ito, Hiroshi

    2016-11-01

    Although PET/MRI has the advantages of a simultaneous acquisition of PET and MRI, high soft-tissue contrast of the MRI images, and reduction of radiation exposure, its low profitability and long acquisition time are significant problems in clinical settings. Thus, MRI protocols that meet oncological purposes need to be used in order to reduce examination time while securing detectability. Currently, half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin echo and 3D-T1 volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination may be the most commonly used sequences for whole-body imaging due to their shorter acquisition time and higher diagnostic accuracy. Although there have been several reports that adding diffusion weighted image (DWI) to PET/MRI protocol has had no effect on tumor detection to date, in cases of liver, kidney, bladder, and prostate cancer, the use of DWI may be beneficial in detecting lesions. Another possible option is to scan each region with different MRI sequences instead of scanning the whole body using one sequence continuously. We herein report a workflow and imaging protocols for whole-body oncologic PET/MRI using an integrated system in the clinical routine, designed for the detection, for example by cancer screening, of metastatic lesions, in order to help future users optimize their workflow and imaging protocols.

  14. Development of a new body image assessment scale in urban Cameroon: an anthropological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Emmanuel; Pasquet, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Develop and validate body image scales (BIS) presenting real human bodies adapted to the macroscopic phenotype of urban Cameroonian populations. Quantitative and qualitative analysis. Yaoundé, capital city of Cameroon. Four samples with balanced sex-ratio: the first (n=16) aged 18 to 65 years (qualitative study), the second (n=30) aged 25 to 40 years (photo database), the third (n=47) and fourth (n=181), > or =18 years (validation study). Construct validity, test retest reliability, concurrent and convergent validity of BIS. Body image scales present six Cameroonians of each sex arranged according to main body mass index (BMI) categories: underweight ( or =40 kg/m2). Test-retest reliability correlations for current body size (CBS), desired body size and current desirable discrepancy (body self-satisfaction index) on BIS were never below .90. Plus, for the concurrent validity, we observed a significant correlation (r=0.67, Pbody size perceptions, is acceptable. Body image scales are adapted to the phenotypic characteristics of urban Cameroonian populations. They are reliable and valid to assess body size perceptions and culturally adapted to the Cameroonian context.

  15. Dynamic whole-body PET parametric imaging: II. Task-oriented statistical estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Nicolas A; Lodge, Martin A; Zhou, Y; Wahl, Richard L; Rahmim, Arman

    2013-10-21

    In the context of oncology, dynamic PET imaging coupled with standard graphical linear analysis has been previously employed to enable quantitative estimation of tracer kinetic parameters of physiological interest at the voxel level, thus, enabling quantitative PET parametric imaging. However, dynamic PET acquisition protocols have been confined to the limited axial field-of-view (~15-20 cm) of a single-bed position and have not been translated to the whole-body clinical imaging domain. On the contrary, standardized uptake value (SUV) PET imaging, considered as the routine approach in clinical oncology, commonly involves multi-bed acquisitions, but is performed statically, thus not allowing for dynamic tracking of the tracer distribution. Here, we pursue a transition to dynamic whole-body PET parametric imaging, by presenting, within a unified framework, clinically feasible multi-bed dynamic PET acquisition protocols and parametric imaging methods. In a companion study, we presented a novel clinically feasible dynamic (4D) multi-bed PET acquisition protocol as well as the concept of whole-body PET parametric imaging employing Patlak ordinary least squares (OLS) regression to estimate the quantitative parameters of tracer uptake rate Ki and total blood distribution volume V. In the present study, we propose an advanced hybrid linear regression framework, driven by Patlak kinetic voxel correlations, to achieve superior trade-off between contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and mean squared error (MSE) than provided by OLS for the final Ki parametric images, enabling task-based performance optimization. Overall, whether the observer's task is to detect a tumor or quantitatively assess treatment response, the proposed statistical estimation framework can be adapted to satisfy the specific task performance criteria, by adjusting the Patlak correlation-coefficient (WR) reference value. The multi-bed dynamic acquisition protocol, as optimized in the preceding companion study

  16. Dynamic whole-body PET parametric imaging: II. Task-oriented statistical estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karakatsanis, Nicolas A; Lodge, Martin A; Zhou, Y; Wahl, Richard L; Rahmim, Arman

    2013-01-01

    In the context of oncology, dynamic PET imaging coupled with standard graphical linear analysis has been previously employed to enable quantitative estimation of tracer kinetic parameters of physiological interest at the voxel level, thus, enabling quantitative PET parametric imaging. However, dynamic PET acquisition protocols have been confined to the limited axial field-of-view (∼15–20 cm) of a single-bed position and have not been translated to the whole-body clinical imaging domain. On the contrary, standardized uptake value (SUV) PET imaging, considered as the routine approach in clinical oncology, commonly involves multi-bed acquisitions, but is performed statically, thus not allowing for dynamic tracking of the tracer distribution. Here, we pursue a transition to dynamic whole-body PET parametric imaging, by presenting, within a unified framework, clinically feasible multi-bed dynamic PET acquisition protocols and parametric imaging methods. In a companion study, we presented a novel clinically feasible dynamic (4D) multi-bed PET acquisition protocol as well as the concept of whole-body PET parametric imaging employing Patlak ordinary least squares (OLS) regression to estimate the quantitative parameters of tracer uptake rate K i and total blood distribution volume V. In the present study, we propose an advanced hybrid linear regression framework, driven by Patlak kinetic voxel correlations, to achieve superior trade-off between contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and mean squared error (MSE) than provided by OLS for the final K i parametric images, enabling task-based performance optimization. Overall, whether the observer's task is to detect a tumor or quantitatively assess treatment response, the proposed statistical estimation framework can be adapted to satisfy the specific task performance criteria, by adjusting the Patlak correlation-coefficient (WR) reference value. The multi-bed dynamic acquisition protocol, as optimized in the preceding companion

  17. Body image, nutritional status, abdominal strength, and cardiorespiratory fitness in children and adolescents practicing sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Alexandre; Januário, Renata Selvatici B; Casonatto, Juliano; Sonoo, Christi Noriko

    2013-01-01

    To verify the association between nutritional status, physical fitness, and body image in children and adolescents. This cross-sectional study included 401 students (236 boys and 165 girls) aged between 8 and 16 years that were regularly enrolled in sports in the local clubs. The nutritional status was evaluated by the body mass index. Students were assessed for satisfaction with body image, abdominal strength resistance, and cardiorespiratory fitness. The variables were assessed on the same day following a standardized order. In order to verify relationships between variables, the chi-square test was used. Afterwards, the binary logistic regression was applied to identify the magnitude of the associations, considering p<0.05 as significant. Association was found between body image and body mass index (p=0.001), abdominal strength resistance (p=0.005) and cardiorespiratory fitness (p=0.001). The Odds Ratio for presenting the body image insatisfaction for those who have not achieved the expected values for the health criteria in abdominal strength resistance and cardiorespiratory fitness were 2.14 and 2.42 times respectively, and for those with overweight and obesity, 2.87 times. Insatisfaction with body image is associated with body mass index and also with physical fitness, abdominal strength resistance, and cardiorespiratory fitness variables.

  18. Body Image and Self-Esteem among Adolescent Girls: Testing the Influence of Sociocultural Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Daniel; Vignoles, Vivian L.; Dittmar, Helga

    2005-01-01

    In Western cultures, girls' self-esteem declines substantially during middle adolescence, with changes in body image proposed as a possible explanation. Body image develops in the context of sociocultural factors, such as unrealistic media images of female beauty. In a study of 136 U.K. girls aged 11-16, experimental exposure to either ultra-thin…

  19. Abdominoplasty and its effect on body image, self-esteem, and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brito, Maria José Azevedo; Nahas, Fábio Xerfan; Barbosa, Marcus Vinicius Jardini; Dini, Gal Moreira; Kimura, Alexandro Kenji; Farah, Andréia Bufoni; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2010-07-01

    The impact of abdominoplasty on the quality of life of abdominoplasty patients was assessed 1- and 6-months postoperatively. Forty women aged 25 to 60 years were divided into study group (25 patients who underwent abdominoplasty) and waiting-list control group (15 patients). Three questionnaires (Body Shape Questionnaire [BSQ], Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale [RSE/UNIFESP], and Short Form 36 Health Survey Questionnaire [SF-36]) were administered to the study group (preoperatively, 1- and 6-months postoperatively) and control group (on 2 occasions 6 months apart). A significant positive impact on body image, self-esteem, and mental health was found 1- and 6-months postoperatively. Significant differences were observed in role physical, role emotional, and vitality 1-month postoperatively. In the control group, significant differences were found for vitality. There was a significant improvement in Comparative perception of body image (6-month assessment) in the study group compared with controls. Abdominoplasty improved body image, self-esteem, and mental health.

  20. Gender differences in colour naming performance for gender specific body shape images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliman, N A; Green, M W; Wan, W K

    1998-03-01

    Males are increasingly subjected to pressures to conform to aesthetic body stereotypes. There is, however, comparatively little published research on the aetiology of male body shape concerns. Two experiments are presented, which investigate the relationship between gender specific body shape concerns and colour-naming performance. Each study comprised a between subject design, in which each subject was tested on a single occasion. A pictorial version of a modified Stroop task was used in both studies. Subjects colour-named gender specific obese and thin body shape images and semantically homogeneous neutral images (birds) presented in a blocked format. The first experiment investigated female subjects (N = 68) and the second investigated males (N = 56). Subjects also completed a self-report measure of eating behaviour. Currently dieting female subjects exhibited significant colour-naming differences between obese and neutral images. A similar pattern of colour-naming performance was found to be related to external eating in the male subjects.

  1. #fitspo or #loveyourself? The impact of fitspiration and self-compassion Instagram images on women’s body image, self-compassion, and mood

    OpenAIRE

    Slater, A.; Varsani, N.; Diedrichs, P. C.

    2017-01-01

    This study experimentally examined the impact of exposure to fitspiration images and self-compassion quotes on social media on young women’s body satisfaction, body appreciation, self-compassion, and negative mood. Female undergraduate students (N = 160) were randomly assigned to view either Instagram images of fitspiration, self-compassion quotes, a combination of both, or appearance-neutral images. Results showed no differences between viewing fitspiration images compared to viewing neutral...

  2. Predictors of vulnerability to reduced body image satisfaction and psychological wellbeing in response to exposure to idealized female media images in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Sarah J; Paxton, Susan J

    2002-11-01

    Predictors of change in body satisfaction, depressed mood, anxiety and anger, were examined following exposure to idealized female advertising images in Grades 7 and 10 girls. Stable body dissatisfaction, physical appearance comparison tendency, internalization of thin ideal, self-esteem, depression, identity confusion and body mass index (BMI) were assessed. One week later, participants viewed magazine images, before and after which they completed assessments of state body satisfaction, state depression, state anxiety and state anger. Participants were randomly allocated to view either images of idealized females (experimental condition) or fashion accessories (control condition). For both grades, there was a significant decrease in state body satisfaction and a significant increase in state depression attributable to viewing the female images. In Grade 7 girls in the experimental condition, decrease in state body satisfaction was predicted by stable body dissatisfaction and BMI, while significant predictors of decreases in the measures of negative affect included internalization of the thin-ideal and appearance comparison. In Grade 10 girls, reduction in state body satisfaction and increase in state depression was predicted by internalization of the thin-ideal, appearance comparison and stable body dissatisfaction. These findings indicate the importance of individual differences in short-term reaction to viewing idealized media images. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Inc.

  3. Body imaging in the differential diagnosis of jaundice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuno, Nobuyoshi; Endo, Tokiko; Kasugai, Tatsuzo

    1981-01-01

    Forty-five jaundiced patients with confirmed pancreatico-biliary diseases were studied to determine the value of body imaging in the differential diagnosis of jaundice. In this study, body imaging included five tests, which were US, CT, ERCP, PTC and RI. The results indicate that each to these five tests is useful and highly accurate in differentiating between obstructive and nonobstructive jaundice (about 90%). The site of obstruction was delineated in 91.3%, 90.9%, 82.5%, 66.7% and 50% by PTC, ERCP, CT, US and RI, respectively. ERCP, PTC, CT, US and RI helped determine the etiology of jaundice in 79.5%, 65.2%, 57.5%, 50% and 0%, respectively. ERCP and US were highly accurate in establishing the diagnosis of resectable pancreatico-biliary cancer with obstructive jaundice. On the basis of these results, we propose a diagnostic approach to obstructive jaundice as in Table 5. (author)

  4. Clinical and imaging correlates of amyloid deposition in dementia with Lewy bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaghy, Paul C; Firbank, Michael J; Thomas, Alan J; Lloyd, Jim; Petrides, George; Barnett, Nicola; Olsen, Kirsty; O'Brien, John T

    2018-04-19

    Amyloid deposition is common in dementia with Lewy bodies, but its pathophysiological significance is unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between amyloid deposition and clinical profile, gray matter volume, and brain perfusion in dementia with Lewy bodies. Dementia with Lewy bodies (n = 37), Alzheimer's disease (n = 20), and controls (n = 20) underwent a thorough clinical assessment, 3T MRI, and early- and late-phase 18 F-Florbetapir PET-CT to assess cortical perfusion and amyloid deposition, respectively. Amyloid scans were visually categorized as positive or negative. Image analysis was carried out using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) 8. There were no significant differences between amyloid-positive and amyloid-negative dementia with Lewy bodies cases in age (P = .78), overall cognitive impairment (P = .83), level of functional impairment (P = .80), or any other clinical or cognitive scale. There were also no significant differences in hippocampal or gray matter volumes. However, amyloid-positive dementia with Lewy bodies cases had lower medial temporal lobe perfusion (P = .03) than amyloid-negative cases, although a combination of medial temporal lobe perfusion, hippocampal volume, and cognitive measures was unable to accurately predict amyloid status in dementia with Lewy bodies. Amyloid deposition was not associated with differences in clinical or neuropsychological profiles in dementia with Lewy bodies, but was associated with imaging evidence of medial temporal lobe dysfunction. The presence of amyloid in dementia with Lewy bodies cannot be identified on the basis of clinical and other imaging features and will require direct assessment via PET imaging or CSF. © 2018 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2018 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf

  5. The Comparison of Body Image Between Athletes and Non-Athletes Postmenopausal Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah Ghasemi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the present study was to compare and contrastthe sub-scale of the body image of the athletes and nonathlete menopaused females. Methods & Materials: The subjects of the research comprise 60 individuals who were between 43-53 years old. In this study the personalinformation questionnaire and PSDQ test were used.The Personal information questionnaire included the sub-scales of power, endurance, coordination, general health, flexibility, self-esteem, athletic competence, body appearance and, body activity. The Kolmogrov-Smirnov and T test used to analys data . Results: The results showed that the body image of the athletes in all of the sub-scales such as power, endurance, coordination, general health, flexibility, self esteem, athletic competence, fat, body appearance, body activity and whole body was significantly better than individuals who were not athletes. Conclusion: It seems that participation in physical activity programs have a positive effect on menopausal negative side effects.

  6. Sexual quality of life, body image distress, and psychosocial outcomes in colorectal cancer: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Jennifer Barsky; Handorf, Elizabeth; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A

    2018-04-20

    The objectives were to assess changes in sexual QOL and body image distress over time and to examine longitudinal associations between sexual QOL and body image variables with psychosocial outcomes in a sample of colorectal cancer patients. Participants (N = 141) completed a mail-based survey assessing sexual QOL [sexual distress (ISS), treatment impact on sexual function (SFQ), sexual function (FSFI; IIEF)], body image distress (BIS), and psychosocial outcomes [relationship quality (DAS-4), depressive symptoms (CESD-SF), and health-related QOL (HRQOL; FACT-C)]; 88 patients completed 6-month follow-up surveys (62%). Gender and cancer subgroups (male vs. female; rectal vs. colon cancer) were compared and longitudinal models examined associations between sexual QOL and body image variables with psychosocial outcomes over time and by subgroup. Impairments in sexual QOL and body image distress were common. Women and patients with rectal cancer reported worse body image distress compared to men (p = .005) and those with colon cancer (p = .03), respectively; compared to patients with colon cancer, those with rectal cancer reported worse treatment impact (p image distress decreased (p = .02), while sexual QOL was stable (e.g., 58% classified as dysfunctional at both time points, p = .13). For most sexual and body image predictors, worse impairment was associated with worse psychosocial outcomes over time. Several significant gender and cancer subgroup effects were found. Sexual QOL and body image are compromised after colorectal cancer and tend to remain impaired if unaddressed. Sexual concerns should be addressed early to limit broader-reaching psychosocial effects.

  7. Relationship between body image disturbance and incidence of depression: the SUN prospective cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Celeste

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body image disturbance is an increasing problem in Western societies and is associated with a number of mental health outcomes including anorexia, bulimia, body dysmorphia, and depression. The aim of this study was to assess the association between body image disturbance and the incidence of depression. Methods This study included 10,286 participants from a dynamic prospective cohort of Spanish university graduates, who were followed-up for a median period of 4.2 years (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra – the SUN study. The key characteristic of the study is the permanently open recruitment that started in 1999. The baseline questionnaire included information about body mass index (BMI and the nine figure schemes that were used to assess body size perception. These variables were grouped according to recommended classifications and the difference between BMI and body size perception was considered as a proxy of body image disturbance. A subject was classified as an incident case of depression if he/she was initially free of depression and reported a physician-made diagnosis of depression and/or the use of antidepressant medication in at least one of the follow-up questionnaires. The association between body image disturbance and the incidence of depression was estimated by calculating the multivariable adjusted Odds Ratio (OR and its 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI, using logistic regression models. Results The cumulative incidence of depression during follow-up in the cohort was 4.8%. Men who underestimated their body size had a high percentage of overweight and obesity (50.1% and 12.6%, respectively, whereas women who overestimated their body size had a high percentage of underweight (87.6%. The underestimation exhibited a negative association with the incidence of depression among women (OR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.54 – 0.95, but this effect disappeared after adjusting for possible confounding variables. The proportion of

  8. Sex and Age Differences in Body-Image, Self-Esteem, and Body Mass Index in Adolescents and Adults After Single-Ventricle Palliation

    OpenAIRE

    Pike, Nancy A.; Evangelista, Lorraine S.; Doering, Lynn V.; Eastwood, Jo-Ann; Lewis, Alan B.; Child, John S.

    2012-01-01

    Single-ventricle congenital heart disease (SVCHD) requires multiple palliative surgical procedures that leave visible surgical scars and physical deficits, which can alter body-image and self-esteem. This study aimed to compare sex and age differences in body-image, selfesteem, and body mass index (BMI) in adolescents and adults with SVCHD after surgical palliation with those of a healthy control group. Using a comparative, cross-sectional design, 54 adolescent and adult (26 male and 28 femal...

  9. Reducing sedation for pediatric body MRI using accelerated and abbreviated imaging protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Rizwan; Hu, Houchun Harry; Krishnamurthy, Ramkumar; Krishnamurthy, Rajesh

    2018-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an established diagnostic imaging tool for investigating pediatric disease. MRI allows assessment of structure, function, and morphology in cardiovascular imaging, as well as tissue characterization in body imaging, without the use of ionizing radiation. For MRI in children, sedation and general anesthesia (GA) are often utilized to suppress patient motion, which can otherwise compromise image quality and diagnostic efficacy. However, evidence is emerging that use of sedation and GA in children might have long-term neurocognitive side effects, in addition to the short-term procedure-related risks. These concerns make risk-benefit assessment of sedation and GA more challenging. Therefore, reducing or eliminating the need for sedation and GA is an important goal of imaging innovation and research in pediatric MRI. In this review, the authors focus on technical and clinical approaches to reducing and eliminating the use of sedation in the pediatric population based on image acquisition acceleration and imaging protocols abbreviation. This paper covers important physiological and technical considerations for pediatric body MR imaging and discusses MRI techniques that offer the potential of recovering diagnostic-quality images from accelerated scans. In this review, the authors also introduce the concept of reporting elements for important indications for pediatric body MRI and use this as a basis for abbreviating the MR protocols. By employing appropriate accelerated and abbreviated approaches based on an understanding of the imaging needs and reporting elements for a given clinical indication, it is possible to reduce sedation and GA for pediatric chest, cardiovascular and abdominal MRI. (orig.)

  10. Reducing sedation for pediatric body MRI using accelerated and abbreviated imaging protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Rizwan [The Ohio State University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Columbus, OH (United States); Hu, Houchun Harry; Krishnamurthy, Ramkumar; Krishnamurthy, Rajesh [Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2018-01-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an established diagnostic imaging tool for investigating pediatric disease. MRI allows assessment of structure, function, and morphology in cardiovascular imaging, as well as tissue characterization in body imaging, without the use of ionizing radiation. For MRI in children, sedation and general anesthesia (GA) are often utilized to suppress patient motion, which can otherwise compromise image quality and diagnostic efficacy. However, evidence is emerging that use of sedation and GA in children might have long-term neurocognitive side effects, in addition to the short-term procedure-related risks. These concerns make risk-benefit assessment of sedation and GA more challenging. Therefore, reducing or eliminating the need for sedation and GA is an important goal of imaging innovation and research in pediatric MRI. In this review, the authors focus on technical and clinical approaches to reducing and eliminating the use of sedation in the pediatric population based on image acquisition acceleration and imaging protocols abbreviation. This paper covers important physiological and technical considerations for pediatric body MR imaging and discusses MRI techniques that offer the potential of recovering diagnostic-quality images from accelerated scans. In this review, the authors also introduce the concept of reporting elements for important indications for pediatric body MRI and use this as a basis for abbreviating the MR protocols. By employing appropriate accelerated and abbreviated approaches based on an understanding of the imaging needs and reporting elements for a given clinical indication, it is possible to reduce sedation and GA for pediatric chest, cardiovascular and abdominal MRI. (orig.)

  11. Body image mediates the effect of cancer-related stigmatization on depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esser, Peter; Mehnert, Anja; Johansen, Christoffer

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Because cancer-related stigmatization is prevalent but difficult to change, research on its impact on psychological burden and respective intervening variables is needed. Therefore, we investigated the effect of stigmatization on depressive symptomatology and whether body image mediates...... this relationship. METHODS: This bicentric study assessed patients of 4 major tumor entities. We measured stigmatization (SIS-D), depressive symptomatology (PHQ-9), and body image (FKB-20). Applying multiple mediator analyses, we calculated the total effect of stigmatization on depressive symptomatology...

  12. Body image perception and attempts to change weight among female medical students at Mangalore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Assessing body image self-perception has used BMI as an indicator of nutritional status. The visual analogue scale is a highly effective instrument for assessing people′s level of dissatisfaction with their body weight while evaluating the perceptual component of body image. Objective: By knowing body mass index of female medical students, to find out their pattern of body image perception and any attempts done to change their weight. Materials and Methods: All the students residing in MBBS ladies hostel were included in this study and a questionnaire regarding body image perception, diet, physical activity and attempts to change weight was instituted. Their responses were collected, tabulated, analyzed and interpreted. Results: Among 147 study subjects, according to BMI, 25(17% were undernourished while 111(75.5% and 11(7.5% were normally nourished and overweight respectively. 35(23.8% of the subjects felt they were lean, 95(64.6% felt they were normal and 17(11.6% felt they were overweight. Regarding image satisfaction, 98(66.7% of them were satisfied with their image and out of 49 who were not satisfied 30 (20.4 % wanted to reduce weight. Skipping meals was practiced by 42 (28.6% of subjects. Conclusion: About 75.5% of the study group were having normal BMI. Most of them perceived their image correctly regarding to their weight. Most of the underweight and all overweight females were not satisfied. Underweight females preferred to gain weight and overweight females preferred to lose weight.

  13. PEER GROUP DAN UANG SAKU BULANAN MENINGKATKAN RISIKO PERSEPSI BODY IMAGE NEGATIF PADA REMAJA PUTRI DI BEKASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunga Christitha Rosha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTAdolescence is a phase of rapid growth experienced in human life. Adolescent girls will experience anincrease in body fat in•order to prepare reproduction. That makes the body more far from the ideal shape.These, sometime make adolescent girlsfeel dissatisfied with their body shape and eager to have an idealbody shape. The desire to have an ideal body shape is also influenced by the surrounding environment suchas peer group and media. This study discusses the determinant factors of body image and efforts to achieveideal body shape among adolescent girls in Bekasi. This is a quantitative research study with crosssectional design. Respondents in this study were 80 girls aged 11-19 years old in Bekasi. Data analysis wasperformed using descriptive, bivariate and multivariate. Chi square analysis was conducted prior to themultiple logistic regression test to determine the determinant variables of body image perceptions amongadolescent girls. The results showed that 73.8 percent of adolescent girlshad a negative body imageperception. The main determinant factors of body image perceptions on adolescent girls were having a peergroup (OR 5.09 ; 95% CI 1.02 -25.42 and monthly allowance (OR 3.61; 95% CI 1.22 -10.73. Effortsmade by respondents to achieve the body image were diet and physical activity, but the results of chisquare test showed that there were no relationship between the diet and physical activity behavior andperceptions of body image.Keywords: Body image, peer group, a monthly allowance ABSTRAKMasa remaja merupakan fase pertumbuhan cepat yang dialami dalam kehidupan manusia. Remaja putrikhususnya akan mengalami peningkatan lemak tubuh sebagai persiapan reproduksi yang membuattubuhnya semakin jauh dari bentuk ideal. Hal ini menyebabkan remaja putri merasa tidak puas akan bentuktubuhnya dan menginginkan bentuk tubuh ideal. Keinginan untuk memiliki tubuh yang ideal ini jugamerupakan pengaruh dari lingkungan sekitar seperti peer group

  14. Ontology of gaps in content-based image retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deserno, Thomas M; Antani, Sameer; Long, Rodney

    2009-04-01

    Content-based image retrieval (CBIR) is a promising technology to enrich the core functionality of picture archiving and communication systems (PACS). CBIR has a potential for making a strong impact in diagnostics, research, and education. Research as reported in the scientific literature, however, has not made significant inroads as medical CBIR applications incorporated into routine clinical medicine or medical research. The cause is often attributed (without supporting analysis) to the inability of these applications in overcoming the "semantic gap." The semantic gap divides the high-level scene understanding and interpretation available with human cognitive capabilities from the low-level pixel analysis of computers, based on mathematical processing and artificial intelligence methods. In this paper, we suggest a more systematic and comprehensive view of the concept of "gaps" in medical CBIR research. In particular, we define an ontology of 14 gaps that addresses the image content and features, as well as system performance and usability. In addition to these gaps, we identify seven system characteristics that impact CBIR applicability and performance. The framework we have created can be used a posteriori to compare medical CBIR systems and approaches for specific biomedical image domains and goals and a priori during the design phase of a medical CBIR application, as the systematic analysis of gaps provides detailed insight in system comparison and helps to direct future research.

  15. Cognitive Behavior Therapy with Body Image Exposure for Bulimia Nervosa: A Case Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delinsky, Sherrie S.; Wilson, G. Terence

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for bulimia nervosa (BN). However, among patients with BN, symptom improvement is more pronounced for behavioral eating symptoms (i.e., bingeing and purging) than for body image disturbance, and the persistence of body image disturbance is associated with relapse. The need for more…

  16. Predictors of Changes in Body Image Concerns of Chinese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Jackson, Todd

    2009-01-01

    This nine-month prospective study tested the extent to which risk factors implicated in recent accounts of body dissatisfaction predicted changes in body image concerns of adolescent boys and girls in China. A sample of 593 Chinese adolescents (217 boys, 376 girls) completed measures of weight esteem, appearance esteem and physical stature concern…

  17. The moderating effect of perceived partner empathy on body image and depression among breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Su-Ying; Chang, Hong-Tai; Shu, Bih-Ching

    2015-12-01

    The aims of the study were the following: (1) to understand the relationship between women's perceptions of empathy from their partners and their depressive symptoms and body image and (2) to examine the moderating effects of women's perceptions of empathy from their partners on the relationship between body image and depressive symptoms. A cross-sectional and correlational design was used, in which a convenience sample of 151 women who completed surgery and the necessary chemotherapy/radiotherapy were recruited from southern Taiwan. A structured questionnaire including the Other Dyadic Perspective-Taking Scale, the Body Image Scale, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale were administered. Hierarchical regression was used to examine the moderating effects of empathy from partners between the women's body image and their level of depressive symptoms. The results showed significant relationships between empathy from a partner and depressive symptoms (p  0.05). The moderating effect of empathy from a partner on the relationship between body image and depressive symptoms was also significant (p moderate the impact of body image changes on depressive symptoms. Women's depressive symptoms, resulting from a change in body image after breast cancer surgery, might be minimized if they perceived greater empathy from their partners. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. The body project 4 all: A pilot randomized controlled trial of a mixed-gender dissonance-based body image program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpela, Lisa Smith; Blomquist, Kerstin; Verzijl, Christina; Wilfred, Salomé; Beyl, Robbie; Becker, Carolyn Black

    2016-06-01

    The Body Project is a cognitive dissonance-based body image improvement program with ample research support among female samples. More recently, researchers have highlighted the extent of male body dissatisfaction and disordered eating behaviors; however, boys/men have not been included in the majority of body image improvement programs. This study aims to explore the efficacy of a mixed-gender Body Project compared with the historically female-only body image intervention program. Participants included male and female college students (N = 185) across two sites. We randomly assigned women to a mixed-gender modification of the two-session, peer-led Body Project (MG), the two-session, peer-led, female-only (FO) Body Project, or a waitlist control (WL), and men to either MG or WL. Participants completed self-report measures assessing negative affect, appearance-ideal internalization, body satisfaction, and eating disorder pathology at baseline, post-test, and at 2- and 6-month follow-up. Linear mixed effects modeling to estimate the change from baseline over time for each dependent variable across conditions were used. For women, results were mixed regarding post-intervention improvement compared with WL, and were largely non-significant compared with WL at 6-month follow-up. Alternatively, results indicated that men in MG consistently improved compared with WL through 6-month follow-up on all measures except negative affect and appearance-ideal internalization. Results differed markedly between female and male samples, and were more promising for men than for women. Various explanations are provided, and further research is warranted prior to drawing firm conclusions regarding mixed-gender programming of the Body Project. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.(Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:591-602). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Do digestive contents confound body mass as a measure of relative condition in nestling songbirds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streby, Henry M.; Peterson, Sean M.; Lehman, Justin A.; Kramer, Gunnar R.; Vernasco, Ben J.; Andersen, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Relative nestling condition, typically measured as nestling mass or as an index including nestling mass, is commonly purported to correlate with fledgling songbird survival. However, most studies directly investigating fledgling survival have found no such relationship. We weighed feces and stomach contents of nestling golden-winged warblers (Vermivora chrysoptera) to investigate the potential contribution of variation in digestive contents to differences in nestling mass. We estimated that the mass of a seventh-day (near fledging) nestling golden-winged warbler varies by 0.65 g (approx. 9% of mean nestling mass) depending on the contents of the nestling's digestive system at the time of weighing, and that digestive contents are dissimilar among nestlings at any moment the brood is removed from the nest for weighing. Our conservative estimate of within-individual variation in digestive contents equals 72% and 24% of the mean within-brood and population-wide range in nestling mass, respectively. Based on our results, a substantive but typically unknown amount of the variation in body mass among nestlings is confounded by differences in digestive contents. We conclude that short-term variation in digestive contents likely precludes the use of body mass, and therefore any mass-dependent index, as a measure of relative nestling condition or as a predictor of survival in golden-winged warblers and likely in many other songbirds of similar size.

  20. Whole Body MR Imaging Versus 99mTC-Methylene Diphosphonate Scintigraphy in Detection of Skeletal Metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SALEM, H.T.M.

    2009-01-01

    The introduction of new chemotherapy protocols, which include both marrow and stem cell transplantation, has increased the demand for accurate and early detection of skeletal metastases, particularly metastases to marrow (Eustace et al., 1997). All existing methods of detection skeletal metastases have limitations. Metastases to bone only become apparent on radiographs after the loss of more than 50% of the bone mineral content at the site of the disease. Although CT allows earlier detection of cortical destruction by imaging in contiguous tomographic slices, its ability to detect early deposits in marrow is limited (Gold et al., 1990). The use of bone scintigraphy in the assessment of skeletal abnormalities is based on increased sensitivity in detecting abnormalities before other diagnostic imaging techniques. The pitfall of bone scintigraphy is its lack of specificity. There must be close correlation of scintigraphic findings with those of other imaging modalities (Nadel et al., 2001). The high spatial resolution and excellent soft-tissue contrast make MR imaging an ideal tool for the detection of osseous lesions. The limited field of view must be considered a major limitation of conventional MR imaging. Furthermore MR imaging approaches were limited by long acquisition times. Development in MR imaging, such as the development of turbo sequences, have led to renewed interest in MR imaging as a potential whole body screening tool (Johnson et al., 1997 and Lauenstein et al., 2004).

  1. Distorted images of one's own body activates the prefrontal cortex and limbic/paralimbic system in young women: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosaki, Mitsuhaya; Shirao, Naoko; Yamashita, Hidehisa; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Yamawaki, Shigeto

    2006-02-15

    Our aim was to study the gender differences in brain activation upon viewing visual stimuli of distorted images of one's own body. We performed functional magnetic resonance imaging on 11 healthy young men and 11 healthy young women using the "body image tasks" which consisted of fat, real, and thin shapes of the subject's own body. Comparison of the brain activation upon performing the fat-image task versus real-image task showed significant activation of the bilateral prefrontal cortex and left parahippocampal area including the amygdala in the women, and significant activation of the right occipital lobe including the primary and secondary visual cortices in the men. Comparison of brain activation upon performing the thin-image task versus real-image task showed significant activation of the left prefrontal cortex, left limbic area including the cingulate gyrus and paralimbic area including the insula in women, and significant activation of the occipital lobe including the left primary and secondary visual cortices in men. These results suggest that women tend to perceive distorted images of their own bodies by complex cognitive processing of emotion, whereas men tend to perceive distorted images of their own bodies by object visual processing and spatial visual processing.

  2. Investigation of eating disorders in cancer patients and its relevance with body image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Abbas Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eating disorder is one of the most common health problems with clinical and psychological consequences, which can affect body image in cancer patients. Similar studies in this area for checking the status of this disorder and its relevance with body image in patients with cancer are limited. Therefore, this study was designed with the aim of determination of eating disorders in patients with cancer and their relevance with body image. Materials and Methods: The research was a cross-correlation study. It was carried out in Sayed-Al-Shohada Hospital affiliated to the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2013. Two hundred and ten patients with cancer were selected and were asked tocomplete the demographic and disease characteristics questionnaire, the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ, and eating disorders questionnaire. SPSS statistical software, version 14 was used for statistical analysis′-Test, analysis of variance (ANOVA, and Pearson correlation coefficient were used for analyzing the obtained data. Results: The mean values of age, body mass index (BMI, and duration of illness were 48.2 ± 13.20 years, 24.6 ± 4.6kg/m 2 , and 25.64 ± 21.24months, respectively. Most patients were married (87%, without university education (96%, unemployed (67%, and with incomes below their requirement (52%. Most patients were diagnosed with breast cancer (36.5%. They received chemotherapy as the main treatment (56.2%. In addition, mean ± SD of eating disorders and body image were 12.84 ± 4.7 and184.40 ± 43.68, respectively. Also, 49.7% of patients with cancer had an eating disorder. Among these, 29% had experiences of anorexia and 20.7% had bulimia. There was a significant negative correlation between the score of body image and eating disorders (r = −0.47, P = 0.01. Conclusions: Findings of this study showed that most patients with cancer had experienced symptoms of eating disorders. This may lead to a negative

  3. Facebook photo activity associated with body image disturbance in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Evelyn P; Gray, James

    2014-04-01

    The present study examined the relationship between body image and adolescent girls' activity on the social networking site (SNS) Facebook (FB). Research has shown that elevated Internet "appearance exposure" is positively correlated with increased body image disturbance among adolescent girls, and there is a particularly strong association with FB use. The present study sought to replicate and extend upon these findings by identifying the specific FB features that correlate with body image disturbance in adolescent girls. A total of 103 middle and high school females completed questionnaire measures of total FB use, specific FB feature use, weight dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, thin ideal internalization, appearance comparison, and self-objectification. An appearance exposure score was calculated based on subjects' use of FB photo applications relative to total FB use. Elevated appearance exposure, but not overall FB usage, was significantly correlated with weight dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, thin ideal internalization, and self-objectification. Implications for eating disorder prevention programs and best practices in researching SNSs are discussed.

  4. “I Like My Body; Therefore, I Like Myself”: How Body Image Influences Self-Esteem—A Cross-Sectional Study on Italian Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Gatti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Puberty is a very important process for adolescents. Physiological changes and body modifications lead to great vulnerability. This vulnerability is connected to the adolescent’s perceptions of the uncertainty of outcomes due to the transformation of their infant body into an adult one. This cross-sectional study aims to better understand whether body image perception and satisfaction influence self-esteem in a sample of Italian male and female adolescents. A total of 242 adolescents (120 male and 122 female individuals aged 11 to 17 years (M = 13.33; SD = 1.7 completed the study measures. Quantitative and qualitative instruments were used. In particular, adolescents completed self-report questionnaires to assess their pubertal status (Pubertal Developmental Scale, Peterson, Crockett, Richards, & Boxer, 1988, their body esteem (Body Esteem Scale, Mendelson, Mendelson, & White, 2001, their body image (Body Image Satisfaction Questionnaire, Rauste-von Wright, 1989, and their self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Rosenberg,1965. Adolescent were also invited to depict themselves to assess their body representations by completing the Drawing Me test (Confalonieri, 2011. Results from MANOVAs confirm that gender and age are two factors that influence body image perception and satisfaction. SEM analyses show that good self-esteem is reached through good body satisfaction following different trajectories in male and female individuals. Data from adolescents’ body representations obtained via drawings confirm that females are more concerned about their body changes and about the appearance of secondary sexual features than males. This research, stressing the influence of various individual factors and highlighting the psychological distress and dissatisfaction of adolescents, especially females, confirms the importance of studying this topic in order to generate preventive measures to help adolescents through this developmental task.

  5. Localization-based super-resolution imaging meets high-content screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beghin, Anne; Kechkar, Adel; Butler, Corey; Levet, Florian; Cabillic, Marine; Rossier, Olivier; Giannone, Gregory; Galland, Rémi; Choquet, Daniel; Sibarita, Jean-Baptiste

    2017-12-01

    Single-molecule localization microscopy techniques have proven to be essential tools for quantitatively monitoring biological processes at unprecedented spatial resolution. However, these techniques are very low throughput and are not yet compatible with fully automated, multiparametric cellular assays. This shortcoming is primarily due to the huge amount of data generated during imaging and the lack of software for automation and dedicated data mining. We describe an automated quantitative single-molecule-based super-resolution methodology that operates in standard multiwell plates and uses analysis based on high-content screening and data-mining software. The workflow is compatible with fixed- and live-cell imaging and allows extraction of quantitative data like fluorophore photophysics, protein clustering or dynamic behavior of biomolecules. We demonstrate that the method is compatible with high-content screening using 3D dSTORM and DNA-PAINT based super-resolution microscopy as well as single-particle tracking.

  6. Incongruence in body image and body mass index: A surrogate risk marker in Black women for type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rynal Devanathan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Excess weight contributes to the development and progression of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Distorted body image amongst urban Black women and the perception that thinness is linked with HIV, may however be compounding the problem, particularly in areas with a high HIV burden. Objectives: This study aimed to compare the perception of body image in urban Black women with and without T2DM. Methods: A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted on 328 Black women systematically sampled into two groups (with and without T2DM. Body mass index (BMI (weight [kg]/height[m2] was determined and the adapted Stunkard Body Image Silhouettes for Black women was used to determine perceived body image (PBI. Results: Seventy-two per cent had T2DM and in this group 89% were obese, with a mean BMI of 39.5 kg/m2 (s.d. ± 8.5. In the non-diabetes group (NDG 44% were obese, with a mean BMIof 31.3 kg/m2 (s.d. ± 9.0 Black women underestimated their body image across all weight categories (p < 0.05. Both groups (99% of the study group also perceived thinness as being associated with HIV. Conclusions: This study identified an incongruence between PBI and actual BMI amongst urban Black women. This, combined with their belief that thinness is associated with HIV, places those with T2DM at risk of secondary complications arising from diabetes mellitus, and those without diabetes mellitus at a higher risk of developing T2DM. A discrepancy between PBI and BMI may therefore serve as a risk marker to alert clinicians to use a more ethno-cultural specific approach in engaging with urban Black women regarding weight loss strategies in the future.

  7. Improved quality of image got through whole-body CT scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asahina, Kiyotaka

    1980-01-01

    The quality of brain images taken with a whole-body CT scanner has so far been generally inferior in quality to those got through a CT scanner exclusively used for brains. In order to improve the whole-body CT scanner so as to get better brain image, its detection system has been made multichannel; the capacity of its X-ray tube, increased; and its software, innovated. As a result, the spatial resolution has been improved from 5.51 p/cm to 9.01 p/cm, the contrast resolution has been improved from 3.2 mm% to 1.5 mm%, with the noise maintained at 0.5%. In clinical examination, the image quality has been improved equally well for brains, abdomens and lungs. Especially high appreciation is given to the diagnosis information got through this new scanner. (author)

  8. Sociocultural experiences, body image, and indoor tanning among young adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Jerod L; Manne, Sharon L; Greene, Kathryn; Darabos, Katie; Carpenter, Amanda; Hudson, Shawna V; Coups, Elliot J

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this survey study was to evaluate a model of body image influences on indoor tanning behavior. Participants were 823 young adult women recruited from a probability-based web pane