Lee, Eun-Kyoung Othelia; Yoon, Hyunsook; Lee, Jungui; Yoon, Jiyoung; Chang, Eunjin
This community-based, health promotion intervention for seniors provided a comprehensive review of the effect of body-mind-spirit (BMS) interventions on health behaviors. The 12-week curriculum offered sessions on exercise, nutrition, sexuality, leisure, stress management, cognitive behavioral therapy, forgiveness, and happiness. Gerontological…
prediction error for skin fold thickness formulas as well as the bioelectrical impedance technique. Nielsen & Andersen (2003) studied the relationship...179-183. This study used the CES-D scale to assess the relationship between obesity , as determined by BMI, and depression. They found that an... obese individual is 1.41 times more likely to have symptoms of depression then a healthy individual. Keim, S. M., Guisto, J. A., & Sullivan, J. B
Full Text Available This issue of 19 brings together a selection of essays from an interdisciplinary conference on 'Minds, Bodies, Machines' convened last year by Birkbeck's Centre for Nineteenth-Century Studies, University of London, in partnership with the English programme, University of Melbourne and software developers Constraint Technologies International (CTI. The conference explored the relationship between minds, bodies and machines in the long nineteenth century, with a view to understanding the history of our technology-driven, post-human visions. It is in the nineteenth century that the relationship between the human and the machine under post-industrial capitalism becomes a pervasive theme. From Blake on the mills of the mind by which we are enslaved, to Carlyle's and Arnold's denunciation of the machinery of modern life, from Dickens's sooty fictional locomotive Mr Pancks, who 'snorted and sniffed and puffed and blew, like a little labouring steam-engine', and 'shot out […]cinders of principles, as if it were done by mechanical revolvency', to the alienated historical body of the late-nineteenth-century factory worker under Taylorization, whose movements and gestures were timed, regulated and rationalised to maximize efficiency; we find a cultural preoccupation with the mechanisation of the nineteenth-century human body that uncannily resonates with modern dreams and anxieties around technologies of the human.
Pretty, Jules; Rogerson, Mike; Barton, Jo
We propose a Green Mind Theory (GMT) to link the human mind with the brain and body, and connect the body into natural and social environments. The processes are reciprocal: environments shape bodies, brains, and minds; minds change body behaviours that shape the external environment. GMT offers routes to improved individual well-being whilst building towards greener economies. It builds upon research on green exercise and nature-based therapies, and draws on understanding derived from neuroscience and brain plasticity, spiritual and wisdom traditions, the lifeways of original cultures, and material consumption behaviours. We set out a simple metaphor for brain function: a bottom brain stem that is fast-acting, involuntary, impulsive, and the driver of fight and flight behaviours; a top brain cortex that is slower, voluntary, the centre for learning, and the driver of rest and digest. The bottom brain reacts before thought and directs the sympathetic nervous system. The top brain is calming, directing the parasympathetic nervous system. Here, we call the top brain blue and the bottom brain red; too much red brain is bad for health. In modern high-consumption economies, life has often come to be lived on red alert. An over-active red mode impacts the gastrointestinal, immune, cardiovascular, and endocrine systems. We develop our knowledge of nature-based interventions, and suggest a framework for the blue brain-red brain-green mind. We show how activities involving immersive-attention quieten internal chatter, how habits affect behaviours across the lifecourse, how long habits take to be formed and hard-wired into daily practice, the role of place making, and finally how green minds could foster prosocial and greener economies. We conclude with observations on twelve research priorities and health interventions, and ten calls to action.
Anastasia Ioanna Kayiatos
Full Text Available In the Fall of 2013 we team-taught a disability studies course for a small group of first-year students. The course, Minding the Body, integrated scholarship from disability studies, feminist/queer studies, psychology, and Russian Studies. Originally envisioned and taught independently in the Fall of 2012 by Joan Ostrove and focused entirely on the U.S., Anastasia Kayiatos's arrival in the Department of German and Russian Studies at Macalester College afforded us an opportunity for collaboration and co-instruction that we found invigorating, compelling, and transformative. Grounded from the outset in disability studies, the course asked students to interrogate such questions as: What is a "normal" body? A "beautiful" body? Why do we feel the way we do about our bodies? How are bodies objectified, exploited, and regulated? How and why do we discriminate against people with non-normative bodies? How do people represent the experience of having a disabled body? How can we think critically about the various ways in which people change, regulate, and enhance their bodies? How do sexism, racism, classism, colonialism, homophobia, transphobia and other forms of oppression influence how different bodies are viewed, treated, educated, and experienced? The integration of Russian Studies importantly allowed us to ask how these questions and ideas change when we travel across time and geographical space. In our paper we will reflect on our experience of co-authoring the syllabus (we will include both the solo-taught and co-taught versions of the syllabus in an appendix; outline some of our techniques for team-teaching; and analyze an exemplary assignment and class meeting. We will conclude with a final word about the unique forms of teaching and learning that happened in our class as a consequence of its collaborative and interdisciplinary approach, which opened up new perspectives in disability studies not only for our students but also for us.
Seli, Paul; Carriere, Jonathan S. A.; Thomson, David R.; Cheyne, James Allan; Martens, Kaylena A. Ehgoetz; Smilek, Daniel
In the present work, we investigate the hypothesis that failures of task-related executive control that occur during episodes of mind wandering are associated with an increase in extraneous movements (fidgeting). In 2 studies, we assessed mind wandering using thought probes while participants performed the metronome response task (MRT), which…
Children struggle with life today. Being children in the 21st century is both taxing and exciting, and yet trying to cope with all of the technology and media that surrounds them. How do we as adults provide good models? Mindfulness, exercise, focus and attention, and healthy living strategies need to play a role in shaping healthy children.…
Full Text Available Children struggle with life today. Being children in the 21st century is both taxing and exciting and yet trying to cope with all of the technology and media that surrounds them. How do we as adults provide good models? Mindfulness, exercise, focus and attention, healthy living strategies need to play a role in shaping healthy children. Educators need to become well versed in strategies that both teach short and long term behaviors that will sustain healthy living and healthy minds. Children are the future and what kind of adult do we want running our countries and the world. The article provides many strategies for educators and parents to guide children in making choices that are both empowering and allow them the flexibility to be children.
Full Text Available Mind-Body practices have become increasingly popular as components of psychotherapeutic and behavior medicine interventions. They comprise an array of different methods and techniques that use some sort of mental-behavioral training and involve the modulation of states of consciousness in order to influence bodily processes towards greater health, well-being and better functioning. Mind-body practices may thus be interpreted as the salutogenetic mirror image of psychosomatic medicine, where psychophysiological and health consequences of specific psychological states are studied, such as stress arousal, psychological trauma or depression. This contribution examines the empirical evidence of the most common mind-body techniques with regard to their salutogenetic potential. We concisely discuss some aspects of the mind-body problem, before we consider some historical aspects and achievements of psychosomatic medicine. We then turn to some prominent mind-body practices and their application, as well as the empirical database for them.
Fleckenstein, Kristie S.
Discusses the somatic mind, a permeable materiality in which mind and body resolve into a single entity which is (re)formed by the constantly shifting boundaries of discursive and corporeal intertextualities. Addresses its importance in composition studies. Critiques the poststructuralist disregard of corporeality. (CR)
... Fact Sheets Home > Mind-Body Medicine Practices in Complementary and Alternative Medicine Small Text Medium Text Large Text Mind-Body Medicine Practices in Complementary and Alternative Medicine YESTERDAY The concept that the mind is important ...
Stoner, Martha Goff
A college English teacher describes the anxiety and resentment of students during in-class writing assignments and the successful classroom use of meditation and body movement. Movement seemed to relax the students, change their attitudes, and release their creative impulses to write. Implications related to the body-mind connection are pondered.…
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Full-service community schools combine three concepts--mind, body, and building--into an integrated approach placing quality education and comprehensive support services at one site. The DeWitt Wallace-Reader's Digest Fund is helping schools and communities replicate 4 such programs at 60 sites in 20 U.S. cities. (MLH)
... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues The Mind-Body Connection Emotions and Health Past Issues / Winter ... Today, we accept that there is a powerful mind-body connection through which emotional, mental, social, spiritual, ...
Geiger, Sonja M; Otto, Siegmar; Schrader, Ulf
This paper examines the nature of the link between mindfulness and ecological behavior. Based on the notion that mindfulness incorporates heightened awareness of bodily sensations, we suggest an indirect path from mindfulness to ecological behavior that is mediated through individual health behavior, such as improved nutrition and increased exercise. This indirect path is corroborated with two online studies ( n = 147/ n = 239) where mindfulness, personal health behavior and ecological behavior were assessed. We conclude that increased mindful awareness of momentary experience indeed favors more healthy lifestyles, which in turn relate to increased ecological behavior beyond personal health benefits. The findings support an agreeableness of personal and planetary health behavior and open up a path for environmental educational interventions based on mindfulness practices and personal health gains.
Kemper, Kathi J; Khirallah, Michael
Some studies have begun to show benefits of brief in-person mind-body skills training. We evaluated the effects of 1-hour online elective mind-body skills training for health professionals on mindfulness, resilience, and empathy. Between May and November, 2014, we described enrollees for the most popular 1-hour modules in a new online mind-body skills training program; compared enrollees' baseline stress and burnout to normative samples; and assessed acute changes in mindfulness, resilience, and empathy. The 513 enrollees included dietitians, nurses, physicians, social workers, clinical trainees, and health researchers; about 1/4 were trainees. The most popular modules were the following: Introduction to Stress, Resilience, and the Relaxation Response (n = 261); Autogenic Training (n = 250); Guided Imagery and Hypnosis for Pain, Insomnia, and Changing Habits (n = 112); Introduction to Mindfulness (n = 112); and Mindfulness in Daily Life (n = 102). Initially, most enrollees met threshold criteria for burnout and reported moderate to high stress levels. Completing 1-hour modules was associated with significant acute improvements in stress (P mindfulness (P mind-body skills training reaches diverse, stressed health professionals and is associated with acute improvements in stress, mindfulness, empathy, and resilience. Additional research is warranted to compare the long-term cost-effectiveness of different doses of online and in-person mind-body skills training for health professionals. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available Background. Mind-body therapies are used to manage physical and psychological symptoms in many chronic health conditions. Objective. To assess the published evidence for using mind-body techniques for symptom management of multiple sclerosis. Methods. MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Clinical Trials Register were searched from inception to March 24, 2012. Eleven mind-body studies were reviewed (meditation, yoga, biofeedback, hypnosis, relaxation, and imagery. Results. Four high quality trials (yoga, mindfulness, relaxation, and biofeedback were found helpful for a variety of MS symptoms. Conclusions. The evidence for mind-body medicine in MS is limited, yet mind-body therapies are relatively safe and may provide a nonpharmacological benefit for MS symptoms.
Hourston, Sarah; Atchley, Rachel
Mind-body therapies are often used by people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, there has been little examination into which types of mind-body therapies have been investigated for people with ASD and for what purposes. A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the existing evidence for mind-body therapies for people with ASD, particularly to determine the types of mind-body therapies used and the outcomes that are targeted. PubMed, PsychInfo, and Scopus were searched using terms for ASD and mind-body therapies. Sixteen studies were selected for review; these studies tested interventions using mindfulness, meditation, yoga, Nei Yang Gong, and acceptance commitment therapy. Most study outcomes targeted behavior, psychological symptoms, and quality of life for children and adults with ASD as well as their parents. There was little overlap between studies on the types of mind-body therapies used and associated outcomes, and only three of the studies were randomized controlled trials. Most studies were small and uncontrolled. Some studies modified the mind-body therapies to increase accessibility for people with ASD. The evidence for mind-body therapies for people with ASD is limited and would benefit from larger randomized controlled trials.
Castro, Maria da Graça de; Andrade, Tânia M. Ramos; Muller, Marisa C.
Este artigo enfoca a evolução dos conceitos de saúde/doença, bem como a dicotomia mente/corpo através de uma breve revisão histórica. Aborda desde o conceito mágico de doença, passando pelo período grego clássico, pela visão medieval e renascentista e a evolução destes construtos com raízes na psicanálise até a psiconeuroimunologia.This article focuses the evolution on the concepts of health/illness and mind/body dichotomy. For this a brief historical review was carried out. It approaches the...
Kim, Sang Hwan; Schneider, Suzanne M; Kravitz, Len; Mermier, Christine; Burge, Mark R
Mind-body practices are increasingly used to provide stress reduction for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Mind-body practice encompasses activities with the intent to use the mind to impact physical functioning and improve health. This is a literature review using PubMed, PsycINFO, and Published International Literature on Traumatic Stress to identify the effects of mind-body intervention modalities, such as yoga, tai chi, qigong, mindfulness-based stress reduction, meditation, and deep breathing, as interventions for PTSD. The literature search identified 92 articles, only 16 of which were suitable for inclusion in this review. We reviewed only original, full text articles that met the inclusion criteria. Most of the studies have small sample size, but findings from the 16 publications reviewed here suggest that mind-body practices are associated with positive impacts on PTSD symptoms. Mind-body practices incorporate numerous therapeutic effects on stress responses, including reductions in anxiety, depression, and anger, and increases in pain tolerance, self-esteem, energy levels, ability to relax, and ability to cope with stressful situations. In general, mind-body practices were found to be a viable intervention to improve the constellation of PTSD symptoms such as intrusive memories, avoidance, and increased emotional arousal. Mind-body practices are increasingly used in the treatment of PTSD and are associated with positive impacts on stress-induced illnesses such as depression and PTSD in most existing studies. Knowledge about the diverse modalities of mind-body practices may provide clinicians and patients with the opportunity to explore an individualized and effective treatment plan enhanced by mind-body interventions as part of ongoing self-care.
Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick P. H.
The present study examined the links between dispositional mindfulness, body comparison, and body satisfaction. It was expected that mindfulness would be associated with less body comparison and more body satisfaction. Two models were tested: one exploring body comparison as a mediator between
Purohit, Maulik P.; Wells, Rebecca Erwin; Zafonte, Ross; Davis, Roger B.; Yeh, Gloria Y.; Phillips, Russell S.
Objectives Neuropsychiatric symptoms affect 37% of US adults and present in many important diagnoses including post-traumatic stress disorder, traumatic brain injury, and chronic pain. However, these symptoms are difficult to treat with standard treatments and patients may seek alternative options. In this study, we examined the use of mind-body therapies by adults with neuropsychiatric symptoms. Methods We compared mind-body therapy use (use of ≥1 therapy of meditation, yoga, acupuncture, deep-breathing exercises, hypnosis, progressive relaxation therapy, qi gong, and tai chi) between adults with and without neuropsychiatric symptoms (anxiety, depression, insomnia, headaches, memory deficits, attention deficits, and excessive daytime sleepiness) using the 2007 National Health Interview Survey (n=23,393). We examined prevalence and reasons for mind-body therapy use in adults with neuropsychiatric symptoms. We performed logistic regression to examine the association between neuropsychiatric symptoms and mind-body therapy use to adjust for sociodemographic and clinical factors. Results Adults with ≥1 neuropsychiatric symptoms used mind-body therapies more than adults without symptoms (25.3%vs.15.0%, pineffective or too expensive (30.2%). Most adults (70%) with ≥1 symptom did not discuss their mind-body therapy use with a conventional provider. Conclusions Adults with ≥1 neuropsychiatric symptom use mind-body therapies frequently; more symptoms are associated with increased use. Future research is needed to understand the efficacy of these therapies. PMID:23842021
This article discusses issues related to body image in adolescents, explaining what school practitioners can do to encourage lifelong healthy habits that enhance body image. Body image is the picture of physical self carried in the mind's eye. This impression can have little resemblance to how a teen actually looks. Body image culturalization is…
... body therapies for fibromyalgia. The review found no advantage observed for mindfulness compared to usual care (control) ... links Pinterest Read our disclaimer about external links Instagram Read our disclaimer about external links LinkedIn E- ...
Lillard, Angeline S.
Five experiments investigated whether children, ages three to eight, think of pretending as a mental state. Results indicated that most children under six see pretending as primarily physical. Eight-year-olds claimed that execution of pretense did not involve the mind, although the planning aspect of pretense did. (MOK)
David L. Rowland
Full Text Available The mind-body problem represents one of the most debated topics in the neurosciences. From a psychological standpoint, abstract/non-material data are an intrinsic part of the mind, intervening to a large extent in reasoning and decision making processes. Imaging studies also show a strong correlation between higher cognitive functions (such as working memory and specific cerebral brain regions (a fronto-parietal network of interacting left and right brain areas. In contrast, the physical/material brain would be unable to interact with abstract-immaterial data, such that the psychological processing of abstract data (processes such as thinking, reasoning, and judgment is attributed to the mind, with the mind representing a distinct entity interposed between the brain and abstract-immaterial data. Recent data suggest that the mind-body problem may simply be an artifact of human experience/ understanding, as the brain actually represents actually an intrinsic part of the mind. Even if the physical brain is not able to interact with abstract mental data, the brain still could process abstract data through a dynamic association between the abstract data and cerebral stimuli/ impulses. This form of processing without interaction defines the mind as a complex neurobiological structure, with the unconscious part of the mind processing abstract-immaterial data in a conscious/ mental format. In this overview, important concepts of psycho-physiologic emergentism, including internal mental reality, internal mental existence, internal mental interaction, and structural and informational dichotomies of the brain, are iterated. Such concepts/properties represent a neuro-informational support system capable of generating four distinct minds within the single brain. Future studies should further develop the dynamic and immaterial-material nature of the mind, as a possible premise for a scientific definition and understanding of mental events like affectivity
Forstmann, Matthias; Burgmer, Pascal; Mussweiler, Thomas
Beliefs in mind-body dualism--that is, perceiving one's mind and body as two distinct entities--are evident in virtually all human cultures. Despite their prevalence, surprisingly little is known about the psychological implications of holding such beliefs. In the research reported here, we investigated the relationship between dualistic beliefs and health behaviors. We theorized that holding dualistic beliefs leads people to perceive their body as a mere "shell" and, thus, to neglect it. Supporting this hypothesis, our results showed that participants who were primed with dualism reported less engagement in healthy behaviors and less positive attitudes toward such behaviors than did participants primed with physicalism. Additionally, we investigated the bidirectionality of this link. Activating health-related concepts affected participants' subsequently reported metaphysical beliefs in mind-body dualism. A final set of studies demonstrated that participants primed with dualism make real-life decisions that may ultimately compromise their physical health (e.g., consuming unhealthy food). These findings have potential implications for health interventions.
Walters, Karrie P.
Explains how martial arts, specifically karate, can benefit today's youth. States that karate promotes physical fitness, and also helps students learn to relax and calm their bodies, develop strong mind/body connections, and enhance mental calmness. Karate students also show increased self-esteem, attain goals, and develop an understanding of…
... body, are governed by the same basic physical laws,” says Dr. Jeffrey Weiss, a biomechanics expert at the University of Utah. Body movements involve force, balance, gravity and motion. “Biomechanics is effectively applying the physics of mechanics ...
James D. Adams
Full Text Available This article discusses the importance of the spirit and mind in health and well-being among Chumash people. Prayer was the first step in healing since prayer invites the participation of God. Initiation practices are discussed that encouraged young people to develop the maturity and spiritual strength to become productive members of society. Pictographs were used in healing usually not only as a relaxation therapy, but also as a mode of education. A supportive environment was an important factor in Chumash health care, since the support of friends helps, comforts and relieves anxiety that is detrimental to healing.
Burkhardt, Hans; Imaguire, Guido
In this paper we analyse some misleading theses concerning the old controversy over the relation between mind and body presented in contemporary medical literature. We undertake an epistemological clarification of the axiomatic structure of medical methods. This clarification, in turn, requires a precise philosophical explanation of the presupposed concepts. This analysis will establish two results: (1) that the mind-body dualism cannot be understood as a kind of biological variation of the subject-object dichotomy in physics, and (2) that the thesis of the incompatibility between somatic and psychosomatic medicine held by naturalists and others lacks solid epistemological foundation.
... practice, such as chiropractic or spinal manipulation, yoga, meditation, or massage therapy. Mind and body practices include ... practices for children and teens. Biofeedback, guided imagery, mindfulness , and yoga are some of the mind and ...
Lillard, A S
Researchers studying early social cognition have been particularly interested in pretend play and have obtained evidence indicating that young children do not understand that pretending involves mental representation. The present research investigates whether children think of pretending as a mental state at all, by looking at whether they cluster it with other mental states or with physical processes when making certain judgments. The results from 5 experiments suggest that most children under 6 years of age see pretending as primarily physical. Further, when asked about pretending as a 2-part process entailing planning and execution, even 8-year-olds claim that execution of pretense does not involve the mind, although the planning aspect of pretense does.
Hanley, Adam W; Mehling, Wolf E; Garland, Eric L
Objective Recent dialogue between Western and Eastern traditions has stimulated novel explorations of the relationship between mind and body. Many of these cross-cultural, mind-body dialogues have proven productive in identifying more adaptive forms of embodiment. Prior studies suggest that dispositional mindfulness (DM) and interoceptive awareness (IA) are associated but distinct, key constructs in mind-body approaches that are conceptualized in a variety of ways with imprecisely characterized relationship. The current study is a secondary data analysis that explores the relationship between scores on measures of IA and DM, examining multivariate networks of association between these constructs and addressing their relationship with scores on a measure of psychological well-being. Participants (n=478) were American adults completing measures of interoceptive awareness (as measured by the Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness; MAIA), dispositional mindfulness (as measured by the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire; FFMQ), and psychological well-being (as measure by the Scales of Psychological Well-Being; SPWB) online. The average participant age was 36.44 (S.D.=12.17), and 57% were female. Correlational results from his study indicated that the IA scales and DM facets form two associative clusters. Canonical correlation analysis supported this finding, revealing that two primary networks of association exist between IA and DM, a Regulatory Awareness cluster and an Acceptance in Action cluster. Finally, hierarchical linear regression demonstrated that the self-report measures of IA and DM shared considerable variance, but also explained unique portions of the variance in psychological well-being. This psychometric investigation demonstrates that IA and DM are tightly interwoven, partly overlapping constructs. Indeed, greater DM is strongly linked with greater IA. Additionally, both IA and DM appear to be independently associated with enhanced
Bruce D. Naliboff
Full Text Available Currently, the goal of treatment for those with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is to improve the quality of life through a reduction in symptoms. While the majority of treatment approaches involve the use of traditional medicine, more and more patients seek out a non-drug approach to managing their symptoms. Current forms of non-drug psychologic or mind/body treatment for IBS include hypnotherapy, cognitive behavioral therapy and brief psychodynamic psychotherapy, all of which have been proven efficacious in clinical trials. We propose that incorporating the constructs of mindfulness and acceptance into a mind/body psychologic treatment of IBS may be of added benefit due to the focus on changing awareness and acceptance of one's own state which is a strong component of traditional and Eastern healing philosophies.
In this paper the author considers Descartes' place in current thinking about the mind-body dilemma. The premise here is that in the history of ideas, the questions posed can be as significant as the answers acquired. Descartes' paramount question was 'How do we determine certainty?' and his pursuit of an answer led to cogito ergo sum. His discovery simultaneously raised the question whether mind is separate from or unified with the body. Some who currently hold that brain and subjectivity are unified contend that the philosopher 'split' mind from body and refer to 'Descartes' error'. This paper puts forward that Descartes' detractors fail to recognise Descartes' contribution to Western thought, which was to introduce the Enlightenment and to give a place to human subjectivity. Added to this, evidence from Descartes' correspondence with Princess Elisabeth of Bohemia supports the conclusion that Descartes did in fact believe in the unity of mind and body although he could not reconcile this rationally with the certainty from personal experience that they were separate substances. In this Descartes was engaged in just the same dilemma as that of current thinkers and researchers, a conflict which still is yet to be resolved. © 2018, The Society of Analytical Psychology.
principles in explaining the mind –body problem due to deep seated criticisms from the group of philosophers who held that the interaction is not liable to observation, many theories were advanced by philosophers ranging from Behaviorist doctrine which in order to solve the dichotomy caused by the dualists averred that.
Birbeck, David; Drummond, Murray
In recent years research has recognised that notions of body image, body image ideals and body dissatisfaction develop much earlier than was once thought. Forty-seven children (25 male; 22 female) aged between 5 and 6 years were interviewed on three occasions over 12 months regarding their perceptions of body image. The interviews revealed…
Slingerland, Edward; Chudek, Maciej
We present the first large-scale, quantitative examination of mind and body concepts in a set of historical sources by measuring the predictions of folk mind-body dualism against the surviving textual corpus of pre-Qin (pre-221 BCE) China. Our textual analysis found clear patterns in the historically evolving reference of the word xin (heart/heart-mind): It alone of the organs was regularly contrasted with the physical body, and during the Warring States period it became less associated with emotions and increasingly portrayed as the unique locus of "higher" cognitive abilities. We interpret this as a semantic shift toward a shared cognitive bias in response to a vast and rapid expansion of literacy. Our study helps test the proposed universality of folk dualism, adds a new quantitative approach to the methods used in the humanities, and opens up a new and valuable data source for cognitive scientists: the record of dead minds. Copyright © 2011 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Full Text Available Mindfulness-based applications allow health care staffs to understand themselves as well as other individuals. Awareness based applications are not only stress reduction techniques but also a way of understanding the life and human existence, and it should not be only used to cope with the diseases. Emotions, thoughts and judgments of people might give direction to their life sometimes. Accessing a life without judgment and negative feelings brings a peaceful and happy life together. Mindfulness based stress reduction exercises may help to enjoy the present time, to cope with the challenges, stress and diseases and accept the negative life experiences rather than to question their reasons. About three decades ago, Kabat-Zin conducted the first investigation of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction program which is used commonly all around the world. The 8-weeks program, which contains mindful living exercises (such as eating, walking, cooking, etc., yoga, body scan and meditation practices, requires doing daily life activity and meditation with attention, openness and acceptance. The aim of this review article is to give information about Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction program and to emphasize its importance. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(1: 68-80
... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues The Mind-Body Connection How to Fight Stress and Ward ... take more seriously the popular notions of the mind-body connection," says Esther M. Sternberg, M.D., ...
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Riley, Michael A; Shockley, Kevin; Van Orden, Guy
In some areas of cognitive science we are confronted with ultrafast cognition, exquisite context sensitivity, and scale-free variation in measured cognitive activities. To move forward, we suggest a need to embrace this complexity, equipping cognitive science with tools and concepts used in the study of complex dynamical systems. The science of movement coordination has benefited already from this change, successfully circumventing analogous paradoxes by treating human activities as phenomena of self-organization. Therein, action and cognition are seen to be emergent in ultrafast symmetry breaking across the brain and body; exquisitely constituted of the otherwise trivial details of history, context, and environment; and exhibiting the characteristic scale-free signature of self-organization. Copyright © 2011 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Carlson, Linda E
Distress is highly prevalent in cancer survivors, from the point of diagnosis through treatment and recovery, with rates higher than 45% reported worldwide. One approach for helping people cope with the inherent stress of cancer is through the use of mind-body therapies (MBTs) such as mediation, yoga, hypnosis, relaxation, and imagery, which harness the power of the mind to affect physical and psychological symptoms. One group of MBTs with a growing body of research evidence to support their efficacy focus on training in mindfulness meditation; these are collectively known as mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs). Research supports the role of MBIs for dealing with common experiences that cause distress around cancer diagnosis, treatment, and survivorship including loss of control, uncertainty about the future, fears of recurrence, and a range of physical and psychological symptoms including depression, anxiety, insomnia, and fatigue. Growing research also supports their cost-effectiveness, and online and mobile adaptations currently being developed and evaluated increase promise for use in a global context. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Fuentes, Christina T; Longo, Matthew R; Haggard, Patrick
Distortions of body image have often been investigated in clinical disorders. Much of this literature implicitly assumes healthy adults maintain an accurate body image. We recently developed a novel, implicit, and quantitative measure of body image - the Body Image Task (BIT). Here, we report a large-scale analysis of performance on this task by healthy adults. In both an in-person and an online version of the BIT, participants were presented with an image of a head as an anchoring stimulus on a computer screen, and told to imagine that the head was part of a mirror image of themselves in a standing position. They were then instructed to judge where, relative to the head, each of several parts of their body would be located. The relative positions of each landmark can be used to construct an implicit perceptual map of bodily structure. We could thus measure the internally-stored body image, although we cannot exclude contributions from other representations. Our results show several distortions of body image. First, we found a large and systematic over-estimation of width relative to height. These distortions were similar for both males and females, and did not closely track the idiosyncrasies of individual participant's own bodies. Comparisons of individual body parts showed that participants overestimated the width of their shoulders and the length of their upper arms, relative to their height, while underestimating the lengths of their lower arms and legs. Principal components analysis showed a clear spatial structure to the distortions, suggesting spatial organisation and segmentation of the body image into upper and lower limb components that are bilaterally integrated. These results provide new insight into the body image of healthy adults, and have implications for the study and rehabilitation of clinical populations. © 2013.
Del Rosso, Angela; Maddali-Bongi, Susanna
Mind body therapies (MBT) share a global approach involving both mental and physical dimensions, and focus on relationship between brain, mind, body and behavior and their effects on health and disease. MBT include concentration based therapies and movement based therapies, comprising traditional Oriental practices and somatic techniques. The greatest part of rheumatic diseases have a chronic course, leading to progressive damages at musculoskeletal system and causing physical problems, psychological and social concerns. Thus, rheumatic patients need to be treated with a multidisciplinary approach integrating pharmacological therapies and rehabilitation techniques, that not should only aim to reduce the progression of damages at musculoskeletal system. Thus, MBT, using an overall approach, could be useful in taking care of the overall health of the patients with chronic rheumatic diseases. This review will deal with different MBT and with their effects in the most common chronic rheumatic diseases (Rheumatoid Arthritis, Ankylosing Spondylitis, Fibromyalgia Syndrome). Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Conclusions: A mindfulness-based group approach to treatment of disordered eating or body image issues shows promise for improving the quality of life for college-aged students. Undergraduate institutions have the advantage of using social interaction to facilitate healthy behavioral change. Future research with larger and more diverse samples is suggested, and implications regarding practice and education are also discussed.
Heitz, C; Vogt, N; Cretin, B; Philippi, N; Jung, B; Phillipps, C; Blanc, F
'Theory of Mind' refers to the ability to attribute mental states, thoughts (cognitive component) or feelings (affective component), to others. This function has been studied in many neurodegenerative diseases; however, to our knowledge no studies investigating theory of mind in dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) have been published. The aim of our study was to search theory of mind deficits in patients with DLB. Seven patients with DLB (DLB group), at the stage of mild dementia or mild cognitive impairments, and seven healthy elderly adults (control group) were included in the study. After a global cognitive assessment, we used the Faux Pas Recognition test to assess the cognitive component of theory of mind, and the Reading the Mind in the Eyes test for the assessment of affective component. We found a significant difference between the two groups for the Faux Pas test with an average score of 35.6 for the DLB group and 48.3 for the control group (P=0.04). Scores were particularly low in the DLB group for the last question of the test concerning empathy (42.9% versus 85%, P=0.01). There was not a significant difference between the two groups for the Reading the Mind in the Eyes test (P=0.077). This preliminary study showed early impairments of theory of mind in the DLB. The cognitive component seems more affected than the affective component in this pathology. This pattern is consistent with the pattern found in Parkinson's disease, but differs from other neurodegenerative diseases as Alzheimer's disease or frontotemporal lobe dementia. These patterns may help to differentiate DLB from these diseases. Further study is needed to confirm these results and to compare with other dementias. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Enhancing body awareness has been described as a key element or a mechanism of action for therapeutic approaches often categorized as mind-body approaches, such as yoga, TaiChi, Body-Oriented Psychotherapy, Body Awareness Therapy, mindfulness based therapies/meditation, Feldenkrais, Alexander Method, Breath Therapy and others with reported benefits for a variety of health conditions. To better understand the conceptualization of body awareness in mind-body therapies, leading practitioners and teaching faculty of these approaches were invited as well as their patients to participate in focus groups. The qualitative analysis of these focus groups with representative practitioners of body awareness practices, and the perspectives of their patients, elucidated the common ground of their understanding of body awareness. For them body awareness is an inseparable aspect of embodied self awareness realized in action and interaction with the environment and world. It is the awareness of embodiment as an innate tendency of our organism for emergent self-organization and wholeness. The process that patients undergo in these therapies was seen as a progression towards greater unity between body and self, very similar to the conceptualization of embodiment as dialectic of body and self described by some philosophers as being experienced in distinct developmental levels.
Mehling, Wolf E; Wrubel, Judith; Daubenmier, Jennifer J; Price, Cynthia J; Kerr, Catherine E; Silow, Theresa; Gopisetty, Viranjini; Stewart, Anita L
Enhancing body awareness has been described as a key element or a mechanism of action for therapeutic approaches often categorized as mind-body approaches, such as yoga, TaiChi, Body-Oriented Psychotherapy, Body Awareness Therapy, mindfulness based therapies/meditation, Feldenkrais, Alexander Method, Breath Therapy and others with reported benefits for a variety of health conditions. To better understand the conceptualization of body awareness in mind-body therapies, leading practitioners and teaching faculty of these approaches were invited as well as their patients to participate in focus groups. The qualitative analysis of these focus groups with representative practitioners of body awareness practices, and the perspectives of their patients, elucidated the common ground of their understanding of body awareness. For them body awareness is an inseparable aspect of embodied self awareness realized in action and interaction with the environment and world. It is the awareness of embodiment as an innate tendency of our organism for emergent self-organization and wholeness. The process that patients undergo in these therapies was seen as a progression towards greater unity between body and self, very similar to the conceptualization of embodiment as dialectic of body and self described by some philosophers as being experienced in distinct developmental levels.
Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study is to compare the emotion recognition and mind reading in opium abusers and healthy individuals. Method: In this causative-comparative study, with a non probability sampling method, 30 opium abusers compared with 30 healthy individuals that were matched in sex and education. Neurocognitive tests of reading mind from eyes and emotion recognition from face were used for evaluation. Independent T-Test was used for analysis. Findings: The results showed that opium abusers had significantly lower abilities in mind reading than healthy matched individuals. Also opium abusers had significantly lower performance in recognition of emotional experience of happy, sad and angry faces. Conclusion: Based on weak performance of mind reading and emotion recognition in addicts, it is advised that social cognition evaluation considered in drug abusers evaluation. Future interventional study could propose social cognition rehabilitation programs for addicts.
Yamamoto, Shelby; Premji, Shahirose
Preterm birth continues to be a problem affecting low-, middle-, and high-income countries, with rates increasing in some areas despite ongoing efforts to reduce the incidence. This emphasizes the need for more effective interventions, particularly if we aim to achieve the broad health targets of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by 2030. The current focus on medically-oriented interventions such as reducing nonmedically-indicated induction of labor, cesarean birth, and multiple embryo transfers associated with assisted reproductive technologies, as well as the application of cervical cerclage and use of progesterone therapy, though important, are likely only partial solutions to the complex phenomenon of preterm birth. Preterm birth has multiple etiologies. The biologic mechanisms involved in preterm labor and how it may be triggered are not well understood. There is growing evidence to suggest some of these triggers may also be related to stress and environmental conditions. In this review, we focus on evidence concerning psychosocial (mind) and environmental factors (environment) as well as briefly review the evidence related to maternal and fetal factors (body) associated with the risk of preterm birth, with reference to some of the SDGs. We also assess emerging evidence regarding the interaction of the body, mind, and environment in relation to preterm birth, currently a gap in our knowledge, and how these interactions could impact clinical practice. Findings suggest that multidisciplinary expertise and approaches will be needed to develop effective interventions to address the complex etiologies of preterm birth, as opposed to single-risk-factor mitigation. Clinicians and researchers will play key roles in identifying many of these risk factors and shaping interventions that address this complex issue. Addressing the interlinkages between body, mind, and environment through the integration of research and clinical practice is critical to reducing the
Patrícia de Lima
Full Text Available This paper discusses concepts and methodological proposals that approach the theoretical and practical study concerning the body, understanding it as an expressive subject in constant mutation and process of reinvention. For this reason, the study approximates two somatic approaches: Bartenieff Fundamentals™ and Body-Mind Centering™. The aim was to perceive how these somatic approaches allow the construction of an intensive body that engenders an aesthetics of sensations.
Catherine E Kerr
Full Text Available Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR and Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT use a common set of exercises to reduce distress in chronic pain and decrease risk of depression relapse. These standardized mindfulness (ST-Mindfulness practices predominantly require attending to breath and body sensations. Here, we offer a novel view of ST-Mindfulness’s somatic focus as a form of training for optimizing attentional modulation of 7-14 Hz alpha rhythms that play a key role in filtering inputs to primary sensory neocortex and organizing the flow of sensory information. In support of the framework, we describe our previous finding (Kerr et al, 2011 that ST-Mindfulness enhanced attentional regulation of alpha in primary somatosensory cortex (SI. The framework allows us to make several predictions. In chronic pain, we predict somatic attention in ST-Mindfulness de-biases alpha in SI, freeing up pain-focused attentional resources. In depression relapse, we predict ST-Mindfulness’s somatic attention competes with internally focused rumination, as internally focused cognitive processes (e.g., working and short term memory rely on alpha filtering of sensory input. Our computational model (Jones et al, 2009 predicts ST-Mindfulness enhances top-down modulation of alpha by facilitating precise alterations in timing and efficacy of SI thalamocortical inputs. We conclude by considering how the proposed framework aligns with Buddhist teachings that mindfulness starts with mindfulness of the body. Translating this theory into neurophysiology, we hypothesize that with its somatic focus, mindfulness’ top-down alpha rhythm modulation in SI enhances gain control which, in turn, sensitizes practitioners to better detect and regulate when the mind wanders from its somatic focus. This enhanced regulation of somatic mind-wandering may be an early stage of mindfulness training, leading to cognitive regulation and metacognition.
McCool Jane A; Ott Mary; Krueger Deborah; Bulla Sally; Kemper Kathi; Gardiner Paula
Abstract Background Most research on the impact of mind-body training does not ask about participants' baseline experience, expectations, or preferences for training. To better plan participant-centered mind-body intervention trials for nurses to reduce occupational stress, such descriptive information would be valuable. Methods We conducted an anonymous email survey between April and June, 2010 of North American nurses interested in mind-body training to reduce stress. The e-survey included:...
Kaymaz, Nazan; Düzçeker, Yasemin; Uzun, Mehmet Erdem; Aylanç, Hakan; Baştürk, Meryem; Yıldırım, Şule
Psychological state may affect the body weight through the hypothalamus and vice versa. The goal of this study is to investigate whether body mass index affect mindfulness awareness (MA) levels and type of coping with stress. Healthy adolescents were included in the study. The mindfulness attention awareness scale (MAAS), indicating the ways of coping checklist inventory was performed and body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2) of adolescents were calculated. The influence of BMI on MA and ways of coping with stress was tested. According to BMI percentiles the study population was grouped as obese (including overweight), normal-weighted and underweight. A total of 270 adolescents (mean age: 13.63±2.07 years; 165 female/105 male) participated in the study. No significant correlation was found between BMI and MA scores (r=-0.085; p=0.161) and coping strategies were not different between the groups. When MA scores are compared with stress coping methods, it appeares that participants with high awareness levels chose positive coping styles. BMI is not effective on MA levels and choice of stress coping methods. But the higher MA levels are associated with positive coping styles.
The article describes some significant aspects of the Body-Mind Centering techniques of Bonnie Bainbridge Cohen for physical well-being that hold considerable possibilities for educators, researchers, and artists in body-oriented disciplines. (CB)
Even psychosomatic researchers seem to want to avoid the so-called body-mind problem, which is actually a mind-brain problem. In line with Beckermann (2008), the first the four possible positions on the mind-brain problem are presented. The debate over the past 100 years has revolved around the question of whether mental events are ontologically independent of brain physiology or whether they are in fact entirely determined by it. Such a physicalism approach based on properties (i.e., mental characteristics or phenomena are physical or can be completely reduced to physical characteristics), however, is diametrically opposed to some of our strongest intuitions, e.g., that computers will never be able to develop qualities of human experience (qualia) and thus become subjects in the first person singular. Yet we are equally unable to prove the fundamental impossibility of such a development. In this stalemate situation, a differentiation was undertaken by Gottlob Frege (1892) which could be of help: Expressed in today's language, a distinction is made between the sense of an expression, its contextual presentation (e.g., where there is a difference between "the evening star" and "the morning star"), on the one hand, and its so-called reference (the object to which it refers, here the planet Venus in both cases) on the other. The school of Gestalt psychology that developed in Berlin at the start of the last century similarly posited a "psychophysical level of the CNS," a continuum in a pattern of electrical field forces which manifests itself first in cerebral physiological-neuronal processes as well as in other perspectives such as consciousness and experience. A subsequent speculative concept then extends this model to assume also an (as yet) unknown Alpha configuration as being a common reference of two sense contents: (1) the results of the neurophysiological third-person perspective and (2) of the emotional-cognitive first-person perspectives. Only through the
Luberto, Christina M; Chad-Friedman, Emma; Dossett, Michelle L; Perez, Giselle K; Park, Elyse R
Mind-body interventions can improve vulnerabilities that underlie smoking behavior. The characteristics of smokers who use mind-body medicine have not been explored, preventing the development of targeted interventions. Patients ( N = 593) presenting to a mind-body medicine clinic completed self-report measures. Patients were 67 percent never smokers, 27 percent former smokers, and 6 percent current smokers. Current smokers were younger; more likely to be single, unemployed, or on disability; and report greater depression symptoms, greater pain, and lower social support ( ps mind-body medicine have unique psychosocial needs that should be targeted in mind-body smoking cessation interventions.
Chiesa, Alberto; Serretti, Alessandro; Jakobsen, Janus Christian
The beneficial clinical effects of mindfulness practices are receiving increasing support from empirical studies. However, the functional neural mechanisms underlying these benefits have not been thoroughly investigated. Some authors suggest that mindfulness should be described as a 'top......-down' emotion regulation strategy, while others suggest that mindfulness should be described as a 'bottom-up' emotion regulation strategy. Current discrepancies might derive from the many different descriptions and applications of mindfulness. The present review aims to discuss current descriptions...... of mindfulness and the relationship existing between mindfulness practice and most commonly investigated emotion regulation strategies. Recent results from functional neuro-imaging studies investigating mindfulness training within the context of emotion regulation are presented. We suggest that mindfulness...
Browning, Kristine K; Kue, Jennifer; Lyons, Felisha; Overcash, Janine
To evaluate mind-body movement exercise (MBME) classes (yoga, tai chi, and Qigong) for cancer survivors. . A single-group, repeated-measures design. . The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center-Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital in Columbus. . 33 adult cancer survivors, with any cancer diagnosis, participating in MBME classes. . The researchers sought to examine feasibility of multiple data collection time points and data collection measures; acceptability; and changes to physical, emotional, and biometric measures over time, as a result of participation in MBME classes. . Quality of life, sleep, depressive symptomatology, fatigue, stress, upper body strength, gait and balance, body mass index, heart rate, and blood pressure. . The current study was feasible because survivors were willing to participate and completed most of the questionnaires. Participants found these classes to be beneficial not only for exercise, but also for social support and social connectedness. Poor sleep quality was consistently reported by participants. MBME classes should be recommended to survivors and are beneficial for oncology practices to offer. . Conducting MBME research with cancer survivors is feasible, and participants find the MBME acceptable and a way of addressing health and managing cancer-related symptoms. . Nurses should help patients and caregivers identify locations and times when MBME class participation is possible, assess MBME class participation during each clinic visit to promote continued involvement and to understand if positive effects are occurring, and continue to provide support for MBME classes throughout the survivorship experience.
Justice, Lauren; Brems, Christiane; Ehlers, Karrie
Individuals who suffer from trauma-related symptoms are a unique population that could benefit from the mind-body practice of yoga-or have their symptoms reactivated by it, depending on the type of yoga. Trauma-informed yoga (TIY), that is, yoga adapted to the unique needs of individuals working to overcome trauma, may ameliorate symptoms by creating a safe, tailored practice for students to learn how to respond, rather than react, to symptoms and circumstances. Yoga not thus adapted, on the other hand, may increase reactivity and activate symptoms such as hyperarousal or dissociation. This article reports on expert input about adapting yoga for individuals with trauma, with special considerations for military populations. Eleven experts, recruited based on literature review and referrals, were interviewed in person or via telephone and asked seven questions about trauma-informed yoga. Verbatim transcripts were subjected to open-coding thematic analysis and a priori themes. Findings revealed that TIY needs to emphasize beneficial practices (e.g., diaphragmatic breath and restorative postures), consider contraindications (e.g., avoiding sequences that overly engage the sympathetic nervous system), adapt to limitations and challenges for teaching in unconventional settings (e.g., prisons, VA hospitals), and provide specialized training and preparation (e.g., specialized TIY certifications, self-care of instructors/therapists, adaptions for student needs). TIY for veterans must additionally consider gender- and culture-related barriers, differing relationships to pain and injury, and medication as a barrier to practice.
Philosophical theory about the nature of human beings has far reaching consequences on our understanding of various issues faced by them. Once taken as self-evident, it becomes the foundation on which knowledge gets built. The cause of concern is that this theoretical framework rarely gets questioned despite its inherent limitations and self-defeating consequences, leading to crisis in the concerned field. The field, which is facing crisis today, is that of medicine, and the paradigmatic stance that is responsible for the crisis is Cartesian dualism—a view that mind and body are essentially separate entities. This paper discusses Cartesian dualism in the context of the practice of medicine. Focusing more closely on how disease, health and treatment are defined through this position, the paper builds up its critique by throwing light on its accomplishments, limitations and self-defeating consequences. The paper also seeks to understand why this dualism is still alive despite its disavowal from philosophers, health practitioners and lay people. PMID:21694971
Philosophical theory about the nature of human beings has far reaching consequences on our understanding of various issues faced by them. Once taken as self-evident, it becomes the foundation on which knowledge gets built. The cause of concern is that this theoretical framework rarely gets questioned despite its inherent limitations and self-defeating consequences, leading to crisis in the concerned field. The field, which is facing crisis today, is that of medicine, and the paradigmatic stance that is responsible for the crisis is Cartesian dualism-a view that mind and body are essentially separate entities. This paper discusses Cartesian dualism in the context of the practice of medicine. Focusing more closely on how disease, health and treatment are defined through this position, the paper builds up its critique by throwing light on its accomplishments, limitations and self-defeating consequences. The paper also seeks to understand why this dualism is still alive despite its disavowal from philosophers, health practitioners and lay people.
Jellesma, F.C.; Cornelis, J.
Purpose of study: The aim of this pilot study was to examine a mind-body-based preventive intervention program and to determine relationships between children's behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and behavioral activation system, stress, and stress reduction after the program. Design of study:
Nuwan Dominic Leitan
Full Text Available As a discipline, psychology is defined by its location in the ambiguous space between mind and body, but theories underpinning the application of psychology in psychotherapy are largely silent on this fundamental metaphysical issue. This is a remarkable state of affairs, given that psychotherapy is typically a real-time meeting between two embodied agents, with the goal of facilitating behavior change in one party. The overarching aim of this paper is to problematize the mind-body relationship in psychotherapy in the service of encouraging advances in theory and practice. The paper briefly explores various psychotherapeutic approaches to help explicate relationships between mind and body from these perspectives. Themes arising from this analysis include a tendency toward dualism (separation of mind and body from the conceptualization of human functioning, exclusivism (elimination of either mind or body from the conceptualization of human functioning, or mind-body monism (conceptualization of mind and body as a single, holistic system. We conclude that the literature, as a whole, does not demonstrate consensus, regarding the relationship between mind and body in psychotherapy. We then introduce a contemporary, holistic, psychological conceptualization of the relationship between mind and body, and argue for its potential utility as an organizing framework for psychotherapeutic theory and practice. The holistic approach we explore, grounded cognition, arises from a long philosophical tradition, is influential in current cognitive science, and presents a coherent empirically testable framework integrating subjective and objective perspectives. Finally, we demonstrate how this grounded cognition perspective might lead to advances in the theory and practice of psychotherapy.
Leitan, Nuwan D; Murray, Greg
As a discipline, psychology is defined by its location in the ambiguous space between mind and body, but theories underpinning the application of psychology in psychotherapy are largely silent on this fundamental metaphysical issue. This is a remarkable state of affairs, given that psychotherapy is typically a real-time meeting between two embodied agents, with the goal of facilitating behavior change in one party. The overarching aim of this paper is to problematize the mind-body relationship in psychotherapy in the service of encouraging advances in theory and practice. The paper briefly explores various psychotherapeutic approaches to help explicate relationships between mind and body from these perspectives. Themes arising from this analysis include a tendency toward dualism (separation of mind and body from the conceptualization of human functioning), exclusivism (elimination of either mind or body from the conceptualization of human functioning), or mind-body monism (conceptualization of mind and body as a single, holistic system). We conclude that the literature, as a whole, does not demonstrate consensus, regarding the relationship between mind and body in psychotherapy. We then introduce a contemporary, holistic, psychological conceptualization of the relationship between mind and body, and argue for its potential utility as an organizing framework for psychotherapeutic theory and practice. The holistic approach we explore, "grounded cognition," arises from a long philosophical tradition, is influential in current cognitive science, and presents a coherent empirically testable framework integrating subjective and objective perspectives. Finally, we demonstrate how this "grounded cognition" perspective might lead to advances in the theory and practice of psychotherapy.
Martin, Rachel; Prichard, Ivanka; Hutchinson, Amanda D; Wilson, Carlene
This study examined the potential mediating roles of mindfulness and body awareness in the relationship between exercise and eating behavior. Female exercisers (N = 159) recruited from fitness centers, yoga centers, and the community completed a questionnaire incorporating measures of exercise behavior, body awareness, trait mindfulness, mindful eating, dietary intake, and disordered eating symptoms. Participation in yoga was associated with significantly lower disordered eating (mediated by body awareness), whereas the amount of time spent participating in cardio-based exercise was associated with greater eating disturbance. The relationships between amount of exercise and actual food intake were not mediated by trait mindfulness or body awareness. The differential findings for dietary intake and disordered eating indicate that the body awareness cultivated in different forms of exercise may be more beneficial for clinical populations or those at risk for eating disorders than for modifying actual dietary intake in the general population.
Jeon, Im Hong; Kim, Kyung Ran; Kim, Hwan Hee; Park, Jin Young; Lee, Mikyung; Jo, Hye Hyun; Koo, Se Jun; Jeong, Yu Jin; Song, Yun Young; Kang, Jee In; Lee, Su Young; Lee, Eun; An, Suk Kyoon
Attributional style, especially external personal attribution bias, was found to play a pivotal role in clinical and non-clinical paranoia. The study of the relationship of the tendency to infer/perceive hostility and blame with theory of mind skills has significant theoretical importance as it may provide additional information on how persons process social situations. The aim of this study was whether hostility perception bias and blame bias might be associated with theory of mind skills, neurocognition and emotional factors in healthy persons. Total 263 participants (133 male and 130 female) were recruited. The attributional style was measured by using the Ambiguous Intentions Hostility Questionnaire (AIHQ). Participants were requested to complete a Brüne's Theory of Mind Picture Stories task, neurocognitive task including Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM) and digit span, and other emotional dysregulation trait scales including Rosenberg's self-esteem, Spielberg's trait anxiety inventory, and Novaco anger scale. Multiple regression analysis showed that hostility perception bias score in ambiguous situation were found to be associated with theory of mind questionnaire score and emotional dysregulation traits of Novaco anger scale. Also, composite blame bias score in ambiguous situation were found to be associated with emotional dysregulation traits of Novaco anger scale and Spielberg's trait anxiety scale. The main finding was that the attributional style of hostility perception bias might be primarily contributed by theory of mind skills rather than neurocognitive function such as attention and working memory, and reasoning ability. The interpretations and implications would be discussed in details.
Chan, Roxane Raffin; Lehto, Rebecca H
Persons with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) exhibit high levels of comorbid anxiety that severely worsens their sensation of dyspnea and is associated with high levels of avoidance of essential activities resulting in an increase morbidity and mortality. Increasing meditation and mind/body practices have been shown to decrease anxiety, and improve intrapersonal and interpersonal relationships in general populations, however, results of studies in the COPD population have been mixed. Understanding how persons with COPD experience learning meditation and mind/body skills would aid future meditation-focused mind/body intervention design. A mixed-method study of a community based meditation-focused mind/body intervention for persons with COPD. Reflective journaling, phone exit interviews and survey measures: chronic disease respiratory questionnaire, and Anxiety Sensitivity 3 questionnaire. Eight weekly one hour meditation-focused mind/body classes that taught concentration and insight meditation skills along with mind/body exercises that facilitated increased body and emotional awareness. Out of 41 participants, 32 (73%) contributed detailed experience about learning and practicing meditation and mind/body practices that distilled into four themes, barriers to practice, learning style, emotional processing, and benefits of practice. Of those 32 participants 21 (73%) identified improvement in physical or emotional symptoms. Overall, 13 (40%) participants provided details regarding how they adapted specific meditation skills into daily life to improve emotional function and lessen dyspnea. Anxiety sensitivity to social situations was associated with a lack of participation. Lessons learned for larger scale application to future meditation and mind/body intervention design for chronic illness populations such as COPD are identified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... To Know About Mind and Body Practices for Fibromyalgia Share: Fibromyalgia syndrome is a chronic disorder characterized by widespread ... carry out daily activities. It is estimated that fibromyalgia affects 5 million American adults. Most people with ...
Salmoirago-Blotcher, Elena; Druker, Sue; Meyer, Florence; Bock, Beth; Crawford, Sybil; Pbert, Lori
Cardiovascular prevention is more effective if started early in life, but available interventions to promote healthy lifestyle habits among youth have been ineffective. Impulsivity in particular has proven to be an important barrier to the adoption of healthy behaviors in youth. Observational evidence suggests that mindfulness interventions may reduce impulsivity and improve diet and physical activity. We hypothesize that mindfulness training in adjunct to traditional health education will improve dietary habits and physical activity among teenagers by reducing impulsive behavior and improving planning skills. The Commit to Get Fit study is a pilot cluster randomized controlled trial examining the feasibility, acceptability and preliminary efficacy of school-based mindfulness training in adjunct to traditional health education for promotion of a healthy diet and physical activity among adolescents. Two schools in central Massachusetts (30 students per school) will be randomized to receive mindfulness training plus standard health education (HE-M) or an attention-control intervention plus standard health education (HE-AC). Assessments will be conducted at baseline, intervention completion (2 months), and 8 months. Primary outcomes are feasibility and acceptability. Secondary outcomes include physical activity, diet, impulsivity, mood, body mass index, and quality of life. This study will provide important information about feasibility and preliminary estimates of efficacy of a school-delivered mindfulness and health education intervention to promote healthy dietary and physical activity behaviors among adolescents. Our findings will provide important insights about the possible mechanisms by which mindfulness training may contribute to behavioral change and inform future research in this important area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
1. The health practitioner may encounter clients who are faced with problems that do not seem to respond to traditional health care. 2. One way that some choose to confront these systemic complaints is to employ some of the health traditions of other cultures and to view the body and mind as a balanced whole. 3. Massage, acupuncture and acupressure, t'ai chi, and Feldenkrais focus on the mind/body connection to facilitate healing through relaxation, pressure points, and movement.
Pedro Jesús Teruel
Full Text Available The mind-body problem is one of the perennial challenges in the history of ideas. Immanuel Kant (1724-1804 tried to solve it through an approach with several modulations –parallel to his intellectual evolution– that brought him into contact with both the later projection of the theoretical issue (the mind brain problem and its practical side (the immortality question. In this paper I face the Kantian approach to the mind-body problem from a triple perspective: descriptive, appraising and critical.
Kraemer, Kristen M; Luberto, Christina M; O'Bryan, Emily M; Mysinger, Erica; Cotton, Sian
Medical students face rigorous and stressful work environments, resulting in high rates of psychological distress. However, there has been a dearth of empirical work aimed at modifying risk factors for psychopathology among this at-risk group. Distress tolerance, defined as the ability to withstand emotional distress, is one factor that may be important in promoting psychological well-being in medical students. Thus, the aim of the current mixed-methods study was (a) to describe changes in facets of distress tolerance (i.e., emotional tolerance, absorption, appraisal, regulation) for medical students who completed a mind-body skills training group, and a no-intervention control group of students; (b) to examine the relationship between changes in psychological variables and changes in distress tolerance; and (c) to report students' perceptions of the mind-body group, with an emphasis on how the group may have affected personal and professional functioning due to improvements in distress tolerance. The mind-body program was an 11-week, 2-hour skills training group that focused on introducing, practicing, and processing mind-body skills such as biofeedback, guided imagery, relaxation, several forms of meditation (e.g., mindfulness), breathing exercises, and autogenic training. Participants were 52 first- and second-year medical students (62.7% female, Mage = 23.45, SD = 1.51) who participated in a mind-body group or a no-intervention control group and completed self-report measures before and after the 11-week period. Students in the mind-body group showed a modest improvement in all distress tolerance subscales over time (ΔM = .42-.53, p = .01-.03, d = .44-.53), whereas the control group showed less consistent changes across most subscales (ΔM = .11-.42, p = .10-.65, d = .01-.42). Students in the mind-body group qualitatively reported an improved ability to tolerate affective distress. Overall, improvements in psychological symptoms were associated with
Summers, Amber; Confair, Amy R.; Flamm, Laura; Goheer, Attia; Graham, Karlene; Muindi, Mwende; Gittelsohn, Joel
Background: The Healthy Bodies, Healthy Souls (HBHS) program aims to reduce diabetes risk among urban African Americans by creating healthy food and physical activity environments within churches. Participant engagement supports the development of applicable intervention strategies by identifying priority concerns, resources, and opportunities.…
Leitan, Nuwan D.; Murray, Greg
As a discipline, psychology is defined by its location in the ambiguous space between mind and body, but theories underpinning the application of psychology in psychotherapy are largely silent on this fundamental metaphysical issue. This is a remarkable state of affairs, given that psychotherapy is typically a real-time meeting between two embodied agents, with the goal of facilitating behavior change in one party. The overarching aim of this paper is to problematize the mind–body relationship in psychotherapy in the service of encouraging advances in theory and practice. The paper briefly explores various psychotherapeutic approaches to help explicate relationships between mind and body from these perspectives. Themes arising from this analysis include a tendency toward dualism (separation of mind and body from the conceptualization of human functioning), exclusivism (elimination of either mind or body from the conceptualization of human functioning), or mind–body monism (conceptualization of mind and body as a single, holistic system). We conclude that the literature, as a whole, does not demonstrate consensus, regarding the relationship between mind and body in psychotherapy. We then introduce a contemporary, holistic, psychological conceptualization of the relationship between mind and body, and argue for its potential utility as an organizing framework for psychotherapeutic theory and practice. The holistic approach we explore, “grounded cognition,” arises from a long philosophical tradition, is influential in current cognitive science, and presents a coherent empirically testable framework integrating subjective and objective perspectives. Finally, we demonstrate how this “grounded cognition” perspective might lead to advances in the theory and practice of psychotherapy. PMID:24904486
Full Text Available This study investigated whether engaging in mindfulness following food consumption produced changes in affect and body satisfaction, as compared to a control distraction task. The moderating effects of eating pathology and neuroticism were also examined. A total of 110 female university students consumed food and water before engaging in either a mindfulness induction or a control distraction task. Participants completed trait measures of eating pathology and neuroticism at baseline, and measures of state affect and body satisfaction before and after food consumption, and after the induction. Results revealed that consuming food and water reduced positive affect. Unexpectedly, both the mindfulness group and distraction control group experienced similar improvements in negative affect and body satisfaction following the induction. Eating pathology and neuroticism did not moderate the observed changes. These findings suggest that both mindfulness and distraction may contribute to the effectiveness of treatments for disordered eating that incorporate both of these techniques, such as Dialectical Behavior Therapy.
Tsai, Alice; Hughes, Elizabeth K; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Buck, Kimberly; Krug, Isabel
This study investigated whether engaging in mindfulness following food consumption produced changes in affect and body satisfaction, as compared to a control distraction task. The moderating effects of eating pathology and neuroticism were also examined. A total of 110 female university students consumed food and water before engaging in either a mindfulness induction or a control distraction task. Participants completed trait measures of eating pathology and neuroticism at baseline, and measures of state affect and body satisfaction before and after food consumption, and after the induction. Results revealed that consuming food and water reduced positive affect. Unexpectedly, both the mindfulness group and distraction control group experienced similar improvements in negative affect and body satisfaction following the induction. Eating pathology and neuroticism did not moderate the observed changes. These findings suggest that both mindfulness and distraction may contribute to the effectiveness of treatments for disordered eating that incorporate both of these techniques, such as Dialectical Behavior Therapy.
Campanella, Fabio; Crescentini, Cristiano; Urgesi, Cosimo; Fabbro, Franco
Previous studies have shown that mindfulness meditation may improve well-being in healthy individuals and be effective in the treatment of mental and neurological disorders. Here, we investigated the effects of an 8-week mindfulness-mediation program on the personality profiles of three groups of healthy individuals with no previous experience with meditation as compared to a control group not enrolled in any training. Personality profiles were obtained through the Temperament and Character Inventory (Cloninger et al., 1993). In the experimental groups, significant increments after the training were obtained in all the three character scales describing the levels of self maturity at the intrapersonal (Self-Directedness), interpersonal (Cooperativeness), and transpersonal (Self-Transcendence) levels. No changes were found in the control group. Strikingly, these effects were significant only in those groups who were engaged in consistent daily meditation practice but not in the group who attended the meditation training but were less consistent in home practice. Since higher scores in the character scales are associated to a lower risk of personality disorder, we propose that the increase of self maturity after the training may be an important mechanism for the effectiveness of mindfulness-oriented meditation in psychotherapeutic contexts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kemper, Kathi J; Rao, Nisha; Gascon, Gregg; Mahan, John D
There is a high rate of burnout among health professionals, driving diverse attempts to promote resilience and well-being to counter this trend. The purpose of this project was to assess the dose-response relationship between the number of hours of online mind-body skills training for health professionals and relevant outcomes a year later. Among 1438 registrants for online training (including up to 12 hours of training on mind-body practices) between December 2013 and November 2015, we analyzed responses from the first 10% who responded to an anonymous online survey between December 1, 2015 and February 1, 2016. Questions included the type and frequency of mind-body practice in the past 30 days and whether the online training had any impact on personal life or professional practice. Standardized measures were used to assess stress, mindfulness, confidence in providing compassionate care, and burnout. The 149 respondents represented a variety of ages and health professions; 55% completed one or more mind-body training modules an average of 14 months previously. Most (78%) engaged in one or more mind-body practices in the 30 days before the survey; 79% reported changes in self-care and 71% reported changes in the care of others as a result of participating. Increasing number of hours of training were significantly associated with practicing mind-body skills more frequently; increasing practice frequency was associated with less stress and burnout, which were associated with missing less work. Greater practice frequency was also associated with improvements in stress, mindfulness, and resilience, which were associated with increased confidence in providing compassionate care. Online training in mind-body therapies is associated with changes in self-reported behavior one year later; increasing doses of training are associated with more frequent practice which is associated with less stress, burnout, and missing work, and higher levels of mindfulness, resilience, and
Agger Nielsen, Jeppe; Nielsen, Charlotte Agger
Mindfulness har de senere år budt sig til som effektiv hjælp til selvhjælp for fortravlede ledere og professionelle. Men er meditationsøvelser og forsøg på at finde indre ”zen”-ro overhovedet lederens anstrengelser værd? Denne artikel diskuterer effekterne af mindfulness og giver ordet til såvel...
... you need. Caring for your physical health through exercise Being active also is important to a healthy lifestyle. And it’s important in ... a Healthy HeartRead Article >>Exercise and FitnessDiet and Exercise for a ... the simplest yet most important ways to have a healthy heart are through ...
In this paper I examine the issues related to the robot with mind. To create a robot with mind aims to recreate neuro function by engineering. The robot with mind is expected not only to process external information by the built-in program and behave accordingly, but also to gain the consciousness activity responding multiple conditions and flexible and interactive communication skills coping with unknown situation. That prospect is based on the development of artificial intelligence in which self-organizing and self-emergent functions have been available in recent years. To date, controllable aspects in robotics have been restricted to data making and programming of cognitive abilities, while consciousness activities and communication skills have been regarded as uncontrollable aspects due to their contingency and uncertainty. However, some researchers of robotics claim that every activity of the mind can be recreated by engineering and is therefore controllable. Based on the development of the cognitive abilities of children and the findings of neuroscience, researchers have attempted to produce the latest artificial intelligence with autonomous learning systems. I conclude that controllability is inconsistent with autonomy in the genuine sense and autonomous robots recreated by engineering cannot be autonomous partners of humans.
Astin, John A; Shapiro, Shauna L; Eisenberg, David M; Forys, Kelly L
Although emerging evidence during the past several decades suggests that psychosocial factors can directly influence both physiologic function and health outcomes, medicine had failed to move beyond the biomedical model, in part because of lack of exposure to the evidence base supporting the biopsychosocial model. The literature was reviewed to examine the efficacy of representative psychosocial-mind-body interventions, including relaxation, (cognitive) behavioral therapies, meditation, imagery, biofeedback, and hypnosis for several common clinical conditions. An electronic search was undertaken of the MEDLINE, PsycLIT, and the Cochrane Library databases and a manual search of the reference sections of relevant articles for related clinical trials and reviews of the literature. Studies examining mind-body interventions for psychological disorders were excluded. Owing to space limitations, studies examining more body-based therapies, such as yoga and tai chi chuan, were also not included. Data were extracted from relevant systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and randomized controlled trials. Drawing principally from systematic reviews and meta-analyses, there is considerable evidence of efficacy for several mind-body therapies in the treatment of coronary artery disease (eg, cardiac rehabilitation), headaches, insomnia, incontinence, chronic low back pain, disease and treatment-related symptoms of cancer, and improving postsurgical outcomes. We found moderate evidence of efficacy for mind-body therapies in the areas of hypertension and arthritis. Additional research is required to clarify the relative efficacy of different mind-body therapies, factors (such as specific patient characteristics) that might predict more or less successful outcomes, and mechanisms of action. Research is also necessary to examine the cost offsets associated with mind-body therapies. There is now considerable evidence that an array of mind-body therapies can be used as effective adjuncts to
Thomas, Heather M; Irwin, Jennifer D
A qualitative assessment was completed of overweight/obese youths' perceptions of the meaning of "healthy body weight," barriers and facilitators to healthy body weight attainment, and what would effectively enhance and support their healthy body weight behaviours. This qualitative study targeted a sample of overweight and obese youth, aged 14 to 16 years. An experienced interviewer conducted 11 in-depth interviews. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Three qualitative researchers conducted independent and simultaneous inductive content analysis to facilitate confirmability. Data trustworthiness was supported via member checking, peer debriefing, and reflexive journalling. Most participants characterized healthy body weight as a combination of healthy eating and regular physical activity. Some included a psychological dimension in the definition. Perceived facilitators of a healthy body weight included family support, access to nutritious food at home, physical activity encouragement, and a physical activity environment at school. Perceived barriers included lack of family support, a poor nutrition environment, an unsupportive school environment, time, self-esteem, and bullying. Participants identified preferences for an intervention that would include opportunities for unstructured coeducational recreational activities, coeducational nutrition education sessions, and a gender-specific discussion forum. Participants provided a wealth of information to form the foundation of future youth-focused efficacious healthy body weight interventions.
Full Text Available Buddhism has been seen, at least since the Theravāda reform movements of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, as particularly compatible with Western science. The recent explosion of Mindfulness therapies have strengthened this perception. However, the 'Buddhism' which is being brought into relation with science in the context of the Mindfulness movement has already undergone extensive rewriting under modernist influences, and many of the more critical aspects of Buddhist thought and practice are dismissed or ignored. The Mind and Life Institute encounters, under the patronage of His Holiness the Dalai Lama, present a different kind of dialogue, in which a Tibetan Buddhism which is only beginning to undergo modernist rewriting confronts Western scientists and scholars on more equal terms. However, is the highly sophisticated but radically other world of Tantric thought really compatible with contemporary science? In this article I look at problem areas within the dialogue, and suggest that genuine progress is most likely to come if we recognise the differences between Buddhist thought and contemporary science, and take them as an opportunity to rethink scientific assumptions.
Herbert, Anne; Esparham, Anna
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is pervasive among the pediatric population and new treatments with minimal adverse effects are necessary to be studied. The purpose of this article is to review current research studying mind?body therapies for treatment of children diagnosed with ADHD. Literature was reviewed pertaining to the effectiveness of movement-based therapies and mindfulness/meditation-based therapies for ADHD. Many positive effects of yoga, Tai Chi, physical activity...
Sugawara, Norio; Yasui-Furukori, Norio; Tsuchimine, Shoko; Fujii, Akira; Sato, Yasushi; Saito, Manabu; Matsuzaka, Masashi; Takahashi, Ippei; Kaneko, Sunao
Recently, a relationship between obesity and schizophrenia has been reported. Although fat- mass and fat free mass have been shown to be more predictive of health risk than body mass index, there are limited findings about body composition among patients suffering from schizophrenia. The aim of this study is to compare the body composition of schizophrenia patients with that of healthy subjects in Japan. We recruited patients (n = 204), aged 41.3 ± 13.8 (mean ± SD) years old with the DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia who were admitted to psychiatric hospital using a cross-sectional design. Subjects' anthropometric measurements including weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and medications were also collected. Body fat, percent (%) body fat, fat- free mass, muscle mass, and body water were measured using the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) method. Comparative analysis was performed with schizophrenic subjects and 204 healthy control individuals. In a multiple regression model with age, body mass index, and dose in chlorpromazine equivalents, schizophrenia was a significantly linked with more body fat, higher % body fat, lower fat- free mass, lower muscle mass, and lower body water among males. In females, schizophrenia had a significant association with lower % body fat, higher fat- free mass, higher muscle mass, and higher body water. Our data demonstrate gender differences with regard to changes in body composition in association with schizophrenia. These results indicate that intervention programs designed to fight obesity among schizophrenic patients should be individualized according to gender.
Kemper, Kathi; Bulla, Sally; Krueger, Deborah; Ott, Mary Jane; McCool, Jane A; Gardiner, Paula
Most research on the impact of mind-body training does not ask about participants' baseline experience, expectations, or preferences for training. To better plan participant-centered mind-body intervention trials for nurses to reduce occupational stress, such descriptive information would be valuable. We conducted an anonymous email survey between April and June, 2010 of North American nurses interested in mind-body training to reduce stress. The e-survey included: demographic characteristics, health conditions and stress levels; experiences with mind-body practices; expected health benefits; training preferences; and willingness to participate in future randomized controlled trials. Of the 342 respondents, 96% were women and 92% were Caucasian. Most (73%) reported one or more health conditions, notably anxiety (49%); back pain (41%); GI problems such as irritable bowel syndrome (34%); or depression (33%). Their median occupational stress level was 4 (0 = none; 5 = extreme stress). Nearly all (99%) reported already using one or more mind-body practices to reduce stress: intercessory prayer (86%), breath-focused meditation (49%), healing or therapeutic touch (39%), yoga/tai chi/qi gong (34%), or mindfulness-based meditation (18%). The greatest expected benefits were for greater spiritual well-being (56%); serenity, calm, or inner peace (54%); better mood (51%); more compassion (50%); or better sleep (42%). Most (65%) wanted additional training; convenience (74% essential or very important), was more important than the program's reputation (49%) or scientific evidence about effectiveness (32%) in program selection. Most (65%) were willing to participate in a randomized trial of mind-body training; among these, most were willing to collect salivary cortisol (60%), or serum biomarkers (53%) to assess the impact of training. Most nurses interested in mind-body training already engage in such practices. They have greater expectations about spiritual and emotional than
McCool Jane A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Most research on the impact of mind-body training does not ask about participants' baseline experience, expectations, or preferences for training. To better plan participant-centered mind-body intervention trials for nurses to reduce occupational stress, such descriptive information would be valuable. Methods We conducted an anonymous email survey between April and June, 2010 of North American nurses interested in mind-body training to reduce stress. The e-survey included: demographic characteristics, health conditions and stress levels; experiences with mind-body practices; expected health benefits; training preferences; and willingness to participate in future randomized controlled trials. Results Of the 342 respondents, 96% were women and 92% were Caucasian. Most (73% reported one or more health conditions, notably anxiety (49%; back pain (41%; GI problems such as irritable bowel syndrome (34%; or depression (33%. Their median occupational stress level was 4 (0 = none; 5 = extreme stress. Nearly all (99% reported already using one or more mind-body practices to reduce stress: intercessory prayer (86%, breath-focused meditation (49%, healing or therapeutic touch (39%, yoga/tai chi/qi gong (34%, or mindfulness-based meditation (18%. The greatest expected benefits were for greater spiritual well-being (56%; serenity, calm, or inner peace (54%; better mood (51%; more compassion (50%; or better sleep (42%. Most (65% wanted additional training; convenience (74% essential or very important, was more important than the program's reputation (49% or scientific evidence about effectiveness (32% in program selection. Most (65% were willing to participate in a randomized trial of mind-body training; among these, most were willing to collect salivary cortisol (60%, or serum biomarkers (53% to assess the impact of training. Conclusions Most nurses interested in mind-body training already engage in such practices. They have greater
Background Most research on the impact of mind-body training does not ask about participants' baseline experience, expectations, or preferences for training. To better plan participant-centered mind-body intervention trials for nurses to reduce occupational stress, such descriptive information would be valuable. Methods We conducted an anonymous email survey between April and June, 2010 of North American nurses interested in mind-body training to reduce stress. The e-survey included: demographic characteristics, health conditions and stress levels; experiences with mind-body practices; expected health benefits; training preferences; and willingness to participate in future randomized controlled trials. Results Of the 342 respondents, 96% were women and 92% were Caucasian. Most (73%) reported one or more health conditions, notably anxiety (49%); back pain (41%); GI problems such as irritable bowel syndrome (34%); or depression (33%). Their median occupational stress level was 4 (0 = none; 5 = extreme stress). Nearly all (99%) reported already using one or more mind-body practices to reduce stress: intercessory prayer (86%), breath-focused meditation (49%), healing or therapeutic touch (39%), yoga/tai chi/qi gong (34%), or mindfulness-based meditation (18%). The greatest expected benefits were for greater spiritual well-being (56%); serenity, calm, or inner peace (54%); better mood (51%); more compassion (50%); or better sleep (42%). Most (65%) wanted additional training; convenience (74% essential or very important), was more important than the program's reputation (49%) or scientific evidence about effectiveness (32%) in program selection. Most (65%) were willing to participate in a randomized trial of mind-body training; among these, most were willing to collect salivary cortisol (60%), or serum biomarkers (53%) to assess the impact of training. Conclusions Most nurses interested in mind-body training already engage in such practices. They have greater
Full Text Available It has long been established in traditional forms of medicine and in anecdotal knowledge that the health of the body and the mind are inextricably linked. Strong and continually developing evidence now suggests a link between disorders which involve Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal axis (HPA dysregulation and the risk of developing psychiatric disease. For instance, adverse or excessive responses to stressful experiences are built into the diagnostic criteria for several psychiatric disorders, including depression and anxiety disorders. Interestingly, peripheral disorders such as metabolic disorders and cardiovascular diseases are also associated with HPA changes. Furthermore, many of other systemic disorders associated with a higher incidence of psychiatric disease involve a significant inflammatory component. In fact, inflammatory and endocrine pathways seem to interact in both the periphery and the central nervous system (CNS to potentiate states of psychiatric dysfunction. This review synthesizes clinical and animal data looking at interactions between peripheral and central factors, gaining an understanding at the molecular and cellular level of how processes in the entire body can impact on mental state and psychiatric health.
Full Text Available Background/Aims: To assess the body, mind and spirit differences between yoga students compared with college students. Materials and Methods: Mind, body and spirit survey instruments administered to the two groups. Results: Five indicators to measure mental wellness were significantly different between yoga practitioners and college students. On three of these five measures, college students reported more mental wellness than yoga practitioners - in other words, the relationship was the inverse of what was expected. College students reported maintaining stability in their life more often than yoga practitioners as well as more often experiencing satisfying interpersonal relationships. College students were also more likely than yoga practitioners to report being tolerant of others, whether or not they approved of their behavior or beliefs. Yoga practitioners were more likely than college students to report having strong morals and healthy values as well as the ability to express their feelings and consider the feelings of others. We found differences between yoga practitioners and college students on more than half of our spirit items (five of nine. Yoga practitioners were more likely than college students to report expressing their spirituality appropriately and in healthy ways, recognizing the positive contribution faith could make to the quality of life (significant at the 0.07 level, routinely undertaking new experiences to enhance spiritual health and having a positive outlook on life. Further, we found support for the proposition that yoga practitioners were more likely to report experiencing happiness within. Conclusions: Significant differences between yoga and college students were found on the body, mind and spirit measurement instrument. Further work needs to address the complexities of these relationships.
Monk-Turner, Elizabeth; Turner, Charlie
To assess the body, mind and spirit differences between yoga students compared with college students. Mind, body and spirit survey instruments administered to the two groups. Five indicators to measure mental wellness were significantly different between yoga practitioners and college students. On three of these five measures, college students reported more mental wellness than yoga practitioners - in other words, the relationship was the inverse of what was expected. College students reported maintaining stability in their life more often than yoga practitioners as well as more often experiencing satisfying interpersonal relationships. College students were also more likely than yoga practitioners to report being tolerant of others, whether or not they approved of their behavior or beliefs. Yoga practitioners were more likely than college students to report having strong morals and healthy values as well as the ability to express their feelings and consider the feelings of others. We found differences between yoga practitioners and college students on more than half of our spirit items (five of nine). Yoga practitioners were more likely than college students to report expressing their spirituality appropriately and in healthy ways, recognizing the positive contribution faith could make to the quality of life (significant at the 0.07 level), routinely undertaking new experiences to enhance spiritual health and having a positive outlook on life. Further, we found support for the proposition that yoga practitioners were more likely to report experiencing happiness within. Significant differences between yoga and college students were found on the body, mind and spirit measurement instrument. Further work needs to address the complexities of these relationships.
Khoury, Bassam; Sharma, Manoj; Rush, Sarah E; Fournier, Claude
An increasing number of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) studies are being conducted with nonclinical populations, but very little is known about their effectiveness. To evaluate the efficacy, mechanisms of actions, and moderators of MBSR for nonclinical populations. A systematic review of studies published in English journals in Medline, CINAHL or Alt HealthWatch from the first available date until September 19, 2014. Any quantitative study that used MBSR as an intervention, that was conducted with healthy adults, and that investigated stress or anxiety. A total of 29 studies (n=2668) were included. Effect-size estimates suggested that MBSR is moderately effective in pre-post analyses (n=26; Hedge's g=.55; 95% CI [.44, .66], panxiety, depression, distress, and quality of life, and small effects on burnout. When combined, changes in mindfulness and compassion measures correlated with changes in clinical measures at post-treatment and at follow-up. However, heterogeneity was high, probably due to differences in the study design, the implemented protocol, and the assessed outcomes. MBSR is moderately effective in reducing stress, depression, anxiety and distress and in ameliorating the quality of life of healthy individuals; however, more research is warranted to identify the most effective elements of MBSR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cook-Cottone, Catherine P
This article provides a model for understanding the role positive body image can play in the treatment of eating disorders and methods for guiding patients away from symptoms and toward flourishing. The Attuned Representational Model of Self (Cook-Cottone, 2006) and a conceptual model detailing flourishing in the context of body image and eating behavior (Cook-Cottone et al., 2013) are discussed. The flourishing inherent in positive body image comes hand-in-hand with two critical ways of being: (a) having healthy, embodied awareness of the internal and external aspects of self (i.e., attunement) and (b) engaging in mindful self-care. Attunement and mindful self-care thus are considered as potential targets of actionable therapeutic work in the cultivation of positive body image among those with disordered eating. For context, best-practices in eating disorder treatment are also reviewed. Limitations in current research are detailed and directions for future research are explicated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wolever, Ruth Q; Bobinet, Kyra J; McCabe, Kelley; Mackenzie, Elizabeth R; Fekete, Erin; Kusnick, Catherine A; Baime, Michael
Highly stressed employees are subject to greater health risks, increased cost, and productivity losses than those with normal stress levels. To address this issue in an evidence-based manner, worksite stress management programs must be able to engage individuals as well as capture data on stress, health indices, work productivity, and health care costs. In this randomized controlled pilot, our primary objective was to evaluate the viability and proof of concept for two mind-body workplace stress reduction programs (one therapeutic yoga-based and the other mindfulness-based), in order to set the stage for larger cost-effectiveness trials. A second objective was to evaluate 2 delivery venues of the mindfulness-based intervention (online vs. in-person). Intention-to-treat principles and 2 (pre and post) × 3 (group) repeated-measures analysis of covariance procedures examined group differences over time on perceived stress and secondary measures to clarify which variables to include in future studies: sleep quality, mood, pain levels, work productivity, mindfulness, blood pressure, breathing rate, and heart rate variability (a measure of autonomic balance). Two hundred and thirty-nine employee volunteers were randomized into a therapeutic yoga worksite stress reduction program, 1 of 2 mindfulness-based programs, or a control group that participated only in assessment. Compared with the control group, the mind-body interventions showed significantly greater improvements on perceived stress, sleep quality, and the heart rhythm coherence ratio of heart rate variability. The two delivery venues for the mindfulness program produced basically equivalent results. Both the mindfulness-based and therapeutic yoga programs may provide viable and effective interventions to target high stress levels, sleep quality, and autonomic balance in employees. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, a relationship between obesity and schizophrenia has been reported. Although fat- mass and fat free mass have been shown to be more predictive of health risk than body mass index, there are limited findings about body composition among patients suffering from schizophrenia. The aim of this study is to compare the body composition of schizophrenia patients with that of healthy subjects in Japan. Methods We recruited patients (n = 204, aged 41.3 ± 13.8 (mean ± SD years old with the DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia who were admitted to psychiatric hospital using a cross-sectional design. Subjects' anthropometric measurements including weight, height, body mass index (BMI, and medications were also collected. Body fat, percent (% body fat, fat- free mass, muscle mass, and body water were measured using the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA method. Comparative analysis was performed with schizophrenic subjects and 204 healthy control individuals. Results In a multiple regression model with age, body mass index, and dose in chlorpromazine equivalents, schizophrenia was a significantly linked with more body fat, higher % body fat, lower fat- free mass, lower muscle mass, and lower body water among males. In females, schizophrenia had a significant association with lower % body fat, higher fat- free mass, higher muscle mass, and higher body water. Conclusions Our data demonstrate gender differences with regard to changes in body composition in association with schizophrenia. These results indicate that intervention programs designed to fight obesity among schizophrenic patients should be individualized according to gender.
Volanen, Salla-Maarit; Lassander, Maarit; Hankonen, Nelli; Santalahti, Päivi; Hintsanen, Mirka; Simonsen, Nina; Raevuori, Anu; Mullola, Sari; Vahlberg, Tero; But, Anna; Suominen, Sakari
Mindfulness has shown positive effects on mental health, mental capacity and well-being among adult population. Among children and adolescents, previous research on the effectiveness of mindfulness interventions on health and well-being has shown promising results, but studies with methodologically sound designs have been called for. Few intervention studies in this population have compared the effectiveness of mindfulness programs to alternative intervention programs with adequate sample sizes. Our primary aim is to explore the effectiveness of a school-based mindfulness intervention program compared to a standard relaxation program among a non-clinical children and adolescent sample, and a non-treatment control group in school context. In this study, we systematically examine the effects of mindfulness intervention on mental well-being (primary outcomes being resilience; existence/absence of depressive symptoms; experienced psychological strengths and difficulties), cognitive functions, psychophysiological responses, academic achievements, and motivational determinants of practicing mindfulness. The design is a cluster randomized controlled trial with three arms (mindfulness intervention group, active control group, non-treatment group) and the sample includes 59 Finnish schools and approx. 3 000 students aged 12-15 years. Intervention consists of nine mindfulness based lessons, 45 mins per week, for 9 weeks, the dose being identical in active control group receiving standard relaxation program called Relax. The programs are delivered by 14 educated facilitators. Students, their teachers and parents will fill-in the research questionnaires before and after the intervention, and they will all be followed up 6 months after baseline. Additionally, students will be followed 12 months after baseline. For longer follow-up, consent to linking the data to the main health registers has been asked from students and their parents. The present study examines
Joel G. Anderson
Full Text Available The metabolic syndrome, affecting a substantial and increasing percentage of the worldwide population, is comprised of a cluster of symptoms associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and other chronic conditions. Mind-body modalities based on Eastern philosophy, such as yoga, tai chi, qigong, and meditation, have become increasingly popular worldwide. These complementary therapies have many reported benefits for improving symptoms and physiological measures associated with the metabolic syndrome. However, clinical trial data concerning the effectiveness of these practices on the syndrome as a whole have not been evaluated using a systematic and synthesizing approach. A systematic review was conducted to critically evaluate the data from clinical trials examining the efficacy of mind-body therapies as supportive care modalities for management of the metabolic syndrome. Three clinical trials addressing the use of mind-body therapies for management of the metabolic syndrome were identified. Findings from the studies reviewed support the potential clinical effectiveness of mind-body practices in improving indices of the metabolic syndrome.
Bar Shalom, Yehuda; Grebelsy-Lichtman, Tsfira; Alayan, Fatima
This study presents new techniques for teaching diversity, when dealing with the challenges of multicultural society. We present a course model, which incorporates methods that have been developed by the Center for Mind-Body Medicine (CMBM), and continue to disclose and analyse some of the reactions and evaluations we received from the…
Cook-Cottone, Catherine; Beck, Meredith; Kane, Linda
This article describes a manualized-group treatment of eating disorders, the attunement in mind, body, and relationship (AMBR) program. The cognitive behavioral and dialectic behavioral research as well as the innovative prevention interventions upon which the program is based (e.g., interactive discourse, yoga, and mediation) are introduced. The…
This paper examines two very different approaches to dance training, ballet technique and the somatic discipline of Topf technique ("TT"). It explores and evaluates the application of TT to ballet training. Initially, what is meant by the term "mind/body connection" is discussed, and then the paper examines, in a theoretical and a practical sense,…
What happened when six former drama students recalled their mind-body experiences in a drama class that they attended together, throughout their childhood and adolescence? This article draws from a phenomenological research inquiry that examined these drama students' recollections of various unique warm-up exercises. The warm-up was…
Wahbeh, Helané; Zwickey, Heather; Oken, Barry
Home practice is frequently prescribed as part of mind-body medicine interventions, although rarely objectively measured. This brief methods report describes one method for objectively measuring home practice adherence using a custom monitoring software program. Methods for objectively measuring adherence were developed as part of a randomized controlled trial on the mechanisms of mindfulness meditation. The study was conducted at Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon. The subjects comprised 11 combat veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder. The method used was mindfulness meditation. There were subjective and objective adherence measurements of mindfulness meditation home practice. The first iteration of objective adherence monitoring used an iPod device and had limitations in participant usage and correctly capturing data. In the second iteration, objective data were easily collected, uploaded, and viewed using the custom software application, iMINDr. Participants reported that iMINDr was straightforward to use, and they returned the monitoring units as directed. The iMINDr is an example of a simple objective adherence measurement system that may help mind-body researchers examine how home practice adherence may affect outcomes in future clinical trials.
Morrone, Michelle Henault; Matsuyama, Yumi
Throughout the world, young children are introduced to some form of nursery rhymes. In Japan, the first type of rhyme a child encounters is called "warabeuta"--songs created through play. The English translation fails to accurately capture the degree to which "warabeuta" include body movement, touch, and interaction with other…
Collins, M. Elizabeth
Examines research indicating that children are affected by U.S. society's preoccupation with thinness, discusses self-esteem and healthy body image, and offers suggestions for incorporating strategies into existing comprehensive school health programs to deter disordered eating and inappropriate dieting habits among children. (SM)
Cushing, Robin E; Braun, Kathryn L
About one-third of service members returning from post-9/11 deployment in Afghanistan and Iraq report combat-related mental health conditions, but many do not seek conventional treatment. Mind-body therapies have been offered as alternative approaches to decreasing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but no review of studies with veterans of post-9/11 operations was found. The objective of this study was to fill that gap. A systematic literature review was conducted following the preferred items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. PubMed MeSH terms were used to capture articles reporting on the military population (veteran and veterans) with PTSD who received a portable mind-body intervention (e.g., mindfulness, mind-body therapy, and yoga). PubMed/MEDLINE and PsycINFO were searched. Studies were included if participants were a mixed group of war veterans, as long as some post-9/11 veterans were included. In addition, participants must have had a diagnosis of PTSD or subthreshold PTSD, and the PTSD must have been attributable to combat, rather than another event, such as sexual trauma or natural disaster. Of 175 records identified, 15 met inclusion criteria. Studies reported on seated or gentle yoga that included breath work, meditation, mantra repetition, or breathing exercises. For 14 of the 15 studies, study retention was 70% or higher. Overall, studies reported significant improvements in PTSD symptoms in participants in these interventions. Although each study included post-9/11 veterans, about 85% of participants were from other conflicts, predominantly Vietnam. Although findings were positive, future studies are needed to evaluate the short- and long-term impact of mind-body therapies on larger samples of post-9/11 veterans and to address research questions related to broadening service member and veteran participation in these therapies.
Compare, A; Callus, E; Grossi, E
Binge eating disorder (BED) is a complex and multifaceted eating disorder, and the literature indicates that BED patients show greater difficulty in identifying and making sense of emotional states, and that they have limited access to emotion regulation strategies. Findings show many links between mindfulness and emotional regulation, however there has been no previous research on mindfulness traits in BED patients. One hundred fifty BED patients (N=150: women=98, men=52; age 49.3±4.1) were matched for gender, age, marital status and educational level with 150 non-bingeing obese and 150 normal-weight subjects. All were assessed with the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), Binge Eating Scale (BES), Objective bulimic episodes (EDE-OBEs) and Body Uneasiness Test (BUT). For all the participants past or current meditation experience was an exclusion criteria. Findings showed that Mindfulness-global, Non reactivity to experience, Acting with awareness, Describing with words and Observation of experience scores were significantly lower in BED than control groups (pmindfulness measures, the obese control group did not differ from the normal weight control group. Moreover, correlations showed that mindfulness was more widely negatively correlated with the BED's OBEs, BES and BUT-GSI scores. Meanwhile, binge eating behaviours, frequency and severity (OBEs and BES) were more negatively correlated with action (Nonreactivity- to-experience and Acting-with-awareness scores). Body Uneasiness was more negatively correlated with mental processes (Describing-with-words and Observation-ofexperience) and mindfulness features. Implications on understanding of the mechanisms underlying the development and maintenance of problematic eating in BED were considered. Moreover, clinical considerations on treatment targets of mindfulnessbased eating awareness training were discussed.
Korver-Nieberg, Nikie; Fett, Anne-Kathrin J; Meijer, Carin J; Koeter, Maarten W J; Shergill, Sukhi S; de Haan, Lieuwe; Krabbendam, Lydia
Impaired Theory of Mind (ToM) is found in adults with schizophrenia and is associated with paranoid symptoms. Insecure attachment is proposed to underlie impaired ToM as well as paranoia. Insight into associations between insecure attachment and impaired ToM skills may help clinicians and patients to understand interpersonal difficulties and use this knowledge to improve recovery. This study used a visual perspective-taking task to investigate whether cognitive ToM is already impaired in adolescents with early psychosis as compared to controls. Also investigated was whether perspective-taking and paranoia are associated with insecure (adult) attachment. Thirty-two adolescent patients with early psychosis and 78 healthy controls participated in this cross-sectional study design and completed the level 1 perspective-taking task, psychopathology assessments (CAPE, PANSS), paranoid thoughts (GPTS), attachment style (PAM) and the WASI vocabulary. Patients did not significantly differ in level-1 perspective-taking behaviour compared to healthy controls. No significant associations were found between perspective-taking, paranoia and attachment. Insecure attachment was significantly related to paranoid thoughts, after controlling for illness-related symptoms. No impairment of level-1 perspective-taking was found in adolescent patients with early psychosis compared to healthy controls. Results indicate that level-1 perspective-taking is not impaired during the early stages of psychotic illness. The association between paranoia and attachment support previous findings and provide further insight into the nature of psychotic symptoms. Understanding the role of attachment in paranoia may help patients and their care workers to gain insight into the reasons for the development or persistence of symptoms. Future research should compare early psychosis samples with more chronic samples to explore whether perspective-taking deteriorates during the course of the illness.
Ion G. Motofei; David L. Rowland
In a previous published paper, we initiated in this journal discussion about new perspectives regarding the organization and functioning of the mind, as a premise for addressing the mind-body problem. In this article, we continue focussing discussion on two distinct but interrelated concepts, internal-mental existence/ entity and internal-mental reality. These two psycho-physiological subunits of the mind interact each other in the form of an internal-mental interaction, having no sense if...
Evidence regarding the influence of the mind on the body is abundant. Several mind-body healing procedures are currently being used, among them hypnosis, biofeedback, meditation, visualizations, management of emotions and prayer. Since the Big Bang, we are entangled with everything. This interaction would let individuals to communicate with the minds and bodies of others. The field of parapsychological research has provided a lot of information about significant events, including apparitions, communications with the dead, near-death experiences and out of the body experiences. It looks apparently evident, that consciousness can persist in the absence of brain function. According to the model that assumes that it is consciousness and not matter, the base of everything that exists, what survives after death is the "quantum monad" or spirit. It is said that spiritual cures are practiced by discarnate physicians who diagnose and prescribe conventional treatments, but very often they use unknown procedures based on the management of energy fields that are currently being studied by many physicists. Representative examples of the practice of spiritual medicine were the mediums Ze Arigo, George Chapman, Barbara Guerrero (Pachita) and presently the Brazilian medium John of God. Case reports of paranormal phenomena observed and studied by honest and serious scientists are very important for the advancement of parapsychology, because it has not been clearly established which approach, the qualitative or the quantitative, is more useful for the development of this field.
Chan, C; Ho, P S; Chow, E
Under the division of labor of Western medicine, the medical physician treats the body of patients, the social worker attends to their emotions and social relations, while the pastoral counselor provides spiritual guidance. Body, mind, cognition, emotion and spirituality are seen as discrete entities. In striking contrast, Eastern philosophies of Buddhism, Taoism and traditional Chinese medicine adopt a holistic conceptualization of an individual and his or her environment. In this view, health is perceived as a harmonious equilibrium that exists between the interplay of 'yin' and 'yang': the five internal elements (metal, wood, water, fire and earth), the six environmental conditions (dry, wet, hot, cold, wind and flame), other external sources of harm (physical injury, insect bites, poison, overeat and overwork), and the seven emotions (joy, sorrow, anger, worry, panic, anxiety and fear). The authors have adopted a body-mind-spirit integrated model of intervention to promote the health of their Chinese clients. Indeed, research results on these body-mind-spirit groups for cancer patients, bereaved wives and divorced women have shown very positive intervention outcomes. There are significant improvements in their physical health, mental health, sense of control and social support.
Vetter-Smith, Molly; Massey, Vera; Rellergert, Linda; Wissmann, Mary
Taking Care of You: Body, Mind, Spirit is a multi-session group program developed by University of Missouri Extension that provides a unique and practical approach to helping adults better managing their stress and bounce back from life's challenges while improving lifestyle behaviors. The program combines mindfulness and a variety of other…
Rybarczyk, B; DeMarco, G; DeLaCruz, M; Lapidos, S
Two versions of a multicomponent mind-body wellness intervention were tested. One hundred seventy-eight physician-referred HMO patients (mean age = 64.5) were randomly assigned to a classroom intervention, a home study intervention, or a wait-list control group. Both interventions provided instruction on mind-body relationships, relaxation training, cognitive restructuring, problem solving, communication, behavioral treatment for insomnia, nutrition, and exercise. The home version was delivered by class videotapes and readings. Compared with the control condition, both interventions led to significant decreases in self-reports of pain, sleep difficulties, and symptoms of depression and anxiety. The home course also led to a significant decrease in self-reported frequency of medical symptoms, and the classroom program resulted in a significant decrease in "chance" health locus of control beliefs. No effects were obtained for health behaviors, life satisfaction, HMO satisfaction, and other health locus of control beliefs. A lower cost, more accessible home study version of a mind-body wellness program can be an effective alternative to classroom instruction.
Visser, Adriaan; Schoolmeesters, Alexandra; van den Berg, Machteld; Schell, Nicole; de Gelder, Rianne; van den Borne, Bart
Methodological reflection on the content, results and limitations of three body-mind intervention studies with cancer patients (CPs) in order to improve the quality of studies on body-mind interventions and to raise the potential value for CPs. A secondary analysis of a study on haptotherapy and two studies applying relaxing face massage, using a variety of well-being effect measures. Six methodological themes are discussed: (1) drop-out; (2) characteristics of participating patients, (3) participation of patients in other complementary interventions; (4) satisfaction of participants; (5) effects of the three interventions, and (6) role of response shift. The three interventions showed limited effects after controlling for relevant confounding factors. They are mainly the small sample sizes, the low intensity of the intervention, the possible inadequate measure moments and the use of other CAM that may be responsible for the absence of effects. Body-mind interventions require more methodological reflections to develop attractive and effective interventions for CPs. Attention needs to be paid to measuring short term effects, practically fitting research designs, and response shift. Interventions should be intensive, repeated and not too short. The implementation of interventions requires attention to several organizational factors in the health care. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Silverstein, R Gina; Brown, Anne-Catharine H; Roth, Harold D; Britton, Willoughby B
Treatments of female sexual dysfunction have been largely unsuccessful because they do not address the psychological factors that underlie female sexuality. Negative self-evaluative processes interfere with the ability to attend and register physiological changes (interoceptive awareness). This study explores the effect of mindfulness meditation training on interoceptive awareness and the three categories of known barriers to healthy sexual functioning: attention, self-judgment, and clinical symptoms. Forty-four college students (30 women) participated in either a 12-week course containing a "meditation laboratory" or an active control course with similar content or laboratory format. Interoceptive awareness was measured by reaction time in rating physiological response to sexual stimuli. Psychological barriers were assessed with self-reported measures of mindfulness and psychological well-being. Women who participated in the meditation training became significantly faster at registering their physiological responses (interoceptive awareness) to sexual stimuli compared with active controls (F(1,28) = 5.45, p = .03, η(p)(2) = 0.15). Female meditators also improved their scores on attention (t = 4.42, df = 11, p = .001), self-judgment, (t = 3.1, df = 11, p = .01), and symptoms of anxiety (t = -3.17, df = 11, p = .009) and depression (t = -2.13, df = 11, p < .05). Improvements in interoceptive awareness were correlated with improvements in the psychological barriers to healthy sexual functioning (r = -0.44 for attention, r = -0.42 for self-judgment, and r = 0.49 for anxiety; all p < .05). Mindfulness-based improvements in interoceptive awareness highlight the potential of mindfulness training as a treatment of female sexual dysfunction.
Lipson, Sarah Ketchen; Eisenberg, Daniel
Mental health problems are highly prevalent in university populations and have been shown to impair academic performance. Yet little is known about the ways in which mental health influences academic outcomes in higher education. This study seeks to offer new insight into the relationship between mental health and academic performance, focusing on students' academic experience and expectations as interrelated mechanisms. Data come from 3556 students at four campuses that participated in the Healthy Minds Study. We explore unadjusted and multivariable relationships between mental health and academic experiences, expectations and impairment. We find significant differences by mental health status, including that one-in-four students with symptoms are dissatisfied with their academic experience, relative to one-in-ten without (p academic dissatisfaction and drop out intentions, while positive mental health was a significant predictor of satisfaction and persistence. This descriptive study offers further evidence of the importance of mental health for university success, identifying pathways related to students' experiences and expectations that may help to explain this relationship.
Mantzios, Michail; Egan, Helen; Bahia, Henna; Hussain, Misba; Keyte, Rebecca
Contemporary research investigating obesity has focused on grazing (i.e. an uncontrolled and repetitive consumption of small amounts of food). Meanwhile, constructs such as mindfulness, mindful eating and self-compassion have received much attention in assisting individuals with eating behaviours and weight regulation. The association between those constructs and grazing, however, has not been explored. In a cross-sectional study, university students ( n = 261) were recruited to explore the relationship of mindfulness, mindful eating and self-compassion with current weight and grazing. Results indicated that all constructs were negatively related to grazing, but only mindful eating related negatively to current weight. In addition, mindful eating mediated the relationship between grazing and current weight. Possible explanations and future directions are discussed further with an emphasis on the need for more empirical work.
Emotional support and a stress management program should be simultaneously provided to clients as effective preventive services for healthy behavioral change. This study was conducted to review various relaxation and meditation intervention methods and their applicability for a preventive service program. The author of this paper tried to find various relaxation and meditation programs through a literature review and program searching and to introduce them. The 'Relaxation Response' and 'Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR)' are the most the widely used meditative programs in mainstream medical systems. Abdominal breathing, Progressive Musclular Relaxation (PMR), Relaxative Imagery, Autogenic Training (AT) and Biofeedback are other well-known techniques for relaxation and stress management. I have developed and implemented some programs using these methods. Relaxation and meditation classes for cancer patients and a meditation based stress coping workshop are examples of this program. Relaxation and meditation seem to be good and effective methods for primary, secondary and tertiary preventive service programs. Program development and standardization and further study are needed for more and wider use of the mind-body approach in the preventive service area of medicine.
Katalin Eszter Morgan
Full Text Available This reflective essay draws a sketch of the theoretical and philosophical foundations in preparation for conducting a research project that investigates how German school learners deal with the memories of Shoah survivors. The essay explores some communication challenges and opportunities presented by the use of the double linguistic medium—German and English. The central philosophical argument is that there is a conceptual conflation of and confusion around the word Geist (spirit/mind, and that the difference between the spirit and the mind needs to be explored and clarified. For this purpose Hegel’s thoughts on the spirit are considered and related to theories of memory. Also, Theodor Lessing’s reflections on the origins of hatred are touched upon, which he traces back to the splitting of the spirit from the mind. How the body, mind and spirit work together is highlighted with a biographical example of a descendant of a Nazi perpetrator. By way of conclusion, the philosophical and methodological implications for researching education about the Shoah are briefly discussed.
Shiino, Yoshitaka; Sakai, Shogo; Takeishi, Ryosuke; Hayashi, Hirokazu; Watanabe, Masahiro; Tsujimura, Takanori; Magara, Jin; Ito, Kayoko; Tsukada, Tetsu; Inoue, Makoto
Clinically, reclining posture has been reported to reduce risk of aspiration. However, during involuntary swallow in reclining posture, changes in orofacial and pharyngeal movement before and during pharyngeal swallow should be considered. Further, the mechanisms underlying the effect of body posture on involuntary swallow remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of body posture on activity patterns of the suprahyoid muscles and on patterns of bolus transport during a natural involuntary swallow. Thirteen healthy male adults participated in a water infusion test and a chewing test. In the water infusion test, thickened water was delivered into the pharynx at a very slow rate until the first involuntary swallow was evoked. In the chewing test, subjects were asked to eat 10 g of gruel rice. In both tests, the recording was performed at four body postures between upright and supine positions. Results showed that reclining changed the location of the bolus head at the start of swallow and prolonged onset latency of the swallowing initiation. Muscle burst duration and whiteout time measured by videoendoscopy significantly increased with body reclining and prolongation of the falling time. In the chewing test, reclining changed the location of the bolus head at the start of swallow, and the frequency of bolus residue after the first swallow increased. Duration and area of EMG burst and whiteout time significantly increased with body reclining. These data suggest that body reclining may result in prolongation of pharyngeal swallow during involuntary swallow. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This article discusses how the paradigm of Cartesian mind-body dualism has shaped the cultural and institutional life of modern science and medicine. John Dewey (1859-1952) made this case in a speech to the New York Academy of Medicine in 1927, "Preoccupation with the Disconnected," an expanded version of which was published as "Body and Mind" in the Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine in January 1928. From the perspective of Dewey's broader philosophy, the most urgent aspect of mind-body dualism is of a practical, not theoretical, nature. Medicine at present has an opportunity in both education and practice to reconcile internally disparate trends that result from mind-body dualism and to renew its mission.
Hamilton, Scott; Hamilton, Trevor J
A fundamental discussion in lower-level undergraduate neuroscience and psychology courses is Descartes's "radical" or "mind-body" dualism. According to Descartes, our thinking mind, the res cogitans, is separate from the body as physical matter or substance, the res extensa. Since the transmission of sensory stimuli from the body to the mind is a physical capacity shared with animals, it can be confused, misled, or uncertain (e.g., bodily senses imply that ice and water are different substances). True certainty thus arises from within the mind and its capacity to doubt physical stimuli. Since this doubting mind is a thinking thing that is distinct from bodily stimuli, truth and certainty are reached through the doubting mind as cogito ergo sum, or the certainty of itself as it thinks: hence Descartes's famous maxim, I think, therefore I am. However, in the last century of Western philosophy, with nervous system investigation, and with recent advances in neuroscience, the potential avenues to explore student's understanding of the epistemology and effects of Cartesian mind-body dualism has expanded. This article further explores this expansion, highlighting pedagogical practices and tools instructors can use to enhance a psychology student's understanding of Cartesian dualistic epistemology, in order to think more critically about its implicit assumptions and effects on learning. It does so in two ways: first, by offering instructors an alternative philosophical perspective to dualistic thinking: a mind-body holism that is antithetical to the assumed binaries of dualistic epistemology. Second, it supplements this philosophical argument with a practical component: simple mind-body illusions that instructors may use to demonstrate contrary epistemologies to students. Combining these short philosophical and neuroscience arguments thereby acts as a pedagogical tool to open new conceptual spaces within which learning may occur.
Chen, Allen K; Kumar, Anagha; Haramati, Aviad
Introduction Empathy among medical practitioners has been shown to affect patient care and outcomes. Factors such as stress and depression are known to have a negative impact on medical student empathy. Approaches such as mindfulness, meditation, and other mind-body techniques can enhance empathy and reverse burnout symptoms. In the present study, we evaluated impact of Mind Body Medicine (MBM) course on perceived stress and empathy on first-year medical students. Methods Thirteen first-year medical students in total self-selected into MBM (experimental) and seven non-MBM (control) groups completed a prospective, pre- and post-test analysis, using the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy - Students (JSPE-S), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and Personal Health Questionnaire (PHQ) to evaluate empathy, stress, and depression, respectively. Results Our results showed an increase in stress, as well as a decrease in empathy, in both MBM and non-MBM groups throughout the course of the study. Conclusion Our study demonstrated that the inverse relationship increased stress and decreased empathy among first-year medical students and participation in the MBM course did not attenuate the changes. However, a statistically significant rise in the depression score in the non-MBM group was not observed in the MBM group.
Quantum physics, unlike classical physics, suggests a non-physicalistic metaphysics. Whereas physicalism implies a reductive position in the philosophy of mind, quantum physics is compatible with non-reductionism, and actually seems to support it. The essays in this book explore, from various points of view, the possibilities of basing a non-reductive philosophy of mind on quantum physics.
Rosenbaum, Bent; Varvin, Sverre
Extreme traumatization affects the individual's relation to others in several social and psychological ways. The post-traumatic experiences are characterized by helplessness, insecurity, anxiety, loss of basic trust, and fragmentation of perspectives on one's own life. Special considerations should...... be given to the destruction of the ability to regulate negative emotions (extreme fear, distress, anguish, anger, rage, shame) in relation to others and activate internal good and empathic object relations. Destruction of the capacity for symbolization of traumatic experience may threaten the mind...... with chaotic states against which the 'I' tries to defend itself and find a balanced psychic mise-en-scene. The authors emphasize three dimensions that the analyst should observe in his understanding of the traumatized mind and its conflicts. The proposed dimensions are called the body-other dimension...
Geisler, Corinna; Schweitzer, Lisa; Müller, Manfred James
Methods of body composition analysis are now widely used to characterize health status, i.e., nutritional status, metabolic rates, and cardiometabolic risk factors. However, the functional correlates of individual body components have not been systematically analyzed. In this study, we have used a two-compartment model, which was assessed by air displacement plethysmography. Detailed body composition was measured by whole body magnetic resonance imaging in a healthy population of 40 Caucasians, aged 65-81 yr (20 men; body mass index range: 18.6-37.2 kg/m 2 ). Physical, metabolic, as well as endocrine functions included pulmonary function, handgrip strength, gait speed, sit-to-stand test, physical activity, blood pressure, body temperature, resting energy expenditure (REE), liver and kidney functions (glomerular filtration rate), insulin sensitivity [homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)], plasma lipids, plasma leptin, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, insulin-like growth factor I levels, thyroid status, vitamins, and inflammation. Individual body compartments were intercorrelated, e.g., skeletal muscle mass (SM) correlated with visceral adipose tissue ( r = 0.53) and kidneys ( r = 0.62). For the functional correlates, SM ( r = 0.58) and liver volume ( r = 0.63) were associated with REE, SM correlated with handgrip strength ( r = 0.57), and kidneys with glomerular filtration rate ( r = 0.57). While visceral adipose tissue correlated with HOMA ( r = 0.59), subcutaneous adipose tissue was related to plasma leptin levels ( r = 0.84). The subcutaneous adipose tissue-to-leptin relationship was moderated by inflammation increasing the explained variance of leptin levels by 4.0%. In linear regression analysis, detailed body composition explained variances in REE (75.0%), HOMA (41.0%), and leptin (78.0%) compared with a body mass index-based model (REE 16.0%, HOMA 31.0%, leptin 45.0%). In addition, detailed body composition explained 39
Hamilton, Scott; Hamilton, Trevor J.
A fundamental discussion in lower-level undergraduate neuroscience and psychology courses is Descartes’s “radical” or “mind-body” dualism. According to Descartes, our thinking mind, the res cogitans, is separate from the body as physical matter or substance, the res extensa. Since the transmission of sensory stimuli from the body to the mind is a physical capacity shared with animals, it can be confused, misled, or uncertain (e.g., bodily senses imply that ice and water are different substances). True certainty thus arises from within the mind and its capacity to doubt physical stimuli. Since this doubting mind is a thinking thing that is distinct from bodily stimuli, truth and certainty are reached through the doubting mind as cogito ergo sum, or the certainty of itself as it thinks: hence Descartes’s famous maxim, I think, therefore I am. However, in the last century of Western philosophy, with nervous system investigation, and with recent advances in neuroscience, the potential avenues to explore student’s understanding of the epistemology and effects of Cartesian mind-body dualism has expanded. This article further explores this expansion, highlighting pedagogical practices and tools instructors can use to enhance a psychology student’s understanding of Cartesian dualistic epistemology, in order to think more critically about its implicit assumptions and effects on learning. It does so in two ways: first, by offering instructors an alternative philosophical perspective to dualistic thinking: a mind-body holism that is antithetical to the assumed binaries of dualistic epistemology. Second, it supplements this philosophical argument with a practical component: simple mind-body illusions that instructors may use to demonstrate contrary epistemologies to students. Combining these short philosophical and neuroscience arguments thereby acts as a pedagogical tool to open new conceptual spaces within which learning may occur. PMID:26321981
Sun, Fan-Ko; Chiang, Chun-Ying; Lu, Chu-Yun; Yu, Pei-Jane; Liao, Tzu-Chiao; Lan, Chu-Mei
To develop the Health of Body, Mind and Spirit Scale (HBMSS), which was designed to assess drug abusers' health condition. Helping drug abusers to become healthy is important to healthcare professionals. However, no instrument exists to assess drug abusers' state of health. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was implemented to examine the validity of the HBMSS. Data were collected from 2015-2016 at one drug abuse prevention centre in Taiwan. Participants (N = 320) who had abused drugs were invited to complete a preliminary 64-item version of the HBMSS. An item analysis, criterion-related validity analysis (using the Relapse Prediction Scale [RPS] score), split-half reliability testing and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were conducted to examine the psychometric properties of the HBMSS. The final version of the HBMSS contained 15 items that were divided into three subscales: the health of the body, mind and spirit. Cronbach's α and split-half reliability coefficients were all above .85. The factor loading of each item was between .74-.95. The HBMSS had satisfactory criterion-related validity with the RPS score (r = -.50, p < .001). A second-order CFA was conducted on the HBMSS. The fit indexes were good, χ 2 = 184.060, df = 94, χ 2 /df = 1.958 (p = .000). The entire HBMSS and the subscales had satisfactory reliability and validity. Healthcare professionals could use the HBMSS to evaluate the condition of the health of individuals with a drug abuse history. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Fountain-Zaragoza, Stephanie; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya
The growing interest in mindfulness interventions for use in aging samples has been met with promising evidence of cognitive, emotional, and physiological benefits. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the impact of mindfulness training on three areas of functioning in older adults: behavioral and neural correlates of attentional performance, psychological well-being, and systemic inflammation. We have previously proposed that mindfulness training is uniquely suited as a rehabilitative tool for conferring both cognitive and emotional benefits for older adults. Specifically, mindfulness training's promotion of focused attention may mitigate the decline of attentional control abilities across late development and allow older adults to capitalize on their preserved emotion regulation abilities. Existing evidence points to some improvements in facets of attentional control in older adults, although some studies have shown no benefits in performance. Further, there is evidence of enhancements in both psychological and physical aspects of well-being, and accompanying improvements in systemic inflammation, following mindfulness training. The scientific investigation of mindfulness training is still relatively nascent, with only a limited number of studies, particularly randomized controlled trials utilizing active comparison conditions. It will be important for future research to incorporate placebo-controlled comparison groups to clearly establish the causal role of mindfulness practices in promoting holistic health in older adults.
Full Text Available Reality can be interpreted in many ways, but two distinctly different ways are the mental and the emotional interpretation. The traditional way of thinking in science today is the first: an often simple and mechanical interpretation of reality that empowers us to handle the outer physical world with great, often brutal efficiency. The development of a mind that enables us to handle the outer physical world and survive makes a lot of sense from an evolutionary perspective; the problem is that the mental reason and linear logic reduces all phenomena to well-defined interacting objects, which might not exist from a deeper perspective of reality. A more intuitive way to interpret the world makes much more sense, when it comes to our human relations. So to function as a human being, we need both these two ways of seeing the world, and two different modi operandi. In many patients, we find an internalized conflict between logical and mental reasoning on one hand, and emotional and sexual approach to reality and human needs on the other. We speculate that this conflict causes the deep emotional problems that really are the basis of most human diseases. Only by merging brain-mind and body-mind will we be whole and free and truly ourselves. We need to develop our mental understanding, deepen our cosmology, and develop our sexuality and body-mind in order to make them meet and merge. To facilitate this existential healing, we propose a third integrative way of looking at our human nature, which we call “the energetic-informational interpretation of reality”. What it does is allows us to look at both brain-mind and body-mind as a highly structured field of “energy and information”. Energy and information are actually the same from a scientific point of view; when the world is seen through the body-mind, it looks more like energy; when seen though the brain-mind, it looks more like information.
Jung, Ye-Ha; Ha, Tae Min; Oh, Chang Young; Lee, Ui Soon; Jang, Joon Hwan; Kim, Jungwon; Park, Jae-Oh; Kang, Do-Hyung
The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of an online mind-body training (MBT) program on participants' stress, anger, coping strategies, emotional intelligence, resilience, and positive and negative affect. Forty-two healthy women participated in an online MBT program for approximately 8-10 minutes a day for 8 weeks; a control group of 45 healthy women did not participate in the program. Self-report psychological questionnaires were administered before the beginning of the program and at 4 and 8 weeks following its onset. Data from the MBT group and the control group were compared using repeated measures ANOVA and Student's t-tests. Significant time x group interaction effects were found with respect to stress, coping strategies, anger, emotional intelligence, negative affect and resilience. These results demonstrate beneficial effects of the online MBT program and significant improvements in the psychological capabilities of participants compared with the control group. The effects of online MBT program were similar with those of the previous offline MBT in psychological aspects, suggesting further studies for neuroscientific evidence related stress and emotion of online MBT effects.
Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of an online mind-body training (MBT program on participants' stress, anger, coping strategies, emotional intelligence, resilience, and positive and negative affect. Forty-two healthy women participated in an online MBT program for approximately 8-10 minutes a day for 8 weeks; a control group of 45 healthy women did not participate in the program. Self-report psychological questionnaires were administered before the beginning of the program and at 4 and 8 weeks following its onset. Data from the MBT group and the control group were compared using repeated measures ANOVA and Student's t-tests. Significant time x group interaction effects were found with respect to stress, coping strategies, anger, emotional intelligence, negative affect and resilience. These results demonstrate beneficial effects of the online MBT program and significant improvements in the psychological capabilities of participants compared with the control group. The effects of online MBT program were similar with those of the previous offline MBT in psychological aspects, suggesting further studies for neuroscientific evidence related stress and emotion of online MBT effects.
Veer, van de E.; Herpen, van E.; Trijp, van J.C.M.
External cues regularly override physiological cues in food consumption resulting in mindless eating. In a series of experiments, this study shows that mindfulness, an enhanced attention state, improves consumers’ reliance on physiological cues across consumption episodes. Consumers who are
Full Text Available Objective. Attempts to understand the emotion have evolved from the perspective of an independent cognitive system of the mind to that of an interactive response involving the body. This study aimed to quantify and visualize relationships between different emotions and bodily organ systems from the perspective of East Asian medicine. Methods. Term frequency-inverse document frequency (tf-idf method was used to quantify the significance of Five Viscera and the gallbladder relative to seven different emotions through the classical medical text of DongUiBoGam. Bodily organs that corresponded to different emotions were visualized using a body template. Results. The emotions had superior tf-idf values with the following bodily organs: anger with the liver, happiness with the heart, thoughtfulness with the heart and spleen, sadness with the heart and lungs, fear with the kidneys and the heart, surprise with the heart and the gallbladder, and anxiety with the heart and the lungs. Specific patterns between the emotions and corresponding bodily organ systems were identified. Conclusion. The present findings will further the current understanding of the relationship between the mind and body from the perspective of East Asian medicine. Western medicine characterizes emotional disorders using “neural” language while East Asian medicine uses “somatic” language.
Morone, Natalia E; Greco, Carol M; Moore, Charity G; Rollman, Bruce L; Lane, Bridget; Morrow, Lisa A; Glynn, Nancy W; Weiner, Debra K
Treatment of chronic low back pain (LBP) in older adults is limited by the adverse effects of analgesics. Effective nonpharmacologic treatment options are needed. To determine the effectiveness of a mind-body program at increasing function and reducing pain in older adults with chronic LBP. This single-blind, randomized clinical trial compared a mind-body program (n = 140) with a health education program (n = 142). Community-dwelling older adults residing within the Pittsburgh metropolitan area were recruited from February 14, 2011, to June 30, 2014, with 6-month follow-up completed by April 9, 2015. Eligible participants were 65 years or older with functional limitations owing to their chronic LBP (≥11 points on the Roland and Morris Disability Questionnaire) and chronic pain (duration ≥3 months) of moderate intensity. Data were analyzed from March 1 to July 1, 2015. The intervention and control groups received an 8-week group program followed by 6 monthly sessions. The intervention was modeled on the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction program; the control program, on the "10 Keys" to Healthy Aging. Follow-up occurred at program completion and 6 months later. The score on the Roland and Morris Disability Questionnaire was the primary outcome and measured functional limitations owing to LBP. Pain (current, mean, and most severe in the past week) was measured with the Numeric Pain Rating Scale. Secondary outcomes included quality of life, pain self-efficacy, and mindfulness. Intent-to-treat analyses were conducted. Of 1160 persons who underwent screening, 282 participants enrolled in the trial (95 men [33.7%] and 187 women [66.3%]; mean [SD] age,74.5 [6.6] years). The baseline mean (SD) Roland and Morris Disability Questionnaire scores for the intervention and control groups were 15.6 (3.0) and 15.4 (3.0), respectively. Compared with the control group, intervention participants improved an additional -1.1 (mean, 12.1 vs 13.1) points at 8 weeks and -0.04 (mean
Neeta Mehta recently advanced the thesis that medical practice is facing a crisis today. In her paper “Mind-body dualism: a critique from a health perspective” she attributes the crisis to the philosophy of Descartes and set out to understand why this dualism is still alive despite its disavowal from philosophers, health practitioners and lay people. The aim of my reply to her critique is three-fold. First, I draw attention to a more fundamental problem and show that dualism is inescapable—sc...
Ivancevic, Vladimir G
This is a unique 21st-century monograph that reveals a basic, yet deep understanding of the universe, as well as the human mind and body - all from the perspective of quantum mechanics and quantum field theory.This book starts with both non-mathematical and mathematical preliminaries. It presents the basics of both non-relativistic and relativistic quantum mechanics, and introduces Feynman path integrals and their application to quantum fields and string theory, as well as some non-quantum applications. It then describes the quantum universe in the form of loop quantum gravity and quantum cosm
Chen, Fangfang; Lv, Xueyu; Fang, Jiliang; Yu, Shan; Sui, Jing; Fan, Lingzhong; Li, Tao; Hong, Yang; Wang, XiaoLing; Wang, Weidong; Jiang, Tianzi
Meditation has been increasingly evaluated as an important complementary therapeutic tool for the treatment of depression. The present study employed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) to examine the effect of body-mind relaxation meditation induction (BMRMI) on the brain activity of depressed patients and to investigate possible mechanisms of action for this complex intervention. 21 major depressive disorder patients (MDDs) and 24 age and gender-matched healthy controls (HCs) received rs-fMRI scans at baseline and after listening to a selection of audio designed to induce body-mind relaxation meditation. The rs-fMRI data were analyzed using Matlab toolbox to obtain the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) of the BOLD signal for the whole brain. A mixed-design repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed on the whole brain to find which brain regions were affected by the BMRMI. An additional functional connectivity analysis was used to identify any atypical connection patterns after the BMRMI. After the BMRMI experience, both the MDDs and HCs showed decreased ALFF values in the bilateral frontal pole (BA10). Additionally, increased functional connectivity from the right dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) to the left dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) and the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) was identified only in the MDDs after the BMRMI. In order to exclude the impact of other events on the participants׳ brain activity, the Hamilton Rating Scales for Depression (HDRS) was not measured after the body-mind relaxation induction. Our findings support the hypothesis that body-mind relaxation meditation induction may regulate the activities of the prefrontal cortex and thus may have the potential to help patients construct reappraisal strategies that can modulate the brain activity in multiple emotion-processing systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Greeson, Jeffrey M; Toohey, Michael J; Pearce, Michelle J
Despite the well-known stress of medical school, including adverse consequences for mental and behavioral health, there is little consensus about how to best intervene in a way that accommodates students׳ intense training demands, interest in science, and desire to avoid being stigmatized. The objective of this study, therefore, was to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and initial effectiveness of an adapted, four-week stress management and self-care workshop for medical students, which was based on the science and practice of mind-body medicine. The current study used a prospective, observational, and mixed methods design, with pretest and posttest evaluations. Participants (n = 44) included medical and physician-scientist (MD/PhD) students from a large, southeastern medical school. Feasibility was assessed by rates of workshop enrollment and completion. Acceptability was assessed using qualitative ratings and open-ended responses that queried perceived value of the workshop. Quantitative outcomes included students׳ ratings of stress and mindfulness using validated self-report surveys. Enrollment progressively increased from 6 to 15 to 23 students per workshop in 2007, 2009, and 2011, respectively. Of the 44 enrolled students, 36 (82%) completed the workshop, indicating that the four-session extracurricular format was feasible for most students. Students reported that the workshop was acceptable, stating that it helped them cope more skillfully with the stress and emotional challenges of medical school, and helped increase self-care behaviors, such as exercise, sleep, and engaging in social support. Students also reported a 32% decrease in perceived stress (P mindfulness (P mindfulness were significantly correlated (r = -0.42; P = .01). Together, these findings suggest that a brief, voluntary mind-body skills workshop specifically adapted for medical students is feasible, acceptable, and effective for reducing stress, increasing mindfulness, and enhancing
de Lacy Costello, B; Amann, A; Al-Kateb, H; Flynn, C; Filipiak, W; Khalid, T; Osborne, D; Ratcliffe, N M
A compendium of all the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emanating from the human body (the volatolome) is for the first time reported. 1840 VOCs have been assigned from breath (872), saliva (359), blood (154), milk (256), skin secretions (532) urine (279), and faeces (381) in apparently healthy individuals. Compounds were assigned CAS registry numbers and named according to a common convention where possible. The compounds have been grouped into tables according to their chemical class or functionality to permit easy comparison. Some clear differences are observed, for instance, a lack of esters in urine with a high number in faeces. Careful use of the database is needed. The numbers may not be a true reflection of the actual VOCs present from each bodily excretion. The lack of a compound could be due to the techniques used or reflect the intensity of effort e.g. there are few publications on VOCs from blood compared to a large number on VOCs in breath. The large number of volatiles reported from skin is partly due to the methodologies used, e.g. collecting excretions on glass beads and then heating to desorb VOCs. All compounds have been included as reported (unless there was a clear discrepancy between name and chemical structure), but there may be some mistaken assignations arising from the original publications, particularly for isomers. It is the authors' intention that this database will not only be a useful database of VOCs listed in the literature, but will stimulate further study of VOCs from healthy individuals. Establishing a list of volatiles emanating from healthy individuals and increased understanding of VOC metabolic pathways is an important step for differentiating between diseases using VOCs.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT and high body mass index (BMI are recognized risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. However, data suggest that also underweight predisposes people to develop T2DM. Here, we experimentally tested if already moderate underweight is associated with impaired glucose tolerance as compared to normal weight controls. Obese subjects were included as additional reference group. Method We included three groups of low weight, normal weight, and obese subjects comprising 15 healthy male participants each. All participants underwent a standardized hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic glucose clamp intervention to determine glucose tolerance. In addition, insulin sensitivity index (ISI was calculated by established equation. Results ISI values were higher in low and normal weight than in obese subjects (P P = 0.303. Comparable to obese participants (P = 0.178, glucose tolerance was found decreased in low weight as compared with normal weight subjects (P = 0.007. Pearson's correlation analysis revealed a positive relationship between glucose tolerance and BMI in low (P = 0.043 and normal weight subjects (P = 0.021, an effect that was found inverse in obese participants (P = 0.028. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that not only obese but also healthy people with moderate underweight display glucose intolerance. It is therefore suggested that all deviations from normal BMI may be accompanied by an increased risk of developing T2DM in later life indicating that the maintenance of body weight within the normal range has first priority in the prevention of this disease.
Sagar, S M; Dryden, T; Wong, R K
Some cancer patients use therapeutic massage to reduce symptoms, improve coping, and enhance quality of life. Although a meta-analysis concludes that massage can confer short-term benefits in terms of psychological wellbeing and reduction of some symptoms, additional validated randomized controlled studies are necessary to determine specific indications for various types of therapeutic massage. In addition, mechanistic studies need to be conducted to discriminate the relative contributions of the therapist and of the reciprocal relationship between body and mind in the subject. Nuclear magnetic resonance techniques can be used to capture dynamic in vivo responses to biomechanical signals induced by massage of myofascial tissue. The relationship of myofascial communication systems (called "meridians") to activity in the subcortical central nervous system can be evaluated. Understanding this relationship has important implications for symptom control in cancer patients, because it opens up new research avenues that link self-reported pain with the subjective quality of suffering. The reciprocal body-mind relationship is an important target for manipulation therapies that can reduce suffering.
Allen K. Chen
Full Text Available Introduction: Empathy among medical practitioners has been shown to affect patient care and outcomes. Factors such as stress and depression are known to have a negative impact on medical student empathy. Approaches such as mindfulness, meditation, and other mind–body techniques can enhance empathy and reverse burnout symptoms. In the present study, we evaluated impact of Mind Body Medicine (MBM course on perceived stress and empathy on first-year medical students. Methods: Thirteen first-year medical students in total self-selected into MBM (experimental and seven non-MBM (control groups completed a prospective, pre- and post-test analysis, using the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy – Students (JSPE-S, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS, and Personal Health Questionnaire (PHQ to evaluate empathy, stress, and depression, respectively. Results: Our results showed an increase in stress, as well as a decrease in empathy, in both MBM and non-MBM groups throughout the course of the study. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that the inverse relationship increased stress and decreased empathy among first-year medical students and participation in the MBM course did not attenuate the changes. However, a statistically significant rise in the depression score in the non-MBM group was not observed in the MBM group.
One hundred and twenty-five years of the dialogue between psychology and physiology reveal a vibrant discussion about the mind-body effect--the ability of waking consciousness to influence its own normally unconscious physiology through conscious intention, and conversely, the reciprocal effect of physiology on consciousness. In the early phase, the data remained largely anecdotal. Scientific study of the emotions then opened the door to dynamic theories of the subconscious. Such formulations, however, were repeatedly overshadowed by concurrent advances in brain neurophysiology, which rejected not only any exploration of the unconscious that relied on the method of symbolism, but also the reality of the unconscious itself. Nevertheless, scientific advances at the interface between psychology and physiology persisted. Since the 1950s, however, there has been an explosion of new work in the neurosciences at the interface between molecular genetics, endocrinology, neurology, immunology, and psychiatry. This has fueled both new research and renewed discussion about the mind-body effect, a dialogue that is now, in part, also a response to a counter-culture revolution occurring at the interface between the delivery of clinical services throughout the healthcare professions and an increasingly sophisticated consumer demand for alternative and complementary therapies.
Mansky, Patrick; Sannes, Tim; Wallerstedt, Dawn; Ge, Adeline; Ryan, Mary; Johnson, Laura Lee; Chesney, Margaret; Gerber, Lynn
Tai chi chuan (TCC) has been used as a mind-body practice in Asian culture for centuries to improve wellness and reduce stress and has recently received attention by researchers as an exercise intervention. A review of the English literature on research in TCC published from 1989 to 2006 identified 20 prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trials in a number of populations, including elderly participants (7 studies), patients with cardiovascular complications (3 studies), patients with chronic disease (6 studies), and patients who might gain psychological benefit from TCC practice (2 studies). However, only the studies of TCC in the elderly and 2 studies of TCC for cardiovascular disease had adequate designs and size to allow conclusions about the efficacy of TCC. Most (11 studies) were small and provided limited information on the benefit of TCC in the settings tested. There is growing awareness that cancer survivors represent a population with multiple needs related to physical deconditioning, cardiovascular disease risk, and psychological stress. TCC as an intervention may provide benefit to cancer survivors in these multiple areas of need based on its characteristics of combining aspects of meditation and aerobic exercise. However, little research has been conducted to date to determine the benefit of TCC in this population. We propose a model to study the unique characteristics of TCC compared to physical exercise that may highlight characteristic features of this mind-body intervention in cancer survivors.
Psaros, Christina; Kagan, Leslee; Shifren, Jan L; Willett, Jessica; Jacquart, Jolene; Alert, Marissa D; Macklin, Eric A; Styer, Aaron K; Denninger, John W; LaRoche, Katie L; Park, Elyse R
To evaluate the feasibility of a 10-week mind-body intervention (MBI) for women coping with fertility challenges, examine the impact of an MBI on psychological distress and cortisol levels, and assess adherence to MBI skills 12-months after completion of the intervention. Prospective open pilot study of 51 women with infertility enrolled in a group MBI. Psychological variables and salivary cortisol levels were obtained pre- and post-intervention; a 12-month follow-up survey assessed MBI skill adherence. Participants completed practice logs throughout the intervention. Participants attended an average of eight sessions (SD = 2.0), and practiced mind-body techniques which elicited the relaxation response (RR) an average of 5.9 (SD = 0.8) days/week and 20.1 (SD = 9.9) min/day; 80% completed the post-treatment assessment. The intervention resulted in a significant increase in perceived social support and a decrease in depressive symptoms and perceived stress; however, there were no significant changes in cortisol levels. Sixty-eight percent of the participants completed the 12-month follow-up, with 51% reporting continuation of RR-eliciting practice. This group of women with infertility provided with an MBI showed decreased symptoms of depression and stress and increased perceived social support. The protocol was feasible and participants reported a high degree of adherence and maintenance to the skills taught during the intervention. The findings indicate the value of appropriate evaluation against a control group.
be admitted across these modes. To this end, observations regarding the lived disclosure of reflective acts vis-à-vis their embodied conduct are provided; suggesting that a partial inversion of the lived-body’s double-sidedness occurs during the transition to the reflective mode. Directions for future......This paper will consider the phenomenological disclosure of the reflecting-body vis-à-vis subject’s reflective acquaintance with other minds. To this end, phenomenological accounts regarding the double-sided disclosure of the lived-body will be expounded and developed. It will be argued...... that the latter can, and must, be considered as synchronously disclosed across the subject’s pre-reflective and reflective modes of acquaintance. Further, in order to maintain the distinction between these modes, it will be argued that a differential configuration of the lived-body’s double-sidedness must...
Improving quality of life using compound mind-body therapies: evaluation of a course intervention with body movement and breath therapy, guided imagery, chakra experiencing and mindfulness meditation.
Fernros, Lotta; Furhoff, Anna-Karin; Wändell, Per E
Assess changes in quality of life and in sense of coherence (SOC), after an intervention involving a self-development course using mind-body medicine (MBM) activities. A questionnaire study using a health-related quality of life (HRQOL) instrument, the SWEDQUAL, with 13 subscales and scores ranging from 0 to 100, combined with the SOC-13 scale, healthcare utilisation, medication and sick listing data. A training centre for MBM. Eligible course attendants (study group, SG, n = 83) assessed their HRQOL before and 6 months after a 1-week course. A control group (CG) of individuals who had previously attended the course (n = 69), matched for age, sex and length of course time to the SG, also made assessments. Changes in HRQOL and SOC in SG and CG. Of the 13 HRQOL subscales, eight showed clinically significant improvement in the SG (>9%, p positive (26%)], Cognitive functioning (24%), Sleep (15%), Pain (10%), Role limitation due to emotional health (22%) and Family functioning (16%). Sexual, marital and physical function and role in the SG as well as all CG scores were similar to average population values. The assessed SOC also improved in the SG after intervention (p < 0.01), challenging previous statements of 'the stableness of SOC'. Use of psychotropic medication was slightly reduced in the younger aged SG participants after intervention. This group of men and women (SG), starting from a clinically significant low health assessment, had improved their HRQOL and SOC after the course intervention.
Luskin, F M; Newell, K A; Griffith, M; Holmes, M; Telles, S; Marvasti, F F; Pelletier, K R; Haskell, W L
A review of research on complementary and alternative treatments, specifically mind-body techniques, was conducted at Stanford University. The goals of the review were to establish a comprehensive literature review and to provide a rationale for future research concerning successful aging. Computerized searches were conducted using MEDLINE, PsychInfo, Stanford Library, Dissertation Abstracts, Lexus-Nexus, the Internet, and interviews conducted with practitioners. All studies since 1990 that examined mind-body treatments of cardiovascular disorders in the elderly were included. Mind-body practices evaluated were social support, cognitive-behavioral treatment, meditation, the placebo effect, hope, faith, imagery, spiritual healing, music therapy, hypnosis, yoga, t'ai chi, qigong and aikido. Studies conducted after 1990 were a priority, but when more recent literature was scarce, other studies using randomized, controlled trials were included. Mind-body techniques were found to be efficacious primarily as complementary and sometimes as stand-alone alternative treatments for cardiovascular disease-related conditions. Studies provided evidence for treatment efficacy, but the need for further controlled research was evident. Reviewers found only a handful of randomized, controlled research studies conducted in the United States. As a result, there is a lack of replicated studies with which to determine appropriate treatment dosage and the mechanisms by which many of the practices work. Compelling anecdotal evidence, the presence of some controlled research, overall cost effectiveness, and the lack of side effects resulting from mind-body treatments make further investigation a high priority.
Sharma, Manoj; Rush, Sarah E
Stress is a global public health problem with several negative health consequences, including anxiety, depression, cardiovascular disease, and suicide. Mindfulness-based stress reduction offers an effective way of reducing stress by combining mindfulness meditation and yoga in an 8-week training program. The purpose of this study was to look at studies from January 2009 to January 2014 and examine whether mindfulness-based stress reduction is a potentially viable method for managing stress. A systematic search from Medline, CINAHL, and Alt HealthWatch databases was conducted for all types of quantitative articles involving mindfulness-based stress reduction. A total of 17 articles met the inclusion criteria. Of the 17 studies, 16 demonstrated positive changes in psychological or physiological outcomes related to anxiety and/or stress. Despite the limitations of not all studies using randomized controlled design, having smaller sample sizes, and having different outcomes, mindfulness-based stress reduction appears to be a promising modality for stress management. © The Author(s) 2014.
Korver-Nieberg, Nikie; Fett, Anne-Kathrin J.; Meijer, Carin J.; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; Shergill, Sukhi S.; de Haan, Lieuwe; Krabbendam, Lydia
Impaired Theory of Mind (ToM) is found in adults with schizophrenia and is associated with paranoid symptoms. Insecure attachment is proposed to underlie impaired ToM as well as paranoia. Insight into associations between insecure attachment and impaired ToM skills may help clinicians and patients
Chan, Agnes S; Han, Yvonne M Y; Cheung, Mei-Chun
The "Triarchic body-pathway relaxation technique" (TBRT) is a form of ancient Chinese mindfulness-based meditation professed to give rise to positive emotions and a specific state of consciousness in which deep relaxation and internalized attention coexist. The purpose of this study was to examine the EEG pattern generated during the practice of this mindfulness exercise, and compare it to music listening which has been shown to induce positive emotions. Nineteen college students (aged 19-22 years) participated in the study. Each participant listened to both the TBRT and music audiotapes while EEG was recorded. The order of presentation was counterbalanced to avoid order effect. Two EEG indicators were used: (1) alpha asymmetry index, an indicator for left-sided anterior activation, as measure of positive emotions, and (2) frontal midline theta activity, as a measure for internalized attention. Increased left-sided activation, a pattern associated with positive emotions, was found during both TBRT exercise and music conditions. However, only TBRT exercise was shown to exhibit greater frontal midline theta power, a pattern associated with internalized attention. These results provided evidence to support that the TBRT gives rise to positive emotional experience, accompanied by focused internalized attention.
Crescentini, Cristiano; Urgesi, Cosimo; Fabbro, Franco; Eleopra, Roberto
Cognitive impairment is one of the most disabling symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS), affecting a large proportion of patients and having a severe impact on their quality of life. Nevertheless, there exists a large variability in the neuropsychological profiles of MS patients and some of them appear to withstand better than others the MS-related brain pathology before showing cognitive decline. In recent years, many studies have made use of concepts such as cognitive reserve and brain reserve to take account of the inter-individual discrepancy between cognitive impairment and MS pathology. Critically, these studies have left open the fundamental issue of the clinical implications of this research for the treatment of cognitive dysfunction in MS. We provide an updated and extensive overview of the studies that have explored cognitive and brain reserve in MS and discuss their implications for non-pharmacological therapeutic strategies aimed at potentiating patients' reserve. In particular, the possible utility of integrated approaches based on mind-body techniques such as mindfulness-meditation is considered. We conclude that these techniques represent challenging mental enriching activities that may help cultivating cognitive reserve and more systematic research on their efficacy to protect against cognitive degradation in MS is encouraged.
Lee, Seul Bee; Koo, Se Jun; Song, Yun Young; Lee, Mi Kyung; Jeong, Yu-Jin; Kwon, Catherine; Park, Kyoung Ri; Park, Jin Young; Kang, Jee In; Lee, Eun; An, Suk Kyoon
It was proposed that the ability to recognize facial emotions is closely related to complex neurocognitive processes and/or skills related to theory of mind (ToM). This study examines whether ToM skills mediate the relationship between higher neurocognitive functions, such as reasoning ability, and facial emotion recognition. A total of 200 healthy subjects (101 males, 99 females) were recruited. Facial emotion recognition was measured through the use of 64 facial emotional stimuli that were selected from photographs from the Korean Facial Expressions of Emotion (KOFEE). Participants were requested to complete the Theory of Mind Picture Stories task and Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM). Multiple regression analysis showed that the SPM score (t=3.19, p=0.002, β=0.22) and the overall ToM score (t=2.56, p=0.011, β=0.18) were primarily associated with a total hit rate (%) of the emotion recognition task. Hierarchical regression analysis through a three-step mediation model showed that ToM may partially mediate the relationship between SPM and performance on facial emotion recognition. These findings imply that higher neurocognitive functioning, inclusive of reasoning, may not only directly contribute towards facial emotion recognition but also influence ToM, which in turn, influences facial emotion recognition. These findings are particularly true for healthy young people.
Lee, Seul Bee; Koo, Se Jun; Song, Yun Young; Lee, Mi Kyung; Jeong, Yu-Jin; Kwon, Catherine; Park, Kyoung Ri; Kang, Jee In; Lee, Eun
Objective It was proposed that the ability to recognize facial emotions is closely related to complex neurocognitive processes and/or skills related to theory of mind (ToM). This study examines whether ToM skills mediate the relationship between higher neurocognitive functions, such as reasoning ability, and facial emotion recognition. Methods A total of 200 healthy subjects (101 males, 99 females) were recruited. Facial emotion recognition was measured through the use of 64 facial emotional stimuli that were selected from photographs from the Korean Facial Expressions of Emotion (KOFEE). Participants were requested to complete the Theory of Mind Picture Stories task and Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM). Results Multiple regression analysis showed that the SPM score (t=3.19, p=0.002, β=0.22) and the overall ToM score (t=2.56, p=0.011, β=0.18) were primarily associated with a total hit rate (%) of the emotion recognition task. Hierarchical regression analysis through a three-step mediation model showed that ToM may partially mediate the relationship between SPM and performance on facial emotion recognition. Conclusion These findings imply that higher neurocognitive functioning, inclusive of reasoning, may not only directly contribute towards facial emotion recognition but also influence ToM, which in turn, influences facial emotion recognition. These findings are particularly true for healthy young people. PMID:24843363
Corradini, Antonella; Meixner, Uwe
Quantum physics, in contrast to classical physics, allows non-locality and indeterminism in nature. Moreover, the role of the observer seems indispensable in quantum physics. In fact, quantum physics, unlike classical physics, suggests a metaphysics that is not physicalism (which is today's official metaphysical doctrine). As is well known, physicalism implies a reductive position in the philosophy of mind, specifically in its two core areas, the philosophy of consciousness and the philosophy of action. Quantum physics, in contrast, is compatible with psychological non-reductionism, and actually seems to support it. The essays in this book explore, from various points of view, the possibilities of basing a non-reductive philosophy of mind on quantum physics. In doing so, they not only engage with the ontological and epistemological aspects of the question but also with the neurophysiological ones.
Corradini, Antonella [Catholic Univ., Milan (Italy); Meixner, Uwe (ed.) [Augsburg Univ. (Germany)
Quantum physics, in contrast to classical physics, allows non-locality and indeterminism in nature. Moreover, the role of the observer seems indispensable in quantum physics. In fact, quantum physics, unlike classical physics, suggests a metaphysics that is not physicalism (which is today's official metaphysical doctrine). As is well known, physicalism implies a reductive position in the philosophy of mind, specifically in its two core areas, the philosophy of consciousness and the philosophy of action. Quantum physics, in contrast, is compatible with psychological non-reductionism, and actually seems to support it. The essays in this book explore, from various points of view, the possibilities of basing a non-reductive philosophy of mind on quantum physics. In doing so, they not only engage with the ontological and epistemological aspects of the question but also with the neurophysiological ones.
G Ruben H Regterschot
Full Text Available This study investigated the acute effects of passive whole body vibration (WBV on executive functions in healthy young adults. Participants (112 females, 21 males; age: 20.5±2.2 years underwent six passive WBV sessions (frequency 30 Hz, amplitude approximately 0.5 mm and six non-vibration control sessions of two minutes each while sitting on a chair mounted on a vibrating platform. A passive WBV session was alternated with a control session. Directly after each session, performance on the Stroop Color-Block Test (CBT, Stroop Color-Word Interference Test (CWIT, Stroop Difference Score (SDS and Digit Span Backward task (DSBT was measured. In half of the passive WBV and control sessions the test order was CBT-CWIT-DSBT, and DSBT-CBT-CWIT in the other half. Passive WBV improved CWIT (p = 0.009; effect size r = 0.20 and SDS (p = 0.034; r = 0.16 performance, but only when the CBT and CWIT preceded the DSBT. CBT and DSBT performance did not change. This study shows that two minutes passive WBV has positive acute effects on attention and inhibition in young adults, notwithstanding their high cognitive functioning which could have hampered improvement. This finding indicates the potential of passive WBV as a cognition-enhancing therapy worth further evaluation, especially in persons unable to perform active forms of exercise.
Poetic autoethnography provides a research methodology to explore yoga as a mind-body intervention that creates sanctuary. Using this qualitative method and retrieving data from my personal journals, daily workout journals, experiences as a lesbian-identified participant in yoga classes, and yoga instructor, I turn the research lens on myself in order to examine my sociological life story. At a critical time in my life when I was struggling with the fragmentation, anxiety, and despair resulting from dealing with homophobia in a heteronormative world, yoga provided sanctuary for me. My yoga practice increased my self-efficacy, providing transferable techniques for finding refuge within myself, irrespective of the adversity I was facing in my life. Places of sanctuary are critical for members of minority groups who often face marginalization and oppression, which compromise their well-being.
Ion G. Motofei
Full Text Available Physiologically, the somatic nervous system intervenes in external interaction between the body and environment, while autonomic nervous system ensures the functioning of internal organs. We present in this paper a psycho-physiological perspective suggesting that mental function (somatic in nature, because coordinates environmental interaction is closer to and more aligned with the physiologic functioning of autonomic nervous system (due to autonomy, duality, etc.. At opposite end, sexual function (autonomic in nature, erection for example being a parasympathetic vasodilatory reflex seems to be compatible and even dependent by a somatic participation (erectile response is rather induced by environmental stimuli than internal visceral stimuli. The perspective presented here is that the mind and sexuality are two distinct relational processes which, being related to the same environmental stimuli/ peripheral afferents, should be supported by a common (somatic-autonomic neurobiological substrate.
Neeta Mehta recently advanced the thesis that medical practice is facing a crisis today. In her paper “Mind-body dualism: a critique from a health perspective” she attributes the crisis to the philosophy of Descartes and set out to understand why this dualism is still alive despite its disavowal from philosophers, health practitioners and lay people. The aim of my reply to her critique is three-fold. First, I draw attention to a more fundamental problem and show that dualism is inescapable—scientifically and commonsensically. I then focus on the self-conscious emotions of shame, guilt and remorse, and argue that the self is not identical with a brain. The third section draws attention to the crisis in psychiatry and stipulates some of the main reasons why this is so. Contrary to Mehta's thesis, the health profession faces a crisis because of physicalism and biological reductionism. PMID:24891801
Neeta Mehta recently advanced the thesis that medical practice is facing a crisis today. In her paper "Mind-body dualism: a critique from a health perspective" she attributes the crisis to the philosophy of Descartes and set out to understand why this dualism is still alive despite its disavowal from philosophers, health practitioners and lay people. The aim of my reply to her critique is three-fold. First, I draw attention to a more fundamental problem and show that dualism is inescapable-scientifically and commonsensically. I then focus on the self-conscious emotions of shame, guilt and remorse, and argue that the self is not identical with a brain. The third section draws attention to the crisis in psychiatry and stipulates some of the main reasons why this is so. Contrary to Mehta's thesis, the health profession faces a crisis because of physicalism and biological reductionism.
Simonsick, Eleanor M; Meier, Helen C S; Shaffer, Nancy Chiles; Studenski, Stephanie A; Ferrucci, Luigi
Scattered evidence indicates that a lower basal body temperature may be associated with prolonged health span, yet few studies have directly evaluated this relationship. We examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between early morning oral temperature (95.0-98.6 °F) and usual gait speed, endurance walk performance, fatigability, and grip strength in 762 non-frail men (52 %) and women aged 65-89 years participating in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Since excessive adiposity (body mass index ≥35 kg/m 2 or waist-to-height ratio ≥0.62) may alter temperature set point, associations were also examined within adiposity strata. Overall, controlling for age, race, sex, height, exercise, and adiposity, lower temperature was associated with faster gait speed, less time to walk 400 m quickly, and lower perceived exertion following 5-min of walking at 0.67 m/s (all p ≤ 0.02). In the non-adipose (N = 662), these associations were more robust (all p ≤ 0.006). Direction of association was reversed in the adipose (N = 100), but none attained significance (all p > 0.22). Over 2.2 years, basal temperature was not associated with functional change in the overall population or non-adipose. Among the adipose, lower baseline temperature was associated with greater decline in endurance walking performance (p = 0.006). In longitudinal analyses predicting future functional performance, low temperature in the non-adipose was associated with faster gait speed (p = 0.021) and less time to walk 400 m quickly (p = 0.003), whereas in the adipose, lower temperature was associated with slower gait speed (p = 0.05) and more time to walk 400 m (p = 0.008). In older adults, lower basal body temperature appears to be associated with healthy aging in the absence of excessive adiposity.
Lee, Courtney; Crawford, Cindy; Hickey, Anita
Chronic pain management typically consists of prescription medications or provider-based, behavioral, or interventional procedures which are often ineffective, may be costly, and can be associated with undesirable side effects. Because chronic pain affects the whole person (body, mind, and spirit), patient-centered complementary and integrative medicine (CIM) therapies that acknowledge the patients' roles in their own healing processes have the potential to provide more efficient and comprehensive chronic pain management. Active self-care complementary and integrative medicine (ACT-CIM) therapies allow for a more diverse, patient-centered treatment of complex symptoms, promote self-management, and are relatively safe and cost-effective. To date, there are no systematic reviews examining the full range of ACT-CIM used for chronic pain symptom management. A systematic review was conducted, using Samueli Institute's rapid evidence assessment of the literature (REAL©) methodology, to rigorously assess both the quality of the research on ACT-CIM modalities and the evidence for their efficacy and effectiveness in treating chronic pain symptoms. A panel of subject matter experts was also convened to evaluate the overall literature pool and develop recommendations for the use and implementation of these modalities. Following key database searches, 146 randomized controlled trials were included in the review, 54 of which investigated mind-body therapies, as defined by the authors. This article summarizes the current evidence, quality, efficacy, and safety of these modalities. Recommendations and next steps to move this field of research forward are also discussed. The entire scope of the review is detailed throughout the current Pain Medicine supplement. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Toussaint, Loren L; Whipple, Mary O; Abboud, Lana L; Vincent, Ann; Wahner-Roedler, Dietlind L
A novel mind-body approach (amygdala retraining) is hypothesized to improve symptoms related to fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue. To examine the use of a mind-body approach for improving symptoms related to fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue. This was a single-blind, randomized controlled trial. The study was conducted in a tertiary-care fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue clinic. Patients with fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue, or both were included. Patients were randomly assigned to receive amygdala retraining along with standard care or standard care alone. Standard care involved attending a 1.5-day multidisciplinary program. The amygdala retraining group received an additional 2.5-hour training course in which the key tools and techniques adapted from an existing program were taught to the patient. A home-study video course and associated text were provided to supplement the on-site program. Both groups received telephone calls twice a month to answer questions related to technique and to provide support. Validated self-report questionnaires related to general health, well-being, and symptoms, including Short Form-36, Measure Yourself Medical Outcome Profile, Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire. Of the 44 patients randomly assigned who completed baseline assessments, 21 patients completed the study (14 in the standard care group and 7 in the study group). Median age was 48 years (range, 27-56 years), and female subjects comprised 91% of the group. Analyses demonstrated statistically significant improvements in scores for physical health, energy, pain, symptom distress, and fatigue in patients who received the amygdala retraining compared with standard care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lores, Taryn Jade; Henke, Miriam; Chur-Hansen, Anna
Context • Interest has been rising in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for the promotion of health and treatment of disease. To date, the majority of CAM research has focused on exploring the demographic characteristics, attitudes, and motivations of CAM users and on the efficacy of different therapies and products. Less is known with respect to the psychological characteristics of people who use CAM. Previous research has not investigated the usefulness of integrating mind-body therapies with natural products in a combined mood intervention. Objective • The study intended to investigate attitudes toward a proposed new approach to the treatment of mood, one that integrates psychological mind-body therapies and natural nutritional products. Design • Participants completed an online survey covering demographics, personality traits, locus of control, use of CAM, attitudes toward the proposed psychonutritional approach, and mood. Setting • This study was conducted at the University of Adelaide School of Psychology (Adelaide, SA, Australia). Participants • Participants were 333 members of the Australian general public, who were recruited online via the social-media platform Facebook. The majority were women (83.2%), aged between 18 and 81 y. Outcome Measures • Measures included the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale Form B, the Ten-Item Personality Inventory, and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale. Results • Participants were positive about the proposed approach and were likely to try it to enhance their moods. The likeliness of use of the combined approach was significantly higher in the female participants and was associated with higher levels of the personality trait openness and an internal health locus of control, after controlling for all other variables. Conclusions • Interest exists for an intervention for mood that incorporates both psychological and nutritional approaches. Further research into the
Agnes S eChan
Full Text Available The memory deficits found in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD may be caused by the lack of an effective strategy to aid memory. The executive control of memory processing is mediated largely by the timely coupling between frontal and posterior brain regions. The present study aimed to explore the potential effect of a Chinese mind-body exercise, namely Nei Gong, for enhancing learning and memory in children with ASD, and the possible neural basis of the improvement. Sixty-six children with ASD were randomly assigned to groups receiving Nei Gong training (NGT, progressive muscle relaxation (PMR training, or no training for one month. Before and after training, the participants were tested individually on a computerized visual memory task while EEG signals were acquired during the memory encoding phase. Children in the NGT group demonstrated significantly enhanced memory performance and more effective use of a memory strategy, which was not observed in the other two groups. Furthermore, the improved memory after NGT was consistent with findings of elevated EEG theta coherence between frontal and posterior brain regions, a measure of functional coupling. The scalp EEG signals were localized by the sLORETA method and found to originate from a neural network that promotes effective memory processing, including the prefrontal cortex, the parietal cortex, and the medial and inferior temporal cortex. This alteration in neural processing was not found in children receiving PMR or in those who received no training. The present findings suggest that the mind-body exercise program may have the potential effect on modulating neural functional connectivity underlying memory processing and hence enhance memory functions in individuals with autism.
Jayawardene, Wasantha; Erbe, Ryan; Lohrmann, David; Torabi, Mohammad
Background: School-based treatment and counseling services (TCSs) can integrate mind-body techniques (MBTs) to improve children's health, wellness, and academic performance. We aimed to describe the effect of school-based TCS on MBT-use among students experiencing difficulties with concentration, emotions, behaviors, and getting along (DCEBG).…
Luskin, F M; Newell, K A; Griffith, M; Holmes, M; Telles, S; DiNucci, E; Marvasti, F F; Hill, M; Pelletier, K R; Haskell, W L
A comprehensive, but not systematic, review of the research on complementary and alternative treatments, specifically mind/body techniques, on musculoskeletal disease was conducted at Stanford University. The goals of the review were to establish a comprehensive literature review and provide a rationale for future research carrying the theme of "successful aging." Computerized searches were conducted using MEDLINE, PsychInfo, Stanford Library, Dissertation Abstracts, Lexus-Nexus, the Internet as well as interviews conducted with practitioners and the elderly. Mind/body practices evaluated were: social support, cognitive-behavioral therapy, meditation, the placebo effect, imagery, visualization, spiritual/energy healing, music therapy, hypnosis, yoga, tai chi, and qigong. Studies published after 1990 were the priority, but when more recent literature was scarce, other controlled studies were included. Mind/body techniques were found to be efficacious primarily as complementary treatments for musculoskeletal disease and related disorders. Studies provided evidence for treatment efficacy but most apparent was the need for further controlled research. Reviewers found a dearth of randomized controlled research conducted in the US. There is a lack of studies with which to determine appropriate dosage and understand the mechanisms by which many of the practices work. Anecdotal evidence, some controlled research, clinical observation, as well as the cost effectiveness and lack of side effects of the mind/body treatments make further investigation a high priority.
Fonow, Mary Margaret; Cook, Judith A.; Goldsand, Richard S.; Burke-Miller, Jane K.
We explored the potential of the Feldenkrais Method of somatic education as a tool for enhancing mindfulness, body awareness, and perceptions of transformational leadership capacities among college students. The intervention consisted of thirty-two, 1.25-hour long group sessions taught by a certified Feldenkrais instructor twice weekly to 21…
Renshaw, Tyler L.
The present article provides commentary on this pioneering special issue covering the usefulness of so-called mind-body practices with youth and in schools. I begin by addressing the way we talk about this approach to practice, describing a few undesirable consequences that can follow from using the mind-body moniker adopted from the world of…
Stress is an essential response in highly competitive environments. Before a race, before an exam, before an important meeting, your heart rate and blood pressure rise, your focus tightens, you become more alert and more efficient. But beyond a certain level, stress overloads your system, compromising your performance and, eventually, your health. So the question is: When does stress help and when does it hurt? To find out, HBR talked with Harvard Medical School professor Herbert Benson, M.D., founder of the Mind/Body Medical Institute. Having spent more than 35 years conducting worldwide research in the fields of neuroscience and stress, Benson is best known for his 1975 best seller The Relaxation Response, in which he describes how the mind can influence stress levels through such tools as meditation. His most recent research centers on what he calls"the breakout principle," a method by which stress is not simply reduced but carefully controlled so that you reap its benefits while avoiding its dangers. He describes a four-step process in which you first push yourself to the most productive stress level by grappling intently with a problem. Next, just as you feel yourself flagging, you disengage entirely by doing something utterly unrelated-going for a walk, petting a dog, taking a shower. In the third step, as the brain quiets down, activity paradoxically increases in areas associated with attention, space-time concepts, and decision making, leading to a sudden, creative insight-the breakout. Step four is achievement of a "new-normal state," in which you find that the improved performance is sustained, sometimes indefinitely. As counterintuitive as this research may seem, managers can doubtless recall times when they've had an "aha" moment at the gym, on the golf course, or in the shower. What Benson describes here is a way to tap into this invaluable biological tool whenever we want.
Oosterwijk, Suzanne; Lindquist, Kristen A.; Anderson, Eric; Dautoff, Rebecca; Moriguchi, Yoshiya; Barrett, Lisa Feldman
Scientists have traditionally assumed that different kinds of mental states (e.g., fear, disgust, love, memory, planning, concentration, etc.) correspond to different psychological faculties that have domain-specific correlates in the brain. Yet, growing evidence points to the constructionist hypothesis that mental states emerge from the combination of domain-general psychological processes that map to large-scale distributed brain networks. In this paper, we report a novel study testing a constructionist model of the mind in which participants generated three kinds of mental states (emotions, body feelings, or thoughts) while we measured activity within large-scale distributed brain networks using fMRI. We examined the similarity and differences in the pattern of network activity across these three classes of mental states. Consistent with a constructionist hypothesis, a combination of large-scale distributed networks contributed to emotions, thoughts, and body feelings, although these mental states differed in the relative contribution of those networks. Implications for a constructionist functional architecture of diverse mental states are discussed. PMID:22677148
Oosterwijk, Suzanne; Lindquist, Kristen A; Anderson, Eric; Dautoff, Rebecca; Moriguchi, Yoshiya; Barrett, Lisa Feldman
Scientists have traditionally assumed that different kinds of mental states (e.g., fear, disgust, love, memory, planning, concentration, etc.) correspond to different psychological faculties that have domain-specific correlates in the brain. Yet, growing evidence points to the constructionist hypothesis that mental states emerge from the combination of domain-general psychological processes that map to large-scale distributed brain networks. In this paper, we report a novel study testing a constructionist model of the mind in which participants generated three kinds of mental states (emotions, body feelings, or thoughts) while we measured activity within large-scale distributed brain networks using fMRI. We examined the similarity and differences in the pattern of network activity across these three classes of mental states. Consistent with a constructionist hypothesis, a combination of large-scale distributed networks contributed to emotions, thoughts, and body feelings, although these mental states differed in the relative contribution of those networks. Implications for a constructionist functional architecture of diverse mental states are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Girardi, Alessandra; Sala, Sergio Della; MacPherson, Sarah E
The Ultimatum Game assesses decision-making involved in cooperative interactions with others. However, little is known about the role that the ability to understand other people's intentions plays in these interactions. This study examined performance on the Ultimatum Game and theory of mind (ToM) tasks in younger and older adults. Age differences were not found on the ToM tasks, and a lack of variability in performance prevented analyses of the relationships between performance on the Ultimatum Game and ToM. However, age differences were found on the Ultimatum Game, with older adults accepting more unfair offers. Yet, the two age groups did not differ in their appreciation of fairness, as assessed using subjective fairness ratings. These findings suggest that older adults are more rational in their behavior, accepting unfair offers even when they know they are unfair, as it is in their self-interest to accept small monetary values rather than nothing at all.
Zarychta, Karolina; Chan, Carina K Y; Kruk, Magdalena; Luszczynska, Aleksandra
Theoretical models, such as the transdiagnostic model of eating disorders highlight the role of cognitive factors (e.g., the way people perceive their bodies) and their associations with maladaptive weight management behaviors resulting in underweight. This paper aims at testing the indirect association of adolescent's body satisfaction and body mass index (BMI) through restrictive dieting, healthy eating or unhealthy eating as well as moderating role of adolescent's weight status. The study was conducted in 16 public middle and high schools in Central and Eastern Poland. A sample of 1042 under- and healthy-weight white adolescents aged 13-20 (BMI: 12.63-24.89) completed two self-reported questionnaires (fruit, vegetable, and energy-dense food intake) with a 11-month interval. Weight and height were measured objectively. Multiple mediation analysis and moderated multiple mediation analysis were conducted to test the study hypotheses. Adolescents less satisfied with their bodies were more likely to diet restrictively and at the same time ate more unhealthy energy-dense food rather than healthy food, which in turn predicted lower BMI. No moderating effects of weight status were found. Low body satisfaction is a risk for restrictive diet and unhealthy food intake. Prevention programs may target under- and healthy-weight adolescents who are highly dissatisfied with their bodies, have a high intake of energy-dense food and apply a restrictive diet at the same time. Level III: longitudinal cohort study.
Dobos, G; Altner, N; Lange, S; Musial, F; Langhorst, J; Michalsen, A; Paul, A
Mind-body medicine (MBM) as a holistic approach to health and healing has been shaped by research into stress physiology and stress psychology, by psychoneuro(endocrino)immunology and by Antonovsky's salutogenetic paradigm. MBM seeks to acknowledge physical, psychological as well as social and spiritual aspects of human beings. MBM constitutes one of the traditions, which the emerging field of integrative medicine in Germany draws upon, others being mainstream medicine, traditional European naturopathy and non-European methods like traditional Chinese medicine. The article outlines historical aspects of MBM, gives a brief review of research evidence, and introduces clinical MBM institutes in Germany. Especially the Clinic and Chair of Complementary and Integrative Medicine, Alfried Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach Foundation at the University Duisburg-Essen has been integrating MBM into the concept of integrative medicine. Considering that a growing number of health issues arises due to maladaptive lifestyles, MBM is being identified as a development that supports a shift from increasingly expensive treatments to more cost-effective preventive approaches.
Agnes S. Chan
Full Text Available There is growing interest in the adoption of lifestyle interventions to remediate age-related declines in memory functioning and physical and psychological health among older adults. This study aimed to investigate whether a Chinese Chan-based lifestyle intervention, the Dejian Mind-Body Intervention (DMBI, leads to positive benefits for memory functioning in older adults. Fifty-six adults aged 60 years or older with subjective memory complaints (SMC were randomly assigned to receive the DMBI or a control intervention (i.e., a conventional memory intervention; MI once a week for 10 weeks; 48 of the adults completed the intervention. Participants’ verbal and visual memory functioning before and after the intervention were compared. In addition, changes in the participants’ subjective feelings about their memory performance and physical and psychological health after the intervention were examined. The results showed that both the DMBI and MI resulted in significant improvements in both verbal and visual memory functioning and that the extent of the improvements was correlated with participants’ level of performance at baseline. In addition, compared to the MI group, the DMBI group had significantly greater improvements in subjective physical and psychological health after the intervention. In summary, the present findings support the potential of the DMBI as an alternative lifestyle intervention for improving memory functioning, subjective physical and psychological health of older adults with SMC.
Full Text Available The statements of researchers on the topic of basket divination and the statements of basket diviners in northwest Zambia, Africa, do not fully agree. While researchers rightly stress the importance of observation, analysis and interpretation in basket divination, going so far as to describe diviners as scientists, they fail to recognize that divination is not an abstract, disembodied undertaking. Truthful knowledge is not flushed out of the diviner’s mind as a set of theoretical propositions; it is instead delivered by an ancestral spirit that becomes objectified in three symbiotic forms: physical pain, configurations of material objects laid out inside a basket, and the diviner’s translation of those meaningful configurations into words. In basket divination, human bodies, artifacts, words, and spirits work together in symbiosis. Knowing is a spiritual, intellectual, and embodied undertaking. The challenge then is to conceptualize basket divination as an integrative way of knowing in such a way that one does not fail to recognize either the neurobiological substrate that we all share as humans or those others facets—such as the numen—without which basket divination as a cultural practice would cease to exist.
Agnes S. Chan
Full Text Available There has been increasing empirical evidence for the enhancing effects of Dejian Mind-Body Intervention (DMBI, a traditional Chinese Shaolin healing approach, on human frontal brain activity/functions, including patients with autism who are well documented to have frontal lobe problems. This study aims to compare the effects of DMBI with a conventional behavioural/cognitive intervention (CI on enhancing the executive functions and memory of a nine-year-old boy with low-functioning autism (KY and to explore possible underlying neural mechanism using EEG theta cordance. At post-one-month DMBI, KY's inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and memory functioning have significantly improved from “severely-to-moderately impaired” to “within-normal” range. This improvement was not observed from previous 12-month CI. Furthermore, KY showed increased cordance gradually extending from the anterior to the posterior brain region, suggesting possible neural mechanism underlying his cognitive improvement. These findings have implicated potential applicability of DMBI as a rehabilitation program for patients with severe frontal lobe and/or memory disorders.
In the last two decades there have been many critics of western biomedicine's poor integration of social and psychological factors in questions of human health. Such critiques frequently begin with a rejection of Descartes' mind-body dualism, viewing this as the decisive philosophical moment, radically separating the two realms in both theory and practice. It is argued here, however, that many such readings of Descartes have been selective and misleading. Contrary to the assumptions of many recent authors, Descartes' dualism does attempt to explain the union of psyche and soma - with more depth than is often appreciated. Pain plays a key role in Cartesian as well as contemporary thinking about the problem of dualism. Theories of the psychological origins of pain symptoms persisted throughout the history of modern medicine and were not necessarily discouraged by Cartesian mental philosophy. Moreover, the recently developed biopsychosocial model of pain may have more in common with Cartesian dualism than it purports to have. This article presents a rereading of Descartes' mental philosophy and his views on pain. The intention is not to defend his theories, but to re-evaluate them and to ask in what respect contemporary theories represent any significant advance in philosophical terms.
Ai, Amy L; Kabbaj, Mohamed; Kathy, Lee L
The study examined differential effects of preoperative biomarkers (cotisol, C-reactive protein/CRP, and interleukin-6/IL-6) on postoperative symptoms in mental health (depressed mood, anxiety and hostility) 1 month following open-heart surgery, controlling for known predictors. Preoperative and postoperative interviews were conducted on 162 patients. Peripheral venous blood samples were collected between 8 and 10 a.m. prior to surgery. Cardiac indices were obtained from the Society of Thoracic Surgeons' national database. Preoperative anxiety contributed to all outcomes about 1 month postoperatively. Patients with high preoperative plasma IL-6 used more avoidant coping and experienced greater depressed mood. Patients with increased plasma CRP and with hope were less depressed. Elevated plasma cortisol predicted hostility. Finally, medical comorbidities predicted anxiety and hostility. The combination of anxiety and stress-sensitive biomarkers may be one way to predict postoperative symptoms following open-heart surgery. Our findings emphasize the importance of investigating the mind-body interplay to come up with better interventions.
Madigan, Mary E; Smith-Wheelock, Linda; Krein, Sarah L
Chronic kidney disease affects one in nine Americans. Diabetes and hypertension account for nearly three quarters of all kidney failure cases. Disproportionate rates of chronic kidney disease, diabetes, and hypertension have been observed among African Americans. More than 70% of all kidney failure cases caused by diabetes and hypertension could have been prevented or delayed with healthy lifestyles and medications. Approximately 14% of the population living in Michigan is African American. Despite this small proportion, 47% of patients on dialysis and 45% of those on the kidney transplant waiting list are African American. Risk of end-stage kidney failure is 4 times greater among African Americans than among whites. The National Kidney Foundation of Michigan developed the Healthy Hair Starts with a Healthy Body (Healthy Hair) campaign to educate African American men and women about their disease risks and to motivate prevention behaviors. The campaign trains African American hair stylists to promote healthy behaviors with their clients through a "health chat" and by providing diabetes and hypertension risk assessment information and incentives. Since 1999, Healthy Hair has trained nearly 700 stylists and reached more than 14,000 clients in eight Michigan cities. Information collected through a client "Chat Form" suggests a number of positive behavioral results. With nearly 60% of clients indicating that they have taken steps to prevent diabetes, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease or to seek a physician's advice, the Healthy Hair program appears to be effective in the short term in prompting attention to healthy behaviors and increasing risk awareness.
Prowse, Emma; Bore, Miles; Dyer, Stella
Background: There has been increasing interest in the use of mindfulness-based interventions in treating various disorders and conditions; however, evidence to support the application of mindfulness-based treatments for eating disorders is limited. The current study was designed as a preliminary investigation of the relationship between…
while secondaty measures for PTSD , depression, fatigue, quality of life, symptom severity, and mindfulness were completed at Baseline, Post-intervention...month follow-up, while secondary outcome measures for PTSD , depression, fatigue, quality of life, symptom severity, and mindfulness were completed...Sleep Education; MBB = Mind –Body Bridging; PCL-M = PTSD Checklist – Military; CES-D Center for Epidemiological Studies – Depression; MFI
Viebrock, Margaret A.; Berry, Holly
This booklet discusses the important role that day care providers can play in ensuring that children eat healthy snacks and meals and learn good eating habits. Section one of the booklet examines snack foods, discusses the difference between nutritious and less-nutritious snacks, and recommends snack foods appropriate for different age groups.…
Magge, Suma S; Wolf, Jacqueline L
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal disorder, characterized by chronic or recurrent abdominal pain with constipation, diarrhea and/or an alternation of the two, and often bloating. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) consists of a group of medical treatments that are not commonly considered to be a part of traditional medicine. CAM is commonly used for difficult-to-treat chronic medical conditions. Many patients choose CAM because there are only a limited number of treatments available for IBS or because they would like to have a 'natural therapy'. Mind-body therapies for IBS have proven efficacy, but have not been well accepted by patients or practitioners for treatment. This article reviews the use of CAM and mind-body therapies in IBS, with a focus on probiotics, acupuncture, herbal medicines and psychological therapies.
Millegan, Jeffrey; Morrison, Theodore; Bhakta, Jagruti; Ram, Vasudha
Many service members suffer from chronic pain that can be difficult to adequately treat. Frustration has led to more openness among service members to complementary and alternative medicine modalities. This report follows JK, a Marine with chronic pain related to an injury while on combat deployment through participation in a 6-week self-care-based Mind Body Medicine program and for 7 months after completion of the program. JK developed and sustained a regular meditation practice throughout the follow-up period. JK showed a noticeable reduction in perceived disability and improvements in psychological health, sleep latency/duration and quality of life. This report supports further study into the efficacy and feasibility of self-care-based mind body medicine in the treatment of chronic pain in the military medical setting. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
Rybarczyk, B; DeMarco, G; DeLaCruz, M; Lapidos, S; Fortner, B
The authors tested the efficacy of a mind/body wellness intervention for older adults with chronic illness. They randomly assigned 243 physician-referred patients from an urban HMO to a classroom intervention or a wait-list control group. The intervention provided instruction on mind/body relationships; relaxation training; cognitive restructuring; problem-solving; communication; and behavioral treatment for insomnia, nutrition, and exercise. At posttreatment, the intervention group had significant decreases in self-reported sleep difficulties, pain, anxiety, and depression symptoms compared with controls. The intervention also led to a significant decrease in "chance" and "powerful others" health locus of control beliefs. At 1-year follow-up, the intervention group maintained benefits in sleep and health locus of control and also reported a significant increase in health behaviors compared with controls. Pain, anxiety, and depression benefits were not maintained. This type of classroom intervention appears to have some lasting effects on health behaviors and beliefs.
Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0385 TITLE: Evaluating a Novel Sleep-Focused Mind -Body Rehabilitative Program for Veterans with mTBI and Other...3. DATES COVERED 31Aug 2014 - 30 Aug 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0385 Evaluating a Novel Sleep-Focused Mind -Body...study is still ongoing. There is no finding to report from the study as of 30/09/2015. 15. SUBJECT TERMS mind -body intervention, awareness training
Full Text Available Objective. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the effects of Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs on salivary cortisol levels in healthy adult populations. Method. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs, published between January 1980 and June 2015 in PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO and the Cochrane library. The PRISMA and Cochrane guidelines were followed. The pooled effect sizes were calculated with the random-effects model, using Hedges’ g values, and heterogeneity was measured using the I2 statistic. The contribution of different characteristics of participants and programmes were assessed by meta-regression models, using beta coefficients. Results. Five RCTs with 190 participants in total were included in this systematic review. The overall effect size (ES for improving the state of health related to cortisol levels was moderately low (g=0.41; p=0.025, although moderate heterogeneity was found (I2=55; p=0.063. There were no significant differences between active (g=0.33; p=0.202 and passive (g=0.48; p=0.279 controls, but significant differences were found when comparing standard (g=0.81; p=0.002 and raw (g=0.03; p=0.896 measures. The percentage of women in each study was not related to ES. Nevertheless, age (beta=-0.03; p=0.039, the number of sessions (beta=0.33; p=0.007 and the total hours of the MBI (beta=0.06; p=0.005 were significantly related to ES, explaining heterogeneity (R2=1.00. Conclusions. Despite the scarce number of studies, our results suggest that MBIs might have some beneficial effect on cortisol secretion in healthy adult subjects. However, there is a need for further RCTs implemented in accordance with standard programmes and measurements of salivary cortisol under rigorous strategies in healthy adult populations.
Chiesa, Alberto; Serretti, Alessandro
Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) is a clinically standardized meditation that has shown consistent efficacy for many mental and physical disorders. Less attention has been given to the possible benefits that it may have in healthy subjects. The aim of the present review and meta-analysis is to better investigate current evidence about the efficacy of MBSR in healthy subjects, with a particular focus on its benefits for stress reduction. A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE (PubMed), the ISI Web of Knowledge, the Cochrane database, and the references of retrieved articles. The search included articles written in English published prior to September 2008, and identified ten, mainly low-quality, studies. Cohen's d effect size between meditators and controls on stress reduction and spirituality enhancement values were calculated. MBSR showed a nonspecific effect on stress reduction in comparison to an inactive control, both in reducing stress and in enhancing spirituality values, and a possible specific effect compared to an intervention designed to be structurally equivalent to the meditation program. A direct comparison study between MBSR and standard relaxation training found that both treatments were equally able to reduce stress. Furthermore, MBSR was able to reduce ruminative thinking and trait anxiety, as well as to increase empathy and self-compassion. MBSR is able to reduce stress levels in healthy people. However, important limitations of the included studies as well as the paucity of evidence about possible specific effects of MBSR in comparison to other nonspecific treatments underline the necessity of further research.
This article aims to describe the mind/ body problem from an Eastern philosophy point of view addressing firstly Kyudo, the Japanese martial art of archery; and secondly the Western philosopher Gilles Deleuze. Ethics is, in Western philosophy, what deals with the way we take decisions and act upon them. Decisions and actions consider rationality and intuition but seldom the body’s own rationality and intuition —which Kyudo exercises. We can find in Deleuze’s philosophy important concepts to b...
Sonia S. Anand
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Canadian Alliance for Healthy Hearts and Minds (CAHHM is a pan-Canadian, prospective, multi-ethnic cohort study being conducted in Canada. The overarching objective of the CAHHM is to understand the association of socio-environmental and contextual factors (such as societal structure, activity, nutrition, social and tobacco environments, and access to health services with cardiovascular risk factors, subclinical vascular disease, and cardiovascular and other chronic disease outcomes. Methods/Design Participants between 35 and 69 years of age are being recruited from existing cohorts and a new First Nations Cohort to undergo a detailed assessment of health behaviours (including diet and physical activity, cognitive function, assessment of their local home and workplace environments, and their health services access and utilization. Physical measures including weight, height, waist/hip circumference, body fat percentage, and blood pressure are collected. In addition, eligible participants undergo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the brain, heart, carotid artery and abdomen to detect early subclinical vascular disease and ectopic fat deposition. Discussion CAHHM is a prospective cohort study designed to investigate the impact of community level factors, individual health behaviours, and access to health services, on cognitive function, subclinical vascular disease, fat distribution, and the development of chronic diseases among adults living in Canada.
Riekki, Tapani; Lindeman, Marjaana; Lipsanen, Jari
We examined lay people’s conceptions about the relationship between mind and body and their correlates. In Study 1, a web survey (N = 850) of reflective dualistic, emergentistic, and monistic perceptions of the mind-body relationship, afterlife beliefs (i.e., common sense dualism), religiosity, paranormal beliefs, and ontological confusions about physical, biological, and psychological phenomena was conducted. In Study 2 (N = 73), we examined implicit ontological confusions and their relations to afterlife beliefs, paranormal beliefs, and religiosity. Correlation and regression analyses showed that reflective dualism, afterlife beliefs, paranormal beliefs, and religiosity were strongly and positively related and that reflective dualism and afterlife beliefs mediated the relationship between ontological confusions and religious and paranormal beliefs. The results elucidate the contention that dualism is a manifestation of universal cognitive processes related to intuitions about physical, biological, and psychological phenomena by showing that especially individuals who confuse the distinctive attributes of these phenomena tend to set the mind apart from the body. PMID:25247011
Fonagy, Peter; Target, Mary
The relationship between psychoanalysis and attachment theory is complex indeed. A brief review of the psychoanalytic literature as it concerns attachment theory and research, and of the attachment literature as it pertains to psychoanalytic ideas, demonstrates an increasing interest in attachment theory within psychoanalysis. Some of the difficulties that attachment theory faces in relation to psychoanalytic ideas are traced to its links to the now dated cognitive science of the 1960s and 1970s. Today, however, a second-generation cognitive neuroscience seeks neurobiologically plausible accounts in which links with brain and body are seen as shaping mind and consciousness, which increasingly are seen as "embodied", as emerging from or serving the needs of a physical being located in a specific time, place, and social context. This idea has also been at the core of much psychoanalytic thinking, which has historically affirmed the rootedness of symbolic thought in sensory, emotional, and enacted experience with objects. Now neurobiological advances supporting the concept of embodied cognition offer an opportunity to forge powerful links between the hitherto separate domains of attachment theory and psychoanalysis. Speculations about the nature of language are presented that emphasize the origin of internal working models (and of representations in general) in early sensorimotor and emotional experiences with a caregiver. It is argued that language and symbolic thought may be phylogenetically and ontogenetically embodied, built on a foundation of gestures and actions, and are thus profoundly influenced by the experience of early physical interaction with the primary object. Finally, the clinical and research implications of these ideas are discussed.
Raff, M.; Tholstrup, T.; Toubro, S.
-ray absorptiometry, changes in serum insulin and glucose concentrations, and adipose tissue (AT) gene expression in humans. In a double-blind, parallel, 16-wk intervention, we randomized 81 healthy postmenopausal women to 1) 5.5 g/d of 40/40% of cis9, trans11-CLA (c9, t11-CLA) and trans10, cis12-CLA (t10, c12-CLA...... in the control group (P women and greater serum insulin concentrations in the highest waist circumference tertile. Future research is needed to confirm the insulin desensitizing...
Knudsen, Nikoline Nygård; Kjærulff, Thora Majlund; Ward, Leigh Cordwin
Early alterations in the cardiovascular structure and function may change normal body water distribution. The resulting fluid shifts may thus serve as an early marker for cardiovascular disease. However, studies examining this in healthy populations are absent.......Early alterations in the cardiovascular structure and function may change normal body water distribution. The resulting fluid shifts may thus serve as an early marker for cardiovascular disease. However, studies examining this in healthy populations are absent....
Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Tinggaard, Jeanette; Winther, K.
to 14 years) and DXA %BF (8-14 years). Age- and sex-specific Z-scores for body mass index (BMI), WC and SF %BF were compared. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for agreement of WC, SF %BF and BMI with DXA %BF to identify obese children (>+1 s.d.). RESULTS: %BF differed with age, sex, pubertal...
Kreuzer Peter M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Tinnitus, the perception of sound in absence of an external acoustic source, impairs the quality of life in 2% of the population. Since in most cases causal treatment is not possible, the majority of therapeutic attempts aim at developing and strengthening individual coping and habituation strategies. Therapeutic interventions that incorporate training in mindfulness meditation have become increasingly popular in the treatment of stress-related disorders. Here we conducted a randomized, controlled clinical study to investigate the efficacy of a specific mindfulness- and body-psychotherapy based program in patients suffering from chronic tinnitus. Methods Thirty-six patients were enrolled in this pilot study. The treatment was specifically developed for tinnitus patients and is based on mindfulness and body psychotherapy. Treatment was performed as group therapy at two training weekends that were separated by an interval of 7 weeks (eleven hours/weekend and in four further two-hour sessions (week 2, 9, 18 and 22. Patients were randomized to receive treatment either immediately or after waiting time, which served as a control condition. The primary study outcome was the change in tinnitus complaints as measured by the German Version of the Tinnitus Questionnaire (TQ. Results ANOVA testing for the primary outcome showed a significant interaction effect time by group (F = 7.4; df = 1,33; p = 0.010. Post hoc t-tests indicated an amelioration of TQ scores from baseline to week 9 in both groups (intervention group: t = 6.2; df = 17; p Conclusions Our results suggest that this mindfulness- and body-psychotherapy-based approach is feasible in the treatment of tinnitus and merits further evaluation in clinical studies with larger sample sizes. The study is registered with clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01540357.
Douw, L.; Nieboer, D.; van Dijk, B.W.; Stam, C.J.; Twisk, J.W.R.
A healthy lifestyle is an important focus in today's society. The physical benefits of regular exercise are abundantly clear, but physical fitness is also associated with better cognitive performance. How these two factors together relate to characteristics of the brain is still incompletely
Bremner, Marie; Blake, Barbara; Stiles, Cheryl
include Qigong, reiki, therapeutic touch, healing touch and electromagnetic therapy.The NCCAM, the Alternative Medicine's Strategic Plan for 2011-2015 and the Healthy People 2020 envision a society in which all people have the opportunity to live long, healthy lives. In most countries, life expectancy has increased, but unfortunately, the incidence of chronic illnesses such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, hypertension, diabetes and depression continues to increase. Research findings indicate that the use of CAM is often greater among people living with a chronic or life threatening illness compared with the general population,Until the development of highly active antiretroviral medications (ARVs) in 1996, a diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was considered to be a death sentence. The human immunodeficiency virus attacks the immune system and weakens a person's ability to combat infections and some types of cancer. Currently, there is no cure for HIV but because of lifesaving medications, the mortality rate has declined significantly. The disease is now considered a chronic illness and highly manageable. Effective treatment has resulted in approximately 35 million people worldwide still living with HIV at the end of 2012.Because HIV is no longer a death sentence but a chronic illness, there is a need to evaluate the experiences and perceptions of people using CAM, considering the prevalence of CAM use within this population. In the United States and Canada, the rate of CAM use among HIV positive persons is approximately 50% to 70%, whereas in Africa, rates of CAM use range from 36% to 68%. Popular forms of CAM among persons living with HIV include herbal or nutritional supplements, mind and body practices, and spiritual or religious healing. Worldwide, only a small percentage of persons who have access to ARVs refuse to take them and utilize CAM exclusively to treat their HIV infection.People living with HIV often report using CAM because they believe that
Mark D. Kelland
Full Text Available Physical disabilities lead to difficult challenges for many people. The teachings of Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha (“Awakened One”, including the practice of mindfulness, have been described by some as a form of cognitive psychology. Mindfulness is a means of restraining our minds and reactions so that we might be relieved of suffering. The successful cultivation of mindfulness often begins with developing a healthy body, so that we might be able to meditate for significant periods of time as we cultivate mindfulness. Spiritually-minded martial arts training can provide numerous benefits for everyone, including individuals with disabilities who may seek formal and informal programs with such emphasis.
Rentala, Sreevani; Fong, Ted C T; Nattala, Prasanthi; Chan, Cecilia L W; Konduru, Reddemma
The aim of the study was to examine the efficacy of body-mind-spirit Intervention in improving the outcomes (well-being, quality of life and functional impairment) among depressive patients. Depressive disorders lead to significant dysfunction, disability and poor quality of life among sufferers. Body-mind-spirit intervention has been associated with improvements in the outcomes; however, few studies have examined this among depressive patients. True experimental pre-post equivalent groups design was adopted with longitudinal measurement of outcomes. Participants were 120 adult depressive patients visiting the psychiatric outpatient department in a District Hospital in India. The participants were randomly assigned to either the body-mind-spirit group or the treatment-as-usual group between July 2011-January 2013. The treatment-as-usual group (n = 64) received only routine treatment (antidepressants and structured psycho-education) in the hospital. The body-mind-spirit group (n = 56) received four weekly body-mind-spirit group sessions in addition to the routine treatment. Outcome measures on depression, well-being, functional impairment and quality of life were evaluated for both groups at baseline and at four follow-up assessments in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 6th month. Treatment effects of the body-mind-spirit intervention were analysed by repeated-measures analysis of covariance. Compared with the treatment-as-usual group, the body-mind-spirit group showed significant reduction in depression and functional impairment, and significant improvement in the well-being and quality of life scores over the 6-month study period. The present findings provided evidence for the effectiveness of integrating a complementary therapy such as the body-mind-spirit intervention with conventional treatment in improving prospective outcomes among the depressive patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Brian W. MacLaughlin
Full Text Available Georgetown University School of Medicine offers an elective Mind-Body Medicine Skills (MBMS course to medical students to promote self-care and self-awareness. Participating medical students reported better management of academic stress and well-being than non-participants. In this study, we sought to assess the stress-reducing effects of MBMS by measuring physiological changes in first-year medical students. Saliva samples were collected before (January, time 1 (T1-pre-intervention and upon completion of the course (May, time 2 (T2p-post-intervention, as well as from non-participating medical students (May, time 2 (T2c-control. The T2p and T2c collections coincided with the period of final examinations. Cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S, testosterone and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA were measured. The mean morning salivary cortisol at T2p was 97% of the mean at baseline T1 which was significantly lower than for T2c (2.4 (95% confidence interval (CI 0.57–1.60, P = .001; DHEA-S showed similar pattern as cortisol where the T2p levels were significantly lower than T2c (P < .001 in both morning and evening collections. Testosterone ratio at T2p (0.85 was also lower than T2c (1.6 (95% CI 0.53–1.3, P = .01. sIgA levels were not statistically different. On direct comparison, the T2c and T2p means were significantly different for all cortisol, DHEA-S and testosterone values. Participants maintained their hormonal balance within the normal range throughout the academic semester while the control group showed significantly increased levels, probably exacerbated by the end of the semester exam stress. To our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the physiologic benefits of a MBMS program in medical students.
Jallo, Nancy; Bourguignon, Cheryl; Taylor, Ann Gill; Utz, Sharon W
The objective of this 12-week study was to determine whether a relaxation-guided imagery (R-GI) intervention designed as a primary prevention strategy for stress management was perceived as beneficial to African American women during the second trimester of pregnancy. All participants documented perceived benefits of the R-GI intervention that included the following: (1) improved breathing; (2) ability to relax, clear one's mind, and become calm; (3) ability to channel and decrease stress; (4) release of anxiety; (5) use of R-GI throughout the day helped control anger and state of mind, leading to a smoother day; and (6) improved ability to fall and stay asleep.
Lipschitz, David L; Kuhn, Renee; Kinney, Anita Y; Grewen, Karen; Donaldson, Gary W; Nakamura, Yoshio
Cancer survivors experience high levels of distress, associated with a host of negative psychological states, including anxiety, depression, and fear of recurrence, which often lead to sleep problems and reduction in quality of life (QOL) and well-being. As a neuropeptide hormone associated with affiliation, calmness, and well-being, oxytocin may be a useful biological measure of changes in health outcomes in cancer survivors. In this exploratory study, which comprised a subset of participants from a larger study, we evaluated (a) the feasibility and reliability of salivary oxytocin (sOT) levels in cancer survivors and (b) the effects of 2 sleep-focused mind-body interventions, mind-body bridging (MBB) and mindfulness meditation (MM), compared with a sleep hygiene education (SHE) control, on changes in sOT levels in 30 cancer survivors with self-reported sleep disturbance. Interventions were conducted in 3 sessions, once per week for 3 weeks. Saliva samples were collected at baseline, postintervention (~1 week after the last session), and at the 2-month follow-up. In this cancer survivor group, we found that intra-individual sOT levels were fairly stable across the 3 time points, of about 3 months' duration, and mean baseline sOT levels did not differ between females and males and were not correlated with age. Correlations between baseline sOT and self-report measures were weak; however, several of these relationships were in the predicted direction, in which sOT levels were negatively associated with sleep problems and depression and positively associated with cancer-related QOL and well-being. Regarding intervention effects on sOT, baseline-subtracted sOT levels were significantly larger at postintervention in the MBB group as compared with those in SHE. In this sample of cancer survivors assessed for sOT, at postintervention, greater reductions in sleep problems were noted for MBB and MM compared with that of SHE, and increases in mindfulness and self
Clarion, A; Ribbe, E; Rebeyrol, J; Moreno, M-V; Rousseaux-Rousseaux-Blanchi, M-P; Dechavanne, C
Body composition is a useful means for athletes' body composition assessment, relying on reference population data. This study aims at comparing body composition multifrequency impedance data of athletes and healthy adult populations. Differences were found in tissular, hydration and metabolic indices. They were significant, in the expected direction, but quite weak and additional data from reference technologies would set if specific equations are needed. The current ones are nevertheless suitable for reliable follow-up studies.
Increasingly, connections are being made between neuroscience and education. At their interface is the attempt to "bridge the gap between conscious minds and living brains." All too often, the two sides pursue a reductionist strategy of excluding the other. A middle way, promoted by Sankey in the context of values education, is…
In this paper, I trace the basis of this dichotomy to a dualist conception of mind and world. I argue for the rejection of the form/content dichotomy on the ground that its dualist presuppositions generate a reductionist analysis of certain concepts which are central to the analysis of petitio argument. I contend, for example, that no ...
Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of present research was to investigate the effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy on clinical syndrome and body image in women with bulimia nervosa disorder. Materials and Methods: This is a quasi-experimental study with pre-test, post-test, and control group. The study population consisted of all women who referred to two nutrition and diet therapy clinics in Mashhad between February and May 2015, among which 30 women with inclusion and exclusion criteria were selected as the sample using convenience sampling. The 30 participants were randomly assigned to two 15-person groups. The first group received mindfulness-based cognitive therapy and the second group was the control group that was placed on a waiting list. Binge Eating questionnaire (Gormally, 1982, Fisher’s image inventory and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21 were used to collect data. Data analysis was conducted using analysis of covariance in SPSS. Results: Based on the test results, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy significantly reduced depression (P
Rogers, P J
Certain dietary risk factors for physical ill health are also risk factors for depression and cognitive impairment. Although cholesterol lowering has been suggested to increase vulnerability to depression, there is better support for an alternative hypothesis that intake of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids can affect mood (and aggression). Possible mechanisms for such effects include modification of neuronal cell membrane fluidity and consequent impact on neurotransmitter function. Stronger evidence exists concerning a role for diet in influencing cognitive impairment and cognitive decline in older age, in particular through its impact on vascular disease. For example, cognitive impairment is associated with atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes and hypertension, and findings from a broad range of studies show significant relationships between cognitive function and intakes of various nutrients, including long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, antioxidant vitamins, and folate and vitamin B12. Further support is provided by data on nutrient status and cognitive function. Almost all this evidence, however, comes from epidemiological and correlational studies. Given the problem of separating cause and effect from such evidence, and the fact that cognitive impairment and cognitive decline (and depression) are very likely to be significant factors contributing to the consumption of a poor diet, greater emphasis should now be placed on conducting intervention studies. An efficient approach to this problem could be to include assessments of mood and cognitive function as outcome measures in studies designed primarily to investigate the impact of dietary interventions on markers of physical health.
Using the example of 'sperm tales', borne out of the biomedical technologies that went hand in hand with the establishment of the 'science of man' (andrology), the article engages with the epistemic evolution of interrelated biomedical theories and concepts of what constitutes a 'healthy' reproductive male body. The article asks: how has the normative ideal male body been either perpetuated or interrogated through these tales of male reproduction at the interface between scientific and medical technologies? And how were changes to the normalization of male bodies central to clinical practices and cultural understandings of health and illness? With many aspects of the medical history of male reproduction in the 20th century still unexplored, this article will focus on the growing intervention of biomedicine to 'treat' male infertility by way of the classification, standardization and normalization of male corporeality, focusing in particular on the representation and construction of men and the male body, as reflected in medical science and practice from the second half of the 20th century onwards in Germany. The article analyses the rise in importance of sperm in biomedical investigation, including a consideration of the construction of infertility as the defining force behind concepts of 'healthy men', and examines the related conceptualization of male reproductive bodies at the crossroad between 'healthy' and 'normal'. It is argued that the ideal of male reproduction as being inherently healthy has lost ground. By the late 20th century, male bodies have become vulnerable, at least as represented in medical science and technology.
Moreira, Helena; Canavarro, Maria Cristina
This study aimed to examine (a) whether mindfulness skills were associated with higher quality of life through lower body shame for treatment-seeking children/adolescents with overweight and obesity and (b) whether this indirect effect was moderated by children/adolescents' age and gender. The sample included 153 children/adolescents with overweight/obesity followed in individual nutrition consultations. Participants completed self-report measures of mindfulness, body shame, and quality of life. Moderated mediation analyses showed that higher levels of mindfulness were associated with better perceived quality of life through lower body shame, but only among girls. For boys, higher levels of body shame did not translate into a poorer perception of quality of life, and the indirect effect of mindfulness on quality of life via lower body shame was not significant. These results suggest that body shame is an important mechanism to explain why mindfulness may help girls with overweight/obesity perceive a better quality of life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Foreign language education in the twenty-first century still teaches vocabulary mainly through reading and listening activities. This is due to the link between teaching practice and traditional philosophy of language, where language is considered to be an abstract phenomenon of the mind. However, a number of studies have shown that accompanying words or phrases of a foreign language with gestures leads to better memory results. In this paper, I review behavioral research on the positive effects of gestures on memory. Then I move to the factors that have been addressed as contributing to the effect, and I embed the reviewed evidence in the theoretical framework of embodiment. Finally, I argue that gestures accompanying foreign language vocabulary learning create embodied representations of those words. I conclude by advocating the use of gestures in future language education as a learning tool that enhances the mind.
Wang, Weidong; Wang, Fang; Fan, Feng; Sedas, Ana Cristina; Wang, Jian
The aim of this study is to identify and assess evidence related to the efficacy of mind-body interventions on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in the Chinese population. Drawn from Chinese databases, nine RCTs and three Q-E studies were included in the systematic review. The methodological quality of RCTs was evaluated based on the following criteria: adequate sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding, completeness of outcome data, selective reporting, and other potential biases. For continuous variables, the effect size (ES) was determined by calculating the standardized mean difference between groups. For dichotomous variables, the ES was determined by calculating the risk ratio (RR) between groups. Given the heterogeneity between the trials and the small number of studies included, both random effects and fixed effects models were used. The inverse variance method was used for pooling. Statistical analyses were performed using Review Manager version 5.0. The total number of papers identified was 710: 462 from English language databases and 248 from Chinese language databases. Twelve studies met our eligibility criteria. Among the studies selected, three were Q-E studies the rest RCTs. Two studies described the randomization process. None of the studies reported allocation concealment nor blinding. Seven studies reported no dropouts. One of the studies mentioned the total amount of dropouts; though the reason for dropping out was not referenced. The other four studies did not clearly report dropouts. With the exception of three studies, there was inadequate information to determine biased reporting for the majority; the level of risk for bias in these studies is unclear. Finally, six meta-analyses were performed. One was conducted with four randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that used cure rate as outcome measures to evaluate gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, which suggested that mind-body interventions were effective in improving GI symptoms (random
Alberts, H J E M; Thewissen, R; Raes, L
This study explored the efficacy of a mindfulness-based intervention for problematic eating behavior. A non-clinical sample of 26 women with disordered eating behavior was randomly assigned to an 8-week MBCT-based eating intervention or a waiting list control group. Data were collected at baseline and after 8 weeks. Compared to controls, participants in the mindfulness intervention showed significantly greater decreases in food cravings, dichotomous thinking, body image concern, emotional eating and external eating. These findings suggest that mindfulness practice can be an effective way to reduce factors that are associated with problematic eating behaviour. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Agnes S. Chan
Full Text Available The present study evaluated the effectiveness of a short-term mind-body intervention program on improving the depressive mood of an adult community sample. Forty adult volunteers with various degrees of depressive mood were randomly assigned to the experimental group (Dejian Mind-Body Intervention, DMBI and control group (Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, CBT. For each group, a total of four 90-min weekly sessions were conducted. Treatment-related changes were measured using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II, an electroencephalographic indicator of positive affect (i.e., prefrontal activation asymmetry, and self-report ratings on physical health. Results indicated that both the DMBI and the CBT group demonstrated significant reduction in depressive mood. However, among individuals with moderate to severe depressive mood at baseline, only those in the DMBI but not the CBT group showed significant reduction in depressive mood. Besides, only the DMBI group demonstrated a significant increase in prefrontal activation asymmetry, suggesting increase in positive affect. While most psychological therapies for depressive mood normally take several months to show treatment effect, the present findings provided initial data suggesting that the DMBI was effective in improving depressive mood of community adults after 1 month of training.
Imes, Suzanne A; Clance, Pauline Rose; Gailis, Andra T; Atkeson, Ellen
In the literature on chronic or life-threatening illness, there is an overriding emphasis on clients' psychological coping styles and how they relate to psychological functioning. By contrast, in our approach, we look at the subjective mind/body experiences that clients have of their illness and how their lives are impacted by their illness. As psychotherapists, we address their existential distress, pain, body experience, thoughts, and feelings, as well as their efforts to cope or find meaning in their illness. We summarize Gestalt/Existential therapy for chronic illness, illustrate the approach with three case-vignettes, and stress the importance of attending to each client's unique responses to illness. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Monshat, Kaveh; Khong, Belinda; Hassed, Craig; Vella-Brodrick, Dianne; Norrish, Jacolyn; Burns, Jane; Herrman, Helen
Although quantitative benefits of mindfulness training have been demonstrated in youth, little is known about the processes involved. The aim of this study was to gain a detailed understanding of how young people engage with the ideas and practices known as mindfulness using qualitative enquiry. Following completion of a six-week mindfulness training program with a nonclinical group of 11 young people (age 16-24), a focus group (N = 7) and open-ended interviews (n = 5) were held and audio-recorded. Qualitative data, collected at eight time points over three months from the commencement of training, were coded with the aid of computer software. Grounded theory methodology informed the data collection process and generation of themes and an explanatory model that captured participants' experiences. Participants described their daily lives as beset by frequent experiences of distress sometimes worsened by their unhelpful or destructive reactions. With mindfulness practice, they initially reported greater calm, balance, and control. Subsequently they commented on a clearer understanding of themselves and others. Mindfulness was then described as a "mindset" associated with greater confidence and competence and a lessened risk of future distress. Participants demonstrated a sophisticated understanding of and engagement with mindfulness principles and practice. Their reported experience aligned well with qualitative research findings in adults and theoretical literature on mindfulness. An encouraging finding was that, with ongoing mindfulness practice and within a relatively short time, participants were able to move beyond improved emotion regulation and gain greater confidence in their ability to manage life challenges. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cornelissen, Katri K; McCarty, Kristofor; Cornelissen, Piers L; Tovée, Martin J
A core feature of anorexia nervosa is an over-estimation of body size. However, quantifying this over-estimation has been problematic as existing methodologies introduce a series of artefacts and inaccuracies in the stimuli used for judgements of body size. To overcome these problems, we have: (i) taken 3D scans of 15 women who have symptoms of anorexia (referred to henceforth as anorexia spectrum disorders, ANSD) and 15 healthy control women, (ii) used a 3D modelling package to build avatars from the scans, (iii) manipulated the body shapes of these avatars to reflect biometrically accurate, continuous changes in body mass index (BMI), (iv) used these personalized avatars as stimuli to allow the women to estimate their body size. The results show that women who are currently receiving treatment for ANSD show an over-estimation of body size which rapidly increases as their own BMI increases. By contrast, the women acting as healthy controls can accurately estimate their body size irrespective of their own BMI. This study demonstrates the viability of combining 3D scanning and CGI techniques to create personalised realistic avatars of individual patients to directly assess their body image perception.
The effects of computer-based mindfulness training on Self-control and Mindfulness within Ambulatorily assessed network Systems across Health-related domains in a healthy student population (SMASH): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
Rowland, Zarah; Wenzel, Mario; Kubiak, Thomas
Self-control is an important ability in everyday life, showing associations with health-related outcomes. The aim of the Self-control and Mindfulness within Ambulatorily assessed network Systems across Health-related domains (SMASH) study is twofold: first, the effectiveness of a computer-based mindfulness training will be evaluated in a randomized controlled trial. Second, the SMASH study implements a novel network approach in order to investigate complex temporal interdependencies of self-control networks across several domains. The SMASH study is a two-armed, 6-week, non-blinded randomized controlled trial that combines seven weekly laboratory meetings and 40 days of electronic diary assessments with six prompts per day in a healthy undergraduate student population at the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Germany. Participants will be randomly assigned to (1) receive a computer-based mindfulness intervention or (2) to a wait-list control condition. Primary outcomes are self-reported momentary mindfulness and self-control assessed via electronic diaries. Secondary outcomes are habitual mindfulness and habitual self-control. Further measures include self-reported behaviors in specific self-control domains: emotion regulation, alcohol consumption and eating behaviors. The effects of mindfulness training on primary and secondary outcomes are explored using three-level mixed models. Furthermore, networks will be computed with vector autoregressive mixed models to investigate the dynamics at participant and group level. This study was approved by the local ethics committee (reference code 2015_JGU_psychEK_011) and follows the standards laid down in the Declaration of Helsinki (2013). This randomized controlled trial combines an intensive Ambulatory Assessment of 40 consecutive days and seven laboratory meetings. By implementing a novel network approach, underlying processes of self-control within different health domains will be identified. These results will
also need to tie the computer system closer to the conscious and unconscious parts of our minds. In this thesis, I propose a conceptual model for integrating wearable systems into the human perception-cognition-action loop. I empirically investigate the utility of the proposed model for design...... and evaluation of a Wearable Personal Assistant (WPA) for clinicians on the Google Glass platform. The results of my field study in a Copenhagen hospital simulation facility revealed several challenges for WPA users such as unwanted interruptions, social and perceptual problems of parallel interaction...
Sorene, E D; Heras-Palou, C; Burke, F D
A case report is presented of self-amputation of a healthy hand. We have reviewed the literature and seek to broaden the scope of understanding of Body Integrity Identity Disorder. This rare condition can constitute a pitfall for the unsuspecting hand surgeon.
den Heijer, Anne E.; Groen, Yvonne; Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.; van der Zee, Eddy A.; Tucha, Lara; Tucha, Oliver
Objectives Whole Body Vibration (WBV) is a passive exercise method known to have beneficial effects on various physical measures. Studies on adults furthermore demonstrated beneficial effects of WBV treatment on cognition (e.g. inhibition). The present study replicated these findings in healthy
Stel, M.; van Koningsbruggen, G.M.
People's eating behaviors tend to be influenced by the behaviors of others. In the present studies, we investigated the effect of another person's eating behavior and body weight appearance on healthy food consumption of young women. In Study 1, participants watched a short film fragment together
Poggenborg, René Panduro; Pedersen, Susanne Juhl; Eshed, Iris
OBJECTIVES: By whole-body MRI (WBMRI), we aimed to examine the frequency and distribution of inflammatory and structural lesions in PsA patients, SpA patients and healthy subjects (HSs), to introduce global WBMRI inflammation/damage scores, and to assess WBMRI's reproducibility and correlation wi...
Galla, Brian M
Meditation training programs for adolescents are predicated on the assumptions that mindfulness and self-compassion can be directly cultivated, and further, that doing so is beneficial for emotional well-being. Yet, very little research with adolescents has tested these assumptions directly. In the current study, I examined longitudinal relationships between changes in mindfulness and self-compassion and changes in emotional well-being among healthy, but stressed adolescents who participated in five-day, intensive meditation retreats. Immediately before and after the retreats, and then three months later, 132 adolescents (Mage = 16.76 years, 61% female) completed questionnaires measuring mindfulness, self-compassion, and emotional well-being. Repeated measures ANOVA showed adolescents improved in mindfulness, self-compassion, and all indices of emotional well-being immediately following the retreat (Cohen's d = |0.39-1.19|), and many of these improvements were maintained three months later (Cohen's d = |0.04-0.68|). Further, multilevel growth curve analyses with time-varying covariates indicated within-person changes in self-compassion predicted enhanced emotional well-being more consistently than within-person changes in mindfulness. Specifically, increases in self-compassion predicted reductions in perceived stress, rumination, depressive symptoms, and negative affect, and conversely, increases in positive affect and life satisfaction (pseudo-R(2) variance explained = 5.9% and 15.8%, ps < 0.01). Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Alert, Marissa D; Rastegar, Sarah; Foret, Megan; Slipp, Lauren; Jacquart, Jolene; Macklin, Eric; Baim, Margaret; Fricchione, Gregory; Benson, Herbert; Denninger, John; Yeung, Albert
This pilot study evaluated the effectiveness of a comprehensive mind body intervention for weight loss in overweight and obesity and the maintenance of weight loss at 6-month follow-up. Thirty-one overweight and obese employees (Body Mass Index (BMI) 28.6-47.9 kg/m²) from a large corporation participated in a 20-week comprehensive mind body intervention targeting weight loss. Weight, BMI, waist and hip circumference, rate pressure product (RPP), blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and psychological variables were collected at baseline, post-intervention, and 6-month follow-up. Using linear mixed model analyses, the intervention resulted in significant mean weight loss (-4.3 kg, 95% CI -5.8 to -2.8), decreases in BMI (-1.51, 95% CI -2.1 to -1.0), hip circumference measurement (-4.3 cm, 95% CI -6.9 to -1.5), and triglyceride levels (95% CI -33.1 to -4.8). In 6-month follow-up after intervention, statistically significant improvements in weight, BMI and waist measurement were sustained. Participants also showed positive changes in self-reported psychological indices: food-related disinhibition, and hunger both decreased significantly (pself-efficacy increased (pself-esteem increased (peffects on physical, laboratory, and psychological outcomes, both immediately following treatment and at 6-month follow-up, in overweight and obese individuals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gaskill, Deanne, Ed.; Sanders, Fran, Ed.
The purpose of this publication is to provide discussion of some of the most difficult and controversial issues surrounding body image and eating disorders, specifically, anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. It includes contributions from a number of nationally and internationally recognized clinicians and researchers in the field. It also…
Sim, Soo Young; Joo, Kwang Min; Kim, Han Byul; Jang, Seungjin; Kim, Beomoh; Hong, Seungbum; Kim, Sungwan; Park, Kwang Suk
Core body temperature is a reliable marker for circadian rhythm. As characteristics of the circadian body temperature rhythm change during diverse health problems, such as sleep disorder and depression, body temperature monitoring is often used in clinical diagnosis and treatment. However, the use of current thermometers in circadian rhythm monitoring is impractical in daily life. As heart rate is a physiological signal relevant to thermoregulation, we investigated the feasibility of heart rate monitoring in estimating circadian body temperature rhythm. Various heart rate parameters and core body temperature were simultaneously acquired in 21 healthy, ambulatory subjects during their routine life. The performance of regression analysis and the extended Kalman filter on daily body temperature and circadian indicator (mesor, amplitude, and acrophase) estimation were evaluated. For daily body temperature estimation, mean R-R interval (RRI), mean heart rate (MHR), or normalized MHR provided a mean root mean square error of approximately 0.40 °C in both techniques. The mesor estimation regression analysis showed better performance than the extended Kalman filter. However, the extended Kalman filter, combined with RRI or MHR, provided better accuracy in terms of amplitude and acrophase estimation. We suggest that this noninvasive and convenient method for estimating the circadian body temperature rhythm could reduce discomfort during body temperature monitoring in daily life. This, in turn, could facilitate more clinical studies based on circadian body temperature rhythm.
Genton, Laurence; Karsegard, Véronique L; Chevalley, Thierry; Kossovsky, Michel P; Darmon, Patrice; Pichard, Claude
Age-related changes of body composition affect health status. This study aims at clarifying body composition changes in healthy elderly subjects, and evaluating the impact of physical activity on these changes. In 1999, 213 subjects ≥ 65 years recruited through advertisements underwent assessment of health state, energy expenditure by physical activity, body composition by bioimpedance analysis and body cell mass by total body potassium. In 2008, 112 of them repeated these assessments with additional determination of Barthel index, Mini Mental State Examination and Geriatric Depression Score. Lean tissues decreased in both genders (p physical activity limited lean tissue loss in men but not in women. Loss of lean tissues occurs exponentially with aging. Further research should confirm these changes in subjects over 80 years. Increasing physical activity limits fat-free mass loss in men but not women. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.
Price, Cynthia J; McBride, Brittney; Hyerle, Lynne; Kivlahan, Daniel R
Preliminary studies of body therapy for women in trauma recovery suggest positive results but are not specific to women with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and chronic pain. To examine the feasibility and acceptability of body-oriented therapy for female veterans with PTSD and chronic pain taking prescription analgesics. A 2-group, randomized, repeated-measures design was employed. Female veterans (N=14) were recruited from a Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare system in the Northwest United States (VA Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, Washington). Participants were assigned to either treatment as usual (TAU) or treatment as usual and 8 weekly individual body-oriented therapy sessions (mindful awareness in body-oriented therapy group). Written questionnaires and interviews were used to assess intervention acceptability; reliable and valid measures were administered at 3 time points to evaluate measurement acceptability and performance; and within-treatment process measures and a participant post-intervention questionnaire assessed treatment fidelity. A body-oriented therapy protocol, "Mindful Awareness in Body-oriented Therapy" (MABT) was used. This is a mind-body approach that incorporates massage, mindfulness, and the emotional processing of psychotherapy. Over 10 weeks of recruitment, 31 women expressed interest in study participation. The primary reason for exclusion was the lack of prescription analgesic use for chronic pain. Study participants adhered to study procedures, and 100% attended at least 7 of 8 sessions; all completed in-person post-treatment assessment. Written questionnaires about intervention experience suggest increased tools for pain relief/relaxation, increased body/mind connection, and increased trust/safety. Ten of 14 responded to mailed 3-month follow-up. The response-to-process measures indicated the feasibility of implementing the manualized protocol and point to the need for longer sessions and a longer intervention period
also need to tie the computer system closer to the conscious and unconscious parts of our minds. In this thesis, I propose a conceptual model for integrating wearable systems into the human perception-cognition-action loop. I empirically investigate the utility of the proposed model for design......Tight integration between humans and computers has long been a vision in wearable computing (“man-machine symbiosis”, “cyborg”), motivated by the potential augmented capabilities in thinking, perceiving, and acting such integration could potentially bring. However, even recent wearable computers (e......; explicit human-computer dialogue) to what is in fact a completely new context of use in which computer users interact with the device(s) on the move and in parallel with real-world tasks. This gives rise to several physical, perceptual, and cognitive challenges due to the limitations of human attentional...
Rosenbaum, Bent; Varvin, Sverre
Extreme traumatization affects the individual's relation to others in several social and psychological ways. The post-traumatic experiences are characterized by helplessness, insecurity, anxiety, loss of basic trust, and fragmentation of perspectives on one's own life. Special considerations should...... be given to the destruction of the ability to regulate negative emotions (extreme fear, distress, anguish, anger, rage, shame) in relation to others and activate internal good and empathic object relations. Destruction of the capacity for symbolization of traumatic experience may threaten the mind......, the subject-group dimension, and the subject-discourse dimension. All three dimensions have specific structural characteristics that are expressed in the analytic relation. Extreme trauma causes disturbances in each of these dimensions. The authors present clinical material from a traumatized refugee...
... teeth thoroughly twice a day. Clean between your teeth with floss or another type of interdental cleaner once a day. Your dentist may recommend using an antimicrobial mouthrinse as part of your daily oral hygiene routine. Choose dental products with the American Dental Association’s Seal of ...
Sherer, Michael J.; Zakaria, Idlan
This paper evaluates the factors affecting the representation of females on governing bodies of UK universities. Applying resource dependence and stakeholder theory, the paper argues that it is in the interests of the organisation that there should be an equitable gender balance on the governing bodies of universities. Using data from university…
Pamment, J; Aspell, J E
Chronic pain is a growing societal concern that warrants scientific investigation, especially given the ineffectiveness of many treatments. Given evidence that pain experience relies on multisensory integration, there is interest in using body ownership illusions for reducing acute pain. In the present study, we investigate whether patients' experience of chronic pain could be reduced by full body illusions (FBIs) that cause participants to dissociate from their own body. Participants with chronic pain (including sciatica, osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia, muscular pain, IBS and back pain) viewed their own 'virtual' bodies via a video camera and head-mounted display for two minutes. In the 'back-stroking FBI', their backs were stroked with a stick while they viewed synchronous or asynchronous stroking on the virtual body and in the 'front-stroking FBI', they were stroked near their collarbone while viewing the stick approach their field of view in a synchronous or asynchronous fashion. Illusion strength and pain intensity were measured with self-report questionnaires. We found that full body illusions were experienced by patients with chronic pain and further, that pain intensity was reduced by an average of 37% after illusion (synchronous) conditions. These findings add support to theories that high-level multisensory body representations can interact with homeostatic regulation and pain perception. Pain intensity in chronic pain patients was reduced by 37% by 'out of body' illusions. These data demonstrate the potential of such illusions for the management of chronic pain. © 2016 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.
Chen, Wei; Jiang, Hua; Yang, Jiong-Xian; Yang, Hao; Liu, Jing-Min; Zhen, Xiu-Yuan; Feng, Lian-Jun; Yu, Jian-Chun
To develop a new bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) model for analyzing body composition by using isotope dilution, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) as the reference methods in young healthy Chinese populations. Thirty healthy participants were enrolled. Their body composition was analyzed using BIA and 3 reference methods. We established a model that uniformed data from 3 references methods (isotope, MRI, and DEXA) into 1 formula. This model was further validated with 209 participants. The following BIA body composition adjustment model was developed: [Formula: see text], where X represents the impedance index; when K = 1, 2, and 3, Y represents total body water, fat mass, and bone mass, respectively. The prediction accuracy of this formula was 93.3%. By incorporating the data matrix, the protein mass was calculated using BIA: [Formula: see text]. In the verification part of this study, the lean body mass measured using DEXA and BIA was 43.02 ± 8.34 kg and 45.85 ± 8.81 kg, respectively. Analysis indicated that the model fit was extremely favorable ( R 2 = .9997, P < .001). The accuracy of BIA measurement on body composition and protein mass is significantly improved by our work.
Maria da Graça de Castro
Full Text Available Este artigo enfoca a evolução dos conceitos de saúde/doença, bem como a dicotomia mente/corpo através de uma breve revisão histórica. Aborda desde o conceito mágico de doença, passando pelo período grego clássico, pela visão medieval e renascentista e a evolução destes construtos com raízes na psicanálise até a psiconeuroimunologia.This article focuses the evolution on the concepts of health/illness and mind/body dichotomy. For this a brief historical review was carried out. It approaches the magic point of view of disease, going by the classic Greek period, through the renascence and medieval prospects, and the evolution of these constructs from psychoanalysis to Psychoneuroimunology.
Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Asano, Michiko; Asano, Kohei; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nouchi, Rui; Wu, Kai; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Kawashima, Ryuta
A significant positive correlation between height and intelligence has been demonstrated in children. Additionally, intelligence has been associated with the volume of gray matter in the brains of children. Based on these correlations, we analyzed the correlation among height, full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) and gray matter volume applying voxel-based morphometry using data from the brain magnetic resonance images of 160 healthy children aged 5-18 years of age. As a result, body height was significantly positively correlated with brain gray matter volume. Additionally, the regional gray matter volume of several regions such as the bilateral prefrontal cortices, temporoparietal region, and cerebellum was significantly positively correlated with body height and that the gray matter volume of several of these regions was also significantly positively correlated with full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) scores after adjusting for age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Our results demonstrate that gray and white matter volume may mediate the correlation between body height and intelligence in healthy children. Additionally, the correlations among gray and white matter volume, height, and intelligence may be at least partially explained by the effect of insulin-like growth factor-1 and growth hormones. Given the importance of the effect of environmental factors, especially nutrition, on height, IQ, and gray matter volume, the present results stress the importance of nutrition during childhood for the healthy maturation of body and brain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Agnes S Chan
Full Text Available Self-control problems commonly manifest as temper outbursts and repetitive/rigid/impulsive behaviors, in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD, which often contributes to learning difficulties and caregiver burden. The present study aims to compare the effect of a traditional Chinese Chan-based mind-body exercise, Nei Yang Gong, with that of the conventional Progressive Muscle Relaxation (PMR technique in enhancing the self-control of children with ASD. Forty-six age- and IQ-matched ASD children were randomly assigned to receive group training in Nei Yang Gong (experimental group or PMR (control group twice per week for four weeks. The participants' self-control was measured by three neuropsychological tests and parental rating on standardized questionnaires, and the underlying neural mechanism was assessed by the participants' brain EEG activity during an inhibitory-control task before and after intervention. The results show that the experimental group demonstrated significantly greater improvement in self-control than the control group, which concurs with the parental reports of reduced autistic symptoms and increased control of temper and behaviors. In addition, the experimental group showed enhanced EEG activity in the anterior cingulate cortex, a region that mediates self-control, whereas the PMR group did not. The present findings support the potential application of Chinese Chan-based mind-body exercises as a form of neuropsychological rehabilitation for patients with self-control problems. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry; Registration No.: ChiCTR-TRC-12002561; URL: www.chictr.org.
Bara, Bruno G; Ciaramidaro, Angela; Walter, Henrik; Adenzato, Mauro
IN THIS PAPER WE SHOW HOW WE EMPIRICALLY TESTED ONE OF THE MOST RELEVANT TOPICS IN PHILOSOPHY OF MIND THROUGH A SERIES OF FMRI EXPERIMENTS: the classification of different types of intention. To this aim, firstly we trace a theoretical distinction among private, prospective, and communicative intentions. Second, we propose a set of predictions concerning the recognition of these three types of intention in healthy individuals, and we report the experimental results corroborating our theoretical model of intention. Third, we derive from our model predictions relevant for the domain of psychopathological functioning. In particular, we treat the cases of both hyper-intentionality (as in paranoid schizophrenia) and hypo-intentionality (as in autistic spectrum disorders). Our conclusion is that the theoretical model of intention we propose contributes to enlarge our knowledge on the neurobiological bases of intention processing, in both healthy people and in people with impairments to the neurocognitive system that underlies intention recognition.
Bruno G Bara
Full Text Available In this paper we show how we empirically tested one of the most relevant topics in philosophy of mind through a series of fMRI experiments: the classification of different types of intention. To this aim, firstly we trace a theoretical distinction among private, prospective and communicative intentions. Second, we propose a set of predictions concerning the recognition of these three types of intention in healthy individuals, and we report the experimental results corroborating our theoretical model of intention. Third, we derive from our model predictions relevant for the domain of psychopathological functioning. In particular, we treat the cases of both hyper-intentionality (as in paranoid schizophrenia and hypo-intentionality (as in autistic spectrum disorders. Our conclusion is that the theoretical model of intention we propose contributes to enlarge our knowledge on the neurobiological bases of intention processing, in both healthy people and in people with impairments to the neurocognitive system that underlies intention recognition.
Winzenberg, Tania; Shaw, Kelly; Fryer, Jayne; Jones, Graeme
Calcium intake is a potential factor influencing weight gain and may reduce body weight, but the evidence for this in children is conflicting. The aim of this study was to use data from randomized controlled trials to determine whether calcium supplementation in healthy children affects weight or body composition. This study is a systematic review. We identified potential studies by searching the following electronic bibliographic databases: CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, MANTIS, ISI Web of Science, Food Science and Technology Abstracts, and Human Nutrition up until April 1, 2005 and hand-searched relevant conference abstracts. Studies were included if they were placebo-controlled randomized controlled trials of calcium supplementation, with at least 3 months of supplementation, in healthy children and with outcome measures including weight. Meta-analyses were performed using fixed effects models and weighted mean differences for weight and height and standardized mean differences (SMDs) for body composition measures. There were no statistically significant effects of calcium supplementation on weight [+0.14 kg; 95% confidence interval (CI), -0.28, +0.57 kg], height (+0.22 cm; 95% CI, -0.30, +0.74 cm), body fat (SMD, +0.04; 95% CI, -0.08, +0.15), or lean mass (SMD, +0.14; 95% CI, -0.03, +0.31). There is no evidence to support the use of calcium supplementation as a public health intervention to reduce weight gain or body fat in healthy children. Although our results do not rule out an effect of dietary supplementation with dairy products on weight gain or body composition, there is little evidence to support this hypothesis.
Wei, Yu-lin; Tu, Yi-wen; Liang, Tian-tian; Han, Biao; Liu, Wei
To study the conduction of Gong tonality vibromusic sound wave along meridians in healthy human body, and investigate differences of the sensitivity of different meridians and genders to this vibromusic message. Emit the Gong tonality music signal under the water and then investigate the responses of different acupoints and control points at the tissue of the same level to the vibromusic sound wave. There were differences of sensitivity to music waves at source acupoints on the foot, sensitivity of Zusanli (ST 36) was significantly higher than its control point (P music sound wave. Gong tonality vibromusic sound wave can conduct along meridians in healthy human body, and there are differences between different meridians and different genders in the sensitivity to the music sound wave.
Forte, R; Pesce, C; De Vito, G; Boreham, C A G
To examine the relationship between regional and whole body fat accumulation and core cognitive executive functions. Cross-sectional study. 78 healthy men and women aged between 65 and 75 years recruited through consumer's database. DXA measured percentage total body fat, android, gynoid distribution and android/gynoid ratio; inhibition and working memory updating through Random Number Generation test and cognitive flexibility by Trail Making test. First-order partial correlations between regional body fat and cognitive executive function were computed partialling out the effects of whole body fat. Moderation analysis was performed to verify the effect of gender on the body fat-cognition relationship. Results showed a differentiated pattern of fat-cognition relationship depending on fat localization and type of cognitive function. Statistically significant relationships were observed between working memory updating and: android fat (r = -0.232; p = 0.042), gynoid fat (r = 0.333; p = 0.003) and android/gynoid ratio (r = -0.272; p = 0.017). Separating genders, the only significant relationship was observed in females between working memory updating and gynoid fat (r = 0.280; p = 0.045). In spite of gender differences in both working memory updating and gynoid body fat levels, moderation analysis did not show an effect of gender on the relationship between gynoid fat and working memory updating. Results suggest a protective effect of gynoid body fat and a deleterious effect of android body fat. Although excessive body fat increases the risk of developing CDV, metabolic and cognitive problems, maintaining a certain proportion of gynoid fat may help prevent cognitive decline, particularly in older women. Guidelines for optimal body composition maintenance for the elderly should not target indiscriminate weight loss, but weight maintenance through body fat/lean mass control based on non-pharmacological tools such as physical exercise, known to have protective effects
Brosseau, Lucie; Taki, Jade; Desjardins, Brigit; Thevenot, Odette; Fransen, Marlene; Wells, George A; Imoto, Aline Mizusaki; Toupin-April, Karine; Westby, Marie; Gallardo, Inmaculada C Álvarez; Gifford, Wendy; Laferrière, Lucie; Rahman, Prinon; Loew, Laurianne; Angelis, Gino De; Cavallo, Sabrina; Shallwani, Shirin Mehdi; Aburub, Ala'; Bennell, Kim L; Van der Esch, Martin; Simic, Milena; McConnell, Sara; Harmer, Alison; Kenny, Glen P; Paterson, Gail; Regnaux, Jean-Philippe; Lefevre-Colau, Marie-Martine; McLean, Linda
To identify effective mind-body exercise programs and provide clinicians and patients with updated, high-quality recommendations concerning non-traditional land-based exercises for knee osteoarthritis. A systematic search and adapted selection criteria included comparative controlled trials with mind-body exercise programs for patients with knee osteoarthritis. A panel of experts reached consensus on the recommendations using a Delphi survey. A hierarchical alphabetical grading system (A, B, C+, C, D, D+, D-) was used, based on statistical significance ( P mind-body exercise programs are promising for improving the management of knee osteoarthritis. Hatha Yoga demonstrated significant improvement for pain relief (Grade B) and physical function (Grade C+). Tai Chi Qigong demonstrated significant improvement for quality of life (Grade B), pain relief (Grade C+) and physical function (Grade C+). Sun style Tai Chi gave significant improvement for pain relief (Grade B) and physical function (Grade B). Mind-body exercises are promising approaches to reduce pain, as well as to improve physical function and quality of life for individuals with knee osteoarthritis.
Buric, I.; Farias, M.; Mee, C.J.; Jong, J.; Brazil, I.A.
There is considerable evidence for the effectiveness of mind-body interventions (MBIs) in improving mental and physical health, but the molecular mechanisms of these benefits remain poorly understood. One hypothesis is that MBIs reverse expression of genes involved in inflammatory reactions that are
Full Text Available A review of the book: The Varieties of Ecstasy Experience: An Exploration of Person, Mind and Body in Sydney’s Club Culture, by Sean Leneghan. Lambert Academic Publishing: Saarbrücken, Germany, 2011. ISBN: 978-3-8454-1634-2. 286 pp. (Paperback $112 U.S.
Loizzo, Joseph J
Meditation research has begun to clarify the brain effects and mechanisms of contemplative practices while generating a range of typologies and explanatory models to guide further study. This comparative review explores a neglected area relevant to current research: the validity of a traditional central nervous system (CNS) model that coevolved with the practices most studied today and that provides the first comprehensive neural-based typology and mechanistic framework of contemplative practices. The subtle body model, popularly known as the chakra system from Indian yoga, was and is used as a map of CNS function in traditional Indian and Tibetan medicine, neuropsychiatry, and neuropsychology. The study presented here, based on the Nalanda tradition, shows that the subtle body model can be cross-referenced with modern CNS maps and challenges modern brain maps with its embodied network model of CNS function. It also challenges meditation research by: (1) presenting a more rigorous, neural-based typology of contemplative practices; (2) offering a more refined and complete network model of the mechanisms of contemplative practices; and (3) serving as an embodied, interoceptive neurofeedback aid that is more user friendly and complete than current teaching aids for clinical and practical applications of contemplative practice. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.
Roberts, Aaron P J; Cole, Jon C
Police officers routinely wear body armor to protect themselves against the threat posed by firearms and edged weapons, yet little is known of the cognitive effects of doing so. Two studies investigated the effects of exercise and body armor on working memory function in healthy volunteers. In study 1, male undergraduates were assigned to one of four groups: (i) brief exercise, (ii) brief exercise wearing body armor, (iii) extended exercise, and (iv) extended exercise wearing body armor. In study 2, university gym members were assigned to one of two groups: (i) wearing body armor and (ii) not wearing body armor. In both studies, heart rate and oral temperature were measured before, immediately after, and 5 minutes after exercise. The phonemic verbal fluency task and digits backward test were administered at the same time points. In both studies, a mixed analysis of variance revealed statistically significant changes to the cognitive functioning of participants. A change in cognitive strategy was observed, reflected by a decrease in executive function (switches) and an increase in nonexecutive function (cluster size). These data suggest that the cognitive effects of exercise and body armor may have profound implications for police officers' ability to make tactical decisions. Reprint & Copyright © 2013 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
Schure, Marc B.; Christopher, John; Christopher, Suzanne
A 4-year qualitative study examined the influence of teaching hatha yoga, meditation, and qigong to counseling graduate students. Participants in the 15-week, 3-credit mindfulness-based stress reduction course reported positive physical, emotional, mental, spiritual, and interpersonal changes and substantial effects on their counseling skills and…
Marigliano, Michelle L.; Russo, Michele J.
Creative movement is an ideal way to help young children develop critical-thinking and problem-solving skills. Most young children are, by nature, extremely physical. They delight in exploring the world with their bodies and expressing their ideas and feelings through movement. During creative movement experiences, children learn to think before…
Full Text Available It has been empirically established through many controlled studies that one of the most rewarding experiences known to humanity is listening to music, especially because it affects various parts of the brain and causes emotional arousal. The aim of this article is to do a succinct study on music and its effect on, especially, the nervous system, by referring to various empirical studies undertaken on the subject. The article, therefore, has a twofold purpose: (1 to show that throughout history, music has played a special role in various cultures and religions, especially as a healing tool and (2 to demonstrate that sound frequencies and vibrations found in music have the potential to realign the emotions of the nervous system and bring the body back into harmony by reducing stress.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: The article�s challenge and purpose are to show that science and religion are not in conflict, but rather that together they can benefit both disciplines and make better sense of complicated topics, especially those related to how natural science and religion deal with the human body and health, and its relationship to the mind.
Manochio, João Paulo; Lattari, Eduardo; Portugal, Eduardo Matta Mello; Monteiro-Junior, Renato Sobral; Paes, Flávia; Budde, Henning; de Tarso Veras Farinatti, Paulo; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Wegner, Mirko; Carta, Mauro Giovanni; Mura, Gioia; Ferreira Rocha, Nuno Barbosa; Almada, Leonardo Ferreira; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Machado, Sergio
Mental practice is an internal reproduction of a motor act (whose intention is to promote learning and improving motor skills). Some studies have shown that other cognitive strategies also increase the strength and muscular resistance in healthy people by the enhancement of the performance during dynamic tasks. Mental training sessions may be primordial to improving muscle strength in different subjects. The aim of this study was to systematically review and meta-analiyze studies that assessed whether mental practice is effective in improving muscular strength. We conducted an electronic-computed search in Pub-Med/Medline and ISI Web of Knowledge, Scielo and manual searchs, searching papers written in English between 1991 and 2014. There were 44 studies in Pub-Med/Medline, 631 in ISI Web of Knowledge, 11 in Scielo and 3 in manual searchs databases. After exclusion of studies for duplicate, unrelated to the topic by title and summary, different samples and methodologies, a meta-analysis of 4 studies was carried out to identify the dose-response relationship. We did not find evidence that mental practice is effective in increasing strength in healthy individuals. There is no evidence that mental practice alone can be effective to induce strength gains or to optimize the training effects.
Colletto, Megan; Rodriguez, Nancy
Whole body protein utilization (WBPU), which includes flux (Q), protein synthesis (PS), protein breakdown (PB), and whole body protein balance (WBPB), provides insight regarding muscle mass, a criterion for sarcopenia. To characterize yoga's impact on WBPU, body composition and functional measures in healthy (50-65 years) women. WBPU and functional measures were compared between women who routinely practiced yoga (YOGA; n = 7) and nonactive counterparts (CON; n = 8). Q (0.61 ± 0.06 vs. 0.78 ± 0.07, p = .04), PS (3.07 ± 0.37 vs. 4.17 ± 0.40, p = .03), PB (2.59 ± 0.48 vs. 3.80 ± 0.48, p = .05) were lower, and lean body mass higher (64 ± 1 vs. 58 ± 2%, p ≤ .01) for YOGA vs. CON, respectively. WBPB and functional measures were similar. Routine yoga practice influenced WBPU in healthy older women. Study findings are novel and provide a basis for future investigations evaluating long-term benefits of yoga as an alternative mode of exercise for maintaining muscle mass in support of active aging.
The term body integrity identity disorder (BIID) describes the extremely rare phenomenon of persons who desire the amputation of one or more healthy limbs or who desire a paralysis. Some of these persons mutilate themselves; others ask surgeons for an amputation or for the transection of their spinal cord. Psychologists and physicians explain this phenomenon in quite different ways; but a successful psychotherapeutic or pharmaceutical therapy is not known. Lobbies of persons suffering from BIID explain the desire for amputation in analogy to the desire of transsexuals for surgical sex reassignment. Medical ethicists discuss the controversy about elective amputations of healthy limbs: on the one hand the principle of autonomy is used to deduce the right for body modifications; on the other hand the autonomy of BIID patients is doubted. Neurological results suggest that BIID is a brain disorder producing a disruption of the body image, for which parallels for stroke patients are known. If BIID were a neuropsychological disturbance, which includes missing insight into the illness and a specific lack of autonomy, then amputations would be contraindicated and must be evaluated as bodily injuries of mentally disordered patients. Instead of only curing the symptom, a causal therapy should be developed to integrate the alien limb into the body image.
Zalewski, Pawel; Klawe, Jacek J; Pawlak, Joanna; Tafil-Klawe, Malgorzata; Newton, Julia
Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) is an increasing applied cryotherapeutic method, that involves application of a cryotherapeutic factor to stimulate the body by the means of intense hypothermia of virtually the body's entire area. This method is still not well recognized in Western Europe. However in recent years it is becoming increasingly popular in sports medicine and also in clinical application. Cryotherapeutic agents used in WBC are considered to be a strong stress stimulus which is associated with a variety of changes in functional parameters, particularly of the cardiovascular and autonomic nervous systems. However, such strong influence upon the entire body could be associated with the risk of unexpected reactions which might be dangerous for homeostasis. The present study evaluated the complex hemodynamic physiological reactions in response to WBC exposure in healthy subjects. Thirty healthy male volunteers participated. Each subject was exposed to WBC (-120°C) for 3-min. None of the participants had been exposed to such conditions previously. The research was conducted with modern and reliable measurements techniques, which assessed complex hemodynamic reactions and skin temperature changes non-invasively. All measurements were performed four times (before WBC, after WBC, WBC+3h and WBC+6h) with a Task Force Monitor (TFM - CNSystems, Medizintechnik, Gratz, Austria). Body superficial temperature was measured by infrared thermographic techniques - infra-red camera Flir P640 (Flir Systems Inc., Sweden). Our results show a significant decrease in heart rate, cardiac output, and increase in stroke volume, total peripheral resistance and baroreceptors reflex sensitivity. These changes were observed just after WBC exposure. At stages WBC+3h and WBC+6h there was observed a significant drop in baroreceptors reflex sensitivity due to increased thermogenesis. In conclusion, the present findings suggest that WBC strongly stimulates the baroreceptor cardiac reflex in
Zhu, Yong; Hollis, James H
Recent research indicates that chewing behavior may influence energy intake and energy expenditure. However, little is known about the relationship between chewing behavior and body weight status. In the present study, 64 fully dentate normal-weight or overweight/obese adults were asked to consume five portions of a test food and the number of chewing cycles, chewing duration before swallowing and chewing rate were measured. Adjusting for age and gender, normal-weight participants used a higher number of chewing cycles (p = 0.003) and a longer chewing duration (p body mass index and the number of chewing cycles (r = -0.296, p = 0.020) and chewing duration (r = -0.354, p = 0.005) was observed. In conclusion, these results suggest that chewing behavior is associated with body weight status in fully dentate healthy adults.
Ion G. Motofei; David L. Rowland
Physiologically, the somatic nervous system intervenes in external interaction between the body and environment, while autonomic nervous system ensures the functioning of internal organs. We present in this paper a psycho-physiological perspective suggesting that mental function (somatic in nature, because coordinates environmental interaction) is closer to and more aligned with the physiologic functioning of autonomic nervous system (due to autonomy, duality, etc.). At opposite end, sexual f...
Full Text Available Background. Osteopathic philosophy and practice are congruent with the biopsychosocial model, a patient-centered approach when treating disease, and the view of the person as a unity (i.e., body, mind, and soul. Nevertheless, a unity of being should involve a systematic person-centered understanding of the patient’s personality as a biopsychosociospiritual construct that influences health (i.e., well-being and ill-being. We suggest Cloninger’s personality model, comprising temperament (i.e., body and character (i.e., mind and soul, as a genuine paradigm for implementation in osteopathic practice. As a first step, we investigated (1 the relationships between personality and health among osteopathic patients, (2 differences in personality between patients and a control group, and (3 differences in health within patients depending on the presenting problem and gender.Method. 524 osteopathic patients in Sweden (age mean = 46.17, SD = 12.54, 388 females and 136 males responded to an online survey comprising the Temperament and Character Inventory and measures of health (well-being: life satisfaction, positive affect, harmony in life, energy, and resilience; ill-being: negative affect, anxiety, depression, stress, and dysfunction and suffering associated to the presenting problem. We conducted two structural equation models to investigate the association personality-health; graphically compared the patients’ personality T-scores to those of the control group and compared the mean raw scores using t-tests; and conducted two multivariate analyses of variance, using age as covariate, to compare patients’ health in relation to their presenting problem and gender.Results. The patients’ personality explained the variance of all of the well-being (R2 between .19 and .54 and four of the ill-being (R2 between .05 and .43 measures. Importantly, self-transcendence, the spiritual aspect of personality, was associated to high levels of positive emotions
B. Rael Cahn
Full Text Available Thirty-eight individuals (mean age: 34.8 years old participating in a 3-month yoga and meditation retreat were assessed before and after the intervention for psychometric measures, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, circadian salivary cortisol levels, and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Participation in the retreat was found to be associated with decreases in self-reported anxiety and depression as well as increases in mindfulness. As hypothesized, increases in the plasma levels of BDNF and increases in the magnitude of the cortisol awakening response (CAR were also observed. The normalized change in BDNF levels was inversely correlated with BSI-18 anxiety scores at both the pre-retreat (r = 0.40, p < 0.05 and post-retreat (r = 0.52, p < 0.005 such that those with greater anxiety scores tended to exhibit smaller pre- to post-retreat increases in plasma BDNF levels. In line with a hypothesized decrease in inflammatory processes resulting from the yoga and meditation practices, we found that the plasma level of the anti-inflammatory cytokine Interleukin-10 was increased and the pro-inflammatory cytokine Interleukin-12 was reduced after the retreat. Contrary to our initial hypotheses, plasma levels of other pro-inflammatory cytokines, including Interferon Gamma (IFN-γ, Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF-α, Interleukin-1β (IL-1β, Interleukin-6 (IL-6, and Interleukin-8 (IL-8 were increased after the retreat. Given evidence from previous studies of the positive effects of meditative practices on mental fitness, autonomic homeostasis and inflammatory status, we hypothesize that these findings are related to the meditative practices throughout the retreat; however, some of the observed changes may also be related to other aspects of the retreat such as physical exercise-related components of the yoga practice and diet. We hypothesize that the patterns of change observed here reflect mind-body integration and well-being. The increased BDNF levels
Singla, Deepika; Hussain, M Ejaz; Moiz, Jamal Ali
To determine the impact of upper body plyometric training (UBPT) on physical performance parameters such as strength, ball throwing speed, ball throw distance and power in healthy individuals. PubMed, Scopus, ResearchGate and ERIC databases were searched up to August 2017. Selection of articles was done if they described the outcomes of an upper body plyometric exercise intervention; included measures of strength, ball throwing speed, ball throw distance, or power; included healthy individuals; used a randomized control trial; and had full text available in English language. The exclusion criteria were unpublished research work and clubbing of UBPT with some other type(s) of training apart from routine sports training. PEDro scale was used to rate the quality of studies eligible for this review. Initially 264 records were identified and out of them only 11 articles met the eligibility criteria and were selected (PEDro score = 4 to 6). Though large to very small effects observed in improving ball throwing velocity, ball throwing distance, power and strength of upper limb muscles after UBPT, the results should be implemented with caution. Inconclusive results obtained preclude any strong conclusion regarding the efficacy of UBPT on physical performance in healthy individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fahlgren, Elin; Nima, Ali A; Archer, Trevor; Garcia, Danilo
Background. Osteopathic philosophy and practice are congruent with the biopsychosocial model, a patient-centered approach when treating disease, and the view of the person as a unity (i.e., body, mind, and soul). Nevertheless, a unity of being should involve a systematic person-centered understanding of the patient's personality as a biopsychosociospiritual construct that influences health (i.e., well-being and ill-being). We suggest Cloninger's personality model, comprising temperament (i.e., body) and character (i.e., mind and soul), as a genuine paradigm for implementation in osteopathic practice. As a first step, we investigated (1) the relationships between personality and health among osteopathic patients, (2) differences in personality between patients and a control group, and (3) differences in health within patients depending on the presenting problem and gender. Method. 524 osteopathic patients in Sweden (age mean = 46.17, SD = 12.54, 388 females and 136 males) responded to an online survey comprising the Temperament and Character Inventory and measures of health (well-being: life satisfaction, positive affect, harmony in life, energy, and resilience; ill-being: negative affect, anxiety, depression, stress, and dysfunction and suffering associated to the presenting problem). We conducted two structural equation models to investigate the association personality-health; graphically compared the patients' personality T-scores to those of the control group and compared the mean raw scores using t-tests; and conducted two multivariate analyses of variance, using age as covariate, to compare patients' health in relation to their presenting problem and gender. Results. The patients' personality explained the variance of all of the well-being (R (2) between .19 and .54) and four of the ill-being (R (2) between .05 and .43) measures. Importantly, self-transcendence, the spiritual aspect of personality, was associated to high levels of positive emotions and
Nima, Ali A.; Archer, Trevor
Background. Osteopathic philosophy and practice are congruent with the biopsychosocial model, a patient-centered approach when treating disease, and the view of the person as a unity (i.e., body, mind, and soul). Nevertheless, a unity of being should involve a systematic person-centered understanding of the patient’s personality as a biopsychosociospiritual construct that influences health (i.e., well-being and ill-being). We suggest Cloninger’s personality model, comprising temperament (i.e., body) and character (i.e., mind and soul), as a genuine paradigm for implementation in osteopathic practice. As a first step, we investigated (1) the relationships between personality and health among osteopathic patients, (2) differences in personality between patients and a control group, and (3) differences in health within patients depending on the presenting problem and gender. Method. 524 osteopathic patients in Sweden (age mean = 46.17, SD = 12.54, 388 females and 136 males) responded to an online survey comprising the Temperament and Character Inventory and measures of health (well-being: life satisfaction, positive affect, harmony in life, energy, and resilience; ill-being: negative affect, anxiety, depression, stress, and dysfunction and suffering associated to the presenting problem). We conducted two structural equation models to investigate the association personality-health; graphically compared the patients’ personality T-scores to those of the control group and compared the mean raw scores using t-tests; and conducted two multivariate analyses of variance, using age as covariate, to compare patients’ health in relation to their presenting problem and gender. Results. The patients’ personality explained the variance of all of the well-being (R2 between .19 and .54) and four of the ill-being (R2 between .05 and .43) measures. Importantly, self-transcendence, the spiritual aspect of personality, was associated to high levels of positive emotions and
Davis, Michael S; Cummings, Sabrina L; Payton, Mark E
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of brachycephaly and body condition score on respiratory thermoregulation of healthy dogs. DESIGN Prospective study. ANIMALS 52 brachycephalic and 53 nonbrachycephalic dogs. PROCEDURES All dogs were exposed to a cool treatment (temperature, 21.8 ± 1.7°C [71.2 ± 3.1°F]; relative humidity, 62.2 ± 9.7%; and ambient enthalpy, 47.7 ± 6.6 kcal/kg) and then a hot treatment (temperature, 32.9 ± 1.7°C [91.2 ± 3.1°F]; relative humidity, 51.9 ± 9.8%; and ambient enthalpy, 74.8 ± 8.7 kcal/kg; heat stress) at least 1 hour later. For each treatment, dogs were allowed to acclimatize to the environment for 15 minutes and then were placed in a sealed whole-body plethysmograph for continuous measurement of the respiratory pattern for 10 minutes. Treatment was discontinued if a dog developed signs of respiratory distress. Respiratory variables and body temperature were compared between the 2 breed types (brachycephalic and nonbrachycephalic) and between treatments. RESULTS Body condition score was positively associated with body temperature independent of environmental conditions or breed type and negatively associated with tidal volume. Brachycephalic dogs had a greater increase in respiratory rate in response to heat stress than did nonbrachycephalic dogs. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that brachycephalic dogs had decreased capacity for thermoregulation, compared with nonbrachycephalic dogs, but body condition score was a greater determinant of body temperature than breed type. Nevertheless, both upper airway conformation and body condition score should be considered when evaluating whether an individual dog is capable of tolerating heat stress.
Li, Yan; Jakary, Angela; Gillung, Erin; Eisendrath, Stuart; Nelson, Sarah J; Mukherjee, Pratik; Luks, Tracy
Our aim was to evaluate differences in metabolite levels between unmedicated patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and healthy controls, to assess changes in metabolites in patients after they completed an 8-week course of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT), and to exam the correlation between metabolites and depression severity. Sixteen patients with MDD and ten age- and gender-matched healthy controls were studied using 3D short echo-time (20 ms) magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) at 7 Tesla. Relative metabolite ratios were estimated in five regions of interest corresponding to insula, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), caudate, putamen, and thalamus. In all cases, MBCT reduced severity of depression. The ratio of total choline-containing compounds/total creatine (tCr) in the right caudate was significantly increased compared to that in healthy controls, while ratios of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA)/tCr in the left ACC, myo-inositol/tCr in the right insula, and glutathione/tCr in the left putamen were significantly decreased. At baseline, the severity of depression was negatively correlated with my-inositol/tCr in the left insula and putamen. The improvement in depression severity was significantly associated with changes in NAA/tCr in the left ACC. This study has successfully evaluated regional differences in metabolites for patients with MDD who received MBCT treatment and in controls using 7 Tesla MRSI.
Woolhouse, Hannah; Mercuri, Kristine; Judd, Fiona; Brown, Stephanie J
Mindfulness interventions to reduce psychological distress are well-suited to pregnancy, due to their brief and non-pharmacological nature, but there is a need for more robust evidence determining their usefulness. This pilot study was designed to explore the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial of a mindfulness intervention to reduce antenatal depression, anxiety and stress. The study was designed in two parts 1) a non-randomised trial targeting women at risk of mental health problems (a selected population) and 2) a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of a universal population. Process evaluation focused on feasibility of recruitment pathways, participant retention, acceptability of study measures, and engagement with mindfulness practices. Measurement of psychological distress was taken pre and post intervention through the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale Revised, the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-21, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Perceived Stress Scale. 20 women were recruited to the non-randomised trial, and 32 to the RCT. Recruitment through a mailed study brochure at the time of booking-in to the hospital resulted in the largest number of participants in the RCT (16/32; 50%), and resulted in considerably earlier recruitment (50% in first trimester, 50% second trimester) compared to recruitment through the antenatal clinic waiting room (86% in second trimester, 14% third trimester). Over a third of women in the universal population scored above clinical cut-offs for depression and anxiety, indicating a sample with more symptomology than the general population. The most common reason for loss to follow-up was delivery of baby prior to follow-up (n = 9). In the non-randomised study, significant within group improvements to depression and anxiety were observed. In the intervention arm of the RCT there were significant within group improvements to anxiety and mindfulness. No between group differences for the intervention
Seied Mohsen Emami
Full Text Available Background: Spontaneous pneumomediastinum (SPM and subcutaneous emphysema are rare findings in children. Various etiologies have been reported for SPM, such as foreign body aspiration in infants, especially in those aged less than three years. In addition to the complications associated with foreign body aspiration, SPM may also become a life-threatening condition if left untreated. In the present report, we discussed a case of subcutaneous emphysema, pneumothorax, and pneumomediastinum in a 13-month-old infant previously treated for pneumonia.Case report: The infant was initially presented with subcutaneous emphysema of the neck, without respiratory distress following pneumonia. In the chest radiography, mediastinal shift and possible pneumothorax were reported, and a chest tube was inserted as the respiratory condition deteriorated. Emergency bronchoscopy showed a foreign body logged in the left respiratory tract, which was removed. Three days later, the chest tube was detached, and the patient was discharged in healthy conditions within the next two days.Conclusion: Pediatricians constantly need to consider the risk of foreign body aspiration, particularly in the presence of respiratory complications, such as SPM, even in the infants with an unreliable history of foreign body aspiration
Most mainstream attempts to understand the "placebo effect" invoke expectancy theory, arguing that expecting certain outcomes from a treatment or intervention can manifest those outcomes. Expectancy theory is incompatible with the phenomena of placebo responses, more appropriately named "meaning responses." The expectancy account utilizes reflexive consciousness to connect a world of conceptual representations to mechanical physiology. An alternative account based upon Merleau-Ponty's motor intentionality argues that the body understands and is capable of responding to meanings without the need for any conceptual or linguistic content. A motor intentional framework of meaning poses dramatic implications for the interpretation of clinical trials and in the clinical practice of medicine. Most strongly, it argues that the empathic physician can facilitate the physiologic effects of treatments through skillful participation and manipulation of the meaning response.
Raman K Marwaha
Full Text Available Introduction: In view of the relationship between physical activity and nutrition on body composition, we assessed lean and fat mass and BMC (total and regional in professional Indian sportswomen and compared it with apparently healthy age- and sex-matched females. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 104 sportswomen and an equal number of age-matched normal healthy females (controls. They were evaluated for anthropometry and body composition (fat, lean mass, and bone mineral content (BMC by DXA. Results: Mean age (19.1 ± 1.3 vs. 19.4 ± 1.5 years and body mass index (21.34 ± 3.02 vs. 21.26 ± 4.05 kg/m 2 were comparable in both groups. Sportswomen had higher intake of energy, macronutrients, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. Total lean mass (33.67 ± 3.49 vs. 31.14 ± 3.52 kg, P < 0.0001, appendicular skeletal muscle index (5.84 ± 0.57 vs. 5.46 ± 0.63 kg/m 2 ; P < 0.0001 and BMC (2.27 ± 0.32 vs. 2.13 ± 0.34 kg, P < 0.002 was significantly higher and percentage fat mass was significantly lower (33.1 ± 7.5 vs. 37.0 ± 8.3; P < 0.0001 among sportswomen when compared to controls. Conclusions: Indian sportswomen have a higher total and regional lean mass, BMC, and lower percentage fat mass when compared with healthy females. Physical activity, energy, protein and calcium intake were positively associated with lean mass and BMC.
Jung, Ye-Ha; Lee, Ul Soon; Jang, Joon Hwan; Kang, Do-Hyung
It has been known that mind-body training (MBT) can affect personality and behavior system as well as emotional well-being, but different effects of MBT on them has not been reported according to BDNF genetic polymorphism. Healthy subjects consisted of 64 subjects and the MBT group who practiced meditation regularly consisted of 72 practitioners. Participants completed neuroticism-extraversion-openness (NEO) Five-Factor Inventory and Behavioral Activation System/Behavioral Inhibition System (BAS/BIS) scales. All subjects were genotyped for the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism. In the same genotypes of the BDNF Val/Val+Val/Met group, MBT group showed the increased Extraversion (p=0.033) and the increased Openness to Experience (p=0.004) compared to the control group. Also, in the same Met/Met carriers, MBT group exhibited the increase of Extraversion (p=0.008), the reduction of Neuroticism (p=0.002), and the increase of Openness to Experience (p=0.008) compared to the control group. In the same genotypes of the BDNF Val/Val+Val/Met group, MBT group showed the decreased BAS-Reward Responsiveness (p=0.016) and the decrease of BIS (p=0.004) compared to the control group. In the BDNF Met/Met group, MBT group increased BAS-Fun Seeking (p=0.045) and decreased BIS (p=0.013) compared to the control group. MBT would differently contribute to NEO personality and BAS/BIS according to BDNF genetic polymorphism, compensating for different vulnerable traits based on each genotype.
Nelson Antonio Gómez Serrudo
Full Text Available This paper shows how individuals take on their lifestyles in practices revolving around a nature-based and a healthy body conception in the social spheres where they perform at ease and with relative coherence. There, consumption patterns may be evaluated, as well as the kinds of relationships that are established, and the ability to get involved with certain networks of affections and recommendations not necessarily institutionalized. Individuals move along these scenarios in building fragile and swinging lifestyles, aiming to transcend and affirming their individual identity by choosing their lifepath in a reflexive way.
Donald, Graeme; Lawrence, Maggie; Lorimer, Karen; Stringer, Jacqui; Flowers, Paul
Mind-body practices (MBPs) are a subset of complementary medicine that represents a selection of self-care activities that may promote the health of people living with HIV (PLWH). No synthesis of qualitative research in this context, which might inform service provision and research priorities, has yet been published. A systematic search of electronic databases was conducted, identifying papers exploring the experience of MBPs in PLWH. During thematic synthesis, all text under the headings "results" or "findings" was scanned line by line, and discrete, meaningful units of text were extracted as data items. Categories were identified, and second- and third-order constructs were developed. Concerns related to control and self-management appeared in the convergence of participants' worlds with the medical world and in being pragmatic about selecting MBPs and goal setting. The themes developed suggest a desire for more holistic and person-centered care, arguably marginalized as a result of effective antiretroviral therapy. Copyright © 2015 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Bereavement may bring negative impacts on the mind, body, and spiritual well-being of grieving persons. Some bereaved persons with chronic fatigue syndrome- (CFS- illness experience a dual burden of distress. This study investigated the effects of bereavement on CFS-like illness by comparing bereaved and nonbereaved participants. It also adopted a random group design to investigate the effectiveness of Qigong on improving the well-being of bereaved participants. The Qigong intervention comprised 10 group sessions delivered twice a week for 5 weeks and home-practice for at least three times a week lasting 15–30 minutes each. The participants’ fatigue, anxiety, and depression, quality of life (QoL, and spiritual well-being were measured at baseline and 3 months after treatment. The bereaved participants experienced significantly greater mental fatigue (16.09 versus 14.44, p=0.017 and lower physical QoL (34.02 versus 37.17, p=0.011 than their nonbereaved counterparts. After 3 months, the mental fatigue (−8 versus −4, p=0.010 and physical fatigue (−10 versus −5, p=0.007 experienced by intervention group had declined significantly, and improvements on their spirituality (14 versus −2, p=0.013 and psychological QoL (8.91 versus 0.69, p=0.002 scores exceeded those of the control group.
Matos, Luís Carlos; Sousa, Cláudia Maria; Gonçalves, Mário; Gabriel, Joaquim; Machado, Jorge; Greten, Henry Johannes
A contemporary understanding of Chinese Medicine (CM) regards CM diagnosis as a functional vegetative state that may be treated by vegetative reflex therapies such as acupuncture. Within this context, traditional mind-body exercises such as Qigong can be understood as an attempt to enhance physiological proprioception, by combining a special state of "awareness" with posture, movement, and breath control. We have formerly trained young auditing flutists in "White Ball" Qigong to minimize anxiety-induced cold hands and lower anxiety-induced heart rate. Functional changes occurred 2-5 min after training and were observed over the whole training program, allowing the children to control their symptoms. In our current work, we report that warm fingers and calm hearts could be induced by the children even without Qigong exercises. Thus, these positive changes once induced and "conditioned" vegetatively were stable after weeks of training. This may show the mechanism by which Qigong acts as a therapeutic measure in disease: positive vegetative pathways may be activated instead of dysfunctional functional patterns. The positive vegetative patterns then may be available in critical stressful situations. Qigong exercise programs may therefore be understood as an ancient vegetative biofeedback exercise inducing positive vegetative functions which are added to the individual reactive repertoire.
Cortés Vieco Francisco José
Full Text Available The pervasive psychological realism of Charlotte Brontë’s Villette (1853 challenges scholarly assumptions based on her biography or her indoctrination to Victorian medical discourses, as it explores dysfunctional body/mind interrelations, particularly those evidencing patriarchal pressures and prejudices against women. Under the guise of her heroine Lucy, the author becomes both the physician and the patient suffering from a female malady of unnamed origin. This article intends to prove that, instead of narratively unravelling her creature’s past trauma with healing purposes, the author conceals its nature to protect her intimacy and she focuses on the periphery of her crisis aftermath to demonstrate its severity by means of the psychosomatic disorders that persistently haunt her life: depression, anorexia nervosa and suicidal behavior. Brontë’s literary guerrilla of secrecy aims, simultaneously, to veil and unveil the core of Lucy’s clinical case with an unequivocal diagnosis: a harmful, mysterious event from her childhood/adolescence, whose reverberations repeatedly erupt during her adulthood and endanger her survival. Unreliable but “lucid”, this heroine becomes the daguerreotype of her creator to portray life as a sad, exhausting journey, where professional self-realisation - not love or marriage - turns into the ultimate recovery therapy from past ordeals, never successfully confirmed in the case of Lucy, who epitomises a paradigm of femininity in Victorian England: the impoverished, solitary, middle-class woman
Fukamizu, Yuu; En, Junichiro; Kano, Tatsuo; Arikawa, Isao
Average age of residents living in National sanatorium Hoshizuka-Keiaien where people have past history of Hansen disease is around 80 years old at present, and many of them spend their whole days in watching TV or sleeping almost alone in their rooms. Therefore music therapy was introduced in order to improve their daily activities in our sanatorium. Singing, listening to music, playing the musical instruments, and dancing were performed, either in a group or individually. Reactivation of their brain function such as recollection, sense of unity and relaxation were expected. Improvement of cardiopulmonary function was also expected. Solidarity and relaxed state were observed by being with the other participants in the group therapy. For example, when using musical instruments, some participants with hesitation tried to use their instruments, and had good performance. They seemed to be satisfied and became confident with the musical instruments. Then their confidence and satisfaction activated the group. After the sessions, mutual conversation increased. These processes obtained a synergy effect, which means that a group affects of individuals at first and next alteration of individual behavior influences the group. We could observe a better effect in their motivation and activity in their daily life in the individual therapy. The music therapy was applied to the senior participants by the music therapist in this study. The participants could easily reinforce their mind and body through this therapy. Music therapy will be continued for the improvement of quality of life of residents in the sanatorium.
Luís Carlos Matos
Full Text Available A contemporary understanding of Chinese Medicine (CM regards CM diagnosis as a functional vegetative state that may be treated by vegetative reflex therapies such as acupuncture. Within this context, traditional mind-body exercises such as Qigong can be understood as an attempt to enhance physiological proprioception, by combining a special state of “awareness” with posture, movement, and breath control. We have formerly trained young auditing flutists in “White Ball” Qigong to minimize anxiety-induced cold hands and lower anxiety-induced heart rate. Functional changes occurred 2–5 min after training and were observed over the whole training program, allowing the children to control their symptoms. In our current work, we report that warm fingers and calm hearts could be induced by the children even without Qigong exercises. Thus, these positive changes once induced and “conditioned” vegetatively were stable after weeks of training. This may show the mechanism by which Qigong acts as a therapeutic measure in disease: positive vegetative pathways may be activated instead of dysfunctional functional patterns. The positive vegetative patterns then may be available in critical stressful situations. Qigong exercise programs may therefore be understood as an ancient vegetative biofeedback exercise inducing positive vegetative functions which are added to the individual reactive repertoire.
Patricia A. Kinser
Full Text Available Health disparities (HD continue to persist in the United States which underscores the importance of using low-cost, accessible, evidence-based strategies that can improve health outcomes, especially for chronic conditions that are prevalent among underserved minority populations. Complementary/integrative health modalities, particularly self-administered mind-body practices (MBP, can be extremely useful in reducing HD because they are intrinsically patient-centered and they empower patients to actively engage in self-care of health and self-management of symptoms. Interprofessional healthcare providers and patients can engage in powerful partnerships that encompass self-administered MBP to improve health. This is a call to action for interprofessional researchers to engage in high-quality research regarding efficacy and cost-effectiveness of self-administered MBP, for practitioners to engage patients in self-administered MBP for health promotion, disease prevention, and symptom management, and for healthcare institutions to integrate self-administered MBP into conventional health practices to reduce HD in their communities.
Nakamura, Yoshio; Lipschitz, David L; Landward, Richard; Kuhn, Renee; West, Gavin
Sleep disturbance is highly prevalent among veterans. As an alternative to sleep medications with their undesirable side effects, nonpharmacological mind-body interventions may be beneficial for sleep management in primary care. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate whether a novel mind-body intervention, mind-body bridging (MBB), focusing on sleep, could improve self-reported sleep disturbance and comorbid symptoms in veterans. This pilot study was a randomized controlled trial at the Veterans Affairs Salt Lake City Health Care System in which 63 veterans with self-reported sleep disturbance received MBB or an active sleep education control. Both interventions were conducted in two sessions, once per week. Patient-reported outcomes included the following: primary-Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) Sleep Survey, MOS Short Form-36V; secondary-Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression, PTSD Check List-Military, Five-Factor Mindfulness Questionnaire. At both Week 1 (1 week after the first session) and post-intervention assessments, while sleep disturbance decreased in both groups, MBB performed significantly better than did the control group. Furthermore, self-reported PTSD symptoms improved in MBB, while they remained unchanged in the control. Overall mindfulness increased in MBB, while it remained unchanged in the control. This study provides preliminary evidence that a brief sleep-focused MBB could be a promising intervention for sleep and potentially other comorbid symptoms (e.g., PTSD). MBB could help patients develop awareness skills to deal with sleep-related symptoms. Integration of MBB into primary care settings may enhance care of patients with sleep disturbance and co-morbid symptoms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gunathunga, M W
Cognitive ergonomics in the work place has become a serious concern with the need to keep people happy at work while maintaining high productivity. Hence, it is worth exploring how the outcomes of lifestyle-based mind development programs can bring about happiness in workplace while keeping productivity and quality of services high. The objective of the present work was to test a body-mind technique to improve cognitive ergonomics in a health care work setting. Principal investigator explored many body-mind techniques before selecting the present method of "insight meditation" which he mastered before applying it on a group of scholars who made it a part of their lifestyle. Later it was introduced to a sample of 500 volunteer health personnel in the western province to generate a ripple effect of happiness at work. Initial qualitative information indicated improvement of some aspects of cognitive ergonomics among those who practiced it. There was a relief from stress during the practice sessions and improvements in the commitment to work and in team spirit. A demand was observed for further training. A quasi-experimental study to test the improvements is underway. Health workers showed interest in the mind training and potential benefits to individuals and the institutions were observed.
Peterson, Candida C.
This study examined theory of mind (ToM) and concepts of human biology (eyes, heart, brain, lungs and mind) in a sample of 67 children, including 25 high functioning children with autism (age 6-13), plus age-matched and preschool comparison groups. Contrary to Baron-Cohen [1989, "Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders," 19(4),…
Healing with color has been researched and documented worldwide for centuries. Every single part of the brain and every cell in the body is effected by light. Chinese and Russian scientists demonstrated that the acupuncture meridians transmit light. Dr. Peter Mandel, German chiropractic physician and acupuncturist, states that the acupuncture points are especially sensitive to electromagnetic waves within the spectrum of visible light and microwave energy, and all cells constantly emit and absorb small pockets of electromagnetic radiation or light, called biophotons. The harmony or disharmony of cells has been documented. Kirlian photography, to photography the aura was invented by Russians Semyon and Valentina Kirlian. Photo therapy and light research are being practiced worldwide. In the United States, Dr. Jacob Lieberman has written an influential book Light Medicine of the Future. In 1992 the first Light Years Ahead conference was held. (#5 1996) Dr. Brian Breiling and Dr. Lee Hartley brought together experts in the field to discuss the many potentials of light therapy. My present research in this area has focused on narrow band frequencies through the use of holography. Its therapeutic applications of color healing in this research are both critical and fundamental. My current work, The Chakras, seven reflection holograms on silver halide, relate to the wheels of light described in the earliest recorded Indian history. I will discus the chakras, this ancient metaphysical system under the new light of popular western metaphors and visionary art, how the chakras relate to the seven colors of the rainbow, the electromagnetic waves, and the connection to color holography in healing light therapy. I will be citing concurrent research in color healing, and the important areas of research that are necessary to have significant impact on future directions. Holography in the future will constitute a major frontier in discovery.
Cvijetić, Selma; Pipinić, Ivana Sabolić; Varnai, Veda Maria; Macan, Jelena
Low bone mineral density has been reported in paediatric and adult patients with different lung diseases, but limited data are available on the association between lung function and bone density in a healthy young population. We explored the predictors of association between bone mass and pulmonary function in healthy first-year university students, focusing on body mass index (BMI). In this cross-sectional study we measured bone density with ultrasound and lung function with spirometry in 370 university students (271 girls and 99 boys). Information on lifestyle habits, such as physical activity, smoking, and alcohol consumption were obtained with a questionnaire. All lung function and bone parameters were significantly higher in boys than in girls (Pstudents had a significantly lower forced vital capacity (FVC%) (P=0.001 girls; P=0.012 boys), while overweight students had a significantly higher FVC% than normal weight students (P=0.024 girls; P=0.001 boys). BMI significantly correlated with FVC% (P=0.001) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 %) in both genders (P=0.001 girls; P=0.018 boys) and with broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) in boys. There were no significant associations between any of the bone and lung function parameters either in boys or girls. The most important determinant of lung function and ultrasound bone parameters in our study population was body mass index, with no direct association between bone density and lung function.
Yagil, Yaron; Geller, Shulamit; Levy, Sigal; Sidi, Yael; Aharoni, Shiri
The purpose of the current study was to assess the uniqueness of the condition of kidney transplant recipients in comparison to a sample of matching healthy peers in relation to body-image dissatisfaction and identification, quality of life and psychological distress. Participants were 45 kidney transplant recipients who were under follow-up care at a Transplant Unit of a major Medical Center, and a sample of 45 matching healthy peers. Measures were taken using self-report questionnaires [Body-Image Ideals Questionnaire (BIIQ), Body Identification Questionnaire (BIQ), Brief Symptoms Inventory (BSI), and the SF-12]. The major findings were the following: (i) kidney transplant recipients reported lower levels of quality of life and higher levels of PsD when compared to their healthy peers; (ii) no difference in body-image dissatisfaction was found between the two studied groups; (iii) significant correlations between body-image dissatisfaction quality of life and PsD were found only in the kidney transplant recipients. The kidney transplantation condition has a moderating effect in the association between body-image dissatisfaction PsD but not in the association between body-image dissatisfaction and quality of life; (iv) kidney transplant recipients experienced higher levels of body identification than did their healthy peers. Taken together, these findings highlight the unique condition of kidney transplant recipients, as well as the function that body-image plays within the self.
Wu, Chun-Shien; Chen, Yu-Yawn; Chuang, Chih-Lin; Chiang, Li-Ming; Dwyer, Gregory B; Hsu, Ying-Lin; Huang, Ai-Chun; Lai, Chung-Liang; Hsieh, Kuen-Chang
The objectives of this study were to develop a regression model for predicting fat-free mass (FFM) in a population of healthy Taiwanese individuals using standing foot-to-foot bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and to test the model's performance in predicting FFM with different body fat percentages (BF%). We used dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to measure the FFM of 554 healthy Asian subjects (age, 16-75 y; body mass index, 15.8-43.1 kg/m(2)). We also evaluated the validity of the developed multivariate model using a double cross-validation technique and assessed the accuracy of the model in an all-subjects sample and subgroup samples with different body fat levels. Predictors in the all-subjects multivariate model included height(2)/impedance, weight, year, and sex (FFM = 13.055 + 0.204 weight + 0.394 height(2)/Impedance - 0.136 age + 8.125 sex (sex: Female = 0, Male = 1), r(2) = 0.92, standard error of the estimate = 3.17 kg). The correlation coefficients between predictive FFM by BIA (FFMBIA) and DXA-measured FFM (FFMDXA) in female subjects with a total-subjects BF%DXA of 40 % were r = 0.87, 0.90, 0.91, 0.89, and 0.94, respectively, with bias ± 2SD of 0.0 ± 3.0 kg, -2.6 ± 1.7 kg, -1.5 ± 2.8 kg, 0.5 ± 2.7 kg, and 2.0 ± 2.9 kg, respectively. The correlation coefficients between FFMBIA and FFMDXA in male subjects with a total-subjects BF%DXA of 30 % were r = 0.89, 0.89, 0.90, 0.93, and 0.91, respectively, with bias ± 2SD of 0.0 ± 3.2 kg, -2.3 ± 2.5 kg, -0.5 ± 3.2 kg, 0.4 ± 3.1 kg, and 2.1 ± 3.2 kg, respectively. The standing foot-to-foot BIA method developed in this study can accurately predict FFM in healthy Asian individuals with different levels of body fat.
Sreevani, Rentala; Reddemma, Konduru; Chan, Cecilia L W; Leung, Pamela Pui Yu; Wong, Venus; Chan, Celia Hoi Yan
Depression is a leading cause of disability worldwide. There is a need to develop effective strategies to treat depression and prevent recurrence. Treatments that combine pharmacological and psychotherapeutic approaches are preferred for treating severe forms of depression. The study assesses the effect of an integrated body-mind-spirit group intervention in patients with depression. This pilot study was a pretest-posttest design study. Thirty adult patients diagnosed with depression attending the psychiatric outpatient department at a district hospital were randomly assigned to either the intervention group or comparison group. Each group had 15 patients. The intervention group received both the intervention and routine hospital treatment and underwent four group integrated body-mind-spirit group intervention therapy sessions. These sessions were held once per week on either Saturday or Sunday, with each session lasting more than 3 hours. Comparison group participants received routine hospital treatment only. Outcome measures, including level of depression, well-being, and work and social adjustment, were measured using the Beck Depression Inventory-II, body-mind-spirit well-being scale, and work and social adjustment scale. Both groups were evaluated at baseline, 1 month, 2 months, and 3 months. Results showed that both groups had significant reductions in the level of depression, improvements in well-being, and work and social adjustment at 3-month follow-up compared with baseline. In addition, the intervention group showed significant mean differences in levels of depression, well-being, and work and social adjustment compared with the comparison group. The integrated body-mind-spirit group intervention model appears to reduce depressive symptoms and improve well-being in patients with depression.
de S Rapkiewicz, Jeniffer A; Nunes, João P; Mayhew, Jerry L; Silva Ribeiro, Alex; Garcez Nabuco, Hellen C; Fávero, Maria T; Franchini, Emerson; Amarante do Nascimento, Matheus
The purpose of the study was to compare the effects of different frequencies of Muay Thai training on body composition, and physical fitness in healthy untrained women. Twenty women were randomly assigned to one of two training groups: G2X (n = 9) performed Muay Thai twice a week, while G3X (n = 11) performed the same program three times a week, both for 13 weeks. Anthropometric dimensions, fat-free mass, fat mass, resting metabolic rate, VO2 max, upper-body and abdominal muscle endurance, explosive leg power, agility, flexibility, and dietary intake were measured at pre and post-training. Training intensity was estimated every training session by rating of perceived exertion with a Borg 10- point scale. Both groups significantly improved in all measured physical fitness variables, without any significant changes in body composition. G2X was not significantly different from G3X on any variable. Average relative changes for all performance variables in G2X and G3X were 28.5% and 27.5%, respectively. Thirteen-weeks of Muay Thai practice can improve physical fitness in women, regardless of weekly frequency (two or three times a week). This suggests that instructors and coaches can structure a Muay Thai training program based on a twice or three-times per week protocol in order to promote positive changes in several important outcomes related to health for healthy untrained women. Moreover, practitioners are able to choose their training frequency preference, since both frequencies provided similar adaptations.
Full Text Available BackgroundWe investigated the association of coronary artery calcium score (CACS with body composition and insulin resistance in apparently healthy Korean adults.MethodsNine hundred forty-five participants (mean age, 48.9 years; 628 men in a medical check-up program were selected for analysis. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA. Insulin resistance was evaluated using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. The CACS was assessed by multidetector computed tomography.ResultsOne hundred forty-six subjects (15.4% showed coronary artery calcification and 148 subjects (15.7% had metabolic syndrome. CACS showed a significant positive correlation with age, fasting glucose level, waist circumference (WC, blood pressure, hemoglobin A1c, HOMA-IR, and waist-hip ratio (WHR assessed by BIA. CACS had a negative correlation with high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C. Subjects with high CACS showed significantly higher mean WHRs and lower mean values for lean body mass compared with subjects without coronary artery calcification. In logistic regression analyses with coronary artery calcification as the dependent variable, the highest quartile of WHR showed a 3.125-fold increased odds ratio for coronary artery calcification compared with the lowest quartile after adjustment for confounding variables. When receiver operating characteristics analyses were performed with coronary artery calcification as the result variable, WHR showed the largest area under the curve (AUC value among other variables except for age and WC in women (AUC=0.696 for WHR, 0.790 for age, and 0.719 for WC in women.ConclusionIn our study population of apparently healthy Korean adults, WHR was the most significant predictor for coronary artery calcification among other confounding factors, suggesting that it may have implication as a marker for early atherosclerosis.
Osaka, R; Nanakorn, S; Sanseeha, L; Nagahiro, C; Kodama, N
This study aimed to assess body mass index (BMI) of nursing students, and examine the links between health behavior in terms of healthy dietary habits, positive health habits, dieting and BMI. A structured questionnaire was used for obtaining information on dietary habits, positive health habits, demographic characteristic including body weight, and height by administering self-answering questionnaires to all of nursing students in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th year-classes of the College of Nursing located in northeast Thailand. Three hundred and eleven female nursing students with an average age of 19.9 (SD = 1.4), had an average BMI of 20.3 kg/m2 (SD = 1.9). Most of the subjects (82.6%) were in the acceptable weight category (BMI > 18.5-24.99 kg/m2), 5.1% underweight (BMI or = 25.0 kg/m2). About half of them (50.8-66.2%) practiced healthy dietary habits in terms of avoiding eating fat/cholesterol, enriched fiber foods, while one-fourth practiced daily fruit consumption. Positive health habits in terms of having breakfast, and taking exercise over the last two weeks, were practiced by 49.5% and 59.8%, respectively. Persistent health problem occurred 13.5% amongst the subjects. The univariate analyses revealed significant associations between dieting with the BMI; perception of body size with the BMI; the enriched fiber food consumption with dieting; and the avoidance of fat/cholesterol with dieting. It suggests that the choice of food was predominantly attributable to dieting. Results from multiple logistic regression analysis showed that dietary belief, dieting, and exercise had effects on the strength of the association (p = 0.0191, 0.0024, 0.0165; Odds ratios = 0.97, 2.21, 1.87, respectively). The results and implications are discussed.
van Wijk, Michiel P.; Benninga, Marc A.; Dent, John; Lontis, Ros; Goodchild, Louise; McCall, Lisa M.; Haslam, Ross; Davidson, Geoffrey P.; Omari, Taher
Objective To identify a body-positioning regimen that promotes gastric emptying (GE) and reduces gastroesophageal reflux (GER) by changing body position 1 hour after feeding. Study design Ten healthy preterm infants (7 male; mean postmenstrual age, 36 weeks [range, 33 to 38 weeks]) were monitored
Full Text Available Purpose: Mindfulness interventions have been shown to treat depressive symptoms and improve quality of life in patients with several chronic diseases, including multiple sclerosis, but to date most evaluation of the effectiveness of mindfulness interventions in multiple sclerosis have used patients receiving standard care as the control group. Hence we decided to evaluate the effectiveness of a group-based body-affective mindfulness intervention by comparing it with a psycho-educational intervention, by means of a randomized controlled clinical trial. The outcome variables (i.e., depression, anxiety, perceived stress, illness perception, fatigue and quality of life were evaluated at the end of the interventions (T1 and after a further 6 months (T2.Methods: Of 90 multiple sclerosis patients with depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory-II score greater than 13 who were randomized, 71 completed the intervention (mindfulness group n = 36; psycho-educational group n = 35. The data were analyzed with GLM repeated-measures ANOVA followed by pairwise comparisons.Results: Per-protocol analysis revealed a time by group interaction on Beck Depression Inventory-II score, with the mindfulness intervention producing a greater reduction in score than the psycho-educational intervention, both at T1 and at T2. Furthermore, the mindfulness intervention improved patients’ quality of life and illness perception at T1 relative to the baseline and these improvements were maintained at the follow-up assessment (T2. Lastly, both interventions were similarly effective in reducing anxiety and perceived stress; these reductions were maintained at T2. A whole-sample intention-to-treat (ITT analysis broadly confirmed the effectiveness of the mindfulness intervention.Conclusion: In conclusion, these results provide methodologically robust evidence that in multiple sclerosis patients with depressive symptoms mindfulness interventions improve symptoms of depression
Geissler, P Wenzel; Prince, Ruth J
This paper examines a sequence of investigations in parasitology, botany, pharmacology, psychometrics and ethnopsychology focused on Kenyan village children's knowledge of medicinal herbs. We follow this work of making and ordering of knowledge, showing that the different disciplinary perspectives on bodies, medicines, knowledges, children and cultures produced by this research all sought the foundation of knowledge in reference to objective reality, and that they aimed to make the world known in the specific form of distinct and comparable entities with individual properties and capacities. Based on subsequent ethnographic observations of healing in the same village, we outline a different, contrasting modality of knowing, which places ontology above epistemology. Medicinal knowledge and its transformational capacity are here not located within entities but between them; not in objective reality but in effects; 'to know' means 'to come together' with the implication of having an effect on one another. We use this ethnographic sketch of a different form of knowing as a foil against which to contrast the imaginary that had shaped our previous research. Beyond the stark contrast between herbal village healing and pharmacological laboratory analysis, we expand our argument by moving from natural science to social science, from studies of plants and substances to those of humans, minds and cultures; from laboratories to ethno-psychological tests, cultural models, and eventually econometrics. We suggest that by reiterating a particular scientific imaginary, remaking humans (and non-human beings) as known things, a specific notion of man and a related political economy of knowledge is naturalized. Looking back at our involvement with this sequence of research, we realize that, contrary to our intentions, our inclusion as 'social scientists' into a multidisciplinary scientific project may have exacerbated rather than mitigated its potentially problematic effects.
Neha A Kajale
Full Text Available Introduction: Dietary and life style practices differ in postpartum (PP and nonpregnant Indian women. Effect of these practices on postpartum weight retention (PPWR and development of cardio-metabolic risk (CMR has been scarcely studied in urban women. Aims of this study were to (i compare anthropometry, biochemical parameters and body composition up to 3 years PP (ii effect of PPWR, dietary fat intake and physical activity on CMR factors. Methods: Design: Cross-sectional, 300-fullterm, apparently healthy primi-parous women (28.6 ± 3.4 years randomly selected. 128 women within 7-day of delivery (Group-A, 88 with 1-2 years (Group-B and 84 with 3-4-year-old-children (Group-C were studied. Anthropometry, sociodemographic status, physical activity, diet, clinical examination, biochemical tests, body composition, at total body (TB, by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (GE-Lunar DPX were collected. Results: Women at 3-year PP showed higher weight retention (6.5 kg than at 1-year (3.0 kg (median [IQR]. Android fat % (central obesity increased (P 0.1. Conclusion: Postdelivery, low physical activity and higher PPWR may increase CMR in Indian women.
This meta-analysis integrates results from 330 studies on differences between body image of children and adolescents with and without chronic physical illness. Young people with a chronic illness had a less positive body image than their healthy peers although the average size of differences was small (g=-.30 standard deviation units). A comparison of diseases showed that young people with obesity (g=-.79), cystic fibrosis (g=-.50), scoliosis (g=-.41), asthma (g=-.37), growth hormone deficits (g=-.35), spina bifida (g=-.23), cancer (g=-.20), and diabetes (g=-.17) evaluated their body less positively than their healthy peers. Furthermore, levels of body dissatisfaction varied by age at onset of the disease, method for assessing body image, ethnicity, year of publication, and comparison group. Recommendations are stated for reducing effects of chronic illness on the body image of people with chronic illness. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Whether mindfulness training (MT could improve healthy behaviors is unknown. This study sought to determine feasibility and acceptability of integrating MT into school-based health education (primary outcomes and to explore its possible effects on healthy behaviors (exploratory outcomes. Two high schools in Massachusetts (2014–2015 were randomized to health education plus MT (HE-MT (one session/week for 8 weeks or to health education plus attention control (HE-AC. Dietary habits (24-h dietary recalls and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA/7-day recalls were assessed at baseline, end of treatment (EOT, and 6 months thereafter. Quantile regression and linear mixed models were used, respectively, to estimate effects on MVPA and dietary outcomes adjusting for confounders. We recruited 53 9th graders (30 HEM, 23 HEAC; average age 14.5, 60% white, 59% female. Retention was 100% (EOT and 96% (6 months; attendance was 96% (both conditions, with moderate-to-high satisfaction ratings. Among students with higher MVPA at baseline, MVPA was higher in HE-MT vs. HE-AC at both EOT (median difference = 81 min/week, p = 0.005 and at 6 months (p = 0.004. Among males, median MVPA was higher (median difference = 99 min/week in HE-MT vs. HEAC at both EOT (p = 0.056 and at 6 months (p = 0.04. No differences were noted in dietary habits. In sum, integrating school-based MT into health education was feasible and acceptable and had promising effects on MVPA among male and more active adolescents. These findings suggest that MT may improve healthy behaviors in adolescents and deserve to be reproduced in larger, rigorous studies.
Salmoirago-Blotcher, Elena; Druker, Susan; Frisard, Christine; Dunsiger, Shira I; Crawford, Sybil; Meleo-Meyer, Florence; Bock, Beth; Pbert, Lori
Whether mindfulness training (MT) could improve healthy behaviors is unknown. This study sought to determine feasibility and acceptability of integrating MT into school-based health education (primary outcomes) and to explore its possible effects on healthy behaviors (exploratory outcomes). Two high schools in Massachusetts (2014-2015) were randomized to health education plus MT (HE-MT) (one session/week for 8 weeks) or to health education plus attention control (HE-AC). Dietary habits (24-h dietary recalls) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA/7-day recalls) were assessed at baseline, end of treatment (EOT), and 6 months thereafter. Quantile regression and linear mixed models were used, respectively, to estimate effects on MVPA and dietary outcomes adjusting for confounders. We recruited 53 9th graders (30 HEM, 23 HEAC; average age 14.5, 60% white, 59% female). Retention was 100% (EOT) and 96% (6 months); attendance was 96% (both conditions), with moderate-to-high satisfaction ratings. Among students with higher MVPA at baseline, MVPA was higher in HE-MT vs. HE-AC at both EOT (median difference = 81 min/week, p = 0.005) and at 6 months ( p = 0.004). Among males, median MVPA was higher (median difference = 99 min/week) in HE-MT vs. HEAC at both EOT ( p = 0.056) and at 6 months ( p = 0.04). No differences were noted in dietary habits. In sum, integrating school-based MT into health education was feasible and acceptable and had promising effects on MVPA among male and more active adolescents. These findings suggest that MT may improve healthy behaviors in adolescents and deserve to be reproduced in larger, rigorous studies.
Jones, Megan; Kass, Andrea E; Trockel, Mickey; Glass, Alan I; Wilfley, Denise E; Taylor, C Barr
This article presents a new approach to intervention for eating disorders and body image concerns on college campuses, using a model of integrated eating disorder screening and intervention. Formative data on implementation feasibility are presented. College students enrolled at 2 universities between 2011 and 2012. The Healthy Body Image program is an evidence-based screening and intervention platform, enacted via community and online resources. An online screen was used to identify students at varying levels of risk or eating disorder symptom status; responses were used to direct students to universal or targeted online interventions or further evaluation. Universal prevention programs to improve healthy weight regulation and body image culture were offered to all students. Formative data from 1,551 students illustrates the application of this model. The Healthy Body Image program is feasible to deliver and provides a comprehensive system of screening, evidence-based intervention, and community culture change.
Wakayama, Sayaka; Ohta, Hiroshi; Hikichi, Takafusa; Mizutani, Eiji; Iwaki, Takamasa; Kanagawa, Osami; Wakayama, Teruhiko
Cloning animals by nuclear transfer provides an opportunity to preserve endangered mammalian species. However, it has been suggested that the "resurrection" of frozen extinct species (such as the woolly mammoth) is impracticable, as no live cells are available, and the genomic material that remains is inevitably degraded. Here we report production of cloned mice from bodies kept frozen at -20 degrees C for up to 16 years without any cryoprotection. As all of the cells were ruptured after thawing, we used a modified cloning method and examined nuclei from several organs for use in nuclear transfer attempts. Using brain nuclei as nuclear donors, we established embryonic stem cell lines from the cloned embryos. Healthy cloned mice were then produced from these nuclear transferred embryonic stem cells by serial nuclear transfer. Thus, nuclear transfer techniques could be used to "resurrect" animals or maintain valuable genomic stocks from tissues frozen for prolonged periods without any cryopreservation.
Crume, Tessa L; Shapiro, Allison L; Brinton, John T; Glueck, Deborah H; Martinez, Mercedes; Kohn, Mary; Harrod, Curtis; Friedman, Jacob E; Dabelea, Dana
The impact of specific maternal fuels and metabolic measures during early and late gestation on neonatal body composition is not well defined. To determine how circulating maternal glucose, lipids, and insulin resistance in the first and second halves of pregnancy influence neonatal body composition. A prospective pre-birth cohort enrolling pregnant women, the Healthy Start Study, was conducted, in which fasting maternal serum samples were collected twice during pregnancy to measure glucose, insulin, hemoglobin A1c, triglyceride, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, and free fatty acids. Neonatal body composition was measured with air displacement plethysmography. An observational epidemiology study of pregnant women attending obstetric clinics at the University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Center. This analysis includes 804 maternal-neonate pairs. A strong positive linear relationship between maternal estimated insulin resistance (homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistance) in the first half of pregnancy and neonatal fat mass (FM) and FM percentage (FM%) was detected, independent of prepregnancy body mass index (BMI). In the second half of pregnancy, positive linear relationships between maternal glucose levels and offspring FM and FM% were observed, independent of prepregnancy BMI. An inverse relationship was detected between high-density lipoprotein in the first half of pregnancy and FM, independent of prepregnancy BMI. Free fatty acid levels in the second half of pregnancy were positively associated with higher birth weight, independent of prepregnancy BMI. Maternal insulin resistance in the first half of pregnancy is highly predictive of neonatal FM%, whereas maternal glycemia, even within the normal range, is an important driver of neonatal adiposity in later pregnancy, independent of prepregnancy BMI. Our data provide additional insights on potential maternal factors responsible for fetal fat accretion and early development of adiposity.
Full Text Available The distribution of fat in different areas of the body is important since accumulation of fat within the abdominal cavity represents a much more severe cardiovascular risk than accumulation in subcutaneous adipose tissues. Apricot seeds contain a wide variety of bioactive compounds and that consumption can decrease blood pressure and total blood cholesterol levels, fight oxidative stress and maintain body weight. The aim of the study was to analyse body composition: body fat mass (BFM, fat free mass (FFM, skeletal muscle mass (SMM, body fat percentage (%BFM, visceral fat area (VFA, total body water (TBW - intracellular water (ICW and extracellular water (ECW and to evaluate the changes that occur after 6-weeks consumption of bitter apricot seeds. The study group finally consisted of 34 healthy adults volunteers (21 females and 13 males. Volunteers were recruited from the general population of Slovakia. Respondents were 23 - 65 years old, where the average age of women was 40.65 ±11.31 years and the average age of men was 36.91 ±9.98 years. All participants were asked to consume 60 mg.kg-1 of body weight of bitter apricot seeds daily during 6 weeks. Body composition was diagnosed by multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (MFBIA by InBody 720 (Biospace Co., Korea, which measures the total impedance at frequencies of 1, 5, 50, 100, 500, 1000 kHz. At baseline mean body weight was 85.78 ±14.66 and 62.84 ±12.19 kg in the male and female participants, respectively. After 6 weeks of consumation we observed non-significant decreasing of mean body weight. The mean BFM was 19.25 ±8.81 kg in the male group and 19.47 ±7.21 kg in the female group. After six weeks, BFM decreased non-significantly (on average 0.5 kg in both groups. The mean FFM at baseline was 43.37 ±5.98 and 66.54 ±7.98 kg in the female and male participants, respectively. The statistical analysis confirmed that the increase of FFM (43.37 ±5.98 kg to 43.56 ±5.80 kg in the
Goy, Burhan; Atmaca, Murat; Aslan, Mehmet; Ucler, Rıfkı; Alay, Murat; Seven, Ismet; Demir, Halit; Ozturk, Mustafa
Menopause is a natural step in the process of aging. Postmenopausal women have decreased levels of antioxidants and increased oxidative stress, the latter of which plays an important role in atherogenesis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship of the body mass index (BMI) with serum catalase activity, malondialdehyde (MDA), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) levels in healthy postmenopausal women and estimate whether the MDA/DHEAS ratio is a possible marker of oxidative stress for determining cardiovascular risk in these women. We investigated serum catalase activity, MDA, and DHEAS levels, parity history, age, and BMI in 96 healthy postmenopausal women aged 50-82 years. The serum MDA levels and catalase activity were measured spectrophotometrically. The serum DHEAS levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The ratio percentage of the serum DHEAS levels to serum MDA levels was designated as a biomarker for oxidative stress. The mean BMI of the patients was 31.72 ± 6.16 kg/m(2) (range = 20.5-47.94). The MDA/DHEAS ratio was significantly decreased in patients with a BMI over 30 compared to that of patients with a BMI between 25 and 30 (P = 0.025). Moreover, BMI was positively correlated with serum DHEAS levels (r = 0.285, P < 0.01) and negatively correlated with the MDA/DHEAS ratio (r = -0.241, P < 0.05) in postmenopausal women. Furthermore, BMI was observed to be a potential predictor of the MDA/DHEAS ratio based on covariance analysis (P = 0.039). Our results indicate that healthy, obese, postmenopausal women have a decreased MDA/DHEAS ratio. Additionally, BMI was observed to be a potential predictor of the MDA/DHEAS ratio.
Sagsoz, Nevin; Kamaci, Mansur; Orbak, Zerrin
It was aimed to determine the normal hair scores of women of Kirikkale region according to the Ferriman- Gallwey scale and to investigate the relationship between the hair shaft diameter and hair scores. Hair scores were calculated in 204 healthy women, and hair shaft diameters were measured from the hair samples collected from 60 patients. Body mass index, waist to hip ratio, insulin resistance and blood androgen levels were determined. Neutral, hormonal and total hair scores were 2.1 1.4, 3.1 2.7 and 5.2 3.6, respectively. The average total hair diameter and hormonal hair diameter were 191.93 90.49 m and 121.8 75.9 m respectively. The correlation between total hair diameter and total hair score was statistically significant (r=0.704 p 0.001). Also, the correlation between hormonal hair diameter and hormonal hair score was statistically significant (r=0.724 p 0.001). While hair scores and diameters show meaningful positive correlation with androgen levels, they show negative correlation with age. In our population, 95% value of total hair score was 11, and for the hormonal score, it was 9. Hair diameters increase with hair score, regardless of total or hormonal of hair scores. Hair scores and hair diameters may be affected by blood androgens in healthy women.
Comstock, Patrick W.
Mindfulness is rapidly becoming a mainstream educational intervention. A growing number of schools, colleges, and universities are incorporating mindfulness into the curriculum, and while there is a substantial body of research literature in psychology attesting to the mental and physical benefits of mindfulness, critics of the movement have…
Bravo, Adrian J; Pearson, Matthew R; Wilson, Adam D; Witkiewitz, Katie
Previous research has found inconsistent relationships between trait mindfulness and state mindfulness. To extend previous research, we sought to examine the unique associations between self-report trait mindfulness and state mindfulness by levels of meditation experience (meditation-naïve vs. meditation-experienced) and by mindfulness induction (experimentally induced mindful state vs. control group). We recruited 299 college students (93 with previous mindfulness meditation experience) to participate in an experiment that involved the assessment of five facets of trait mindfulness (among other constructs), followed by a mindfulness induction (vs. control), followed by the assessment of state mindfulness of body and mind. Correlational analyses revealed limited associations between trait mindfulness facets and facets of state mindfulness, and demonstrated that a brief mindfulness exercise focused on bodily sensations and the breath elicited higher state mindfulness of body but not state mindfulness of mind. We found significant interactions such that individuals with previous meditation experience and higher scores on the observing facet of trait mindfulness had the highest levels of state mindfulness of body and mind. Among individuals with meditation experience, the strengths of the associations between observing trait mindfulness and the state mindfulness facets increased with frequency of meditation practice. Some other interactions ran counter to expectations. Overall, the relatively weak associations between trait and state mindfulness demonstrates the need to improve our operationalizations of mindfulness, advance our understanding of how to best cultivate mindfulness, and reappraise the ways in which mindfulness can manifest as a state and as a trait.
Cornelissen, Katri K; Cornelissen, Piers L; Hancock, Peter J B; Tovée, Martin J
A core feature of anorexia nervosa (AN) is an over-estimation of body size. Women with AN have a different pattern of eye-movements when judging bodies, but it is unclear whether this is specific to their diagnosis or whether it is found in anyone over-estimating body size. To address this question, we compared the eye movement patterns from three participant groups while they carried out a body size estimation task: (i) 20 women with recovering/recovered anorexia (rAN) who had concerns about body shape and weight and who over-estimated body size, (ii) 20 healthy controls who had normative levels of concern about body shape and who estimated body size accurately (iii) 20 healthy controls who had normative levels of concern about body shape but who did over-estimate body size. Comparisons between the three groups showed that: (i) accurate body size estimators tended to look more in the waist region, and this was independent of clinical diagnosis; (ii) there is a pattern of looking at images of bodies, particularly viewing the upper parts of the torso and face, which is specific to participants with rAN but which is independent of accuracy in body size estimation. Since the over-estimating controls did not share the same body image concerns that women with rAN report, their over-estimation cannot be explained by attitudinal concerns about body shape and weight. These results suggest that a distributed fixation pattern is associated with over-estimation of body size and should be addressed in treatment programs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:507-518). © 2016 The Authors. International Journal of Eating Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
D. M. Santos
Full Text Available Background and Aims. Energy expenditure has been negatively correlated with fat accumulation. However, this association is highly variable. In the present study we applied a genotype by environment interaction method to examine the presence of Genotype x by Total Daily Energy Expenditure and Genotype x by Daily Energy Expenditure interactions in the expression of different body composition traits. Methods and Results. A total of 958 subjects from 294 families of The Portuguese Healthy Family Study were included in the analysis. TDEE and DEE were assessed using a physical activity recall. Body fat percentages were measured with a bioelectrical impedance scale. GxTDEE and GxDEE examinations were performed using SOLAR 4.0 software. All BC traits were significantly heritable, with heritabilities ranging from 21% to 34%. The GxTDEE and GxDEE interaction models fitted the data better than the polygenic model for all traits. For all traits, a significant GxTDEE and GxDEE interaction was due to variance heterogeneity among distinct levels of TDEE and DEE. For WC, GxTDEE was also significant due to the genetic correlation function. Conclusions. TDEE and DEE are environmental constraints associated with the expression of individuals’ BC genotypes, leading to variability in the phenotypic expression of BC traits.
Full Text Available In 102 conditionally healthy volunteers aged from 19 to 30 years (average age is 19,53 ± 11 years the volatility of heart rate variability (HRV spectral parameters depending on body mass index (BMI were evaluated. According to WHO recommendations on the calculation and interpretation of BMI were such groups of volunteers: underweight, normal body weight, overweight, obesity I degree, obesity II degree, obesity III degree. Among HRV parameters were evaluated total power (TP, ms2, power of very low frequency (VLF, ms2, low frequency (LF, ms2 and high frequency (HF, ms2 domains of HRV spectrum in the 5-minute intervals of ECG in I standard lead. The data were processed by methods of nonparametric statistics. It was established that spectral characteristics of HRV in volunteers with normal BMI have a high TP with harmonious relations between VLF, LF and HF domains; decreased or increased BMI provokes TP reduction by decreasing power of all domains of HRV (VLF, LF, HF with a predominance of VLF proportion and this effect increases with the degree of deviation of the parameter.
Obata, Kengo; Yumoto, Tetsuya; Fuke, Soichiro; Tsukahara, Kohei; Naito, Hiromichi; Iida, Atsuyoshi; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Ujike, Yoshihito; Nakao, Atsunori
Early mobilization is advocated to prevent intensive care unit-acquired physical weakness, but the patient's workload and its changes in response to body position changes have not been established. We used indirect calorimetry to determine the energy expenditure (EE) in response to body position changes, and we assessed EE's correlation with respiratory parameters in healthy volunteers: 8 males and 8 females, mean age 23.4±1.3 years. The subjects started in the resting supine position followed by a 30° head-up position, a 60° head-up position, an upright sitting position, a standing position, and the resting supine position. EE was determined in real time by indirect calorimetry monitoring the subject's respiratory rate, tidal volume (VT), and minute volume (MV). The highest values were observed immediately after the subjects transitioned from standing to supine, and this was significantly higher compared to the original supine position (1,450±285 vs. 2,004±519 kcal/day, p<0.01). Moderate correlations were observed between VT and EE (r=0.609, p<0.001) and between MV and EE (r=0.576, p<0.001). Increasing VT or MV indicates an increasing patient workload during mobilization. Monitoring these parameters may contribute to safe rehabilitation. Further studies should assess EE in critically ill patients.
Santos, D M; Katzmarzyk, P T; Diego, V P; Gomes, T N; Santos, F K; Blangero, J; Maia, J A
Energy expenditure has been negatively correlated with fat accumulation. However, this association is highly variable. In the present study we applied a genotype by environment interaction method to examine the presence of Genotype x by Total Daily Energy Expenditure and Genotype x by Daily Energy Expenditure interactions in the expression of different body composition traits. A total of 958 subjects from 294 families of The Portuguese Healthy Family Study were included in the analysis. TDEE and DEE were assessed using a physical activity recall. Body fat percentages were measured with a bioelectrical impedance scale. GxTDEE and GxDEE examinations were performed using SOLAR 4.0 software. All BC traits were significantly heritable, with heritabilities ranging from 21% to 34%. The GxTDEE and GxDEE interaction models fitted the data better than the polygenic model for all traits. For all traits, a significant GxTDEE and GxDEE interaction was due to variance heterogeneity among distinct levels of TDEE and DEE. For WC, GxTDEE was also significant due to the genetic correlation function. TDEE and DEE are environmental constraints associated with the expression of individuals' BC genotypes, leading to variability in the phenotypic expression of BC traits.
Steering the Mysterious Mind, describes a unique, novel concept for a way to gain control of your mind. The five basic elements of human life, that is; Creativity, Contentment, Confidence, Calmness, and Concentration (C5) have been introduced in my previous book Unlock Your Personalization...... well-being is key for happy and stress free life. Mind has enormous energy. Everyone has access to tremendous mental energies; what matters is being aware of this and to work on concentrating your energy into creative work. To achieve mental strength, C5 is a supreme powerful exercise for the mind....... Compare it with going to the gym where you work on the physical body. In the same way as with arms and legs, the mind is a muscle which you exercise through C5 practice. Steering the mind on your personal goal will help you to be creative....
Chen, Tsai-Ling; Chou, Fan-Hao; Wang, Hsiu-Hung
"Mindfulness" is an emerging concept in the field of healthcare. Ranging from stress relief to psychotherapy, mindfulness has been confirmed to be an effective tool to help individuals manage depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and other health problems in clinical settings. Scholars currently use various definitions for mindfulness. While some of these definitions overlap, significant differences remain and a general scholarly consensus has yet to be reached. Several domestic and international studies have explored mindfulness-related interventions and their effectiveness. However, the majority of these studies have focused on the fields of clinical medicine, consultation, and education. Mindfulness has rarely been applied in clinical nursing practice and no related systematic concept analysis has been conducted. This paper conducts a concept analysis of mindfulness using the concept analysis method proposed by Walker and Avant (2011). We describe the defining characteristics of mindfulness, clarify the concept, and confirm the predisposing factors and effects of mindfulness using examples of typical cases, borderline cases, related cases, and contrary case. Findings may provide nursing staff with an understanding of the concept of mindfulness for use in clinical practice in order to help patients achieve a comfortable state of body and mind healing.
Francois-Pierre J Martin
Full Text Available Visceral adiposity is increasingly recognized as a key condition for the development of obesity related disorders, with the ratio between visceral adipose tissue (VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT reported as the best correlate of cardiometabolic risk. In this study, using a cohort of 40 obese females (age: 25-45 y, BMI: 28-40 kg/m(2 under healthy clinical conditions and monitored over a 2 weeks period we examined the relationships between different body composition parameters, estimates of visceral adiposity and blood/urine metabolic profiles. Metabonomics and lipidomics analysis of blood plasma and urine were employed in combination with in vivo quantitation of body composition and abdominal fat distribution using iDXA and computerized tomography. Of the various visceral fat estimates, VAT/SAT and VAT/total abdominal fat ratios exhibited significant associations with regio-specific body lean and fat composition. The integration of these visceral fat estimates with metabolic profiles of blood and urine described a distinct amino acid, diacyl and ether phospholipid phenotype in women with higher visceral fat. Metabolites important in predicting visceral fat adiposity as assessed by Random forest analysis highlighted 7 most robust markers, including tyrosine, glutamine, PC-O 44∶6, PC-O 44∶4, PC-O 42∶4, PC-O 40∶4, and PC-O 40∶3 lipid species. Unexpectedly, the visceral fat associated inflammatory profiles were shown to be highly influenced by inter-days and between-subject variations. Nevertheless, the visceral fat associated amino acid and lipid signature is proposed to be further validated for future patient stratification and cardiometabolic health diagnostics.
Jagger, Carol; McKee, Martin; Christensen, Kaare
of HLY/LE on year (seven countries retaining same HLY question) or extrapolating the average of HLY/LE in 2008 and 2009 to 2010 (20 countries and EU27). The first scenario continued these trends with three other scenarios exploring different HLY gap reductions between 2010 and 2020. RESULTS......: The estimated gap in HLY in 2010 was 17.5 years (men) and 18.9 years (women). Assuming current trends continue, EU27 HLY increased by 1.4 years (men) and 0.9 years (women), below the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing target, with the HLY gap between countries increasing to 18.3 years...... (men) and 19.5 years (women). To eliminate the HLY gap in 20 years, the EU27 must gain 4.4 HLY (men) and 4.8 HLY (women) in the next decade, which, for some countries, is substantially more than what the current trends suggest. CONCLUSION: Global targets for HLY move attention from inter...
Schmidt, I. M.; Mølgaard, C.; Main, K. M.
When evaluating renal abnormalities, kidney volume is an important parameter. Most reference materials on kidney size in children are based on data from pediatric patients examined for non-uronephrological problems. Renal size is traditionally related to body height, weight, or surface area......, but not to body composition. As part of a prospective cohort study we have examined 102 healthy 10-year-old children measuring kidney volume by ultrasonography, body composition by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and body height and weight. Boys had significantly larger kidneys than girls. The strongest...
Boot, Annemieke M; Krenning, Eric P; de Muinck Keizer-Schrama, Sabine M P F
The associations between peak bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition with 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels in healthy young adults were evaluated. The number of participants was 464; 347 women and 117 men. The mean age was 24.3 years (range 17-31 years). BMD of the lumbar spine, total body and femoral neck (FN) and body composition were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Volumetric BMD, bone mineral apparent density (BMAD), of the lumbar spine and FN was calculated. In females, 25OHD level was positively associated with FN BMD and BMAD (both ppercentage body fat (pbody BMD and lean body mass (p=0.03 and p=0.01). 25OHD level is a determinant of peak BMD in both sexes. Vitamin D status was associated with body fat in females and with lean body mass in males.
In this paper we argue that the interaction between neurosciences and philosophy of the mind is on the way to understand consciousness, and to solve the mind-body or mind-brain problem. Naturalism is the view that mental processes are just brain processes and that consciousness is a natural phenomenon. It is possible to construct a theory about its nature by blending insights from neuroscience, philosophy of the mind, phenomenology, psychology and evolutionary biology.
. In the beginning, cognitive approaches were central, but these have been gradually replaced by spiritual, phenomenological or existential perspectives. The article takes a historical point of departure in Williams James’ (1902) groundbreaking study of spiritual experiences related to 'healthy-mindedness' and 'mind......-cure' and explains a series of characteristics and documented effects of contemporary Buddhist psychological or spiritual inspired practice of mindfulness. It is concluded that mindfulness challenges established health education and the outlined understandings of mental health by breaking with the action orientation...
Lynae J. Hanks
Conclusions: Our findings in a healthy population display an age-related increase in serum FGF21, highlighting a potential age effect in response to metabolic demand over the lifecourse. FGF21 levels increase with age independently of body composition. At lower levels of FGF21, BMD, but not other body composition parameters, attenuates the association between FGF21 level and age, suggesting the metabolic demand of the skeleton may provide a link between FGF21 and energy metabolism.
Bharadwaj, Manish S.; Tyrrell, Daniel J.; Leng, Iris; Demons, Jamehl L.; Lyles, Mary F.; Carr, J. Jeffrey; Nicklas, Barbara J.; Molina, Anthony J. A.
Background Mitochondrial function declines with age; however, the relationship between adiposity and mitochondrial function among older adults is unclear. This study examined relationships between skeletal muscle mitochondrial content and electron transport chain complex 2 driven respiration with whole body and thigh composition, body fat distribution, and insulin sensitivity in older adults. Methods 25 healthy, sedentary, weight-stable men (N = 13) and women (N = 12) >65 years of age, with a...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity has become a serious problem all over the world. Handgrip Strength (a form of isometric static contraction test, is an important test to evaluate the physical fitness and nutritional status of an individua l. A number of factors like a ge, gender, body size, effort, skeletal muscle bulk and contractility may affect the handgrip strength (HGS and handgrip endurance (HGE. AIM: This study was conducted to establish the possible correlation (if any between body mass index and handgrip str ength and endurance among young healthy adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A population based cross - sectional study comprising of 200 students (both male and female, age group - 18 - 22 yrs was carried out in the Department of Physiology, Jorhat Medical College. Anthropometric parameters like height and weight were taken to evaluate the BMI and handgrip strength and handgrip endurance were taken by using handgrip dynamometer. According to WHO classification of BMI, subjects were categorized into three groups as un derweight BMI ≤18.5 kg/m 2 , normal weight BMI 18.5 - 24.9 kg/m 2 and overweight BMI≥ 24.9 kg/m 2 . Gender wise difference was analyzed by unpaired t test. Statistical analysis for correlation was done by using Karl Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient denoted by(r. RESULT: Males had higher handgrip strength and handgrip endurance than females. Statistic ally significant correlation was found between BMI and handgrip strength & endurance in underweight & overweight subjects. Gender differences in correlation were observed in correlation between BMI & HGS and HGE. CONCLUSION: The observed influence of BMI a nd gender differences in correlation between BMI and HGS and HGE indicate that besides BMI several other factors like effort, strength, muscular contractility etc . affect muscular strength & endurance in young males and females.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Body composition is an important parameter for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD whereas the association between asthma and obesity is not fully understood. The impact of severe refractory asthma (SRA on fat free mass (FFM has not been investigated. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 213 subjects (70 healthy smokers, 71 COPD patients and 72 asthma patients without significant comorbidities were included in the study. In all patients, body composition assessment (using bioelectrical impendance analysis, skinfold and anthropometric measurements and spirometry were performed. Differences in fat free mass index (FFMI between groups were assessed and determinants of FFMI in asthma were evaluated. Patients with SRA had lower values of FFMI compared to patients with mild-to-moderate asthma [18.0(17.3-18.3-19.5(18.4-21.5, p<0.001], despite the fact that they were more obese. The levels of FFMI in SRA were lower than those of GOLD stage I-III COPD and comparable to those of stage IV COPD patients [18.0(17.3-18.3-18.8(17.8-20.1, p = ns]. These differences were present even after proper adjustments for sex, age, smoking status, daily dose of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS and daily use of oral corticosteroids (OCS. In multivariate analysis, independent predictors of FFMI in asthmatic patients were age, use of OCS and the presence of SRA, but not smoking, sex or cumulative dose of ICS used. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: SRA is related to the presence of low FFMI that is comparable to that of GOLD stage IV COPD. The impact of this observation on asthma mechanisms and outcomes should be further investigated in large prospective studies.
Ricciardelli Lina A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Overall the physical health of Indigenous men is among the worst in Australia. Research has indicated that modifiable lifestyle factors, such as poor nutrition and physical inactivity, appear to contribute strongly to these poor health conditions. To effectively develop and implement strategies to improve the health of Australia's Indigenous peoples, a greater understanding is needed of how Indigenous men perceive health, and how they view and care for their bodies. Further, a more systematic understanding of how sociocultural factors affect their health attitudes and behaviours is needed. This article presents the study protocol of a community-based investigation into the factors surrounding the health and body image of Indigenous Australian men. Methods and design The study will be conducted in a collaborative manner with Indigenous Australian men using a participatory action research framework. Men will be recruited from three locations around Australia (metropolitan, regional, and rural and interviewed to understand their experiences and perspectives on a number of issues related to health and health behaviour. The information that is collected will be analysed using modified grounded theory and thematic analysis. The results will then be used to develop and implement community events in each location to provide feedback on the findings to the community, promote health enhancing strategies, and determine future action and collaboration. Discussion This study will explore both risk and protective factors that affect the health of Indigenous Australian men. This knowledge will be disseminated to the wider Indigenous community and can be used to inform future health promotion strategies. The expected outcome of this study is therefore an increased understanding of health and health change in Indigenous Australian men, the development of strategies that promote healthy eating and positive patterns of physical activity and, in
Hart, Laura M; Damiano, Stephanie R; Paxton, Susan J
Body image and eating patterns develop in early childhood and are influenced by the family environment. This research evaluated Confident Body, Confident Child (CBCC), an intervention for parents of 2- to 6-year-old children, designed to promote body satisfaction, healthy eating, and weight management in early childhood. A randomized controlled trial compared four groups: (A) received the CBCC resource pack and a workshop, (B) received the CBCC resource pack only, (C) received a nutrition-only resource and (D) received no interventions until all questionnaires were completed (i.e., functioned as waitlist control). Measures of parenting variables relevant to child body image and eating patterns, parent-report of child weight, and evaluation questions about the resource, were implemented pre- and post-intervention. At 6-weeks post-intervention, the CBCC resource was associated with significant reductions in parents' intentions to use behaviors that increase the risk of negative body attitudes or unhealthy eating in their children, in parents' use of feeding practices associated with childhood overweight, and in television watching during family meals. Significant increases in parents' intentions to use positive behaviors and knowledge of child body image and healthy eating patterns were also found. Superior results were found for the CBCC resource + workshop condition, suggesting it is the preferred delivery method. CBCC positively impacts parenting variables associated with childhood risk for body dissatisfaction, unhealthy eating and weight. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:458-472). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
The psychophysiological properties of the lucid dream state were examined to evaluate the relationship between lucid and nonlucid dreaming, emphasizing the fact that the components of self-reflectiveness and other cognitive features commonly associated with lucid dreams occur in all dreams to various extents. Although lucid dreams are clearly toward one end of the continuum, they still share many of the characteristics present in most dreams. In this respect, exploration of lucid dreams may not necessarily be a misguided path toward the understanding of dreaming in general. A simple model was described to illustrate the mind-body relationship in various forms of REM dreaming.
Creswell, J David
Mindfulness interventions aim to foster greater attention to and awareness of present moment experience. There has been a dramatic increase in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of mindfulness interventions over the past two decades. This article evaluates the growing evidence of mindfulness intervention RCTs by reviewing and discussing (a) the effects of mindfulness interventions on health, cognitive, affective, and interpersonal outcomes; (b) evidence-based applications of mindfulness interventions to new settings and populations (e.g., the workplace, military, schools); (c) psychological and neurobiological mechanisms of mindfulness interventions; (d) mindfulness intervention dosing considerations; and (e) potential risks of mindfulness interventions. Methodologically rigorous RCTs have demonstrated that mindfulness interventions improve outcomes in multiple domains (e.g., chronic pain, depression relapse, addiction). Discussion focuses on opportunities and challenges for mindfulness intervention research and on community applications.
Full Text Available This study assessed the feasibility of stochastic resonance whole-body vibration (SR-WBV training and its impact on isometric maximal voluntary contraction (IMVC, isometric rate of force development (IRFD and a drop jump test (DJ in healthy female students. Twelve participants were randomised to static squats during SR-WBV 6 Hz, noise level 4, over 4 weeks or to a control group (no training. Feasibility outcomes included the number of students agreeing to participate, the number of drop-outs, the adherence to the SR-WBV and the evaluation of the protocol. Secondary outcomes were IMVC, IRFD and DJ. Results: Among 35 eligible students, 12 agreed to participate and two dropped out. The adherence was 41 of 60 possible sessions. There were moderate to large, but statistically non-significant, gains in the secondary outcomes. Conclusion: These results suggest that such a study would be feasible although with some modifications such as a better familiarisation to the DJ.
Kollei, Ines; Horndasch, Stefanie; Erim, Yesim; Martin, Alexandra
Cognitive behavioral models postulate that selective attention plays an important role in the maintenance of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). It is suggested that individuals with BDD overfocus on perceived defects in their appearance, which may contribute to the excessive preoccupation with their appearance. The present study used eye tracking to examine visual selective attention in individuals with BDD (n=19), as compared to individuals with bulimia nervosa (BN) (n=21) and healthy controls (HCs) (n=21). Participants completed interviews, questionnaires, rating scales and an eye tracking task: Eye movements were recorded while participants viewed photographs of their own face and attractive as well as unattractive other faces. Eye tracking data showed that BDD and BN participants focused less on their self-rated most attractive facial part than HCs. Scanning patterns in own and other faces showed that BDD and BN participants paid as much attention to attractive as to unattractive features in their own face, whereas they focused more on attractive features in attractive other faces. HCs paid more attention to attractive features in their own face and did the same in attractive other faces. Results indicate an attentional bias in BDD and BN participants manifesting itself in a neglect of positive features compared to HCs. Perceptual retraining may be an important aspect to focus on in therapy in order to overcome the neglect of positive facial aspects. Future research should aim to disentangle attentional processes in BDD by examining the time course of attentional processing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rebecca A. Seguin
Full Text Available Background. The repeated loss and regain of body weight, referred to as weight cycling, may be associated with negative health complications. Given today’s obesity epidemic and related interventions to address obesity, it is increasingly important to understand contexts and factors associated with weight loss maintenance. This study examined BMI among individuals who had previously participated in a 12-week, evidence-based, nationally disseminated nutrition and physical activity program designed for overweight and obese middle-aged and older women. Methods. Data were collected using follow-up surveys. Complete height and weight data were available for baseline, 12-week program completion (post-program and follow-up (approximately 3 years later for 154 women (response rate = 27.5%; BMI characteristics did not differ between responders and nonresponders. Results. Mean BMI decreased significantly from baseline to post-program (−0.5, P<0.001 and post-program to follow-up (−0.7, P<0.001. Seventy-five percent of survey respondents maintained or decreased BMI post-program to follow-up. Self-efficacy and social support for healthy eating behaviors (but not physical activity were associated with BMI maintenance or additional weight loss. Conclusions. These findings support the durability of weight loss following participation in a relatively short-term intervention.
Bemben Michael G
Full Text Available Abstract Background Total body water (TBW estimations have been used to estimate body composition, particularly fat-free mass, to aid in nutritional interventions, and to monitor hydration status. In the past, bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS devices have been used to estimate TBW. Previous investigations have examined the validity of the XiTRON 4000B (XiTRON Technologies BIS device for estimating TBW. Recently, a new BIS device (Imp™ SFB7 has become available, claiming greater precision when estimating TBW. The Imp™ SFB7 (SFB7 is based on similar BIS principles, while offering increased portability and a greater range of frequencies when compared to older devices, such as the XiTRON 4000B (4000B. The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of the SFB7 for estimating total body water in healthy college-age men and women compared to the 4000B and deuterium oxide (D2O. Methods Twenty-eight Caucasian men and women (14 men, 14 women; 24 ± 4 yrs; 174.6 ± 8.7 cm; 72.80 ± 17.58 kg had their TBW estimated by the SFB7, the 4000B, and D2O. Results Both BIS devices produced similar standard error of estimate (SEE and r values (SFB7, SEE = 2.12L, r = 0.98; 4000B, SEE = 2.99L, r = 0.96 when compared to D2O, though a significant constant error (CE was detected for the 4000B (2.26L, p ≤ 0.025. The 4000B produced a larger total error (TE and CE (TE = 3.81L, CE = 2.26L when compared to the SFB7 (TE = 2.21L, CE = -0.09L. Additionally, the limits of agreement were larger for the 4000B (-3.88 to 8.39L than the SFB7 (-4.50 to 4.31L. These results were consistent when sex was analyzed separately, though women produced lower SEE and TE values for both devices. Conclusion The 4000B and SFB7 are valid BIS devices when compared to D2O to estimate TBW in college-age Caucasian men and women. Furthermore, the new SFB7 device displayed greater precision in comparison to the 4000B, which may decrease the error when estimating TBW on an individual basis.
Boot, Annemieke M.; Krenning, Eric P.; Keizer-Schrama, Sabine M. P. F. de Muinck
Objective: The associations between peak bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition with 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels in healthy young adults were evaluated. Methods: The number of participants was 464; 347 women and 117 men. The mean age was 24.3 years (range 17-31 years). BMD of the
Buhlmann, Ulrike; Wacker, Renata; Dziobek, Isabel
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) are characterized by fears of negative evaluation by others (related to one's own incompetence or flawed appearance, respectively). Previous research has shown that individuals with SAD and BDD exhibit difficulty identifying facial expressions and interpretive biases for threat in social situations. The current study aimed at further investigating social cognition in SAD, BDD, and mentally healthy controls (35 individuals per group, respectively). Further, 35 individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) as a clinical control group not characterized by evaluation fears were included. The Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition (MASC) was applied. It consists of 45 video sequences depicting interactions among four people at a dinner party. Participants are instructed to evaluate each scenario with respect to the characters' emotions, thoughts, and intentions from a bystander perspective (i.e. other-referent context). Only the socially anxious groups (SAD and BDD) were overall less accurate than the other groups in correctly interpreting the social situations, whereas no difference was obtained between the OCD and the control group. Further analyses indicated that the SAD and BDD groups were less accurate in identifying other people's thoughts and intentions, whereas, again, no difference was observed between the OCD and control groups. In addition, the SAD group was less accurate in inferring thoughts and intentions than the OCD group. Interestingly, the groups did not differ with respect to identifying other people's emotions. These results mostly confirm existing cognitive-behavioral models of SAD and BDD emphasizing that biased interpretation of what others think or intend is one of the key factors maintaining social anxiety and appearance-related concerns. Our study shows that this bias generalizes to social situations in which individuals take a third-person observer perspective
Hawke, Fiona; Rome, Keith; Evans, Angela Margaret
The complex relationship between foot posture, flexibility, body mass and age in children is not well understood. The objectives of this post hoc analysis were to explore the relationships between foot posture, flexibility, body mass in children aged seven to 15 years. Thirty healthy, asymptomatic children (20 girls, 10 boys) aged 7 to 15 years with a mean age (SD) of 10.7 (2.3) years, were recruited through the Auckland University of Technology (AUT) Podiatry Clinic, Auckland, New Zealand. Clinical data were collected by a podiatrist with 20 years' experience and included: height and weight (for Body Mass Index), Foot Posture Index-6 (FPI), Beighton score, Lower Limb Assessment Scale score (LLAS); and ankle lunge angle. For this post hoc analysis, Pearson's test and Spearman's rho were used to explore relationships between variables. Statistical significance level was p posture between girls and boys (p = 0.21). In this sample of healthy, asymptomatic children age 7 to 15 years, children with a more pronated foot type exhibited greater lower limb and whole-body flexibility, but not greater ankle joint flexibility. There was strong agreement between lower-limb and whole-body flexibility. This study highlights the importance of assessing the paediatric flat foot in the context of a developing body.
Sieukaran, Daniella Davidra
The healthy eater self-schema (HESS) and body appreciation (BA) are associated with healthy behaviours. However, there is a paucity of research investigating these variables among adolescents. Using an adolescent sample, this study’s goals were to investigate the association between HESS and BA, and to explore the impact of gender, race/ethnicity, and family. A total of 224 adolescents (15-18 years; 64.3% female), 100 mothers, and 59 fathers completed self-report questionnaires. HESS was posi...
Rodgers, Rachel F
Sociocultural models of body image and eating concerns have highlighted the role of the social discourse in promoting the pursuit of the thin-ideal. Recently, another weight-focused social discourse has gained ground, focused on the goal of maintaining body weight within the boundaries of a weight-range defined as "Healthy." This discourse is somewhat different to the promotion of the thin-ideal; however, it might also be implicated in the development of body image and eating concerns. The present study aimed to extend sociocultural theories of the development of body image and eating concerns by (1) proposing a theoretical model accounting for pressure to maintain a "Healthy Weight", and (2) reviewing the existing evidence for the pathways included in this model. In the proposed model, pressure to maintain a Healthy Weight leads to the internalization of anti-fat attitudes and the need to control weight as well as beliefs in the controllability of weight through diet and exercise. These beliefs may then lead to body preoccupation and disordered eating. The extant literature provides initial support for these relationships; however, empirical testing of this model is necessary to determine its usefulness as an explanatory model and in providing intervention targets for future prevention and intervention efforts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ford, Andrew H; Flicker, Leon; Passage, Jurgen; Wibrow, Bradley; Anstey, Matthew; Edwards, Mark; Almeida, Osvaldo P
Delirium is a common occurrence in patients undergoing major cardiac surgery and is associated with a number of adverse consequences for the individual, their family and the health system. Current approaches to the prevention of delirium include identifying those at risk together with various non-pharmacological and pharmacological strategies, although the efficacy of these is often modest. Emerging evidence suggests that melatonin may be biologically implicated in the development of delirium and that melatonin supplementation may be beneficial in reducing the incidence of delirium in medical and surgical patients. We designed this trial to determine whether melatonin reduces the incidence of delirium following cardiac surgery compared with placebo. The Healthy Heart-Mind trial is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of 3 mg melatonin or matching placebo administered on seven consecutive days for the prevention of delirium following cardiac surgery. We will recruit 210 adult participants, aged 50 and older, undergoing elective or semi-elective cardiac surgery with the primary outcome of interest for this study being the difference in the incidence of delirium between the groups within 7 days of surgery. Secondary outcomes of interest include the difference between groups in the severity and duration of delirious episodes, hospital length of stay and referrals to mental health services during admission. In addition, we will assess differences in depressive and anxiety symptoms, as well as cognitive performance, at discharge and 3 months after surgery. The results of this trial will clarify whether melatonin reduces the incidence of delirium following cardiac surgery. The trial is registered with the Australian Clinical Trials Registry, trial number ACTRN12615000819527 (10 August 2015).
Rahl, Hayley A.; Lindsay, Emily K.; Pacilio, Laura E.; Brown, Kirk W.; Creswell, J. David
Mindfulness meditation programs, which train individuals to monitor their present moment experience in an open or accepting way, have been shown to reduce mind-wandering on standardized tasks in several studies. Here we test two competing accounts for how mindfulness training reduces mind-wandering, evaluating whether the attention monitoring component of mindfulness training alone reduces mind-wandering or whether the acceptance training component is necessary for reducing mind-wandering. Healthy young adults (N=147) were randomized to either a 3-day brief mindfulness training condition incorporating instruction in both attention monitoring and acceptance, a mindfulness training condition incorporating attention monitoring instruction only, a relaxation training condition, or a reading control condition. Participants completed measures of dispositional mindfulness and treatment expectancies before the training session on Day 1 and then completed a 6-minute Sustained Attention Response Task (SART) measuring mind-wandering after the training session on Day 3. Acceptance training was important for reducing mind-wandering, such that the monitoring + acceptance mindfulness training condition had the lowest mind-wandering relative to the other conditions, including significantly lower mind-wandering relative to the monitor-only mindfulness training condition. In one of the first experimental mindfulness training dismantling studies to-date, we show that training in acceptance is a critical driver of mindfulness training reductions in mind-wandering. This effect suggests that acceptance skills may facilitate emotion regulation on boring and frustrating sustained attention tasks that foster mind-wandering, such as the SART. PMID:27819445
The External Mind: an Introduction by Riccardo Fusaroli, Claudio Paolucci pp. 3-31 The sign of the Hand: Symbolic Practices and the Extended Mind by Massimiliano Cappuccio, Michael Wheeler pp. 33-55 The Overextended Mind by Shaun Gallagher pp. 57-68 The "External Mind": Semiotics, Pragmatism......, Extended Mind and Distributed Cognition by Claudio Paolucci pp. 69-96 The Social Horizon of Embodied Language and Material Symbols by Riccardo Fusaroli pp. 97-123 Semiotics and Theories of Situated/Distributed Action and Cognition: a Dialogue and Many Intersections by Tommaso Granelli pp. 125-167 Building...... Action in Public Environments with Diverse Semiotic Resources by Charles Goodwin pp. 169-182 How Marking in Dance Constitutes Thinking with the Body by David Kirsh pp. 183-214 Ambiguous Coordination: Collaboration in Informal Science Education Research by Ivan Rosero, Robert Lecusay, Michael Cole pp. 215-240...
Polus Barbara I
Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis of rhythmic patterns embedded within beat-to-beat variations in heart rate (heart rate variability is a tool used to assess the balance of cardiac autonomic nervous activity and may be predictive for prognosis of some medical conditions, such as myocardial infarction. It has also been used to evaluate the impact of manipulative therapeutics and body position on autonomic regulation of the cardiovascular system. However, few have compared cardiac autonomic activity in supine and prone positions, postures commonly assumed by patients in manual therapy. We intend to redress this deficiency. Methods Heart rate, heart rate variability, and beat-to-beat blood pressure were measured in young, healthy non-smokers, during prone, supine, and sitting postures and with breathing paced at 0.25 Hz. Data were recorded for 5 minutes in each posture: Day 1 – prone and supine; Day 2 – prone and sitting. Paired t-tests or Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used to evaluate posture-related differences in blood pressure, heart rate, and heart rate variability. Results Prone versus supine: blood pressure and heart rate were significantly higher in the prone posture (p p Conclusion Cardiac autonomic activity was not measurably different in prone and supine postures, but heart rate and blood pressure were. Although heart rate variability parameters indicated sympathetic dominance during sitting (supporting work of others, blood pressure was higher in the prone posture. These differences should be considered when autonomic regulation of cardiovascular function is studied in different postures.
Osamura, Toshio; Ono, Kunihiko; Funaki, Hidenori; Fujita, Hiromi; Kidowaki, Takuro; Kiyosawa, Nobuyuki; Mizuta, Ryuzo (Kyoto Second Red Cross Hospital (Japan)); Hanayasu, Hajime; Yoshioka, Hiroshi
For 68 healthy children (38 male and 30 female) ranging in age from 1 to 16 years, we measured the bone mineral density (BMD) of different regions (skull, upper extremities, ribs, thoracic spine, lumbar spine, pelvis and lower extremities) and the total body BMD using a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA; QDR-1000/W, Hologic Co.). The total body BMD increased linearly with age for both sexes (male: r=0.9501, female: r=0.9715; p<0.0001). The increase was more prominent in boys compared to girls. There was also a positive correlation between the ratio of total body bone mineral content to lean body mass and age, although total body BMD showed a stronger correlation with age. Furthermore, the total body BMD correlated highly with body height and weight. There were positive correlations between the BMD of different regions and age. Specifically, the BMD of the lower extremities correlated strongly with age. In addition, the BMD of the skull increased at the highest rate. Considering convenience, accuracy and precision, measurement time, radiation exposure dose and the strong correlation with age, measurement of the total body BMD by DEXA is thought to be an effective method of quantifying bone mineral, useful in the evaluation of bone metabolism kinetics in children. (author).
Marini, Ida; Alessandri Bonetti, Giulio; Bortolotti, Francesco; Bartolucci, Maria Lavinia; Gatto, Maria Rosaria; Michelotti, Ambra
It has been hypothesized that different plantar sensory inputs could influence the whole body posture and dental occlusion but there is a lack of evidence on this possible association. To investigate the effects of experimental insoles redistributing plantar pressure on body posture, mandibular kinematics and electromyographic (EMG) activity of masticatory muscles on healthy subjects. A pilot study was conducted on 19 healthy volunteers that wore custom-made insoles normalizing the plantar pressure distribution for 2 weeks. Body posture parameters were measured by means of an optoelectronic stereophotogrammetric analysis; mandibular kinematics was analyzed by means of gothic arch tracings; superficial EMG activity of head and neck muscles was performed. Measurements were carried out 10 days before the insertion of the insoles, immediately before the insertion, the day after, 7 and 14 days after, in four different exteroceptive conditions. The outcomes of the present study show that insoles do not modify significantly over time the parameters of body posture, SEMG activity of head and neck muscles and mandibular kinematics. In this pilot study the experimental insoles did not significantly influence the body posture, the mandibular kinematics and the activity of masticatory muscles during a 14-day follow up period. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
O'Connor, K G; Harman, S M; Stevens, T E; Jayme, J J; Bellantoni, M F; Busby-Whitehead, M J; Christmas, C; Münzer, T; Tobin, J D; Roy, T A; Cottrell, E; St Clair, C; Pabst, K M; Blackman, M R
Aging is associated with decreased growth hormone (GH) secretion and plasma insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels, increased total and abdominal fat, total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides, and reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Similar changes in lipids and body composition occur in nonelderly GH-deficient adults and are reversed with GH administration. To examine whether GH/IGF-I axis function in the elderly is related to the lipid profile independently of body fat, we evaluated GH secretion, serum IGF-I and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) levels, adiposity via the body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio (WHR), dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and circulating lipids in 101 healthy subjects older than 65 years. Integrated nocturnal GH secretion (log IAUPGH) was inversely related (P HDL cholesterol (P HDL cholesterol was inversely related to the WHR (P body fat, to be an independent determinant of total (P HDL cholesterol (P HDL in women (P body fat or lipid measures, except for a positive correlation of IGF-I with triglycerides in men. Thus, endogenous nocturnal GH secretion predicts total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol levels independently of total or abdominal fat, suggesting that it is an independent cardiometabolic risk factor in healthy elderly people.
Barr-Wilson, Susie K.; Roberts, Nina S.
Outdoor adventure may improve body image. However, minimal research exists on the effect outdoor adventure has on body image in adolescent girls, a demographic continually plagued by negative body image. In response, this exploratory study considered the influence of one outdoor adventure program in the San Francisco Bay Area. Through…
Full Text Available Fasting is one of the fundamental treatments of naturopathy. Use of lemon and honey for various medicinal purposes were documented since ancient days but there is a lack of evidence on short-term effects of lemon honey juice fasting (LHJF. Hence, we aim at evaluating the short-term effect of LHJF on lipid profile and body composition in healthy individuals. A total of 50 healthy subjects were recruited and they received 300-ml of LHJ, 4 times a day for four successive days of fasting. Assessments were performed before and after the intervention. Statistical analysis was performed by student's paired t-test with the use of Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version-16. Our study showed significant reduction in weight, body mass index (BMI, fat mass (FM, free FM (FFM, and total serum triglycerides (TSTGs with insignificant reduction in fat percentage and total serum cholesterol compared to baseline. Within group analysis of females showed similar results, unlike males. Our results suggest that LHJF may be useful for reduction of body weight, BMI, FM, FFM, and TSTG in healthy individuals, which might be useful for the prevention of obesity and hypertriglyceridemia.
Shetty, Prashanth; Mooventhan, A; Nagendra, Hongasandra Ramarao
Fasting is one of the fundamental treatments of naturopathy. Use of lemon and honey for various medicinal purposes were documented since ancient days but there is a lack of evidence on short-term effects of lemon honey juice fasting (LHJF). Hence, we aim at evaluating the short-term effect of LHJF on lipid profile and body composition in healthy individuals. A total of 50 healthy subjects were recruited and they received 300-ml of LHJ, 4 times a day for four successive days of fasting. Assessments were performed before and after the intervention. Statistical analysis was performed by student's paired t-test with the use of Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version-16. Our study showed significant reduction in weight, body mass index (BMI), fat mass (FM), free FM (FFM), and total serum triglycerides (TSTGs) with insignificant reduction in fat percentage and total serum cholesterol compared to baseline. Within group analysis of females showed similar results, unlike males. Our results suggest that LHJF may be useful for reduction of body weight, BMI, FM, FFM, and TSTG in healthy individuals, which might be useful for the prevention of obesity and hypertriglyceridemia. Copyright © 2016 Transdisciplinary University, Bangalore and World Ayurveda Foundation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
AlAbdulwahab, Sami S; Kachanathu, Shaji John
Foot biomechanics and core stability (CS) play significant roles in the quality of standing and walking. Minor alterations in body composition may influence base support or CS strategies. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the body mass index (BMI) on the foot posture index (FPI) and CS in a healthy adult population. A total of 39 healthy adult subjects with a mean age of 24.3±6.4 years and over-weight BMI values between 25 and 29.9 kg/m2 (27.43±6.1 kg/m2) participated in this study. Foot biomechanics were analyzed using the FPI. CS was assessed using a plank test with a time-to-failure trial. The Spearman correlation coefficient indicated a significant correlation between BMI and both the FPI (r=0.504, P=0.001) and CS (r= -0.34, P=0.036). Present study concluded that an overweight BMI influences foot posture alignment and body stability. Consequently, BMI should be considered during rehabilitation management for lower extremity injuries and body balance.
Full Text Available This study aims to identify any differences regarding gender, age, socioeconomic status (SES, self-rated health, perceived stress and the purchase of prescribed drugs among people who practice mind and body exercises (MBE extensively compared to people who do not.The study includes 3,913 men and 4,803 women aged 20-72 who participated in the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH. The respondents were divided into three groups depending on frequency of MBE practice (never/seldom/often. Measures regarding MBE practice, health behaviors, self-rated health, and illnesses were drawn from the SLOSH questionnaire, while more objective measures of socioeconomic status and education were derived from registry data. In addition, data on purchases of prescription drugs for all respondents were included in the study. These data were obtained from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register, which contains information about prescription drugs dispensed at Swedish pharmacies. Separate analyses were performed for mental MBE (mindfulness, meditation, relaxation techniques and physical MBE (yoga, Tai Chi, Qi Gong, respectively.A high intensity MBE practice is cross-sectionally related to poor self-assessed health (sleeping problems, pain, depressive symptoms, mental disorders, high levels of stress, and high levels of purchases of psychotropic drugs and analgesics. These cross-sectional relationships are generally stronger for mental MBE than for bodily-directed MBE. More women than men are practicing MBE on a regular basis, and physically active people participate to a greater extent in MBE compared with the physically inactive.Overall, the study shows that frequent participation in mind and body exercises is associated with high levels of purchases of psychotropic drugs and analgesics as well as with poor self-assessed health and high levels of stress. However, since this is a cross-sectional study, it is impossible to establish cause and effect
Processes of change in quality of life, weight self-stigma, body mass index and emotional eating after an acceptance-, mindfulness- and compassion-based group intervention (Kg-Free) for women with overweight and obesity.
Palmeira, Lara; Cunha, Marina; Pinto-Gouveia, José
This study examined the effectiveness of Kg-Free: an acceptance-, mindfulness- and compassion-based group intervention for women with overweight and obesity at post-treatment and 3-month follow-up and explored the psychological processes that underlie changes in quality of life, weight self-stigma, body mass index and emotional eating at post-treatment. Overall, 53 women completed Kg-Free. At post-treatment and 3-month follow-up, participants reported increased quality of life, mindfulness and self-compassion abilities and decreased weight self-stigma, emotional eating, shame, weight-related experiential avoidance, self-criticism and body mass index. Shame and self-criticism reductions were important mediators of changes in health-related outcomes, whereas weight-related experiential avoidance, mindfulness and self-compassion mediated changes in weight and eating-related outcomes.
Steensberg, Adam; Fischer, Christian P; Sacchetti, Massimo
The cytokine interleukin (IL)-6 has recently been linked with type 2 diabetes mellitus and has been suggested to affect glucose metabolism. To determine whether acute IL-6 administration affects whole-body glucose kinetics or muscle glucose uptake, 18 healthy young men were assigned to one of three...... and LoIL-6, respectively), followed by a rapid decline (P administration, but were asymptomatic during LoIL-6 administration. In addition, only HiIL-6 elevated (P ... adrenaline (epinephrine). IL-6 infusion, irrespective of dose, did not result in any changes to endogenous glucose production, whole-body glucose disposal or leg- glucose uptake. These data demonstrate that acute IL-6 administration does not impair whole-body glucose disposal, net leg-glucose uptake...
Searle, John R
"The philosophy of mind is unique among contemporary philosophical subjects," writes John Searle, "in that all of the most famous and influential theories are false." One of the world's most eminent thinkers, Searle dismantles these theories as he presents a vividly written, comprehensive introduction to the mind. He begins with a look at the twelve problems of philosophy of mind--which he calls "Descartes and Other Disasters"--problems which he returns to throughout the volume, as he illuminates such topics as materialism, consciousness, the mind-body problem, intentionality, mental causation, free will, and the self. The book offers a refreshingly direct and engaging introduction to one of the most intriguing areas of philosophy.
Tamura, Atsushi; Wada, Yoshiro; Inui, Takuo; Shiotani, Akihiro
We used the subjective visual vertical (SVV) and two different subjective visual body axis (SVBA) methods to quantify roll-tilt perception under gravity, and investigated the characteristics of these methods during static roll-tilt. In addition, we independently developed a compact device to facilitate evaluation of SVBA in different gravitational environments. Ten male volunteers participated in this study. We created a roll-tilt environment using a flight simulator in a dark room. The cockpit of the simulator was tilted leftward or rightward (-30°, -20°, -10°, 0°, 10°, 20° and 30°) in each randomly ordered trial. We quantified roll-tilt perception such that the experiment was conducted under 21 different conditions per participant. We found no significant differences among the SVV error and the two types of SVBA error. The SVV and the SVBA methods may be useful for evaluating subjective roll-tilt perception.
Ward, Leigh Cordwin; Sæbye, Ditte; Holst, Claus; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal
Background Early alterations in the cardiovascular structure and function may change normal body water distribution. The resulting fluid shifts may thus serve as an early marker for cardiovascular disease. However, studies examining this in healthy populations are absent. Objective This study examined the association between the proportion of total body water that is extracellular water and subsequent development of non-fatal or fatal cardiovascular disease in a healthy population. Method Bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy is an easy-to-use, non-invasive and relatively inexpensive technique to evaluate changes in body water distribution. A random subset (n = 2120) of Danes aged 41-71 years, examined in 1993–1994 for body water distribution by bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy was included. Cox-proportional hazard models and linear splines were performed. The ratio between resistance estimates from an infinite-frequency and from no-frequency (R∞/R0) was used as a surrogate measure of ratio between extracellular water and total body water. The outcome was 13.5 years of follow-up for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Results A high proportion of total body water that is extracellular water was associated with increased risk of incident cardiovascular disease. A threshold effect was evident, with greatly increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality above R∞/R0 = 0.68. Below the threshold there seemed to be no additional benefit of having a low ratio. Conclusion Our findings suggest that non-clinically evident oedema, measured as an increased proportion of total body water that is extracellular, above a threshold of 0.68, may be an early marker of pre-clinical cardiovascular disease. This simple, safe, cheap and easily obtainable measure of R∞/R0 from bioelectrical impedance may help the early identification of these otherwise clinically healthy individuals who are at an increased risk of future cardiovascular disease. However
Full Text Available Impaired strength adversely influences an older person’s ability to perform activities of daily living. A cross-sectional study of 117 independently living men and women (age = 73.4 ± 9.4 year; body mass index (BMI = 27.6 ± 4.8 kg/m2 aimed to assess the association between body composition and: (1 upper body strength (handgrip strength, HGS; (2 lower extremity performance (timed up and go (TUG and sit to stand test (STS; and (3 endurance (6-minute walk (SMWT. Body composition (% fat; lean body mass (LBM was assessed using bioelectrical impedance. Habitual physical activity was measured using the Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire (MLTPA and dietary macronutrient intake, assessed using 24 h recalls and 3-day food records. Regression analyses included the covariates, protein intake (g/kg, MLTPA, age and sex. For natural logarithm (Ln of right HGS, LBM (p < 0.001 and % body fat (p < 0.005 were significant (r2 = 46.5%; p < 0.000. For left LnHGS, LBM (p < 0.000, age (p = 0.036, protein intake (p = 0.015 and LnMLTPA (p = 0.015 were significant (r2 = 0.535; p < 0.000. For SMW, % body fat, age and LnMLTPA were significant (r2 = 0.346; p < 0.000. For STS, % body fat and age were significant (r2 = 0.251; p < 0.000. LBM is a strong predictor of upper body strength while higher % body fat and lower physical activity are associated with poorer outcomes on tests of lower extremity performance.
Cherkin, Daniel C; Sherman, Karen J; Balderson, Benjamin H; Turner, Judith A; Cook, Andrea J; Stoelb, Brenda; Herman, Patricia M; Deyo, Richard A; Hawkes, Rene J
The self-reported health and functional status of persons with back pain in the United States have declined in recent years, despite greatly increased medical expenditures due to this problem. Although patient psychosocial factors such as pain-related beliefs, thoughts and coping behaviors have been demonstrated to affect how well patients respond to treatments for back pain, few patients receive treatments that address these factors. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), which addresses psychosocial factors, has been found to be effective for back pain, but access to qualified therapists is limited. Another treatment option with potential for addressing psychosocial issues, mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), is increasingly available. MBSR has been found to be helpful for various mental and physical conditions, but it has not been well-studied for application with chronic back pain patients. In this trial, we will seek to determine whether MBSR is an effective and cost-effective treatment option for persons with chronic back pain, compare its effectiveness and cost-effectiveness compared with CBT and explore the psychosocial variables that may mediate the effects of MBSR and CBT on patient outcomes. In this trial, we will randomize 397 adults with nonspecific chronic back pain to CBT, MBSR or usual care arms (99 per group). Both interventions will consist of eight weekly 2-hour group sessions supplemented by home practice. The MBSR protocol also includes an optional 6-hour retreat. Interviewers masked to treatment assignments will assess outcomes 5, 10, 26 and 52 weeks postrandomization. The primary outcomes will be pain-related functional limitations (based on the Roland Disability Questionnaire) and symptom bothersomeness (rated on a 0 to 10 numerical rating scale) at 26 weeks. If MBSR is found to be an effective and cost-effective treatment option for patients with chronic back pain, it will become a valuable addition to the limited treatment options
Full Text Available Background: According to previous studies, patient with metabolic syndrome (MetS are different in terms of body composition from healthy subjects. The purpose of the present study was to determine the body composition of healthy obese/overweight patients and compared them with those having MetS. Methods: A case-control study was conducted on both men and women aged 20 to 55 years, who were selected using sequential sampling method, based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, from those referred to an endocrinology and the diabetes clinic affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. One hundred and forty seven subjects were enrolled in the study and divided into three groups, including 49 with MetS, 49 obese/overweight subjects without MetS, and 49 were normal weight subjects. Body composition was measured for all subjects using bioelectrical impedance analysis. NCEP ATP III was the criterion for definition of Mets. Results: No significant differences were found between the study groups in terms of demographic variables. The mean of the waist circumference (WC was higher in MetS patients (P < 0.05 as compared with the control groups. Obese/overweight group had higher percentage of body fat and lower fat free mass than normal weight group (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Obese/overweight patients with and without MetS had significantly higher fat mass and WC than normal weight controls, while only WC was higher in MetS group as compared with obese/overweight patients without MetS. Therefore, reduction in body fat and WC should be emphasized in patients with MetS.
Positive effects, side effects, and adverse events of clinical holistic medicine. A review of Gerda Boyesen's nonpharmaceutical mind-body medicine (biodynamic body-psychotherapy) at two centers in the United Kingdom and Germany.
Allmer, Charlotte; Ventegodt, Søren; Kandel, Isack; Merrick, Joav
To review adverse events of intensive, clinical holistic medicine (CHM) as it is practiced in holistic body-psychotherapy in England and Germany. Gerda Boyesen's "biodynamic body-psychotherapy" (BBP) is an intensive type of holistic mind-body medicine used by Boyesen at two centers. About 13,500 patients were treated during 1985-2005 period and studied for side effects and adverse events. The first author worked closely with Boyesen 1995-2005 with full insight in all aspects of the therapy and provided the data on side-effects. Therapy helped chronic patients with physical, psychological, sexual, psychiatric and existential problems to improve health, ability, and quality of life (NNT (number needed to treat) = 1-3). Effective in the treatment of mentally ill patients (schizophrenia, anxiety, poor mental health, low general ability). For retraumatization, brief reactive psychosis, depression, depersonalization and derealization, implanted memories, side effects from manipulations of the body, suicide/suicide attempts, hospitalization for physical and mental health problem during or 90 days after treatment, NNH (number needed to harm) > 13,500. Intensive, holistic non-drug medicine is helpful for physical, sexual, psychological, psychiatric and existential problems and is completely safe for the patient. The therapeutic value TV = NNH/NNT > 5,000. Altogether about 18,000 patients treated with different subtypes of CHM in four different countries have now been evaluated for effects, side effects and adverse events, with similar results.
Philosophy's essence depicted by Socrates lies in its role as pedagogy for living, yet its traditional treatment of "body" as a hindrance to "knowledge" in fact severs it from life, transforming it into "an escape from life" (James, 1978, p. 18). The philosophy/life dichotomy is thus an inherent flaw preventing…
Sauder, Katherine A; Koeppen, Hallie J; Shapiro, Allison L B; Kalata, Kathryn E; Stamatoiu, Alexandra V; Ringham, Brandy M; Glueck, Deborah H; Norris, Jill M; Dabelea, Dana
Vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy may be associated with increased offspring adiposity, but evidence from human studies is inconclusive. We examined associations between prenatal vitamin D intake, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in cord blood, and offspring size and body composition at birth and 5 months. Participants included 605 mother-offspring dyads from the Healthy Start study, an ongoing, pre-birth prospective cohort study in Denver, Colorado, USA. Prenatal vitamin D intake was assessed with diet recalls and questionnaires, and offspring body composition was measured via air displacement plethysmography at birth and 5 months. General linear univariate models were used for analysis, adjusting for maternal age, race/ethnicity, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), offspring sex, and gestational age at birth. Non-Hispanic white race, lower pre-pregnancy BMI, higher prenatal vitamin D intake, and summer births were associated with higher cord blood 25(OH)D. Higher 25(OH)D was associated with lower birthweight ( β = -6.22, p = 0.02), but as maternal BMI increased, this association became increasingly positive in direction and magnitude ( β = 1.05, p = 0.04). Higher 25(OH)D was also associated with lower neonatal adiposity (β = -0.02, p body composition at 5 months. Our data confirm the hypothesis that vitamin D exposure in early life is associated with neonatal body size and composition. Future research is needed to understand the implications of these associations as infants grow.
Sauder, Katherine A; Kaar, Jill L; Starling, Anne P; Ringham, Brandy M; Glueck, Deborah H; Dabelea, Dana
To examine associations of demographic, perinatal, and infant feeding characteristics with offspring body composition at approximately 5 months of age. We collected data on 640 mother/offspring pairs from early pregnancy through approximately 5 months of age. We assessed offspring body composition with air displacement plethysmography at birth and approximately 5 months of age. Linear regression analyses examined associations between predictors and fat-free mass, fat mass, and percent fat mass (adiposity) at approximately 5 months. Secondary models further adjusted for body composition at birth and rapid infant growth. Greater prepregnant body mass index and gestational weight gain were associated with greater fat-free mass at approximately 5 months of age, but not after adjustment for fat-free mass at birth. Greater gestational weight gain was also associated with greater fat mass at approximately 5 months of age, independent of fat mass at birth and rapid infant growth, although this did not translate into increased adiposity. Greater percent time of exclusive breastfeeding was associated with lower fat-free mass (-311 g; P composition by demographic, perinatal, and infant feeding characteristics, although our data also show that increased adiposity at birth persists through approximately 5 months of age. Our findings warrant further research into implications of differences in infant body composition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Håkansson, Krister; Ledreux, Aurélie; Daffner, Kirk; Terjestam, Yvonne; Bergman, Patrick; Carlsson, Roger; Kivipelto, Miia; Winblad, Bengt; Granholm, Ann-Charlotte; Mohammed, Abdul Kadir H
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has a central role in brain plasticity by mediating changes in cortical thickness and synaptic density in response to physical activity and environmental enrichment. Previous studies suggest that physical exercise can augment BDNF levels, both in serum and the brain, but no other study has examined how different types of activities compare with physical exercise in their ability to affect BDNF levels. By using a balanced cross over experimental design, we exposed nineteen healthy older adults to 35-minute sessions of physical exercise, cognitive training, and mindfulness practice, and compared the resulting changes in mature BDNF levels between the three activities. We show that a single bout of physical exercise has significantly larger impact on serum BDNF levels than either cognitive training or mindfulness practice in the same persons. This is the first study on immediate BDNF effects of physical activity in older healthy humans and also the first study to demonstrate an association between serum BDNF responsivity to acute physical exercise and working memory function. We conclude that the BDNF increase we found after physical exercise more probably has a peripheral than a central origin, but that the association between post-intervention BDNF levels and cognitive function could have implications for BDNF responsivity in serum as a potential marker of cognitive health.
Upreti, Vijay V; Wang, Jessie; Barrett, Yu Chen; Byon, Wonkyung; Boyd, Rebecca A; Pursley, Janice; LaCreta, Frank P; Frost, Charles E
Aim Apixaban is an oral, direct, factor-Xa inhibitor approved for thromboprophylaxis in patients who have undergone elective hip or knee replacement surgery and for prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. This open label, parallel group study investigated effects of extremes of body weight on apixaban pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, safety and tolerability. Method Fifty-four healthy subjects were enrolled [18 each into low (≤50 kg), reference (65–85 kg) and high (≥120 kg) body weight groups]. Following administration of a single oral dose of 10 mg apixaban, plasma and urine samples were collected for determination of apixaban pharmacokinetics and anti-factor Xa activity. Adverse events, vital signs and laboratory assessments were monitored. Results Compared with the reference body weight group, low body weight had approximately 27% [90% confidence interval (CI): 8–51%] and 20% (90% CI: 11–42%) higher apixaban maximum observed plasma concentration (Cmax) and area under the concentration–time curve extrapolated to infinity (AUC(0,∞)), respectively, and high body weight had approximately 31% (90% CI: 18–41%) and 23% (90% CI: 9–35%) lower apixaban Cmax and AUC(0,∞), respectively. Apixaban renal clearance was similar across the weight groups. Plasma anti-factor Xa activity showed a direct, linear relationship with apixaban plasma concentration, regardless of body weight group. Apixaban was well tolerated in this study. Conclusion The modest change in apixaban exposure is unlikely to require dose adjustment for apixaban based on body weight alone. However, caution is warranted in the presence of additional factors (such as severe renal impairment) that could increase apixaban exposure. PMID:23488672
Olsen, Poul Bitsch
Mindful innovation is an approach to innovation that pays attention to people's experience in an organization rather than to formal organization or social role.......Mindful innovation is an approach to innovation that pays attention to people's experience in an organization rather than to formal organization or social role....
Napolitano, Melissa A; Whiteley, Jessica A; Mavredes, Meghan N; Faro, Jamie; DiPietro, Loretta; Hayman, Laura L; Neighbors, Charles J; Simmens, Samuel
The transitional period from late adolescence to early adulthood is a vulnerable period for weight gain, with a twofold increase in overweight/obesity during this life transition. In the United States, approximately one-third of young adults have obesity and are at a high risk for weight gain. To describe the design and rationale of a National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) sponsored randomized, controlled clinical trial, the Healthy Body Healthy U (HBHU) study, which compares the differential efficacy of three interventions on weight loss among young adults aged 18-35years. The intervention is delivered via Facebook and SMS Text Messaging (text messaging) and includes: 1) targeted content (Targeted); 2) tailored or personalized feedback (Tailored); or 3) contact control (Control). Recruitment is on-going at two campus sites, with the intervention delivery conducted by the parent site. A total of 450 students will be randomly-assigned to receive one of three programs for 18months. We hypothesize that: a) the Tailored group will lose significantly more weight at the 6, 12, 18month follow-ups compared with the Targeted group; and that b) both the Tailored and Targeted groups will have greater weight loss at the 6, 12, 18month follow-ups than the Control group. We also hypothesize that participants who achieve a 5% weight loss at 6 and 18months will have greater improvements in their cardiometabolic risk factors than those who do not achieve this target. We will examine intervention costs to inform implementation and sustainability other universities. Expected study completion date is 2019. This project has significant public health impact, as the successful translation could reach as many as 20 million university students each year, and change the current standard of practice for promoting weight management within university campus communities. ClinicalTrial.gov: NCT02342912. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Pang, Bonnie; Alfrey, Laura; Varea, Valeria
Young people with English as an Additional Language/Dialect backgrounds are often identified in public health messages and popular media as "bodies at risk" because they do not conform to the health regimens of contemporary Western societies. With increasing numbers of Chinese students in Australian schools, it is necessary to advance…
Kabiri, Laura S.; Mitchell, Katy; Brewer, Wayne; Ortiz, Alexis
Background: Public school children regularly participate in school-based physical activity, physical education, and fitness testing. However, almost 2 million American children are homeschooled. The purpose of this research was to assess the body composition of elementary school-aged homeschool children and their corresponding cardiovascular…
Starling, A P; Shapiro, A L B; Sauder, K A; Kaar, J L; Ringham, B M; Glueck, D H; Galan, H L; Dabelea, D
The objective of this study is to estimate associations between changes in maternal arterial pressure during normotensive pregnancies and offspring birth weight and body composition at birth. Prospective study of 762 pregnant normotensive Colorado women, recruited from outpatient obstetrics clinics. Repeated arterial pressure measurements during pregnancy were averaged within the second and third trimesters, respectively. Multivariable regression models estimated associations between second to third trimester changes in arterial pressure and small-for-gestational-age birth weight, fat mass, fat-free mass and percent body fat. A greater second to third trimester increase in maternal arterial pressure was associated with greater odds of small-for-gestational-age birth weight. Greater increases in maternal diastolic blood pressure were associated with reductions in offspring percent body fat (-1.1% in highest vs lowest quartile of increase, 95% confidence interval: -1.9%, -0.3%). Mid-to-late pregnancy increases in maternal arterial pressure, which do not meet clinical thresholds for hypertension are associated with neonatal body size and composition.
Pop, V.J.M.; Biondi, B.; Wijnen, H.; Kuppens, S.M.; Vader, H.L.
Context Obesity and too much weight gain during gestation have a negative effect on obstetric and neonatal outcomes. Objective To determine the relationship between thyroid hormone parameters, body mass index (BMI) and weight gain during gestation. Design Prospective follow-up study of thyroid
Moayyeri, Alireza; Hart, Deborah J.; Snieder, Harold; Hammond, Christopher J.; Spector, Timothy D.; Steves, Claire J.
Little is known about the extent to which aging trajectories of different body systems share common sources of variance. We here present a large twin study investigating the trajectories of change in five systems: cardiovascular, respiratory, skeletal, morphometric, and metabolic. Longitudinal
Full Text Available Meditation practice can lead to what have been referred to as 'altered states of consciousness'. One of the phenomenological characteristics of these states is a joint alteration in the sense of time, space and body. Here, we set out to study the unique experiences of alteration in the sense of time and space by collaborating with a select group of 12 long-term Mindfulness meditation practitioners in a neurophenomenological setup, utilizing first-person data to guide the neural analyses. We hypothesized that the underlying neural activity accompanying alterations in the sense of time and space would be related to alterations in bodily processing.The participants were asked to volitionally bring about distinct states of 'Timelessness' (outside time and 'Spacelessness' (outside space while their brain activity was recorded by MEG. In order to rule out the involvement of attention, memory or imagination, we used control states of 'Then' (past and 'There' (another place. MEG sensors evidencing alterations in power values were identified, and the brain regions underlying these changes were estimated via spatial filtering (beamforming. Particularly, we searched for similar neural activity hypothesized to underlie both the state of 'Timelessness' and 'Spacelessness'. The results were mostly confined to the theta band, and showed that: 1 the 'Then' / 'There' overlap yielded activity in regions related to autobiographic memory and imagery (right posterior parietal lobule, right precentral / middle frontal gyrus, bilateral precuneus; 2 'Timelessness' / 'Spacelessness' conditions overlapped in a different network, related to alterations in the sense of the body (posterior cingulate, right temporoparietal junction, cerebellum; and 3 phenomenologically-guided neural analyses enabled us to dissociate different levels of alterations in the sense of the body. This study illustrates the utility of employing experienced contemplative practitioners within a
Full Text Available Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS and Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD can profoundly affect quality of life and are influenced by stress and resiliency. The impact of mind-body interventions (MBIs on IBS and IBD patients has not previously been examined.Nineteen IBS and 29 IBD patients were enrolled in a 9-week relaxation response based mind-body group intervention (RR-MBI, focusing on elicitation of the RR and cognitive skill building. Symptom questionnaires and inflammatory markers were assessed pre- and post-intervention, and at short-term follow-up. Peripheral blood transcriptome analysis was performed to identify genomic correlates of the RR-MBI.Pain Catastrophizing Scale scores improved significantly post-intervention for IBD and at short-term follow-up for IBS and IBD. Trait Anxiety scores, IBS Quality of Life, IBS Symptom Severity Index, and IBD Questionnaire scores improved significantly post-intervention and at short-term follow-up for IBS and IBD, respectively. RR-MBI altered expression of more genes in IBD (1059 genes than in IBS (119 genes. In IBD, reduced expression of RR-MBI response genes was most significantly linked to inflammatory response, cell growth, proliferation, and oxidative stress-related pathways. In IBS, cell cycle regulation and DNA damage related gene sets were significantly upregulated after RR-MBI. Interactive network analysis of RR-affected pathways identified TNF, AKT and NF-κB as top focus molecules in IBS, while in IBD kinases (e.g. MAPK, P38 MAPK, inflammation (e.g. VEGF-C, NF-κB and cell cycle and proliferation (e.g. UBC, APP related genes emerged as top focus molecules.In this uncontrolled pilot study, participation in an RR-MBI was associated with improvements in disease-specific measures, trait anxiety, and pain catastrophizing in IBS and IBD patients. Moreover, observed gene expression changes suggest that NF-κB is a target focus molecule in both IBS and IBD-and that its regulation may contribute to
McCabe, Marita P; Connaughton, Catherine; Tatangelo, Gemma; Mellor, David; Busija, Lucy
This study evaluated a gender-specific, school-based program to promote positive body image and address risk factors for body dissatisfaction. In total, 652 children aged 8-10 years participated (335 intervention, 317 wait-list control). Children participated in four 60min sessions and a recap session at three months post-intervention. The broad content areas were body image, peer relationships, media awareness, healthy diet, and exercise. The activities and examples for each session were gender specific. The recap session was an overview of the four sessions. Assessment measures were completed at pre-intervention, post-intervention, and after the recap. Boys and girls in the intervention demonstrated higher muscle esteem and vegetable intake at post-intervention, compared to children in the control condition. Boys and girls demonstrated higher body esteem, muscle esteem and fruit and vegetable intake at the recap. Boys in the intervention demonstrated less investment in masculine gender norms at post-intervention and at recap. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pfrimer, K; Moriguti, J C; Lima, N K C; Marchini, J S; Ferriolli, E
There is no consensus regarding the accuracy of bioimpedance for the determination of body composition in older persons. This study aimed to compare the assessment of lean body mass of healthy older volunteers obtained by the deuterium dilution method (reference) with those obtained by two frequently used bioelectrical impedance formulas and one formula specifically developed for a Latin-American population. A cross-sectional study. Twenty one volunteers were studied, 12 women, with mean age 72±6.7 years. Urban community, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil. Fat free mass was determined, simultaneously, by the deuterium dilution method and bioelectrical impedance; results were compared. In bioelectrical impedance, body composition was calculated by the formulas of Deuremberg, Lukaski and Bolonchuck and Valencia et al. Lean body mass of the studied volunteers, as determined by bioelectrical impedance was 37.8±9.2 kg by the application of the Lukaski e Bolonchuk formula, 37.4±9.3 kg (Deuremberg) and 43.2±8.9 kg (Valencia et. al.). The results were significantly correlated to those obtained by the deuterium dilution method (41.6±9.3 Kg), with r=0.963, 0.932 and 0.971, respectively. Lean body mass obtained by the Valencia formula was the most accurate. In this study, lean body mass of older persons obtained by the bioelectrical impedance method showed good correlation with the values obtained by the deuterium dilution method. The formula of Valencia et al., developed for a Latin-American population, showed the best accuracy.
Simkin, Deborah R; Black, Nancy B
This article describes the various forms of meditation and provides an overview of research using these techniques for children, adolescents, and their families. The most researched techniques in children and adolescents are mindfulness-based stress reduction, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, yoga meditation, transcendental meditation, mind-body techniques (meditation, relaxation), and body-mind techniques (yoga poses, tai chi movements). Current data are suggestive of a possible value of meditation and mindfulness techniques for treating symptomatic anxiety, depression, and pain in youth. Clinicians must be properly trained before using these techniques. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Hand grip strength is one of the most important markers in muscle strength assessment for many reasons. However, its maximal value in kilograms is highly dependent on body size, which may misrepresent results, especially among children. Therefore, correction by body mass index (BMI can be used as a suitable approach for its objectification. The aims of this study were to create reference values for the grip to BMI ratio and for hand grip strength for children in the Czech Republic. 554 children of both genders, aged from 4 to 14 years, were included in the current study. Reference values were approximated by Tukey’s Hinges percentiles calculation method. The percentile charts were created using the Lambda-Mu-Sigma (LMS method.
Hesse, Swen; van de Giessen, Elsmarieke; Zientek, Franziska
UNLABELLED: Serotonin-mediated mechanisms, in particular via the serotonin transporter (SERT), are thought to have an effect on food intake and play an important role in the pathophysiology of obesity. However, imaging studies that examined the correlation between body mass index (BMI) and SERT...... of an altered central serotonergic tone depending on BMI, as a probable pathophysiologic mechanism in obesity, and should encourage further clinical studies in obesity targeting the serotonergic system....
Polus Barbara I; Reece John; Watanabe Nobuhiro
Abstract Background Analysis of rhythmic patterns embedded within beat-to-beat variations in heart rate (heart rate variability) is a tool used to assess the balance of cardiac autonomic nervous activity and may be predictive for prognosis of some medical conditions, such as myocardial infarction. It has also been used to evaluate the impact of manipulative therapeutics and body position on autonomic regulation of the cardiovascular system. However, few have compared cardiac autonomic activit...
Monica Orsi Gameiro
Full Text Available Objective The aim of this study was to assess pelvic floor muscle (PFM strength in different body positions in nulliparous healthy women and its correlation with sexual activity. Materials and Methods Fifty healthy nulliparous women with mean age of 23 years were prospectively studied. Subjective evaluation of PFM was assessed by transvaginal digital palpation (TDP of anterior and posterior areas regarding the vaginal introitus. A perineometer with inflatable vaginal probe was used to assess the PFM strength in four different positions: supine with extended lower limbs (P1; bent-knee supine (P2; sitting (P3; standing (P4. Results Physical activity, 3 times per week, was reported by 58% of volunteers. Sexual activity was observed in 80% of women and 82% of them presented orgasm. The average body mass index (BMI was 21.76 kg/m2, considered as normal according World Health Organization (WHO. We observed that 68% of volunteers were conscious about the PFM contraction. TDP showed concordance of 76% when anterior and posterior areas were compared (p = 0.00014. There was not correlation between PFM strength and orgasm in subjective evaluation. The PFM strength was significantly higher in standing position when compared with the other positions (p < 0.000. No statistical difference was observed between orgasm and PFM strength when objective evaluations were performed. Conclusions There was concordance between anterior and posterior areas in 76% of cases when subjective PFM strength was assessed. In objective evaluation, higher PFM strength was observed when volunteers were standing. No statistical correlation was observed between PFM strength and orgasm in nulliparous healthy women.
Marques-Rocha, José Luiz; Milagro, Fermin I; Mansego, Maria Luisa; Mourão, Denise Machado; Martínez, J Alfredo; Bressan, Josefina
With the goal of investigating if epigenetic biomarkers from white blood cells (WBC) are associated with dietary, anthropometric, metabolic, inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters in young and apparently healthy individuals. We evaluated 156 individuals (91 women, 65 men; age: 23.1±3.5 years; body mass index: 22.0±2.9 kg/m(2)) for anthropometric, biochemical and clinical markers, including some components of the antioxidant defense system and inflammatory response. DNA methylation of LINE-1, TNF-α and IL-6 and the expression of some genes related to the inflammatory process were analyzed in WBC. Adiposity was lower among individuals with higher LINE-1 methylation. On the contrary, body fat-free mass was higher among those with higher LINE-1 methylation. Individuals with higher LINE-1 methylation had higher daily intakes of calories, iron and riboflavin. However, those individuals who presented lower percentages of LINE-1 methylation reported higher intakes of copper, niacin and thiamin. Interestingly, the group with higher LINE-1 methylation had a lower percentage of current smokers and more individuals practicing sports. On the other hand, TNF-α methylation percentage was negatively associated with waist girth, waist-to-hip ratio and waist-to-stature ratio. Plasma TNF-α levels were lower in those individuals with higher TNF-α methylation. This study suggests that higher levels of LINE-1 and TNF-α methylation are associated with better indicators of adiposity status in healthy young individuals. In addition, energy and micronutrient intake, as well as a healthy lifestyle, may have a role in the regulation of DNA methylation in WBC and the subsequent metabolic changes may affect epigenetic biomarkers.
Ritter, Viktoria; Stangier, Ulrich
Intrusive images of appearance play an important role in the maintenance of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) and are often linked to negative autobiographical experiences. However, to date there is no study examining the use and efficacy of imagery rescripting in BDD. This study investigated imagery rescripting in six patients with BDD, using a single case series A-B design. The intervention consisted of two treatment sessions (T1, T2). BDD and depressive symptoms were evaluated prior to (T1), post (T2) and two weeks after intervention (FU), using the Yale -Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale for BDD (BDD-YBOCS), the Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Inventory, and the Beck Depression Inventory. At post-treatment, significant reductions in negative affect, distress, vividness and encapsulated beliefs associated with images and memories as well as an increased control were observed for five of six patients. These were maintained or decreased at two weeks follow-up. Scores on the BDD-YBOCS indicated a significant 26% improvement in BDD severity at follow-up for the whole group. Considering response as a ≥ 30% reduction in BDD-YBOCS score, four of six patients were classified as treatment responders. At follow-up, significant improvements in BDD and depressive symptoms were observed for the whole group. The small sample size and the lack of a control group limit the generalizability of our results. The findings indicate the potential efficacy of imagery rescripting, and highlight the need for further controlled trials. Imagery rescripting should be considered as a treatment technique within the cognitive framework of BDD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ramos Salazar, Leslie
Cyberbullying victimization and perpetration continues to be a serious public health, criminal justice, victimology, and educational problem in middle schools in the United States. Adolescents are at a higher risk of experiencing cyberbullying as a victim and/or as a bully given the frequency of their use of the Internet via social networking sites such as Facebook and mobile devices such as cell phones and tablets. To address this important problem, the purpose of this investigation was to examine cyberbullying victimization through communication technology as a predictor of cyberbullying perpetration, body image, healthy eating and dieting behaviors, and life satisfaction of sixth-, seventh-, and eighth-grade-level middle school students. The World Health Organization recruited participants by using a Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) survey. In this in-class questionnaire, 6,944 middle school students were asked about their cyberbullying experiences as a victim and as a bully via Internet, email, and mobile communication technologies to obtain their evaluations of their body image, eating and dieting habits, and perceptions of life satisfaction. After controlling for demographic factors such as sex, age, and class level, this study found that cyberbullying victimization was a predictor of cyberbullying perpetration, body image dissatisfaction, dieting behaviors, and life satisfaction. However, this study did not find a correlation between cyberbullying victimization and students' healthy eating behaviors. This study also discussed each of the findings in the context of previous research findings. In addition, the study provides the strengths, limitations, and future directions for the future examination of cyberbullying victimization in middle schools.
Justo, Julie Ann; Mayer, Stockton M; Pai, Manjunath P; Soriano, Melinda M; Danziger, Larry H; Novak, Richard M; Rodvold, Keith A
The pharmacokinetic profile of ceftaroline has not been well characterized in obese adults. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of ceftaroline in 32 healthy adult volunteers aged 18 to 50 years in the normal, overweight, and obese body size ranges. Subjects were evenly assigned to 1 of 4 groups based on their body mass index (BMI) and total body weight (TBW) (ranges, 22.1 to 63.5 kg/m(2) and 50.1 to 179.5 kg, respectively). Subjects in the lower-TBW groups were matched by age, sex, race/ethnicity, and serum creatinine to the upper-BMI groups. Serial plasma and urine samples were collected over 12 h after the start of the infusion, and the concentrations of ceftaroline fosamil (prodrug), ceftaroline, and ceftaroline M-1 (inactive metabolite) were assayed. Noncompartmental and population pharmacokinetic analyses were used to evaluate the data. The mean plasma ceftaroline maximum concentration and area under the curve were ca. 30% lower in subjects with a BMI of ≥40 kg/m(2) compared to those ceftaroline. Estimated creatinine clearance (eCLCR) and TBW best explained ceftaroline clearance and volume of distribution, respectively. Although lower ceftaroline plasma concentrations were observed in obese subjects, Monte Carlo simulations suggest the probability of target attainment is ≥90% when the MIC is ≤1 μg/ml irrespective of TBW or eCLCR. No dosage adjustment for ceftaroline appears to be necessary based on TBW alone in adults with comparable eCLCR. Confirmation of these findings in infected obese patients is necessary to validate these findings in healthy volunteers. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01648127.). Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Olive, Lisa S; Telford, Rohan M; Byrne, D G; Abhayaratna, Walter P; Telford, Richard D
This study examined the longitudinal and cross-sectional effects of both psychosocial stress and depressive symptoms on insulin resistance and percentage body fat in a cohort of healthy Australian children, following them from childhood into adolescence. Participants were 791 healthy, initially Grade 2 children (7-8 years; 394 girls), selected from the general community. Psychosocial stress was assessed using the Children's Stress Questionnaire, while depressive symptoms were assessed using the Children's Depression Inventory. Fasting blood samples for serum insulin and plasma glucose were collected to calculate the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Other measurements were height, weight, percentage body fat (dual energy x-ray absorptiometry), physical activity (pedometers), and pubertal maturation (Tanner score). Boys who reported more symptoms of depression had higher insulin resistance, irrespective of adiposity (p = .016); and longitudinally, we found a trend for boys who developed more depressive symptoms to develop higher insulin resistance (p = .073). These findings did not extend to girls. Furthermore, boys and girls with higher depressive symptoms had a higher percentage of body fat (p = .011 and .020, respectively); and longitudinally, boys whose depressive symptoms increased became fatter (p = .046). Our data provide evidence that early symptoms of depression increase insulin resistance, independent of adiposity. Our evidence that early symptoms of depression may lead to overweight, and obesity provides further reason to suggest that early attention to children with depression, even in preclinical stages, may reduce risk of chronic disease in later life. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Margaret A. White
Full Text Available Little is known about men with prostate cancer who decline conventional treatment and use only complementary and alternative medicine (CAM. Objectives To 1 explore why men decline conventional prostate cancer treatment and use CAM 2 understand the role of holistic healing in their care, and 3 document their recommendations for health care providers. Methods Semi-structured interviews and follow-up focus groups. Sample Twenty-nine men diagnosed with prostate cancer who declined all recommended conventional treatments and used CAM. Results Based on strong beliefs about healing, study participants took control by researching the risks of delaying or declining conventional treatment while using CAM as a first option. Most perceived conventional treatment to have a negative impact on quality of life. Participants sought healing in a broader mind, body, spirit context, developing individualized CAM approaches consistent with their beliefs about the causes of cancer. Most made significant lifestyle changes to improve their health. Spirituality was central to healing for one-third of the sample. Participants recommended a larger role for integrated cancer care. Conclusion Men who decline conventional prostate cancer treatment and use CAM only may benefit from a whole person approach to care where physicians support them to play an active role in healing while carefully monitoring their disease status.
Wald, Hedy S; Haramati, Aviad; Bachner, Yaacov G; Urkin, Jacob
Health care professions faculty/practitioners/students are at risk for stress and burnout, impacting well-being, and optimal patient care. We conducted a unique intervention: an interprofessional, experiential, skills-based workshop (IESW) combining two approaches: mind-body medicine skills and interactive reflective writing (RW) fostering self-awareness, self-discovery, reflection, and meaning-making, potentially preventing/attenuating burnout and promoting resiliency. Medical and nursing faculty and senior medical students (N = 16) participated in a 2-hour workshop and completed (1) Professional Quality of Life measure (ProQOL) and (2) a questionnaire evaluating understanding of professional burnout and resiliency and perceived being prepared to apply workshop techniques. Thematic analyses of anonymized RWs exploring meaningful clinical or teaching experiences were conducted. Participants reported better understanding of professional burnout/resiliency and felt better prepared to use meditation and RW as coping tools. RW themes identified experiencing/grappling with a spectrum of emotions (positive and negative) as well as challenge and triumph within clinical and teaching experiences as professionally meaningful. Positive outcomes were obtained within a synergistic resiliency skills building exercise. Successful implementation of this IESW provides good rationale for studying impact of this intervention over a longer period of time, especially in populations with high rates of stress and burnout.
Full Text Available It has been well-established that a variety of mind-body (MB techniques, including yoga, mental imagery, hypnosis, biofeedback, and meditation, are effective at addressing symptoms such as pain, anxiety, nausea, and insomnia, as well as helping with a wide variety of medical, emotional, and behavioral issues in pediatric populations. In addition, MB skills can also be health promoting in the long-term, and with regular practice, could potentially contribute to longer attention spans, social skills, emotional regulation, and enhanced immune system functioning. Importantly, the benefits accrued from MB skills are largely dose dependent, meaning that individuals who practice with some consistency tend to benefit the most, both in the short- and long-term. However, clinical experience suggests that for busy patients, the regular practice of MB skills can be challenging and treatment adherence commonly becomes an issue. This commentary reviews the concept of technology assisted relaxation as an engaging and effective option to enhance treatment adherence (i.e., daily practice for pediatric patients, for whom MB skills have been recommended to address physical and mental health challenges.
Ho, Rainbow T H; Sing, Cheuk Yan; Wong, Venus P Y
To examine the effectiveness of a body-mind-spirit (BMS) intervention program in improving the holistic well-being and work empowerment among helping professionals in continuous education. Forty-four helping professionals, who were in their first-year part-time postgraduate study, participated in the present study. All participants attended a 3-day BMS intervention program which emphasized a holistic approach to health and well-being. Ratings on their levels of physical distress, daily functioning, affect, spirituality, and psychological empowerment at work were compared before and immediately after the intervention. Participants reported significantly lower levels of negative affect and physical distress, and were less spiritually disoriented after the intervention. Enhanced levels of daily functioning, positive affect, spiritual resilience, and tranquility were also reported. Results also suggested that participants were empowered at work, and specifically felt more able to make an impact on work outcomes. The 3-day BMS intervention program produced a positive and measurable effect on participants' holistic well-being and empowerment at work. Educators in related fields could incorporate holistic practices into the curriculum to better prepare the future practitioners, leading to better outcomes both to the professionals themselves and their clients or patients.
Andrade, Victor Manoel
The therapeutic action of psychoanalysis, attributed for many years to the interpretation of the repressed libido, has shifted its focus to object relationships. Some modern analysts maintain that the primary factor of psychic change is the new model of object relationship provided by analysis, and do not consider significant the knowledge of episodes comprising implicit memories, whose irrecoverable nature is demonstrated by neuroscience. Nevertheless, the author proposes that the knowledge of specific archaic events, useless as their interpretation may be, offers a glimpse of the make-up of the mind, contributing to the improvement of the empathy indispensable for inducing changes in the patient. Episodes linked to absolute narcissism, in the beginnings of the body ego, which do not appear either in associations or in transference, emerge in dreams. Neuroscience has made possible the understanding of aspects of dreaming capable of providing a glimpse of the genesis of the ego, whose development from the bodily phase of absolute narcissism to the psychic object phase can thus be traced. The unearthing of the genesis of primary structural faults in dreaming furnishes the analyst with an estimate of the possibilities for development of the ego, and this knowledge provides fine tuning capable of guiding the analyst's conduct. A clinical case illustrates how these phenomena occur, showing the intersubjective relationship as the silent primary generator of psychic changes, consolidated and developed secondarily by means of the analytical dialogue.
Margaret A. White
Full Text Available Little is known about men with prostate cancer who decline conventional treatment and use only complementary and alternative medicine (CAM.Objectives: To 1 explore why men decline conventional prostate cancer treatment and use CAM 2 understand the role of holistic healing in their care, and 3 document their recommendations for health care providers.Methods: Semi-structured interviews and follow-up focus groups.Sample: Twenty-nine men diagnosed with prostate cancer who declined all recommended conventional treatments and used CAM.Results: Based on strong beliefs about healing, study participants took control by researching the risks of delaying or declining conventional treatment while using CAM as a first option. Most perceived conventional treatment to have a negative impact on quality of life. Participants sought healing in a broader mind, body, spirit context, developing individualized CAM approaches consistent with their beliefs about the causes of cancer. Most made significant lifestyle changes to improve their health. Spirituality was central to healing for one-third of the sample. Participants recommended a larger role for integrated cancer care.Conclusion: Men who decline conventional prostate cancer treatment and use CAM only may benefit from a whole person approach to care where physicians support them to play an active role in healing while carefully monitoring their disease status.
Baeza-Velasco, Carolina; Sinibaldi, Lorenzo; Castori, Marco
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and generalized joint hypermobility (JH) are two separated conditions, assessed, and managed by different specialists without overlapping interests. Recently, some researchers highlighted an unexpected association between these two clinical entities. This happens in a scenario of increasing awareness on the protean detrimental effects that congenital anomalies of the connective tissue may have on human health and development. To review pertinent literature to identify possible connections between ADHD and GJH, special emphasis was put on musculoskeletal pain and syndromic presentations of GJH, particularly the hypermobile Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. A comprehensive search of scientific databases and references lists was conducted, encompassing publications based on qualitative and quantitative research. Impaired coordination and proprioception, fatigue, chronic pain, and dysautonomia are identified as potential bridges between ADHD and JH. Based on these findings, a map of the pathophysiological and psychopathological pathways connecting both conditions is proposed. Although ADHD and JH are traditionally separated human attributes, their association may testify for the dyadic nature of mind-body connections during critical periods of post-natal development. Such a mixed picture has potentially important consequences in terms of disability and deserves more clinical and research attention.
Rahl, Hayley A; Lindsay, Emily K; Pacilio, Laura E; Brown, Kirk W; Creswell, J David
Mindfulness meditation programs, which train individuals to monitor their present-moment experience in an open or accepting way, have been shown to reduce mind wandering on standardized tasks in several studies. Here we test 2 competing accounts for how mindfulness training reduces mind wandering, evaluating whether the attention-monitoring component of mindfulness training alone reduces mind wandering or whether the acceptance training component is necessary for reducing mind wandering. Healthy young adults (N = 147) were randomized to either a 3-day brief mindfulness training condition incorporating instruction in both attention monitoring and acceptance, a mindfulness training condition incorporating attention monitoring instruction only, a relaxation training condition, or an active reading-control condition. Participants completed measures of dispositional mindfulness and treatment expectancies before the training session on Day 1 and then completed a 6-min Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) measuring mind wandering after the training session on Day 3. Acceptance training was important for reducing mind wandering, such that the attention-monitoring plus acceptance mindfulness training condition had the lowest mind wandering relative to the other conditions, including significantly lower mind wandering than the attention-monitoring only mindfulness training condition. In one of the first experimental mindfulness training dismantling studies to-date, we show that training in acceptance is a critical driver of mindfulness-training reductions in mind wandering. This effect suggests that acceptance skills may facilitate emotion regulation on boring and frustrating sustained attention tasks that foster mind wandering, such as the SART. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Kimball, Brittany C; Asiedu, Gladys B; Thompson, Carrie A
Our goals were to evaluate young adult lymphoma survivors' perceptions regarding benefits of exercise after cancer treatment, to identify barriers to exercise, and to understand the types of exercise interventions that may be useful in this patient population. Young adult lymphoma survivors were invited to participate in a survey and focus group. Questions focused on elucidating barriers to exercise as well as potential opportunities for supporting patients in adequate exercise. Focus groups were audiorecorded and transcribed, and data were coded inductively for themes and applied findings. Eight survivors participated. Findings were categorized into five main themes: barriers to exercise, facilitators of exercise, personal responsibility for being active, interconnectedness of exercise with a healthy lifestyle, and recommendations. Fatigue and frustration with postcancer physical limitations are major barriers to exercise for young adult survivors, whereas support from others, data tracking, and survivor-specific resources are facilitators. Interventions that incorporate fitness tracking technology, are individually tailored, and/or create a community with other young adult survivors may be successful in this population.
Full Text Available Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel mind-body connection has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage higher-order inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer’s spectrum of mindful learning that spans from mindlessness to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais’ suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other
Clark, Dav; Schumann, Frank; Mostofsky, Stewart H.
Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel “mind-body connection” has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited) behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage “higher-order” inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer’s spectrum of mindful learning that spans from “mindlessness” to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais’ suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other
Clark, Dav; Schumann, Frank; Mostofsky, Stewart H
Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel "mind-body connection" has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited) behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage "higher-order" inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer's spectrum of mindful learning that spans from "mindlessness" to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais' suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other populations.
Sowmya Timmanna Koraddi
Full Text Available Background: Obesity is defined as “abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health”. WHO defines obesity as Body Mass Index (BMI ≥30 2 Kg/m . Obesity is becoming more prevalent in the world and has effects on different body systems. Main is the impact on respiratory function. Aim & Objectives: We have aimed to study the gender difference in obesity induced changes on pulmonary functions and determine adiposity marker which best predicts the pulmonary function in young adult obese individuals and age-matched non-obese young adult subjects. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional 2 study was conducted on obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m male (n=32 and female (n=18 students aged 18-25 years and compared with age matched non-obese (BMI 2 18.5–24.99 Kg/m male (n=23 and female subjects (n=27 as controls. Weight(kg, Height(cm, Body -2 Mass Index(BMI, kgm , Waist Circumference(WC, cm, Waist to Hip Ratio(WHR,Waist to Height Ratio (WHtR, Forced Vital Capacity (FVC, L, Forced Expiratory Volume in first second (FEV , L/min, 1 FEV , FEF (L/sec, Peak Expiratory Flow Rate 1% 25-75% (PEFR, L/min and Maximum Expiratory Pressure (MEP, mm Hg were recorded. Results: Systolic Blood Pressure, Diastolic Blood Pressure, Pulse Rate and Respiratory Rate were significantly higher in obese students when compared to their respective controls. We observed highly significant reduction in PEFR (p<0.001 and MEP (p<0.001 in both obese male and female groups compared to controls. FEV was 1% significantly lower in obese female students. Linear regression analysis revealed that BMI, WHR and WC were significant predictors of PEFR. BMI was only the significant predictor of MEP. WHtR and WHR were best predictors of FVC, FEF and FEV . 25-75% 1 Conclusion: Obesity and pattern of fat distribution have independent effect on pulmonary function.
Cox, Catherine; Marland, Hilary; York, Sarah
Drawing on asylum reception orders, casebooks and annual reports, as well as County Council notebooks recording the settlement of Irish patients, this article examines a deeply traumatic and enduring aspect of the Irish migration experience, the confinement of large numbers of Irish migrants in the Lancashire asylum system between the 1850s and the 1880s. This period saw a massive influx of impoverished Irish into the county, particularly in the post-Famine years. Asylum superintendents commented on the impact of Irish patients in terms of resulting management problems in what became, soon after their establishment, overcrowded and overstretched asylums. The article examines descriptions of Irish patients, many of whom were admitted in a poor state of health. They were also depicted as violent and difficult to manage, though reporting of this may have been swayed by anti-Irish sentiment. The article suggests that a hardening of attitudes took place in the 1870s and 1880s, when theories of degeneration took hold and the Irish in Ireland exhibited exceptionally high rates of institutionalization. It points to continuities across this period: the ongoing association between mental illness and migration long after the massive Famine influx had abated, and claims that the Irish, at one and the same time referred to as volatile and vulnerable, were particularly susceptible to the challenges of urban life, marked by their intemperance, liability to general paralysis, turbulence and immorality. Asylum superintendents also noted the relative isolation of the Irish, which led to their long-term incarceration. The article suggests that commentary about Irish asylum patients provides traction in considering broader perceptions of the Irish body, mobility and Irishness in nineteenth-century England, and a deeper understanding of institutionalization.
Harrod, Curtis S; Chasan-Taber, Lisa; Reynolds, Regina M; Fingerlin, Tasha E; Glueck, Deborah H; Brinton, John T; Dabelea, Dana
To examine associations between pregnancy physical activity and neonatal fat mass and fat-free mass, birth weight, and small for gestational age (SGA). We analyzed 826 mother-neonate pairs (term births) participating in the longitudinal Healthy Start study. The Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to assess total energy expenditure and meeting American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (College) guidelines for physical activity during early pregnancy, midpregnancy, and late pregnancy. Models were adjusted for maternal and neonatal characteristics. Neonates had mean fat mass of 292.9 g, fat-free mass of 2,849.8 g, and birth weight of 3,290.7 g. We observed 107 (12.9%) SGA and 30 (3.6%) large-for-gestational age neonates. A significant inverse linear trend between total energy expenditure during late pregnancy and neonatal fat mass (Ptrend=.04) was detected. Neonates of mothers in the highest compared with the lowest quartile of total energy expenditure during late pregnancy had 41.1 g less fat mass (249.4 compared with 290.5 g; P=.03). No significant trend was found with total energy expenditure and neonatal fat-free mass or birth weight. Early-pregnancy and midpregnancy total energy expenditure were not associated with neonatal outcomes. No significant trend was observed between late-pregnancy total energy expenditure and SGA (Ptrend=.07), but neonates of mothers in the highest compared with the lowest quartile had a 3.0 (95% confidence interval 1.4-6.7) higher likelihood of SGA. Meeting the College's physical activity guidelines during pregnancy was not associated with differences in neonatal outcomes. Increasing levels of late-pregnancy total energy expenditure are associated with decreased neonatal adiposity without significantly reduced neonatal fat-free mass. II.
A disturbed body perception is characteristic for various neurological and mental disorders and becomes particularly evident in phantom phenomena after limb amputation. Body illusions, such as mirror visual feedback (MVF) illusions, have been shown to be efficient in treating chronic pain and to be further related to a reversal of cortical reorganization. The present thesis aimed at identifying the neural circuitry of illusory body perception in healthy subjects and unilateral upper-limb ampu...
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy of 6 week Mediterranean diet or 30% calorie restriction on the fatty acid profile and eicosanoids (hydroxyoctadecadienoi acids and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids concentration. Furthermore, basic biochemical variables such as insulin, glucose, HOMA-IR, and a lipid profile were estimated. The study enrolled 94 Caucasian former athletes aged 20-42, with body height of 179 ± 16.00 cm and body mass of 89.26 ± 13.25 kg who had not been active for at least 5 years. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of the three intervention groups: CR group – the 30% calorie restriction (n = 32, MD group - the Mediterranean diet (n = 34, and C group - a control group (n = 28. The pattern of nutrition was analysed before and after the experiment using the 72 h food diaries. In order to evaluate the effect of diet intervention, the following variables were measured: anthropometrics, basic biochemical variables (insulin, fasting glucose, HOMA-IR, lipid profile, fatty acids and their blood derivatives profiles. The CR group showed significantly lower levels of several biochemical variables, i.e., BMI, total cholesterol LDL, TG, total lipids, insulin and HOMA – IR (p < 0.05. Subjects consuming the MD diet significantly decreased their BMI and reduced the level of total lipids (p < 0.05. We did not find any significant changes in the C group. The analysis of the fatty acid profile revealed that the CR group had a significantly decreased EPA level (p < 0.05. The MD group showed a significantly increased level of the DHA (p < 0.05 and improvement in the omega - 3 index (p < 0.05. Subjects following the MD also showed significantly lower concentrations of 15 - hydroxyicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE. We did not observe any significant differences between the CR and C groups. Within short time, calorie restriction helps to improve lipid variables and insulin resistance. The MD diet seems to be more advantageous in
Wakayama, Sayaka; Ohta, Hiroshi; Hikichi, Takafusa; Mizutani, Eiji; Iwaki, Takamasa; Kanagawa, Osami; Wakayama, Teruhiko
Cloning animals by nuclear transfer provides an opportunity to preserve endangered mammalian species. However, it has been suggested that the “resurrection” of frozen extinct species (such as the woolly mammoth) is impracticable, as no live cells are available, and the genomic material that remains is inevitably degraded. Here we report production of cloned mice from bodies kept frozen at −20 °C for up to 16 years without any cryoprotection. As all of the cells were ruptured after thawing, we used a modified cloning method and examined nuclei from several organs for use in nuclear transfer attempts. Using brain nuclei as nuclear donors, we established embryonic stem cell lines from the cloned embryos. Healthy cloned mice were then produced from these nuclear transferred embryonic stem cells by serial nuclear transfer. Thus, nuclear transfer techniques could be used to “resurrect” animals or maintain valuable genomic stocks from tissues frozen for prolonged periods without any cryopreservation. PMID:18981419
Aranda-García, Silvia; Iricibar, Albert; Planas, Antoni; Prat-Subiran, Joan A; Angulo-Barroso, Rosa M
This study evaluates the separate effect and retention of 12-week traditional (TE) and horse (HE) exercise programs on physical function in healthy older participants (61 to 87 years old). Thirty-eight participants were randomly assigned to three groups: TE (n = 17), HE (n = 10), and control group (n = 11). TE and HE underwent a supervised exercise program (3 day/week). Maximal gait speed, muscle strength, and body balance were assessed at weeks 0, 12, and 16. Only TE and HE displayed significant improvements (P strength, and only HE had faster gait speed. Marginal balance improvements were found only in HE in the medial-lateral direction. However, TE showed larger improvements in handgrip than HE. The largest retention was in knee extensor strength but most of the exercise effects were lost in the follow-up. Besides TE, exercise with a horse may be an alternative option to older adults, provided that they want to interact with the animal.
Thiago Matheus da Silva Sousa; Bruno Rodrigues; Marco Carlos Uchida; Olivia de Moraes Ruberti; Paulo Adriano Schwingel; Tânia Maria Gaspar Novais; Paula de Lourdes Lauande Oliveira; Fabiano de Jesus Furtado Almeida; Janaína Oliveira Bentivi Pulcherio; Bruno Bavaresco Gambassi
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a novel combined training protocol on sleep quality and body composition of healthy elderly women. The study sample consisted of 8 sedentary elderly individuals with mean (±SD) of 67 (±8) years of age, 96.0 (±7.8) mg/dL fasting blood glucose, 94.4 (±36.1) mg/dL triglycerides, 179.1 (±22.4) mg/dL total cholesterol, 57.2 (±15.7) mg/dL high-density lipoprotein (HDL), 103.1 (±25.2) mg/dL low-density lipoprotein (LDL), 125.3 (±8.4) mmHg systo...
Nigam, Priyanka; Misra, Anoop; Colles, Susan L
Prevalence of obesity is increasing in Asian Indians. Reliable, precise and convenient methods to estimate body composition are required. This study aimed to test the accuracy of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) estimates of body composition among Asian Indians according to two BIA equations--one developed for Asians, the other for Caucasians. Two hundred apparently healthy Asian Indians (100 males, 100 females; mean age 36.6 ± 7.6 years; mean BMI 16.6-46.7 kg/m(2)) underwent BIA assessment of fat mass (FM), fat free mass (FFM) and percentage body fat (%BF) using Tanita Multi-Frequency Body Composition Analyzer MC-180MA (Tanita Corporation, Tokyo, Japan). One set of BIA values was automatically calculated by the analyzer (Caucasian figures), the other set by Tanita (Japanese Asian figures). Results were compared to dual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) as the standard measure. A moderate level of relative agreement was found between the DEXA-derived measurement of %BF and the estimate from both the Caucasian (r(2)=0.75; p<0.001) and Asian equation (r(2)=0.7; p<0.001). Despite this, the level of absolute agreement was poor, with large bias and wide limits of agreement. According to the Caucasian equation the mean difference between methods was -8.3 ± 3.9 (95% limits of agreement -20.10 to 9.40), for the Asian equations mean difference was -5.4 ± 4.3 (95% limits of agreement -20.63 to 11.41). When compared to DEXA, the current Asian and Caucasian Tanita formulae significantly under-estimate the %BF of Asian Indians. Copyright © 2013 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yaguiyan-Colliard, Laurence; Daumas, Caroline; Bousbiat, Sana; Jaffrin, Michel; Cardot, Philippe; Grandjean, Dominique; Priymenko, Nathalie; Nguyen, Patrick; Roux, Françoise
To develop equations for prediction of total body water (TBW) content in unsedated dogs by combining impedance (resistance and reactance) and morphological variables and to compare the results of those equations with TBW content determined by deuterium dilution (TBW(d)). 26 healthy adult Beagles. TBW content was determined directly by deuterium dilution and indirectly with equations developed from measurements obtained by use of a portable bioelectric impedance device and morphological variables including body length, height, weight, and thoracic and abdominal circumferences. Impedance and morphological data from 16 of the 26 dogs were used to determine coefficients for the following 2 equations: TBW(1) = -0.019 (BL(2)/R) + -0.199 (RC + AC) + 0.996 W + 0.081 H + 12.31; and TBW(2) = 0.048 (BL(2)/R) + -0.144 (RC + AC) + 0.777 W + 0.066 H + 0.031 X + 7.47, where AC is abdominal circumference, H is height, BL is body length, R is resistance, RC is rib cage circumference, W is body weight, and × is reactance. Results for TBW(1) (R(2)(1) = 0.843) and TBW(2) (R(2)(2) = 0.816) were highly correlated with the TBW(d). When the equations were validated with data from the remaining 10 dogs, the respective mean differences between TBW(d) and TBW(1) and TBW(2) were 0.17 and 0.11 L, which equated to a nonsignificant underestimation of TBW content by 2.4% and 1.6%, respectively. Results indicated that impedance and morphological data can be used to accurately estimate TBW content in adult Beagles. This method of estimating TBW content is less expensive and easier to perform than is measurement of TBW(d), making it appealing for daily use in veterinary practice.
Turpela, Mari; Häkkinen, Keijo; Haff, Guy Gregory; Walker, Simon
There is controversy in the literature regarding the dose-response relationship of strength training in healthy older participants. The present study determined training frequency effects on maximum strength, muscle mass and functional capacity over 6months following an initial 3-month preparatory strength training period. One-hundred and six 64-75year old volunteers were randomly assigned to one of four groups; performing strength training one (EX1), two (EX2), or three (EX3) times per week and a non-training control (CON) group. Whole-body strength training was performed using 2-5 sets and 4-12 repetitions per exercise and 7-9 exercises per session. Before and after the intervention, maximum dynamic leg press (1-RM) and isometric knee extensor and plantarflexor strength, body composition and quadriceps cross-sectional area, as well as functional capacity (maximum 7.5m forward and backward walking speed, timed-up-and-go test, loaded 10-stair climb test) were measured. All experimental groups increased leg press 1-RM more than CON (EX1: 3±8%, EX2: 6±6%, EX3: 10±8%, CON: -3±6%, Ptraining frequency would induce greater benefit to maximum walking speed (i.e. functional capacity) despite a clear dose-response in dynamic 1-RM strength, at least when predominantly using machine weight-training. It appears that beneficial functional capacity improvements can be achieved through low frequency training (i.e. 1-2 times per week) in previously untrained healthy older participants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sousa, Thiago Matheus da Silva; Ruberti, Olivia de Moraes; Novais, Tânia Maria Gaspar; Oliveira, Paula de Lourdes Lauande; Almeida, Fabiano de Jesus Furtado; Pulcherio, Janaína Oliveira Bentivi
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a novel combined training protocol on sleep quality and body composition of healthy elderly women. The study sample consisted of 8 sedentary elderly individuals with mean (±SD) of 67 (±8) years of age, 96.0 (±7.8) mg/dL fasting blood glucose, 94.4 (±36.1) mg/dL triglycerides, 179.1 (±22.4) mg/dL total cholesterol, 57.2 (±15.7) mg/dL high-density lipoprotein (HDL), 103.1 (±25.2) mg/dL low-density lipoprotein (LDL), 125.3 (±8.4) mmHg systolic blood pressure, and 72.6 (±10.1) mmHg diastolic blood pressure. The training protocol consisted of resistance training exercises (approximately 18-minute duration) combined with aerobic exercises (approximately 26-minute duration), performed interspersed in the same session, for 8 weeks (3 times a week), with a 24-hour interval rest between each session. Continuous variables were expressed as the mean (±standard deviation) and the paired sample t-test compares baseline with final measurement. The results showed a significant improvement (p = 0.01) in quality of sleep (4.9 ± 1.5 versus 3.8 ± 1.8 for total PSQI index) without body significant improvements in the fat-free mass (59.9 ± 4.0 versus 60.5 ± 4.4; p = 0.20) and fat mass (40.1 ± 4.0 versus 39.5 ± 4.4; p = 0.20) in healthy elderly women. In this sense, the novel combined training proposed may be an effective alternative or adjunct to present therapies aimed at improving the sleep quality in this population. PMID:29062575
Full Text Available Exposure to extreme heat and cold is one of the environmental factors whose action is precisely based on the mechanisms involving free radicals. Fluctuations in ambient temperature are among the agents that toughen the human organism. The goal of the study was to evaluate the impact of extremely high (dry sauna, DS and low (whole-body cryostimulation, WBC environmental temperatures on the oxidant-antioxidant equilibrium in the blood of healthy male subjects. The subjects performed a single DS bath (n=10; 26.2 ± 4.6 years and a single WBC procedure (n=15; 27.5 ± 3.1 years. In the subjects’ blood taken immediately before and 20 min after the interventions, the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx and the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in erythrocytes (TBARSer and blood plasma (TBARSpl were determined. Single WBC and DS procedures induced an increase in the activity of SOD and GPx, as well as SOD and CAT, respectively. The SOD activity was higher after WBC than after DS. Extremely high and low temperatures probably induce the formation of reactive oxygen species in the organisms of healthy men and, therefore, disturb the oxidant-antioxidant balance.
Golden, Daniel W; Wojcicki, Janet M; Jhee, Jeffrey T; Gilpin, Susan L; Sawyer, Jeffrey R; Heyman, Melvin B
Childhood overweight has become a serious health problem among children and adolescents in the United States. No previous study, to our knowledge, has analyzed the effect of body mass index (BMI) on range of motion and carrying angle of the elbow joint in a healthy pediatric population. The primary objective of this study was to determine the effect of BMI on orthopedic parameters of the elbow joint, including range of motion, flexion, extension, and carrying angle. Healthy children age 2 to 18 years (mean 12.0 +/- 3.9 years) were recruited at an urban pediatric orthopedic clinic as pediatric orthopedic patients or as the siblings or friends of patients. Measures of range of motion (flexion and extension) and carrying angle of 226 elbows and of BMI from 113 study participants were analyzed. BMI was negatively correlated with right and left elbow range of motion (r = -0.54, P consequences of impaired range of motion associated with overweight on activity levels and energy expenditure in growing children and adolescents.
Guillermo I Perez Perez
Full Text Available We studied skin microbiota present in three skin sites (forearm, axilla, scalp in men from six ethnic groups living in New York City.Samples were obtained at baseline and after four days following use of neutral soap and stopping regular hygiene products, including shampoos and deodorants. DNA was extracted using the MoBio Power Lyzer kit and 16S rRNA gene sequences determined on the IIlumina MiSeq platform, using QIIME for analysis.Our analysis confirmed skin swabbing as a useful method for sampling different areas of the skin because DNA concentrations and number of sequences obtained across subject libraries were similar. We confirmed that skin location was the main factor determining the composition of bacterial communities. Alpha diversity, expressed as number of species observed, was greater in arm than on scalp or axilla in all studied groups. We observed an unexpected increase in α-diversity on arm, with similar tendency on scalp, in the South Asian group after subjects stopped using their regular shampoos and deodorants. Significant differences at phylum and genus levels were observed between subjects of the different ethnic origins at all skin sites.We conclude that ethnicity and particular soap and shampoo practices are secondary factors compared to the ecological zone of the human body in determining cutaneous microbiota composition.
Lamb, Molly M; Dabelea, Dana; Yin, Xiang; Ogden, Lorraine G; Klingensmith, Georgeanna J; Rewers, Marian; Norris, Jill M
Childhood obesity tracks into adulthood, and may increase diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk in adulthood. Prospective analyses may better define the pathways between early life factors and greater childhood body mass index (BMI), a measure of obesity. The Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young (DAISY) prospectively follows children from birth that are at increased genetic risk for type 1 diabetes. We examined longitudinal data for 1,178 DAISY subjects (mean age at last follow-up: 6.59 years (range: 2.0-11.5 years). Birth size and diabetes exposure in utero were collected in the enrollment interview. Infant diet information was collected via interviews throughout infancy. Infant weight gain and childhood BMI were measured at clinic visits. Male [corrected] gender, diabetes exposure in utero, larger size for gestational age, shorter breastfeeding duration, and more rapid infant weight gain predicted higher childhood BMI. Formal mediation analysis suggests the effect of shorter breastfeeding duration on childhood BMI may be mediated by more rapid infant weight gain. Also, the effect of diabetes exposure in utero on childhood BMI may be mediated by larger size for gestational age. We identified strong interrelationships between early life factors and childhood BMI. Understanding these pathways may aid childhood obesity prevention efforts. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Arshalooz Jamila Rahman
Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of high blood pressure (BP in healthy school Pakistani children and its association with high body mass index (BMI, asymptomatic hematuria and proteinuria, we studied 661 public school children and measured their body weight, height and BP and urine dipstick for hematuria performed on a single occasion. Hypertension (BP >95 th centile and pre-hypertension (BP >90 th centile were defined based on the US normative BP tables. Over-weight and obesity were defined according to the World Health Organization (WHO classification of BMI. The mean age of the children was 14 ± 1.3 years. The mean BMI was 18.5 ± 4.3 kg/m 2 . The majority (81.8% of the children were found to be normotensive (BP 25 (RR for BMI b/w 25-30 = 2.6, RR for BMI >30 = 4.3, positive urine dipstick for proteinuria (RR = 2.3 95% CI 0.7-7.7 and positive urine dipstick for hematuria (RR 1.0 95% CI 0.2-8.3. Hypertension in children is strongly correlated with obesity, asymptomatic proteinuria and hematuria. Community based screening programs for children should include BP recording, BMI assessment and urine dipsticks analysis and approach high-risk groups for early detection and lifestyle modifications.
Daniel Le Grange
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between body-related social comparison (BRSC and eating disorders (EDs by: (a comparing the degree of BRSC in adolescents with an ED, depressive disorder (DD, and no psychiatric history; and (b investigating whether BRSC is associated with ED symptoms after controlling for symptoms of depression and self-esteem. Participants were 75 girls, aged 12–18 (25 per diagnostic group. To assess BRSC, participants reported on a 5-point Likert scale how often they compare their body to others’. Participants also completed a diagnostic interview, Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2, Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE. Compared to adolescents with a DD and healthy adolescents, adolescents with an ED engaged in significantly more BRSC (p ≤ 0.001. Collapsing across groups, BRSC was significantly positively correlated with ED symptoms (p ≤ 0.01, and these associations remained even after controlling for two robust predictors of both ED symptoms and social comparison, namely BDI-II and RSE. In conclusion, BRSC seems to be strongly related to EDs. Treatment for adolescents with an ED may focus on reducing BRSC.
Hamel, Andrea E; Zaitsoff, Shannon L; Taylor, Andrew; Menna, Rosanne; Le Grange, Daniel
The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between body-related social comparison (BRSC) and eating disorders (EDs) by: (a) comparing the degree of BRSC in adolescents with an ED, depressive disorder (DD), and no psychiatric history; and (b) investigating whether BRSC is associated with ED symptoms after controlling for symptoms of depression and self-esteem. Participants were 75 girls, aged 12-18 (25 per diagnostic group). To assess BRSC, participants reported on a 5-point Likert scale how often they compare their body to others'. Participants also completed a diagnostic interview, Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2), Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE). Compared to adolescents with a DD and healthy adolescents, adolescents with an ED engaged in significantly more BRSC (p ≤ 0.001). Collapsing across groups, BRSC was significantly positively correlated with ED symptoms (p ≤ 0.01), and these associations remained even after controlling for two robust predictors of both ED symptoms and social comparison, namely BDI-II and RSE. In conclusion, BRSC seems to be strongly related to EDs. Treatment for adolescents with an ED may focus on reducing BRSC.
Vranceanu, Ana-Maria; Hageman, Michiel; Strooker, Joost; ter Meulen, Dirk; Vrahas, Mark; Ring, David
To test the acceptability and feasibility of a mind body skills-based intervention (RRCB) and estimate its preliminary effect in reducing disability and pain intensity as compared to standard care (SC) in patients with acute musculoskeletal trauma. Randomised controlled trial. Level I trauma centre. Adult patients with acute fractures at risk for chronic pain and disability based on scores on two coping with pain measures who presented to an orthopedic trauma center and met inclusion and exclusion criteria. Participants were randomied to either RRCB with SC or SC alone. Disability (short musculoskeletal functional assessment, SMFA) and pain (Numerical Analogue Scale). coping strategies (Pain Catastrophizing Scale, PCS and Pain Anxiety Scale, PAS) and mood (CESD Depression and PTSD checklist). Among the 50 patients consented, two did not complete the initial assessment. Of these, the first four received the intervention as part of an open pilot and the next 44 were randomised (24 RRCBT and 20 UC) and completed initial assessment. We combined the patients who received RRCB into one group, N=28. Of the entire sample, 34 completed time two assessments (24 RRCBT and 10 SC). The RRCB proved to be feasible and accepted (86% retention, 28 out of 24 completers). Analyses of covariance ANCOVA showed a significant (p<05) improvement and large effect sizes for all time two main study variables (.2-.5) except pain with activity where the effect size was medium (.08). Improvement for pain at rest was not significantly higher in the RRCB as compared to the control, for a small effect size (.03). The RRCB is feasible, acceptable and potentially efficacious. Level 1 prognostic. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schultz, Timothy J; Roupas, Peter; Wiechula, Richard; Krause, Debra; Gravier, Susan; Tuckett, Anthony; Hines, Sonia; Kitson, Alison
Optimizing body composition for healthy aging in the community is a significant challenge. There are a number of potential interventions available for older people to support both weight gain (for those who are underweight) and weight loss (for overweight or obese people). While the benefits of weight gain for underweight people are generally clearly defined, the value of weight loss in overweight or obese people is less clear, particularly for older people. This umbrella review aimed to measure the effectiveness of nutritional interventions for optimizing healthy body composition in older adults living in the community and to explore theirqualitative perceptions. The participants were older adults, 60 years of age or older, living in the community. The review examinedsix types of nutritional interventions: (i) dietary programs, (ii) nutritional supplements, (iii) meal replacements, (iv) food groups, (v) food delivery support and eating behavior, and (vi) nutritional counselling or education. This umbrella review considered any quantitative systematic reviews and meta-analyses of effectiveness, or qualitative systematic reviews, or a combination (i.e. comprehensive reviews). The quantitative outcome measures of body composition were: (i) nutritional status (e.g. proportion of overweight or underweight patients); (ii) fat mass (kg), (iii) lean mass or muscle mass (kg), (iv) weight (kg) or BMI (kg/m), (v) bone mass (kg) or bone measures such as bone mineral density, and (vi) hydration status. The phenomena of interestwere the qualitative perceptions and experiences of participants. We developed an iterative search strategy for nine bibliometric databases and gray literature. Critical appraisal of 13 studies was conducted independently in pairs using standard Joanna Briggs Institute tools. Six medium quality and seven high quality studies were identified. Data was extracted independently in pairs from all 13 included studies using the standard Joanna Briggs Institute
Engels, Hermann J; Kendall, Bradley J; Fahlman, Mariane M; Gothe, Neha P; Bourbeau, Kelsey C
The primary purpose of this study was to examine the effect of acute maximal exercise (VO2max test) on salivary immunoglobulin A (SIgA) responses in adolescent females. A secondary aim was to examine the relationship between resting SIgA levels and VO2max, physical activity, body composition, and diet. Fifty healthy female adolescents completed a laboratory based VO2max test, assessment of body composition via hydrodensitometry, a validated physical activity questionnaire (PAQ- A), and a 3-day food diary. Unstimulated saliva was collected before, and 5-min and 120-min post VO2max testing. Absolute SIgA (μg/ml) concentration was determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Secretion rate of SIgA (μg/min) was calculated by multiplying absolute SIgA concentration by saliva flow rate (SFR, μl/min). A significant increase in absolute SIgA concentration (146.8±59.2 μg/ml) was noted immediately after VO2max testing (p0.05). No significant VO2max test effects were observed for SIgA secretion rate and SFR (p>0.05). VO2max values (41.92±6.36 ml/kg/min) were correlated with body fat percentage (r= -.59; p0.05) except for dietary fiber which correlated with resting absolute SIgA concentration (r= .29; p<0.05). Findings indicate that acute graded maximal exercise results in a transient increase in absolute SIgA concentration and that these changes are associated with individual VO2max values.
Ording Mueller, Lil-Sofie; Avenarius, Derk [University Hospital North Norway, Department of Radiology, Tromsoe (Norway); Olsen, Oeystein E. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom)
In our experience, diffusion-weighted imaging with body background suppression (DWIBS) is hard to interpret in children who commonly have foci of restricted diffusion in their skeletons unrelated to pathology, sometimes in an asymmetrical pattern. This raises serious concern about the accuracy of DWIBS in cancer staging in children. To describe the signal distribution at DWIBS in the normal developing lumbar spine and pelvic skeleton. Forty-two healthy children underwent an MR DWIBS sequence of the abdomen and pelvis. An axial short-tau inversion-recovery (STIR) echo-planar imaging (EPI) pulse sequence was used. Two radiologists did a primary review of the images and based on these preliminary observations, separate scoring systems for the lumbar spine, pelvis and proximal femoral epiphyses/femoral heads were devised. Visual evaluation of the images was then performed by the two radiologists in consensus. The scoring was repeated separately 2 months later by a third radiologist. Restricted diffusion was defined as areas of high signal compared to the background. Coronal maximum intensity projection (MIP) reformats were used to assess the vertebral bodies. For the pelvis, the extension of high signal for each bone was given a score of 0 to 4. Cohen's Kappa interobserver agreement coefficients of signal distribution and asymmetry were calculated. All children had areas of high signal, both within the lumbar vertebral bodies and within the pelvic skeleton. Three patterns of signal distribution were seen in the lumbar spine, but no specific pattern was seen in the pelvis. There was a tendency toward a reduction of relative area of high signal within each bone with age, but also a widespread interindividual variation. Restricted diffusion is a normal finding in the pelvic skeleton and lumbar spine in children with an asymmetrical distribution seen in 48% of normal children in this study. DWIBS should be used with caution for cancer staging in children as this could
Ingraham, Natalie; Harbatkin, Dawn; Lorvick, Jennifer; Plumb, Marj; Minnis, Alexandra M
Lesbian and bisexual (LB) women have higher body weight than heterosexual women. Interventions focused on health and well-being versus weight loss may be more likely to succeed among LB women. This article describes effects of Women's Health and Mindfulness, a 12-week pilot intervention addressing mindfulness, healthy eating, and physical activity, on outcomes associated with chronic disease risk among overweight and obese LB women older than 40 years. Eighty women were randomized, using a stepped-wedge design, to either an immediate- or a delayed-start intervention group; the delayed-start group served as the control. Eligible participants were aged 40 years or older, identified as LB, and had a body mass index of 27 or greater. We compared differences in biological markers of chronic disease, mindfulness, nutrition, and physical activity between immediate- and delayed-start intervention groups. We observed clinically significant improvements in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol but no change in hemoglobin A1c. We found evidence of intervention effects on improved mindfulness and mindful eating scores and on nutrition (improved vegetable intake). The Women's Health and Mindfulness pilot intervention appears to have initiated positive behavioral and physical health changes in this population. Refinements to the intervention model, such as extended intervention duration, and longer term follow-up are warranted to determine sustained effects.
Grünenberg, Kristina; Walker, Hanne Kjærgaard; Knudsen, Jakob Skov
Meditation er ikke et nyt fænomen i det danske samfund. Det er den fokus som meditationsformen Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) har været genstand for i de senere år imidlertid. Inden for en sundhedssociologisk ramme undersøges nogle af grundene til, at netop MBSR er blevet populær både i...... en analyse af empirien, i hvilken forfatterne bl.a. argumenterer for, at opfattelsen af virkninger tilskrevet mindfulness meditation må ses i relation til to diskurser, som fremanalyseres og benævnes henholdsvis autenticitets- og e ektiviseringsdiskurserne. Disse diskurser udgør i artiklen...
Stjernholm, Ole; Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf
Tematiserer nogle af de udfordringer, der møder dig, som regelmæssigt praktiserer mindfulness og kommer med bud på, hvad bevidsthedens vaner og mønstre betyder for dybden af stilhed - og hvordan man kan arbejde med den viden.......Tematiserer nogle af de udfordringer, der møder dig, som regelmæssigt praktiserer mindfulness og kommer med bud på, hvad bevidsthedens vaner og mønstre betyder for dybden af stilhed - og hvordan man kan arbejde med den viden....
Self-Injurious Behavior (SIB) is a serious, sometimes life-threatening behavioral problem in individuals with intellectual disabilities. There is no cure or prevention possible at present. SIB etiology and pathogenesis are mainly unknown, although SIB characteristics (prevalence, age of onset,
Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) are being actively implemented in a wide range of fields--psychology, mind/body health care and education at all levels--and there is growing evidence of their effectiveness in aiding present-moment focus, fostering emotional stability, and enhancing general mind/body well-being. However, as often happens…
Considers the mind of the epistemic psychologist, a constructivist knowledge creator within a scientific framework, guided by the social world of scientific institutions. Suggests that Piaget and Vygotsky shared respect for complexity of phenomena and were consistently developmental in their theories. A reconsideration of their common heritage…
This article describes John Kelleher's experience in observing the creations of his preschool daughter. Both he and his wife are formally trained in the arts, and looked forward to guiding their daughter down an artistic path. In his mind, what makes a great artist usually involves a great deal of technical ability and commitment to a complex…
Discusses how an urban renewal project created a playground for the mind, inspiring the study of science, math, and technology. The area's use of its natural surroundings to inspire curiosity and evoke an interest in learning by stimulating the senses is described. Photos and diagrams are included. (GR)
Full Text Available O objetivo do artigo é abordar o problema da dualidade entre corpo e mente mediante a discussão do conceito de normatividade vital, proposto por Canguilhem. Destaca a necessidade de superar o conflito histórico entre vitalismo e mecanicismo e de construir um conceito que incorpore a dimensão psíquica como prolongamento do orgânico no humano. Busca realizar articulação entre questões em aberto na biologia e na física e apresenta as idéias de Roger Penrose sobre a ligação entre física e mente. Inquire a possibilidade de a física do século XX inscrever-se na biologia do século XXI. Defende que, para dar conta desse desafio, é imperioso considerar o limite humano em conhecer o universo. Com base nessa discussão, reafirma que a dimensão psíquica no homem pode ter evolucionado de uma capacidade biológica anterior de realizar 'escolhas' para fazer a vida perseverar.El objetivo de este artículo es abordar el problema de la dualidad cuerpo-mente mediante la discusión del concepto de normatividad vital, propuesto por Canguilhem. Destaca la necesidad de superar el conflicto histórico entre vitalismo y mecanicismo y de construir un concepto que incorpore la dimensión psíquica como prolongamiento de lo orgánico en lo humano. Busca realizar una articulación entre cuestiones abiertas en la biología y en la física y presenta las ideas de Roger Penrose sobre la relación entre física y mente. Indaga sobre la posibilidad de la física del siglo XX inscribirse en la biología del siglo XXI. Defiende que, para poder concretar este desafío, es imperioso considerar el límite humano para conocer al universo. En base a esta discusión, reafirma que la dimensión psíquica humana puede haber evolucionado a partir de una capacidad biológica anterior de realizar elecciones para preservar la vida.The objective of the article is to broach the problem of body mind duality through the discussion of the concept of normativity of life
Thiago Matheus da Silva Sousa
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a novel combined training protocol on sleep quality and body composition of healthy elderly women. The study sample consisted of 8 sedentary elderly individuals with mean (±SD of 67 (±8 years of age, 96.0 (±7.8 mg/dL fasting blood glucose, 94.4 (±36.1 mg/dL triglycerides, 179.1 (±22.4 mg/dL total cholesterol, 57.2 (±15.7 mg/dL high-density lipoprotein (HDL, 103.1 (±25.2 mg/dL low-density lipoprotein (LDL, 125.3 (±8.4 mmHg systolic blood pressure, and 72.6 (±10.1 mmHg diastolic blood pressure. The training protocol consisted of resistance training exercises (approximately 18-minute duration combined with aerobic exercises (approximately 26-minute duration, performed interspersed in the same session, for 8 weeks (3 times a week, with a 24-hour interval rest between each session. Continuous variables were expressed as the mean (±standard deviation and the paired sample t-test compares baseline with final measurement. The results showed a significant improvement (p=0.01 in quality of sleep (4.9 ± 1.5 versus 3.8 ± 1.8 for total PSQI index without body significant improvements in the fat-free mass (59.9 ± 4.0 versus 60.5 ± 4.4; p=0.20 and fat mass (40.1 ± 4.0 versus 39.5 ± 4.4; p=0.20 in healthy elderly women. In this sense, the novel combined training proposed may be an effective alternative or adjunct to present therapies aimed at improving the sleep quality in this population.
López-Plaza, Bricia; Bermejo, Laura M; Koester Weber, Thabata; Parra, Pilar; Serra, Francisca; Hernández, Marta; Palma Milla, Samara; Gómez-Candela, Carmen
Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) have shown beneficial effects in weight control therapy however this relation is not clear. The aim of the study was to examine the effects and safety of 3g of a 1:1 mix of c9-t11 and t10-c12 on weight control and body composition in healthy overweight individuals. A prospective, placebo-controlled, randomised double-blind, parallel clinical trial lasting 24 weeks was carried out in 38 volunteers (29w, 9m) aged 30-55 years and BMI ≥27-oil (placebo). Anthropometric, biochemical and dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) tests were measured. Diet and physical activity were assessed. Subjects maintained their habitual dietary and exercise patterns over the study. Only CLA group showed a significant decrease in weight (74.43 ± 10.45 vs 73.54 ± 11.66 kg, p = 0.029) and waist circumference (91.45 ± 10.33 vs 90.65 ± 9.84 cm, p = 0.012) between baseline and end of the study. BMI and waist height ratio decreased (28.44 ± 1.08 vs 27.81 ± 1.43 kg/m2, p = 0.030 and 0.57 ± 0.05 vs 0.56 ± 0.04 p = 0.013 respectively) in CLA group at the end. CLA group experienced a reduction in total fat mass after 24 weeks (38.62 ± 5.02 vs 36.65 ± 5.64%, p = 0.035). No decrease was observed in Control group. HOMA index had no changes. The consumption of skimmed milk enriched with 3g of a 1:1 mixture of c9-t11 and t10-c12 for 24 weeks led to a decrease in body weight and total fat mass in healthy, overweight subjects who maintained habitual diets and exercise patterns. No adverse effects were observed. Registered under ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier No. NCT01503047. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Reid, RC; Bramen, JE; Anderson, A; Cohen, MS
Objective: The current study explores relationships between mindfulness, emotional regulation, impulsivity, and stress proneness in a sample of participants recruited in a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder Fifth Edition Field Trial for Hypersexual Disorder and healthy controls to assess whether mindfulness attenuates symptoms of hypersexuality. Method: Hierarchal regression analysis was used to assess whether significant relationships between mindfulness and hypersexuality ...
Luiking, Yvette C; Deutz, Nicolaas E P; Jäkel, Martin; Soeters, Peter B
Dietary protein quality is considered to be dependent on the degree and velocity with which protein is digested, absorbed as amino acids, and retained in the gut as newly synthesized protein. Metabolic animal studies suggest that the quality of soy protein is inferior to that of casein protein, but confirmatory studies in humans are lacking. The study objective was to assess the quality of casein and soy protein by comparing their metabolic effects in healthy human subjects. Whole-body protein kinetics, splanchnic leucine extraction, and urea production rates were measured in the postabsorptive state and during 8-h enteral intakes of isonitrogenous [0.42 g protein/(kg body weight . 8 h)] protein-based test meals, which contained either casein (CAPM; n = 12) or soy protein (SOPM; n = 10) in 2 separate groups. Stable isotope techniques were used to study metabolic effects. With enteral food intake, protein metabolism changed from net protein breakdown to net protein synthesis. Net protein synthesis was greater in the CAPM group than in the SOPM group [52 +/- 14 and 17 +/- 14 nmol/(kg fat-free mass (FFM) . min), respectively; P CAPM (P = 0.07). Absolute splanchnic extraction of leucine was higher in the subjects that consumed CAPM [306 +/- 31 nmol/(kg FFM . min)] vs. those that consumed SOPM [235 +/- 29 nmol/(kg FFM . min); P < 0.01]. In conclusion, a significantly larger portion of soy protein is degraded to urea, whereas casein protein likely contributes to splanchnic utilization (probably protein synthesis) to a greater extent. The biological value of soy protein must be considered inferior to that of casein protein in humans.
Stevens Robert B
Full Text Available Abstract Background We examine the relationship between time use choices and healthy body weight as measured by survey respondents' body mass index (BMI. Using data from the 2006 and 2007 American Time Use Surveys, we expand upon earlier research by including more detailed measures of time spent eating as well as measures of physical activity time and sedentary time. We also estimate three alternative models that relate time use to BMI. Results Our results suggest that time use and BMI are simultaneously determined. The preferred empirical model reveals evidence of an inverse relationship between time spent eating and BMI for women and men. In contrast, time spent drinking beverages while simultaneously doing other things and time spent watching television/videos are positively linked to BMI. For women only, time spent in food preparation and clean-up is inversely related to BMI while for men only, time spent sleeping is inversely related to BMI. Models that include grocery prices, opportunity costs of time, and nonwage income reveal that as these economic variables increase, BMI declines. Conclusions In this large, nationally representative data set, our analyses that correct for time use endogeneity reveal that the Americans' time use decisions have implications for their BMI. The analyses suggest that both eating time and context (i.e., while doing other tasks simultaneously matters as does time spent in food preparation, and time spent in sedentary activities. Reduced form models suggest that shifts in grocery prices, opportunity costs of time, and nonwage income may be contributing to alterations in time use patterns and food choices that have implications for BMI.
Jagger, Carol; McKee, Martin; Christensen, Kaare; Lagiewka, Karolina; Nusselder, Wilma; Van Oyen, Herman; Cambois, Emmanuelle; Jeune, Bernard; Robine, Jean-Marie
The European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing seeks an increase of two healthy life years (HLY) at birth in the EU27 for the next 10 years. We assess the feasibility of doing so between 2010 and 2020 and the differential impact among countries by applying different scenarios to current trends in HLY. Data comprised HLY and life expectancy (LE) at birth 2004-09 from Eurostat. We estimated HLY in 2010 in each country by multiplying the Eurostat projections of LE in 2010 by the ratio HLY/LE obtained either from country and sex-specific linear regression models of HLY/LE on year (seven countries retaining same HLY question) or extrapolating the average of HLY/LE in 2008 and 2009 to 2010 (20 countries and EU27). The first scenario continued these trends with three other scenarios exploring different HLY gap reductions between 2010 and 2020. The estimated gap in HLY in 2010 was 17.5 years (men) and 18.9 years (women). Assuming current trends continue, EU27 HLY increased by 1.4 years (men) and 0.9 years (women), below the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing target, with the HLY gap between countries increasing to 18.3 years (men) and 19.5 years (women). To eliminate the HLY gap in 20 years, the EU27 must gain 4.4 HLY (men) and 4.8 HLY (women) in the next decade, which, for some countries, is substantially more than what the current trends suggest. Global targets for HLY move attention from inter-country differences and, alongside the current economic crisis, may contribute to increase health inequalities.
Ward, Adrian F.; Wegner, Daniel M.
People often feel like their minds and their bodies are in different places. Far from an exotic experience, this phenomenon seems to be a ubiquitous facet of human life (e.g., Killingsworth and Gilbert, 2010). Many times, people's minds seem to go “somewhere else”—attention becomes disconnected from perception, and people's minds wander to times and places removed from the current environment (e.g., Schooler et al., 2004). At other times, however, people's minds may seem to go nowhere at all—they simply disappear. This mental state—mind-blanking—may represent an extreme decoupling of perception and attention, one in which attention fails to bring any stimuli into conscious awareness. In the present research, we outline the properties of mind-blanking, differentiating this mental state from other mental states in terms of phenomenological experience, behavioral outcomes, and underlying cognitive processes. Seven experiments suggest that when the mind seems to disappear, there are times when we have simply failed to monitor its whereabouts—and there are times when it is actually gone. PMID:24098287
A mindfulness-based stress management program and treatment with omega-3 fatty acids to maintain a healthy mental state in hospital nurses (Happy Nurse Project): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
Watanabe, Norio; Furukawa, Toshi A; Horikoshi, Masaru; Katsuki, Fujika; Narisawa, Tomomi; Kumachi, Mie; Oe, Yuki; Shinmei, Issei; Noguchi, Hiroko; Hamazaki, Kei; Matsuoka, Yutaka
It is reported that nursing is one of the most vulnerable jobs for developing depression. While they may not be clinically diagnosed as depressed, nurses often suffer from depression and anxiety symptoms, which can lead to a low level of patient care. However, there is no rigorous evidence base for determining an effective prevention strategy for these symptoms in nurses. After reviewing previous literature, we chose a strategy of treatment with omega-3 fatty acids and a mindfulness-based stress management program for this purpose. We aim to explore the effectiveness of these intervention options for junior nurses working in hospital wards in Japan. A factorial-design multi-center randomized trial is currently being conducted. A total of 120 nurses without a managerial position, who work for general hospitals and gave informed consent, have been randomly allocated to a stress management program or psychoeducation using a leaflet, and to omega-3 fatty acids or identical placebo pills. The stress management program has been developed according to mindfulness cognitive therapy and consists of four 30-minute individual sessions conducted using a detailed manual. These sessions are conducted by nurses with a managerial position. Participants allocated to the omega-3 fatty acid groups are provided with 1,200 mg/day of eicosapentaenoic acid and 600 mg/day of docosahexaenoic acid for 90 days. The primary outcome is the change in the total score of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), determined by a blinded rater via the telephone at week 26. Secondary outcomes include the change in HADS score at 13 and 52 weeks; presence of a major depressive episode; severity of depression, anxiety, insomnia, burnout, and presenteeism; utility scores and adverse events at 13, 26 and 52 weeks. An effective preventive intervention may not only lead to the maintenance of a healthy mental state in nurses, but also to better quality of care for inpatients. This paper outlines the
... a healthy way to eat? • What is a balanced diet? • Why is protein important to my body? • What ... Protein foods 5. Dairy foods What is a balanced diet? A balanced diet should include a combination of ...
Stapleton, Jerod L; Manne, Sharon L; Day, Ashley K; Levonyan-Radloff, Kristine; Pagoto, Sherry L
There is increasing interest in using social media sites such as Facebook to deliver health interventions so as to expose people to content while they are engaging in their usual social media habit. This formative intervention development study is novel in describing a preliminary test of using the secret group feature of Facebook to deliver a behavioral intervention targeting users of indoor tanning beds to reduce their risk of skin cancer. Intervention content was designed to challenge body image-related constructs associated with indoor tanning through the use of dissonance-inducing content. To evaluate engagement with and acceptability of using a secret Facebook group to deliver a healthy body image intervention to young women engaged in indoor tanning. Seventeen young women completed a baseline survey and joined a secret Facebook group with intervention content delivered via daily posts for 4 weeks. Engagement data was extracted and acceptability was measured via a follow-up survey. The study had a high retention rate (94%, [16/17]). On average, posts were viewed by 91% of participants, liked by 35%, and commented on by 26%. The average comment rate was highest (65%) for posts that elicited comments by directly posing questions or discussion topics to the group. Average intervention acceptability ratings were highly positive and participants reported feeling connected to the group and its topic. Average rates of past 1-month indoor tanning reported following the intervention were lower than the baseline rate (P=.08, Cohen d=0.47). This study is novel in demonstrating participant engagement with and acceptability of using Facebook secret groups to deliver a dissonance-inducing intervention approach that utilizes group-based discussions related to body image. The study is also unique within the field of skin cancer prevention by demonstrating the potential value of delivering an indoor tanning intervention within an interactive social media format. The findings
Knudsen, Sine Haugaard; Hansen, Louise Seier; Pedersen, Maria
A lifestyle characterized by inactivity and a high-calorie diet is a known risk factor for impaired insulin sensitivity and development of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. To investigate possible links, nine young healthy men (24 ± 3 yr; body mass index of 21.6 ± 2.5 kg/m(2)) completed 14 days of step...
Bozlar, Volkan; Arslanoglu, Cansel
The aim of this study is to determine Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors of students in the Schools of Physical Education and Sport (SPES) utilizing Body Mass Index (BMI) and other various variables. The study is composed of 1,695 students studying in SPES, in 14 different universities across Turkey. It is made up of 1,067 male and 624 female students.…
Garcia, Marcelo Csermak; Pompéia, Sabine; Hachul, Helena; Kozasa, Elisa H; de Souza, Altay Alves L; Tufik, Sergio; Mello, Luiz Eugênio A M
Mindfulness has been defined as being intentionally aware of internal and external experiences that occur at the present moment, without judgment. Techniques that develop mindfulness, such as meditation, have positive effects on reducing insomnia, a sleep disorder that is common both during and after menopause. Our aim was to establish whether postmenopausal women with insomnia are less mindful than postmenopausal women without sleep disorders. Postmenopausal women aged 50 to 65 years who did not use hormone therapy were recruited for the study. The sample included 14 women with insomnia and 12 women without insomnia or any other sleep disorder. The groups were comparable in age, schooling, and anxiety level. To assess mindfulness, we used the validated Mindful Attention Awareness Scale and the attentiveness domain of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule-Expanded Form. Participants with insomnia were less mindful than healthy women. The level of mindfulness was able to discriminate the group with insomnia from the healthy group, with 71.4% accuracy. Postmenopausal women with insomnia are less mindful than women without insomnia. Mindfulness-based interventions, such as meditation, may be beneficial for postmenopausal insomnia.
Bulzacka, E; Lavault, S; Pelissolo, A; Bagnis Isnard, C
Mindfulness based interventions (MBI) have recently gained much interest in western medicine. MBSR paradigm is based on teaching participants to pay complete attention to the present experience and act nonjudgmentally towards stressful events. During this mental practice the meditator focuses his or her attention on the sensations of the body. While the distractions (mental images, thoughts, emotional or somatic states) arise the participant is taught to acknowledge discursive thoughts and cultivate the state of awareness without immediate reaction. The effectiveness of these programs is well documented in the field of emotional response regulation in depression (relapse prevention), anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder or eating disorders. Furthermore, converging lines of evidence support the hypothesis that mindfulness practice improves cognition, especially the ability to sustain attention and think in a more flexible manner. Nevertheless, formal rehabilitation programs targeting cognitive disturbances resulting from psychiatric (depression, disorder bipolar, schizophrenia) or neurologic conditions (brain injury, dementia) seldom rely on MBI principles. This review of literature aims at discussing possible links between MBI and clinical neuropsychology. We conducted a review of literature using electronic databases up to December 2016, screening studies with variants of the keywords ("Mindfulness", "MBI", "MBSR", "Meditation") OR/AND ("Cognition", "Attention", "Executive function", "Memory", "Learning") RESULTS: In the first part, we describe key concepts of the neuropsychology of attention in the light of Posner's model of attention control. We also underline the potential scope of different therapeutic contexts where disturbances of attention may be clinically relevant. Second, we review the efficacy of MBI in the field of cognition (thinking disturbances, attention biases, memory and executive processes impairment or low metacognitive abilities
Verheijden, M.W.; Jans, M.P.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Hopman-Rock, M.
Background: In recent years, many tailored lifestyle counseling programs have become available through the Internet. Previous research into such programs has shown selective enrollment of relatively healthy people. However, because of the known dose-response relationship between the intensity and
others' minds. Then (2), in order to bring to light some possible justifications, as well as hazards and criticisms of the methodology of looking time tests, I will take a closer look at the concept of folk psychology and will focus on the idea that folk psychology involves using oneself as a model...... of other people in order to predict and understand their behavior. Finally (3), I will discuss the historical location and significance of the emergence of looking time tests...
Full Text Available Mindfulness is an individual practice, where one has a heightened awareness of the present moment. An extensive research literature finds links between trait mindfulness and individual-level physical and mental health benefits. A limited but growing amount of research focuses on the association between mindfulness and romantic relationship satisfaction. Though there have been comprehensive reviews, no study has statistically tested the magnitude of the association between mindfulness and relationship satisfaction. Better understanding the value of this practice for relationships can serve to inform community educators and practitioners focused on promoting healthy family relationships. This study used a meta-analytic technique focused on 12 effect sizes from 10 different studies, and found that the relationship between mindfulness and relationship satisfaction was statistically significant with an overall effect size of .27. This finding suggests that higher levels of mindfulness are associated with higher levels of relationship satisfaction; therefore, educators can reasonably consider level of mindfulness as an education target.
Lønbro, Simon; Dalgas, Ulrik; Primdahl, Hanne
speed, 30 s chair rise, 30 s arm curl, stair climb) from HNSCC patients from the DAHANCA 25 trials and data from 24 healthy individuals were included. Results. Lean body mass and maximal muscle strength were significantly associated according to the gender and age-adjusted linear regression model (p ...Introduction. Loss of lean body mass is common following radiotherapy in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and may reduce maximal muscle strength and functional performance. However, the associations between lean body mass, muscle strength and functional performance.......0001). In addition, maximal muscle strength were associated with 30 s arm curl performance, 10 m max gait speed and 30 s chair rise (p regression analyses showed that HNSCC patients expressed significant lower levels of the investigated variables after radiotherapy than healthy individuals (p
Elisa Harumi Kozasa
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: As insomnia is highly prevalent, and side effects of medication are well-known, mind-body interventions are increasingly being sought. The objective of this study is to present a narrative review regarding the effects of mind-body interventions for the treatment of insomnia. METHOD: A PubMed search was conducted including only randomized, controlled trials in which the main objective was to treat insomnia. DISCUSSION: Twelve studies were selected. In three of the studies, objective parameters (polysomnography were analyzed. Mind-body interventions were able to improve sleep efficiency and total sleep time. Most can ameliorate sleep quality; some can reduce the use of hypnotic drugs in those who are dependent on these drugs. CONCLUSION: According to the studies we selected, self-reported sleep was improved by all mind-body treatments, among them yoga, relaxation, Tai Chi Chih and music. Cognitive behavioral therapy seems to be the most effective mind-body intervention. Cognitive behavioral therapy was the only intervention that showed better results than medication. However, considering that only five of the twelve studies chosen reached a score of 3 in the Jadad scale, new studies with a higher methodological quality have to be conducted especially in mind-body interventions that belong to the complementary or alternative medicine field.OBJETIVO: Considerando-se que a insônia é altamente prevalente, e os efeitos colaterais das medicações para seu tratamento são bem conhecidos, pesquisas no campo das intervenções mente-corpo têm sido desenvolvidas. O objetivo deste estudo é apresentar uma revisão narrativa sobre os efeitos das intervenções mente-corpo para o tratamento de insônia. MÉTODO: Uma busca pelo site Pubmed foi conduzida incluindo-se apenas estudos controlados e randomizados nos quais o principal objetivo era o tratamento da insônia. DISCUSSÃO: Doze estudos foram selecionados. Em três deles, par
Zeidan, Fadel; Emerson, Nichole M.; Farris, Suzan R.; Ray, Jenna N.; Jung, Youngkyoo; McHaffie, John G.; Coghill, Robert C.
Mindfulness meditation reduces pain in experimental and clinical settings. However, it remains unknown whether mindfulness meditation engages pain-relieving mechanisms other than those associated with the placebo effect (e.g., conditioning, psychosocial context, beliefs). To determine whether the analgesic mechanisms of mindfulness meditation are different from placebo, we randomly assigned 75 healthy, human volunteers to 4 d of the following: (1) mindfulness meditation, (2) placebo condition...
Marchiori, David; Papies, Esther K
The present research examined the effects of a mindfulness-based intervention to foster healthy eating. Specifically, we tested whether a brief mindfulness manipulation can prevent the portion size effect, and reduce overeating on unhealthy snacks when hungry. 110 undergraduate participants (MAge=20.9±2.3; MBMI=22.3±2.5) were served a small or a large portion of chocolate chip cookies after listening to an audio book or performing a mindfulness exercise (i.e., body scan). Current level of hunger was assessed unobtrusively on a visual analog scale before the eating situation. Calorie intake from chocolate chip cookies. When presented with a large compared to a small portion, participants consumed more cookies (+83kcal). This was not affected by the mindfulness intervention or by hunger. However, while control participants ate more unhealthy food when hungry than when not hungry (+67kcal), participants in the mindfulness condition did not (+1kcal). Findings confirm the prevalence and robustness of the portion size effect and suggest that it may be independent from awareness of internal cues. Prevention strategies may benefit more from targeting awareness of the external environment. However, mindfulness-based interventions may be effective to reduce effects of hunger on unhealthy food consumption. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hegenscheid, K.; Kuehn, J.P.; Hosten, N.; Puls, R.; Voelzke, H.; Biffar, R.
Purpose: Approximately 4000 volunteers will undergo whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) within the next 3 years in the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP). Here we present a pilot study conducted (a) to determine the feasibility of adding a WB-MRI protocol to a large-scale population-based study, (b) to evaluate the reliability of standardized MRI interpretation, and (c) to establish an approach for handling pathological findings. Materials and Methods: The institutional review board approved the study, and oral and written informed consent was obtained from each participant. Two hundred healthy volunteers (99 women, 101 men; mean age 48.3 years) underwent a standardized WB-MRI protocol. The protocol was supplemented by contrast-enhanced cardiac MR1 and magnetic resonance (MR) angiography in 61 men (60.4%) and cardiac MRI and MR mammography in 44 women (44.4%). MR scans were evaluated independently by two readers. Abnormalities were discussed by an advisory board and classified according to the need for further clinical work-up. Results: One hundred ninety-four (97.0%) WB-MRI examinations were successfully completed in a mean scan time per subject of 90 minutes. There were 431 pathological findings in 176 (88%) of the participants. Of those 45 (10.4%) required further clinical work-up and 386 (89.6%) characterized as benign lesions did not. The interobserver agreement for the detection of pathological findings was excellent (K = 0.799) (orig.)
Taylor M Stukes
Full Text Available Cathelicidin is an antimicrobial peptide whose circulating levels are related to vitamin D status in adults. This study sought to determine if circulating cathelicidin concentrations in healthy children are related to the age of the child, body composition and vitamin D status at birth and at the time of the study visit. Blood samples were obtained during yearly visits from 133 children, ages 2-7, whose mothers had participated in a pregnancy vitamin D supplementation RCT. Radioimmunoassay and ELISA were performed to analyze 25(OHD and cathelicidin, respectively. Statistical analyses compared cathelicidin concentrations with concentrations of 25(OHD at various time points (maternal levels throughout pregnancy, at birth, and child's current level; and with race/ethnicity, age, gender, BMI, percent fat, and frequency of infections using Student's t-test, χ2, Wilcoxon ranked-sum analysis, and multivariate regression. The cohort's median cathelicidin concentration was 28.1 ng/mL (range: 5.6-3368.6 and did not correlate with 25(OHD, but was positively correlated with advancing age (ρ = 0.236 & p = 0.005, respectively. Forty patients evaluated at two visits showed an increase of 24.0 ng/mL in cathelicidin from the first visit to the next (p<0.0001. Increased age and male gender were correlated with increased cathelicidin when controlling for race/ethnicity, percent fat, and child's current 25(OHD concentration (p = 0.028 & p = 0.047, respectively. This study demonstrated that as children age, the concentration of cathelicidin increases. Furthermore, male gender was significantly associated with increased cathelicidin concentrations. The lack of association between vitamin D status and cathelicidin in this study may be due to the narrow range in observed 25(OHD values and warrants additional studies for further observation.
Asano, Masanobu; Hong, Guang; Matsuyama, Yusuke; Wang, Weiqi; Izumi, Satoshi; Izumi, Masayuki; Toda, Takashi; Kudo, Tada-Aki
Oral fat sensitivity (OFS, the ability to detect fat) may be related to overeating-induced obesity. However, it is largely unknown whether OFS affects taste preference and eating habits. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate (1) the association between body mass index (BMI) and OFS and (2) the relationship of OFS with four types of taste preference (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter) and eating habits using serial concentrations of oleic acid (OA) homogenized in non-fat milk and a self-reported questionnaire. Participants were 25 healthy Japanese individuals (mean age: 27.0 ± 5.6 years), among whom the OA detection threshold was significantly associated with BMI. Participants were divided into two subgroups based on oral sensitivity to 2.8 mM OA: hypersensitive (able to detect 2.8 mM OA, n = 16) and hyposensitive (unable to detect 2.8 mM OA, n = 9). The degree of sweet taste preference of the hypersensitive group was significantly higher than that of the hyposensitive group. Furthermore, there was significantly higher degree of preference for high-fat sweet foods than low-fat sweet foods in the hypersensitive group. There was also a significant inverse correlation between the OA detection threshold and the degree of both spare eating and postprandial satiety. Thus, OFS is associated not only with BMI, but also with the preference for high-fat sweet foods and eating habits. The present study provides novel insights that measuring OFS may be useful for assessing the risk of obesity associated with overeating in countries, including Japan, where BMI is increasing in the population.
Jankowska, E A; Rogucka, E; Medraś, M; Welon, Z
During the process of aging in males a trend toward an unfavourable body fat accumulation, especially within the visceral depots, is observed. This fact is presumed to be associated with the age-related decline in androgen levels among aging men. The aim of this study was to determine the relationships between sex steroid levels (DHEAS, estradiol, free and total testosterone) and BMI, percent fat mass, WHR values in 190 healthy and professionally active men, aged 22-67, inhabitants of the city of Wroclaw, Poland. Hormonal levels were measured using standard immunoassays. BMI was used as a measurement of obesity. Obesity was also assessed using percent fat mass equations according to the Crook formula. WHR was used as an index of fat distribution. All the correlations between sex steroids, BMI, WHR, percent fat mass and age were evaluated using statistical non-parametric analyses (Spearman coefficient) in the entire group of examined subjects, and in two age-specific groups: a) younger males (aged 22-39) and b) older males (aged 40-67). The aging of Polish males is accompanied by both a significant increase of BMI, percent fat mass and WHR values, and by a decline in estradiol, gonadal and adrenal androgen levels. In the younger group only total testosterone levels were significantly negatively related to BMI, percent fat mass and WHR. Within the group of older men both estradiol and DHEAS levels are significantly positively related to WHR. The sex steroids seem to be associated with indices of overall obesity and distribution of fat in men, but these relationships differ considerably when they are evaluated in younger and older age categories. Worthy of notice is the fact that free testosterone levels are not related to any anthropometric parameters in any age category, although free testosterone (not total testosterone) is commonly recognised as a reliable and sensitive endocrinological indicator of the general psycho-physical status of an aging man.
Toyoshima, Hideaki; Masuoka, Nobutaka; Hashimoto, Shuji; Otsuka, Rei; Sasaki, Satoshi; Tamakoshi, Koji; Yatsuya, Hiroshi
The effect of the interaction between long-term mental stress and eating habits on weight gain has not been confirmed in humans. A population of 1080 healthy Japanese male local government employees without lifestyle-related diseases at baseline were studied [corrected]. Height and weight were measured and perception of mental stress and the frequency of eating to satiety, drinking, smoking, and exercise were surveyed by means of a questionnaire in both 1997 and 2002. Exposure patterns during this 5-year period were classified as low or high. Information on daily food and energy intake was collected in 2002. The effect of the interaction between stress and the frequency of eating to satiety on change in BMI (DeltaBMI) during this 5-year period was examined by 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and covariance (ANCOVA) adjusted for age, BMI at baseline, and other lifestyle habits. The association between satiation eating and DeltaBMI was compared between participants with high and low levels of stress. Stress and satiation eating were not significantly mutually correlated. Two-way ANCOVA showed a significant interaction (F = 4.90, P = 0.03) between mental stress and satiation eating. Among participants with a high level of stress, BMI gain was significantly larger in those who ate to satiety than in those who ate moderately, when DeltaBMI was unadjusted or adjusted for covariates (adjusted mean [SE]: 0.34 +/- 0.06 kg/m(2) vs. 0.12 +/- 0.07 kg/m(2), P = 0.002). Among participants with a low level of stress no such difference was observed. These results were unchanged after further adjustment for energy intake in 2002. In this population, eating pattern interacted with long-term mental stress to produce a larger body mass gain in satiation eaters than in moderate eaters among participants with a high level of stress, independent of energy intake or other lifestyle habits.
Pittas, Anastassios G; Hariharan, Radhika; Stark, Paul C; Hajduk, Cheryl L; Greenberg, Andrew S; Roberts, Susan B
The relative contribution of circulating glucose to meal-to-meal variability in energy intake is not known. In 8 free-living young (median age 26.5 y) women with healthy body weight (median BMI 22.2 kg/m(2)), we measured glucose in the interstitial space by an automated monitoring procedure (continuous glucose monitoring system, CGMS) for up to 3 consecutive days (mean 706 glucose readings per subject). We examined the association between interstitial glucose (which lags blood glucose by approximately 10 min), self-reported hunger, satiety, desire for a meal, and nutrient intakes. Participants reported consuming a typical Western diet (59% carbohydrate, 27% fat, 14% protein). Median (interquartile range) interstitial glucose was 5.2 mmol/L (4.7-5.8). Using repeated-measures techniques in univariate analyses, desire for a meal (r = 0.45, P energy intake. In multivariate regression analyses, desire for a meal (P energy intake, whereas absolute mean glucose measured in the period 15 to 0 min before eating was marginally significant (P = 0.08). In conclusion, absolute glucose level is a significant predictor of energy intake in nonobese women. However, desire for a meal and hunger are quantitatively more important, emphasizing the importance of both glucose signals and nonglucose (internal or environmental) factors in within-subject variability in energy intake. In addition, the CGMS may have utility in understanding the role of circulating glucose in energy regulation in free-living subjects under a wide range of different nutritional conditions.
A STUDY ESTABLISHING THE IMPORTANCE OF BODY COMPOSITION ANALYSIS, REGULAR PHYSIOTHERAPY AND DIETARY MODIFICATIONS FOR INDEPENDENT AND HEALTHY LIVING AMONG GERIATRIC POPULATION: A DETAILED SYSTEMATIC REVIEW ARTICLE
Full Text Available Background: This systematic review article aims towards comprehensive and elaborative collection of research articles related to the importance of body composition analysis, Physiotherapy and nutrition for independent geriatric lifestyle. The review article includes articles which suggest the importance of Body composition analysis, Physiotherapy interventions, specific exercises and a combination of fat free, fiber, fruit and fluid diet. Methods: A comprehensive electronic search was conducted using electronic databases Pub Med, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Research gate, ICMJE, DOAJ, DRJI, IOSR, WAME and many others. In Total 3714, Research papers were reviewed which reported, Age ≥50 years, changes in Body composition in elderly , effects of Diet &Exercises on Body composition and effects of regular Physiotherapy in Geriatric health and obesity. Literature search was restricted to the studies conducted during 1980-2015. Results: Finally 55 papers along with references in research proposal were included. Review shows that ageing, body composition, Physiotherapeutic intervention and nutrition play an interdependent role in providing independent and healthy living among geriatric population. Conclusion: Combined and comprehensive interventions in form of periodic Body Composition Analysis, Physiotherapy interventions with Exercise therapy sessions and Nutritional Supplementation, will be more effective in combating ageing and independent healthy living among Geriatric population. Finally with this review we shall conclude that achieving perfect geriatric health depends upon awareness among the geriatric community to periodically analyze their body composition and regularly comply with exercise therapy sessions, subjective Physiotherapy modality sessions and nutritional supplementation. These principles help in achieving physically fit, healthy, happy and independent geriatric Community.
Williams, Jane E; Wells, Jonathan C K; Wilson, Catherine M; Haroun, Dalia; Lucas, Alan; Fewtrell, Mary S
Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is widely used to assess body composition in research and clinical practice. Several studies have evaluated its accuracy in healthy persons; however, little attention has been directed to the same issue in patients. The objective was to compare the accuracy of the Lunar Prodigy DXA for body-composition analysis with that of the reference 4-component (4C) model in healthy subjects and in patients with 1 of 3 disease states. A total of 215 subjects aged 5.0-21.3 y (n = 122 healthy nonobese subjects, n = 55 obese patients, n = 26 cystic fibrosis patients, and n = 12 patients with glycogen storage disease). Fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM), and weight were measured by DXA and the 4C model. The accuracy of DXA-measured body-composition outcomes differed significantly between groups. Factors independently predicting bias in weight, FM, FFM, and percentage body fat in multivariate models included age, sex, size, and disease state. Biases in FFM were not mirrored by equivalent opposite biases in FM because of confounding biases in weight. The bias of DXA varies according to the sex, size, fatness, and disease state of the subjects, which indicates that DXA is unreliable for patient case-control studies and for longitudinal studies of persons who undergo significant changes in nutritional status between measurements. A single correction factor cannot adjust for inconsistent biases.
Ankad, Roopa B.; Herur, Anita; Patil, Shailaja; Shashikala, G.V.; Chinagudi, Surekharani
Context: Asana, pranayama, and meditation are three main techniques of yoga practiced in India over thousands of years to attain functional harmony between the body and mind. Recent studies on long-term yogic practices have shown improvements in cardiovascular functions. Aim: The present study was conducted to ascertain if a short-term practice of pranayama and meditation had improvements in cardiovascular functions in healthy individuals with respect to age, gender, and body mass index (...
Full Text Available Discute-se o problema da relação entre mente e corpo na teoria de Piaget. A relação entre mente e corpo é explicada por Piaget em termos de um paralelismo entre a psique e os processos físicos. Por um lado, o corpo é uma parte integral do mundo de objetos materiais e, como tal, obedece às regras da causalidade. Por outro lado, a mente é uma unidade formal e, como tal, obedece à lei da necessidade formal que é a implicação. Qual a relação entre eles? Todas as formas de conhecimento originam-se da ação sensório-motora. Ações são primeiro somente rítmicas e depois reguladoras. Regulações dão origem a diferentes formas de comportamento de regras e consciência de normas. Essa consciência requer uma distinção entre fatos e normas, causas e significados, assim como a distinção entre corpo e mente. No entanto, os dois pólos desses pares são sempre complementares um em relação ao outro. O princípio de equilibração regula o isomorfismo potencial entre mente e corpo, como seu desenvolvimento em uma espiral geral de conhecimento. O corpo constitui o mediador entre o self e o meio, assim como essa mediação constitui, inversamente, o self ele mesmo.This article discusses the relation between mind and body in Piagetian theory. The relation between mind and body is explained by Piaget in terms of a parallelism between psyche and physical processes. On one side, the body is a part of the world of material objects and, as such, obeys the rules of causality. On the other hand, the mind is a formal unity and, as such, obeys the rule of formal necessity that is implication. What is the relation between both? All forms of knowledge have the origin in sensory-motor actions. Actions are at first rhythmic and afterwards regulatory. Regulations give origin to different forms of rule behavior and norm consciousness. This consciousness requires a distinction between facts and norms, causes and meanings, as well as the distinction
... Mind Over Matter Teaching Guide and Series / Methamphetamine Mind Over Matter: Methamphetamine (Meth) Print Order Free Publication ... someday you'll make the next major breakthrough. Mind Over Matter is produced by the National Institute ...
Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Krohn, Simon
thinking and ‘Eastern’ mindfulness which refers to an open, accepting state of mind, as intended with Buddhist-inspired techniques such as meditation. In this paper, we are interested in the latter type of mindfulness and demonstrate how Eastern mindfulness techniques can be used as a tool for facilitation......In this paper, we argue that mindfulness techniques can be used for enhancing the outcome of group performance. The word mindfulness has different connotations in the academic literature. Broadly speaking there is ‘mindfulness without meditation’ or ‘Western’ mindfulness which involves active....... A brief introduction to the physiology and philosophy of Eastern mindfulness constitutes the basis for the arguments of the effect of mindfulness techniques. The use of mindfulness techniques for group facilitation is novel as it changes the focus from individuals’ mindfulness practice...
Hartmann, Christina; Dohle, Simone; Siegrist, Michael
This study focuses on body weight motivation based on self-determination theory. The impact of body weight motivation on longitudinal changes in food choices, recreational physical activity and body mass index was explored. A sample of adults (N = 2917, 47% men), randomly selected from the telephone book, completed a questionnaire in two consecutive years (2012, 2013), self-reporting food choices, recreational physical activity and body weight motivation. Types of body weight motivation at T1 (autonomous regulation, introjected regulation, and external regulation) were tested with regard to their predictive potential for changes in food choices, recreational physical activity and body mass index (BMI). Autonomous motivation predicted improvements in food choices and long-term adherence to vigorous recreational physical activity in both genders. Introjected motivation predicted long-term adherence to vigorous recreational physical activity only in women. External motivation predicted negative changes in food choices; however, the type of body weight motivation had no impact on BMI in overweight adults in the long term. Autonomous goal-setting regarding body weight seems to be substantial for healthy food choices and adherence to recreational physical activity.
Fingerhut, Joerg; Heimann, Katrin
suggest that humans learn to see film by integrating filmic means into their body schemas, and through this process develop a “filmic body”, available to them during film watching and, possibly, also off screen. Film language and film cognition are plastic products of mutual influence between films...... perception and cognition, in developing its immersive power. This article presents the latest contributions to this topic, while also providing a new stance regarding the relationship between the mind and movies. Based on selected research from embodied approaches to cognition and picture perception, we...
Bianco, Antonino; Pomara, Francesco; Thomas, Ewan; Paoli, Antonio; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Petrucci, Marco; Proia, Patrizia; Bellafiore, Marianna; Palma, Antonio
Diabetes type 2 is a world wide spread disease with a multifactorial pathogenetic evolution. Various factors like obesity, physical inactivity and poor lifestyle habits contribute to its development. The aim of this study was to verify if in young healthy sedentary male and female there is positive correlation between family history to type 2 diabetes and an increase in body weight and fat mass, or alterations in basal glycemia values. Totally183 male and 237 female healthy sedentary subjects were analysed in 2012, in Italy. They were divided in three groups: FH(+) with first degree family history, FH(++) with second degree family history and FH(-) with no family history. Anthropometrics, body composition and blood parameters were assessed. Male had the highest BMI values (Plife-style changes, such as increased physical activity and controlled quantity and quality of food intake.
de Mendonça-Louzeiro, Maria Raquel Marques Furtado; Annichino-Bizzacchi, Joyce Maria; Benetti-Pinto, Cristina Laguna
Objective: To correlate hemostatic parameters with clinical markers of fat distribution and laboratory variables in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) compared with healthy control subjects. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Tertiary teaching hospital. Patient(s): Forty-five women with PCOS and 45 control women matched for age and body mass index (BMI). Intervention(s): Clinical evaluation and venipuncture. Main Outcome Measure(s): Age, BMI, waist circumference (WC), hip circum...
The human body is both the physical form inhabited by an individual “self” and the medium through which an individual engages with society. Hence the body both shapes and is shaped by an individual’s social roles. In contrast to the cognate fields of archaeology, anthropology, and classics, there has been little explicit discussion or theorization of the body in Egyptology. Some recent works, discussed here, constitute an exception to this trend, but there is much more scope for exploring anc...
[Assessment of Body-Related Avoidance Behaviour: Validation of the German Version of the Body Image Avoidance Questionnaire (BIAQ) in Adolescents with Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa and Healthy Controls].
Steinfeld, Beate; Waldorf, Manuel; Bauer, Anika; Huber, Thomas J; Braks, Karsten; Vocks, Silja
Body image avoidance is conceptualised as a behavioural manifestation of body image disturbance, and describes efforts to avoid confrontation with one's own body. While studies have provided hints that body image avoidance in adulthood contributes to the development and maintenance of eating disorders, so far, there are no corresponding findings for adolescence. The Body Image Avoidance Questionnaire (BIAQ) is the most widely used international questionnaire for measuring body-related avoidance behaviour. As its German version has only been validated in an adult sample, the aim of the present study is to statistically test the questionnaire in adolescents with eating disorders. In total, N=127 female adolescents, including n=57 with Anorexia Nervosa, n=24 with Bulimia Nervosa, and n=46 healthy controls, answered the BIAQ as well as various other instruments for assessing body image disturbance and eating disorder symptoms. The factor structure assumed for the original English version, comprising the higher-order factor "body-related avoidance behaviour" and the 4 subfactors "clothing", "social activities", "eating restraint" and "grooming and weighing", was confirmed by a confirmatory factor analysis. With the exception of the scale "grooming and weighing", all scales showed mostly acceptable internal consistencies, test-retest reliability, differential validity and construct validity. Due to their satisfying psychometric properties, the use of the BIAQ scales "clothing", "social activities" and "eating restraint" can be recommended in research and practice for adolescence. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
David L. Rowland; Ion G. Motofei
Cognition and sexuality are two distinct relational functions that are partially interconnected through our mind. Even though medical sciences have progressed substantially over the past decades, the current understanding of the mind psycho-physiology is yet at an early stage. As an example, the “mind-body problem” draws attention to the fact that fundamental aspects related to the understanding of the mind are still unresolved. Thus, it continues to be unclear how abstract ideas and thoughts...
Rolph, Gwyneth Wesley
Mindfulness has become increasingly popular as a method for building resilience against stress in both clinical and healthy populations. This study sought to investigate the effects of mindfulness training on perceived levels of stress and heart rate variability in students.
Tom B. Mole
Full Text Available For millennia, humans have focused their attention on the breath to develop mindfulness, but finding a scientific way to harness mindful breathing has proven elusive. Existing attempts to objectively measure and feedback on mindfulness have relied on specialist external hardware including electroencephalograms or respirometers that have been impractical for the majority of people learning to meditate. Consequently, training in the key skill of breath-awareness has lacked practical objective measures and guidance to enhance training. Here, we provide a brief technology report on an invention, The MindfulBreather® that addresses these issues. The technology is available to download embedded in a smartphone app that targets, measures and feedbacks on mindfulness of breathing in realtime to enhance training. The current article outlines only the technological concept with future studies quantifying efficacy, validity and reliability to be reported elsewhere. The MindfulBreather works by generating Motion Guided Mindfulness through interacting gyroscopic and touchscreen sensors in a three phase process: Mindfulness Induction (Phase I gives standardized instruction to users to place their smartphone on their abdomen, breathe mindfully and to tap only at the peak of their inhalation. The smartphone’s gyroscope detects periodic tilts during breathing to generate sinusoidal waveforms. Waveform-tap patterns are analyzed to determine whether the user is mindfully tapping only at the correct phase of the breathing cycle, indicating psychobiological synchronization. Mindfulness Maintenance (Phase II provides reinforcing pleasant feedback sounds each time a breath is mindfully tapped at the right time, and the App records a mindful breath. Lastly, data-driven Insights are fed back to the user (Phase III, including the number of mindful breaths tapped and breathing rate reductions associated with parasympathetic engagement during meditation. The new MGM
Cornelissen, Katri K.; Cornelissen, Piers L.; Hancock, Peter J. B.; Tov?e, Martin J.
ABSTRACT Objective A core feature of anorexia nervosa (AN) is an over?estimation of body size. Women with AN have a different pattern of eye?movements when judging bodies, but it is unclear whether this is specific to their diagnosis or whether it is found in anyone over?estimating body size. Method To address this question, we compared the eye movement patterns from three participant groups while they carried out a body size estimation task: (i) 20 women with recovering/recovered anorexia (r...
Pal, Sebely; Khossousi, Alireza; Binns, Colin; Dhaliwal, Satvinder; Ellis, Vanessa
Optimum levels and types of dietary fibre that provide the greatest beneficial effects on metabolic syndrome risk factors in overweight and obese individuals have yet to be determined in clinical trials. The present parallel design study compared the effects of fibre intake from a healthy diet v. a fibre supplement (psyllium) or a healthy diet plus fibre supplement on fasting lipids, glucose, insulin and body composition. Overweight/obese adults were randomised to either control (with placebo), fibre supplement (FIB), healthy eating plus placebo (HLT) or healthy eating plus fibre supplement (HLT-FIB). There was a significant increase in fibre intake in HLT-FIB, HLT and FIB groups up to 59, 31 and 55 g, respectively, at 12 weeks when compared to control (20 g). Weight, BMI and % total body fat were significantly reduced in FIB and HLT-FIB groups, with weight and BMI significantly reduced in the HLT group compared with control at 12 weeks. HLT-FIB and HLT groups had significant reductions in TAG and insulin compared with control at 6 and 12 weeks, and in insulin compared with the FIB group at 12 weeks. The HLT-FIB, HLT and FIB groups all had significant reductions in total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol compared with control after 6 and 12 weeks. The present study demonstrated that simply adding psyllium fibre supplementation to a normal diet was sufficient to obtain beneficial effects in risk factors. However, a high-fibre diet consisting of a psyllium supplement plus fibre from a healthy diet provided the greatest improvements in metabolic syndrome risk factors.
Harder-Lauridsen, Nina M.; Rosenberg, Astrid; Benatti, Fabiana B.
Objectives: There has been a parallel increase in the incidence of obesity and diabetes as well as the number of daily meals. However, evidence is lacking regarding the role of intermittent fasting. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a Ramadan model of intermittent fasting (RIF......; 14 h of daytime abstinence from food and drinking) for 28 d on body composition, glucose metabolism, and cognitive function. Methods: Ten healthy, lean men were included in a nonrandomized, crossover, intervention study. Testing was performed before a control period of 28 d, as well as before.......01) compared with the control period. No changes were observed in any of the other evaluated parameters. Conclusions: Free-living participants were able to comply with 14 h of daily daytime abstinence from food and drinking for 28 d with only a minor effect on body mass index and without any effects on body...
Rutherford, W. J.; Diemer, Gary A.; Scott, Eric D.
Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a widely used method for estimating body composition, yet issues concerning its validity persist in the literature. The purpose of this study was to validate percentage of body fat (BF) values estimated from BIA and skinfold (SF) with those obtained from hydrodensitometry (HD). Percent BF values measured…
Salehpour, Amin; Hosseinpanah, Farhad; Shidfar, Farzad; Vafa, Mohammadreza; Razaghi, Maryam; Dehghani, Sahar; Hoshiarrad, Anahita; Gohari, Mahmoodreza
Vitamin D concentrations are linked to body composition indices, particularly body fat mass. Relationships between hypovitaminosis D and obesity, described by both BMI and waist circumference, have been mentioned. We have investigated the effect of a 12-week vitamin D3 supplementation on anthropometric indices in healthy overweight and obese women. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial, seventy-seven participants (age 38 ± 8.1 years, BMI 29.8 ± 4.1 kg/m²) were randomly allocated into two groups: vitamin D (25 μg per day as cholecalciferol) and placebo (25 μg per day as lactose) for 12 weeks. Body weight, height, waist, hip, fat mass, 25(OH) D, iPTH, and dietary intakes were measured before and after the intervention. Serum 25(OH)D significantly increased in the vitamin D group compared to the placebo group (38.2 ± 32.7 nmol/L vs. 4.6 ± 14.8 nmol/L; Psupplementation (-0.26 ± 0.57 pmol/L vs. 0.27 ± 0.56 pmol/L; PSupplementation with vitamin D3 caused a statistically significant decrease in body fat mass in the vitamin D group compared to the placebo group (-2.7 ± 2.1 kg vs. -0.47 ± 2.1 kg; Pbody weight and waist circumference did not change significantly in both groups. A significant reverse correlation between changes in serum 25(OH) D concentrations and body fat mass was observed (r = -0.319, P = 0.005). Among healthy overweight and obese women, increasing 25(OH) D concentrations by vitamin D3 supplementation led to body fat mass reduction.
Mohammad Hassan Eftekhari
Full Text Available Background: Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM is a common complication in pediatric patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. Components incorporated in the regulation of appetite and body composition appear to be of the focus in renal insufficiency and may influence the CKD-associated PEM. The purpose of this study was to investigate plasma levels of appetite-regulating hormones and their correlation with the body composition variables in a pediatric in predialysis stage of CKD. Methods: Thirty children with CKD in predialysis stage were selected and compared with 30 healthy sex- and age-matched controls. Blood samples were collected in fasting. Serum total ghrelin, leptin, and obestatin levels were measured using enzyme immunometric assay methods. Anthropometric parameters measurement and body composition analysis were done using the bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA method. Results: Patients showed insignificant elevated total ghrelin (105.40±30.83 ng/l, leptin (5.32±1.17 ng/ml and obestatin (5.07±1.09 ng/ml levels in comparison with healthy participants. By using BIA, patients had significantly different Dry Lean Weight (P=0.048, Extra Cellular Water (P=0.045, Body Cell Mass (BCM (P=0.021, Basal Metabolic Rate (P=0.033 and Body Mass Index (P=0.029 compared with controls. Furthermore, the total body water was slightly and the ECW was significantly higher in CKD participants. There were significant negative correlation between obestatin and BCM (r=-0.40, P=0.03 and fat free mass index (FFMI (r=-0.40, P=0.029 in patients. Conclusion: It seems that our results are insufficient to clarify the role of appetite-regulating hormones in PEM in CKD patients. It is apparent that there are still many unknown parameters related to both appetite regulating and CKD-associated PEM.
The Norwegian healthy body image programme: study protocol for a randomized controlled school-based intervention to promote positive body image and prevent disordered eating among Norwegian high school students.
Sundgot-Borgen, Christine; Bratland-Sanda, Solfrid; Engen, Kethe M E; Pettersen, Gunn; Friborg, Oddgeir; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Kolle, Elin; Piran, Niva; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn; Rosenvinge, Jan H
Body dissatisfaction and disordered eating raise the risk for eating disorders. In the prevention of eating disorders, many programmes have proved partly successful in using cognitive techniques to combat such risk factors. However, specific strategies to actively promote a positive body image are rarely used. The present paper outlines a protocol for a programme integrating the promotion of a positive body image and the prevention of disordered eating. Using a cluster randomized controlled mixed methods design, 30 high schools and 2481 12th grade students were allocated to the Healthy Body Image programme or to a control condition. The intervention comprised three workshops, each of 90 min with the main themes body image, media literacy, and lifestyle. The intervention was interactive in nature, and were led by trained scientists. The outcome measures include standardized instruments administered pre-post intervention, and at 3 and 12 months follow-ups, respectively. Survey data cover feasibility and implementation issues. Qualitative interviews covers experiential data about students' benefits and satisfaction with the programme. The present study is one of the first in the body image and disordered eating literature that integrates a health promotion and a disease prevention approach, as well as integrating standardized outcome measures and experiential findings. Along with mediator and moderator analyses it is expected that the Healthy Body Image programme may prove its efficacy. If so, plans are made with respect to further dissemination as well as communicating the findings to regional and national decision makers in the education and health care services. The study was registered and released at ClinicalTrials.gov 21th August 2016 with the Clinical Trial.gov ID: PRSNCT02901457 . In addition, the study is approved by the Regional Committee for Medical and Health Research Ethics.
Schroevers, Maya J.; Brandsma, R.
The increased popularity of mindfulness-based interventions and the growing body of empirical evidence confirming the positive effects of these interventions on well-being warrant more research to determine if the effects are indeed related to learning mindfulness. The present study extends previous
Walhovd, K B; Fjell, A M; Westerhausen, R
a foundation for earlier diagnosis of brain disorders, aberrant development and decline of BCM health, and translate into future preventive and therapeutic strategies. Aiming to improve clinical practice and public health we will work with stakeholders and health authorities, and thus provide the evidence base...
Walhovd, Kristine B; Fjell, Anders M; Westerhausen, René
a foundation for earlier diagnosis of brain disorders, aberrant development and decline of BCM health, and translate into future preventive and therapeutic strategies. Aiming to improve clinical practice and public health we will work with stakeholders and health authorities, and thus provide the evidence base...
Larrivee, Sandra; Greenway, Frank L.; Johnson, William D.
Background: Restaurant eating while optimizing nutrition and maintaining a healthy weight is challenging. Even when nutritional information is available, consumers often consider only calories. A quick and easy method to rate both caloric density and nutrition is an unmet need. A food rating system created to address that need is assessed in this study. Methods: The food rating system categorizes food items into 3 color-coded categories: most healthy (green), medium healthy (yellow), or least healthy (red) based on calorie density and general nutritional quality from national guidelines. Nutritional information was downloaded from 20 popular fast-food chains. Nutritional assessments and the 3 color coded categories were compared using the Wilcoxon and Median tests to demonstrate the significance of nutrition differences. Results: Green foods were significantly lower than yellow foods, which in turn were significantly lower than red foods, for calories and calories from fat, in addition to content of total fat, saturated fat and carbohydrates per 100 g serving weight (all P < .02). The green foods had significantly lower cholesterol than the yellow (P = .0006) and red (P < .0001) foods. Yellow foods had less sugar than red foods (P < .0001). Yellow foods were significantly higher in dietary fiber than red foods (P = .001). Conclusion: The food rating color-coded system identifies food items with superior nutrition, and lower caloric density. The smartphone app, incorporating the system, has the potential to improve nutrition; reduce the risk of developing diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, and stroke; and improve public health. PMID:26134833
Larrivee, Sandra; Greenway, Frank L; Johnson, William D
Restaurant eating while optimizing nutrition and maintaining a healthy weight is challenging. Even when nutritional information is available, consumers often consider only calories. A quick and easy method to rate both caloric density and nutrition is an unmet need. A food rating system created to address that need is assessed in this study. The food rating system categorizes food items into 3 color-coded categories: most healthy (green), medium healthy (yellow), or least healthy (red) based on calorie density and general nutritional quality from national guidelines. Nutritional information was downloaded from 20 popular fast-food chains. Nutritional assessments and the 3 color coded categories were compared using the Wilcoxon and Median tests to demonstrate the significance of nutrition differences. Green foods were significantly lower than yellow foods, which in turn were significantly lower than red foods, for calories and calories from fat, in addition to content of total fat, saturated fat and carbohydrates per 100 g serving weight (all P foods had significantly lower cholesterol than the yellow (P = .0006) and red (P foods. Yellow foods had less sugar than red foods (P foods were significantly higher in dietary fiber than red foods (P = .001). The food rating color-coded system identifies food items with superior nutrition, and lower caloric density. The smartphone app, incorporating the system, has the potential to improve nutrition; reduce the risk of developing diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, and stroke; and improve public health. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.
Engel, B.; Španěl, Patrik; Smith, D.; Diskin, A. M.; Davis, S. J.
Roč. 2, č. 3 (2005), s. 99-106 ISSN 1479-456X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/00/0632 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : total body water * deuterium isotope dilution * FA-MS * bio-impendance Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess whether the gender-specific pattern of fat mass (FM distribution is related to gender differences in cardiometabolic risk factors. 207 healthy middle-aged Japanese were included in the study. We measured FM in the total body, trunk, and lower-body with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. The percentage of trunk FM (TFM and lower-body FM (LFM is noted as %TFM and %LFM, respectively. Other measurements included glucose and insulin during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, leptin, adiponectin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, C-reactive protein (CRP, and systemic oxidative stress marker. Arterial properties were indicated by cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI and intima-media thickness (IMT of the common carotid artery. The results showed that %TFM is higher whereas %LFM is lower in men than in women and men have a more atherogenic cardiometabolic profile. In both genders, %TFM (%LFM is related to an unfavorable (favorable cardiometabolic profile. In particular, the relation between %LFM and OGTT-derived insulin sensitivity index is stronger in women than in men. These findings suggested that in relatively healthy adults, android and gynoid pattern of FM distribution contributes to gender differences in cardiometabolic risk factors.
Gysel, T; Calders, P; Cambier, D; Roman de Mettelinge, T; Kaufman, J-M; Taes, Y; Zmierczak, H-G; Goemaere, S
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there is already an association of insulin resistance (IR) with muscle mass and -force/torque in an adult population and whether this relationship is the same in distal and proximal body parts. 358 Healthy young men were divided into a more insulin sensitive (MIS) (n=89) and a less insulin sensitive (LIS) group (n=89), respectively using lower and upper quartiles of HOMA-IR index (Homeostasis Model Assessment of IR). Muscle force/torque and lean mass, were compared between the two groups. LIS subjects had higher absolute thigh lean mass, but not higher thigh muscle torque, resulting in a lower torque per kg muscle. In upper arm, lean mass was higher in LIS subjects, but also absolute muscle torque resulted higher. For handgrip force, the LIS and MIS group had similar results, despite a trend towards higher forearm lean mass in LIS subjects. Lean mass % of total lean mass is lower in LIS subjects in more distal body parts. Already in a young healthy population, IR seems to be associated with lower force/torque per muscle mass and lower lean mass % of total lean mass predominantly in more distal body parts.
Carter, Melondie R; Kelly, Rebecca K
The aim of this study was to assess differences in self-reported health status, body mass index (BMI), and healthy lifestyle behaviors between Baby Boomer and Generation X faculty and staff at a southeastern university. Data were drawn from employee health risk assessment and BMI measures. A total of 730 Baby Boomer and 765 Generation X employees enrolled in a university health promotion and screening program were included in the study. Ordered logistic regressions were calculated separately for BMI, perceived health status, and three healthy lifestyle behaviors. After covariates such as job role, gender, race, education, and income were controlled, Baby Boomers were more likely than Generation X employees to report better health status and dietary habits. Baby Boomers were also more likely to engage in weekly aerobic physical activity (p generational differences when developing health promotion programs. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.
Woodruff, Sarah J; Hanning, Rhona M; Lambraki, Irene; Storey, Kate E; McCargar, Linda
The objective was to describe weight concerns, dieting, and meal skipping of adolescents and to determine associations with the Healthy Eating Index-C (HEI-C). Data, that were collected using the Food Behaviour Questionnaire, revealed that participants (male=810, female=1016) in grades 9/10 reported weight concerns (n=518), dieting (n=364), and skipping breakfast (n=498), lunch (n=252), and/or dinner (n=129). Of those dieting or weight concerned (n=602), 61% were healthy weight and of those not dieting or weight concerned (n=1224), 13% were overweight/obese. The ordinal logistic regression analysis revealed that HEI-C was likely to be rated lower among those weight concerned and dieting (pbreakfast meal (p<.001). The current study identified inappropriate weight concerns and dieting that compromised diet quality and has implications for future intervention and policy development.
Toyoshima, Hideaki; Masuoka, Nobutaka; Hashimoto, Shuji; Otsuka, Rei; Sasaki, Satoshi; Tamakoshi, Koji; Yatsuya, Hiroshi
Background The effect of the interaction between long-term mental stress and eating habits on weight gain has not been confirmed in humans. Methods A population of 1080 healthy Japanese male local government employees without lifestyle-related diseases were studied. Height and weight were measured and perception of mental stress and the frequency of eating to satiety, drinking, smoking, and exercise were surveyed by means of a questionnaire in both 1997 and 2002. Exposure patterns during this...
Stress management and mind-body medicine: a randomized controlled longitudinal evaluation of students' health and effects of a behavioral group intervention at a middle-size German university (SM-MESH).
Esch, Tobias; Sonntag, Ulrike; Esch, Sonja Maren; Thees, Stefanie
Student life can be stressful. Hence, we started a regular mind-body medical stress management program in 2006. By today, more than 500 students took part and evaluations showed significant results, especially with regard to a reduction of stress warning signals. For further analysis, we now decided to run a randomized controlled longitudinal trial. Participating students at Coburg University were randomized into an intervention (n = 24) or a waitlist control group (n = 19). The intervention group completed 3 sets (pre/post/follow-up) and the control group 2 sets (pre/post) of self-administered questionnaires. The questionnaires included: SF-12 Health Survey, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Sense of Coherence (SOC-L9), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) concerning stress, and the Stress Warning Signs (SWS) scale. Randomly selected participants of the intervention group were also queried in qualitative interviews. The intervention consisted of an 8 week stress management group program (mind-body medical stress reduction - MBMSR). Follow-up measures were taken after 6 months. Virtually, no drop-out occurred. Our study showed significant effects in the intervention group concerning SF-12 Mental Component Scale (p = 0.05), SF-12 Physical Component Scale (p = 0.001), VAS (in general, p = 0.001) and SWS (emotional reactions, p students could be demonstrated. Findings suggest that stress management might be given importance at universities that care for the performance, the quality of life, and stress-health status of their students, acknowledging and accounting for the challenging circumstances of university life, as well as the specific needs of the modern student population. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Dunn, Carolyn; Haubenreiser, Megan; Johnson, Madison; Nordby, Kelly; Aggarwal, Surabhi; Myer, Sarah; Thomas, Cathy
There is an urgent need for effective weight management techniques, as more than one third of US adults are overweight or obese. Recommendations for weight loss include a combination of reducing caloric intake, increasing physical activity, and behavior modification. Behavior modification includes mindful eating or eating with awareness. The purpose of this review was to summarize the literature and examine the impact of mindful eating on weight management. The practice of mindful eating has been applied to the reduction of food cravings, portion control, body mass index, and body weight. Past reviews evaluating the relationship between mindfulness and weight management did not focus on change in mindful eating as the primary outcome or mindful eating as a measured variable. This review demonstrates strong support for inclusion of mindful eating as a component of weight management programs and may provide substantial benefit to the treatment of overweight and obesity.
... healthy meals, and cut back on salt and added sugars. Aim for less than 2,300 milligrams of ... 10 percent of your daily calories come from added sugars. Choose foods that are healthy for your body. ...
... prevent voice problems and maintain a healthy voice: Drink water (stay well hydrated): Keeping your body well hydrated by drinking plenty of water each day (6-8 glasses) is essential to maintaining a healthy voice. The ...
Liu, Yanan; Hwang, Hyo-Jeong; Ryu, Hyesook; Lee, You-Suk; Kim, Hyun-Sook; Park, Hyunjin
Timing of almond intake during a day may result differently in the perspectives of body composition and changes of lipid profile. The current study was conducted to compare the effects of daily almond intake as a preload versus as a snack on body composition, blood lipid profile, and oxidative and inflammation indicators among young Korean adults aged 20-39 years old. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: a pre-meal almond group (PM), a snack almond group (SN) in which participants were instructed to consume 56 g of almonds either as a preload before meals or as a snack between meals, respectively, and a control group (CL) in which participants were provided high-carbohydrate iso-caloric control food. Measurements were performed at baseline, weeks 8 and 16. A total of 169 (M 77/F 92) out of the 227 participants completed the study between June 2014 and June 2015 (n = 58 for PM; 55 for SN; and 56 for CL). A significant decrease in body fat mass was observed in the PM group at both weeks 8 and 16 compared with the CL. There were significant intervention effects on changes of body fat mass ( P = 0.025), body fat percentages ( P = 0.019), and visceral fat levels ( P < 0.001). Consuming almonds as a daily snack reduced the levels of total cholesterol ( P = 0.043) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol ( P = 0.011) without changing high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol compared with the CL. Almond consumption as a preload modified body fat percentages, whereas snacking on almonds between meals improved blood lipid profiles. This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT03014531.
Full Text Available Studies on the relative impact of body mass index in women in childbearing age and gestational weight gain on neonatal outcomes are scarce in the Middle East.The primary objective of this research was to assess the impact of maternal body mass index (BMI and gestational weight gain (GWG on neonatal outcomes. The effect of maternal age and folic acid supplementation before and during pregnancy was also examined.This is a retrospective cross sectional observational study of 1000 full term deliveries of women enrolled thru the National Collaborative Perinatal Neonatal Network, in Lebanon. Maternal characteristics such as age, BMI and GWG and neonatal outcomes such as weight, height, head circumference and Apgar score were the primary studied variables in this study. Total maternal weight gain were compared to the guidelines depicted by the Institute of Medicine (IOM.The negative outcomes of newborns such as lean body weight and macrosomia were significantly present in women who gained respectively below or above the IOM's cut-off points. Pregestational body mass index influenced significantly the infants' birth weight, in both the underweight and obese categories. Birth height, head circumference and Apgar score were not influenced by pregestational body mass index or gestational weight gain. No significant associations were found between maternal age and pregestational body mass index and gestational weight gain.Studies evaluating the impact of weight before and during pregnancy on neonatal outcomes and anthropometrics measurements are lacking in the Middle East. Our results highlight the importance of nutritional counseling in order to shed the extra weights before conceiving and monitor weight gain to avoid the negative impact on feto-maternal health.
Stein, Dan J; Ives-Deliperi, Victoria; Thomas, Kevin G F
There is controversy about whether mindfulness-based approaches to psychotherapy represent a new wave of cognitive-behavioral therapy or a core process in all psychotherapies. One way of conceptualizing mindfulness is in terms of emotion r