WorldWideScience

Sample records for body healthy mind

  1. Body-Mind-Spirit Practice for Healthy Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Kyoung Othelia; Yoon, Hyunsook; Lee, Jungui; Yoon, Jiyoung; Chang, Eunjin

    2012-01-01

    This community-based, health promotion intervention for seniors provided a comprehensive review of the effect of body-mind-spirit (BMS) interventions on health behaviors. The 12-week curriculum offered sessions on exercise, nutrition, sexuality, leisure, stress management, cognitive behavioral therapy, forgiveness, and happiness. Gerontological…

  2. A pure mind and a healthy body: an Islamic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Björkman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s Egypt we see the Muslim Brotherhood supporting hospitals, healthcare centres and other charities, but where does this focus on promoting good health and providing the necessary services stem from? Why do movements such as the Muslim Brotherhood engage in charitable activities to the extent that they do? Is it just a question of doing good for others, or are there other reasons? The purpose of this article is to look at some of the factors behind a trend within the Muslim Brotherhood, which is characterised by seeing the connection between a healthy body and a pure soul as being something vital for a practising Muslim.

  3. BAM! Body and Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancel Submit Search The CDC BAM! Body and Mind Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... this page: About CDC.gov . BAM! Body and Mind Diseases Xpert Opinion Disease Dectectives Immune Platoon Learn ...

  4. Mind-body interventions for vasomotor symptoms in healthy menopausal women and breast cancer survivors. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanopoulou, Evgenia; Grunfeld, Elizabeth Alice

    2016-11-11

    Mind-body therapies are commonly recommended to treat vasomotor symptoms, such as hot flushes and night sweats (HFNS). The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the available evidence to date for the efficacy of different mind-body therapies to alleviate HFNS in healthy menopausal women and breast cancer survivors. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were identified using seven electronic search engines, direct searches of specific journals and backwards searches through reference lists of related publications. Outcome measures included HFNS frequency and/or severity or self-reported problem rating at post-treatment. The methodological quality of all studies was systematically assessed using predefined criteria. Twenty-six RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Interventions included yoga (n = 5), hypnosis (n = 3), mindfulness (n = 2), relaxation (n = 7), paced breathing (n = 4), reflexology (n = 1) and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) (n = 4). Findings were consistent for the effectiveness of CBT and relaxation therapies for alleviating troublesome vasomotor symptoms. For the remaining interventions, although some trials indicated beneficial effects (within groups) at post-treatment and/or follow up, between group findings were mixed and overall, methodological differences across studies failed to provide convincing supporting evidence. Collectively, findings suggest that interventions that include breathing and relaxation techniques, as well as CBT, can be beneficial for alleviating vasomotor symptoms. Additional large, methodologically rigorous trials are needed to establish the efficacy of interventions on vasomotor symptoms, examine long-term outcomes and understand how they work.

  5. Introduction: Minds, Bodies, Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre Coleman

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This issue of 19 brings together a selection of essays from an interdisciplinary conference on 'Minds, Bodies, Machines' convened last year by Birkbeck's Centre for Nineteenth-Century Studies, University of London, in partnership with the English programme, University of Melbourne and software developers Constraint Technologies International (CTI. The conference explored the relationship between minds, bodies and machines in the long nineteenth century, with a view to understanding the history of our technology-driven, post-human visions. It is in the nineteenth century that the relationship between the human and the machine under post-industrial capitalism becomes a pervasive theme. From Blake on the mills of the mind by which we are enslaved, to Carlyle's and Arnold's denunciation of the machinery of modern life, from Dickens's sooty fictional locomotive Mr Pancks, who 'snorted and sniffed and puffed and blew, like a little labouring steam-engine', and 'shot out […]cinders of principles, as if it were done by mechanical revolvency', to the alienated historical body of the late-nineteenth-century factory worker under Taylorization, whose movements and gestures were timed, regulated and rationalised to maximize efficiency; we find a cultural preoccupation with the mechanisation of the nineteenth-century human body that uncannily resonates with modern dreams and anxieties around technologies of the human.

  6. The Mind-Body Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor, Jerry A.

    1981-01-01

    Describes several different philosophies of mind with each philosophy's explanation of the mind-body problem. Philosophies discussed include dualism, materialism, functionalism, radical behaviorism, logical behaviorism and central-state identity. (DS)

  7. Restless Mind, Restless Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seli, Paul; Carriere, Jonathan S. A.; Thomson, David R.; Cheyne, James Allan; Martens, Kaylena A. Ehgoetz; Smilek, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, we investigate the hypothesis that failures of task-related executive control that occur during episodes of mind wandering are associated with an increase in extraneous movements (fidgeting). In 2 studies, we assessed mind wandering using thought probes while participants performed the metronome response task (MRT), which…

  8. Beyond Opioids: Mind and Body Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Understanding Opioids Beyond Opioids: Mind and Body Practices Past Issues / Fall 2016 Table ... research shows that some non-drug approaches—including mind and body practices such as tai chi and ...

  9. Mindless bodies-bodyless minds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekacs-Weisz, Judit

    2007-09-01

    Possibilities opened up by scientific-technical developments of the last century have led to the breaking up of our basic concepts regarding elementary aspects of human life. Boundaries are more easily crossed (also among genders); the reality of functions and the functions of reality are becoming interchangeable. The audio-visual galaxy, which has evolved over the course of the 20th century, with its two dimensionality has resulted in generations growing up in the past decades who have learnt that the "other" can be a virtual body: the sensual is no longer an essential part of human relations. The somato-affective aspects of the experience get split off-relationships emerge between bodyless minds. This fragmentation also means that the body is seen increasingly as mindless: the linkages between body and mind are profoundly undermined. Reality and fantasy melt into one another. Reality control and thinking becomes insecure effected by a view of the world that has lost its keystones of orientation. When body boundaries get confused in such a manner how do ego boundaries develop? How will primary relationships alter among such conditions? What will the internal images of the objects be like? The deconstruction of our basic concepts about space, time, dimensions, body- and ego boundaries made differentiation and the processes of symbolization extremely difficult. Postmodern ideas, questioning the validity of facts have contributed greatly to transforming our image of reality also on a theoretical level. How do these massive changes effect our daily clinical work and our theory of the mind? My paper tries to explore some experiences and ideas related to these questions through clinical cases and narratives of our present times.

  10. Healthy Children, Healthy Minds: Creating a Brighter Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Lebrun

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Children struggle with life today. Being children in the 21st century is both taxing and exciting and yet trying to cope with all of the technology and media that surrounds them. How do we as adults provide good models? Mindfulness, exercise, focus and attention, healthy living strategies need to play a role in shaping healthy children. Educators need to become well versed in strategies that both teach short and long term behaviors that will sustain healthy living and healthy minds. Children are the future and what kind of adult do we want running our countries and the world. The article provides many strategies for educators and parents to guide children in making choices that are both empowering and allow them the flexibility to be children.

  11. Writing Bodies: Somatic Mind in Composition Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleckenstein, Kristie S.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the somatic mind, a permeable materiality in which mind and body resolve into a single entity which is (re)formed by the constantly shifting boundaries of discursive and corporeal intertextualities. Addresses its importance in composition studies. Critiques the poststructuralist disregard of corporeality. (CR)

  12. Mind-body therapies in integrative oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Gary; Fisher, William; Johnson, Aimee

    2010-12-01

    There is growing interest in mind-body therapies as adjuncts to mainstream cancer treatment, and an increasing number of patients turn to these interventions for the control of emotional stress associated with cancer. Increased research funding has enabled many such interventions to be evaluated for their efficacy, including studies of mind-body interventions to reduce pain, anxiety, insomnia, anticipatory, and treatment-related nauseas, hot flashes, and improved mood. Mind-body treatments evaluated for their utility in oncology include relaxation therapies, biofeedback, meditation and hypnosis, yoga, art and music therapy, tai chi, and qigong. Although studies are not always methodologically sound and results mixed, a growing number of well-designed studies provide convincing evidence that mind-body techniques are beneficial adjuncts to cancer treatment. The evidence is sufficient to recommend further investigation and adoption of these techniques in mainstream oncology care.

  13. Adults are intuitive mind-body dualists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forstmann, Matthias; Burgmer, Pascal

    2015-02-01

    In the present research, we tested the hypotheses that (a) adults are intuitive mind-body dualists, (b) that this belief can be considered a default, and (c) that it is partially explained by essentialistic reasoning about the nature of the mind. Over 8 studies, using various thought experiment paradigms, participants reliably ascribed to a physically duplicated being a greater retention of physical than of mental properties. This difference was unrelated to whether or not this being was given a proper name (Study 1b) and was only found for entities that were considered to actually possess a mind (Study 1c). Further, we found that an intuitive belief in mind-body dualism may in fact be considered a default: Taxing participants' cognitive resources (Study 2) or priming them with an intuitive (vs. analytical) thinking style (Studies 3a and 3b) both increased dualistic beliefs. In a last set of studies, we found that beliefs in mind-body dualism are indeed related to essentialistic reasoning about the mind. When a living being was reassembled from its original molecules rather than recreated from new molecules, dualistic beliefs were significantly reduced (Studies 4a and 4b). Thus, results of the present research indicate that, despite any acquired scientific knowledge about the neurological origins of mental life, most adults remain "essentialistic mind-body dualists" at heart.

  14. Release the Body, Release the Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, Martha Goff

    1998-01-01

    A college English teacher describes the anxiety and resentment of students during in-class writing assignments and the successful classroom use of meditation and body movement. Movement seemed to relax the students, change their attitudes, and release their creative impulses to write. Implications related to the body-mind connection are pondered.…

  15. Mind-body therapies for headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierpina, Victor; Astin, John; Giordano, James

    2007-11-15

    Headache is one of the most common and enigmatic problems encountered by family physicians. Headache is not a singular entity, and different pathologic mechanisms are involved in distinct types of headache. Most types of headache involve dysfunction of peripheral or central nociceptive mechanisms. Mind-body therapies such as biofeedback, cognitive behavior therapy, hypnosis, meditation, and relaxation training can affect neural substrates and have been shown to be effective treatments for various types of headache. Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials show that the use of mind-body therapies, alone or in combination, significantly reduces symptoms of migraine, tension, and mixed-type headaches. Side effects generally are minimal and transient.

  16. Zen leadership: balancing energy for mind, body, and spirit harmony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, J W

    2000-01-01

    This article explores leadership characteristics and practices that assist us both professionally and personally to be authentic and integrated in mind, body, and spirit for harmony. The transformational leadership characteristics--courage; belief in people; value driven; a life-long learner and teacher; a complexity, ambiguity, and uncertainty expert; and a visionary leader--all deal with the leader's ability to develop relationships through teamwork, collaboration, networking, mentoring, and establishing boundaries. The author realized the importance of reflection to maintaining a healthy relationship not only with others but also with self.

  17. Mind-body practices in cancer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaoul, Alejandro; Milbury, Kathrin; Sood, Anil K; Prinsloo, Sarah; Cohen, Lorenzo

    2014-12-01

    Being diagnosed with a life-threatening disease such as cancer and undergoing treatment can cause unwanted distress and interferes with quality of life. Uncontrolled stress can have a negative effect on a number of biological systems and processes leading to negative health outcomes. While some distress is normal, it is not benign and must be addressed, as failure to do so may compromise health and QOL outcomes. We present the evidence for the role of stress in cancer biology and mechanisms demonstrating how distress is associated with worse clinical outcomes. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network states that all patients be screened with the single-item distress thermometer and to also indicate the source of distress and to get appropriate referral. In addition to the many conventional approaches for managing distress from the fields of psychology and psychiatry, many patients are seeking strategies to manage their distress that are outside conventional medicine such as mind-body techniques. Mind-body techniques such as meditation, yoga, tai chi, and qigong have been found to lower distress and lead to improvements in different aspects of quality of life. It is essential that the standard of care in oncology include distress screening and the delivery of different techniques to help patients manage the psychosocial challenges of diagnosis and treatment of cancer.

  18. Pavlov and the mind-body problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windholz, G

    1997-01-01

    I. P. Pavlov claimed that the mind-body problem would ultimately be resolved by empirical methods, rather than by rational arguments. A committed monist, Pavlov was confronted by dualism in the case of an hysterical person. Under normal conditions, her body's left side was insensitive to pain, but when she was hypnotized, there was a reversal of her sensitivity to pain, with the right side becoming insensitive. Pavlov acknowledged that the divergence between stimulation and response suggested dualism, yet condemned his disciple G.P. Zelenyĭ as well as Charles S. Sherrington, for their dualistic tendencies. Pavlov's continuous adherence to monism it attributed to the influence of popular scientific books that he read during his adolescence. The books maintained that science was based upon monism. Pavlov proposed that by introducing the concept of emotions, an hysterical person's condition could be explained within the framework of his theory of higher nervous activity, thereby obviating the need to change his paradigm.

  19. Baduanjin Mind-Body Intervention Improves the Executive Control Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tingting; Yue, Guang H.; Tian, Yingxue; Jiang, Changhao

    2017-01-01

    This study aims at comparing the effects of the Baduanjin mind-body (BMB) intervention with a conventional relaxation training program on enhancing the executive function. The study also attempts to explore the neural substrates underlying the cognitive effect of BMB intervention using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technique. Forty-two healthy college students were randomly allocated into either the Baduanjin intervention group or relaxation training (control) group. Training lasted for 8 weeks (90 min/day, 5 days/week). Each participant was administered the shortened Profile of Mood States to evaluate their mood status and the flanker task to evaluate executive function before and after training. While performing the flanker task, the NIRS data were collected from each participant. After training, individuals who have participated in BMB exercise showed a significant reduction in depressive mood compared with the same measure before the intervention. However, participants in the control group showed no such reduction. The before vs. after measurement difference in the flanker task incongruent trails was significant only for the Baduanjin intervention group. Interestingly, an increase in oxygenated hemoglobin in the left prefrontal cortex was observed during the Incongruent Trails test only after the BMB exercise intervention. These findings implicate that Baduanjin is an effective and easy-to-administering mind-body exercise for improving executive function and perhaps brain self-regulation in a young and healthy population. PMID:28133453

  20. The perspective of psychosomatic medicine on the effect of religion on the mind-body relationship in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Mutsuhiro; Ohara, Chisin

    2014-02-01

    Shintoism, Buddhism, and Qi, which advocate the unity of mind and body, have contributed to the Japanese philosophy of life. The practice of psychosomatic medicine emphasizes the connection between mind and body and combines the psychotherapies (directed at the mind) and relaxation techniques (directed at the body), to achieve stress management. Participation in religious activities such as preaching, praying, meditating, and practicing Zen can also elicit relaxation responses. Thus, it is time for traditional religions to play an active role in helping those seeking psychological stability after the Great East Japan Earthquake and the ongoing crisis related to the nuclear accident in Fukushima, Japan, to maintain a healthy mind-body relationship.

  1. 铅暴露对儿童身、心、智健康发育的影响%Children's Body,Mind,Intellect Impact on the Healthy Development of Lead Exposure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘树生; 冀惠英; 王丽丽

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解铅暴露情况,探讨铅暴露对儿童身、心、智健康发育的影响。方法对本市区内869名年龄在9个月~4岁之间的社会散居儿童,采用 BH2200型原子吸收光谱仪,进行血液内铅含量的检测。结果本次检测869名儿童中,血铅含量>l00 ug/L 的91人,在这些人群中出现多动、注意力不集中的,偏食、厌食、轻度腹痛的,学习成绩明显下降的,有智力障碍的共7人。结论随着科技技术的发展,工业化与城市化在给人们带来现代化的同时,也带来了相应的环境和健康等问题。%Objective To lead exposure, lead exposure explore the body, mind, intellect impact on the healthy development of children. Methods The city district social diaspora 869 the age between 9 months ~ 4 year in children using BH2200 atomic absorption spectrometer to detect lead content in the blood. Results The detection of 869 children, blood lead levels> 91 l00 ug / L, and in these populations appear hyperactivity, inattention, the partial eclipse, anorexia, mild abdominal pain, decreased academic performance of there are a total of seven people with intel ectual disabilities. Conclusion With the development of technology and technology, industrialization and urbanization to bring modern, but also brought a corresponding environmental and health problems.

  2. Dispositional Mindfulness and Subjective Time in Healthy Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Luisa; Wittmann, Marc; Bertschy, Gilles; Giersch, Anne

    2016-01-01

    How a human observer perceives duration depends on the amount of events taking place during the timed interval, but also on psychological dimensions, such as emotional-wellbeing, mindfulness, impulsivity, and rumination. Here we aimed at exploring these influences on duration estimation and passage of time judgments. One hundred and seventeen healthy individuals filled out mindfulness (FFMQ), impulsivity (BIS-11), rumination (RRS), and depression (BDI-sf) questionnaires. Participants also conducted verbal estimation and production tasks in the multiple seconds range. During these timing tasks, subjects were asked to read digits aloud that were presented on a computer screen. Each condition of the timing tasks differed in terms of the interval between the presentation of the digits, i.e., either short (4-s) or long (16-s). Our findings suggest that long empty intervals (16-s) are associated with a relative underestimation of duration, and to a feeling that the time passes slowly, a seemingly paradoxical result. Also, regarding more mindful individuals, such a dissociation between duration estimation and passage of time judgments was found, but only when empty intervals were short (4-s). Relatively speaking, more mindful subjects showed an increased overestimation of durations, but felt that time passed more quickly. These results provide further evidence for the dissociation between duration estimation and the feeling of the passage of time. We discuss these results in terms of an alerting effect when empty intervals are short and events are more numerous, which could mediate the effect of dispositional mindfulness. PMID:27303344

  3. Dispositional mindfulness and subjective time in healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa eWeiner

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available How a human observer perceives duration depends on the amount of events taking place during the timed interval, but also on psychological dimensions, such as emotional-wellbeing, mindfulness, impulsivity, and rumination. Here we aimed at exploring these influences on duration estimation and passage of time judgments. 117 healthy individuals filled out mindfulness (FFMQ, impulsivity (BIS-11, rumination (RRS, and depression (BDI-sf questionnaires. Participants also conducted verbal estimation and production tasks in the multiple seconds range. During these timing tasks, subjects were asked to read digits aloud that were presented on a computer screen. Each condition of the timing tasks differed in terms of the interval between the presentation of the digits, i.e., either short (4-sec or long (16-sec. Our findings suggest that long empty intervals (16-sec are associated with a relative underestimation of duration, and to a feeling that the time passes slowly, a seemingly paradoxical result. Also, regarding more mindful individuals, such a dissociation between duration estimation and passage of time judgments was also found, but only when empty intervals were short (4-sec. Relatively speaking, more mindful subjects showed an increased overestimation of durations, but felt that time passed more quickly. These results provide further evidence for the dissociation between duration estimation and the feeling of the passage of time. We discuss these results in terms of an alerting effect when empty intervals are short and events are more numerous, which could mediate the effect of dispositional mindfulness.

  4. Examining a model of dispositional mindfulness, body comparison, and body satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick P. H.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the links between dispositional mindfulness, body comparison, and body satisfaction. It was expected that mindfulness would be associated with less body comparison and more body satisfaction. Two models were tested: one exploring body comparison as a mediator between mindf

  5. The Mind-Body Connection - Emotions and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues The Mind-Body Connection Emotions and Health Past Issues / Winter 2008 Table of ... for centuries. Until the 1800s, most believed that emotions were linked to disease and advised patients to ...

  6. Descartes, Other Minds and Impossible Human Bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Manning, Gideon

    2012-01-01

    For nearly a century, skepticism about other minds (SOM) has been a standard problem in epistemology. In recent accounts of social cognition, however, the success of simulation theory and theory-theory have moved philosophical discussion about other minds away from SOM.1 Precedent for this move can be found in an unlikely place, namely in René Descartes’ philosophy, for Descartes so diminished the role of the senses in gaining knowledge that SOM is precluded from becoming a self-standing skep...

  7. Wandering in both mind and body: individual differences in mind wandering and inattention predict fidgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriere, Jonathan S A; Seli, Paul; Smilek, Daniel

    2013-03-01

    Anecdotal reports suggest that during periods of inattention or mind wandering, people tend to experience increased fidgeting. In four studies, we examined whether individual differences in the tendency to be inattentive and to mind wander in everyday life are related to the tendency to make spontaneous and involuntary movements (i.e., to fidget). To do so, we developed self-report measures of spontaneous and deliberate mind wandering, as well as a self-report scale to index fidgeting. In addition, we used several existing self-report measures of inattentiveness, attentional control, and memory failures. Across our studies, a series of multiple regression analyses indicated that fidgeting was uniquely predicted by inattentiveness and spontaneous mind wandering but not by other related factors, including deliberate mind wandering, attentional control, and memory failures. As a result, we suggest that only spontaneously wandering thoughts are related to a wandering body.

  8. Mind, Body, and Spirit: The Benefits of Martial Arts Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Karrie P.

    1997-01-01

    Explains how martial arts, specifically karate, can benefit today's youth. States that karate promotes physical fitness, and also helps students learn to relax and calm their bodies, develop strong mind/body connections, and enhance mental calmness. Karate students also show increased self-esteem, attain goals, and develop an understanding of…

  9. Mind-body therapies for the management of pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astin, John A

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews the evidence for mind-body therapies (eg, relaxation, meditation, imagery, cognitive-behavioral therapy) in the treatment of pain-related medical conditions and suggests directions for future research in these areas. Based on evidence from randomized controlled trials and in many cases, systematic reviews of the literature, the following recommendations can be made: 1) multi-component mind-body approaches that include some combination of stress management, coping skills training, cognitive restructuring and relaxation therapy may be an appropriate adjunctive treatment for chronic low back pain; 2) multimodal mind-body approaches such as cognitive-behavioral therapy, particularly when combined with an educational/informational component, can be an effective adjunct in the management of rheumatoid and osteoarthritis; 3) relaxation and thermal biofeedback may be considered as a treatment for recurrent migraine while relaxation and muscle biofeedback can be an effective adjunct or stand alone therapy for recurrent tension headache; 4) an array of mind-body therapies (eg, imagery, hypnosis, relaxation) when employed pre-surgically, can improve recovery time and reduce pain following surgical procedures; 5) mind-body approaches may be considered as adjunctive therapies to help ameliorate pain during invasive medical procedures.

  10. Biophysical body-brain-mind unity: theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naisberg, Y

    2000-03-01

    A novel substance-attributed biophysical theory of brain-mind unity is presented. We separate spiritualism and matters of the soul from the medical sphere. Biophysical principles are responsible for the body's operational regimen (BOR) in the homeostatic state which allows for materialization and emergence of the mind; Excitation and/or inhibition modulate 8 BOR stages. There is automatic (somatic) and non-automatic (biophysical and psychological) Circadian cycle control. Computer-analog input and output occurs in wired neuronal electric pathways. Biotechnological devices located in emotional neurons positively signal homeostatic and negatively signal deranged BOR and biophysical mind operations. Macro and/or micro cerebral lesions which affect homeostasis may cause psychopathology, which can be treated with 'instrumental psychotherapy' (IPT) which enables recovery from homeostatic disorder in Phase 1, refining EGO in Phase 2, and social competence in Phase 3. The theory of brain-mind unity and practice of IPT is geared to medical workers and biophysical psychologists.

  11. Mindfulness and Situation Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    sessions, participants develop both formal and informal mindfulness practices. The formal practices draw from meditative traditions and from yoga , and...Body Scan; and, • Mindful movement [ Yoga ]. Several additions have been made by practitioners, including mindful self-inquiry, dialogue, and...traditions: cognitive psychology and Buddhist philosophy. Ellen Langer uses the word mindfulness to describe a healthy state of cognitive openness

  12. Body awareness and mindfulness: Validation of the Spanish version of the Scale of Body Connection

    OpenAIRE

    Quezada Berumen, Lucía del C.; González Ramírez, Mónica T.; Cebolla i Martí, Ausiàs Josep; Soler, Joaquim; García Campayo, Javier

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To assess the psychometric properties and the factor structure of the Spanish version of the Scale of Body Connection (SBC) in a community population of meditators and non-meditators and to investigate the relationships among mindfulness, body awareness and body dissociation. METHODS: Design. Validation study. Sampling. An internet-based commercial system was used to recruit the sample. Instruments. In addition to the SBC, the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) and the De...

  13. Mind-Body Interactions in Anxiety and Somatic Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallorquí-Bagué, Núria; Bulbena, Antonio; Pailhez, Guillem; Garfinkel, Sarah N; Critchley, Hugo D

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety and somatic symptoms have a high prevalence in the general population. A mechanistic understanding of how different factors contribute to the development and maintenance of these symptoms, which are highly associated with anxiety disorders, is crucial to optimize treatments. In this article, we review recent literature on this topic and present a redefined model of mind-body interaction in anxiety and somatic symptoms, with an emphasis on both bottom-up and top-down processes. Consideration is given to the role played in this interaction by predisposing physiological and psychological traits (e.g., interoception, anxiety sensitivity, and trait anxiety) and to the levels at which mindfulness approaches may exert a therapeutic benefit. The proposed model of mind-body interaction in anxiety and somatic symptoms is appraised in the context of joint hypermobility syndrome, a constitutional variant associated with autonomic abnormalities and vulnerability to anxiety disorders.

  14. Mind/Body Psychological Treatments for Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce D. Naliboff

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the goal of treatment for those with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is to improve the quality of life through a reduction in symptoms. While the majority of treatment approaches involve the use of traditional medicine, more and more patients seek out a non-drug approach to managing their symptoms. Current forms of non-drug psychologic or mind/body treatment for IBS include hypnotherapy, cognitive behavioral therapy and brief psychodynamic psychotherapy, all of which have been proven efficacious in clinical trials. We propose that incorporating the constructs of mindfulness and acceptance into a mind/body psychologic treatment of IBS may be of added benefit due to the focus on changing awareness and acceptance of one's own state which is a strong component of traditional and Eastern healing philosophies.

  15. Very Young Children's Body Image: Bodies and Minds under Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birbeck, David; Drummond, Murray

    2006-01-01

    In recent years research has recognised that notions of body image, body image ideals and body dissatisfaction develop much earlier than was once thought. Forty-seven children (25 male; 22 female) aged between 5 and 6 years were interviewed on three occasions over 12 months regarding their perceptions of body image. The interviews revealed…

  16. A Program to Protect Integrity of Body-Mind-Spirit: Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oznur Korukcu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mindfulness-based applications allow health care staffs to understand themselves as well as other individuals. Awareness based applications are not only stress reduction techniques but also a way of understanding the life and human existence, and it should not be only used to cope with the diseases. Emotions, thoughts and judgments of people might give direction to their life sometimes. Accessing a life without judgment and negative feelings brings a peaceful and happy life together. Mindfulness based stress reduction exercises may help to enjoy the present time, to cope with the challenges, stress and diseases and accept the negative life experiences rather than to question their reasons. About three decades ago, Kabat-Zin conducted the first investigation of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction program which is used commonly all around the world. The 8-weeks program, which contains mindful living exercises (such as eating, walking, cooking, etc., yoga, body scan and meditation practices, requires doing daily life activity and meditation with attention, openness and acceptance. The aim of this review article is to give information about Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction program and to emphasize its importance. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(1: 68-80

  17. The computationalist reformulation of the mind-body problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchal, Bruno

    2013-09-01

    Computationalism, or digital mechanism, or simply mechanism, is a hypothesis in the cognitive science according to which we can be emulated by a computer without changing our private subjective feeling. We provide a weaker form of that hypothesis, weaker than the one commonly referred to in the (vast) literature and show how to recast the mind-body problem in that setting. We show that such a mechanist hypothesis does not solve the mind-body problem per se, but does help to reduce partially the mind-body problem into another problem which admits a formulation in pure arithmetic. We will explain that once we adopt the computationalist hypothesis, which is a form of mechanist assumption, we have to derive from it how our belief in the physical laws can emerge from *only* arithmetic and classical computer science. In that sense we reduce the mind-body problem to a body problem appearance in computer science, or in arithmetic. The general shape of the possible solution of that subproblem, if it exists, is shown to be closer to "Platonist or neoplatonist theology" than to the "Aristotelian theology". In Plato's theology, the physical or observable reality is only the shadow of a vaster hidden nonphysical and nonobservable, perhaps mathematical, reality. The main point is that the derivation is constructive, and it provides the technical means to derive physics from arithmetic, and this will make the computationalist hypothesis empirically testable, and thus scientific in the Popperian analysis of science. In case computationalism is wrong, the derivation leads to a procedure for measuring "our local degree of noncomputationalism".

  18. Mindfulness starts with the body: somatosensory attention and top-down modulation of cortical alpha rhythms in mindfulness meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Catherine E; Sacchet, Matthew D; Lazar, Sara W; Moore, Christopher I; Jones, Stephanie R

    2013-01-01

    Using a common set of mindfulness exercises, mindfulness based stress reduction (MBSR) and mindfulness based cognitive therapy (MBCT) have been shown to reduce distress in chronic pain and decrease risk of depression relapse. These standardized mindfulness (ST-Mindfulness) practices predominantly require attending to breath and body sensations. Here, we offer a novel view of ST-Mindfulness's somatic focus as a form of training for optimizing attentional modulation of 7-14 Hz alpha rhythms that play a key role in filtering inputs to primary sensory neocortex and organizing the flow of sensory information in the brain. In support of the framework, we describe our previous finding that ST-Mindfulness enhanced attentional regulation of alpha in primary somatosensory cortex (SI). The framework allows us to make several predictions. In chronic pain, we predict somatic attention in ST-Mindfulness "de-biases" alpha in SI, freeing up pain-focused attentional resources. In depression relapse, we predict ST-Mindfulness's somatic attention competes with internally focused rumination, as internally focused cognitive processes (including working memory) rely on alpha filtering of sensory input. Our computational model predicts ST-Mindfulness enhances top-down modulation of alpha by facilitating precise alterations in timing and efficacy of SI thalamocortical inputs. We conclude by considering how the framework aligns with Buddhist teachings that mindfulness starts with "mindfulness of the body." Translating this theory into neurophysiology, we hypothesize that with its somatic focus, mindfulness' top-down alpha rhythm modulation in SI enhances gain control which, in turn, sensitizes practitioners to better detect and regulate when the mind wanders from its somatic focus. This enhanced regulation of somatic mind-wandering may be an important early stage of mindfulness training that leads to enhanced cognitive regulation and metacognition.

  19. Comparison of Emotion Recognition and Mind Reading Abilities in Opium Abusers and Healthy Matched Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Nejati

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study is to compare the emotion recognition and mind reading in opium abusers and healthy individuals. Method: In this causative-comparative study, with a non probability sampling method, 30 opium abusers compared with 30 healthy individuals that were matched in sex and education. Neurocognitive tests of reading mind from eyes and emotion recognition from face were used for evaluation. Independent T-Test was used for analysis. Findings: The results showed that opium abusers had significantly lower abilities in mind reading than healthy matched individuals. Also opium abusers had significantly lower performance in recognition of emotional experience of happy, sad and angry faces. Conclusion: Based on weak performance of mind reading and emotion recognition in addicts, it is advised that social cognition evaluation considered in drug abusers evaluation. Future interventional study could propose social cognition rehabilitation programs for addicts.

  20. Navigating diagnoses: understanding mind-body relations, mental health, and stigma in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohrt, Brandon A; Harper, Ian

    2008-12-01

    Anthropologists and psychiatrists traditionally have used the salience of a mind-body dichotomy to distinguish Western from non-Western ethnopsychologies. However, despite claims of mind-body holism in non-Western cultures, mind-body divisions are prominent in non-Western groups. In this article, we discuss three issues: the ethnopsychology of mind-body dichotomies in Nepal, the relationship between mind-body dichotomies and the hierarchy of resort in a medical pluralistic context, and, finally, the role of mind-body dichotomies in public health interventions (biomedical and psychosocial) aimed toward decreasing the stigmatization of mental illness. We assert that, by understanding mind-body relations in non-Western settings, their implications, and ways in which to reconstitute these relations in a less stigmatizing manner, medical anthropologists and mental health workers can contribute to the reduction of stigma in global mental health care.

  1. Body Awareness: a phenomenological inquiry into the common ground of mind-body therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silow Theresa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Enhancing body awareness has been described as a key element or a mechanism of action for therapeutic approaches often categorized as mind-body approaches, such as yoga, TaiChi, Body-Oriented Psychotherapy, Body Awareness Therapy, mindfulness based therapies/meditation, Feldenkrais, Alexander Method, Breath Therapy and others with reported benefits for a variety of health conditions. To better understand the conceptualization of body awareness in mind-body therapies, leading practitioners and teaching faculty of these approaches were invited as well as their patients to participate in focus groups. The qualitative analysis of these focus groups with representative practitioners of body awareness practices, and the perspectives of their patients, elucidated the common ground of their understanding of body awareness. For them body awareness is an inseparable aspect of embodied self awareness realized in action and interaction with the environment and world. It is the awareness of embodiment as an innate tendency of our organism for emergent self-organization and wholeness. The process that patients undergo in these therapies was seen as a progression towards greater unity between body and self, very similar to the conceptualization of embodiment as dialectic of body and self described by some philosophers as being experienced in distinct developmental levels.

  2. For an Aesthetics of Sensations: intense body of Bartenieff Fundamentals and Body-Mind Centering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia de Lima

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses concepts and methodological proposals that approach the theoretical and practical study concerning the body, understanding it as an expressive subject in constant mutation and process of reinvention.  For this reason, the study approximates two somatic approaches: Bartenieff Fundamentals™ and Body-Mind Centering™. The aim was to perceive how these somatic approaches allow the construction of an intensive body that engenders an aesthetics of sensations.

  3. The embodied mind: A review on functional genomic and neurological correlates of mind-body therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehsam, David; Lutgendorf, Susan; Mills, Paul J; Rickhi, Badri; Chevalier, Gaétan; Bat, Namuun; Chopra, Deepak; Gurfein, Blake

    2017-02-01

    A broad range of mind-body therapies (MBTs) are used by the public today, and a growing body of clinical and basic sciences research has resulted in evidence-based integration of many MBTs into clinical practice. Basic sciences research has identified some of the physiological correlates of MBT practices, leading to a better understanding of the processes by which emotional, cognitive and psychosocial factors can influence health outcomes and well-being. In particular, results from functional genomics and neuroimaging describe some of the processes involved in the mind-body connection and how these can influence health outcomes. Functional genomic and neurophysiological correlates of MBTs are reviewed, detailing studies showing changes in sympathetic nervous system activation of gene transcription factors involved in immune function and inflammation, electroencephalographic and neuroimaging studies on MBT practices, and persistent changes in neural function and morphology associated with these practices. While the broad diversity of study designs and MBTs studied presents a patchwork of results requiring further validation through replication and longitudinal studies, clear themes emerge for MBTs as immunomodulatory, with effects on leukocyte transcription and function related to inflammatory and innate immune responses, and neuromodulatory, with effects on brain function and morphology relevant for attention, learning, and emotion regulation. By detailing the potential mechanisms of action by which MBTs may influence health outcomes, the data generated by these studies have contributed significantly towards a better understanding of the biological mechanisms underlying MBTs.

  4. Brain, mind, and body: interactions with art in renaissance Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginn, Sheryl R; Lorusso, Lorenzo

    2008-01-01

    The Renaissance saw the first systematic anatomical and physiological studies of the brain and human body because scientists, for the first time in centuries, were allowed to dissect human bodies for study. Renaissance artists were frequently found at dissections and their attention to detail can be observed in their products. Scientists themselves were increasingly artistic, and they created astonishing anatomical models and illustrations that can still be studied. The cross-fertilization of art and science in the Renaissance resulted in more scientific analyses of neuroanatomy as well as more creative ways in which such analyses could be depicted. Both art and science benefited from the reciprocal ways in which the two influenced each other even as they provided new ways of explaining the mysteries of the human body and mind.

  5. Mindfulness starts with the body: Somatosensory attention and top-down modulation of cortical alpha rhythms in mindfulness meditation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E Kerr

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR and Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT use a common set of exercises to reduce distress in chronic pain and decrease risk of depression relapse. These standardized mindfulness (ST-Mindfulness practices predominantly require attending to breath and body sensations. Here, we offer a novel view of ST-Mindfulness’s somatic focus as a form of training for optimizing attentional modulation of 7-14 Hz alpha rhythms that play a key role in filtering inputs to primary sensory neocortex and organizing the flow of sensory information. In support of the framework, we describe our previous finding (Kerr et al, 2011 that ST-Mindfulness enhanced attentional regulation of alpha in primary somatosensory cortex (SI. The framework allows us to make several predictions. In chronic pain, we predict somatic attention in ST-Mindfulness de-biases alpha in SI, freeing up pain-focused attentional resources. In depression relapse, we predict ST-Mindfulness’s somatic attention competes with internally focused rumination, as internally focused cognitive processes (e.g., working and short term memory rely on alpha filtering of sensory input. Our computational model (Jones et al, 2009 predicts ST-Mindfulness enhances top-down modulation of alpha by facilitating precise alterations in timing and efficacy of SI thalamocortical inputs. We conclude by considering how the proposed framework aligns with Buddhist teachings that mindfulness starts with mindfulness of the body. Translating this theory into neurophysiology, we hypothesize that with its somatic focus, mindfulness’ top-down alpha rhythm modulation in SI enhances gain control which, in turn, sensitizes practitioners to better detect and regulate when the mind wanders from its somatic focus. This enhanced regulation of somatic mind-wandering may be an early stage of mindfulness training, leading to cognitive regulation and metacognition.

  6. Organic unity theory: the mind-body problem revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, A

    1991-05-01

    The purpose of this essay is to delineate the conceptual framework for psychiatry as an integrated and integrative science that unites the mental and the physical. Four basic philosophical perspectives concerning the relationship between mind and body are introduced. The biopsychosocial model, at this time the preeminent model in medical science that addresses this relationship, is examined and found to be flawed. Mental-physical identity theory is presented as the most valid philosophical approach to understanding the relationship between mind and body. Organic unity theory is then proposed as a synthesis of the biopsychosocial model and mental-physical identity theory in which the difficulties of the biopsychosocial model are resolved. Finally, some implications of organic unity theory for psychiatry are considered. 1) The conventional dichotomy between physical (organic) and mental (functional) is linguistic/conceptual rather than inherent in nature, and all events and processes involved in the etiology, pathogenesis, symptomatic manifestation, and treatment of psychiatric disorders are simultaneously biological and psychological. 2) Neuroscience requires new conceptual models to comprehend the integrated and emergent physiological processes to which psychological phenomena correspond. 3) Introspective awareness provides data that are valid for scientific inquiry and is the most direct method of knowing psychophysical events. 4) Energy currently being expended in disputes between biological and psychological psychiatry would be more productively invested in attempting to formulate the conditions under which each approach is maximally effective.

  7. An east Asian perspective of mind-body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatomo, S; Leisman, G

    1996-08-01

    This paper addresses a need to re-examine the mind-body dualism established since Descartes. Descartes' dualism has been regarded by modern philosophers as an extremely insufficient solution to the problem of mind and body, from which is derived a long opposition in modern epistomology between idealism and empiricism. This dualism, bifurcating the region of spirit and matter, and the dichotomous models of thinking based on this dualism, have long dominated the world of modern philosophy and science. The paper examines states of conscious experience from an East Asian perspective allowing analysis on achieved supernormal consciousness rather than a focus on "normal" or "subnormal." The nature of the "transformation" of human consciousness will be studied both philosophically, as a transformation from "provisional" dualism to non-dualism, and neurophysiologically. The theoretical structure of the transformation will, in part, be examined through the model provided by a Japanese medieval Zen master, Takuan Sôhô. Then, to verify Takuan's theoretical explanation, toposcopic analysis of electroencephalographs will be presented of the performance of individuals practicing the martial arts technique of tôate.

  8. Mindfulness-based group therapy for systemic lupus erythematosus: A first exploration of a promising mind-body intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horesh, Danny; Glick, Ittai; Taub, Renen; Agmon-Levin, Nancy; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2017-02-01

    Psychological effects related to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are tremendous. While a variety of psychological treatments have been applied to assist SLE patients, the effects of mindfulness practice were never documented in SLE. Mindfulness-based psychotherapy includes several techniques, including body-scan, breathing exercises, and full awareness during daily activities. In this case report, we present a first attempt at conducting mindfulness-based group therapy among SLE patients. Six female SLE patients participated in an 8-week program. Improvement was observed in several areas: patients' increased ability to differentiate between themselves and the disease; increased ability to accept, rather than to actively fight the fact that one must live with the disease; and decreased behavioral avoidance. These observations speak to the significant therapeutic potential of mindfulness practice among SLE patients. With its emphasis on acceptance of negative physical and emotional states, mindfulness practice is a promising treatment option, which needs to be further studied.

  9. Incorporating positive body image into the treatment of eating disorders: A model for attunement and mindful self-care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook-Cottone, Catherine P

    2015-06-01

    This article provides a model for understanding the role positive body image can play in the treatment of eating disorders and methods for guiding patients away from symptoms and toward flourishing. The Attuned Representational Model of Self (Cook-Cottone, 2006) and a conceptual model detailing flourishing in the context of body image and eating behavior (Cook-Cottone et al., 2013) are discussed. The flourishing inherent in positive body image comes hand-in-hand with two critical ways of being: (a) having healthy, embodied awareness of the internal and external aspects of self (i.e., attunement) and (b) engaging in mindful self-care. Attunement and mindful self-care thus are considered as potential targets of actionable therapeutic work in the cultivation of positive body image among those with disordered eating. For context, best-practices in eating disorder treatment are also reviewed. Limitations in current research are detailed and directions for future research are explicated.

  10. Mind-Body Medicine Practices in Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... common conditions that increase risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. An experimental program that combines mindfulness meditation, “mindful eating,” and diet/exercise may help to control these conditions. Researchers are ...

  11. The feasibility and impact of delivering a mind-body intervention in a virtual world.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel B Hoch

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Mind-body medical approaches may ameliorate chronic disease. Stress reduction is particularly helpful, but face-to-face delivery systems cannot reach all those who might benefit. An online, 3-dimensional virtual world may be able to support the rich interpersonal interactions required of this approach. In this pilot study, we explore the feasibility of translating a face-to-face stress reduction program into an online virtual setting and estimate the effect size of the intervention. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Domain experts in virtual world technology joined with mind body practitioners to translate an existing 8 week relaxation response-based resiliency program into an 8-week virtual world-based program in Second Life™ (SL. Twenty-four healthy volunteers with at least one month's experience in SL completed the program. Each subject filled out the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS and the Symptom Checklist 90- Revised (SCL-90-R before and after taking part. Participants took part in one of 3 groups of about 10 subjects. The participants found the program to be helpful and enjoyable. Many reported that the virtual environment was an excellent substitute for the preferred face-to-face approach. On quantitative measures, there was a general trend toward decreased perceived stress, (15.7 to 15.0, symptoms of depression, (57.6 to 57.0 and anxiety (56.8 to 54.8. There was a significant decrease of 2.8 points on the SCL-90-R Global Severity Index (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot project showed that it is feasible to deliver a typical mind-body medical intervention through a virtual environment and that it is well received. Moreover, the small reduction in psychological distress suggests further research is warranted. Based on the data collected for this project, a randomized trial with less than 50 subjects would be appropriately powered if perceived stress is the primary outcome.

  12. Characteristics of adult smokers presenting to a mind-body medicine clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luberto, Christina M; Chad-Friedman, Emma; Dossett, Michelle L; Perez, Giselle K; Park, Elyse R

    2016-09-29

    Mind-body interventions can improve vulnerabilities that underlie smoking behavior. The characteristics of smokers who use mind-body medicine have not been explored, preventing the development of targeted interventions. Patients (N = 593) presenting to a mind-body medicine clinic completed self-report measures. Patients were 67 percent never smokers, 27 percent former smokers, and 6 percent current smokers. Current smokers were younger; more likely to be single, unemployed, or on disability; and report greater depression symptoms, greater pain, and lower social support (ps mind-body medicine have unique psychosocial needs that should be targeted in mind-body smoking cessation interventions.

  13. Mind-body therapies: evidence and implications in advanced oncology practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayden, Kelley D

    2012-11-01

    The idea that thoughts and emotions influence health outcomes is an ancient concept that was initially abandoned by Western medicine researchers. Today, researchers are showing a renewed interest in the interactions of the mind and body and the role these interactions play in disease formation and recovery. Complementary and alternative interventions, such as mind-body therapies, are increasingly being used by cancer survivors for disease prevention, immune system enhancement, and symptom control. Traditional training has not been structured to provide advanced practitioners with an in-depth knowledge of the clinical applications of mind-body therapies. The aim of this article is to acquaint the reader with common mind-body modalities (meditation/mindfulness-based stress reduction, relaxation therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, hypnosis, biofeedback, music therapy, art therapy, support groups, and aromatherapy) and to examine important evidence in support of or against their clinical application.

  14. Designing the Healthy Bodies, Healthy Souls Church-Based Diabetes Prevention Program through a Participatory Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Amber; Confair, Amy R.; Flamm, Laura; Goheer, Attia; Graham, Karlene; Muindi, Mwende; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Healthy Bodies, Healthy Souls (HBHS) program aims to reduce diabetes risk among urban African Americans by creating healthy food and physical activity environments within churches. Participant engagement supports the development of applicable intervention strategies by identifying priority concerns, resources, and opportunities.…

  15. Aromatherapy: The Doctor Of Natural Harmony Of Body & Mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatri R. Shah

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Aromatherapy is a form of alternative medicine that uses volatile plant materials, known as essential oils, and other aromatic compounds for the purpose of altering a person's mind, mood, cognitive function or health. Since some essential oils such as tea tree have demonstrated anti-microbial effects, it has been suggested that they may be useful for the treatment of infectious diseases. Evidence for the efficacy of aromatherapy in treating medical conditions remains poor, with a particular lack of studies employing rigorous methodology; however some evidence exists that essential oils may have therapeutic potential. Aromatherapy is the practice of using the natural oils extracted from flowers, bark, stems, leaves, roots or other parts of a plant to enhance psychological and physical well-being. The inhaled aroma from these “essential” oils is widely believed to stimulate brain function. Essential oils can also be absorbed through the skin, where they travel through the bloodstream and can promote whole-body healing. A form of alternative medicine, aromatherapy is gaining momentum. It is used for a variety of applications, including pain relief, mood enhancement and increased cognitive function. There are a wide number of essential oils available, each with its own healing properties.

  16. Mind magic: a pilot study of preventive mind-body-based stress reduction in behaviorally inhibited and activated children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jellesma, F.C.; Cornelis, J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of study: The aim of this pilot study was to examine a mind-body-based preventive intervention program and to determine relationships between children's behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and behavioral activation system, stress, and stress reduction after the program. Design of study: Child

  17. The psychobiology of mind-body communication: the complex, self-organizing field of information transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, E L

    1996-01-01

    The current information revolution in molecular biology has important implications for an new understanding of the phenomenology of mind, memory and behavior as a complex, self-organizing field of information transduction. This paper traces the pathways of information transduction in life processes from the molecular-genetic level to the dynamics of mind and behavior together with suggestions for future research exploring the psychobiology of mind-body communication and its implications for the psychotherapeutic arts of the future.

  18. Guidelines for Creating, Implementing, and Evaluating Mind-Body Programs in a Military Healthcare Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Katherine; Firth, Kimberly; Smeeding, Sandra; Wolever, Ruth; Kaufman, Joanna; Delgado, Roxana; Bellanti, Dawn; Xenakis, Lea

    2016-01-01

    Research suggests that the development of mind-body skills can improve individual and family resilience, particularly related to the stresses of illness, trauma, and caregiving. To operationalize the research evidence that mind-body skills help with health and recovery, Samueli Institute, in partnership with experts in mind-body programming, created a set of guidelines for developing and evaluating mind-body programs for service members, veterans, and their families. The Guidelines for Creating, Implementing, and Evaluating Mind-Body Programs in a Military Healthcare Setting outline key strategies and issues to consider when developing, implementing, and evaluating a mind-body focused family empowerment approach in a military healthcare setting. Although these guidelines were developed specifically for a military setting, most of the same principles can be applied to the development of programs in the civilian setting as well. The guidelines particularly address issues unique to mind-body programs, such as choosing evidence-based modalities, licensure and credentialing, safety and contraindications, and choosing evaluation measures that capture the holistic nature of these types of programs. The guidelines are practical, practice-based guidelines, developed by experts in the fields of program development and evaluation, mind-body therapies, patient- and family-centered care, as well as, experts in military and veteran's health systems. They provide a flexible framework to create mind-body family empowerment programs and describe important issues that program developers and evaluators are encouraged to address to ensure the development of the most impactful, successful, evidence-supported programs possible.

  19. The mind-body relationship in psychotherapy: grounded cognition as an explanatory framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitan, Nuwan D; Murray, Greg

    2014-01-01

    As a discipline, psychology is defined by its location in the ambiguous space between mind and body, but theories underpinning the application of psychology in psychotherapy are largely silent on this fundamental metaphysical issue. This is a remarkable state of affairs, given that psychotherapy is typically a real-time meeting between two embodied agents, with the goal of facilitating behavior change in one party. The overarching aim of this paper is to problematize the mind-body relationship in psychotherapy in the service of encouraging advances in theory and practice. The paper briefly explores various psychotherapeutic approaches to help explicate relationships between mind and body from these perspectives. Themes arising from this analysis include a tendency toward dualism (separation of mind and body from the conceptualization of human functioning), exclusivism (elimination of either mind or body from the conceptualization of human functioning), or mind-body monism (conceptualization of mind and body as a single, holistic system). We conclude that the literature, as a whole, does not demonstrate consensus, regarding the relationship between mind and body in psychotherapy. We then introduce a contemporary, holistic, psychological conceptualization of the relationship between mind and body, and argue for its potential utility as an organizing framework for psychotherapeutic theory and practice. The holistic approach we explore, "grounded cognition," arises from a long philosophical tradition, is influential in current cognitive science, and presents a coherent empirically testable framework integrating subjective and objective perspectives. Finally, we demonstrate how this "grounded cognition" perspective might lead to advances in the theory and practice of psychotherapy.

  20. Mindfulness-oriented meditation improves self-related character scales in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanella, Fabio; Crescentini, Cristiano; Urgesi, Cosimo; Fabbro, Franco

    2014-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that mindfulness meditation may improve well-being in healthy individuals and be effective in the treatment of mental and neurological disorders. Here, we investigated the effects of an 8-week mindfulness-mediation program on the personality profiles of three groups of healthy individuals with no previous experience with meditation as compared to a control group not enrolled in any training. Personality profiles were obtained through the Temperament and Character Inventory (Cloninger et al., 1993). In the experimental groups, significant increments after the training were obtained in all the three character scales describing the levels of self maturity at the intrapersonal (Self-Directedness), interpersonal (Cooperativeness), and transpersonal (Self-Transcendence) levels. No changes were found in the control group. Strikingly, these effects were significant only in those groups who were engaged in consistent daily meditation practice but not in the group who attended the meditation training but were less consistent in home practice. Since higher scores in the character scales are associated to a lower risk of personality disorder, we propose that the increase of self maturity after the training may be an important mechanism for the effectiveness of mindfulness-oriented meditation in psychotherapeutic contexts.

  1. Mindfulness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiesa, Alberto; Serretti, Alessandro; Jakobsen, Janus Christian

    2013-01-01

    The beneficial clinical effects of mindfulness practices are receiving increasing support from empirical studies. However, the functional neural mechanisms underlying these benefits have not been thoroughly investigated. Some authors suggest that mindfulness should be described as a 'top-down' em...

  2. The new functional identity: a body that thinks, a mind that feels - Frontiers and unexplored territories of the "Body and Mind zone".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurio, Maria Grazia

    2016-09-01

    For a long time, terms like "mind" and "emotion" have rarely been taken into account, not even mentioned in the medical texts. The latest scientific researches, including the studies of Candace Pert, on the contrary, have emphasized that the entire body thinks, because every single cell hears, and feels emotions. The international researcher has discovered the endocrines and a vast number of neuropeptides, that work as an "information network" that interconnects the entire body, the "psychic" molecules are transmitted and travel, communicating information as in a circular and recursive body - mind mechanism. This is a sort of body and mind functional identity, which is different in each person, because each person is a unique universe, and the body is the place where mind and body meet in a unique and unrepeatable alchemy. So, if it is true that only in the body the secret of its potential for development and transformation is well hidden, it is also true that this secret is unique for each of us. Then, the strategic therapy becomes 'tailor-made', and the knowledge of the body component is essential to unlock behavior patterns and planning new ones, in order to improve relationships and the quality of life, and enhance the sense of well-being. People are not as simple containers which merely record external incitements, on the contrary, they are able to evaluate and weigh what happens around. Depending on the meaning attributed to each stimulus, a stress response of different magnitude and duration is activated, this can be considered functional or dysfunctional. Many recent studies, in fact, states that there is a significant correlation between the coping strategy chosen and the onset of a disease. According to the theory of 'psychogenic tumor', for example, anyone can potentially develop cancer, but only those who do not have the psychological strength to resist disease get sick. No matter what is the theoretical framework and the conclusion adopted, we go

  3. Yoga and Mindfulness: Clinical Aspects of an Ancient Mind/Body Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Paul; Lush, Elizabeth; Jablonski, Megan; Sephton, Sandra E.

    2009-01-01

    The use of Yoga and other complementary healthcare interventions for both clinical and non-clinical populations has increased substantially in recent years. In this context, we describe the implementation of Hatha Yoga in the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program of Kabat-Zinn and colleagues. This is embedded in a more general…

  4. Music, Mind, and Morality: Arousing the Body Politic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alperson, Philip; Carroll, Noel

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors address the conversation that, given the recent developments in the philosophy of mind, especially in terms of its cognitive turn, one task for philosophers of music might be to begin to speculate about the properties of music and organized sound that enable them to perform their various moral and cultural roles. The…

  5. Brain, mind, body and society: autonomous system in robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoda, Motomu

    2013-12-01

    In this paper I examine the issues related to the robot with mind. To create a robot with mind aims to recreate neuro function by engineering. The robot with mind is expected not only to process external information by the built-in program and behave accordingly, but also to gain the consciousness activity responding multiple conditions and flexible and interactive communication skills coping with unknown situation. That prospect is based on the development of artificial intelligence in which self-organizing and self-emergent functions have been available in recent years. To date, controllable aspects in robotics have been restricted to data making and programming of cognitive abilities, while consciousness activities and communication skills have been regarded as uncontrollable aspects due to their contingency and uncertainty. However, some researchers of robotics claim that every activity of the mind can be recreated by engineering and is therefore controllable. Based on the development of the cognitive abilities of children and the findings of neuroscience, researchers have attempted to produce the latest artificial intelligence with autonomous learning systems. I conclude that controllability is inconsistent with autonomy in the genuine sense and autonomous robots recreated by engineering cannot be autonomous partners of humans.

  6. Care for the Caregiver: Evaluation of Mind-Body Self-Care for Accelerated Nursing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Barbara L; Motter, Tracey; Ross, Ratchneewan; Goliat, Laura M; Sharpnack, Patricia A; Govoni, Amy L; Bozeman, Michelle C; Rababah, Jehad

    2016-01-01

    Stress affects the well-being of both nursing students and the individuals with whom they work. With the theory of cognitive appraisal as a framework for this study, it is proposed that mind-body self-care strategies promote stress management by stabilization of emotions. Outcomes will be a perception of less stress and more mindful engagement with the environment. Objective of the study was to describe an evaluation of student perceived stress and mindfulness to 1-hour per week of class time dedicated to mind-body self-care (yoga, mindful breathing, Reiki, and essential oil therapy). It was a quasi-experimental study; data collection took place at 4 time points. Participants were entry-level accelerated nursing students from 3 US universities: 50 in the treatment group, 64 in the comparison group. Data included health-promoting practices using Health-Promoting Promotion Lifestyle Profile II as a control variable, stress and mindfulness (Perceived Stress Scale [PSS] and Mindful Attention Awareness Scale [MAAS]), and demographic information; analysis using mixed-design repeated-measures analysis of variances. There was a statistically significant interaction between intervention and time on PSS scores, F(3, 264) = 3.95, P = .009, partial η(2) = 0.043, with PSS scores of the intervention group decreasing from baseline to T3 when intervention ended whereas PSS scores of the comparison group increased from baseline. The average scores on the MAAS did not differ significantly. Evaluation of an embedded mind-body self-care module in the first nursing course demonstrated promising improvements in stress management. The findings support the appropriateness of integrating mind-body self-care content into nursing curricula to enhance students' ability to regulate stress.

  7. Mindfulness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger Nielsen, Jeppe; Nielsen, Charlotte Agger

    2013-01-01

    Mindfulness har de senere år budt sig til som effektiv hjælp til selvhjælp for fortravlede ledere og professionelle. Men er meditationsøvelser og forsøg på at finde indre ”zen”-ro overhovedet lederens anstrengelser værd? Denne artikel diskuterer effekterne af mindfulness og giver ordet til såvel...

  8. Substantial Union or Substantial Distinction of Mind and Body in Descartes' Metaphysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahime Jamei

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available According to Descartes’ metaphysics there are two different kinds of substances in the world of creatures: “thinking substance” and “extended substance” or soul and matter. In Descartes’ philosophy the soul is equal to the mind and considered as a “thinking substance”. This immaterial substance is the essence of the human being. Body, being considered as a “matter“, is an “extended substance” and entirely distinct from the soul. The soul, therefore, exists and may be known prior to body and, not being corporeal, can exist after human death. Hence, Descartes can prove the immortality of human soul in the framework of the principle of substantial distinction. On the other hand, as a physiologist and psychologist, Descartes indeed believes in mind-body union, so that some causal interactions between mind and body show their substantial union. In this essay, the authors show that Descartes faces a serious problem in combining substantial union of mind and body with their substantial distinction; despite of his efforts in introducing the idea of pineal gland, the problem remains unsolved. Therefore it seems that as he cannot dispense with his only reason for proving the immortality of human soul, he has to hold the mind-body distinction theory in his metaphysics. Indeed, Descartes prefers to support the distinction theory rather than union theory in confronting a thesis and an antithesis stating one of two theories

  9. Substantial :union: or Substantial Distinction of Mind and Body in Descartes\\' Metaphysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    f Jamei

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available According to Descartes’ metaphysics there are two different kinds of substances in the world of creatures: “thinking substance” and “extended substance” or soul and matter. In Descartes’ philosophy the soul is equal to the mind and considered as a “thinking substance”. This immaterial substance is the essence of the human being. Body, being considered as a “matter“, is an “extended substance” and entirely distinct from the soul. The soul, therefore, exists and may be known prior to body and, not being corporeal, can exist after human death. Hence, Descartes can prove the immortality of human soul in the framework of the principle of substantial distinction. On the other hand, as a physiologist and psychologist, Descartes indeed believes in mind-body :union:, so that some causal interactions between mind and body show their substantial :union:. In this essay, the authors show that Descartes faces a serious problem in combining substantial :union: of mind and body with their substantial distinction despite of his efforts in introducing the idea of pineal gland, the problem remains unsolved. Therefore it seems that as he cannot dispense with his only reason for proving the immortality of human soul, he has to hold the mind-body distinction theory in his metaphysics. Indeed, Descartes prefers to support the distinction theory rather than :union: theory in confronting a thesis and an antithesis stating one of two theories.

  10. Between Buddhism and Science, Between Mind and Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Samuel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Buddhism has been seen, at least since the Theravāda reform movements of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, as particularly compatible with Western science. The recent explosion of Mindfulness therapies have strengthened this perception. However, the 'Buddhism' which is being brought into relation with science in the context of the Mindfulness movement has already undergone extensive rewriting under modernist influences, and many of the more critical aspects of Buddhist thought and practice are dismissed or ignored. The Mind and Life Institute encounters, under the patronage of His Holiness the Dalai Lama, present a different kind of dialogue, in which a Tibetan Buddhism which is only beginning to undergo modernist rewriting confronts Western scientists and scholars on more equal terms. However, is the highly sophisticated but radically other world of Tantric thought really compatible with contemporary science? In this article I look at problem areas within the dialogue, and suggest that genuine progress is most likely to come if we recognise the differences between Buddhist thought and contemporary science, and take them as an opportunity to rethink scientific assumptions.

  11. Reflective acquaintance with other minds and the double-sided disclosure of the lived-body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farley, Adam

    2015-01-01

    This paper will consider the phenomenological disclosure of the reflecting-body vis-à-vis subject’s reflective acquaintance with other minds. To this end, phenomenological accounts regarding the double-sided disclosure of the lived-body will be expounded and developed. It will be argued that the ......This paper will consider the phenomenological disclosure of the reflecting-body vis-à-vis subject’s reflective acquaintance with other minds. To this end, phenomenological accounts regarding the double-sided disclosure of the lived-body will be expounded and developed. It will be argued...... research concerning subjects’ developing acquaintance with other minds and its perturbance are briefly considered....

  12. Effects of Taiji Practice on Mindfulness and Self-Compassion in Healthy Participants : A Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Nedeljkovic, Marko; Wirtz, Petra H.; Ausfeld-Hafter, Brigitte

    2012-01-01

    Taiji is regarded as a mind–body practice that is characterized by gentle and mindful body movements. In contrast to the continuously growing evidence base supporting the beneficial effects of Taiji on physical and mental well-being, studies investigating its underlying mechanisms are still scarce. The aim of our study was to examine the impact of Taiji practice on self-attribution of mindfulness and self-compassion, two potential components well known for their health promoting effects. Seve...

  13. Psychosocial determinants of health and illness: integrating mind, body, and spirit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astin, John A; Forys, Kelly

    2004-01-01

    Presented in this paper is a review of some of the evidence linking psychosocial factors to a variety of health outcomes. Drawing upon the work of the philosopher Ken Wilber, we begin with a consideration of some of the historic roots of the mind-body split. As will be seen, Wilber argues that in the premodern era, "mind" and "body" were essentially fused (ie, thought of as not separate); with the dawn in the West of the Enlightenment and the emergence and subsequent dominance of the empiric-scientific mode of inquiry, the mind and body became separate; and in the postmodern world, the task now is one of reintegrating mind and body, an undertaking with obvious implications for the field of medicine. With the goal of helping in this mind-body reintegration, we first summarize the epidemiological findings examining the relation between various psychosocial factors (personality, mood states, and cognitive factors) and physical health. We then review some of the physiological and mechanistic data that link mental-emotional factors (eg, psychosocial stress) with physical function and health. Finally, we discuss the therapeutic implications of these findings.

  14. Body composition in patients with schizophrenia: Comparison with healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugawara Norio

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, a relationship between obesity and schizophrenia has been reported. Although fat- mass and fat free mass have been shown to be more predictive of health risk than body mass index, there are limited findings about body composition among patients suffering from schizophrenia. The aim of this study is to compare the body composition of schizophrenia patients with that of healthy subjects in Japan. Methods We recruited patients (n = 204, aged 41.3 ± 13.8 (mean ± SD years old with the DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia who were admitted to psychiatric hospital using a cross-sectional design. Subjects' anthropometric measurements including weight, height, body mass index (BMI, and medications were also collected. Body fat, percent (% body fat, fat- free mass, muscle mass, and body water were measured using the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA method. Comparative analysis was performed with schizophrenic subjects and 204 healthy control individuals. Results In a multiple regression model with age, body mass index, and dose in chlorpromazine equivalents, schizophrenia was a significantly linked with more body fat, higher % body fat, lower fat- free mass, lower muscle mass, and lower body water among males. In females, schizophrenia had a significant association with lower % body fat, higher fat- free mass, higher muscle mass, and higher body water. Conclusions Our data demonstrate gender differences with regard to changes in body composition in association with schizophrenia. These results indicate that intervention programs designed to fight obesity among schizophrenic patients should be individualized according to gender.

  15. Does yoga shape body, mind and spiritual health and happiness: Differences between yoga practitioners and college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monk-Turner Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: To assess the body, mind and spirit differences between yoga students compared with college students. Materials and Methods: Mind, body and spirit survey instruments administered to the two groups. Results: Five indicators to measure mental wellness were significantly different between yoga practitioners and college students. On three of these five measures, college students reported more mental wellness than yoga practitioners - in other words, the relationship was the inverse of what was expected. College students reported maintaining stability in their life more often than yoga practitioners as well as more often experiencing satisfying interpersonal relationships. College students were also more likely than yoga practitioners to report being tolerant of others, whether or not they approved of their behavior or beliefs. Yoga practitioners were more likely than college students to report having strong morals and healthy values as well as the ability to express their feelings and consider the feelings of others. We found differences between yoga practitioners and college students on more than half of our spirit items (five of nine. Yoga practitioners were more likely than college students to report expressing their spirituality appropriately and in healthy ways, recognizing the positive contribution faith could make to the quality of life (significant at the 0.07 level, routinely undertaking new experiences to enhance spiritual health and having a positive outlook on life. Further, we found support for the proposition that yoga practitioners were more likely to report experiencing happiness within. Conclusions: Significant differences between yoga and college students were found on the body, mind and spirit measurement instrument. Further work needs to address the complexities of these relationships.

  16. Nurses' experiences, expectations, and preferences for mind-body practices to reduce stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCool Jane A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most research on the impact of mind-body training does not ask about participants' baseline experience, expectations, or preferences for training. To better plan participant-centered mind-body intervention trials for nurses to reduce occupational stress, such descriptive information would be valuable. Methods We conducted an anonymous email survey between April and June, 2010 of North American nurses interested in mind-body training to reduce stress. The e-survey included: demographic characteristics, health conditions and stress levels; experiences with mind-body practices; expected health benefits; training preferences; and willingness to participate in future randomized controlled trials. Results Of the 342 respondents, 96% were women and 92% were Caucasian. Most (73% reported one or more health conditions, notably anxiety (49%; back pain (41%; GI problems such as irritable bowel syndrome (34%; or depression (33%. Their median occupational stress level was 4 (0 = none; 5 = extreme stress. Nearly all (99% reported already using one or more mind-body practices to reduce stress: intercessory prayer (86%, breath-focused meditation (49%, healing or therapeutic touch (39%, yoga/tai chi/qi gong (34%, or mindfulness-based meditation (18%. The greatest expected benefits were for greater spiritual well-being (56%; serenity, calm, or inner peace (54%; better mood (51%; more compassion (50%; or better sleep (42%. Most (65% wanted additional training; convenience (74% essential or very important, was more important than the program's reputation (49% or scientific evidence about effectiveness (32% in program selection. Most (65% were willing to participate in a randomized trial of mind-body training; among these, most were willing to collect salivary cortisol (60%, or serum biomarkers (53% to assess the impact of training. Conclusions Most nurses interested in mind-body training already engage in such practices. They have greater

  17. Whole Body Vibration Improves Cognition in Healthy Young Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regterschot, G. Ruben H.; Van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.; Zeinstra, Edzard B.; Fuermaier, Anselm B.M.; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Oliver; Van der Zee, Eddy A.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the acute effects of passive whole body vibration (WBV) on executive functions in healthy young adults. Participants (112 females, 21 males; age: 20.5 +/- 2.2 years) underwent six passive WBV sessions (frequency 30 Hz, amplitude approximately 0.5 mm) and six non-vibration con

  18. Ecological Strategies to Promote Healthy Body Image among Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Retta R.; Roy, Jane; Geiger, Brian F.; Werner, Karen A.; Burnett, Donna

    2008-01-01

    Background: Personal habits of children and adolescents related to healthy body image (BI) are influenced by various determinants in the micro- and macroenvironment. These include attitudes and behaviors about eating; exercise and physical appearance modeled by parents, teachers, and peers; as well as opportunities to learn new habits and social…

  19. Metaphor as illness: postmodern dilemmas in the representation of body, mind and disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGiacomo, S M

    1992-03-01

    The search for a synthesis bridging the gap between materialist and idealist approaches in anthropological theory has been invigorated by recent efforts to develop a critical medical anthropology. Not limited to integrating class analysis and cultural interpretation, the "mindful body" paradigm also aims at empowering the ill, whose experience is denied by biomedical and psychiatric categories that locate disease either in the body or in the mind, and treat them separately from one another and independently of social context. However, missing from the "mindful body" discourse is a reflexive awareness of its contextual grounding in both popular and biomedical discourses of illness, with which it exchanges meanings and from which it borrows dominating power. The case of cancer as a metaphorized illness and a pathologized trope is used to illustrate this process.

  20. Healthy appearances--distorted body images? Young adults negotiating body motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liimakka, Satu

    2014-02-01

    Drawing on focus group discussions, this article explores how young, Finnish university students view the cultural ideals of health and appearance. The young adults noted how body practices aiming at health can turn into unhealthy obsessions. As a result, a healthy-looking body may serve to cover an underlying body image distortion. Health and well-being were defined as appropriate motives for engaging in body projects, while appearance as a motive was questioned. I argue that the current promotion of health may cause individuals to experience pressure to outwardly appear healthy at the cost of neglecting the subjective experience of well-being, and that this may especially influence young women.

  1. Understanding the body-mind in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Annette Sofie; Guassora, Ann Dorrit; Reventlow, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    such approaches but many of these, such as the biopsychosocial model, are still basically dualistic or methodologically reductionist. In primary care, patients often present with diffuse symptoms, making primary care the ideal environment for understanding patients’ undifferentiated symptoms and disease patterns...... which could readily fit both bodily and mental categories. In this article we discuss theoretical models that have attempted to overcome this challenge: The psychosomatic approach could be called holistic in the sense of taking an anti-dualistic stance. Primary care theorists have formulated integrative......Patients’ experience of symptoms does not follow the body–mind divide that characterizes the classification of disease in the health care system. Therefore, understanding patients in their entirety rather than in parts demands a different theoretical approach. Attempts have been made to formulate...

  2. Effective and viable mind-body stress reduction in the workplace: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolever, Ruth Q; Bobinet, Kyra J; McCabe, Kelley; Mackenzie, Elizabeth R; Fekete, Erin; Kusnick, Catherine A; Baime, Michael

    2012-04-01

    Highly stressed employees are subject to greater health risks, increased cost, and productivity losses than those with normal stress levels. To address this issue in an evidence-based manner, worksite stress management programs must be able to engage individuals as well as capture data on stress, health indices, work productivity, and health care costs. In this randomized controlled pilot, our primary objective was to evaluate the viability and proof of concept for two mind-body workplace stress reduction programs (one therapeutic yoga-based and the other mindfulness-based), in order to set the stage for larger cost-effectiveness trials. A second objective was to evaluate 2 delivery venues of the mindfulness-based intervention (online vs. in-person). Intention-to-treat principles and 2 (pre and post) × 3 (group) repeated-measures analysis of covariance procedures examined group differences over time on perceived stress and secondary measures to clarify which variables to include in future studies: sleep quality, mood, pain levels, work productivity, mindfulness, blood pressure, breathing rate, and heart rate variability (a measure of autonomic balance). Two hundred and thirty-nine employee volunteers were randomized into a therapeutic yoga worksite stress reduction program, 1 of 2 mindfulness-based programs, or a control group that participated only in assessment. Compared with the control group, the mind-body interventions showed significantly greater improvements on perceived stress, sleep quality, and the heart rhythm coherence ratio of heart rate variability. The two delivery venues for the mindfulness program produced basically equivalent results. Both the mindfulness-based and therapeutic yoga programs may provide viable and effective interventions to target high stress levels, sleep quality, and autonomic balance in employees.

  3. Movies and the Mind: On Our Filmic Body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fingerhut, Joerg; Heimann, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    suggest that humans learn to see film by integrating filmic means into their body schemas, and through this process develop a “filmic body”, available to them during film watching and, possibly, also off screen. Film language and film cognition are plastic products of mutual influence between films......Over the last decade, the role of the spectators’ body has become considerably more important in theoretical as well as experimental approaches to film perception. However, most positions focus on how cinema has adapted to the spectator’s body over time, that is, to the basic principles of human...

  4. Effects of mindful eating training on delay and probability discounting for food and money in obese and healthy-weight individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Kelsie L; Rasmussen, Erin B

    2013-07-01

    Obese individuals tend to behave more impulsively than healthy weight individuals across a variety of measures, but it is unclear whether this pattern can be altered. The present study examined the effects of a mindful eating behavioral strategy on impulsive and risky choice patterns for hypothetical food and money. In Experiment 1, 304 participants completed computerized delay and probability discounting tasks for food-related and monetary outcomes. High percent body fat (PBF) predicted more impulsive choice for food, but not small-value money, replicating previous work. In Experiment 2, 102 randomly selected participants from Experiment 1 were assigned to participate in a 50-min workshop on mindful eating or to watch an educational video. They then completed the discounting tasks again. Participants who completed the mindful eating session showed more self-controlled and less risk-averse discounting patterns for food compared to baseline; those in the control condition discounted similarly to baseline rates. There were no changes in discounting for money for either group, suggesting stimulus specificity for food for the mindful eating condition.

  5. The Mind/Body Connection and the Practice of Classical Ballet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Emma

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines two very different approaches to dance training, ballet technique and the somatic discipline of Topf technique ("TT"). It explores and evaluates the application of TT to ballet training. Initially, what is meant by the term "mind/body connection" is discussed, and then the paper examines, in a theoretical and a practical sense,…

  6. Some thoughts between body and mind in the light of Wilma Bucci's multiple code theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, Luigi

    2010-12-01

    The author proposes the usefulness of Wilma Bucci's Multiple Code Theory in clarifying some controversial issues in psychoanalytically inspired psychosomatics. Definition of a dialectic among different entities may appear difficult in an unitarian view of the organism, where body and mind are seen as having no kind of intrinsic existence, which may be differentiated from the organism as a whole, but as two categories having to do with the perspective of the observer. This aporia may find a solution in a redefinition of the body-mind relationship as that between symbolic systems and the subsymbolic system, both of which may be viewed as mind or as body depending on the point of observation. Similarly, somatic pathology, if we accept an unitary paradigm, need no longer be viewed as due to an influence of 'mind' on 'body': a definition of pathology as linked to a disconnection between different systems, as found in Bucci's theory, is proposed as a possible solution. Emergence of somatic symptoms, however, besides being witness to disconnection, may be seen as the subsymbolic first expression of an item of content, an attempt at reconnection, as already proposed, in a way, by Winnicott in 1949. This attempt has much better opportunities to succeed when it finds an adequate container, as in analysis. A clinical situation of this kind is presented.

  7. The Metabolic Syndrome and Mind-Body Therapies: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel G. Anderson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic syndrome, affecting a substantial and increasing percentage of the worldwide population, is comprised of a cluster of symptoms associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and other chronic conditions. Mind-body modalities based on Eastern philosophy, such as yoga, tai chi, qigong, and meditation, have become increasingly popular worldwide. These complementary therapies have many reported benefits for improving symptoms and physiological measures associated with the metabolic syndrome. However, clinical trial data concerning the effectiveness of these practices on the syndrome as a whole have not been evaluated using a systematic and synthesizing approach. A systematic review was conducted to critically evaluate the data from clinical trials examining the efficacy of mind-body therapies as supportive care modalities for management of the metabolic syndrome. Three clinical trials addressing the use of mind-body therapies for management of the metabolic syndrome were identified. Findings from the studies reviewed support the potential clinical effectiveness of mind-body practices in improving indices of the metabolic syndrome.

  8. Manualized-Group Treatment of Eating Disorders: Attunement in Mind, Body, and Relationship (AMBR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook-Cottone, Catherine; Beck, Meredith; Kane, Linda

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a manualized-group treatment of eating disorders, the attunement in mind, body, and relationship (AMBR) program. The cognitive behavioral and dialectic behavioral research as well as the innovative prevention interventions upon which the program is based (e.g., interactive discourse, yoga, and mediation) are introduced. The…

  9. The Evaluation of Four Mind/Body Intervention Strategies to Reduce Perceived Stress among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterdyk, John; Ray, Heather; Lafave, Lynne; Flessati, Sonya; Huston, Michael; Danelesko, Elaine; Murray, Christina

    2008-01-01

    We examined the effectiveness of four distinct mind/body interventions on reported perceived stress, anxiety, and health promoting behaviours in college students. Ninety students were randomly assigned to one of four experimental groups (i.e., nutritional, exercise, relaxation, or cognitive behavioural therapy). There were approximately 18…

  10. Effect of age on body composition in healthy Beijing women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Rong; Lin Shou-qing; Lin Xia; Chen Yan; Yang Qiu-hong; Zhou Yong; Zhang Ying

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of age on body composition in healthy Beijing women.Methods:We measured body composition with dual-energy X-ray (GE Lunar Prodigy) in 316 healthy Beijing females aged 20 to 74 years (5-7 women per age).Parameters provided by the software were as following:total body bone mineral content (BMC),lean mass (LM),fat mass and fat mass percentage (FM%).Local regions measured included arm,leg,trunk,android region and gynoid region.Body mass index (BMI),fat mass index (FMI),free fat mass index (FFMI) and A/G were calculated.Volunteers were assigned to 6 groups according to age by every ten years a group.Results..BMC peaked during the 4th decade,LM peaked during the 5th decade,with a decline of 18.1% and 5.2% respectively at age 74 years.Total body fat mass and FM% showed a general increase with aging throughout the studied age range.Total body fat mass increased from (16±5) kg at age 20-29 years to (24±6)kg at age 70-74years,while FM% increased from 31.3% to 39.5%.All local region FM% increased with aging at different extents.Android region FM% showed the largest raise extent (32.2%).BMI increased gradually from 21.1 kg/m2 at age 20-29 years to 26.1 kg/m2 at age 70-74 years.FMI changed more obviously than FFMI.A/G increased from 0.85 at age 20-29 years to 1.02 at age 70-74 years.Different menstrual status in women of 40-59 years had obvious effect on A/G and BMC (P<0.05),while it had no significant effect on BMI,body weight and waist circumference (P>0.05).Conclusion:Aging has a great effect on body composition distribution in healthy Beijing women.

  11. Time and the Mind\\/Body Problem A Quantum Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, J

    1997-01-01

    The Semiotic Interpretation (SI) of QM pushes further the Von Neumann point of view that `experience only makes statements of this type: an observer has made a certain observation; and never any like this: a physical quantity has a certain value.' The supposition that the observables of a system `possess' objective values is purely idealistic. According to the SI view, the state- vector collapse cannot result from the Schroedinger evolution of a system (even with its environment), but only from the empirical production of a mathematical symbol, irreducible to the quantum level. The production of a symbol always takes some time. Thus the state-vector collapse cannot be instantaneous (Schneider 1994), a specific prediction of the present model. From this interpretation of Quantum Mechanics, the appearances of the body are the result of state-vector collapses of several types, i.e. the production of different kinds of symbols. In fact the universe of symbols is very rich: a symbol can have a conceptual `value' (...

  12. [Mind-body connection, parapsychological phenomena and spiritual healing. A review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Ernesto

    2010-06-01

    Evidence regarding the influence of the mind on the body is abundant. Several mind-body healing procedures are currently being used, among them hypnosis, biofeedback, meditation, visualizations, management of emotions and prayer. Since the Big Bang, we are entangled with everything. This interaction would let individuals to communicate with the minds and bodies of others. The field of parapsychological research has provided a lot of information about significant events, including apparitions, communications with the dead, near-death experiences and out of the body experiences. It looks apparently evident, that consciousness can persist in the absence of brain function. According to the model that assumes that it is consciousness and not matter, the base of everything that exists, what survives after death is the "quantum monad" or spirit. It is said that spiritual cures are practiced by discarnate physicians who diagnose and prescribe conventional treatments, but very often they use unknown procedures based on the management of energy fields that are currently being studied by many physicists. Representative examples of the practice of spiritual medicine were the mediums Ze Arigo, George Chapman, Barbara Guerrero (Pachita) and presently the Brazilian medium John of God. Case reports of paranormal phenomena observed and studied by honest and serious scientists are very important for the advancement of parapsychology, because it has not been clearly established which approach, the qualitative or the quantitative, is more useful for the development of this field.

  13. Body-mind unity and the spiritual dimension of Modern Postural Yoga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kapsali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is concerned with the connection between body and mind that the practice of yoga is expected to develop and it aims specifically to examine the relationship between this body–mind connection and the spiritual dimension of yoga practice. The article particularly focuses on contemporary forms of yoga. Since these forms feature predominantly the practice of yoga postures or asanas, the term Modern Postural Yoga is employed.The phenomenological approach renders yoga ahistorical and ostensibly concentrates on the individual and her experience. The cultural materialist viewpoint cannot account for the ways in which yoga can act as a technique for empowerment and spiritual cultivation. More importantly, both currents seem to exist as possibilities within the same class,even within the same body.

  14. Mind-Body Exercises for Nurses with Chronic Low Back Pain: An Evidence-Based Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinky Budhrani-Shani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Chronic low back pain (CLBP among nurses is a growing health concern. The multimodal nature of mind-body exercises has potential to impact physiological and psychological processes associated with chronic pain, affording possible advantages over conventional unimodal therapies. This paper summarizes the prevalence of and risk factors for CLBP among nurses, reviews the effectiveness in treating pain and disability of mind-body exercises (yoga and tai chi for CLBP among the general and nursing population, and describes implications. Methods. Articles, published during or prior to 2015, were systematically identified through the PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, and ScienceDirect databases using the following search terms: nurses, mind-body, integrative, biopsychosocial, yoga, tai chi, back pain, and/or risk factors. Results. Prevalence estimates of CLBP among nurses ranged from 50% to 80%. Associated risk factors for CLBP included lifestyle and physical, psychological, psychosocial, and occupational factors. No published studies were identified that evaluated yoga or tai chi for nurses with CLBP. Studies in the general population suggested that these interventions are effective in reducing pain and disability and may improve factors/processes predictive of CLBP. Conclusion. This review suggests that evaluating the impact of multimodal interventions such as yoga and tai chi for nurses with CLBP warrants investigation.

  15. Mind-Body Exercises for Nurses with Chronic Low Back Pain: An Evidence-Based Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcari, Patricia; Langevin, Helene; Wayne, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Chronic low back pain (CLBP) among nurses is a growing health concern. The multimodal nature of mind-body exercises has potential to impact physiological and psychological processes associated with chronic pain, affording possible advantages over conventional unimodal therapies. This paper summarizes the prevalence of and risk factors for CLBP among nurses, reviews the effectiveness in treating pain and disability of mind-body exercises (yoga and tai chi) for CLBP among the general and nursing population, and describes implications. Methods. Articles, published during or prior to 2015, were systematically identified through the PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, and ScienceDirect databases using the following search terms: nurses, mind-body, integrative, biopsychosocial, yoga, tai chi, back pain, and/or risk factors. Results. Prevalence estimates of CLBP among nurses ranged from 50% to 80%. Associated risk factors for CLBP included lifestyle and physical, psychological, psychosocial, and occupational factors. No published studies were identified that evaluated yoga or tai chi for nurses with CLBP. Studies in the general population suggested that these interventions are effective in reducing pain and disability and may improve factors/processes predictive of CLBP. Conclusion. This review suggests that evaluating the impact of multimodal interventions such as yoga and tai chi for nurses with CLBP warrants investigation. PMID:27446610

  16. Healthy bodies, social bodies: men's and women's concepts and practices of health in everyday life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltonstall, R

    1993-01-01

    Using interview data from white, middle-class men and women, ages 35-55, the research explores the phenomenological, embodied aspects of health. Health is found to be grounded in a sense of self and a sense of body, both of which are tied to conceptions of past and future actions. Gender is a leitmotif. The body, as the focal point of self-construction as well as health construction, implicates gender in the everyday experience of health. The interplay between health, self, body, and gender at the individual level is linked to the creation of a sense of healthiness in the body politic of society. If social psychological theories of health are to reflect adequately the everyday experience of health, they must begin to take into account the body as individually and socially problematic.

  17. Substantial :union: or Substantial Distinction of Mind and Body in Descartes\\' Metaphysics

    OpenAIRE

    Fahime Jamei; Dr Musa Akrami

    2009-01-01

    According to Descartes’ metaphysics there are two different kinds of substances in the world of creatures: “thinking substance” and “extended substance” or soul and matter. In Descartes’ philosophy the soul is equal to the mind and considered as a “thinking substance”. This immaterial substance is the essence of the human being. Body, being considered as a “matter“, is an “extended substance” and entirely distinct from the soul. The soul, therefore, exists and may be known prior to body and, ...

  18. The effects of mind-body therapies on the immune system: meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nani Morgan

    Full Text Available IMPORTANCE: Psychological and health-restorative benefits of mind-body therapies have been investigated, but their impact on the immune system remain less defined. OBJECTIVE: To conduct the first comprehensive review of available controlled trial evidence to evaluate the effects of mind-body therapies on the immune system, focusing on markers of inflammation and anti-viral related immune responses. METHODS: Data sources included MEDLINE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and PsycINFO through September 1, 2013. Randomized controlled trials published in English evaluating at least four weeks of Tai Chi, Qi Gong, meditation, or Yoga that reported immune outcome measures were selected. Studies were synthesized separately by inflammatory (n = 18, anti-viral related immunity (n = 7, and enumerative (n = 14 outcomes measures. We performed random-effects meta-analyses using standardized mean difference when appropriate. RESULTS: Thirty-four studies published in 39 articles (total 2, 219 participants met inclusion criteria. For inflammatory measures, after 7 to 16 weeks of mind-body intervention, there was a moderate effect on reduction of C-reactive protein (effect size [ES], 0.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.04 to 1.12, a small but not statistically significant reduction of interleukin-6 (ES, 0.35; 95% CI, -0.04 to 0.75, and negligible effect on tumor necrosis factor-α (ES, 0.21; 95% CI, -0.15 to 0.58. For anti-viral related immune and enumerative measures, there were negligible effects on CD4 counts (ES, 0.15; 95% CI, -0.04 to 0.34 and natural killer cell counts (ES, 0.12, 95% CI -0.21 to 0.45. Some evidence indicated mind-body therapies increase immune responses to vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: Mind-body therapies reduce markers of inflammation and influence virus-specific immune responses to vaccination despite minimal evidence suggesting effects on resting anti-viral or enumerative measures. These immunomodulatory effects, albeit incomplete

  19. A new look at medicine and the mind-body problem: can Dewey's pragmatism help medicine connect with its mission?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses how the paradigm of Cartesian mind-body dualism has shaped the cultural and institutional life of modern science and medicine. John Dewey (1859-1952) made this case in a speech to the New York Academy of Medicine in 1927, "Preoccupation with the Disconnected," an expanded version of which was published as "Body and Mind" in the Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine in January 1928. From the perspective of Dewey's broader philosophy, the most urgent aspect of mind-body dualism is of a practical, not theoretical, nature. Medicine at present has an opportunity in both education and practice to reconcile internally disparate trends that result from mind-body dualism and to renew its mission.

  20. Pedagogical tools to explore Cartesian mind-body dualism in the classroom: philosophical arguments and neuroscience illusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Scott; Hamilton, Trevor J

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental discussion in lower-level undergraduate neuroscience and psychology courses is Descartes's "radical" or "mind-body" dualism. According to Descartes, our thinking mind, the res cogitans, is separate from the body as physical matter or substance, the res extensa. Since the transmission of sensory stimuli from the body to the mind is a physical capacity shared with animals, it can be confused, misled, or uncertain (e.g., bodily senses imply that ice and water are different substances). True certainty thus arises from within the mind and its capacity to doubt physical stimuli. Since this doubting mind is a thinking thing that is distinct from bodily stimuli, truth and certainty are reached through the doubting mind as cogito ergo sum, or the certainty of itself as it thinks: hence Descartes's famous maxim, I think, therefore I am. However, in the last century of Western philosophy, with nervous system investigation, and with recent advances in neuroscience, the potential avenues to explore student's understanding of the epistemology and effects of Cartesian mind-body dualism has expanded. This article further explores this expansion, highlighting pedagogical practices and tools instructors can use to enhance a psychology student's understanding of Cartesian dualistic epistemology, in order to think more critically about its implicit assumptions and effects on learning. It does so in two ways: first, by offering instructors an alternative philosophical perspective to dualistic thinking: a mind-body holism that is antithetical to the assumed binaries of dualistic epistemology. Second, it supplements this philosophical argument with a practical component: simple mind-body illusions that instructors may use to demonstrate contrary epistemologies to students. Combining these short philosophical and neuroscience arguments thereby acts as a pedagogical tool to open new conceptual spaces within which learning may occur.

  1. Mindfulness Training for Healthy Aging: Impact on Attention, Well-Being, and Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain-Zaragoza, Stephanie; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya

    2017-01-01

    The growing interest in mindfulness interventions for use in aging samples has been met with promising evidence of cognitive, emotional, and physiological benefits. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the impact of mindfulness training on three areas of functioning in older adults: behavioral and neural correlates of attentional performance, psychological well-being, and systemic inflammation. We have previously proposed that mindfulness training is uniquely suited as a rehabilitative tool for conferring both cognitive and emotional benefits for older adults. Specifically, mindfulness training's promotion of focused attention may mitigate the decline of attentional control abilities across late development and allow older adults to capitalize on their preserved emotion regulation abilities. Existing evidence points to some improvements in facets of attentional control in older adults, although some studies have shown no benefits in performance. Further, there is evidence of enhancements in both psychological and physical aspects of well-being, and accompanying improvements in systemic inflammation, following mindfulness training. The scientific investigation of mindfulness training is still relatively nascent, with only a limited number of studies, particularly randomized controlled trials utilizing active comparison conditions. It will be important for future research to incorporate placebo-controlled comparison groups to clearly establish the causal role of mindfulness practices in promoting holistic health in older adults. PMID:28217093

  2. Mindfulness Training for Healthy Aging: Impact on Attention, Well-Being, and Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain-Zaragoza, Stephanie; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya

    2017-01-01

    The growing interest in mindfulness interventions for use in aging samples has been met with promising evidence of cognitive, emotional, and physiological benefits. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the impact of mindfulness training on three areas of functioning in older adults: behavioral and neural correlates of attentional performance, psychological well-being, and systemic inflammation. We have previously proposed that mindfulness training is uniquely suited as a rehabilitative tool for conferring both cognitive and emotional benefits for older adults. Specifically, mindfulness training's promotion of focused attention may mitigate the decline of attentional control abilities across late development and allow older adults to capitalize on their preserved emotion regulation abilities. Existing evidence points to some improvements in facets of attentional control in older adults, although some studies have shown no benefits in performance. Further, there is evidence of enhancements in both psychological and physical aspects of well-being, and accompanying improvements in systemic inflammation, following mindfulness training. The scientific investigation of mindfulness training is still relatively nascent, with only a limited number of studies, particularly randomized controlled trials utilizing active comparison conditions. It will be important for future research to incorporate placebo-controlled comparison groups to clearly establish the causal role of mindfulness practices in promoting holistic health in older adults.

  3. Quantum physics meets the philosophy of mind new essays on the mind-body relation in quantum-theoretical perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Meixner, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    Quantum physics, unlike classical physics, suggests a non-physicalistic metaphysics. Whereas physicalism implies a reductive position in the philosophy of mind, quantum physics is compatible with non-reductionism, and actually seems to support it. The essays in this book explore, from various points of view, the possibilities of basing a non-reductive philosophy of mind on quantum physics.

  4. Embodied health: the effects of a mind-body course for medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Allison R; Mason, Heather F; Lemaster, Chelsey M; Shaw, Stephanie E; Mullin, Caroline S; Holick, Emily A; Saper, Robert B

    2013-01-01

    Objective An effective career in medicine requires empathy and compassion, yet the demands of a medical education increase stress and decrease students' ability to connect with patients. However, research suggests mind-body practices improve psychological well-being. This study aimed to evaluate the psychological effects on medical students of an 11-week elective course, Embodied Health or EH, which combines yoga and meditation with neuroscience didactics. Methods The effects on 27 first- and second-year medical students were evaluated via surveys in four areas: empathy, perceived stress, self-regulation, and self-compassion. Scales used were 1. Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy, which measures empathy among health students and professionals and medical students on a scale of 1 (least empathetic) to 7 (most empathetic); 2. Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale, a measure of the perceived uncontrollability of respondents' lives, from 0 (least stressed) to 4 (most stressed); 3. Self-Regulation Questionnaire, which measures the development and maintenance of planned behavior to achieve goals, from 1 (least self-regulated) to 5 (most self-regulated); and 4. Self-Compassion Scale, which measures self-criticism, from 1 (least self-compassionate) to 5 (most self-compassionate). Students also reflected on EH's impact on their well-being in a post-course essay. Results Self-regulation and self-compassion rose 0.13 (SD 0.20, p = 0.003) and 0.28 (SD 0.61, p = 0.04), respectively. Favorable changes were also seen in empathy and perceived stress, which went up by 0.11 (SD 0.50, p = 0.30) and down by 0.05 (SD 0.62, p = 0.70), respectively; these changes did not reach statistical significance. Students' essays were found to discuss the following recurrent themes: 1) Reconnection between mind and body; 2) Community in a competitive environment; 3) Increased mindfulness; 4) Confidence in use of mind-body skills with patients; and 5) Stress management. These themes overlapped with the

  5. A review of the volatiles from the healthy human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lacy Costello, B; Amann, A; Al-Kateb, H; Flynn, C; Filipiak, W; Khalid, T; Osborne, D; Ratcliffe, N M

    2014-03-01

    A compendium of all the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emanating from the human body (the volatolome) is for the first time reported. 1840 VOCs have been assigned from breath (872), saliva (359), blood (154), milk (256), skin secretions (532) urine (279), and faeces (381) in apparently healthy individuals. Compounds were assigned CAS registry numbers and named according to a common convention where possible. The compounds have been grouped into tables according to their chemical class or functionality to permit easy comparison. Some clear differences are observed, for instance, a lack of esters in urine with a high number in faeces. Careful use of the database is needed. The numbers may not be a true reflection of the actual VOCs present from each bodily excretion. The lack of a compound could be due to the techniques used or reflect the intensity of effort e.g. there are few publications on VOCs from blood compared to a large number on VOCs in breath. The large number of volatiles reported from skin is partly due to the methodologies used, e.g. collecting excretions on glass beads and then heating to desorb VOCs. All compounds have been included as reported (unless there was a clear discrepancy between name and chemical structure), but there may be some mistaken assignations arising from the original publications, particularly for isomers. It is the authors' intention that this database will not only be a useful database of VOCs listed in the literature, but will stimulate further study of VOCs from healthy individuals. Establishing a list of volatiles emanating from healthy individuals and increased understanding of VOC metabolic pathways is an important step for differentiating between diseases using VOCs.

  6. The influence of extreme traumatization on body, mind and social relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Bent; Varvin, Sverre

    2007-01-01

    Extreme traumatization affects the individual's relation to others in several social and psychological ways. The post-traumatic experiences are characterized by helplessness, insecurity, anxiety, loss of basic trust, and fragmentation of perspectives on one's own life. Special considerations should...... be given to the destruction of the ability to regulate negative emotions (extreme fear, distress, anguish, anger, rage, shame) in relation to others and activate internal good and empathic object relations. Destruction of the capacity for symbolization of traumatic experience may threaten the mind...... with chaotic states against which the 'I' tries to defend itself and find a balanced psychic mise-en-scene. The authors emphasize three dimensions that the analyst should observe in his understanding of the traumatized mind and its conflicts. The proposed dimensions are called the body-other dimension...

  7. Pedagogical tools to explore Cartesian mind-body dualism in the classroom: philosophical arguments and neuroscience illusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Scott; Hamilton, Trevor J.

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental discussion in lower-level undergraduate neuroscience and psychology courses is Descartes’s “radical” or “mind-body” dualism. According to Descartes, our thinking mind, the res cogitans, is separate from the body as physical matter or substance, the res extensa. Since the transmission of sensory stimuli from the body to the mind is a physical capacity shared with animals, it can be confused, misled, or uncertain (e.g., bodily senses imply that ice and water are different substances). True certainty thus arises from within the mind and its capacity to doubt physical stimuli. Since this doubting mind is a thinking thing that is distinct from bodily stimuli, truth and certainty are reached through the doubting mind as cogito ergo sum, or the certainty of itself as it thinks: hence Descartes’s famous maxim, I think, therefore I am. However, in the last century of Western philosophy, with nervous system investigation, and with recent advances in neuroscience, the potential avenues to explore student’s understanding of the epistemology and effects of Cartesian mind-body dualism has expanded. This article further explores this expansion, highlighting pedagogical practices and tools instructors can use to enhance a psychology student’s understanding of Cartesian dualistic epistemology, in order to think more critically about its implicit assumptions and effects on learning. It does so in two ways: first, by offering instructors an alternative philosophical perspective to dualistic thinking: a mind-body holism that is antithetical to the assumed binaries of dualistic epistemology. Second, it supplements this philosophical argument with a practical component: simple mind-body illusions that instructors may use to demonstrate contrary epistemologies to students. Combining these short philosophical and neuroscience arguments thereby acts as a pedagogical tool to open new conceptual spaces within which learning may occur. PMID:26321981

  8. Human development III: Bridging Brain-Mind and Body-Mind. Introduction to “Deep” (Fractal, Poly-Ray Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Reality can be interpreted in many ways, but two distinctly different ways are the mental and the emotional interpretation. The traditional way of thinking in science today is the first: an often simple and mechanical interpretation of reality that empowers us to handle the outer physical world with great, often brutal efficiency. The development of a mind that enables us to handle the outer physical world and survive makes a lot of sense from an evolutionary perspective; the problem is that the mental reason and linear logic reduces all phenomena to well-defined interacting objects, which might not exist from a deeper perspective of reality. A more intuitive way to interpret the world makes much more sense, when it comes to our human relations. So to function as a human being, we need both these two ways of seeing the world, and two different modi operandi. In many patients, we find an internalized conflict between logical and mental reasoning on one hand, and emotional and sexual approach to reality and human needs on the other. We speculate that this conflict causes the deep emotional problems that really are the basis of most human diseases. Only by merging brain-mind and body-mind will we be whole and free and truly ourselves. We need to develop our mental understanding, deepen our cosmology, and develop our sexuality and body-mind in order to make them meet and merge. To facilitate this existential healing, we propose a third integrative way of looking at our human nature, which we call “the energetic-informational interpretation of reality”. What it does is allows us to look at both brain-mind and body-mind as a highly structured field of “energy and information”. Energy and information are actually the same from a scientific point of view; when the world is seen through the body-mind, it looks more like energy; when seen though the brain-mind, it looks more like information.

  9. Quantum leap from Dirac and Feynman, across the universe, to human body and mind

    CERN Document Server

    Ivancevic, Vladimir G

    2008-01-01

    This is a unique 21st-century monograph that reveals a basic, yet deep understanding of the universe, as well as the human mind and body - all from the perspective of quantum mechanics and quantum field theory.This book starts with both non-mathematical and mathematical preliminaries. It presents the basics of both non-relativistic and relativistic quantum mechanics, and introduces Feynman path integrals and their application to quantum fields and string theory, as well as some non-quantum applications. It then describes the quantum universe in the form of loop quantum gravity and quantum cosm

  10. Whole body vibration improves cognition in healthy young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Ruben H Regterschot

    Full Text Available This study investigated the acute effects of passive whole body vibration (WBV on executive functions in healthy young adults. Participants (112 females, 21 males; age: 20.5±2.2 years underwent six passive WBV sessions (frequency 30 Hz, amplitude approximately 0.5 mm and six non-vibration control sessions of two minutes each while sitting on a chair mounted on a vibrating platform. A passive WBV session was alternated with a control session. Directly after each session, performance on the Stroop Color-Block Test (CBT, Stroop Color-Word Interference Test (CWIT, Stroop Difference Score (SDS and Digit Span Backward task (DSBT was measured. In half of the passive WBV and control sessions the test order was CBT-CWIT-DSBT, and DSBT-CBT-CWIT in the other half. Passive WBV improved CWIT (p = 0.009; effect size r = 0.20 and SDS (p = 0.034; r = 0.16 performance, but only when the CBT and CWIT preceded the DSBT. CBT and DSBT performance did not change. This study shows that two minutes passive WBV has positive acute effects on attention and inhibition in young adults, notwithstanding their high cognitive functioning which could have hampered improvement. This finding indicates the potential of passive WBV as a cognition-enhancing therapy worth further evaluation, especially in persons unable to perform active forms of exercise.

  11. The effect of Mind Body Medicine course on medical student empathy: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen K. Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Empathy among medical practitioners has been shown to affect patient care and outcomes. Factors such as stress and depression are known to have a negative impact on medical student empathy. Approaches such as mindfulness, meditation, and other mind–body techniques can enhance empathy and reverse burnout symptoms. In the present study, we evaluated impact of Mind Body Medicine (MBM course on perceived stress and empathy on first-year medical students. Methods: Thirteen first-year medical students in total self-selected into MBM (experimental and seven non-MBM (control groups completed a prospective, pre- and post-test analysis, using the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy – Students (JSPE-S, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS, and Personal Health Questionnaire (PHQ to evaluate empathy, stress, and depression, respectively. Results: Our results showed an increase in stress, as well as a decrease in empathy, in both MBM and non-MBM groups throughout the course of the study. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that the inverse relationship increased stress and decreased empathy among first-year medical students and participation in the MBM course did not attenuate the changes. However, a statistically significant rise in the depression score in the non-MBM group was not observed in the MBM group.

  12. The Effects of Mind-Body Interventions on Sleep Quality: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Neuendorf

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Study Objectives. To evaluate the effect of mind-body interventions (MBI on sleep. Methods. We reviewed randomized controlled MBI trials on adults (through 2013 with at least one sleep outcome measure. We searched eleven electronic databases and excluded studies on interventions not considering mind-body medicine. Studies were categorized by type of MBI, whether sleep was primary or secondary outcome measure and outcome type. Results. 1323 abstracts were screened, and 112 papers were included. Overall, 67 (60% of studies reported a beneficial effect on at least one sleep outcome measure. Of the most common interventions, 13/23 studies using meditation, 21/30 using movement MBI, and 14/25 using relaxation reported at least some improvements in sleep. There were clear risks of bias for many studies reviewed, especially when sleep was not the main focus. Conclusions. MBI should be considered as a treatment option for patients with sleep disturbance. The benefit of MBI needs to be better documented with objective outcomes as well as the mechanism of benefit elucidated. There is some evidence that MBI have a positive benefit on sleep quality. Since sleep has a direct impact on many other health outcomes, future MBI trials should consider including sleep outcome measurements.

  13. The Effects of Mind-Body Interventions on Sleep Quality: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuendorf, Rachel; Wahbeh, Helané; Chamine, Irina; Yu, Jun; Hutchison, Kimberly; Oken, Barry S

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives. To evaluate the effect of mind-body interventions (MBI) on sleep. Methods. We reviewed randomized controlled MBI trials on adults (through 2013) with at least one sleep outcome measure. We searched eleven electronic databases and excluded studies on interventions not considering mind-body medicine. Studies were categorized by type of MBI, whether sleep was primary or secondary outcome measure and outcome type. Results. 1323 abstracts were screened, and 112 papers were included. Overall, 67 (60%) of studies reported a beneficial effect on at least one sleep outcome measure. Of the most common interventions, 13/23 studies using meditation, 21/30 using movement MBI, and 14/25 using relaxation reported at least some improvements in sleep. There were clear risks of bias for many studies reviewed, especially when sleep was not the main focus. Conclusions. MBI should be considered as a treatment option for patients with sleep disturbance. The benefit of MBI needs to be better documented with objective outcomes as well as the mechanism of benefit elucidated. There is some evidence that MBI have a positive benefit on sleep quality. Since sleep has a direct impact on many other health outcomes, future MBI trials should consider including sleep outcome measurements.

  14. Conceptions about the mind-body problem and their relations to afterlife beliefs, paranormal beliefs, religiosity, and ontological confusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riekki, Tapani; Lindeman, Marjaana; Lipsanen, Jari

    2013-01-01

    We examined lay people's conceptions about the relationship between mind and body and their correlates. In Study 1, a web survey (N = 850) of reflective dualistic, emergentistic, and monistic perceptions of the mind-body relationship, afterlife beliefs (i.e., common sense dualism), religiosity, paranormal beliefs, and ontological confusions about physical, biological, and psychological phenomena was conducted. In Study 2 (N = 73), we examined implicit ontological confusions and their relations to afterlife beliefs, paranormal beliefs, and religiosity. Correlation and regression analyses showed that reflective dualism, afterlife beliefs, paranormal beliefs, and religiosity were strongly and positively related and that reflective dualism and afterlife beliefs mediated the relationship between ontological confusions and religious and paranormal beliefs. The results elucidate the contention that dualism is a manifestation of universal cognitive processes related to intuitions about physical, biological, and psychological phenomena by showing that especially individuals who confuse the distinctive attributes of these phenomena tend to set the mind apart from the body.

  15. Effects of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy on Body Awareness in Patients with Chronic Pain and Comorbid Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Marasha; Lazar, Sara W.; Hug, Kiran; Mehling, Wolf E.; Hölzel, Britta K.; Sack, Alexander T.; Peeters, Frenk; Ashih, Heidi; Mischoulon, David; Gard, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Body awareness has been proposed as one of the major mechanisms of mindfulness interventions, and it has been shown that chronic pain and depression are associated with decreased levels of body awareness. We investigated the effect of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) on body awareness in patients with chronic pain and comorbid active depression compared to treatment as usual (TAU; N = 31). Body awareness was measured by a subset of the Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA) scales deemed most relevant for the population. These included: Noticing, Not-Distracting, Attention Regulation, Emotional Awareness, and Self-Regulation. In addition, pain catastrophizing was measured by the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS). These scales had adequate to high internal consistency in the current sample. Depression severity was measured by the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology—Clinician rated (QIDS-C16). Increases in the MBCT group were significantly greater than in the TAU group on the “Self-Regulation” and “Not Distracting” scales. Furthermore, the positive effect of MBCT on depression severity was mediated by “Not Distracting.” These findings provide preliminary evidence that a mindfulness-based intervention may increase facets of body awareness as assessed with the MAIA in a population of pain patients with depression. Furthermore, they are consistent with a long hypothesized mechanism for mindfulness and emphasize the clinical relevance of body awareness. PMID:27445929

  16. Organic unity theory: an integrative mind-body theory for psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, A

    1997-12-01

    The potential of psychiatry as an integrative science has been impeded by an internal schism that derives from the duality of mental and physical. Organic unity theory is proposed as a conceptual framework that brings together the terms of the mind-body duality in one coherent perspective. Organic unity theory is braided of three strands: identity, which describes the relationship between mentally described events and corresponding physically described events; continuity, which describes the linguistic-conceptual system that contains both mental and physical terms; and dialectic, which describes the relationship between the empirical way of knowing that is associated with the physical domain of the linguistic-conceptual system and the hermeneutic way of knowing that is associated with the mental domain. Each strand represents an integrative formulation that resolves an aspect of mental-physical dualism into an underlying unity. After the theory is presented, its implications for psychiatry are briefly considered.

  17. Medicine and Mind-Body Dualism: A Reply to Mehta's Critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, Callie

    2014-01-01

    Neeta Mehta recently advanced the thesis that medical practice is facing a crisis today. In her paper "Mind-body dualism: a critique from a health perspective" she attributes the crisis to the philosophy of Descartes and set out to understand why this dualism is still alive despite its disavowal from philosophers, health practitioners and lay people. The aim of my reply to her critique is three-fold. First, I draw attention to a more fundamental problem and show that dualism is inescapable-scientifically and commonsensically. I then focus on the self-conscious emotions of shame, guilt and remorse, and argue that the self is not identical with a brain. The third section draws attention to the crisis in psychiatry and stipulates some of the main reasons why this is so. Contrary to Mehta's thesis, the health profession faces a crisis because of physicalism and biological reductionism.

  18. The philosophical "mind-body problem" and its relevance for the relationship between psychiatry and the neurosciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Cuypers, Stefaan E

    2010-01-01

    Parallel to psychiatry, "philosophy of mind" investigates the relationship between mind (mental domain) and body/brain (physical domain). Unlike older forms of philosophy of mind, contemporary analytical philosophy is not exclusively based on introspection and conceptual analysis, but also draws upon the empirical methods and findings of the sciences. This article outlines the conceptual framework of the "mind-body problem" as formulated in contemporary analytical philosophy and argues that this philosophical debate has potentially far-reaching implications for psychiatry as a clinical-scientific discipline, especially for its own autonomy and its relationship to neurology/neuroscience. This point is illustrated by a conceptual analysis of the five principles formulated in Kandel's 1998 article "A New Intellectual Framework for Psychiatry." Kandel's position in the philosophical mind-body debate is ambiguous, ranging from reductive physicalism (psychophysical identity theory) to non-reductive physicalism (in which the mental "supervenes" on the physical) to epiphenomenalist dualism or even emergent dualism. We illustrate how these diverging interpretations result in radically different views on the identity of psychiatry and its relationship with the rapidly expanding domain of neurology/neuroscience.

  19. Neuroenhancement of memory for children with autism by a mind-body exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes S eChan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The memory deficits found in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD may be caused by the lack of an effective strategy to aid memory. The executive control of memory processing is mediated largely by the timely coupling between frontal and posterior brain regions. The present study aimed to explore the potential effect of a Chinese mind-body exercise, namely Nei Gong, for enhancing learning and memory in children with ASD, and the possible neural basis of the improvement. Sixty-six children with ASD were randomly assigned to groups receiving Nei Gong training (NGT, progressive muscle relaxation (PMR training, or no training for one month. Before and after training, the participants were tested individually on a computerized visual memory task while EEG signals were acquired during the memory encoding phase. Children in the NGT group demonstrated significantly enhanced memory performance and more effective use of a memory strategy, which was not observed in the other two groups. Furthermore, the improved memory after NGT was consistent with findings of elevated EEG theta coherence between frontal and posterior brain regions, a measure of functional coupling. The scalp EEG signals were localized by the sLORETA method and found to originate from a neural network that promotes effective memory processing, including the prefrontal cortex, the parietal cortex, and the medial and inferior temporal cortex. This alteration in neural processing was not found in children receiving PMR or in those who received no training. The present findings suggest that the mind-body exercise program may have the potential effect on modulating neural functional connectivity underlying memory processing and hence enhance memory functions in individuals with autism.

  20. Neuroenhancement of Memory for Children with Autism by a Mind-Body Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Agnes S; Han, Yvonne M Y; Sze, Sophia L; Lau, Eliza M

    2015-01-01

    The memory deficits found in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may be caused by the lack of an effective strategy to aid memory. The executive control of memory processing is mediated largely by the timely coupling between frontal and posterior brain regions. The present study aimed to explore the potential effect of a Chinese mind-body exercise, namely Nei Gong, for enhancing learning and memory in children with ASD, and the possible neural basis of the improvement. Sixty-six children with ASD were randomly assigned to groups receiving Nei Gong training (NGT), progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) training, or no training for 1 month. Before and after training, the participants were tested individually on a computerized visual memory task while EEG signals were acquired during the memory encoding phase. Children in the NGT group demonstrated significantly enhanced memory performance and more effective use of a memory strategy, which was not observed in the other two groups. Furthermore, the improved memory after NGT was consistent with findings of elevated EEG theta coherence between frontal and posterior brain regions, a measure of functional coupling. The scalp EEG signals were localized by the standardized low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography method and found to originate from a neural network that promotes effective memory processing, including the prefrontal cortex, the parietal cortex, and the medial and inferior temporal cortex. This alteration in neural processing was not found in children receiving PMR or in those who received no training. The present findings suggest that the mind-body exercise program may have the potential effect on modulating neural functional connectivity underlying memory processing and hence enhance memory functions in individuals with autism.

  1. Salvia divinorum: a psychopharmacological riddle and a mind-body prospect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Jose-Luis

    2013-03-01

    The multidisciplinary research on Salvia divinorum and its chemical principles is analyzed concerning whether the ethnobotany, phytochemistry, mental effects, and neuropharmacology of this sacred psychoactive plant and main principle clarify its experienced effects and divinatory uses. The scientific pursuit spans from the traditional practices, continues with the botanical identification, isolation of active molecules, characterization of mental and neural effects, possible therapeutic applications, and impinges upon the mind-body problem. The departure point is ethnopharmacology and therefore the traditional beliefs, ritual uses, and mental effects of this Mazatec sacred mint recorded during a 1973- 1983 field research project are described. A water potion of crushed leaves produced short-lasting light-headedness, dysphoria, tactile and proprioceptive sensations, a sense of depersonalization, amplified sound perception, and an increase visual and auditory imagery, but not actual hallucinations. Similar effects were described using questionnaires and are attributable to salvinorin A, but cannot be explained solely by its specific and potent brain kappa-opioid receptor agonist activity. Some requirements for a feasible classification and mechanism of action of consciousness-altering products are proposed and include the activation of neural networks comprising several neurochemical systems. Top-down analyses should be undertaken in order to characterize such neural networks and eventually allowing to explore the differential ethnic effects. As is the case for other consciousness-altering preparations, a careful and encompassing research on this plant and principle can be consequential to endeavors ranging from the mind-body problem, a better understanding of shamanic ecstasy, to the potential generation of analgesic, antidepressant, and drug-abuse attenuating products.

  2. Connecting body and mind: the first interview with somatising patients and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowska, Kasia; English, Margaret; Savage, Blanche

    2013-04-01

    In this article we outline the framework our consultation-liaison team has developed for interviewing families whose children present with medically unexplained symptoms. The framework was developed over many years in the context of our work with a large number of families, who collectively taught us to be more sensitive with regard to the experience of such families in the medical system, and who reacted strongly when we moved prematurely to the use of psychological language or to questions about family relationships or emotional functioning. Throughout the interview we maintain a focus on the body: the family history of illness and, in particular, the story of the child's symptoms. We take a detailed, temporally ordered history of the symptom and ask for collateral information - family illness, family life events, events at school, family emotional responses - all in relation to the story of the symptoms. In the assessment interview and in our work in general, we focus on the body. We move very carefully and very slowly from the physical to the psychological, from talking about the body to talking about relationships and about the mind.

  3. Mind/Body, Jewish/Russian: Identity Fragmentation in Isaac Babel's "Story of My Dovecote"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Yael Jacobowitz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I will examine the child-protagonist's identity fragmentation through the original Russian text. I argue that this fragmentation is embodied in three ways. First, through conflicting images and interpretations of Jewish and Russian bodies and intellects, the boy's identity is broken up into mind/body and Jewish/Russian oppositions. These dichotomies gain practical meaning as he learns that the Jewish body, as seen by Russians, renders Jews powerless in Russian society. Second, this fragmentation is exhibited by associations between the narrator and other characters, achieved by the repetition of words and phrases to describe seemingly opposite individuals. These associations effectively splinter the boy's identity into multiple characters. Third, the boy's identity fragmentation is manifested by the text's two narrators, a primary adult-narrator and a child-narrator. The relationship between these two narrators adds another layer of fragmentation to the text, as the primary narrator both separates himself from and identifies with the child-narrator.

  4. Is body shame a significant mediator of the relationship between mindfulness skills and the quality of life of treatment-seeking children and adolescents with overweight and obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Helena; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to examine (a) whether mindfulness skills were associated with higher quality of life through lower body shame for treatment-seeking children/adolescents with overweight and obesity and (b) whether this indirect effect was moderated by children/adolescents' age and gender. The sample included 153 children/adolescents with overweight/obesity followed in individual nutrition consultations. Participants completed self-report measures of mindfulness, body shame, and quality of life. Moderated mediation analyses showed that higher levels of mindfulness were associated with better perceived quality of life through lower body shame, but only among girls. For boys, higher levels of body shame did not translate into a poorer perception of quality of life, and the indirect effect of mindfulness on quality of life via lower body shame was not significant. These results suggest that body shame is an important mechanism to explain why mindfulness may help girls with overweight/obesity perceive a better quality of life.

  5. Education for Older Adults with Early-Stage Dementia: Health Promotion for the Mind, Body, and Spirit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richeson, Nancy E.; Boyne, Sarah; Brady, E. Michael

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 13-week adult education class for older adults with early-stage dementia titled Health Promotion for the Mind, Body, and Spirit. The mixed method research design (N = 14) used a quasiexperimental one-group pretest/posttest and the qualitative methods of focus group and phone interview with…

  6. Memory Decline in Peri- and Post-menopausal Women: The Potential of Mind-Body Medicine to Improve Cognitive Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwinski, Jim R; Johnson, Aimee K; Elkins, Gary R

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive decline is a frequent complaint during the menopause transition and among post-menopausal women. Changes in memory correspond with diminished estrogen production. Further, many peri- and post-menopausal women report sleep concerns, depression, and hot flashes, and these factors may contribute to cognitive decline. Hormone therapy can increase estrogen but is contraindicated for many women. Mind-body medicine has been shown to have beneficial effects on sleep, mood, and hot flashes, among post-menopausal women. Further, mind-body medicine holds potential in addressing symptoms of cognitive decline post-menopause. This study proposes an initial framework for how mind-body interventions may improve cognitive performance and inform future research seeking to identify the common and specific factors associated with mind-body medicine for addressing memory decline in peri- and post-menopausal women. It is our hope that this article will eventually lead to a more holistic and integrative approach to the treatment of cognitive deficits in peri- and post-menopausal women.

  7. Neither Good nor Useful: Looking Ad Vivum in Children's Assessments of Fat and Healthy Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    Fat bodies are not, fait accompli, bad. Yet in our international research, we found overwhelmingly that fat functioned as a marker to indicate health or lack of health. A body with fat was simply and conclusively unhealthy. This article reports on how this unbalanced view of fat was tied to assessments of healthy bodies that were achieved by "the…

  8. Mind-body medicine for schizophrenia and psychotic disorders: a review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgason, Chanel; Sarris, Jerome

    2013-10-01

    Over half of psychiatric patients use some kind of Complementary and Alternative Medicine, with Mind-Body Medicine (MBM) being the most commonly used collective modality. To date however, to our knowledge, no overarching review exists examining MBM for psychotic disorders. Thus the purpose of this paper is to present the first review in this area. A MEDLINE search was conducted of articles written in English from 1946 up to January 15, 2011 using a range of MBM and psychotic disorder search terms. Human clinical trials and, where available, pertinent meta-analyses and reviews were included in this paper. Forty-two clinical studies and reviews of MBMs were located, revealing varying levels of evidence. All studies included used MBMs as an adjunctive therapy to usual care, including medication. Overall, supportive evidence was found for music therapy, meditation and mindfulness techniques. Some positive studies were found for yoga and breathing exercises, general relaxation training, and holistic multi-modality MBM interventions. Due to insufficient data, a conclusion cannot be reached for hypnosis, thermal or EMG biofeedback, dance or drama therapy, or art therapy. No clinical trials were found for guided imagery, autogenic training, journal writing, or ceremony practices. For many techniques, the quality of research was poor, with many studies having small samples, no randomization, and no adequate control. While the above techniques are likely to be safe and tolerable in this population based on current data, more research is required to decisively assess the validity of applying many MBMs in the mainstream treatment of psychotic disorders.

  9. Are you working too hard? A conversation with mind/body researcher Herbert Benson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Herbert

    2005-11-01

    Stress is an essential response in highly competitive environments. Before a race, before an exam, before an important meeting, your heart rate and blood pressure rise, your focus tightens, you become more alert and more efficient. But beyond a certain level, stress overloads your system, compromising your performance and, eventually, your health. So the question is: When does stress help and when does it hurt? To find out, HBR talked with Harvard Medical School professor Herbert Benson, M.D., founder of the Mind/Body Medical Institute. Having spent more than 35 years conducting worldwide research in the fields of neuroscience and stress, Benson is best known for his 1975 best seller The Relaxation Response, in which he describes how the mind can influence stress levels through such tools as meditation. His most recent research centers on what he calls"the breakout principle," a method by which stress is not simply reduced but carefully controlled so that you reap its benefits while avoiding its dangers. He describes a four-step process in which you first push yourself to the most productive stress level by grappling intently with a problem. Next, just as you feel yourself flagging, you disengage entirely by doing something utterly unrelated-going for a walk, petting a dog, taking a shower. In the third step, as the brain quiets down, activity paradoxically increases in areas associated with attention, space-time concepts, and decision making, leading to a sudden, creative insight-the breakout. Step four is achievement of a "new-normal state," in which you find that the improved performance is sustained, sometimes indefinitely. As counterintuitive as this research may seem, managers can doubtless recall times when they've had an "aha" moment at the gym, on the golf course, or in the shower. What Benson describes here is a way to tap into this invaluable biological tool whenever we want.

  10. Body water distribution and risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in a healthy population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Nikoline Nygård; Kjærulff, Thora Majlund; Ward, Leigh Cordwin;

    2014-01-01

    Early alterations in the cardiovascular structure and function may change normal body water distribution. The resulting fluid shifts may thus serve as an early marker for cardiovascular disease. However, studies examining this in healthy populations are absent....

  11. Effects of Mindfulness-Based Interventions on Salivary Cortisol in Healthy Adults: A Meta-Analytical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanada, Kenji; Montero-Marin, Jesus; Alda Díez, Marta; Salas-Valero, Montserrat; Pérez-Yus, María C.; Morillo, Héctor; Demarzo, Marcelo M. P.; García-Toro, Mauro; García-Campayo, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to elucidate the effects of Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) on salivary cortisol levels in healthy adult populations. Method: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), published between January 1980 and June 2015 in PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO and the Cochrane library. The PRISMA and Cochrane guidelines were followed. The pooled effect sizes were calculated with the random-effects model, using Hedges' g-values, and heterogeneity was measured using the I2 statistic. The contribution of different characteristics of participants and programmes were assessed by meta-regression models, using beta coefficients. Results: Five RCTs with 190 participants in total were included in this systematic review. The overall effect size (ES) for improving the state of health related to cortisol levels was moderately low (g = 0.41; p = 0.025), although moderate heterogeneity was found (I2 = 55; p = 0.063). There were no significant differences between active (g = 0.33; p = 0.202) and passive (g = 0.48; p = 0.279) controls, but significant differences were found when comparing standard (g = 0.81; p = 0.002) and raw (g = 0.03; p = 0.896) measures. The percentage of women in each study was not related to ES. Nevertheless, age (beta = −0.03; p = 0.039), the number of sessions (beta = 0.33; p = 0.007) and the total hours of the MBI (beta = 0.06; p = 0.005) were significantly related to ES, explaining heterogeneity (R2 = 1.00). Conclusions: Despite the scarce number of studies, our results suggest that MBIs might have some beneficial effect on cortisol secretion in healthy adult subjects. However, there is a need for further RCTs implemented in accordance with standard programmes and measurements of salivary cortisol under rigorous strategies in healthy adult populations.

  12. Effects of Mindfulness-based interventions on salivary cortisol in healthy adults: a meta-analytical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Sanada

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the effects of Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs on salivary cortisol levels in healthy adult populations. Method. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs, published between January 1980 and June 2015 in PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO and the Cochrane library. The PRISMA and Cochrane guidelines were followed. The pooled effect sizes were calculated with the random-effects model, using Hedges’ g values, and heterogeneity was measured using the I2 statistic. The contribution of different characteristics of participants and programmes were assessed by meta-regression models, using beta coefficients. Results. Five RCTs with 190 participants in total were included in this systematic review. The overall effect size (ES for improving the state of health related to cortisol levels was moderately low (g=0.41; p=0.025, although moderate heterogeneity was found (I2=55; p=0.063. There were no significant differences between active (g=0.33; p=0.202 and passive (g=0.48; p=0.279 controls, but significant differences were found when comparing standard (g=0.81; p=0.002 and raw (g=0.03; p=0.896 measures. The percentage of women in each study was not related to ES. Nevertheless, age (beta=-0.03; p=0.039, the number of sessions (beta=0.33; p=0.007 and the total hours of the MBI (beta=0.06; p=0.005 were significantly related to ES, explaining heterogeneity (R2=1.00. Conclusions. Despite the scarce number of studies, our results suggest that MBIs might have some beneficial effect on cortisol secretion in healthy adult subjects. However, there is a need for further RCTs implemented in accordance with standard programmes and measurements of salivary cortisol under rigorous strategies in healthy adult populations.

  13. Effects of Mindfulness-Based Interventions on Salivary Cortisol in Healthy Adults: A Meta-Analytical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanada, Kenji; Montero-Marin, Jesus; Alda Díez, Marta; Salas-Valero, Montserrat; Pérez-Yus, María C; Morillo, Héctor; Demarzo, Marcelo M P; García-Toro, Mauro; García-Campayo, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to elucidate the effects of Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) on salivary cortisol levels in healthy adult populations. Method: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), published between January 1980 and June 2015 in PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO and the Cochrane library. The PRISMA and Cochrane guidelines were followed. The pooled effect sizes were calculated with the random-effects model, using Hedges' g-values, and heterogeneity was measured using the I(2) statistic. The contribution of different characteristics of participants and programmes were assessed by meta-regression models, using beta coefficients. Results: Five RCTs with 190 participants in total were included in this systematic review. The overall effect size (ES) for improving the state of health related to cortisol levels was moderately low (g = 0.41; p = 0.025), although moderate heterogeneity was found (I(2) = 55; p = 0.063). There were no significant differences between active (g = 0.33; p = 0.202) and passive (g = 0.48; p = 0.279) controls, but significant differences were found when comparing standard (g = 0.81; p = 0.002) and raw (g = 0.03; p = 0.896) measures. The percentage of women in each study was not related to ES. Nevertheless, age (beta = -0.03; p = 0.039), the number of sessions (beta = 0.33; p = 0.007) and the total hours of the MBI (beta = 0.06; p = 0.005) were significantly related to ES, explaining heterogeneity (R(2) = 1.00). Conclusions: Despite the scarce number of studies, our results suggest that MBIs might have some beneficial effect on cortisol secretion in healthy adult subjects. However, there is a need for further RCTs implemented in accordance with standard programmes and measurements of salivary cortisol under rigorous strategies in healthy adult populations.

  14. Body fat throughout childhood in 2647 healthy Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Tinggaard, Jeanette; Winther, K.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Total body fat percentage (%BF) evaluated by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans (DXA %BF) is widely recognized as a precise measure of fatness. We aimed to establish national reference curves for DXA %BF, %BF calculated from skinfolds (SF %BF) and waist...... correlation and best agreement with DXA %BF in identifying children with excess fat (+1 s.d.)....

  15. Healthy Hair Starts With a Healthy Body: Hair Stylists as Lay Health Advisors to Prevent Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E. Madigan

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Chronic kidney disease affects one in nine Americans. Diabetes and hypertension account for nearly three quarters of all kidney failure cases. Disproportionate rates of chronic kidney disease, diabetes, and hypertension have been observed among African Americans. More than 70% of all kidney failure cases caused by diabetes and hypertension could have been prevented or delayed with healthy lifestyles and medications.Context Approximately 14% of the population living in Michigan is African American. Despite this small proportion, 47% of patients on dialysis and 45% of those on the kidney transplant waiting list are African American. Risk of end-stage kidney failure is 4 times greater among African Americans than among whites.Methods The National Kidney Foundation of Michigan developed the Healthy Hair Starts with a Healthy Body (Healthy Hair campaign to educate African American men and women about their disease risks and to motivate prevention behaviors. The campaign trains African American hair stylists to promote healthy behaviors with their clients through a “health chat” and by providing diabetes and hypertension risk assessment information and incentives.Consequences Since 1999, Healthy Hair has trained nearly 700 stylists and reached more than 14,000 clients in eight Michigan cities. Information collected through a client “Chat Form” suggests a number of positive behavioral results.Interpretation With nearly 60% of clients indicating that they have taken steps to prevent diabetes, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease or to seek a physician’s advice, the Healthy Hair program appears to be effective in the short term in prompting attention to healthy behaviors and increasing risk awareness.

  16. [Mind-body medicine as a part of German integrative medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobos, G; Altner, N; Lange, S; Musial, F; Langhorst, J; Michalsen, A; Paul, A

    2006-08-01

    Mind-body medicine (MBM) as a holistic approach to health and healing has been shaped by research into stress physiology and stress psychology, by psychoneuro(endocrino)immunology and by Antonovsky's salutogenetic paradigm. MBM seeks to acknowledge physical, psychological as well as social and spiritual aspects of human beings. MBM constitutes one of the traditions, which the emerging field of integrative medicine in Germany draws upon, others being mainstream medicine, traditional European naturopathy and non-European methods like traditional Chinese medicine. The article outlines historical aspects of MBM, gives a brief review of research evidence, and introduces clinical MBM institutes in Germany. Especially the Clinic and Chair of Complementary and Integrative Medicine, Alfried Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach Foundation at the University Duisburg-Essen has been integrating MBM into the concept of integrative medicine. Considering that a growing number of health issues arises due to maladaptive lifestyles, MBM is being identified as a development that supports a shift from increasingly expensive treatments to more cost-effective preventive approaches.

  17. Dejian Mind-Body Intervention Improves the Cognitive Functions of a Child with Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes S. Chan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been increasing empirical evidence for the enhancing effects of Dejian Mind-Body Intervention (DMBI, a traditional Chinese Shaolin healing approach, on human frontal brain activity/functions, including patients with autism who are well documented to have frontal lobe problems. This study aims to compare the effects of DMBI with a conventional behavioural/cognitive intervention (CI on enhancing the executive functions and memory of a nine-year-old boy with low-functioning autism (KY and to explore possible underlying neural mechanism using EEG theta cordance. At post-one-month DMBI, KY's inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and memory functioning have significantly improved from “severely-to-moderately impaired” to “within-normal” range. This improvement was not observed from previous 12-month CI. Furthermore, KY showed increased cordance gradually extending from the anterior to the posterior brain region, suggesting possible neural mechanism underlying his cognitive improvement. These findings have implicated potential applicability of DMBI as a rehabilitation program for patients with severe frontal lobe and/or memory disorders.

  18. Mind-body dualism and the biopsychosocial model of pain: what did Descartes really say?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, G

    2000-08-01

    In the last two decades there have been many critics of western biomedicine's poor integration of social and psychological factors in questions of human health. Such critiques frequently begin with a rejection of Descartes' mind-body dualism, viewing this as the decisive philosophical moment, radically separating the two realms in both theory and practice. It is argued here, however, that many such readings of Descartes have been selective and misleading. Contrary to the assumptions of many recent authors, Descartes' dualism does attempt to explain the union of psyche and soma - with more depth than is often appreciated. Pain plays a key role in Cartesian as well as contemporary thinking about the problem of dualism. Theories of the psychological origins of pain symptoms persisted throughout the history of modern medicine and were not necessarily discouraged by Cartesian mental philosophy. Moreover, the recently developed biopsychosocial model of pain may have more in common with Cartesian dualism than it purports to have. This article presents a rereading of Descartes' mental philosophy and his views on pain. The intention is not to defend his theories, but to re-evaluate them and to ask in what respect contemporary theories represent any significant advance in philosophical terms.

  19. Methods for determining healthy body weight in end stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Kathy Schiro

    2006-07-01

    Several formulas for calculating desirable body weight are used in chronic kidney failure patients. Ideal body weight (IBW) derived from Metropolitan Life Insurance tables has been available since the 1950s. The Hamwi formula was proposed in the 1960s as a simple tool for quickly estimating desirable body weight, especially in people with diabetes. Since the 1970s, National Health and Nutrition Evaluation Surveys I, II, and III have provided an in-depth evaluation of the average body weights of Americans. These standard body weights (SBW) are often interpreted to be normal and healthy weight goals. Body mass index (BMI) has also been studied for decades and is used internationally as the standard for determining healthy weight, especially in relationship to obesity. These 4 methods are discussed and compared along with a brief review of the history of using the adjusted body weight (ABW) formulas, followed by recommendations for clinical practice.

  20. Eating Disorder Symptomatology, Body Image, and Mindfulness: Findings in a Non-Clinical Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prowse, Emma; Bore, Miles; Dyer, Stella

    2013-01-01

    Background: There has been increasing interest in the use of mindfulness-based interventions in treating various disorders and conditions; however, evidence to support the application of mindfulness-based treatments for eating disorders is limited. The current study was designed as a preliminary investigation of the relationship between…

  1. Mind body medicine in the care of a U.S. Marine with chronic pain: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millegan, Jeffrey; Morrison, Theodore; Bhakta, Jagruti; Ram, Vasudha

    2014-09-01

    Many service members suffer from chronic pain that can be difficult to adequately treat. Frustration has led to more openness among service members to complementary and alternative medicine modalities. This report follows JK, a Marine with chronic pain related to an injury while on combat deployment through participation in a 6-week self-care-based Mind Body Medicine program and for 7 months after completion of the program. JK developed and sustained a regular meditation practice throughout the follow-up period. JK showed a noticeable reduction in perceived disability and improvements in psychological health, sleep latency/duration and quality of life. This report supports further study into the efficacy and feasibility of self-care-based mind body medicine in the treatment of chronic pain in the military medical setting.

  2. Conjugated Linoleic Acids Reduce Body Fat in Healthy Postmenopausal Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raff, M.; Tholstrup, T.; Toubro, S.

    2009-01-01

    Isomers of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) reduce fat mass FM) and increase insulin sensitivity in some, but not all, murine studies. In humans, this effect is still debatable. In this study, we compared the effect of 2 CLA supplements on total and regional FM assessed by dual energy X-ray absorp......Isomers of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) reduce fat mass FM) and increase insulin sensitivity in some, but not all, murine studies. In humans, this effect is still debatable. In this study, we compared the effect of 2 CLA supplements on total and regional FM assessed by dual energy X......-ray absorptiometry, changes in serum insulin and glucose concentrations, and adipose tissue (AT) gene expression in humans. In a double-blind, parallel, 16-wk intervention, we randomized 81 healthy postmenopausal women to 1) 5.5 g/d of 40/40% of cis9, trans11-CLA (c9, t11-CLA) and trans10, cis12-CLA (t10, c12-CLA...

  3. Unravelling the Body/Mind Reverberations of Secrets Woven into Charlotte Brontë’s Villette

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The pervasive psychological realism of Charlotte Brontë’s Villette (1853) challenges scholarly assumptions based on her biography or her indoctrination to Victorian medical discourses, as it explores dysfunctional body/mind interrelations, particularly those evidencing patriarchal pressures and prejudices against women. Under the guise of her heroine Lucy, the author becomes both the physician and the patient suffering from a female malady of unnamed origin. This article intends to prove that...

  4. A Chinese Chan-Based Mind-Body Intervention Improves Sleep on Patients with Depression: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Agnes S.; Wong, Queenie Y.; Sze, Sophia L.; Kwong, Patrick P. K.; Han, Yvonne M. Y.; Mei-chun Cheung

    2012-01-01

    Sleep disturbance is a common problem associated with depression, and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a more common behavioral intervention for sleep problems. The present study compares the effect of a newly developed Chinese Chan-based intervention, namely Dejian mind-body intervention (DMBI), with the CBT on improving sleep problems of patients with depression. Seventy-five participants diagnosed with major depressive disorder were randomly assigned to receive 10 weekly sessions of C...

  5. A healthy brain in a healthy body: brain network correlates of physical and mental fitness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Douw

    Full Text Available A healthy lifestyle is an important focus in today's society. The physical benefits of regular exercise are abundantly clear, but physical fitness is also associated with better cognitive performance. How these two factors together relate to characteristics of the brain is still incompletely understood. By applying mathematical concepts from 'network theory', insights in the organization and dynamics of brain functioning can be obtained. We test the hypothesis that neural network organization mediates the association between cardio respiratory fitness (i.e. VO₂ max and cognitive functioning. A healthy cohort was studied (n = 219, 113 women, age range 41-44 years. Subjects underwent resting-state eyes-closed magneto-encephalography (MEG. Five artifact-free epochs were analyzed and averaged in six frequency bands (delta-gamma. The phase lag index (PLI was used as a measure of functional connectivity between all sensors. Modularity analysis was performed, and both within and between-module connectivity of each sensor was calculated. Subjects underwent a maximum oxygen uptake (VO₂ max measurement as an indicator of cardio respiratory fitness. All subjects were tested with a commonly used Dutch intelligence test. Intelligence quotient (IQ was related to VO₂ max. In addition, VO₂ max was negatively associated with upper alpha and beta band modularity. Particularly increased intermodular connectivity in the beta band was associated with higher VO₂ max and IQ, further indicating a benefit of more global network integration as opposed to local connections. Within-module connectivity showed a spatially varied pattern of correlation, while average connectivity did not show significant results. Mediation analysis was not significant. The occurrence of less modularity in the resting-state is associated with better cardio respiratory fitness, while having increased intermodular connectivity, as opposed to within-module connections, is related to

  6. A healthy brain in a healthy body: brain network correlates of physical and mental fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douw, Linda; Nieboer, Dagmar; van Dijk, Bob W; Stam, Cornelis J; Twisk, Jos W R

    2014-01-01

    A healthy lifestyle is an important focus in today's society. The physical benefits of regular exercise are abundantly clear, but physical fitness is also associated with better cognitive performance. How these two factors together relate to characteristics of the brain is still incompletely understood. By applying mathematical concepts from 'network theory', insights in the organization and dynamics of brain functioning can be obtained. We test the hypothesis that neural network organization mediates the association between cardio respiratory fitness (i.e. VO₂ max) and cognitive functioning. A healthy cohort was studied (n = 219, 113 women, age range 41-44 years). Subjects underwent resting-state eyes-closed magneto-encephalography (MEG). Five artifact-free epochs were analyzed and averaged in six frequency bands (delta-gamma). The phase lag index (PLI) was used as a measure of functional connectivity between all sensors. Modularity analysis was performed, and both within and between-module connectivity of each sensor was calculated. Subjects underwent a maximum oxygen uptake (VO₂ max) measurement as an indicator of cardio respiratory fitness. All subjects were tested with a commonly used Dutch intelligence test. Intelligence quotient (IQ) was related to VO₂ max. In addition, VO₂ max was negatively associated with upper alpha and beta band modularity. Particularly increased intermodular connectivity in the beta band was associated with higher VO₂ max and IQ, further indicating a benefit of more global network integration as opposed to local connections. Within-module connectivity showed a spatially varied pattern of correlation, while average connectivity did not show significant results. Mediation analysis was not significant. The occurrence of less modularity in the resting-state is associated with better cardio respiratory fitness, while having increased intermodular connectivity, as opposed to within-module connections, is related to better

  7. Mind's response to the body's betrayal: Gestalt/Existential therapy for clients with chronic or life-threatening illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imes, Suzanne A; Clance, Pauline Rose; Gailis, Andra T; Atkeson, Ellen

    2002-11-01

    In the literature on chronic or life-threatening illness, there is an overriding emphasis on clients' psychological coping styles and how they relate to psychological functioning. By contrast, in our approach, we look at the subjective mind/body experiences that clients have of their illness and how their lives are impacted by their illness. As psychotherapists, we address their existential distress, pain, body experience, thoughts, and feelings, as well as their efforts to cope or find meaning in their illness. We summarize Gestalt/Existential therapy for chronic illness, illustrate the approach with three case-vignettes, and stress the importance of attending to each client's unique responses to illness.

  8. Mindfulness-and body-psychotherapy-based group treatment of chronic tinnitus: a randomized controlled pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreuzer Peter M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tinnitus, the perception of sound in absence of an external acoustic source, impairs the quality of life in 2% of the population. Since in most cases causal treatment is not possible, the majority of therapeutic attempts aim at developing and strengthening individual coping and habituation strategies. Therapeutic interventions that incorporate training in mindfulness meditation have become increasingly popular in the treatment of stress-related disorders. Here we conducted a randomized, controlled clinical study to investigate the efficacy of a specific mindfulness- and body-psychotherapy based program in patients suffering from chronic tinnitus. Methods Thirty-six patients were enrolled in this pilot study. The treatment was specifically developed for tinnitus patients and is based on mindfulness and body psychotherapy. Treatment was performed as group therapy at two training weekends that were separated by an interval of 7 weeks (eleven hours/weekend and in four further two-hour sessions (week 2, 9, 18 and 22. Patients were randomized to receive treatment either immediately or after waiting time, which served as a control condition. The primary study outcome was the change in tinnitus complaints as measured by the German Version of the Tinnitus Questionnaire (TQ. Results ANOVA testing for the primary outcome showed a significant interaction effect time by group (F = 7.4; df = 1,33; p = 0.010. Post hoc t-tests indicated an amelioration of TQ scores from baseline to week 9 in both groups (intervention group: t = 6.2; df = 17; p  Conclusions Our results suggest that this mindfulness- and body-psychotherapy-based approach is feasible in the treatment of tinnitus and merits further evaluation in clinical studies with larger sample sizes. The study is registered with clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01540357.

  9. Within-person changes in mindfulness and self-compassion predict enhanced emotional well-being in healthy, but stressed adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galla, Brian M

    2016-06-01

    Meditation training programs for adolescents are predicated on the assumptions that mindfulness and self-compassion can be directly cultivated, and further, that doing so is beneficial for emotional well-being. Yet, very little research with adolescents has tested these assumptions directly. In the current study, I examined longitudinal relationships between changes in mindfulness and self-compassion and changes in emotional well-being among healthy, but stressed adolescents who participated in five-day, intensive meditation retreats. Immediately before and after the retreats, and then three months later, 132 adolescents (Mage = 16.76 years, 61% female) completed questionnaires measuring mindfulness, self-compassion, and emotional well-being. Repeated measures ANOVA showed adolescents improved in mindfulness, self-compassion, and all indices of emotional well-being immediately following the retreat (Cohen's d = |0.39-1.19|), and many of these improvements were maintained three months later (Cohen's d = |0.04-0.68|). Further, multilevel growth curve analyses with time-varying covariates indicated within-person changes in self-compassion predicted enhanced emotional well-being more consistently than within-person changes in mindfulness. Specifically, increases in self-compassion predicted reductions in perceived stress, rumination, depressive symptoms, and negative affect, and conversely, increases in positive affect and life satisfaction (pseudo-R(2) variance explained = 5.9% and 15.8%, ps < 0.01).

  10. Psychology, Physical Disability, & the Application of Buddhist Mindfulness to Martial Arts Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D. Kelland

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Physical disabilities lead to difficult challenges for many people. The teachings of Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha (“Awakened One”, including the practice of mindfulness, have been described by some as a form of cognitive psychology. Mindfulness is a means of restraining our minds and reactions so that we might be relieved of suffering. The successful cultivation of mindfulness often begins with developing a healthy body, so that we might be able to meditate for significant periods of time as we cultivate mindfulness. Spiritually-minded martial arts training can provide numerous benefits for everyone, including individuals with disabilities who may seek formal and informal programs with such emphasis.

  11. Injury, imagery, and self-esteem in dance healthy minds in injured bodies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin-Bates, Sanna M; Walker, Imogen J; Baker, Jo; Garner, Jocelyn; Hardy, Cinzia; Irvine, Sarah; Jola, Corinne; Laws, Helen; Blevins, Peta

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate a selection of psychological variables (help-seeking behaviors, mental imagery, self-esteem) in relation to injury among UK dancers. We recruited 216 participants from eight dance styles and six levels of involvement. It was found that 83.5% of the participants had experienced at least one injury in the past year. The most common response to injury was to inform someone, and most continued to dance when injured, albeit carefully. Physical therapy was the most common treatment sought when an injury occurred (38.1%), and dancers seemed to follow recommendations offered. Injured and non-injured dancers did not differ in their imagery frequencies (facilitative, debilitative, or injury-related) and scored similarly (and relatively high) in self-esteem. Neither facilitative nor debilitative imagery was correlated with self-esteem, but dancers who engaged in more facilitative imagery in general also reported doing so when injured. Altogether, it appears that injury is not related to dancers' self-esteem or imagery, at least not when injuries are mild or moderate. Even so, such conclusions should be made with caution, given that most dancers do sustain at least one injury each year.

  12. Somatic maturation and body composition in female healthy adolescents with or without adjustment for body fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Paulo N. Miranda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the relationship between the stages of somatic maturation and body composition in eutrophic female adolescents with or without excessive body fat. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 118 female adolescents, from 14 to 19 years-old, in Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Southeast Brazil. The adolescents were divided in two groups: Group 1 (G1, eutrophic with adequate body fat percentage, and Group 2 (G2, eutrophic with high body fat percentage. The somatic maturation was assessed by the formula for estimating the Peak Height Velocity (PHV. Results: The PHV had higher average score in G1 adolescents compared to G2 (0.26 versus 0.05; p=0.032. There was an association between G1, G2 and the somatic maturation (p=0.049. The female adolescents before and during PHV presented higher values of fat body BMI (p=0.034 and percentage of central fat (p=0.039 compared to the adolescents after PHV. There was a correspondence between before PHV stage and the excess of body fat (α=0.751. Conclusions: There was an association between somatic maturation and body composition in eutrophic female adolescents. Length, BMI and fat percentage were different among the somatic maturation stages. It is relevant to evaluate the somatic maturation and the changes occurring in the body composition during adolescence in order to better evaluate and manage the nutritional status and the body fat excess.

  13. Stress Biomarkers in Medical Students Participating in a Mind Body Medicine Skills Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian W. MacLaughlin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Georgetown University School of Medicine offers an elective Mind-Body Medicine Skills (MBMS course to medical students to promote self-care and self-awareness. Participating medical students reported better management of academic stress and well-being than non-participants. In this study, we sought to assess the stress-reducing effects of MBMS by measuring physiological changes in first-year medical students. Saliva samples were collected before (January, time 1 (T1-pre-intervention and upon completion of the course (May, time 2 (T2p-post-intervention, as well as from non-participating medical students (May, time 2 (T2c-control. The T2p and T2c collections coincided with the period of final examinations. Cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S, testosterone and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA were measured. The mean morning salivary cortisol at T2p was 97% of the mean at baseline T1 which was significantly lower than for T2c (2.4 (95% confidence interval (CI 0.57–1.60, P =  .001; DHEA-S showed similar pattern as cortisol where the T2p levels were significantly lower than T2c (P <  .001 in both morning and evening collections. Testosterone ratio at T2p (0.85 was also lower than T2c (1.6 (95% CI 0.53–1.3, P =  .01. sIgA levels were not statistically different. On direct comparison, the T2c and T2p means were significantly different for all cortisol, DHEA-S and testosterone values. Participants maintained their hormonal balance within the normal range throughout the academic semester while the control group showed significantly increased levels, probably exacerbated by the end of the semester exam stress. To our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the physiologic benefits of a MBMS program in medical students.

  14. An Exploratory Study of the Effects of Mind-Body Interventions Targeting Sleep on Salivary Oxytocin Levels in Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipschitz, David L; Kuhn, Renee; Kinney, Anita Y; Grewen, Karen; Donaldson, Gary W; Nakamura, Yoshio

    2015-07-01

    Cancer survivors experience high levels of distress, associated with a host of negative psychological states, including anxiety, depression, and fear of recurrence, which often lead to sleep problems and reduction in quality of life (QOL) and well-being. As a neuropeptide hormone associated with affiliation, calmness, and well-being, oxytocin may be a useful biological measure of changes in health outcomes in cancer survivors. In this exploratory study, which comprised a subset of participants from a larger study, we evaluated (a) the feasibility and reliability of salivary oxytocin (sOT) levels in cancer survivors and (b) the effects of 2 sleep-focused mind-body interventions, mind-body bridging (MBB) and mindfulness meditation (MM), compared with a sleep hygiene education (SHE) control, on changes in sOT levels in 30 cancer survivors with self-reported sleep disturbance. Interventions were conducted in 3 sessions, once per week for 3 weeks. Saliva samples were collected at baseline, postintervention (~1 week after the last session), and at the 2-month follow-up. In this cancer survivor group, we found that intra-individual sOT levels were fairly stable across the 3 time points, of about 3 months' duration, and mean baseline sOT levels did not differ between females and males and were not correlated with age. Correlations between baseline sOT and self-report measures were weak; however, several of these relationships were in the predicted direction, in which sOT levels were negatively associated with sleep problems and depression and positively associated with cancer-related QOL and well-being. Regarding intervention effects on sOT, baseline-subtracted sOT levels were significantly larger at postintervention in the MBB group as compared with those in SHE. In this sample of cancer survivors assessed for sOT, at postintervention, greater reductions in sleep problems were noted for MBB and MM compared with that of SHE, and increases in mindfulness and self

  15. Head-to-toe whole-body MRI in psoriatic arthritis, axial spondyloarthritis and healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poggenborg, René Panduro; Pedersen, Susanne Juhl; Eshed, Iris

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: By whole-body MRI (WBMRI), we aimed to examine the frequency and distribution of inflammatory and structural lesions in PsA patients, SpA patients and healthy subjects (HSs), to introduce global WBMRI inflammation/damage scores, and to assess WBMRI's reproducibility and correlation wi...

  16. Acute Effects of Whole Body Vibration on Inhibition in Healthy Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Heijer, Anne E.; Groen, Yvonne; Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.; van der Zee, Eddy A.; Tucha, Lara; Tucha, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Whole Body Vibration (WBV) is a passive exercise method known to have beneficial effects on various physical measures. Studies on adults furthermore demonstrated beneficial effects of WBV treatment on cognition (e.g. inhibition). The present study replicated these findings in healthy chil

  17. Effect of heat stress on body temperature in healthy early postpartum dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burfeind, O; Suthar, V S; Heuwieser, W

    2012-12-01

    Measurement of body temperature is the most common method for an early diagnosis of sick cows in fresh cow protocols currently used on dairy farms. Thresholds for fever range from 39.4 °C to 39.7 °C. Several studies attempted to describe normal temperature ranges for healthy dairy cows in the early puerperium. However, the definition of a healthy cow is variable within these studies. It is challenging to determine normal temperature ranges for healthy cows because body temperature is usually included in the definition. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to identify factors that influence body temperature in healthy dairy cows early postpartum and to determine normal temperature ranges for healthy cows that calved in a moderate (temperature humidity index: 59.8 ± 3.8) and a hot period (temperature humidity index: 74.1 ± 4.4), respectively, excluding body temperature from the definition of the health status. Furthermore, the prevalence of fever was calculated for both periods separately. A subset of 17 (moderate period) and 15 cows (hot period) were used for analysis. To ensure their uterine health only cows with a serum haptoglobin concentration ≤ 1.1 g/L were included in the analysis. Therefore, body temperature could be excluded from the definition. A vaginal temperature logger that measured vaginal temperature every 10 min was inserted from Day 2 to 10 after parturition. Additionally rectal temperature was measured twice daily. Day in milk (2 to 10), period (moderate and hot), and time of day had an effect on rectal and vaginal temperature. The prevalence of fever (≥ 39.5 °C) was 7.4% and 28.1% for rectal temperature in the moderate and hot period, respectively. For vaginal temperature (07.00 to 11.00 h) it was 10% and 33%, respectively, considering the same threshold and period. This study demonstrates that body temperature in the early puerperium is influenced by several factors (day in milk, climate, time of day). Therefore, these factors

  18. The Encultured Body: Policy Implications for Healthy Body Image and Disordered Eating Behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskill, Deanne, Ed.; Sanders, Fran, Ed.

    The purpose of this publication is to provide discussion of some of the most difficult and controversial issues surrounding body image and eating disorders, specifically, anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. It includes contributions from a number of nationally and internationally recognized clinicians and researchers in the field. It also…

  19. Bringing back the body into the mind: gestures enhance word learning in foreign language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedonia, Manuela

    2014-01-01

    Foreign language education in the twenty-first century still teaches vocabulary mainly through reading and listening activities. This is due to the link between teaching practice and traditional philosophy of language, where language is considered to be an abstract phenomenon of the mind. However, a number of studies have shown that accompanying words or phrases of a foreign language with gestures leads to better memory results. In this paper, I review behavioral research on the positive effects of gestures on memory. Then I move to the factors that have been addressed as contributing to the effect, and I embed the reviewed evidence in the theoretical framework of embodiment. Finally, I argue that gestures accompanying foreign language vocabulary learning create embodied representations of those words. I conclude by advocating the use of gestures in future language education as a learning tool that enhances the mind.

  20. Healthy Eyes, Healthy Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the ophthalmic profession, and contributions made toward preventing blindness. The museum is the only institution in the United States whose sole purpose is to preserve the history of ophthalmology and ...

  1. Healthy Mouth, Healthy Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that occur with it—can exaggerate some dental problems. Taking good care of your oral health is important for you and your infant. s Prepared by the ADA Division of Communications, in cooperation with The Journal of the American ...

  2. A Chinese Chan-Based Mind-Body Intervention Improves Sleep on Patients with Depression: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes S. Chan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep disturbance is a common problem associated with depression, and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT is a more common behavioral intervention for sleep problems. The present study compares the effect of a newly developed Chinese Chan-based intervention, namely Dejian mind-body intervention (DMBI, with the CBT on improving sleep problems of patients with depression. Seventy-five participants diagnosed with major depressive disorder were randomly assigned to receive 10 weekly sessions of CBT or DMBI, or placed on a waitlist. Measurements included ratings by psychiatrists who were blinded to the experimental design, and a standardized questionnaire on sleep quantity and quality was obtained before and after the 10-week intervention. Results indicated that both the CBT and DMBI groups demonstrated significantly reduced sleep onset latency and wake time after sleep onset (effect size range = 0.46–1.0, P≤0.05 as compared to nonsignificant changes in the waitlist group (P>0.1. Furthermore, the DMBI group, but not the CBT or waitlist groups, demonstrated significantly reduced psychiatrist ratings on overall sleep problems (effect size = 1.0, P=0.00 and improved total sleep time (effect size = 0.8, P=0.05 after treatment. The present findings suggest that a Chinese Chan-based mind-body intervention has positive effects on improving sleep in individuals with depression.

  3. A Chinese chan-based mind-body intervention improves sleep on patients with depression: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Agnes S; Wong, Queenie Y; Sze, Sophia L; Kwong, Patrick P K; Han, Yvonne M Y; Cheung, Mei-chun

    2012-01-01

    Sleep disturbance is a common problem associated with depression, and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a more common behavioral intervention for sleep problems. The present study compares the effect of a newly developed Chinese Chan-based intervention, namely Dejian mind-body intervention (DMBI), with the CBT on improving sleep problems of patients with depression. Seventy-five participants diagnosed with major depressive disorder were randomly assigned to receive 10 weekly sessions of CBT or DMBI, or placed on a waitlist. Measurements included ratings by psychiatrists who were blinded to the experimental design, and a standardized questionnaire on sleep quantity and quality was obtained before and after the 10-week intervention. Results indicated that both the CBT and DMBI groups demonstrated significantly reduced sleep onset latency and wake time after sleep onset (effect size range = 0.46-1.0, P ≤ 0.05) as compared to nonsignificant changes in the waitlist group (P > 0.1). Furthermore, the DMBI group, but not the CBT or waitlist groups, demonstrated significantly reduced psychiatrist ratings on overall sleep problems (effect size = 1.0, P = 0.00) and improved total sleep time (effect size = 0.8, P = 0.05) after treatment. The present findings suggest that a Chinese Chan-based mind-body intervention has positive effects on improving sleep in individuals with depression.

  4. Dejian Mind-Body Intervention on Depressive Mood of Community-Dwelling Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes S. Chan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the effectiveness of a short-term mind-body intervention program on improving the depressive mood of an adult community sample. Forty adult volunteers with various degrees of depressive mood were randomly assigned to the experimental group (Dejian Mind-Body Intervention, DMBI and control group (Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, CBT. For each group, a total of four 90-min weekly sessions were conducted. Treatment-related changes were measured using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II, an electroencephalographic indicator of positive affect (i.e., prefrontal activation asymmetry, and self-report ratings on physical health. Results indicated that both the DMBI and the CBT group demonstrated significant reduction in depressive mood. However, among individuals with moderate to severe depressive mood at baseline, only those in the DMBI but not the CBT group showed significant reduction in depressive mood. Besides, only the DMBI group demonstrated a significant increase in prefrontal activation asymmetry, suggesting increase in positive affect. While most psychological therapies for depressive mood normally take several months to show treatment effect, the present findings provided initial data suggesting that the DMBI was effective in improving depressive mood of community adults after 1 month of training.

  5. Indices of vascular stiffness and wave reflection in relation to body mass index or body fat in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wykretowicz, Andrzej; Adamska, Karolina; Guzik, Przemyslaw; Krauze, Tomasz; Wysocki, Henryk

    2007-10-01

    1. Obesity appears to influence vascular stiffness, an important cardiovascular risk factor. An accurate picture of arterial stiffness may be obtained when a combination of various techniques is used. 2. The purpose of the present study was to assess whether the body mass index (BMI) and body fat content obtained by bioimpedance were of equal value in estimating the influence of body fatness on various indices of vascular stiffness and wave reflection. 3. A total of 175 healthy subjects was studied. Anthropometric measurements and total body bio-impedance analysis were performed to assess fat mass as a proportion of total body composition. Arterial stiffness and wave reflection were assessed using digital volume pulse analysis and tonometric measurement of the wave reflection indices and central haemodynamics. 4. Significant differences in the stiffness index (SI(DVP); P < 0.0001), peripheral augmentation index (pAI(x); P < 0.0001), central augmentation index (cAI(x); P < 0.0001), peripheral pulse pressure (pPP; P = 0.026) and central pulse pressure (cPP; P < 0.0001) were found when the population examined was divided accordingly to tertile of body fat content. However, subdividing various indices of arterial stiffness according to the tertile of BMI did not reveal any significant differences between groups, except for pPP and cPP. 5. Body fat content was significantly correlated with SI(DVP), pAI(x), cAI(x), pPP and cPP. The BMI correlated weakly with SI(DVP), pPP and cPP. 6. In conclusion, the BMI is not very useful in predicting changes in arterial stiffness and wave reflection due to obesity. However, stiffness and wave reflection indices derived from digital volume pulse analysis, the characteristics of radial and aortic pressure waveforms and peripheral and aortic pulse pressure are all related to body fat content, as estimated by bioimpedance.

  6. The Effects of Yoga on Body Dissatisfaction, Self-Objectification, and Mindfulness of the Body in College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Sara Elysia

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on the Objectification Theory suggests that woman may experience self-objectification and body dissatisfaction. Research has demonstrated that yoga is associated with lower self-objectification and lower body dissatisfaction (Daubenmeir, 2005; Impett, Daubenmeir, & Hirschman, 2006) and thus may be a key intervention toward…

  7. Rivals in the mind's eye : Jealous responses after subliminal exposure to body shapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massar, Karlijn; Buunk, Abraham P.

    2009-01-01

    In the present paper, it was investigated whether Subliminal exposure to body shapes affects participants' jealousy. To this end, we subliminally primed male and female participants with line drawings depicting figures with either an attractive body or an unattractive body. Participants then read a

  8. Mind-body interface: the role of n-3 fatty acids in psychoneuroimmunology, somatic presentation, and medical illness comorbidity of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Kuan-Pin

    2008-01-01

    With the unsatisfaction of monoamine-based pharmacotherapy and the high comorbidity of other medical illness in depression, the serotonin hypothesis seems to fail in approaching the aetiology of depression. Based upon the evidence from epidemiological data, case-control studies of phospholipid polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) levels in human tissues, and antidepressant effect in clinical trials, PUFAs have shed a light to discover the unsolved of depression and connect the mind and body. Briefly, the deficit of n-3 PUFAs has been reported to be associated with neurological, cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, autoimmune, metabolic diseases and cancers. Recent studies revealed that the deficit of n-3 PUFAs is also associated with depression. For example, societies that consume a small amount of omega-3 PUFAs appear to have a higher prevalence of major depressive disorder. In addition, depressive patients had showed a lower level of omega-3 PUFAs; and the antidepressant effect of PUFAs had been reported in a number of clinical trials. The PUFAs are classified into n-3 (or omega-3) and n-6 (or omega-6) groups. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the major bioactive components of n-3 PUFAs, are not synthesized in human body and can only be obtained directly from the diet, particularly by consuming fish. DHA deficit is associated with dysfunctions of neuronal membrane stability and transmission of serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine, which might connect to the aetiology of mood and cognitive dysfunction of depression. On the other hand, EPA is important in balancing the immune function and physical healthy by reducing arachidonic acid (AA, an n-6 PUFA) level on cell membrane and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis. Interestingly, animals fed with high AA diet or treated with PGE2 were observed to present sickness behaviours of anorexia, low activity, change in sleep pattern and attention, which are similar to somatic symptoms of depression in

  9. Intentional minds: A philosophical analysis of intention tested through fMRI experiments involving people with schizophrenia, people with autism, and healthy individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno G Bara

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we show how we empirically tested one of the most relevant topics in philosophy of mind through a series of fMRI experiments: the classification of different types of intention. To this aim, firstly we trace a theoretical distinction among private, prospective and communicative intentions. Second, we propose a set of predictions concerning the recognition of these three types of intention in healthy individuals, and we report the experimental results corroborating our theoretical model of intention. Third, we derive from our model predictions relevant for the domain of psychopathological functioning. In particular, we treat the cases of both hyper-intentionality (as in paranoid schizophrenia and hypo-intentionality (as in autistic spectrum disorders. Our conclusion is that the theoretical model of intention we propose contributes to enlarge our knowledge on the neurobiological bases of intention processing, in both healthy people and in people with impairments to the neurocognitive system that underlies intention recognition.

  10. Antenatal mindfulness intervention to reduce depression, anxiety and stress: a pilot randomised controlled trial of the MindBabyBody program in an Australian tertiary maternity hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Woolhouse, Hannah; Mercuri, Kristine; Judd, Fiona; Brown, Stephanie J

    2014-01-01

    Background Mindfulness interventions to reduce psychological distress are well-suited to pregnancy, due to their brief and non-pharmacological nature, but there is a need for more robust evidence determining their usefulness. This pilot study was designed to explore the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial of a mindfulness intervention to reduce antenatal depression, anxiety and stress. Methods The study was designed in two parts 1) a non-randomised trial targeting women at risk of me...

  11. "Stretch Your Body and Your Mind" (Tai Chi as an Adaptive Activity).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crider, Duane A.; Klinger, William

    Tai Chi may be an ideal activity for accommodating a wide variety of individuals with varying interests and physical skills while providing substantial health benefits. Theory suggests that children, adolescents, and healthy adults, as well as senior citizens and people debilitated by illness or injury, may benefit from the practice of Tai Chi…

  12. Performing the renaissance body and mind: somaesthetic style and devotional practice at the Sacro Monte di Varallo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allie Terry-Fritsch

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines the somaesthetic experience of renaissance pilgrims to the Sacro Monte di Varallo, a late fifteenthcentury simulation of the Holy Land located in northern Italy. It reconstructs how pilgrims once cultivated their bodies and minds to enhance aesthetic and devotional experience to offer a re-evaluation of artistic style at the site. Built by a team of architects, painters and sculptors at the behest of Franciscan friars, the Sacro Monte di Varallo transformed the mountainous terrain of the Val Sesia into a ‘true representation’ of Bethlehem and Jerusalem. The Holy Land was presented to the pilgrim in a series of interactive spaces housed in independent architectural units, each containing life-sized wooden or terracotta sculptures of Biblical figures adorned with real hair, clothes and shoes, and situated in frescoed narratival environments. Pilgrims were led to each architectural site along a fixed path and encountered the Biblical scenes in a strict sequence that was narrated by a Franciscan friar. If the pilgrim engaged in proper performances of body-mindfulness, the site served as a pilgrimage destination that was equally enriching as ‘the real thing’. The essay questions how the somaesthetics of experience at Varallo served to enfold pilgrims into multi-sensory, immersive scenarios and thereby allowed pilgrims to activate the art and architecture of the Franciscan campus in personalised ways. Through their physical and mental participation in the works, pilgrims actively constructed the means for the art and architecture of the holy mountain to fulfil and even surpass the power of the real Holy Land.

  13. A chinese mind-body exercise improves self-control of children with autism: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes S Chan

    Full Text Available Self-control problems commonly manifest as temper outbursts and repetitive/rigid/impulsive behaviors, in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD, which often contributes to learning difficulties and caregiver burden. The present study aims to compare the effect of a traditional Chinese Chan-based mind-body exercise, Nei Yang Gong, with that of the conventional Progressive Muscle Relaxation (PMR technique in enhancing the self-control of children with ASD. Forty-six age- and IQ-matched ASD children were randomly assigned to receive group training in Nei Yang Gong (experimental group or PMR (control group twice per week for four weeks. The participants' self-control was measured by three neuropsychological tests and parental rating on standardized questionnaires, and the underlying neural mechanism was assessed by the participants' brain EEG activity during an inhibitory-control task before and after intervention. The results show that the experimental group demonstrated significantly greater improvement in self-control than the control group, which concurs with the parental reports of reduced autistic symptoms and increased control of temper and behaviors. In addition, the experimental group showed enhanced EEG activity in the anterior cingulate cortex, a region that mediates self-control, whereas the PMR group did not. The present findings support the potential application of Chinese Chan-based mind-body exercises as a form of neuropsychological rehabilitation for patients with self-control problems. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry; Registration No.: ChiCTR-TRC-12002561; URL: www.chictr.org.

  14. Study on Yang-Xu Using Body Constitution Questionnaire and Blood Variables in Healthy Volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Jhang Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM formulates treatment according to body constitution (BC differentiation. Different constitutions have specific metabolic characteristics and different susceptibility to certain diseases. This study aimed to assess the Yang-Xu constitution using a body constitution questionnaire (BCQ and clinical blood variables. A BCQ was employed to assess the clinical manifestation of Yang-Xu. The logistic regression model was conducted to explore the relationship between BC scores and biomarkers. Leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV and K-fold cross-validation were performed to evaluate the accuracy of a predictive model in practice. Decision trees (DTs were conducted to determine the possible relationships between blood biomarkers and BC scores. According to the BCQ analysis, 49% participants without any BC were classified as healthy subjects. Among them, 130 samples were selected for further analysis and divided into two groups. One group comprised healthy subjects without any BC (68%, while subjects of the other group, named as the sub-healthy group, had three BCs (32%. Six biomarkers, CRE, TSH, HB, MONO, RBC, and LH, were found to have the greatest impact on BCQ outcomes in Yang-Xu subjects. This study indicated significant biochemical differences in Yang-Xu subjects, which may provide a connection between blood variables and the Yang-Xu BC.

  15. Acute Effects of Whole Body Vibration on Inhibition in Healthy Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne E den Heijer

    Full Text Available Whole Body Vibration (WBV is a passive exercise method known to have beneficial effects on various physical measures. Studies on adults furthermore demonstrated beneficial effects of WBV treatment on cognition (e.g. inhibition. The present study replicated these findings in healthy children and examined acute effects of WBV treatment on inhibition.Fifty-five healthy children (aged 8-13 participated in this within-subject design study. WBV treatment was applied by having the children sit on a chair mounted to a vibrating platform. After each condition (vibration vs. non-vibration, inhibition was measured by using the Stroop Color-Word Interference Test. Repeated measures analyses were applied in order to explore the effects of WBV treatment on inhibition, and correlations were computed between the treatment effect and participant characteristics in order to explore individual differences in treatment sensitivity.Three-minute WBV treatments had significant beneficial effects on inhibition in this sample of healthy children. Especially the repeated application (three times of WBV treatment appeared beneficial for cognition. Stronger WBV treatment effects were correlated with higher intelligence and younger age, but not with symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD.This study demonstrates that especially repeated WBV treatment improves inhibition in healthy children. As this cognitive function is often impaired in children with developmental disorders (e.g. ADHD, future studies should further explore the effects, working mechanism and potential applicability of WBV treatment for this target group.

  16. The Mind-Body Connection - How to Fight Stress and Ward Off Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Neural Immune Program at the National Institute of Mental Health. In response to stressful events, our bodies pump ... t need to go jogging—walking has significant health benefits." Yoga helps many people relax, while others find peace ...

  17. Agreement between auricular and rectal measurements of body temperature in healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Marlos G; Carareto, Roberta; Pereira-Junior, Valdo A; Aquino, Monally C C

    2013-04-01

    Measurement of body temperature is a routine part of the clinical assessment of a patient. However, this procedure may be time-consuming and stressful to most animals because the standard site of temperature acquisition remains the rectal mucosa. Although an increasing number of clinicians have been using auricular temperature to estimate core body temperature, evidence is still lacking regarding agreement between these two methods in cats. In this investigation, we evaluated the agreement between temperatures measured in the rectum and ear in 29 healthy cats over a 2-week period. Temperatures were measured in the rectum (using digital and mercury-in-glass thermometers) and ear once a day for 14 consecutive days, producing 406 temperature readings for each thermometer. Mean temperature and confidence intervals were similar between methods, and Bland-Altman plots showed small biases and narrow limits of agreement acceptable for clinical purposes. The interobserver variability was also checked, which indicated a strong correlation between two near-simultaneous temperature readings. Results are consistent with auricular thermometry being a reliable alternative to rectal thermometry for assessing core body temperature in healthy cats.

  18. Pharmacokinetics of ivermectin applied topically by whole-body bathing method in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyajima, Atsushi; Hirota, Takashi; Tashiro, Mari; Noguchi, Wataru; Kawano, Yayoi; Hanawa, Takehisa; Kigure, Akira; Anata, Taichi; Yamamoto, Yosuke; Yuasa, Nae; Koshino, Machi; Shiraishi, Yumi; Yuzawa, Kaoru; Akagi, Keita; Yoshimasu, Takashi; Makigami, Kuniko; Komoda, Masayo

    2016-10-15

    As a novel administration method of ivermectin (IVM) for scabies treatment, we proposed a "whole-body bathing method (WBBM)". In this method, the patients would bathe themselves in a bathing fluid containing IVM at an effective concentration. Previously, we demonstrated that WBBM could deliver IVM to the skin but not to the plasma in rats. In the present study, to assess the clinical validity of the method an arm bathing examination (first trial) and a whole-body bathing examination (second trial) were conducted in healthy volunteers. In both the first and second trials, after bathing in fluid containing IVM, the exposure in the stratum corneum was higher compared with that after taking IVM p.o. as reported previously. IVM was not detected in plasma at any sampling point after the whole-body bathing in the second trial. Furthermore no serious adverse events were found. These results in both trials suggest that WBBM can deliver IVM to the human stratum corneum without systemic exposure or serious adverse effects in healthy volunteers, and at concentrations that would be adequate for scabies treatment.

  19. Comparison of body composition between professional sportswomen and apparently healthy age- and sex-matched controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman K Marwaha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In view of the relationship between physical activity and nutrition on body composition, we assessed lean and fat mass and BMC (total and regional in professional Indian sportswomen and compared it with apparently healthy age- and sex-matched females. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 104 sportswomen and an equal number of age-matched normal healthy females (controls. They were evaluated for anthropometry and body composition (fat, lean mass, and bone mineral content (BMC by DXA. Results: Mean age (19.1 ± 1.3 vs. 19.4 ± 1.5 years and body mass index (21.34 ± 3.02 vs. 21.26 ± 4.05 kg/m 2 were comparable in both groups. Sportswomen had higher intake of energy, macronutrients, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. Total lean mass (33.67 ± 3.49 vs. 31.14 ± 3.52 kg, P < 0.0001, appendicular skeletal muscle index (5.84 ± 0.57 vs. 5.46 ± 0.63 kg/m 2 ; P < 0.0001 and BMC (2.27 ± 0.32 vs. 2.13 ± 0.34 kg, P < 0.002 was significantly higher and percentage fat mass was significantly lower (33.1 ± 7.5 vs. 37.0 ± 8.3; P < 0.0001 among sportswomen when compared to controls. Conclusions: Indian sportswomen have a higher total and regional lean mass, BMC, and lower percentage fat mass when compared with healthy females. Physical activity, energy, protein and calcium intake were positively associated with lean mass and BMC.

  20. Sean Leneghan, The Varieties of Ecstasy Experience: An Exploration of Person, Mind and Body in Sydney’s Club Culture (Saarbrücken: Lambert Academic Publishing, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Langridge

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A review of the book: The Varieties of Ecstasy Experience: An Exploration of Person, Mind and Body in Sydney’s Club Culture, by Sean Leneghan. Lambert Academic Publishing: Saarbrücken, Germany, 2011. ISBN: 978-3-8454-1634-2. 286 pp. (Paperback $112 U.S.

  1. Relationship between chewing behavior and body weight status in fully dentate healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong; Hollis, James H

    2015-03-01

    Recent research indicates that chewing behavior may influence energy intake and energy expenditure. However, little is known about the relationship between chewing behavior and body weight status. In the present study, 64 fully dentate normal-weight or overweight/obese adults were asked to consume five portions of a test food and the number of chewing cycles, chewing duration before swallowing and chewing rate were measured. Adjusting for age and gender, normal-weight participants used a higher number of chewing cycles (p = 0.003) and a longer chewing duration (p weight status in fully dentate healthy adults.

  2. Association of central serotonin transporter availability and body mass index in healthy Europeans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, Swen; van de Giessen, Elsmarieke; Zientek, Franziska

    2014-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Serotonin-mediated mechanisms, in particular via the serotonin transporter (SERT), are thought to have an effect on food intake and play an important role in the pathophysiology of obesity. However, imaging studies that examined the correlation between body mass index (BMI) and SERT...... are sparse and provided contradictory results. The aim of this study was to further test the association between SERT and BMI in a large cohort of healthy subjects. METHODS: 127 subjects of the ENC DAT database (58 females, age 52 ± 18 years, range 20-83, BMI 25.2 ± 3.8 kg/m(2), range 18.2-41.1) were...

  3. A healthy and spiritual body —consumption practices and lifestyles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Antonio Gómez Serrudo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows how individuals take on their lifestyles in practices revolving around a nature-based and a healthy body conception in the social spheres where they perform at ease and with relative coherence. There, consumption patterns may be evaluated, as well as the kinds of relationships that are established, and the ability to get involved with certain networks of affections and recommendations not necessarily institutionalized. Individuals move along these scenarios in building fragile and swinging lifestyles, aiming to transcend and affirming their individual identity by choosing their lifepath in a reflexive way.

  4. The subtle body: an interoceptive map of central nervous system function and meditative mind-brain-body integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizzo, Joseph J

    2016-06-01

    Meditation research has begun to clarify the brain effects and mechanisms of contemplative practices while generating a range of typologies and explanatory models to guide further study. This comparative review explores a neglected area relevant to current research: the validity of a traditional central nervous system (CNS) model that coevolved with the practices most studied today and that provides the first comprehensive neural-based typology and mechanistic framework of contemplative practices. The subtle body model, popularly known as the chakra system from Indian yoga, was and is used as a map of CNS function in traditional Indian and Tibetan medicine, neuropsychiatry, and neuropsychology. The study presented here, based on the Nalanda tradition, shows that the subtle body model can be cross-referenced with modern CNS maps and challenges modern brain maps with its embodied network model of CNS function. It also challenges meditation research by: (1) presenting a more rigorous, neural-based typology of contemplative practices; (2) offering a more refined and complete network model of the mechanisms of contemplative practices; and (3) serving as an embodied, interoceptive neurofeedback aid that is more user friendly and complete than current teaching aids for clinical and practical applications of contemplative practice.

  5. Moving Bodies, Building Minds: Foster Preschoolers' Critical Thinking and Problem Solving through Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marigliano, Michelle L.; Russo, Michele J.

    2011-01-01

    Creative movement is an ideal way to help young children develop critical-thinking and problem-solving skills. Most young children are, by nature, extremely physical. They delight in exploring the world with their bodies and expressing their ideas and feelings through movement. During creative movement experiences, children learn to think before…

  6. Effects of Body-Mind Training and Relaxation Stretching on Persons with Chronic Toxic Encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Lis; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the psychological and physical effects of training of body awareness and slow stretching on persons (N=8) with chronic toxic encephalopathy. Results show that electromyography on the frontalis muscle and state anxiety decreased, but no changes were observed in trait anxiety and in the creativity score. (Author/MKA)

  7. Different response of body weight change according to ketonuria after fasting in the healthy obese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeon-Jeong; Joo, Nam-Seok; Kim, Kwang-Min; Lee, Duck-Joo; Kim, Sang-Man

    2012-03-01

    The relationship between obesity and ketonuria is not well-established. We conducted a retrospective observational study to evaluate whether their body weight reduction response differed by the presence of ketonuria after fasting in the healthy obese. We used the data of 42 subjects, who had medical records of initial urinalysis at routine health check-up and follow-up urinalysis in the out-patient clinic, one week later. All subjects in the initial urinalysis showed no ketonuria. However, according to the follow-up urinalysis after three subsequent meals fasts, the patients were divided into a non-ketonuria group and ketonuria group. We compared the data of conventional low-calorie diet programs for 3 months for both groups. Significantly greater reduction of body weight (-8.6 ± 3.6 kg vs -1.1 ± 2.2 kg, P weight reduction.

  8. From Mind to Body: Is Mental Practice Effective on Strength Gains? A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manochio, João Paulo; Lattari, Eduardo; Portugal, Eduardo Matta Mello; Monteiro-Junior, Renato Sobral; Paes, Flávia; Budde, Henning; de Tarso Veras Farinatti, Paulo; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Wegner, Mirko; Carta, Mauro Giovanni; Mura, Gioia; Ferreira Rocha, Nuno Barbosa; Almada, Leonardo Ferreira; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Machado, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Mental practice is an internal reproduction of a motor act (whose intention is to promote learning and improving motor skills). Some studies have shown that other cognitive strategies also increase the strength and muscular resistance in healthy people by the enhancement of the performance during dynamic tasks. Mental training sessions may be primordial to improving muscle strength in different subjects. The aim of this study was to systematically review and meta-analiyze studies that assessed whether mental practice is effective in improving muscular strength. We conducted an electronic-computed search in Pub-Med/Medline and ISI Web of Knowledge, Scielo and manual searchs, searching papers written in English between 1991 and 2014. There were 44 studies in Pub-Med/Medline, 631 in ISI Web of Knowledge, 11 in Scielo and 3 in manual searchs databases. After exclusion of studies for duplicate, unrelated to the topic by title and summary, different samples and methodologies, a meta-analysis of 4 studies was carried out to identify the dose-response relationship. We did not find evidence that mental practice is effective in increasing strength in healthy individuals. There is no evidence that mental practice alone can be effective to induce strength gains or to optimize the training effects.

  9. Mind-Body Medicine and the Art of Self-Care: Teaching Mindfulness to Counseling Students through Yoga, Meditation, and Qigong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schure, Marc B.; Christopher, John; Christopher, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    A 4-year qualitative study examined the influence of teaching hatha yoga, meditation, and qigong to counseling graduate students. Participants in the 15-week, 3-credit mindfulness-based stress reduction course reported positive physical, emotional, mental, spiritual, and interpersonal changes and substantial effects on their counseling skills and…

  10. [Holistic medicine--away from the separation of mind and body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battegay, R

    1989-12-27

    The purpose of liaison-psychiatry is to sensitize the colleagues for the aspect of the patient as a whole. The German expression 'wie er leibt und lebt' (as he exists in and with his body, and lives) is expressing this holistic view and says that the human being is living and experiencing himself in his corporal being and subjectivity. The body simultaneously is a somatic process and experience. If the physician wants to understand the human being, consulting him as an undivided entity, he has to be able to grasp the organ language as posture, as expression of the patient's subjectivity and of his self-esteem. He has to consider that the 'organ choice' shows, besides hereditary, culture and individual factors, the role which an organ plays within a family and an individual. The organ language can also be a significant expression of a basic drive problem. In the encounter with the patient it is further important to notice that he often is only the 'presented symptom' of the family. The vulnerability of a human being, genetically and life-historically caused, is different according to age. The cultural background out of which a human being originates decides on a more somatic or a more verbal mode of expression, whereby in our cultural background prejudices are existing against the emotional expression in the body language. In therapy, unconditional understanding may be expected of the physician.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Mindfulness og mental sundhed

    OpenAIRE

    Wistoft, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Mindfulness is a way to practice 'healthy mindedness' – a form of self help that has been the subject for research and development of a number of new significant self-technologies, therapy and meditation treatment methods. To be mindful can help people to feel more relaxed (serenity) and fully alive. The article aims at describing realistic expectations to the contribution of mindfulness to health education work in the field of mental health. The article discuss ways in which mindfulnesss is ...

  12. A Body-and-Mind-Centric Approach to Wearable Personal Assistants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalaliniya, Shahram

    2017-01-01

    and evaluation of a Wearable Personal Assistant (WPA) for clinicians on the Google Glass platform. The results of my field study in a Copenhagen hospital simulation facility revealed several challenges for WPA users such as unwanted interruptions, social and perceptual problems of parallel interaction...... with the WPA, and the need for more touch-less input modalities. My further exploration on touch-less input modalities such as body gestures and gaze, showed the great potential of using eye movements as an implicit input to WPAs. Since the involuntary eye movements (e.g. optokinetic nystagmus) are unconscious...

  13. Mind, brain, body, and soul: a review of the electrophysiological undercurrents for Dr. Frankenstein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Peter W

    2004-01-01

    Mary Shelley's Frankenstein is perhaps the most famous work of medical science fiction. She and her husband, the poet Percy Shelley, were aware of nascent neuroscience experimentation and the effects of electricity on neuromuscular function. Such experiments generated theories of voluntary, involuntary, and unconscious neuromuscular function; animal electricity; and the anima--the human vital principle. In Germany and Italy, investigators were performing bizarre electrical experiments on animals and humans to "reanimate" lifeless limbs and bodies. These demonstrations and theories find expression in Frankenstein and provide models for Dr. Frankenstein and his creation.

  14. Mindfulness og mental sundhed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Mindfulness is a way to practice 'healthy mindedness' – a form of self help that has been the subject for research and development of a number of new significant self-technologies, therapy and meditation treatment methods. To be mindful can help people to feel more relaxed (serenity) and fully...... alive. The article aims at describing realistic expectations to the contribution of mindfulness to health education work in the field of mental health. The article discuss ways in which mindfulnesss is connected with established health education in the mental health promotion field, and ways in which...... mindfulness breaks with established health education. Interest in utilising mindfulness and mindfulness-inspired methods in health-education intervention has increased in recent years. Mindfulness is seen here as an answer to how to achieve more accepting presence, and thereby a healthier mental life...

  15. The Sensation of Time in Ingmar Bergman’s Poetics of Bodies and Minds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pezzetti Fabio

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bergman’s cinema does more than just focus on a personal reflection of the body as an emotive and emotional vector; his cinema, through the transitory fragility of the human body as represented by his actors, defines the possibilities of a perceptive horizon in which the experience of passing time becomes tangible. Even though the Swedish director’s entire opus is traversed by this reflection, it is particularly evident in the films he made during the 1960s, in which the “room-sized” dimension of the sets permits a higher concentration of space and time. In this “concentration,” in this claustrophobic dimension in which Bergman forces his characters to exist, there is an often inflammable accumulation of affections and emotions searching for release through human contact which is often frustrated, denied, and/or impossible. This situation creates characters who act according to solipsistic directives, in whom physiological and mental traits are fused together, and the notion of phenomenological reality is cancelled out and supplanted by aspects of dreamlike hallucinations, phantasmagorical creations, and psychic drifting. Starting from Hour of the Wolf, this essay highlights the process through which, by fixing in images the physicality of his characters’ sensations, Bergman defines a complex temporal horizon, in which the phenomenological dimension of the linear passage of time merges with, and often turns into, a subjective perception of passing time, creating a synchretic relationship between the quantitative time of the action and the qualitative time of the sensation.

  16. Changes in body composition in apparently healthy urban Indian women up to 3 years postpartum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha A Kajale

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dietary and life style practices differ in postpartum (PP and nonpregnant Indian women. Effect of these practices on postpartum weight retention (PPWR and development of cardio-metabolic risk (CMR has been scarcely studied in urban women. Aims of this study were to (i compare anthropometry, biochemical parameters and body composition up to 3 years PP (ii effect of PPWR, dietary fat intake and physical activity on CMR factors. Methods: Design: Cross-sectional, 300-fullterm, apparently healthy primi-parous women (28.6 ± 3.4 years randomly selected. 128 women within 7-day of delivery (Group-A, 88 with 1-2 years (Group-B and 84 with 3-4-year-old-children (Group-C were studied. Anthropometry, sociodemographic status, physical activity, diet, clinical examination, biochemical tests, body composition, at total body (TB, by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (GE-Lunar DPX were collected. Results: Women at 3-year PP showed higher weight retention (6.5[10] kg than at 1-year (3.0[7] kg (median [IQR]. Android fat % (central obesity increased (P 0.1. Conclusion: Postdelivery, low physical activity and higher PPWR may increase CMR in Indian women.

  17. Body position and the neuroendocrine response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radikova, Z; Penesova, A; Jezova, D; Kvetnansky, R; Vigas, M; Macho, L; Koska, J

    2003-10-01

    Changes in body fluid distribution are known to influence neuroendocrine function. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that changes in plasma volume affect the counterregulatory neuroendocrine response to hypoglycemia. The tests were performed in 12 subjects in two situations: 'head-up' (+60 degrees head-up tilt standing for 30 min and hypoglycemia in sitting position afterwards) and 'leg-up' (leg-up position for 30 min and hypoglycemia in leg-up position afterwards) in a random order. Insulin-induced hypoglycemia was adjusted to 2.7 mmol/l for 15 min by glucose infusion. Plasma volume was greater by 2.2% (p < 0.001) in leg-up and lower by 9.6% (p < 0.001) in head-up position compared to the basal value in sitting position. Head-up position was associated with increases in ACTH, aldosterone, norepinephrine levels and plasma renin activity (p < 0.01). Leg-up position resulted in decreases in plasma growth hormone and epinephrine concentrations (p < 0.05). Except epinephrine, the neuroendocrine response to hypoglycemia, if any, was mild. Hypoglycemia failed to activate ACTH release after head-up position. Body fluid redistribution did not modify hormonal changes during insulin hypoglycemia. In conclusion, we suggest that body position and accompanying plasma volume changes do not appear to affect neuroendocrine and counterregulatory responses to moderate, short duration hypoglycemia in healthy subjects.

  18. Qigong as a Traditional Vegetative Biofeedback Therapy: Long-Term Conditioning of Physiological Mind-Body Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Luís Carlos; Sousa, Cláudia Maria; Gonçalves, Mário; Gabriel, Joaquim; Machado, Jorge; Greten, Henry Johannes

    2015-01-01

    A contemporary understanding of Chinese Medicine (CM) regards CM diagnosis as a functional vegetative state that may be treated by vegetative reflex therapies such as acupuncture. Within this context, traditional mind-body exercises such as Qigong can be understood as an attempt to enhance physiological proprioception, by combining a special state of "awareness" with posture, movement, and breath control. We have formerly trained young auditing flutists in "White Ball" Qigong to minimize anxiety-induced cold hands and lower anxiety-induced heart rate. Functional changes occurred 2-5 min after training and were observed over the whole training program, allowing the children to control their symptoms. In our current work, we report that warm fingers and calm hearts could be induced by the children even without Qigong exercises. Thus, these positive changes once induced and "conditioned" vegetatively were stable after weeks of training. This may show the mechanism by which Qigong acts as a therapeutic measure in disease: positive vegetative pathways may be activated instead of dysfunctional functional patterns. The positive vegetative patterns then may be available in critical stressful situations. Qigong exercise programs may therefore be understood as an ancient vegetative biofeedback exercise inducing positive vegetative functions which are added to the individual reactive repertoire.

  19. Qigong as a Traditional Vegetative Biofeedback Therapy: Long-Term Conditioning of Physiological Mind-Body Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Carlos Matos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A contemporary understanding of Chinese Medicine (CM regards CM diagnosis as a functional vegetative state that may be treated by vegetative reflex therapies such as acupuncture. Within this context, traditional mind-body exercises such as Qigong can be understood as an attempt to enhance physiological proprioception, by combining a special state of “awareness” with posture, movement, and breath control. We have formerly trained young auditing flutists in “White Ball” Qigong to minimize anxiety-induced cold hands and lower anxiety-induced heart rate. Functional changes occurred 2–5 min after training and were observed over the whole training program, allowing the children to control their symptoms. In our current work, we report that warm fingers and calm hearts could be induced by the children even without Qigong exercises. Thus, these positive changes once induced and “conditioned” vegetatively were stable after weeks of training. This may show the mechanism by which Qigong acts as a therapeutic measure in disease: positive vegetative pathways may be activated instead of dysfunctional functional patterns. The positive vegetative patterns then may be available in critical stressful situations. Qigong exercise programs may therefore be understood as an ancient vegetative biofeedback exercise inducing positive vegetative functions which are added to the individual reactive repertoire.

  20. Kanosa- Lending an Ear to the Body and Mind Secrets of Rural Women:Thoughts on Health and Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satlaj Dighe

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This review article discusses the text Kanosa - Grameen Streechya Sharir ani Manatil Gupitancha, translated as ‘Lending an Ear to the Secrets of Body and Mind of the Rural Woman’ by Dr. Rani Bang. The original text provides detailed information on various life-cycle health experiences of women; illness categories (nosography; health practices; sexualities; diets and local life-worlds of health and bodily experiences based on the in depth discussions with local women. In the context of current trends and prevailing ideologies in the community health sector of India, our critical review highlights the significance of the approach adopted by Dr. Rani Bang in locating health as an integral part of culture.We seek to introduce important discussions in Bang’s text on ethnophysiology, local categories of diseases and their implications on modern community health interventions, as ell as the definitions of the normal, abnormal and pathological as provided by the local community. In light of these discussions, we  examine certain characteristics of the modern Indian community health sector such as its inability to work with local epistemologies of health and illness and its philosophical reliance on Cartesian dualism and western notions of personhood. Certain features of community health such as complete separation of fertility and sexuality as well as the exclusively nutritional approach to dietary phenomena are also reviewed with reference to Kanosa and other significant literature. 

  1. Unravelling the Body/Mind Reverberations of Secrets Woven into Charlotte Brontë’s Villette

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cortés Vieco Francisco José

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The pervasive psychological realism of Charlotte Brontë’s Villette (1853 challenges scholarly assumptions based on her biography or her indoctrination to Victorian medical discourses, as it explores dysfunctional body/mind interrelations, particularly those evidencing patriarchal pressures and prejudices against women. Under the guise of her heroine Lucy, the author becomes both the physician and the patient suffering from a female malady of unnamed origin. This article intends to prove that, instead of narratively unravelling her creature’s past trauma with healing purposes, the author conceals its nature to protect her intimacy and she focuses on the periphery of her crisis aftermath to demonstrate its severity by means of the psychosomatic disorders that persistently haunt her life: depression, anorexia nervosa and suicidal behavior. Brontë’s literary guerrilla of secrecy aims, simultaneously, to veil and unveil the core of Lucy’s clinical case with an unequivocal diagnosis: a harmful, mysterious event from her childhood/adolescence, whose reverberations repeatedly erupt during her adulthood and endanger her survival. Unreliable but “lucid”, this heroine becomes the daguerreotype of her creator to portray life as a sad, exhausting journey, where professional self-realisation - not love or marriage - turns into the ultimate recovery therapy from past ordeals, never successfully confirmed in the case of Lucy, who epitomises a paradigm of femininity in Victorian England: the impoverished, solitary, middle-class woman

  2. Self-Administered Mind-Body Practices for Reducing Health Disparities: An Interprofessional Opinion and Call to Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A. Kinser

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Health disparities (HD continue to persist in the United States which underscores the importance of using low-cost, accessible, evidence-based strategies that can improve health outcomes, especially for chronic conditions that are prevalent among underserved minority populations. Complementary/integrative health modalities, particularly self-administered mind-body practices (MBP, can be extremely useful in reducing HD because they are intrinsically patient-centered and they empower patients to actively engage in self-care of health and self-management of symptoms. Interprofessional healthcare providers and patients can engage in powerful partnerships that encompass self-administered MBP to improve health. This is a call to action for interprofessional researchers to engage in high-quality research regarding efficacy and cost-effectiveness of self-administered MBP, for practitioners to engage patients in self-administered MBP for health promotion, disease prevention, and symptom management, and for healthcare institutions to integrate self-administered MBP into conventional health practices to reduce HD in their communities.

  3. From Body to Mind and Spirit: Qigong Exercise for Bereaved Persons with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome-Like Illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bereavement may bring negative impacts on the mind, body, and spiritual well-being of grieving persons. Some bereaved persons with chronic fatigue syndrome- (CFS- illness experience a dual burden of distress. This study investigated the effects of bereavement on CFS-like illness by comparing bereaved and nonbereaved participants. It also adopted a random group design to investigate the effectiveness of Qigong on improving the well-being of bereaved participants. The Qigong intervention comprised 10 group sessions delivered twice a week for 5 weeks and home-practice for at least three times a week lasting 15–30 minutes each. The participants’ fatigue, anxiety, and depression, quality of life (QoL, and spiritual well-being were measured at baseline and 3 months after treatment. The bereaved participants experienced significantly greater mental fatigue (16.09 versus 14.44, p=0.017 and lower physical QoL (34.02 versus 37.17, p=0.011 than their nonbereaved counterparts. After 3 months, the mental fatigue (−8 versus −4, p=0.010 and physical fatigue (−10 versus −5, p=0.007 experienced by intervention group had declined significantly, and improvements on their spirituality (14 versus −2, p=0.013 and psychological QoL (8.91 versus 0.69, p=0.002 scores exceeded those of the control group.

  4. 体育锻炼对身心健康的影响及其机制%The Influence and Mechanism of Physical Training on the Health of Body and Mind

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨灼芳; 梁丽辉

    2011-01-01

    The paper discusses the positive and negative effects of physical training on the health of body and mind as well as healthy physical training items and its burden.Finally,the paper lists the problems that should be alerted in the physical training from t%阐述了体育锻炼对身心健康的促进作用、负性影响及其机制,以及促进身心健康的体育锻炼项目和负荷。最后从改变不良的生活方式、养成良好的锻炼习惯和制定并实施适合个体特点的运动处方3个方面列举了体育锻炼促进身心健康的注意事项。

  5. Mind-body response and neurophysiological changes during stress and meditation: central role of homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerath, R; Barnes, V A; Crawford, M W

    2014-01-01

    Stress profoundly impacts quality of life and may lead to various diseases and conditions. Understanding the underlying physiological and neurological processes that take place during stress and meditation techniques may be critical for effectively treating stress-related diseases. The article examines a hypothetical physiological homeostatic response that compares and contrasts changes in central and peripheral oscillations during stress and meditation, and relates these to changes in the autonomic system and neurological activity. The authors discuss how cardiorespiratory synchronization, which occurs during the parasympathetic response and meditation, influences and modulates activity and oscillations of the brain and autonomic nervous system. Evidence is presented on how synchronization of cardiac and respiratory rates during meditation may lead to a homeostatic increase in cellular membrane potentials in neurons and other cells throughout the body. These potential membrane changes may underlie the reduced activity in the amygdala, and other cortical areas during meditation, and research examining these changes may foster better understanding of the restorative properties and health benefits of meditation.

  6. Importance of holographic light in the emerging field of mind-body healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Roberta

    2000-10-01

    Healing with color has been researched and documented worldwide for centuries. Every single part of the brain and every cell in the body is effected by light. Chinese and Russian scientists demonstrated that the acupuncture meridians transmit light. Dr. Peter Mandel, German chiropractic physician and acupuncturist, states that the acupuncture points are especially sensitive to electromagnetic waves within the spectrum of visible light and microwave energy, and all cells constantly emit and absorb small pockets of electromagnetic radiation or light, called biophotons. The harmony or disharmony of cells has been documented. Kirlian photography, to photography the aura was invented by Russians Semyon and Valentina Kirlian. Photo therapy and light research are being practiced worldwide. In the United States, Dr. Jacob Lieberman has written an influential book Light Medicine of the Future. In 1992 the first Light Years Ahead conference was held. (#5 1996) Dr. Brian Breiling and Dr. Lee Hartley brought together experts in the field to discuss the many potentials of light therapy. My present research in this area has focused on narrow band frequencies through the use of holography. Its therapeutic applications of color healing in this research are both critical and fundamental. My current work, The Chakras, seven reflection holograms on silver halide, relate to the wheels of light described in the earliest recorded Indian history. I will discus the chakras, this ancient metaphysical system under the new light of popular western metaphors and visionary art, how the chakras relate to the seven colors of the rainbow, the electromagnetic waves, and the connection to color holography in healing light therapy. I will be citing concurrent research in color healing, and the important areas of research that are necessary to have significant impact on future directions. Holography in the future will constitute a major frontier in discovery.

  7. Make up your mind about food : A healthy mindset attenuates attention for high-calorie food in restrained eaters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werthmann, Jessica; Jansen, Anita; Roefs, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Attention bias for food could be a cognitive pathway to overeating in obesity and restrained eating. Yet, empirical evidence for individual differences (e.g., in restrained eating and body mass index) in attention bias for food is mixed. We tested experimentally if temporarily induced health versus

  8. Relationships between gray matter, body mass index, and waist circumference in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, Florian; Levitt, Jennifer G; Phillips, Owen R; Luders, Eileen; Woods, Roger P; Mazziotta, John C; Toga, Arthur W; Narr, Katherine L

    2013-07-01

    Obesity and overweight are often defined by the body mass index (BMI), which associates with metabolic and cardiovascular disease, and possibly with dementia as well as variations in brain volume. However, body fat distribution and abdominal obesity (as measured by waist circumference) is more strongly correlated with cardiovascular and metabolic risk than is BMI. While prior studies have revealed negative associations between gray matter tissue volumes and BMI, the relationship with respect to waist circumference remains largely unexplored. We therefore investigated the effects of both BMI and waist circumference on local gray matter volumes in a group of 115 healthy subjects screened to exclude physical or mental disorders that might affect the central nervous system. Results revealed significant negative correlations for both BMI and waist circumference where regional gray matter effects were largest within the hypothalamus and further encompassed prefrontal, anterior temporal and inferior parietal cortices, and the cerebellum. However, associations were more widespread and pronounced for waist circumference than BMI. Follow-up analyses showed that these relationships differed significantly across gender. While associations were similar for both BMI and waist circumference for males, females showed more extensive correlations for waist circumference. Our observations suggest that waist circumference is a more sensitive indicator than BMI, particularly in females, for potentially determining the adverse effects of obesity and overweight on the brain and associated risks to health.

  9. Genotype by Energy Expenditure Interaction and Body Composition Traits: The Portuguese Healthy Family Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. Energy expenditure has been negatively correlated with fat accumulation. However, this association is highly variable. In the present study we applied a genotype by environment interaction method to examine the presence of Genotype x by Total Daily Energy Expenditure and Genotype x by Daily Energy Expenditure interactions in the expression of different body composition traits. Methods and Results. A total of 958 subjects from 294 families of The Portuguese Healthy Family Study were included in the analysis. TDEE and DEE were assessed using a physical activity recall. Body fat percentages were measured with a bioelectrical impedance scale. GxTDEE and GxDEE examinations were performed using SOLAR 4.0 software. All BC traits were significantly heritable, with heritabilities ranging from 21% to 34%. The GxTDEE and GxDEE interaction models fitted the data better than the polygenic model for all traits. For all traits, a significant GxTDEE and GxDEE interaction was due to variance heterogeneity among distinct levels of TDEE and DEE. For WC, GxTDEE was also significant due to the genetic correlation function. Conclusions. TDEE and DEE are environmental constraints associated with the expression of individuals’ BC genotypes, leading to variability in the phenotypic expression of BC traits.

  10. Fixation patterns, not clinical diagnosis, predict body size over‐estimation in eating disordered women and healthy controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Katri K.; Cornelissen, Piers L.; Hancock, Peter J. B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective A core feature of anorexia nervosa (AN) is an over‐estimation of body size. Women with AN have a different pattern of eye‐movements when judging bodies, but it is unclear whether this is specific to their diagnosis or whether it is found in anyone over‐estimating body size. Method To address this question, we compared the eye movement patterns from three participant groups while they carried out a body size estimation task: (i) 20 women with recovering/recovered anorexia (rAN) who had concerns about body shape and weight and who over‐estimated body size, (ii) 20 healthy controls who had normative levels of concern about body shape and who estimated body size accurately (iii) 20 healthy controls who had normative levels of concern about body shape but who did over‐estimate body size. Results Comparisons between the three groups showed that: (i) accurate body size estimators tended to look more in the waist region, and this was independent of clinical diagnosis; (ii) there is a pattern of looking at images of bodies, particularly viewing the upper parts of the torso and face, which is specific to participants with rAN but which is independent of accuracy in body size estimation. Discussion Since the over‐estimating controls did not share the same body image concerns that women with rAN report, their over‐estimation cannot be explained by attitudinal concerns about body shape and weight. These results suggest that a distributed fixation pattern is associated with over‐estimation of body size and should be addressed in treatment programs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:507–518). PMID:26996142

  11. Conociendo mindfulness [Knowing mindfulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Montañés Sánchez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:Actualmente, sobre todo en la última década de nuestro siglo, han surgido un gran número de investigaciones sobre la eficacia de mindfulness en la mejora de los síntomas de personas que presentan diferentes problemas físicos y psíquicos. Mindfulness consiste en prestar conciencia plena a la realidad del momento presente con una actitud básica de aceptación. En el presente artículo se realiza una introducción a mindfulness, destacando diferentes definiciones y formas de conceptualizarlo y profundizando en los mecanismos psicoterapéuticos que subyacen a la práctica de mindfulness.Abstract:Currently, especially in the last decade of our century, have emerged a lot of research on the effectiveness of mindfulness in improving the symptoms of people with different physical and psychological problems. Mindfulness is to provide full consciousness to the reality of the present moment with a basic attitude of acceptance. This paper presents an introduction to mindfulness, highlighting different definitions and ways of conceptualizing and deeper into the mechanisms underlying psychotherapeutic practice of mindfulness.

  12. Change in the body temperature of healthy term infant over the first 72 hours of life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李萌霞; 孙革; NEUBAUERHenning

    2004-01-01

    Objective:To determine the range of body temperature in a group of healthy Chinese term neonates over the first 72 hours of life and to assess the influence of body weight, gestational age and route of delivery.Method: All 200 consecutive cases of neonates delivered at our hospital from March to August 2001 were included in this retrospective study.Temperatures were measured immediately after delivery, after 30 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, 8 hours and 15 hours and on the 2nd and 3rd day. Axillary temperatures ranging from 36.5℃ to 37℃ were regarded as normal. No cases of maternal fever or systemic infection of the newborns were discovered. All infants were discharged in good general condition. Results:The mean rectal temperature at birth was 37.19℃. The lowest average temperature was reached at 1 hour after delivery (36.54℃) with a significant difference between natural delivery (36.48℃) and section (36.59℃) (P<0.05).Temperature subsequently rose to 36.70℃ at 8 hours and 36.78℃ at 15 hours (P<0.05).Hypothermia was seen in 51.8% and hypothermia in 42.5% of the patients.On the 3rd day after delivery, 96% of all temperatures were in the normal range. A significant relation was found between hypothermia and both low birth weight (P<0.001) and low gestational age (P<0.05).Conclusion: The reference range presently used did not include all physiological temperatures in the first 72 hours of life. Considering other factors,such as birth weight, route of delivery,gestational age and body temperature on the 2nd and 3rd day of life, may help to correctly assess the significance of temperatures beyond the reference range.

  13. Change in the body temperature of healthy term infant over the first 72 hours of life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Meng-xia (李萌霞); SUN Ge (孙革); NEUBAUER Henning

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the range of body temperature in a group of healthy Chinese term neonates over the first 72 hours of life and to assess the influence of body weight, gestational age and route of delivery. Method: All 200 consecutive cases of neonates delivered at our hospital from March to August 2001 were included in this retrospective study. Temperatures were measured immediately after delivery, after 30 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, 8 hours and 15 hours and on the 2nd and 3rd day. Axillary temperatures ranging from 36.5 oC to 37 oC were regarded as normal. No cases of maternal fever or systemic infection of the newborns were discovered. All infants were discharged in good general condition. Results: The mean rectal temperature at birth was 37.19 ℃. The lowest average temperature was reached at 1 hour after delivery (36.54 ℃) with a significant difference between natural delivery (36.48 ℃) and section (36.59 ℃) (P<0.05). Temperature subsequently rose to 36.70 ℃ at 8 hours and 36.78 ℃ at 15 hours (P<0.05). Hypothermia was seen in 51.8% and hypothermia in 42.5% of the patients. On the 3rd day after delivery, 96% of all temperatures were in the normal range. A significant relation was found between hypothermia and both low birth weight (P<0.001) and low gestational age (P<0.05). Conclusion: The reference range presently used did not include all physiological temperatures in the first 72 hours of life. Considering other factors, such as birth weight, route of delivery, gestational age and body temperature on the 2nd and 3rd day of life, may help to correctly assess the significance of temperatures beyond the reference range.

  14. Topographical body fat distribution links to amino acid and lipid metabolism in healthy obese women [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois-Pierre J Martin

    Full Text Available Visceral adiposity is increasingly recognized as a key condition for the development of obesity related disorders, with the ratio between visceral adipose tissue (VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT reported as the best correlate of cardiometabolic risk. In this study, using a cohort of 40 obese females (age: 25-45 y, BMI: 28-40 kg/m(2 under healthy clinical conditions and monitored over a 2 weeks period we examined the relationships between different body composition parameters, estimates of visceral adiposity and blood/urine metabolic profiles. Metabonomics and lipidomics analysis of blood plasma and urine were employed in combination with in vivo quantitation of body composition and abdominal fat distribution using iDXA and computerized tomography. Of the various visceral fat estimates, VAT/SAT and VAT/total abdominal fat ratios exhibited significant associations with regio-specific body lean and fat composition. The integration of these visceral fat estimates with metabolic profiles of blood and urine described a distinct amino acid, diacyl and ether phospholipid phenotype in women with higher visceral fat. Metabolites important in predicting visceral fat adiposity as assessed by Random forest analysis highlighted 7 most robust markers, including tyrosine, glutamine, PC-O 44∶6, PC-O 44∶4, PC-O 42∶4, PC-O 40∶4, and PC-O 40∶3 lipid species. Unexpectedly, the visceral fat associated inflammatory profiles were shown to be highly influenced by inter-days and between-subject variations. Nevertheless, the visceral fat associated amino acid and lipid signature is proposed to be further validated for future patient stratification and cardiometabolic health diagnostics.

  15. Healthy Hair Starts With a Healthy Body: Hair Stylists as Lay Health Advisors to Prevent Chronic Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Madigan, Mary E; Linda Smith-Wheelock, MBA, MSW; Sarah L. Krein, PhD, RN

    2007-01-01

    Background Chronic kidney disease affects one in nine Americans. Diabetes and hypertension account for nearly three quarters of all kidney failure cases. Disproportionate rates of chronic kidney disease, diabetes, and hypertension have been observed among African Americans. More than 70% of all kidney failure cases caused by diabetes and hypertension could have been prevented or delayed with healthy lifestyles and medications. Context Approximately 14% of the population living in Michigan is ...

  16. Active compounds and atoms of society: plants, bodies, minds and cultures in the work of Kenyan ethnobotanical knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, P Wenzel; Prince, Ruth J

    2009-08-01

    This paper examines a sequence of investigations in parasitology, botany, pharmacology, psychometrics and ethnopsychology focused on Kenyan village children's knowledge of medicinal herbs. We follow this work of making and ordering of knowledge, showing that the different disciplinary perspectives on bodies, medicines, knowledges, children and cultures produced by this research all sought the foundation of knowledge in reference to objective reality, and that they aimed to make the world known in the specific form of distinct and comparable entities with individual properties and capacities. Based on subsequent ethnographic observations of healing in the same village, we outline a different, contrasting modality of knowing, which places ontology above epistemology. Medicinal knowledge and its transformational capacity are here not located within entities but between them; not in objective reality but in effects; 'to know' means 'to come together' with the implication of having an effect on one another. We use this ethnographic sketch of a different form of knowing as a foil against which to contrast the imaginary that had shaped our previous research. Beyond the stark contrast between herbal village healing and pharmacological laboratory analysis, we expand our argument by moving from natural science to social science, from studies of plants and substances to those of humans, minds and cultures; from laboratories to ethno-psychological tests, cultural models, and eventually econometrics. We suggest that by reiterating a particular scientific imaginary, remaking humans (and non-human beings) as known things, a specific notion of man and a related political economy of knowledge is naturalized. Looking back at our involvement with this sequence of research, we realize that, contrary to our intentions, our inclusion as 'social scientists' into a multidisciplinary scientific project may have exacerbated rather than mitigated its potentially problematic effects.

  17. Mind the gap - reaching the European target of a 2-year increase in healthy life years in the next decade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagger, Carol; McKee, Martin; Christensen, Kaare;

    2013-01-01

    of HLY/LE on year (seven countries retaining same HLY question) or extrapolating the average of HLY/LE in 2008 and 2009 to 2010 (20 countries and EU27). The first scenario continued these trends with three other scenarios exploring different HLY gap reductions between 2010 and 2020. RESULTS......: The estimated gap in HLY in 2010 was 17.5 years (men) and 18.9 years (women). Assuming current trends continue, EU27 HLY increased by 1.4 years (men) and 0.9 years (women), below the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing target, with the HLY gap between countries increasing to 18.3 years...... (men) and 19.5 years (women). To eliminate the HLY gap in 20 years, the EU27 must gain 4.4 HLY (men) and 4.8 HLY (women) in the next decade, which, for some countries, is substantially more than what the current trends suggest. CONCLUSION: Global targets for HLY move attention from inter...

  18. Mind, Body, & Soul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Beth

    2009-01-01

    "Forbes" recently reported that Americans spent $11 billion in 2008 on self-help books, CDs, seminars, coaching, and stress-management programs--13.6 percent more than they did in 2005. Why the uptick? According to a recent "Publishers Weekly" cover story, conventional publishing industry wisdom holds that personal improvement titles do very well…

  19. Body composition in severe refractory asthma: comparison with COPD patients and healthy smokers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markos Minas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Body composition is an important parameter for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD whereas the association between asthma and obesity is not fully understood. The impact of severe refractory asthma (SRA on fat free mass (FFM has not been investigated. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 213 subjects (70 healthy smokers, 71 COPD patients and 72 asthma patients without significant comorbidities were included in the study. In all patients, body composition assessment (using bioelectrical impendance analysis, skinfold and anthropometric measurements and spirometry were performed. Differences in fat free mass index (FFMI between groups were assessed and determinants of FFMI in asthma were evaluated. Patients with SRA had lower values of FFMI compared to patients with mild-to-moderate asthma [18.0(17.3-18.3-19.5(18.4-21.5, p<0.001], despite the fact that they were more obese. The levels of FFMI in SRA were lower than those of GOLD stage I-III COPD and comparable to those of stage IV COPD patients [18.0(17.3-18.3-18.8(17.8-20.1, p = ns]. These differences were present even after proper adjustments for sex, age, smoking status, daily dose of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS and daily use of oral corticosteroids (OCS. In multivariate analysis, independent predictors of FFMI in asthmatic patients were age, use of OCS and the presence of SRA, but not smoking, sex or cumulative dose of ICS used. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: SRA is related to the presence of low FFMI that is comparable to that of GOLD stage IV COPD. The impact of this observation on asthma mechanisms and outcomes should be further investigated in large prospective studies.

  20. CORRELATION BETWEEN BODY MASS INDEX AND HANDGRIP STRENGTH AND HANDGRIP ENDURANCE AMONG YOUNG HEALTHY ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity has become a serious problem all over the world. Handgrip Strength (a form of isometric static contraction test, is an important test to evaluate the physical fitness and nutritional status of an individua l. A number of factors like a ge, gender, body size, effort, skeletal muscle bulk and contractility may affect the handgrip strength (HGS and handgrip endurance (HGE. AIM: This study was conducted to establish the possible correlation (if any between body mass index and handgrip str ength and endurance among young healthy adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A population based cross - sectional study comprising of 200 students (both male and female, age group - 18 - 22 yrs was carried out in the Department of Physiology, Jorhat Medical College. Anthropometric parameters like height and weight were taken to evaluate the BMI and handgrip strength and handgrip endurance were taken by using handgrip dynamometer. According to WHO classification of BMI, subjects were categorized into three groups as un derweight BMI ≤18.5 kg/m 2 , normal weight BMI 18.5 - 24.9 kg/m 2 and overweight BMI≥ 24.9 kg/m 2 . Gender wise difference was analyzed by unpaired t test. Statistical analysis for correlation was done by using Karl Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient denoted by(r. RESULT: Males had higher handgrip strength and handgrip endurance than females. Statistic ally significant correlation was found between BMI and handgrip strength & endurance in underweight & overweight subjects. Gender differences in correlation were observed in correlation between BMI & HGS and HGE. CONCLUSION: The observed influence of BMI a nd gender differences in correlation between BMI and HGS and HGE indicate that besides BMI several other factors like effort, strength, muscular contractility etc . affect muscular strength & endurance in young males and females.

  1. Promoting fit bodies, healthy eating and physical activity among Indigenous Australian men: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricciardelli Lina A

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overall the physical health of Indigenous men is among the worst in Australia. Research has indicated that modifiable lifestyle factors, such as poor nutrition and physical inactivity, appear to contribute strongly to these poor health conditions. To effectively develop and implement strategies to improve the health of Australia's Indigenous peoples, a greater understanding is needed of how Indigenous men perceive health, and how they view and care for their bodies. Further, a more systematic understanding of how sociocultural factors affect their health attitudes and behaviours is needed. This article presents the study protocol of a community-based investigation into the factors surrounding the health and body image of Indigenous Australian men. Methods and design The study will be conducted in a collaborative manner with Indigenous Australian men using a participatory action research framework. Men will be recruited from three locations around Australia (metropolitan, regional, and rural and interviewed to understand their experiences and perspectives on a number of issues related to health and health behaviour. The information that is collected will be analysed using modified grounded theory and thematic analysis. The results will then be used to develop and implement community events in each location to provide feedback on the findings to the community, promote health enhancing strategies, and determine future action and collaboration. Discussion This study will explore both risk and protective factors that affect the health of Indigenous Australian men. This knowledge will be disseminated to the wider Indigenous community and can be used to inform future health promotion strategies. The expected outcome of this study is therefore an increased understanding of health and health change in Indigenous Australian men, the development of strategies that promote healthy eating and positive patterns of physical activity and, in

  2. A Randomized Controlled Neurophysiological Study of a Chinese Chan-Based Mind-Body Intervention in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes S. Chan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Our previous studies have reported the therapeutic effects of 10-session Chinese Chan-based Dejian mind-body interventions (DMBI in reducing the intake of antidepressants, improving depressive symptoms, and enhancing the attentional abilities of patients with depression. This study aims to explore the possible neuroelectrophysiological mechanisms underlying the previously reported treatment effects of DMBI in comparison with those of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT. Seventy-five age-, gender-, and education-matched participants with depression were randomly assigned to receive either CBT or DMBI or placed on a waitlist. Eyes-closed resting EEG data were obtained individually before and after 10 weeks. After intervention, the DMBI group demonstrated significantly enhanced frontal alpha asymmetry (an index of positive mood and intra- and interhemispheric theta coherence in frontoposterior and posterior brain regions (an index of attention. In contrast, neither the CBT nor the waitlist group showed significant changes in EEG activity patterns. Furthermore, the asymmetry and coherence indices of the DMBI group were correlated with self-reported depression severity levels and performance on an attention test, respectively. The present findings provide support for the effects of a Chinese Chan-based mind-body intervention in fostering human brain states that can facilitate positive mood and an attentive mind.

  3. Acute Whole-Body Vibration does not Facilitate Peak Torque and Stretch Reflex in Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella W. Yeung

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The acute effect of whole-body vibration (WBV training may enhance muscular performance via neural potentiation of the stretch reflex. The purpose of this study was to investigate if acute WBV exposure affects the stretch induced knee jerk reflex [onset latency and electromechanical delay (EMD] and the isokinetic knee extensor peak torque performance. Twenty-two subjects were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. The intervention group received WBV in a semi-squat position at 30° knee flexion with an amplitude of 0.69 mm, frequency of 45 Hz, and peak acceleration of 27.6 m/s2 for 3 minutes. The control group underwent the same semii-squatting position statically without exposure of WBV. Two-way mixed repeated measures analysis of variance revealed no significant group effects differences on reflex latency of rectus femoris (RF and vastus lateralis (VL; p = 0.934 and 0.935, respectively EMD of RF and VL (p = 0.474 and 0.551, respectively and peak torque production (p = 0.483 measured before and after the WBV. The results of this study indicate that a single session of WBV exposure has no potentiation effect on the stretch induced reflex and peak torque performance in healthy young adults.

  4. Allometric scaling of echocardiographic measurements in healthy Spanish foals with different body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovira, S; Muñoz, A; Rodilla, V

    2009-04-01

    Scaling in biology is usually allometric, and therefore, the size of the heart may be expressed as a power function of body weight (BW). The present research analyses the echocardiographic measurements in 68 healthy Spanish foals weighed between 70 and 347kg in order to determine the correct scaling exponent for the allometric equation. The echocardiographic parameters measured were: left ventricular internal dimensions (LVID), free wall thickness (LVFWT), interventricular septum thickness (IVST) at systole (s) and diastole (d), EPSS (distance between the point E of the mitral valve and the interventricular septum), and aorta diameters at the level of the aortic valve (AOD), base of valve leaflets (ABS), sinus of Valsalva (ASV) and sino-tubular junction (AJT). Indices of left ventricular performance were calculated. It was found that LVIDd, IVSTs, AOD, and ASV have a relationship to BW raised to 0.300-0.368 power, whereas left ventricular end-diastolic volume and stroke volume scaled to BW raised to 0.731-0.712 power. With these data, appropriate values can be calculated for normal Spanish foals.

  5. 具身认知、镜像神经元与身心关系%Embodied Cognition, Mirror Neurons and the Mind- Body Relationships

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶浩生

    2012-01-01

    具身认知强调了身体的物理结构和感觉运动系统的经验对心智的塑造作用。它挑战传统认知心理学无身认知的观点,认为认知依赖于身体,扎根于环境。认知、身体和世界构成了有机的整体。镜像神经元的发现为心智具身性提供了神经生物学的证据。镜像神经元在动作执行和动作观察时皆被激活的事实表明,所谓内部心理过程可能就是身体动作经验的心理模拟过程。认知既不是抽象符号的加工,也离不开身体。心智和身体并非独立的二元,我们通过身体认识世界,身体构造和身体经验决定了认知的形式和内容。在这个意义上,我们说身体与心智是一体的。%Embodied cognition(EC) emphasizes the role of the bodily physical structures and the experiences of sensory - motor systems on the shape the mind. EC challenges the view of disembodiment which regards the body and mind as separated realities. It suggests that cognitive processes have their origins in bodily states and ground in environment. Minds, bodies and the world form an integrated unit. The discovery of mirror neurons provides neural physiological evidences for EC. The fact that mirror neurons are activated during both action - performing and action - watching shows that the so - called internal mental processes may just be a mental simulation of the experiences from sensor - motor systems. Cognition is not manipulation of abstract symbols and can not be disembodied, either. Bodies and minds are not independent realities. We know and understand the world by our body. Our bodily struc- ture and physical experiences have a strong influence on our cognitive forms and contents. In this sense, we say that mind is embodied.

  6. The relation between 25-hydroxyvitamin D with peak bone mineral density and body composition in healthy young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, Annemieke M.; Krenning, Eric P.; Keizer-Schrama, Sabine M. P. F. de Muinck

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The associations between peak bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition with 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels in healthy young adults were evaluated. Methods: The number of participants was 464; 347 women and 117 men. The mean age was 24.3 years (range 17-31 years). BMD of the lum

  7. Total body water estimations in healthy men and women using bioimpedance spectroscopy: a deuterium oxide comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bemben Michael G

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Total body water (TBW estimations have been used to estimate body composition, particularly fat-free mass, to aid in nutritional interventions, and to monitor hydration status. In the past, bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS devices have been used to estimate TBW. Previous investigations have examined the validity of the XiTRON 4000B (XiTRON Technologies BIS device for estimating TBW. Recently, a new BIS device (Imp™ SFB7 has become available, claiming greater precision when estimating TBW. The Imp™ SFB7 (SFB7 is based on similar BIS principles, while offering increased portability and a greater range of frequencies when compared to older devices, such as the XiTRON 4000B (4000B. The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of the SFB7 for estimating total body water in healthy college-age men and women compared to the 4000B and deuterium oxide (D2O. Methods Twenty-eight Caucasian men and women (14 men, 14 women; 24 ± 4 yrs; 174.6 ± 8.7 cm; 72.80 ± 17.58 kg had their TBW estimated by the SFB7, the 4000B, and D2O. Results Both BIS devices produced similar standard error of estimate (SEE and r values (SFB7, SEE = 2.12L, r = 0.98; 4000B, SEE = 2.99L, r = 0.96 when compared to D2O, though a significant constant error (CE was detected for the 4000B (2.26L, p ≤ 0.025. The 4000B produced a larger total error (TE and CE (TE = 3.81L, CE = 2.26L when compared to the SFB7 (TE = 2.21L, CE = -0.09L. Additionally, the limits of agreement were larger for the 4000B (-3.88 to 8.39L than the SFB7 (-4.50 to 4.31L. These results were consistent when sex was analyzed separately, though women produced lower SEE and TE values for both devices. Conclusion The 4000B and SFB7 are valid BIS devices when compared to D2O to estimate TBW in college-age Caucasian men and women. Furthermore, the new SFB7 device displayed greater precision in comparison to the 4000B, which may decrease the error when estimating TBW on an individual basis.

  8. The Politics of Mindfulness. A Response to "Mindfulness, Democracy, Education"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock, Patrick W.

    2015-01-01

    Mindfulness is rapidly becoming a mainstream educational intervention. A growing number of schools, colleges, and universities are incorporating mindfulness into the curriculum, and while there is a substantial body of research literature in psychology attesting to the mental and physical benefits of mindfulness, critics of the movement have…

  9. MINDFULNESS AND SPORT PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Mañas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mindfulness in sports is a recent field. While sport psychology relied mainly on “second wave” cognitive-behavioural interventions for the last four decades, a new approach has recently been developed in sport psychology including mindfulness: a “third wave” approach. This new approach assumes that ideal performance is a state that is not based on self-control or change in behaviour, but rather a state that arises from recognition and acceptance of thoughts, emotions and bodily sensations. Practicing mindfulness allows learns to observe and accept the thoughts, emotions, and body sensations, without making any attempt to eliminate or modify them. This paper reviews the main programs of mindfulness in sport performance both from the “third wave”: Mindful Sport Performance Enhancement (MSPE and Mindfulness-Acceptance-Commitment(MAC.

  10. The role of the "Healthy Weight" discourse in body image and eating concerns: An extension of sociocultural theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Rachel F

    2016-08-01

    Sociocultural models of body image and eating concerns have highlighted the role of the social discourse in promoting the pursuit of the thin-ideal. Recently, another weight-focused social discourse has gained ground, focused on the goal of maintaining body weight within the boundaries of a weight-range defined as "Healthy." This discourse is somewhat different to the promotion of the thin-ideal; however, it might also be implicated in the development of body image and eating concerns. The present study aimed to extend sociocultural theories of the development of body image and eating concerns by (1) proposing a theoretical model accounting for pressure to maintain a "Healthy Weight", and (2) reviewing the existing evidence for the pathways included in this model. In the proposed model, pressure to maintain a Healthy Weight leads to the internalization of anti-fat attitudes and the need to control weight as well as beliefs in the controllability of weight through diet and exercise. These beliefs may then lead to body preoccupation and disordered eating. The extant literature provides initial support for these relationships; however, empirical testing of this model is necessary to determine its usefulness as an explanatory model and in providing intervention targets for future prevention and intervention efforts.

  11. [Mindfulness: A Concept Analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tsai-Ling; Chou, Fan-Hao; Wang, Hsiu-Hung

    2016-04-01

    "Mindfulness" is an emerging concept in the field of healthcare. Ranging from stress relief to psychotherapy, mindfulness has been confirmed to be an effective tool to help individuals manage depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and other health problems in clinical settings. Scholars currently use various definitions for mindfulness. While some of these definitions overlap, significant differences remain and a general scholarly consensus has yet to be reached. Several domestic and international studies have explored mindfulness-related interventions and their effectiveness. However, the majority of these studies have focused on the fields of clinical medicine, consultation, and education. Mindfulness has rarely been applied in clinical nursing practice and no related systematic concept analysis has been conducted. This paper conducts a concept analysis of mindfulness using the concept analysis method proposed by Walker and Avant (2011). We describe the defining characteristics of mindfulness, clarify the concept, and confirm the predisposing factors and effects of mindfulness using examples of typical cases, borderline cases, related cases, and contrary case. Findings may provide nursing staff with an understanding of the concept of mindfulness for use in clinical practice in order to help patients achieve a comfortable state of body and mind healing.

  12. [Neurosciences and philosophy of mind].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saal, Aarón

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we argue that the interaction between neurosciences and philosophy of the mind is on the way to understand consciousness, and to solve the mind-body or mind-brain problem. Naturalism is the view that mental processes are just brain processes and that consciousness is a natural phenomenon. It is possible to construct a theory about its nature by blending insights from neuroscience, philosophy of the mind, phenomenology, psychology and evolutionary biology.

  13. Mindful movement and skilled attention

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel “mind-body connection” has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited) behavioral control contributing ...

  14. Lucid dreaming and the mind-body relationship: a model for the cognitive and physiological variations in rapid eye movement sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lequerica, A

    1996-08-01

    The psychophysiological properties of the lucid dream state were examined to evaluate the relationship between lucid and nonlucid dreaming, emphasizing the fact that the components of self-reflectiveness and other cognitive features commonly associated with lucid dreams occur in all dreams to various extents. Although lucid dreams are clearly toward one end of the continuum, they still share many of the characteristics present in most dreams. In this respect, exploration of lucid dreams may not necessarily be a misguided path toward the understanding of dreaming in general. A simple model was described to illustrate the mind-body relationship in various forms of REM dreaming.

  15. Effects of gum Arabic ingestion on body mass index and body fat percentage in healthy adult females: two-arm randomized, placebo controlled, double-blind trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babiker Rasha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gum Arabic (acacia Senegal is a complex polysaccharide indigestible to both humans and animals. It has been considered as a safe dietary fiber by the United States, Food and Drug Administration (FDA since the 1970s. Although its effects were extensively studied in animals, there is paucity of data regarding its quantified use in humans. This study was conducted to determine effects of regular Gum Arabic (GA ingestion on body mass index and body fat percentage among healthy adult females. Methods A two-arm randomized, placebo controlled, double-blind trial was conducted in the Department of Physiology at the Khartoum University. A total of 120 healthy females completed the study. They were divided to two groups: A test group of 60 volunteers receiving GA (30 gm /day for 6 weeks and a placebo group of 60 volunteers receiving pectin (1 gm/day for the same period of time. Weight and height were measured before and after intervention using standardized height and weight scales. Skin fold thickness was measured using Harpenden Skin fold caliper. Fat percentage was calculated using Jackson and Pollock 7 caliper method and Siri equation. Results Pre and post analysis among the study group showed significant reduction in BMI by 0.32 (95% CI: 0.17 to 0.47; P Conclusions GA ingestion causes significant reduction in BMI and body fat percentage among healthy adult females. The effect could be exploited in the treatment of obesity.

  16. Body image issues after bilateral prophylactic mastectomy with breast reconstruction in healthy women at risk for hereditary breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopie, Jessica P; Mureau, Marc A M; Seynaeve, Caroline; Ter Kuile, Moniek M; Menke-Pluymers, Marian B E; Timman, Reinier; Tibben, Aad

    2013-09-01

    The outcome of bilateral prophylactic mastectomy with breast reconstruction (BPM-IBR) in healthy BRCA1/2 mutation carriers can be potentially burdensome for body image and the intimate relationship. Therefore, in the current analysis the impact on body image, sexual and partner relationship satisfaction was prospectively investigated in women opting for BPM-IBR as well as cancer distress and general quality of life. Healthy women undergoing BPM-IBR completed questionnaires preoperatively (T0, n = 48), at 6 months (T1, n = 44) and after finishing breast reconstruction (median 21 months, range 12-35) (T2, n = 36). With multi-level regression analyses the course of outcome variables was investigated and a statistically significant change in body image and/or sexual and partner relationship satisfaction was predicted by baseline covariates. Body image significantly decreased at T1. At T2 sexual relationship satisfaction and body image tended to be lower compared to baseline. The overall partner relationship satisfaction did not significantly change. At T2, 37 % of the women reported that their breasts felt unpleasantly, 29 % was not satisfied with their breast appearance and 21 % felt embarrassed for their naked body. Most body image issues remained unchanged in 30 % of the women. A negative body image was predicted by high preoperative cancer distress. BPM-IBR was associated with adverse impact on body image in a substantial subgroup, but satisfaction with the overall sexual and partner relationship did not significantly change in time. The psychosocial impact of BPM-IBR in unaffected women should not be underestimated. Psychological support should ideally be integrated both before and after BPM-IBR.

  17. Mindfulness Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, J David

    2017-01-03

    Mindfulness interventions aim to foster greater attention to and awareness of present moment experience. There has been a dramatic increase in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of mindfulness interventions over the past two decades. This article evaluates the growing evidence of mindfulness intervention RCTs by reviewing and discussing (a) the effects of mindfulness interventions on health, cognitive, affective, and interpersonal outcomes; (b) evidence-based applications of mindfulness interventions to new settings and populations (e.g., the workplace, military, schools); (c) psychological and neurobiological mechanisms of mindfulness interventions; (d) mindfulness intervention dosing considerations; and (e) potential risks of mindfulness interventions. Methodologically rigorous RCTs have demonstrated that mindfulness interventions improve outcomes in multiple domains (e.g., chronic pain, depression relapse, addiction). Discussion focuses on opportunities and challenges for mindfulness intervention research and on community applications.

  18. Emergence, Evolution and Mind-body Problem (Special Column) Humphreys%突现与因果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华夏; 王东; 张华夏

    2011-01-01

    the International Conference on the Cross-Cutting Issues and Fron- tier Issues of Contemporary Philosophy of Science and Philosophy of Mind: Emergence, Evolution and the Mind-body Problem" was held in Guangzhou with the joint sponsor of South China Normal University, Chinese Society for Dialectics of Nature, Department of Philosophy at Harvard University and Asia International Open University (Macau). At this Conference, the discussion between Professor Humphreys and Chinese scholars on the issue of context, level, emergence and causal relationship caught participants' great attention. This set of articles introduces their viewpoints and comments on each other. Professor Paul Humphreys and Professor Yan Ze-xian, Fan Dong-ping, Zhang Hua-xia all claimed that we should do research on causal relation from the perspective of Dynamics. Professor Humphreys argue that the contemporary division between physicalists, those who hold that all real properties, objects, and states are physical, and dualists, those who maintain that besides the reahn of the physical there is a separate domain of specifically mental properties, objects and states, is too crude, so the approaches to emergence which are based on supervenience relations are unhelpful and that a better approach is through using a kind of contextual emergence. Professor Fan and Yan believed that the key features and main forms of complex system can be generalized as downward restraint and selective cause, downward control and informational cause. Professor Zhang stated that, if we try to integrate two schools, namely the theory of condition-cause and effect-cause, and to connect the theory of INUS condition with the modern theory of the causal power and causal process, we can get the research frame to describe the downward causation of emergence, without violating the closure prineiple of causal power in generalized physi- cal world.%系统的突现性质是否具有下向因果性或下向因果力,是

  19. Beyond the Stalemate: Conscious MInd-Body - Quantum Mechanics - Free Will - Possible Panpsychism - Possible Interpretation of Quantum Enigma

    CERN Document Server

    Kauffman, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    I wish to discuss a large, interwoven set of topics pointed at in the title above. Much of what I say is highly speculative, some is testable, some is, at present, surely not. It is, I hope, useful, to set these ideas forth for our consideration. What I shall say assumes quantum measurement is real, and that Bohm's interpretation of Quantum Mechanics is not true. The Stalemate: In our contemporary neurobiology and much of the philosophy of mind post Descartes we are classical physics machines and either mindless, or mind is at best epiphenomenal and can have no consequences for the physical world. The first main point of this paper is that we are not forced to this conclusion, but must give up total reliance on classical physics.

  20. Does short-term lemon honey juice fasting have effect on lipid profile and body composition in healthy individuals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashanth Shetty

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Fasting is one of the fundamental treatments of naturopathy. Use of lemon and honey for various medicinal purposes were documented since ancient days but there is a lack of evidence on short-term effects of lemon honey juice fasting (LHJF. Hence, we aim at evaluating the short-term effect of LHJF on lipid profile and body composition in healthy individuals. A total of 50 healthy subjects were recruited and they received 300-ml of LHJ, 4 times a day for four successive days of fasting. Assessments were performed before and after the intervention. Statistical analysis was performed by student's paired t-test with the use of Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version-16. Our study showed significant reduction in weight, body mass index (BMI, fat mass (FM, free FM (FFM, and total serum triglycerides (TSTGs with insignificant reduction in fat percentage and total serum cholesterol compared to baseline. Within group analysis of females showed similar results, unlike males. Our results suggest that LHJF may be useful for reduction of body weight, BMI, FM, FFM, and TSTG in healthy individuals, which might be useful for the prevention of obesity and hypertriglyceridemia.

  1. Effect of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease on Body Composition Parameters and Exercise Capacity by Comparison with Age Matched Healthy Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mann Randeep

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Nutritional abnormalities are frequent systemic manifestation associated with COPD. The purpose of the present study was to compare the body composition parameters and exercise capacity between stable COPD patients and healthy controls, and to find the strength of association between exercise capacity, FMI and FFMI. Methods: 100 subjects were recruited, and divided into two groups. Group I included stable COPD patients, and Group II consisted of age matched healthy controls respectively. The spirometric parameters recorded were FEV1 (Litres, FVC (Litres, FEV1/FVC ratio (% predicted, FEF 25%75% (Litres/sec. Anthrometric measurements included Body Weight, Height and BMI measurements. Body composition was assessed by four-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (BODY STAT, QUAD SCAN, USA. The following parameters were calculated: FFM, FFMI, FM and FMI. The exercise capacity was assessed by the six-minute walking distance test (6MWD. All the recordings were compared between groups and correlation was also computed between 6MWD, FMI and FFMI within groups. Results were analyzed using SPSS, version 16 and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: We found that COPD patients showed lower FFM, FFMI and exercise capacity as compared to healthy controls. And, great strength of association was found between FFMI and exercise capacity. Conclusions: Thus, our study indicates that with COPD there is preferential loss of lean body mass evident from lower FFMI leading to decreased walking distance in these patients. Hence, it is prudent to include nutritional and exercise capacity assessment in patients of COPD, to better manage these patients and improve their quality of life. [Natl J Med Res 2014; 4(1.000: 53-57

  2. Total body fat content versus BMI in 4-year-old healthy Swedish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsum, Elisabet; Flinke Carlsson, Eva; Henriksson, Hanna; Henriksson, Pontus; Löf, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Childhood overweight and obesity, a worldwide problem, is generally identified using BMI (body mass index). However, this application of BMI has been little investigated in children below 5 years of age due to a lack of appropriate methods to assess body composition. Therefore, we used air displacement plethysmography (ADP) to study 4.4-year old boys and girls since this method is accurate in young children if they accept the requirements of the measurement. The purpose was to analyze the relationship between BMI and body fat in these children. Body composition was assessed in 76 (43 boys, 33 girls) of the 84 children brought to the measurement session. Boys and girls contained 25.2 ± 4.7 and 26.8 ± 4.0% body fat, respectively. BMI-based cut-offs for overweight could not effectively identify children with a high body fat content. There was a significant (P BMI and body fat (%). In conclusion, requirements associated with a successful assessment of body composition by means of ADP were accepted by most 4-year-olds. Furthermore, BMI-based cut-offs for overweight did not effectively identify children with a high body fatness and BMI explained only a small proportion of the variation in body fat (%) in this age group.

  3. A brief mindfulness intervention reduces unhealthy eating when hungry, but not the portion size effect

    OpenAIRE

    Marchiori, D.R.; Papies, E.K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present research examined the effects of a mindfulness-based intervention to foster healthy eating. Specifically, we tested whether a brief mindfulness manipulation can prevent the portion size effect, and reduce overeating on unhealthy snacks when hungry. Methods: 110 undergraduate participants (MAge = 20.9 ± 2.3; MBMI = 22.3 ± 2.5) were served a small or a large portion of chocolate chip cookies after listening to an audio book or performing a mindfulness exercise (i.e., body...

  4. Effects of body mass index on foot posture alignment and core stability in a healthy adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlAbdulwahab, Sami S; Kachanathu, Shaji John

    2016-06-01

    Foot biomechanics and core stability (CS) play significant roles in the quality of standing and walking. Minor alterations in body composition may influence base support or CS strategies. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the body mass index (BMI) on the foot posture index (FPI) and CS in a healthy adult population. A total of 39 healthy adult subjects with a mean age of 24.3±6.4 years and over-weight BMI values between 25 and 29.9 kg/m2 (27.43±6.1 kg/m2) participated in this study. Foot biomechanics were analyzed using the FPI. CS was assessed using a plank test with a time-to-failure trial. The Spearman correlation coefficient indicated a significant correlation between BMI and both the FPI (r=0.504, P=0.001) and CS (r= -0.34, P=0.036). Present study concluded that an overweight BMI influences foot posture alignment and body stability. Consequently, BMI should be considered during rehabilitation management for lower extremity injuries and body balance.

  5. Association of vitamin K status with adiponectin and body composition in healthy subjects: uncarboxylated osteocalcin is not associated with fat mass and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapen, Marjo H J; Schurgers, Leon J; Shearer, Martin J; Newman, Paul; Theuwissen, Elke; Vermeer, Cees

    2012-09-28

    Osteocalcin (OC) is a vitamin K-dependent protein found in bone and in circulation. High serum γ-carboxylated OC reflects a high, and high uncarboxylated OC (ucOC) reflects a low vitamin K status. A revolutionary hypothesis is that ucOC acts as a hormone improving glucose handling and reducing fat mass. The objective was to test the logical extrapolation of the ucOC hormone hypothesis to humans that elevated ucOC is associated with higher body weight, BMI and fat mass. In a cross-sectional analysis, the associations of vitamin K status with circulating adiponectin and body composition were investigated in 244 postmenopausal women (study I). The effects of vitamin K treatment on adiponectin, body weight and BMI were investigated in archived samples from forty-two young men and women who received varying doses of menaquinone-7 during 12 weeks (study II) and from a cohort of 164 postmenopausal women who participated in a 3-year placebo-controlled trial on 45 mg menaquinone-4 (MK-4) (study III). No association was found between vitamin K status and circulating adiponectin before or after vitamin K supplementation. A higher carboxylation of OC was significantly correlated with lower body weight, BMI and fat mass of the trunk. Women taking MK-4 maintained their baseline body weight and BMI, whereas women taking placebo showed significant increases in both indices. These findings demonstrate that a high vitamin K status of bone has no effect on circulating adiponectin in healthy people and long-term vitamin K supplementation does not increase weight in healthy postmenopausal women.

  6. Posturographic stabilisation of healthy subjects exposed to full-length mirror image is inversely related to body-image preoccupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeazzi, Gian Maria; Monzani, Daniele; Gherpelli, Chiara; Covezzi, Roberta; Guaraldi, Gian Paolo

    2006-12-13

    Affective states, anxiety in particular, have been shown to negatively influence human postural control efficiency as measured by posturographic means, while exposure to a full-length mirror image of one's body exerts a stabilizing effect. We tested the hypothesis that body image concerns and preoccupations would relate negatively to this stabilising effect. Sixty-six healthy students, who screened negative for psychiatric disorders, completed rating scales for anxiety, depression and body image concerns. Posturography recordings of body sway were taken under three conditions: with eyes closed, looking at a vertical bar and looking at a full-length mirror. The Eyes Open/Mirror Stabilometric Quotient [EOMQ=(sway path with eyes closed/sway path looking at the mirror)x100], an index of how much postural control is stabilized by mirror feedback in comparison to the visual vertical bar condition, was significantly inversely related to body image concerns and preoccupations, and to trait anxiety. This finding confirms the impact of emotional factors on human postural control, which warrant further studies. If confirmed in clinical populations characterized by high levels of body image disturbances, e.g. eating disorders, it could lead to developments in the assessment and monitoring of these patients.

  7. Body water distribution and risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in a healthy population: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoline Nygård Knudsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early alterations in the cardiovascular structure and function may change normal body water distribution. The resulting fluid shifts may thus serve as an early marker for cardiovascular disease. However, studies examining this in healthy populations are absent. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the association between the proportion of total body water that is extracellular water and subsequent development of non-fatal or fatal cardiovascular disease in a healthy population. METHOD: Bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy is an easy-to-use, non-invasive and relatively inexpensive technique to evaluate changes in body water distribution. A random subset (n = 2120 of Danes aged 41-71 years, examined in 1993-1994 for body water distribution by bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy was included. Cox-proportional hazard models and linear splines were performed. The ratio between resistance estimates from an infinite-frequency and from no-frequency (R∞/R0 was used as a surrogate measure of ratio between extracellular water and total body water. The outcome was 13.5 years of follow-up for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. RESULTS: A high proportion of total body water that is extracellular water was associated with increased risk of incident cardiovascular disease. A threshold effect was evident, with greatly increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality above R∞/R0 = 0.68. Below the threshold there seemed to be no additional benefit of having a low ratio. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that non-clinically evident oedema, measured as an increased proportion of total body water that is extracellular, above a threshold of 0.68, may be an early marker of pre-clinical cardiovascular disease. This simple, safe, cheap and easily obtainable measure of R∞/R0 from bioelectrical impedance may help the early identification of these otherwise clinically healthy individuals who are at an increased risk of future cardiovascular disease

  8. Good vibrations--effects of whole body vibration on attention in healthy individuals and individuals with ADHD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselm B M Fuermaier

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Most of the current treatment strategies of ADHD are associated with a number of disadvantages which strengthen the need for alternative or additional approaches for the treatment of ADHD. In this respect, Whole Body Vibration (WBV might be interesting as it was found to have beneficial effects on a variety of physiological measures. The present study explored the effects of WBV on attention of healthy individuals and adults diagnosed with ADHD. METHODS: Eighty-three healthy individuals and seventeen adults diagnosed with ADHD participated in the study. WBV treatment was applied passively, while participants were sitting on a chair which was mounted on a vibrating platform. A repeated measure design was employed in order to explore potential effects of WBV treatment on attention within subjects. Attention (i.e. inhibitory control was measured with a color-word interference paradigm. RESULTS: A period of two minutes of WBV treatment had significant beneficial effects of small to medium size on attention of both healthy individuals and adults with ADHD. The effect of WBV treatment on attention did not differ significantly between groups. CONCLUSIONS: WBV was demonstrated to improve cognitive performance of healthy individuals as well as of individuals with ADHD. WBV treatment is relatively inexpensive and easy to apply and might therefore be of potential relevance for clinical use. The application of WBV treatment as a cognitive enhancement strategy and as a potential treatment of cognitive impairments is discussed.

  9. 中国哲学中身心关系的几种形态%Several modalities of the body-mind relationship in traditional Chinese philosophy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张学智

    2007-01-01

    中国历史上的大多数哲学家倾向于朴素的身心合一论,较少有由理性分析推到极处而产生身心分离为两个实体的学说;在身心二者中,更重视心的作用.基于气本论的传统,大多数哲学家将精神活动归结为气的自然作用.这使它在整体上呈现出对心理活动挖掘不深且将心理活动作为气的自然反映表现于语言和行为的现象学特点.%Ancient Chinese philosophers were inclined to preserve the doctrine of a unified body and mind rather than to engage in a discussion on the separation of the two. In addition, most traditional Chinese philosophers stressing in particular the function of mind. Based on the tradition of believing in the concept of qi, they traced the cause of their spiritual activities to the natural effect of the qi. The modalities display a phenomenological characteristic that looks at mental activities lightly, and examines language and action as a natural revelation of material force, qi.

  10. “The Answer a Philosopher Gives Determines the Entire Shape of his Metaphysics”: The Influence of Plato and Descartes on Rebecca Goldstein’s The Mind-Body Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Canales, Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    To date, Rebecca Goldstein’s The Mind-Body Problem (1983) has been mostly analysed from two points of view. On the one hand, the significance of Renee Feuer’s Orthodox Jewish background in addressing the/her mind-body problem; on the other, the implications of the Holocaust for Noam’s life and, therefore, for the Noam-Renee relationship. Surprisingly, this novel has not been studied from a purely philosophical perspective. For this reason, the present article attempts to shed some light on th...

  11. Total Body Fat Content versus BMI in 4-Year-Old Healthy Swedish Children

    OpenAIRE

    Elisabet Forsum; Eva Flinke Carlsson; Hanna Henriksson; Pontus Henriksson; Marie Löf

    2013-01-01

    Childhood overweight and obesity, a worldwide problem, is generally identified using BMI (body mass index). However, this application of BMI has been little investigated in children below 5 years of age due to a lack of appropriate methods to assess body composition. Therefore, we used air displacement plethysmography (ADP) to study 4.4-year old boys and girls since this method is accurate in young children if they accept the requirements of the measurement. The purpose was to analyze the rel...

  12. Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Body Image Developing a positive body image and a healthy mental attitude is crucial to ... on for tips to have a healthy body image. Topics About body image When you look in ...

  13. Influence of lower body pressure support on the walking patterns of healthy children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Max J; Deffeyes, Joan E; Arpin, David J; Karst, Gregory M; Stuberg, Wayne A

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of a lower body positive pressure support system on the joint kinematics and activity of the lower extremity antigravity musculature of adults and children during walking. Adults (age = 25 ± 4 years) and children (age = 13 ± 2 years) walked at a preferred speed and a speed that was based on the Froude number, while 0-80% of their body weight was supported. Electrogoniometers were used to monitor knee and ankle joint kinematics. Surface electromyography was used to quantify the magnitude of the vastus lateralis and gastrocnemius muscle activity. There were three key findings: (1) The lower extremity joint angles and activity of the lower extremity antigravity muscles of children did not differ from those of adults. (2) The magnitude of the changes in the lower extremity joint motion and antigravity muscle activity was dependent upon an interaction between body weight support and walking speed. (3) Lower body positive pressure support resulted in reduced activation of the antigravity musculature, and reduced range of motion of the knee and ankle joints.

  14. The Role of Dairy Products in Healthy Weight and Body Composition in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Lisa A; Cifelli, Christopher J; Miller, Gregory D

    2011-02-01

    Overweight and obesity are major public health concerns with approximately 32% and 17% of U.S. children aged 2 - 19 being classified as overweight or obese, respectively. While the cause of overweight and obesity is multi-factorial, changes in eating habits and physical activity patterns have been proposed as contributing factors to the obesity epidemic. For example, the displacement of nutrient rich foods and beverages with non-nutrient dense items may be influencing childhood obesity. Many children do not consume the recommended servings of the Food Groups to Encourage, i.e. low-fat and fat-free dairy foods, fruits, vegetables, and whole grains identified by the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans which results in low intakes of calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamin E. While attention has focused primarily on reducing energy intake and/or increasing energy expenditure for weight maintenance, a promising beneficial role for dairy products in weight management has emerged. Most research has focused on adults, but there is evidence in children and adolescents indicating either a beneficial or neutral effect of dairy food consumption on body weight or body composition. The current review provides and assessment of the scientific evidence on the effects of dairy food consumption on body weight and body composition in children and adolescents.

  15. Bone metabolism biomarkers, body weight, and bone age in healthy Brazilian male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Carla Cristiane; Kurokawa, Cilmery Suemi; Nga, Hong Si; Moretto, Maria Regina; Dalmas, José Carlos; Goldberg, Tamara Beres Lederer

    2012-01-01

    Eighty-seven male volunteers were grouped according to bone age (BA): 10-12 years (n=25), 13-15 years (n=36), and 16-18 years (n=26), and the following were recorded for each: weight (kg), height (m), BMI (kg/m(2)), calcium intake from three 24-h food recalls (mg/day), puberty evaluation by Tanner stages, bone biomarker (BB) evaluation, serum osteocalcin (OC), bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), carboxyterminal telopeptide (S-CTx), and bone mineral density (BMD) evaluations by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (g x cm(2)) in the lumbar spine, proximal femur, and the whole body. BBs showed similar behaviors, and very high median values were observed for individuals aged 13-15 years (BAP = 155.50 IU/L, OC = 41.63 ng/mL, S-CT x =2.09 ng/mL). Lower median BB values were observed with advancing BA between 16 and 18 years (BA P =79.80 IU/L, O C =27.80 ng/mL, S-CT x =1.65 ng/mL). Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed body weight associated with BA as independent variables with greater determination power for S-CTx (r(2) = 0.40) and OC (r(2)=0.21). For BAP, stepwise analysis showed body weight and whole-body BMD (r(2) = 0.34). All predictive models showed significance ( p Weight and BA were significant in determining predictive equations of OC and of S-CTx, whereas for BAP, weight and BMD of full body were selected.

  16. Influence of perceived sport competence and body attractiveness on physical activity and other healthy lifestyle habits in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Murcia, Juan Antonio; Hellín, Pedro; González-Cutre, David; Martínez-Galindo, Celestina

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to test an explanatory model of the relationships between physical self-concept and some healthy habits. A sample of 472 adolescents aged 16 to 20 answered different questionnaires assessing physical self-concept, physical activity, intention to be physically active and consumption of alcohol and tobacco. The results of the structural equation model showed that perceived sport competence positively correlated with current physical activity. Body attractiveness positively correlated with physical activity in boys and negatively in girls. Current physical activity positively correlated with the intention to be physically active in the future and negatively with the consumption of alcohol and tobacco. Nevertheless, this last relationship was only significant in boys. The results are discussed in connection with the promotion of healthy lifestyle guidelines among adolescents. This model shows the importance of physical self-concept for engaging in physical activity in adolescence. It also suggests that physical activity is associated with the intention to continue being physically active and with healthy lifestyle habits.

  17. BDNF Responses in Healthy Older Persons to 35 Minutes of Physical Exercise, Cognitive Training, and Mindfulness: Associations with Working Memory Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håkansson, Krister; Ledreux, Aurélie; Daffner, Kirk; Terjestam, Yvonne; Bergman, Patrick; Carlsson, Roger; Kivipelto, Miia; Winblad, Bengt; Granholm, Ann-Charlotte; Mohammed, Abdul Kadir H

    2017-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has a central role in brain plasticity by mediating changes in cortical thickness and synaptic density in response to physical activity and environmental enrichment. Previous studies suggest that physical exercise can augment BDNF levels, both in serum and the brain, but no other study has examined how different types of activities compare with physical exercise in their ability to affect BDNF levels. By using a balanced cross over experimental design, we exposed nineteen healthy older adults to 35-minute sessions of physical exercise, cognitive training, and mindfulness practice, and compared the resulting changes in mature BDNF levels between the three activities. We show that a single bout of physical exercise has significantly larger impact on serum BDNF levels than either cognitive training or mindfulness practice in the same persons. This is the first study on immediate BDNF effects of physical activity in older healthy humans and also the first study to demonstrate an association between serum BDNF responsivity to acute physical exercise and working memory function. We conclude that the BDNF increase we found after physical exercise more probably has a peripheral than a central origin, but that the association between post-intervention BDNF levels and cognitive function could have implications for BDNF responsivity in serum as a potential marker of cognitive health.

  18. Mind a brief introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Searle, John R

    2004-01-01

    "The philosophy of mind is unique among contemporary philosophical subjects," writes John Searle, "in that all of the most famous and influential theories are false." One of the world's most eminent thinkers, Searle dismantles these theories as he presents a vividly written, comprehensive introduction to the mind. He begins with a look at the twelve problems of philosophy of mind--which he calls "Descartes and Other Disasters"--problems which he returns to throughout the volume, as he illuminates such topics as materialism, consciousness, the mind-body problem, intentionality, mental causation, free will, and the self. The book offers a refreshingly direct and engaging introduction to one of the most intriguing areas of philosophy.

  19. 雪域藏香 养生养心%TIBETAN INCENSE, HELP PEOPLE KEEP SOUND IN BODY AND MIND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴云春; 王郢

    2012-01-01

    Incense is one of the best human culture feelings. It is like the invisible elf, which you cannot touch and see, but it can go straight to your heart and activate the real feeling. You can completely relax from mind and soul in incense.%香是人类最美好的文化感受之一,它像隐身的精灵,你摸不着它,看不到它,它却能直达你身心的根底,激活最真实的感受,在袅袅烟气中,恣意畅怀,任心灵的悸动自在奔驰。在藏民族漫长的发展过程中,藏香扮演着重要角色,承载着厚重的雪域文化内涵,散发出辽远的青藏文明的神秘气息。除了祭祀礼佛,藏香还有很好的养生功效。

  20. Immediate hematological toxicity of linezolid in healthy volunteers with different body weight: a phase I clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yun; Chai, Dong; Falagas, Matthew E; Vouloumanou, Evridiki K; Wang, Rui; Guo, Daihong; Bai, Nan; Liang, Beibei; Liu, Youning

    2012-04-01

    Linezolid is an important therapeutic option for infections from multi-drug resistant Gram-positive pathogens. However, prolonged linezolid treatment (>14 days) is considered to increase the risk of hematological adverse events. We aimed to evaluate the hematological safety profile of an i.v. single dose of linezolid in healthy volunteers of different body weight. We conducted a phase I clinical trial involving 20 healthy male Chinese volunteers that received an i.v. single dose of linezolid (600 mg). The study participants were assigned to two groups: low-weight (LW) group: 50 kg weight ≤55 kg and high-weight (HW) group: ≥80 kg. A significant decrease in the hemoglobin (Hb) levels and red blood cell (RBC) count was observed at the end of administration of the study drug in both groups. White blood cell (WBC) count was simultaneously decreased in the HW group. In the LW group, Hb levels and RBC count were also significantly decreased at 5, 7 and 24 h. In the HW group, both values were significantly decreased at 5 h. At 48 h all values were normal. The observed decreases were numerically higher in the LW group compared with the HW group. Yet, no statistical significance was noted. No difference was observed in the platelet count in both the groups. Our findings suggest that linezolid-associated hematological toxicity may also occur shortly after the i.v. administration of the drug in both LW and HW healthy volunteers. Early initiated continuous monitoring of hematological values and linezolid dosage adjustment for body weight are recommended.

  1. Pelvic floor muscle strength evaluation in different body positions in nulliparous healthy women and its correlation with sexual activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Orsi Gameiro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective The aim of this study was to assess pelvic floor muscle (PFM strength in different body positions in nulliparous healthy women and its correlation with sexual activity. Materials and Methods Fifty healthy nulliparous women with mean age of 23 years were prospectively studied. Subjective evaluation of PFM was assessed by transvaginal digital palpation (TDP of anterior and posterior areas regarding the vaginal introitus. A perineometer with inflatable vaginal probe was used to assess the PFM strength in four different positions: supine with extended lower limbs (P1; bent-knee supine (P2; sitting (P3; standing (P4. Results Physical activity, 3 times per week, was reported by 58% of volunteers. Sexual activity was observed in 80% of women and 82% of them presented orgasm. The average body mass index (BMI was 21.76 kg/m2, considered as normal according World Health Organization (WHO. We observed that 68% of volunteers were conscious about the PFM contraction. TDP showed concordance of 76% when anterior and posterior areas were compared (p = 0.00014. There was not correlation between PFM strength and orgasm in subjective evaluation. The PFM strength was significantly higher in standing position when compared with the other positions (p < 0.000. No statistical difference was observed between orgasm and PFM strength when objective evaluations were performed. Conclusions There was concordance between anterior and posterior areas in 76% of cases when subjective PFM strength was assessed. In objective evaluation, higher PFM strength was observed when volunteers were standing. No statistical correlation was observed between PFM strength and orgasm in nulliparous healthy women.

  2. Mindful art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malafouris, Lambros

    2013-04-01

    Bullot & Reber (B&R) begin asking if the study of the mind's inner life can provide a foundation for a science of art. Clearly there are many epistemological problems involved in the study of the cognitive and affective basis of art appreciation. I argue that context is key. I also propose that as long as the "mind's life" continues to be perceived as an "inner" intracranial phenomenon, little progress can be made. Mind and art are one.

  3. Alterations in the sense of time, space, and body in the mindfulness-trained brain: a neurophenomenologically-guided MEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkovich-Ohana, Aviva; Dor-Ziderman, Yair; Glicksohn, Joseph; Goldstein, Abraham

    2013-01-01

    Meditation practice can lead to what have been referred to as "altered states of consciousness."One of the phenomenological characteristics of these states is a joint alteration in the sense of time, space, and body. Here, we set out to study the unique experiences of alteration in the sense of time and space by collaborating with a select group of 12 long-term mindfulness meditation (MM) practitioners in a neurophenomenological setup, utilizing first-person data to guide the neural analyses. We hypothesized that the underlying neural activity accompanying alterations in the sense of time and space would be related to alterations in bodily processing. The participants were asked to volitionally bring about distinct states of "Timelessness" (outside time) and "Spacelessness" (outside space) while their brain activity was recorded by MEG. In order to rule out the involvement of attention, memory, or imagination, we used control states of "Then" (past) and "There" (another place). MEG sensors evidencing alterations in power values were identified, and the brain regions underlying these changes were estimated via spatial filtering (beamforming). Particularly, we searched for similar neural activity hypothesized to underlie both the state of "Timelessness" and "Spacelessness." The results were mostly confined to the theta band, and showed that: (1) the "Then"/"There" overlap yielded activity in regions related to autobiographic memory and imagery (right posterior parietal lobule (PPL), right precentral/middle frontal gyrus (MFG), bilateral precuneus); (2) "Timelessness"/"Spacelessness" conditions overlapped in a different network, related to alterations in the sense of the body (posterior cingulate, right temporoparietal junction (TPJ), cerebellum); and (3) phenomenologically-guided neural analyses enabled us to dissociate different levels of alterations in the sense of the body. This study illustrates the utility of employing experienced contemplative practitioners

  4. Overcoming the Philosophy/Life, Body/Mind Rift: Demonstrating Yoga as Embodied-Lived-Philosophical-Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergas, Oren

    2014-01-01

    Philosophy's essence depicted by Socrates lies in its role as pedagogy for living, yet its traditional treatment of "body" as a hindrance to "knowledge" in fact severs it from life, transforming it into "an escape from life" (James, 1978, p. 18). The philosophy/life dichotomy is thus an inherent flaw preventing…

  5. Aging Trajectories in Different Body Systems Share Common Environmental Etiology: The Healthy Aging Twin Study (HATS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moayyeri, Alireza; Hart, Deborah J; Snieder, Harold; Hammond, Christopher J; Spector, Timothy D; Steves, Claire J

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about the extent to which aging trajectories of different body systems share common sources of variance. We here present a large twin study investigating the trajectories of change in five systems: cardiovascular, respiratory, skeletal, morphometric, and metabolic. Longitudinal clinical data were collected on 3,508 female twins in the TwinsUK registry (complete pairs:740 monozygotic (MZ), 986 dizygotic (DZ), mean age at entry 48.9 ± 10.4, range 18-75 years; mean follow-up 10.2 ± 2.8 years, range 4-17.8 years). Panel data on multiple age-related variables were used to estimate biological ages for each individual at each time point, in linear mixed effects models. A weighted average approach was used to combine variables within predefined body system groups. Aging trajectories for each system in each individual were then constructed using linear modeling. Multivariate structural equation modeling of these aging trajectories showed low genetic effects (heritability), ranging from 2% in metabolic aging to 22% in cardiovascular aging. However, we found a significant effect of shared environmental factors on the variations in aging trajectories in cardiovascular (54%), skeletal (34%), morphometric (53%), and metabolic systems (53%). The remainder was due to environmental factors unique to each individual plus error. Multivariate Cholesky decomposition showed that among aging trajectories for various body systems there were significant and substantial correlations between the unique environmental latent factors as well as shared environmental factors. However, there was no evidence for a single common factor for aging. This study, the first of its kind in aging, suggests that diverse organ systems share non-genetic sources of variance for aging trajectories. Confirmatory studies are needed using population-based twin cohorts and alternative methods of handling missing data.

  6. Prolactin secretion in healthy adults is determined by gender, age and body mass index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinand Roelfsema

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prolactin (PRL secretion is quantifiable as mean, peak and nadir PRL concentrations, degree of irregularity (ApEn, approximate entropy and spikiness (brief staccato-like fluctuations. HYPOTHESIS: Distinct PRL dynamics reflect relatively distinct (combinations of subject variables, such as gender, age, and BMI. LOCATION: Clinical Research Unit. SUBJECTS: Seventy-four healthy adults aged 22-77 yr (41 women and 33 men, with BMI 18.3-39.4 kg/m(2. MEASURES: Immunofluorometric PRL assay of 10-min samples collected for 24 hours. RESULTS: Mean 24-h PRL concentration correlated jointly with gender (P<0.0001 and BMI (P = 0.01, but not with age (overall R(2 = 0.308, P<0.0001. Nadir PRL concentration correlated with gender only (P = 0.017 and peak PRL with gender (P<0.001 and negatively with age (P<0.003, overall R(2 = 0.325, P<0.0001. Forward-selection multivariate regression of PRL deconvolution results demonstrated that basal (nonpulsatile PRL secretion tended to be associated with BMI (R(2 = 0.058, P = 0.03, pulsatile secretion with gender (R(2 = 0.152, P = 0.003, and total secretion with gender and BMI (R(2 = 0.204, P<0.0001. Pulse mass was associated with gender (P = 0.001 and with a negative tendency to age (P = 0.038. In male subjects older than 50 yr (but not in women approximate entropy was increased (0.942±0.301 vs. 1.258±0.267, P = 0.007 compared with younger men, as well as spikiness (0.363±0.122 vs. 0463±2.12, P = 0.031. Cosinor analysis disclosed higher mesor and amplitude in females than in men, but the acrophase was gender-independent. The acrophase was determined by age and BMI (R(2 = 0.186, P = 0.001. CONCLUSION: In healthy adults, selective combinations of gender, age, and BMI specify distinct PRL dynamics, thus requiring balanced representation of these variables in comparative PRL studies.

  7. Body Mass Index, percent body fat, and regional body fat distribution in relation to leptin concentrations in healthy, non-smoking postmenopausal women in a feeding study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell William

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between BMI and leptin has been studied extensively in the past, but previous reports in postmenopausal women have not been conducted under carefully controlled dietary conditions of weight maintenance using precise measures of body fat distribution. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between serum leptin concentration and adiposity as estimated by BMI and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA measures (percent body fat, central and peripheral fat, and lean mass in postmenopausal women. Methods This study was conducted as a cross-sectional analysis within the control segment of a randomized, crossover trial in which postmenopausal women (n = 51 consumed 0 (control, 15 (one drink, and 30 (two drinks g alcohol (ethanol/d for 8 weeks as part of a controlled diet. BMIs were determined and DEXA scans were administered to the women during the 0 g alcohol treatment, and a blood sample was collected at baseline and week 8 of each study period for leptin analysis. Results and discussion In multivariate analysis, women who were overweight (BMI > 25 to ≤ 30 kg/m2 had a 2-fold increase, and obese women (BMI > 30 kg/m2 had more than a 3-fold increase in serum leptin concentrations compared to normal weight (BMI ≤25 kg/m2 women. When the models for the different measures of adiposity were assessed by multiple R2, models which included percent body fat explained the highest proportion (approximately 80% of the serum leptin variance. Conclusion Under carefully controlled dietary conditions, we confirm that higher levels of adiposity were associated with higher concentrations of serum leptin. It appears that percent body fat in postmenopausal women may be the best adiposity-related predictor of serum leptin.

  8. The psychomotor theory of human mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Uner

    2007-08-01

    This study presents a new theory to explain the neural origins of human mind. This is the psychomotor theory. The author briefly analyzed the historical development of the mind-brain theories. The close relations between psychological and motor systems were subjected to a rather detailed analysis, using psychiatric and neurological examples. The feedback circuits between mind, brain, and body were shown to occur within the mind-brain-body triad, in normal states, and psycho-neural diseases. It was stated that psychiatric signs and symptoms are coupled with motor disturbances; neurological diseases are coupled with psychological disturbances; changes in cortico-spinal motor-system activity may influence mind-brain-body triad, and vice versa. Accordingly, a psychomotor theory was created to explain the psychomotor coupling in health and disease, stating that, not the mind-brain duality or unity, but the mind-brain-body triad as a functional unit may be essential in health and disease, because mind does not end in the brain, but further controls movements, in a reciprocal manner; mental and motor events share the same neural substrate, cortical, and spinal motoneurons; mental events emerging from the motoneuronal system expressed by the human language may be closely coupled with the unity of the mind-brain-body triad. So, the psychomotor theory rejects the mind-brain duality and instead advances the unity of the psychomotor system, which will have important consequences in understanding and improving the human mind, brain, and body in health and disease.

  9. Comparision between body mass index and abdominal obesity for the screening for diabetes in healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Gopinath

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study about the usefulness of Waist-Height Ratio as a clinical marker in patients with Metabolic Syndrome. Materials and Methods: A clinic-based study of patients attending a secondary level Diabetic Clinic and correlation of their Anthropometry data like waist circumference, height to other parameters namely body mass index (BMI, Waist-Hip Ratio, Blood pressure, Glycemic Control, Lipid Profile, and Duration of Diabetes. Inclusion Criteria: Randomly selected 10 000 patients attending a secondary level diabetic clinic. Exclusion Criteria: Type 1 DM, Gestational Diabetes. Result: Waist-Height Ratio is a better parameter than Waist-Hip Ratio and it is significant in applying for people with different Stature with Normal BMI. Conclusion: Waist-Height Ratio is a better and easier tool when compared with BMI or Waist-Hip Ratio and can be used for assessment of Cardio-metabolic parameter for public health.

  10. Mindful innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Poul Bitsch

    2008-01-01

    Mindful innovation is an approach to innovation that pays attention to people's experience in an organization rather than to formal organization or social role.......Mindful innovation is an approach to innovation that pays attention to people's experience in an organization rather than to formal organization or social role....

  11. Alterations in the sense of time, space and body in the Mindfulness-trained brain: A neurophenomenologically-guided MEG study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aviva eBerkovich-Ohana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Meditation practice can lead to what have been referred to as 'altered states of consciousness'. One of the phenomenological characteristics of these states is a joint alteration in the sense of time, space and body. Here, we set out to study the unique experiences of alteration in the sense of time and space by collaborating with a select group of 12 long-term Mindfulness meditation practitioners in a neurophenomenological setup, utilizing first-person data to guide the neural analyses. We hypothesized that the underlying neural activity accompanying alterations in the sense of time and space would be related to alterations in bodily processing.The participants were asked to volitionally bring about distinct states of 'Timelessness' (outside time and 'Spacelessness' (outside space while their brain activity was recorded by MEG. In order to rule out the involvement of attention, memory or imagination, we used control states of 'Then' (past and 'There' (another place. MEG sensors evidencing alterations in power values were identified, and the brain regions underlying these changes were estimated via spatial filtering (beamforming. Particularly, we searched for similar neural activity hypothesized to underlie both the state of 'Timelessness' and 'Spacelessness'. The results were mostly confined to the theta band, and showed that: 1 the 'Then' / 'There' overlap yielded activity in regions related to autobiographic memory and imagery (right posterior parietal lobule, right precentral / middle frontal gyrus, bilateral precuneus; 2 'Timelessness' / 'Spacelessness' conditions overlapped in a different network, related to alterations in the sense of the body (posterior cingulate, right temporoparietal junction, cerebellum; and 3 phenomenologically-guided neural analyses enabled us to dissociate different levels of alterations in the sense of the body. This study illustrates the utility of employing experienced contemplative practitioners within a

  12. Latent association between low urine pH and low body weight in an apparently healthy population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Kei; Oda, Eiji; Kanda, Eiichiro

    2016-01-01

    Low urine pH, a plausible predictor for chronic kidney disease and metabolic disorders, is often observed in obese individuals. However, the association between low urine pH and low body weight is equivocal. We examined clinical parameters including urine pH and body mass index (BMI) in a cross-sectional study of 3629 apparently healthy Japanese adults aged 25-80 years who underwent a health-screening check-up. Urine pH was lower and the prevalence of proteinuria was significantly higher in subjects with BMI of ≥ 27.0 kg/m(2) compared with those with BMI of 21.0-22.9 kg/m(2). By contrast, hematuria was more prevalent in subjects with BMI of ≤ 20.9 kg/m(2). Logistic regression analysis showed that BMI of ≥ 27.0 kg/m(2) was significantly associated with low urine pH (≤ 5.5), which remained significant after adjustment for relevant confounders including age, sex, proteinuria, estimated glomerular filtration rate, urine density, hematuria, smoking status, and daily alcohol drinking. However, the association disappeared after further adjustment for serum uric acid. In contrast, the association between low urine pH and BMI of ≤ 19.0 kg/m(2) was significant after adjustment for age and sex and rather strengthened by the further adjustment for serum uric acid. In conclusion, low urine pH may be independently associated with low BMI. However, the underlying mechanisms of low urine pH in low body weight may differ from those in high body weight.

  13. Aerobic and Mind and Body Discuss and Analyse Healthily%有氧运动与身心健康探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐辉

    2011-01-01

    健康与运动是密不可分的,运动分为有氧和无氧,有氧运动较无氧运动更易普及和被大众接受,从人体长期参加有氧运动对人的身体健康和心理健康的角度来阐述有氧运动对人体的良好影响。%Human body health and sport are inseparables, sport separates the Aerobic with have no oxygen sport, Aerobic compare have no oxygen sport alter universality and is accepted by the public, attending Aerobic's healthy body to canvasser and mental state-to i

  14. Whole body creatine and protein kinetics in healthy men and women: effects of creatine and amino acid supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalhan, Satish C; Gruca, Lourdes; Marczewski, Susan; Bennett, Carole; Kummitha, China

    2016-03-01

    Creatine kinetics were measured in young healthy subjects, eight males and seven females, age 20-30 years, after an overnight fast on creatine-free diet. Whole body turnover of glycine and its appearance in creatine was quantified using [1-(13)C] glycine and the rate of protein turnover was quantified using L-ring [(2)H5] phenylalanine. The creatine pool size was estimated by the dilution of a bolus [C(2)H3] creatine. Studies were repeated following a five days supplement creatine 21 g.day(-1) and following supplement amino acids 14.3 g day(-1). Creatine caused a ten-fold increase in the plasma concentration of creatine and a 50 % decrease in the concentration of guanidinoacetic acid. Plasma amino acids profile showed a significant decrease in glycine, glutamine, and taurine and a significant increase in citrulline, valine, lysine, and cysteine. There was a significant decrease in the rate of appearance of glycine, suggesting a decrease in de-novo synthesis (p = 0.006). The fractional and absolute rate of synthesis of creatine was significantly decreased by supplemental creatine. Amino acid supplement had no impact on any of the parameters. This is the first detailed analysis of creatine kinetics and the effects of creatine supplement in healthy young men and women. These methods can be applied for the analysis of creatine kinetics in different physiological states.

  15. Single whole-body cryostimulation procedure versus single dry sauna bath: comparison of oxidative impact on healthy male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutkowy, Paweł; Woźniak, Alina; Rajewski, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to extreme heat and cold is one of the environmental factors whose action is precisely based on the mechanisms involving free radicals. Fluctuations in ambient temperature are among the agents that toughen the human organism. The goal of the study was to evaluate the impact of extremely high (dry sauna, DS) and low (whole-body cryostimulation, WBC) environmental temperatures on the oxidant-antioxidant equilibrium in the blood of healthy male subjects. The subjects performed a single DS bath (n = 10; 26.2 ± 4.6 years) and a single WBC procedure (n = 15; 27.5 ± 3.1 years). In the subjects' blood taken immediately before and 20 min after the interventions, the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in erythrocytes (TBARSer) and blood plasma (TBARSpl) were determined. Single WBC and DS procedures induced an increase in the activity of SOD and GPx, as well as SOD and CAT, respectively. The SOD activity was higher after WBC than after DS. Extremely high and low temperatures probably induce the formation of reactive oxygen species in the organisms of healthy men and, therefore, disturb the oxidant-antioxidant balance.

  16. Single Whole-Body Cryostimulation Procedure versus Single Dry Sauna Bath: Comparison of Oxidative Impact on Healthy Male Volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Sutkowy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to extreme heat and cold is one of the environmental factors whose action is precisely based on the mechanisms involving free radicals. Fluctuations in ambient temperature are among the agents that toughen the human organism. The goal of the study was to evaluate the impact of extremely high (dry sauna, DS and low (whole-body cryostimulation, WBC environmental temperatures on the oxidant-antioxidant equilibrium in the blood of healthy male subjects. The subjects performed a single DS bath (n=10; 26.2 ± 4.6 years and a single WBC procedure (n=15; 27.5 ± 3.1 years. In the subjects’ blood taken immediately before and 20 min after the interventions, the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx and the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in erythrocytes (TBARSer and blood plasma (TBARSpl were determined. Single WBC and DS procedures induced an increase in the activity of SOD and GPx, as well as SOD and CAT, respectively. The SOD activity was higher after WBC than after DS. Extremely high and low temperatures probably induce the formation of reactive oxygen species in the organisms of healthy men and, therefore, disturb the oxidant-antioxidant balance.

  17. Genomic and clinical effects associated with a relaxation response mind-body intervention in patients with irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braden Kuo

    Full Text Available Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS and Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD can profoundly affect quality of life and are influenced by stress and resiliency. The impact of mind-body interventions (MBIs on IBS and IBD patients has not previously been examined.Nineteen IBS and 29 IBD patients were enrolled in a 9-week relaxation response based mind-body group intervention (RR-MBI, focusing on elicitation of the RR and cognitive skill building. Symptom questionnaires and inflammatory markers were assessed pre- and post-intervention, and at short-term follow-up. Peripheral blood transcriptome analysis was performed to identify genomic correlates of the RR-MBI.Pain Catastrophizing Scale scores improved significantly post-intervention for IBD and at short-term follow-up for IBS and IBD. Trait Anxiety scores, IBS Quality of Life, IBS Symptom Severity Index, and IBD Questionnaire scores improved significantly post-intervention and at short-term follow-up for IBS and IBD, respectively. RR-MBI altered expression of more genes in IBD (1059 genes than in IBS (119 genes. In IBD, reduced expression of RR-MBI response genes was most significantly linked to inflammatory response, cell growth, proliferation, and oxidative stress-related pathways. In IBS, cell cycle regulation and DNA damage related gene sets were significantly upregulated after RR-MBI. Interactive network analysis of RR-affected pathways identified TNF, AKT and NF-κB as top focus molecules in IBS, while in IBD kinases (e.g. MAPK, P38 MAPK, inflammation (e.g. VEGF-C, NF-κB and cell cycle and proliferation (e.g. UBC, APP related genes emerged as top focus molecules.In this uncontrolled pilot study, participation in an RR-MBI was associated with improvements in disease-specific measures, trait anxiety, and pain catastrophizing in IBS and IBD patients. Moreover, observed gene expression changes suggest that NF-κB is a target focus molecule in both IBS and IBD-and that its regulation may contribute to

  18. Effects of whole-body vibration training on fibrinolytic and coagulative factors in healthy young men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Ghazalian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim was to evaluate effects of 5-week whole body vibration (WBV training with different amplitudes and progressive frequencies on fibrinolytic/coagulative factors. Materials and Methods: 25 subjects were divided randomly in high or low-amplitude vibration, and control groups. Training consisted of 5-week WBV with amplitudes 4 or 2 mm. Plasma samples were analyzed before and after training. Statistical analysis was done using one-way analysis of variance and Wilcoxon signed ranked test. P <0.05 was considered significant. Results: High-amplitude vibration caused an increase in tissue plasminogen activator (tPA (P = 0.028 (pretest: 1744.61 ± 707.95; posttest: 2313.63 ± 997.19 pg/ml, and decrease in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 (P = 0.033 (pretest: 97.94 ± 34.37; posttest: 85.12 ± 36.92 ng/ml. Fibrinogen and plasminogen were not changed significantly. Low-amplitude vibration caused an increase in tPA (P = 0.006 (pretest: 2208.18 ± 1280.37; posttest: 3492.72 ± 3549.22 pg/ml. PAI-1, fibrinogen and plasminogen were not changed significantly. There were no significant differences between groups. Conclusion: Amplitude of vibrations in WBV training may affect fibrinolytic factors.

  19. Body Site Is a More Determinant Factor than Human Population Diversity in the Healthy Skin Microbiome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo I Perez Perez

    Full Text Available We studied skin microbiota present in three skin sites (forearm, axilla, scalp in men from six ethnic groups living in New York City.Samples were obtained at baseline and after four days following use of neutral soap and stopping regular hygiene products, including shampoos and deodorants. DNA was extracted using the MoBio Power Lyzer kit and 16S rRNA gene sequences determined on the IIlumina MiSeq platform, using QIIME for analysis.Our analysis confirmed skin swabbing as a useful method for sampling different areas of the skin because DNA concentrations and number of sequences obtained across subject libraries were similar. We confirmed that skin location was the main factor determining the composition of bacterial communities. Alpha diversity, expressed as number of species observed, was greater in arm than on scalp or axilla in all studied groups. We observed an unexpected increase in α-diversity on arm, with similar tendency on scalp, in the South Asian group after subjects stopped using their regular shampoos and deodorants. Significant differences at phylum and genus levels were observed between subjects of the different ethnic origins at all skin sites.We conclude that ethnicity and particular soap and shampoo practices are secondary factors compared to the ecological zone of the human body in determining cutaneous microbiota composition.

  20. Body Site Is a More Determinant Factor than Human Population Diversity in the Healthy Skin Microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Perez, Guillermo I.; Gao, Zhan; Jourdain, Roland; Ramirez, Julia; Gany, Francesca; Clavaud, Cecile; Demaude, Julien

    2016-01-01

    We studied skin microbiota present in three skin sites (forearm, axilla, scalp) in men from six ethnic groups living in New York City. Methods. Samples were obtained at baseline and after four days following use of neutral soap and stopping regular hygiene products, including shampoos and deodorants. DNA was extracted using the MoBio Power Lyzer kit and 16S rRNA gene sequences determined on the IIlumina MiSeq platform, using QIIME for analysis. Results. Our analysis confirmed skin swabbing as a useful method for sampling different areas of the skin because DNA concentrations and number of sequences obtained across subject libraries were similar. We confirmed that skin location was the main factor determining the composition of bacterial communities. Alpha diversity, expressed as number of species observed, was greater in arm than on scalp or axilla in all studied groups. We observed an unexpected increase in α-diversity on arm, with similar tendency on scalp, in the South Asian group after subjects stopped using their regular shampoos and deodorants. Significant differences at phylum and genus levels were observed between subjects of the different ethnic origins at all skin sites. Conclusions. We conclude that ethnicity and particular soap and shampoo practices are secondary factors compared to the ecological zone of the human body in determining cutaneous microbiota composition. PMID:27088867

  1. Effects of supplemental fish oil on resting metabolic rate, body composition, and salivary cortisol in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pabon Vanessa A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the effects of supplemental fish oil (FO on resting metabolic rate (RMR, body composition, and cortisol production in healthy adults. Methods A total of 44 men and women (34 ± 13y, mean+SD participated in the study. All testing was performed first thing in the morning following an overnight fast. Baseline measurements of RMR were measured using indirect calorimetry using a facemask, and body composition was measured using air displacement plethysmography. Saliva was collected via passive drool and analyzed for cortisol concentration using ELISA. Following baseline testing, subjects were randomly assigned in a double blind manner to one of two groups: 4 g/d of Safflower Oil (SO; or 4 g/d of FO supplying 1,600 mg/d eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and 800 mg/d docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. All tests were repeated following 6 wk of treatment. Pre to post differences were analyzed using a treatment X time repeated measures ANOVA, and correlations were analyzed using Pearson's r. Results Compared to the SO group, there was a significant increase in fat free mass following treatment with FO (FO = +0.5 ± 0.5 kg, SO = -0.1 ± 1.2 kg, p = 0.03, a significant reduction in fat mass (FO = -0.5 ± 1.3 kg, SO = +0.2 ± 1.2 kg, p = 0.04, and a tendency for a decrease in body fat percentage (FO = -0.4 ± 1.3% body fat, SO = +0. 3 ± 1.5% body fat, p = 0.08. No significant differences were observed for body mass (FO = 0.0 ± 0.9 kg, SO = +0.2 ± 0.8 kg, RMR (FO = +17 ± 260 kcal, SO = -62 ± 184 kcal or respiratory exchange ratio (FO = -0.02 ± 0.09, SO = +0.02 ± 0.05. There was a tendency for salivary cortisol to decrease in the FO group (FO = -0.064 ± 0.142 μg/dL, SO = +0.016 ± 0.272 μg/dL, p = 0.11. There was a significant correlation in the FO group between change in cortisol and change in fat free mass (r = -0.504, p = 0.02 and fat mass (r = 0.661, p = 0.001. Conclusion 6 wk of supplementation with FO significantly increased

  2. Meditation and mindfulness in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkin, Deborah R; Black, Nancy B

    2014-07-01

    This article describes the various forms of meditation and provides an overview of research using these techniques for children, adolescents, and their families. The most researched techniques in children and adolescents are mindfulness-based stress reduction, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, yoga meditation, transcendental meditation, mind-body techniques (meditation, relaxation), and body-mind techniques (yoga poses, tai chi movements). Current data are suggestive of a possible value of meditation and mindfulness techniques for treating symptomatic anxiety, depression, and pain in youth. Clinicians must be properly trained before using these techniques.

  3. Body-Related Social Comparison and Disordered Eating among Adolescent Females with an Eating Disorder, Depressive Disorder, and Healthy Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Le Grange

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between body-related social comparison (BRSC and eating disorders (EDs by: (a comparing the degree of BRSC in adolescents with an ED, depressive disorder (DD, and no psychiatric history; and (b investigating whether BRSC is associated with ED symptoms after controlling for symptoms of depression and self-esteem. Participants were 75 girls, aged 12–18 (25 per diagnostic group. To assess BRSC, participants reported on a 5-point Likert scale how often they compare their body to others’. Participants also completed a diagnostic interview, Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2, Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE. Compared to adolescents with a DD and healthy adolescents, adolescents with an ED engaged in significantly more BRSC (p ≤ 0.001. Collapsing across groups, BRSC was significantly positively correlated with ED symptoms (p ≤ 0.01, and these associations remained even after controlling for two robust predictors of both ED symptoms and social comparison, namely BDI-II and RSE. In conclusion, BRSC seems to be strongly related to EDs. Treatment for adolescents with an ED may focus on reducing BRSC.

  4. Prevalence of hypertension in healthy school children in Pakistan and its relationship with body mass index, proteinuria and hematuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshalooz Jamila Rahman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of high blood pressure (BP in healthy school Pakistani children and its association with high body mass index (BMI, asymptomatic hematuria and proteinuria, we studied 661 public school children and measured their body weight, height and BP and urine dipstick for hematuria performed on a single occasion. Hypertension (BP >95 th centile and pre-hypertension (BP >90 th centile were defined based on the US normative BP tables. Over-weight and obesity were defined according to the World Health Organization (WHO classification of BMI. The mean age of the children was 14 ± 1.3 years. The mean BMI was 18.5 ± 4.3 kg/m 2 . The majority (81.8% of the children were found to be normotensive (BP 25 (RR for BMI b/w 25-30 = 2.6, RR for BMI >30 = 4.3, positive urine dipstick for proteinuria (RR = 2.3 95% CI 0.7-7.7 and positive urine dipstick for hematuria (RR 1.0 95% CI 0.2-8.3. Hypertension in children is strongly correlated with obesity, asymptomatic proteinuria and hematuria. Community based screening programs for children should include BP recording, BMI assessment and urine dipsticks analysis and approach high-risk groups for early detection and lifestyle modifications.

  5. Seeking Mind, Body and Spirit Healing—Why Some Men with Prostate Cancer Choose CAM (Complementary and Alternative Medicine over Conventional Cancer Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret A. White

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about men with prostate cancer who decline conventional treatment and use only complementary and alternative medicine (CAM.Objectives: To 1 explore why men decline conventional prostate cancer treatment and use CAM 2 understand the role of holistic healing in their care, and 3 document their recommendations for health care providers.Methods: Semi-structured interviews and follow-up focus groups.Sample: Twenty-nine men diagnosed with prostate cancer who declined all recommended conventional treatments and used CAM.Results: Based on strong beliefs about healing, study participants took control by researching the risks of delaying or declining conventional treatment while using CAM as a first option. Most perceived conventional treatment to have a negative impact on quality of life. Participants sought healing in a broader mind, body, spirit context, developing individualized CAM approaches consistent with their beliefs about the causes of cancer. Most made significant lifestyle changes to improve their health. Spirituality was central to healing for one-third of the sample. Participants recommended a larger role for integrated cancer care.Conclusion: Men who decline conventional prostate cancer treatment and use CAM only may benefit from a whole person approach to care where physicians support them to play an active role in healing while carefully monitoring their disease status.

  6. Perspectives on Technology-Assisted Relaxation Approaches to Support Mind-Body Skills Practice in Children and Teens: Clinical Experience and Commentary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Culbert

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been well-established that a variety of mind-body (MB techniques, including yoga, mental imagery, hypnosis, biofeedback, and meditation, are effective at addressing symptoms such as pain, anxiety, nausea, and insomnia, as well as helping with a wide variety of medical, emotional, and behavioral issues in pediatric populations. In addition, MB skills can also be health promoting in the long-term, and with regular practice, could potentially contribute to longer attention spans, social skills, emotional regulation, and enhanced immune system functioning. Importantly, the benefits accrued from MB skills are largely dose dependent, meaning that individuals who practice with some consistency tend to benefit the most, both in the short- and long-term. However, clinical experience suggests that for busy patients, the regular practice of MB skills can be challenging and treatment adherence commonly becomes an issue. This commentary reviews the concept of technology assisted relaxation as an engaging and effective option to enhance treatment adherence (i.e., daily practice for pediatric patients, for whom MB skills have been recommended to address physical and mental health challenges.

  7. Cisão corpo/mente na escola: uma analise a partir da epistemologia social/Split body and mind in school: a social epistemology analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Zaboli

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A proposta aqui foi a de apresentar uma epistemologia social acerca do objeto: cisão corpo e mente na escola e na Educação Física. A escolha da referida base teórica para a abordagem do objeto em questão está pautada no interesse de distinguir uma nova interpretação que module o antagonismo entre as matrizes materialistas e idealistas que há muito discutem o tema. Mais estritamente, nossa abordagem atenta para as determinações epistêmicas que o paradigma moderno da realidade humana cindida em corpo e mente possibilita em relação às construções sócio-históricas em torno dos arrolamentos de poder no âmbito da escola e da Educação Física. Para tanto, estabelecemos, dentre outros, um diálogo com Thomas Popkewitz e Michel Foucault, principais autores que versam sobre o tema da epistemologia social e das relações de poder, respectivamente. Doravante, nosso trabalho discorre especificamente sobre a escola como dispositivo de poder que agencia seus ideais sócio-culturais sobre o solo da cisão entre corpo e mente. Mais ainda, detemo-nos no fato de a escola e a Educação Física utilizarem os saberes técnicos e tecnológicos desenvolvidos sob o paradigma da cisão, com o fim de incrementarem os agenciamentos de poder em prol de ajustes sócio-culturais concernentes aos modos de pensar (mente e os modos de agir (corpo do humano em geral e em particular. Por último, restou-nos fôlego para tratarmos o fenômeno esporte enquanto palco político e artefato de agenciamento dos saberes e dos poderes, pois tem a capacidade de assegurar operações diretas sobre os modos de vida da população em prol de propostas ideológicas que sobre a sociedade moderna procuram unilateralmente controlar os modos de subjetivação dos sujeitos individuais e coletivos.The purpose of this article is to present a social epistemology concerning the following object: the split body and mind in the school and in the Physical Education. The choice of

  8. The novel association between red complex of oral microbe and body mass index in healthy Japanese: a population based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Kanae; Hamaguchi, Masahide; Hashimoto, Motomu; Yamazaki, Masahiro; Yamazaki, Toru; Asai, Keita; Yamori, Masashi; Bessho, Kazuhisa; Toda, Hitoshi; Hasegawa, Goji; Nakamura, Naoto; Fukui, Michiaki

    2015-09-01

    Microbiota has been thought to be one of important environmental factors for obesity or Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Among oral microbe, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola and Tannellera forsythia are known as risk factors, so called red complex, for periodontitis. Red complex could also be a risk factor for obesity. However, recent study indicated that obesity was not improved by periodontal therapy. Thus, we performed a cross sectional study to reveal the association of oral microbe with body mass index in a healthy population. Healthy individuals were randomly recruited. The infections of oral microbe were identified by Taqman polymerase chain reaction. The relationships between number of red complex and body mass index or waist circumference were analyzed. Two hundred and twenty-two apparently healthy Japanese were enrolled. BMI and waist circumference as well as age, periodontitis, number of brushing teeth were significantly associated with the number of red complex after adjusting covariance. The effect size of body mass index or waist circumference was 0.023 (p = 0.028) or 0.024 (p = 0.024), respectively. Body mass index and waist circumference were independently associated with the number of red complex among apparently healthy Japanese. The current observation implies the possibility that oral microbe was associated with obesity in healthy population.

  9. Actively Negotiating the Mind-Body Divide: How Clozapine-Treated Schizophrenia Patients Make Health for Themselves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Julia E H; Dennis, Simone

    2017-01-10

    It is well recognised that antipsychotic treatments impact the whole body, not just the target area of the brain. For people with refractory schizophrenia on clozapine, the gold standard antipsychotic treatment in England and Australia, the separation of mental and physical regimes of health is particularly pronounced, resulting in multiple, compartmentalised treatment registers. Clinicians often focus on the mental health aspects of clozapine use, using physical indicators to determine whether treatment can continue. Our observations of 59 participants in England and Australia over 18 months revealed that patients did not observe this hierarchisation of mental treatments and physical outcomes. Patients often actively engaged in the management of their bodily symptoms, leading us to advance the figure of the active, rather than passive, patient. In our paper, we do not take the position that the facility for active management is a special one utilised only by these patients. We seek instead to draw attention to what is currently overlooked as an ordinary capacity to enact some sort of control over life, even under ostensibly confined and confining circumstances. We argue that clozapine-treated schizophrenia patients utilise the clinical dichotomy between mental and physical domains of health to rework what health means to them. This permits patients to actively manage their own phenomenological 'life projects' (Rapport, I am Dynamite: an Alternative Anthropology of Power, Routledge, London 2003), and forces us to reconsider the notion of clinical giveness of what health means. This making of one's own meanings of health may be critical to the maintenance of a sense of self.

  10. Emaciated, Exhausted and Excited: The Bodies and Minds of the Irish in Nineteenth-Century Lancashire Asylums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Catherine; Marland, Hilary; York, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on asylum reception orders, casebooks and annual reports, as well as County Council notebooks recording the settlement of Irish patients, this article examines a deeply traumatic and enduring aspect of the Irish migration experience, the confinement of large numbers of Irish migrants in the Lancashire asylum system between the 1850s and the 1880s. This period saw a massive influx of impoverished Irish into the county, particularly in the post-Famine years. Asylum superintendents commented on the impact of Irish patients in terms of resulting management problems in what became, soon after their establishment, overcrowded and overstretched asylums. The article examines descriptions of Irish patients, many of whom were admitted in a poor state of health. They were also depicted as violent and difficult to manage, though reporting of this may have been swayed by anti-Irish sentiment. The article suggests that a hardening of attitudes took place in the 1870s and 1880s, when theories of degeneration took hold and the Irish in Ireland exhibited exceptionally high rates of institutionalization. It points to continuities across this period: the ongoing association between mental illness and migration long after the massive Famine influx had abated, and claims that the Irish, at one and the same time referred to as volatile and vulnerable, were particularly susceptible to the challenges of urban life, marked by their intemperance, liability to general paralysis, turbulence and immorality. Asylum superintendents also noted the relative isolation of the Irish, which led to their long-term incarceration. The article suggests that commentary about Irish asylum patients provides traction in considering broader perceptions of the Irish body, mobility and Irishness in nineteenth-century England, and a deeper understanding of institutionalization.

  11. Brief mindfulness meditation training reduces mind wandering: The critical role of acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahl, Hayley A; Lindsay, Emily K; Pacilio, Laura E; Brown, Kirk W; Creswell, J David

    2017-03-01

    Mindfulness meditation programs, which train individuals to monitor their present-moment experience in an open or accepting way, have been shown to reduce mind wandering on standardized tasks in several studies. Here we test 2 competing accounts for how mindfulness training reduces mind wandering, evaluating whether the attention-monitoring component of mindfulness training alone reduces mind wandering or whether the acceptance training component is necessary for reducing mind wandering. Healthy young adults (N = 147) were randomized to either a 3-day brief mindfulness training condition incorporating instruction in both attention monitoring and acceptance, a mindfulness training condition incorporating attention monitoring instruction only, a relaxation training condition, or an active reading-control condition. Participants completed measures of dispositional mindfulness and treatment expectancies before the training session on Day 1 and then completed a 6-min Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) measuring mind wandering after the training session on Day 3. Acceptance training was important for reducing mind wandering, such that the attention-monitoring plus acceptance mindfulness training condition had the lowest mind wandering relative to the other conditions, including significantly lower mind wandering than the attention-monitoring only mindfulness training condition. In one of the first experimental mindfulness training dismantling studies to-date, we show that training in acceptance is a critical driver of mindfulness-training reductions in mind wandering. This effect suggests that acceptance skills may facilitate emotion regulation on boring and frustrating sustained attention tasks that foster mind wandering, such as the SART. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. Mindful Movement and Skilled Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dav eClark

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel mind-body connection has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage higher-order inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer’s spectrum of mindful learning that spans from mindlessness to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais’ suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other

  13. Mindful movement and skilled attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Dav; Schumann, Frank; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2015-01-01

    Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel "mind-body connection" has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited) behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage "higher-order" inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer's spectrum of mindful learning that spans from "mindlessness" to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais' suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other populations.

  14. Effects of milk supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid on weight control and body composition in healthy overweight people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brida López-Plaza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs have shown beneficial effects in weight control therapy however this relation is not clear. Objetive: The aim of the study was to examine the effects and safety of 3 g of a 1:1 mix of c9-t11 and t10-c12 on weight control and body composition in healthy overweight individuals. Methods: A prospective, placebo-controlled, randomised double-blind, parallel clinical trial lasting 24 weeks was carried out in 38 volunteers (29w, 9m aged 30-55 years and BMI ≥ 27 -<30 kg/m² who consumed 200 ml/day of skimmed milk with 3g of CLAs or 3g olive oil (placebo. Anthropometric, biochemical and dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA tests were measured. Diet and physical activity were assessed. Results: Subjects maintained their habitual dietary and exercise patterns over the study. Only CLA group showed a significant decrease in weight (74.43 ± 10.45 vs 73.54 ± 11.66 kg, p = 0.029 and waist circumference (91.45 ± 10.33 vs 90.65 ± 9.84 cm, p = 0.012 between baseline and end of the study. BMI and waist height ratio decreased (28.44 ± 1.08 vs 27.81 ± 1.43 kg/m², p = 0.030 and 0.57 ± 0.05 vs 0.56 ± 0.04 p = 0.013 respectively in CLA group at the end. CLA group experienced a reduction in total fat mass after 24 weeks (38.62 ± 5.02 vs 36.65 ± 5.64%, p = 0.035. No decrease was observed in Control group. HOMA index had no changes. Conclusions: The consumption of skimmed milk enriched with 3g of a 1:1 mixture of c9-t11 and t10-c12 for 24 weeks led to a decrease in body weight and total fat mass in healthy, overweight subjects who maintained habitual diets and exercise patterns. No adverse effects were observed. Registered under ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier No. NCT01503047.

  15. Time use choices and healthy body weight: A multivariate analysis of data from the American Time use Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevens Robert B

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examine the relationship between time use choices and healthy body weight as measured by survey respondents' body mass index (BMI. Using data from the 2006 and 2007 American Time Use Surveys, we expand upon earlier research by including more detailed measures of time spent eating as well as measures of physical activity time and sedentary time. We also estimate three alternative models that relate time use to BMI. Results Our results suggest that time use and BMI are simultaneously determined. The preferred empirical model reveals evidence of an inverse relationship between time spent eating and BMI for women and men. In contrast, time spent drinking beverages while simultaneously doing other things and time spent watching television/videos are positively linked to BMI. For women only, time spent in food preparation and clean-up is inversely related to BMI while for men only, time spent sleeping is inversely related to BMI. Models that include grocery prices, opportunity costs of time, and nonwage income reveal that as these economic variables increase, BMI declines. Conclusions In this large, nationally representative data set, our analyses that correct for time use endogeneity reveal that the Americans' time use decisions have implications for their BMI. The analyses suggest that both eating time and context (i.e., while doing other tasks simultaneously matters as does time spent in food preparation, and time spent in sedentary activities. Reduced form models suggest that shifts in grocery prices, opportunity costs of time, and nonwage income may be contributing to alterations in time use patterns and food choices that have implications for BMI.

  16. Irisin plasma concentration in PCOS and healthy subjects is related to body fat content and android fat distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukajło, Katarzyna; Łaczmański, Łukasz; Kolackov, Katarzyna; Kuliczkowska-Płaksej, Justyna; Bolanowski, Marek; Milewicz, Andrzej; Daroszewski, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Irisin (Ir), a recently identified adipo-myokine, cleaved and secreted from the protein FNDC5 in response to physical activity, has been postulated to induce the differentiation of a subset of white adipocytes into brown fat and to mediate the beneficial effects on metabolic homeostasis. Metabolic syndrome (MS), a cluster of factors leading to impaired energy homeostasis, affects a significant proportion of subjects suffering from polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between Ir plasma concentrations and metabolic disturbances. The study group consisted of 179 PCOS patients and a population of 122 healthy controls (both groups aged 25-35 years). A subset of 90 subjects with MS was isolated. A positive association between Ir plasma level and MS in the whole group and in controls was found. In subjects with high adipose body content (>40%), Ir was higher than in lean persons (<30%). Our results showed a significant positive association between Ir concentration and android type of adipose tissue in the whole study group and in the control group. Understanding the role of Ir in increased energy expenditure may lead to the development of new therapeutics for obesity and obesity-related diseases.

  17. Absorption of bacampicillin and ampicillin and penetration into body fluids (skin blister fluid, saliva, tears) in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, C; Malerczyk, V; Klaus, M

    1978-01-01

    Equimolar doses of bacampicillin, which is rapidly converted to ampicillin in the body by hydrolysis, and ampicillin were administered orally, in the case of ampicillin also by intravenous injection, to 10 healthy subjects (cross-over study). Comparison of the areas under the serum concentrations curves after intravenous and oral administration showed that bacampillin was absorbed to 95% and orally given ampicillin to 35%. The mean peak serum levels (Cmax) after 0.8 g of oral bacampicillin were higher (15.9 microgram/ml) and appeared earlier (tmax 60 min) than after 0.556 g of oral ampicillin (3.2 microgram/ml, tmax 150 min). One and three hours after oral administration skin blister fluid contained four times more ampicillin after doses of bacampicillin than after oral ampicillin. One hour after intravenous injection of ampicillin the skin blister concentrations were 20 times higher than after oral administration of this antibiotic and three to four times higher than after oral administration of bacampicillin. The levels in saliva and tears were also determined and showed similar relationships. Since higher peaks serum levels resulted in higher and longer lasting concentrations in the extravascular space, bacampicillin is to be preferred for oral therapy.

  18. Enthesitis in patients with psoriatic arthritis, axial spondyloarthritis and healthy subjects assessed by ‘head-to-toe’ whole-body MRI and clinical examination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poggenborg, René Panduro; Eshed, Iris; Østergaard, Mikkel

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the ability of whole-body MRI (WBMRI) to detect axial and peripheral enthesitis in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA), and in healthy subjects (HS). Furthermore, to develop MRI enthesitis indices based on WBMRI and validate...

  19. Changes in insulin sensitivity precede changes in body composition during 14 days of step reduction combined with overfeeding in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Sine Haugaard; Hansen, Louise Seier; Pedersen, Maria

    2012-01-01

    A lifestyle characterized by inactivity and a high-calorie diet is a known risk factor for impaired insulin sensitivity and development of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. To investigate possible links, nine young healthy men (24 ± 3 yr; body mass index of 21.6 ± 2.5 kg/m(2)) completed 14 days of step...

  20. Rates and determinants of repeated participation in a web-based behavior change program for healthy body weight and healthy lifestyle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheijden, M.W.; Jans, M.P.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: In recent years, many tailored lifestyle counseling programs have become available through the Internet. Previous research into such programs has shown selective enrollment of relatively healthy people. However, because of the known dose-response relationship between the intensity and fr

  1. Potential long-term effects of a mind-body intervention for women with major depressive disorder: sustained mental health improvements with a pilot yoga intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinser, Patricia Anne; Elswick, R K; Kornstein, Susan

    2014-12-01

    Despite pharmacologic and psychotherapeutic advances over the past decades, many individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) experience recurrent depressive episodes and persistent depressive symptoms despite treatment with the usual care. Yoga is a mind-body therapeutic modality that has received attention in both the lay and research literature as a possible adjunctive therapy for depression. Although promising, recent findings about the positive mental health effects of yoga are limited because few studies have used standardized outcome measures and none of them have involved long-term follow-up beyond a few months after the intervention period. The goal of our research study was to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and effects of a yoga intervention for women with MDD using standardized outcome measures and a long follow-up period (1year after the intervention). The key finding is that previous yoga practice has long-term positive effects, as revealed in both qualitative reports of participants' experiences and in the quantitative data about depression and rumination scores over time. Although generalizability of the study findings is limited because of a very small sample size at the 1-year follow-up assessment, the trends in the data suggest that exposure to yoga may convey a sustained positive effect on depression, ruminations, stress, anxiety, and health-related quality of life. Whether an individual continues with yoga practice, simple exposure to a yoga intervention appears to provide sustained benefits to the individual. This is important because it is rare that any intervention, pharmacologic or non-pharmacologic, for depression conveys such sustained effects for individuals with MDD, particularly after the treatment is discontinued.

  2. Changes in body composition and cardiovascular risk indicators in healthy Spanish adolescents after lamb- (Ternasco de Aragón or chicken-based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Mesana Graffe

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the effect of lamb consumption (Protected Geographical Indication (PGI, Ternasco de Aragón on health indicators including body composition and cardiovascular risk indicators of healthy young Spanish students living in the area of Aragón, Spain. Methodology: A randomized-controlled and cross-over trial (two periods of 8 weeks duration assessing changes on body composition (body mass index and skinfold thicknesses and cardiovascular risk indicators of 50 participants randomly assigned to follow a normocaloric diet with lamb (Ternasco de Aragón or chicken. Body composition and serum cardiovascular risk profiles were measured both at baseline and follow-up. Results: Healthy men (n = 22 and women (n = 28, aged 19.43 ± 0.85 years were studied. Suprailiac skinfold thickness and waist circumference significantly decreased (p < 0.05 in the lamb-consumption group compared to the chicken based diet group. No significant changes were observed in the rest of the variables in either group. Tryacilglicerol and insulin serum concentrations significantly decreased (p < 0.05 in the lamb-consumption group compared to the chicken based diet group. Conclusions: The results suggest that regular consumption of lamb (Ternasco de Aragón can be integrated into a healthy, varied and well-balanced diet, as body composition and cardiovascular risk profile changes are similar or even healthier to those observed following chicken consumption.

  3. Efter mindfulness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjernholm, Ole; Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    Tematiserer nogle af de udfordringer, der møder dig, som regelmæssigt praktiserer mindfulness og kommer med bud på, hvad bevidsthedens vaner og mønstre betyder for dybden af stilhed - og hvordan man kan arbejde med den viden.......Tematiserer nogle af de udfordringer, der møder dig, som regelmæssigt praktiserer mindfulness og kommer med bud på, hvad bevidsthedens vaner og mønstre betyder for dybden af stilhed - og hvordan man kan arbejde med den viden....

  4. Mindfulness meditation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünenberg, Kristina; Walker, Hanne Kjærgaard; Knudsen, Jakob Skov

    2009-01-01

    Meditation er ikke et nyt fænomen i det danske samfund. Det er den fokus som meditationsformen Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) har været genstand for i de senere år imidlertid. Inden for en sundhedssociologisk ramme undersøges nogle af grundene til, at netop MBSR er blevet populær både i...... en analyse af empirien, i hvilken forfatterne bl.a. argumenterer for, at opfattelsen af virkninger tilskrevet mindfulness meditation må ses i relation til to diskurser, som fremanalyseres og benævnes henholdsvis autenticitets- og e ektiviseringsdiskurserne. Disse diskurser udgør i artiklen...

  5. The Limits of Mindfulness: Emerging Issues for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Terry

    2016-01-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) are being actively implemented in a wide range of fields--psychology, mind/body health care and education at all levels--and there is growing evidence of their effectiveness in aiding present-moment focus, fostering emotional stability, and enhancing general mind/body well-being. However, as often happens…

  6. Normatividade vital e dualidade corpo-mente Normatividad vital y dualidad cuerpo-mente Normativity of life and body-mind duality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Czeresnia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do artigo é abordar o problema da dualidade entre corpo e mente mediante a discussão do conceito de normatividade vital, proposto por Canguilhem. Destaca a necessidade de superar o conflito histórico entre vitalismo e mecanicismo e de construir um conceito que incorpore a dimensão psíquica como prolongamento do orgânico no humano. Busca realizar articulação entre questões em aberto na biologia e na física e apresenta as idéias de Roger Penrose sobre a ligação entre física e mente. Inquire a possibilidade de a física do século XX inscrever-se na biologia do século XXI. Defende que, para dar conta desse desafio, é imperioso considerar o limite humano em conhecer o universo. Com base nessa discussão, reafirma que a dimensão psíquica no homem pode ter evolucionado de uma capacidade biológica anterior de realizar 'escolhas' para fazer a vida perseverar.El objetivo de este artículo es abordar el problema de la dualidad cuerpo-mente mediante la discusión del concepto de normatividad vital, propuesto por Canguilhem. Destaca la necesidad de superar el conflicto histórico entre vitalismo y mecanicismo y de construir un concepto que incorpore la dimensión psíquica como prolongamiento de lo orgánico en lo humano. Busca realizar una articulación entre cuestiones abiertas en la biología y en la física y presenta las ideas de Roger Penrose sobre la relación entre física y mente. Indaga sobre la posibilidad de la física del siglo XX inscribirse en la biología del siglo XXI. Defiende que, para poder concretar este desafío, es imperioso considerar el límite humano para conocer al universo. En base a esta discusión, reafirma que la dimensión psíquica humana puede haber evolucionado a partir de una capacidad biológica anterior de realizar elecciones para preservar la vida.The objective of the article is to broach the problem of body mind duality through the discussion of the concept of normativity of life

  7. Impact of lower body negative pressure induced hypovolemia on peripheral venous pressure waveform parameters in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alian, Aymen A; Galante, Nicholas J; Stachenfeld, Nina S; Silverman, David G; Shelley, Kirk H

    2014-07-01

    Lower body negative pressure (LBNP) creates a reversible hypovolemia by sequestrating blood volume in the lower extremities. This study sought to examine the impact of central hypovolemia on peripheral venous pressure (PVP) waveforms in spontaneously breathing subjects. With IRB approval, 11 healthy subjects underwent progressive LBNP (baseline, -30, -75, and -90 mmHg or until the subject became symptomatic). Each was monitored for heart rate (HR), finger arterial blood pressure (BP), a chest respiratory band and PVP waveforms which are generated from a transduced upper extremity intravenous site. The first subject was excluded from PVP analysis because of technical errors in collecting the venous pressure waveform. PVP waveforms were analyzed to determine venous pulse pressure, mean venous pressure, pulse width, maximum and minimum slope (time domain analysis) together with cardiac and respiratory modulations (frequency domain analysis). No changes of significance were found in the arterial BP values at -30 mmHg LBNP, while there were significant reductions in the PVP waveforms time domain parameters (except for 50% width of the respiration induced modulations) together with modulation of the PVP waveform at the cardiac frequency but not at the respiratory frequency. As the LBNP progressed, arterial systolic BP, mean BP and pulse pressure, PVP parameters and PVP cardiac modulation decreased significantly, while diastolic BP and HR increased significantly. Changes in hemodynamic and PVP waveform parameters reached a maximum during the symptomatic phase. During the recovery phase, there was a significant reduction in HR together with a significant increase in HR variability, mean PVP and PVP cardiac modulation. Thus, in response to mild hypovolemia induced by LBNP, changes in cardiac modulation and other PVP waveform parameters identified hypovolemia before detectable hemodynamic changes.

  8. Association of Oral Fat Sensitivity with Body Mass Index, Taste Preference, and Eating Habits in Healthy Japanese Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Masanobu; Hong, Guang; Matsuyama, Yusuke; Wang, Weiqi; Izumi, Satoshi; Izumi, Masayuki; Toda, Takashi; Kudo, Tada-Aki

    2016-01-01

    Oral fat sensitivity (OFS, the ability to detect fat) may be related to overeating-induced obesity. However, it is largely unknown whether OFS affects taste preference and eating habits. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate (1) the association between body mass index (BMI) and OFS and (2) the relationship of OFS with four types of taste preference (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter) and eating habits using serial concentrations of oleic acid (OA) homogenized in non-fat milk and a self-reported questionnaire. Participants were 25 healthy Japanese individuals (mean age: 27.0 ± 5.6 years), among whom the OA detection threshold was significantly associated with BMI. Participants were divided into two subgroups based on oral sensitivity to 2.8 mM OA: hypersensitive (able to detect 2.8 mM OA, n = 16) and hyposensitive (unable to detect 2.8 mM OA, n = 9). The degree of sweet taste preference of the hypersensitive group was significantly higher than that of the hyposensitive group. Furthermore, there was significantly higher degree of preference for high-fat sweet foods than low-fat sweet foods in the hypersensitive group. There was also a significant inverse correlation between the OA detection threshold and the degree of both spare eating and postprandial satiety. Thus, OFS is associated not only with BMI, but also with the preference for high-fat sweet foods and eating habits. The present study provides novel insights that measuring OFS may be useful for assessing the risk of obesity associated with overeating in countries, including Japan, where BMI is increasing in the population.

  9. Mindfulness, emotional dysregulation, impulsivity, and stress proneness among hypersexual patients

    OpenAIRE

    Reid, RC; Bramen, JE; Anderson, A; Cohen, MS

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The current study explores relationships between mindfulness, emotional regulation, impulsivity, and stress proneness in a sample of participants recruited in a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder Fifth Edition Field Trial for Hypersexual Disorder and healthy controls to assess whether mindfulness attenuates symptoms of hypersexuality. Method: Hierarchal regression analysis was used to assess whether significant relationships between mindfulness and hypersexuality ...

  10. Mind Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammatt, Heather

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how an urban renewal project created a playground for the mind, inspiring the study of science, math, and technology. The area's use of its natural surroundings to inspire curiosity and evoke an interest in learning by stimulating the senses is described. Photos and diagrams are included. (GR)

  11. A STUDY ESTABLISHING THE IMPORTANCE OF BODY COMPOSITION ANALYSIS, REGULAR PHYSIOTHERAPY AND DIETARY MODIFICATIONS FOR INDEPENDENT AND HEALTHY LIVING AMONG GERIATRIC POPULATION: A DETAILED SYSTEMATIC REVIEW ARTICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Subhedar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: This systematic review article aims towards comprehensive and elaborative collection of research articles related to the importance of body composition analysis, Physiotherapy and nutrition for independent geriatric lifestyle. The review article includes articles which suggest the importance of Body composition analysis, Physiotherapy interventions, specific exercises and a combination of fat free, fiber, fruit and fluid diet. Methods: A comprehensive electronic search was conducted using electronic databases Pub Med, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Research gate, ICMJE, DOAJ, DRJI, IOSR, WAME and many others. In Total 3714, Research papers were reviewed which reported, Age ≥50 years, changes in Body composition in elderly , effects of Diet &Exercises on Body composition and effects of regular Physiotherapy in Geriatric health and obesity. Literature search was restricted to the studies conducted during 1980-2015. Results: Finally 55 papers along with references in research proposal were included. Review shows that ageing, body composition, Physiotherapeutic intervention and nutrition play an interdependent role in providing independent and healthy living among geriatric population. Conclusion: Combined and comprehensive interventions in form of periodic Body Composition Analysis, Physiotherapy interventions with Exercise therapy sessions and Nutritional Supplementation, will be more effective in combating ageing and independent healthy living among Geriatric population. Finally with this review we shall conclude that achieving perfect geriatric health depends upon awareness among the geriatric community to periodically analyze their body composition and regularly comply with exercise therapy sessions, subjective Physiotherapy modality sessions and nutritional supplementation. These principles help in achieving physically fit, healthy, happy and independent geriatric Community.

  12. Regular consumption of HolisFiit, a polyphenol-rich extract-based food supplement, improves mind and body well-being of overweight and slightly obese volunteers: a randomized, double-blind, parallel trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romain, Cindy; Alcaraz, Pedro Emilio; Chung, Linda Haiwon; Cases, Julien

    2017-02-23

    Modern lifestyles face growing demands for natural solutions to help improve general well-being. Accordingly, mind-body activities such as yoga have considerably grown. However, beneficial effects require regular workout. Besides, literature suggests that polyphenols may demonstrate positive effects on both mental and physical health. Overweight and obese volunteers, for which well-being might be perceived degraded, were included in a 16-week double-blind, randomized and parallel trial with a daily supplementation of HolisFiit(®), a polyphenol-rich food supplement. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) technology; well-being was evaluated with both, Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS) and components from Short Form-36 questionnaire (SF-36). Body composition significantly rebalanced by 7.7% (p = .019) of the lean-to-fat mass ratio. Also, sleep quality significantly improved by 43% (p = .00015) as well as both physical and mental components from SF-36, respectively by 10% (p = .004) and 7% (p = .021). These data altogether, suggest that regular consumption of HolisFiit(®), might significantly improve mind and body well-being.

  13. Oculometric variations during mind wandering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandchamp, Romain; Braboszcz, Claire; Delorme, Arnaud

    2014-01-01

    A significant body of literature supports the contention that pupil size varies depending on cognitive load, affective state, and level of drowsiness. Here we assessed whether oculometric measures such as gaze position, blink frequency and pupil size were correlated with the occurrence and time course of self-reported mind-wandering episodes. We recorded the pupil size of two subjects engaged in a monotonous breath counting task while keeping their eyes on a fixation cross. This task is conducive to producing mind-wandering episodes. Each subject performed ten 20-min sessions, for total duration of about 4 h. Subjects were instructed to report spontaneous mind-wandering episodes by pressing a button when they lost count of their breath. After each button press, subjects filled in a short questionnaire describing the characteristics of their mind-wandering episode. We observed larger pupil size during the breath-focusing period compared to the mind-wandering period (p mind wandering episodes in visual tasks. We discuss possible explanations for this discrepancy. We also analyzed nine other oculometric measures including blink rate, blink duration and gaze position. We built a support vector machine (SVM) classifier and showed that mean pupil size was the most reliable predictor of mind wandering in both subjects. The classification accuracy of mind wandering data segments vs. breath-focusing data segments was 81% for the first subject and 77% for the second subject. Additionally, we analyzed oculometric measures in light of the phenomenological data collected in the questionnaires. We showed that how well subjects remembered their thoughts while mind wandering was positively correlated with pupil size (subject 1, p mind-wandering episodes.

  14. Mind-blanking: When the mind goes away

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Frank Ward

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available People often feel like their minds and their bodies are in different places. Far from an exotic experience, this phenomenon seems to be ubiquitous facet of human life (e.g., Killingsworth & Gilbert, 2010. Many times, people’s minds seem to go somewhere else—attention becomes disconnected from perception, and people’s minds wander to times and places removed from the current environment (e.g., Schooler, Reichle & Halpern, 2004. At other times, however, people’s minds may seem to go nowhere at all—they simply disappear. This mental state—mind-blanking—may represent an extreme decoupling of perception and attention, one in which attention fails to bring any stimuli into conscious awareness. In the present research, we outline the properties of mind-blanking, differentiating this mental state from other mental states in terms of phenomenological experience, behavioral outcomes, and underlying cognitive processes. Seven experiments suggest that when the mind seems to disappear, there are times when we have simply failed to monitor its whereabouts—and there are times when it is actually gone.

  15. Investigating Clinical Benefits of a Novel Sleep-Focused, Mind-Body Program on Gulf War Illness Symptoms: An Exploratory Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    cortisol and alpha- amylase, as indicators of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal axis functioning and 10 sympathetic drive, respectively. Saliva samples...methods to explore facets of mindfulness. Assessment, 13, 27-45. Begley, S. (2007). Train your mind, change your brain : How a new science reveals our...23 100.00 GASTRO- INTESTINAL SYMPTOMS Worsened 2 9.09 1 4.17 No Change 20 90.91 20 83.33 Improved 0 0.00 3 12.50 TOTAL 22 100.00 24 100.00

  16. A self-determination theory approach to adults' healthy body weight motivation: A longitudinal study focussing on food choices and recreational physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Christina; Dohle, Simone; Siegrist, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on body weight motivation based on self-determination theory. The impact of body weight motivation on longitudinal changes in food choices, recreational physical activity and body mass index was explored. A sample of adults (N = 2917, 47% men), randomly selected from the telephone book, completed a questionnaire in two consecutive years (2012, 2013), self-reporting food choices, recreational physical activity and body weight motivation. Types of body weight motivation at T1 (autonomous regulation, introjected regulation, and external regulation) were tested with regard to their predictive potential for changes in food choices, recreational physical activity and body mass index (BMI). Autonomous motivation predicted improvements in food choices and long-term adherence to vigorous recreational physical activity in both genders. Introjected motivation predicted long-term adherence to vigorous recreational physical activity only in women. External motivation predicted negative changes in food choices; however, the type of body weight motivation had no impact on BMI in overweight adults in the long term. Autonomous goal-setting regarding body weight seems to be substantial for healthy food choices and adherence to recreational physical activity.

  17. Sequence and onset of whole-body coordination when turning in response to a visual trigger: comparing people with Parkinson's disease and healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashburn, A; Kampshoff, C; Burnett, M; Stack, E; Pickering, R M; Verheyden, G

    2014-01-01

    Turning round is a routine everyday activity that can often lead to instability. The purpose of this study was to investigate abnormalities of turning among people with Parkinson's disease (PwPD) through the measurement of sequence of body segments and latency response. Participants were asked to turn 180° and whole-body movements were recorded using CODAmotion and Visio Fast eye tracking equipment. Thirty-one independently mobile PwPD and 15 age-matched healthy controls participated in the study. We found that contrary to common belief, the head preceded movement of all other body segments (eyes, shoulders, pelvis, first and second foot). We also found interaction between group and body segment (P=0.005), indicating that overall, PwPD took longer to move from head to second foot than age-matched healthy controls. For PwPD only, interactions were found between disease severity and body segment (Pelderly, turning-on-the-spot might not follow the top-to-bottom approach we know from previous research.

  18. Depersonalization, mindfulness, and childhood trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michal, Matthias; Beutel, Manfred E; Jordan, Jochen; Zimmermann, Michael; Wolters, Susanne; Heidenreich, Thomas

    2007-08-01

    Depersonalization (DP), i.e., feelings of being detached from one's own mental processes or body, can be considered as a form of mental escape from the full experience of reality. This mental escape is thought to be etiologically linked with maltreatment during childhood. The detached state of consciousness in DP contrasts with certain aspects of mindfulness, a state of consciousness characterized by being in touch with the present moment. Against this background, the present article investigates potential connections between DP severity, mindfulness, and childhood trauma in a mixed sample of nonpatients and chronic nonmalignant pain patients. We found a strong inverse correlation between DP severity and mindfulness in both samples, which persisted after partialing out general psychological distress. In the nonpatient sample, we additionally found significant correlations between emotional maltreatment on the one hand and DP severity (positive) and mindfulness (negative) on the other. We conclude that the results first argue for an antithetical relationship between DP and certain aspects of mindfulness and thus encourage future studies on mindfulness-based interventions for DP and second throw light on potential developmental factors contributing to mindfulness.

  19. Mindfully in Love: A Meta-Analysis of the Association Between Mindfulness and Relationship Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianne McGill

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Mindfulness is an individual practice, where one has a heightened awareness of the present moment. An extensive research literature finds links between trait mindfulness and individual-level physical and mental health benefits. A limited but growing amount of research focuses on the association between mindfulness and romantic relationship satisfaction. Though there have been comprehensive reviews, no study has statistically tested the magnitude of the association between mindfulness and relationship satisfaction. Better understanding the value of this practice for relationships can serve to inform community educators and practitioners focused on promoting healthy family relationships. This study used a meta-analytic technique focused on 12 effect sizes from 10 different studies, and found that the relationship between mindfulness and relationship satisfaction was statistically significant with an overall effect size of .27. This finding suggests that higher levels of mindfulness are associated with higher levels of relationship satisfaction; therefore, educators can reasonably consider level of mindfulness as an education target.

  20. Mind-body interventions for the treatment of insomnia: a review Intervenções mente-corpo para o tratamento de insônia: uma revisão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Harumi Kozasa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: As insomnia is highly prevalent, and side effects of medication are well-known, mind-body interventions are increasingly being sought. The objective of this study is to present a narrative review regarding the effects of mind-body interventions for the treatment of insomnia. METHOD: A PubMed search was conducted including only randomized, controlled trials in which the main objective was to treat insomnia. DISCUSSION: Twelve studies were selected. In three of the studies, objective parameters (polysomnography were analyzed. Mind-body interventions were able to improve sleep efficiency and total sleep time. Most can ameliorate sleep quality; some can reduce the use of hypnotic drugs in those who are dependent on these drugs. CONCLUSION: According to the studies we selected, self-reported sleep was improved by all mind-body treatments, among them yoga, relaxation, Tai Chi Chih and music. Cognitive behavioral therapy seems to be the most effective mind-body intervention. Cognitive behavioral therapy was the only intervention that showed better results than medication. However, considering that only five of the twelve studies chosen reached a score of 3 in the Jadad scale, new studies with a higher methodological quality have to be conducted especially in mind-body interventions that belong to the complementary or alternative medicine field.OBJETIVO: Considerando-se que a insônia é altamente prevalente, e os efeitos colaterais das medicações para seu tratamento são bem conhecidos, pesquisas no campo das intervenções mente-corpo têm sido desenvolvidas. O objetivo deste estudo é apresentar uma revisão narrativa sobre os efeitos das intervenções mente-corpo para o tratamento de insônia. MÉTODO: Uma busca pelo site Pubmed foi conduzida incluindo-se apenas estudos controlados e randomizados nos quais o principal objetivo era o tratamento da insônia. DISCUSSÃO: Doze estudos foram selecionados. Em três deles, par

  1. Mindfulness Meditation-Based Pain Relief Employs Different Neural Mechanisms Than Placebo and Sham Mindfulness Meditation-Induced Analgesia

    OpenAIRE

    Zeidan, Fadel; Emerson, Nichole M.; Farris, Suzan R.; Ray, Jenna N.; Jung, Youngkyoo; McHaffie, John G.; Coghill, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Mindfulness meditation reduces pain in experimental and clinical settings. However, it remains unknown whether mindfulness meditation engages pain-relieving mechanisms other than those associated with the placebo effect (e.g., conditioning, psychosocial context, beliefs). To determine whether the analgesic mechanisms of mindfulness meditation are different from placebo, we randomly assigned 75 healthy, human volunteers to 4 d of the following: (1) mindfulness meditation, (2) placebo condition...

  2. 心、性、气、形:十字打开的孟子工夫论%Mind, Human Nature, Qi and Body:Research on Mencius′Theory of Self-cultivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王正

    2016-01-01

    孟子将自孔子提出的工夫修养予以了细致化、体系化,同时他还注重将心性和身体紧密联系在一起。因此,孟子一方面以“求放心”来确立道德的主体性,进而以“尽心、知性、知天”“存心、养性、事天”的心性工夫来将道德意识、道德判断、道德境界予以养成;另一方面以“不动心”而“集义”的方法养成“浩然之气”的“大丈夫”气象,从而实现道德从心性到行为的转化即“践形”。孟子这种在心、性、气、形上同时展开的工夫论,恰如陆九渊所形容的,“孟子十字打开,更无隐遁”。%Based on Confucius′theory, Mencius developed the theory of self-cultivation, and set relation between body and mind. Therefore, on the one hand, Mencius established moral subjectivity by the way of getting back the lost mind, then brought up moral consciousness, moral judgment and moral state by the way of fully developing the kindness of the mind, understanding human nature, understanding the mandate of Heaven, preserving one′s kindly mind, supporting one′s human nature, and serving Heaven. On the oth⁃er hand, he brought up a great man with the vast vital energy by the way of imperturbation of the mind. And once one person has trans⁃formed his moral consciousness to body action, he has been a great man. Mencius′s theory of self-cultivation just as what Lu Jiuyuan said,"Mencius′theory opened everyone′s inner and outer world without any secret.

  3. Complementary and alternative medicine therapies to promote healthy moods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Kathi J; Shannon, Scott

    2007-12-01

    Pediatric mood disorders (unipolar depression and bipolar disorder) are serious, common, persistent, and recurrent medical conditions. Depression is the second leading cause of illness and disability among young people worldwide. A healthy lifestyle and healthy environment are the cornerstones for promoting positive moods. In addition, several complementary therapies, including nutritional supplements, herbs, mind-body therapies, massage, and acupuncture can be helpful. The focus of this article is the fundamental lifestyle approaches and complementary therapies that enhance mental health in young people. Various resources are available to clinicians to help patients and families promote mental health.

  4. Oculometric variations during mind wandering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain eGrandchamp

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A significant body of literature supports the contention that pupil size varies depending on cognitive load, affective state, and level of drowsiness. Here we assessed whether oculometric measures such as gaze position, blink frequency and pupil size were correlated with the occurrence and time course of self-reported mind-wandering episodes. We recorded the pupil size of two subjects engaged in a monotonous breath counting task while keeping their eyes on a fixation cross. Each subject performed ten 20-minute sessions, for total duration of about 4 hours. This task is conducive to producing mind-wandering episodes. Subjects were instructed to report spontaneous mind-wandering episodes by pressing a button when they lost count of their breath. After each button press, subjects filled in a short questionnaire describing the characteristics of their mind-wandering episode. We observed larger pupil size during the breath-focusing period compared to the mind-wandering period (p< 0.01 for both subjects. Our findings contradict previous research showing a higher baseline pupil size during mind wandering episodes in visual tasks. We discuss possible explanations for this discrepancy. We also analyzed nine other oculometric measures including blink rate, blink duration and gaze position. We built a support vector machine classifier and showed that mean pupil size was the most reliable predictors of mind wandering in both subjects. The classification accuracy of mind wandering data segments versus breath-focusing data segments was 81% for the first subject and 77% for the second subject. Additionally, we analyzed oculometric measures in light of the phenomenological data collected in the questionnaires. We showed that how well subjects remembered their thoughts while mind wandering was positively correlated with pupil size (subject 1, p< 0.001; subject 2, p< 0.05. Feelings of well being were also positively correlated with pupil size (subject 1, p< 0

  5. A 12-week double-blind randomized clinical trial of vitamin D3 supplementation on body fat mass in healthy overweight and obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salehpour Amin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin D concentrations are linked to body composition indices, particularly body fat mass. Relationships between hypovitaminosis D and obesity, described by both BMI and waist circumference, have been mentioned. We have investigated the effect of a 12-week vitamin D3 supplementation on anthropometric indices in healthy overweight and obese women. Methods In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial, seventy-seven participants (age 38±8.1 years, BMI 29.8±4.1 kg/m2 were randomly allocated into two groups: vitamin D (25 μg per day as cholecalciferol and placebo (25 μg per day as lactose for 12 weeks. Body weight, height, waist, hip, fat mass, 25(OH D, iPTH, and dietary intakes were measured before and after the intervention. Results Serum 25(OHD significantly increased in the vitamin D group compared to the placebo group (38.2±32.7 nmol/L vs. 4.6±14.8 nmol/L; P Conclusion Among healthy overweight and obese women, increasing 25(OH D concentrations by vitamin D3 supplementation led to body fat mass reduction. This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01344161.

  6. The effect of a fibre supplement compared to a healthy diet on body composition, lipids, glucose, insulin and other metabolic syndrome risk factors in overweight and obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sebely; Khossousi, Alireza; Binns, Colin; Dhaliwal, Satvinder; Ellis, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    Optimum levels and types of dietary fibre that provide the greatest beneficial effects on metabolic syndrome risk factors in overweight and obese individuals have yet to be determined in clinical trials. The present parallel design study compared the effects of fibre intake from a healthy diet v. a fibre supplement (psyllium) or a healthy diet plus fibre supplement on fasting lipids, glucose, insulin and body composition. Overweight/obese adults were randomised to either control (with placebo), fibre supplement (FIB), healthy eating plus placebo (HLT) or healthy eating plus fibre supplement (HLT-FIB). There was a significant increase in fibre intake in HLT-FIB, HLT and FIB groups up to 59, 31 and 55 g, respectively, at 12 weeks when compared to control (20 g). Weight, BMI and % total body fat were significantly reduced in FIB and HLT-FIB groups, with weight and BMI significantly reduced in the HLT group compared with control at 12 weeks. HLT-FIB and HLT groups had significant reductions in TAG and insulin compared with control at 6 and 12 weeks, and in insulin compared with the FIB group at 12 weeks. The HLT-FIB, HLT and FIB groups all had significant reductions in total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol compared with control after 6 and 12 weeks. The present study demonstrated that simply adding psyllium fibre supplementation to a normal diet was sufficient to obtain beneficial effects in risk factors. However, a high-fibre diet consisting of a psyllium supplement plus fibre from a healthy diet provided the greatest improvements in metabolic syndrome risk factors.

  7. Simulation of the pharmacokinetics of bisoprolol in healthy adults and patients with impaired renal function using whole-body physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-fu LI; Kun WANG; Rui CHEN; Hao-ru ZHAO; Jin YANG; Qing-shan ZHENG

    2012-01-01

    Aim:To develop and evaluate a whole-body physiologically based pharmacokinetic (WB-PBPK) model of bisoprolol and to simulate its exposure and disposition in healthy adults and patients with renal function impairment.Methods:Bisoprolol dispositions in 14 tissue compartments were described by perfusion-limited compartments.Based the tissue composition equations and drug-specific properties such as log P,permeability,and plasma protein binding published in literatures,the absorption and whole-body distribution of bisoprolol was predicted using the ‘Advanced Compartmental Absorption Transit’ (ACAT)model and the whole-body disposition model,respectively.Renal and hepatic clearances were simulated using empirical scaling methods followed by incorporation into the WB-PBPK model.Model refinements were conducted after a comparison of the simulated concentration-time profiles and pharmacokinetic parameters with the observed data in healthy adults following intravenous and oral administration.Finally,the WB-PBPK model coupled with a Monte Carlo simulation was employed to predict the mean and variability of bisoprolol pharmacokinetics in virtual healthy subjects and patients.Results:The simulated and observed data after both intravenous and oral dosing showed good agreement for all of the dose levels in the reported normal adult population groups.The predicted pharmacokinetic parameters (AUC,Cmax,and Tmax) were reasonably consistent (<1.3-fold error) with the observed values after single oral administration of doses ranging from of 5 to 20 mg using the refined WB-PBPK model.The simulated plasma profiles after multiple oral administration of bisoprolol in healthy adults and patient with renal impairment matched well with the observed profiles.Conclusion:The WB-PBPK model successfully predicts the intravenous and oral pharmacokinetics of bisoprolol across multiple dose levels in diverse normal adult human populations and patients with renal insufficiency.

  8. The mind as skills and dispositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Svend

    2012-01-01

    to broaden Harré’s hybrid psychology by including not just the brain, but also the body, social practices, and technological artifacts as mediators of the mind. The mind is understood not as a substance of any kind, but as a set of skills and dispositions to act, think, and feel. This implies a normative...

  9. Investigating Clinical Benefits of a Novel Sleep-Focused Mind-Body Program on Gulf War Illness (GWI) Symptoms: An Exploratory Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    mindfulness, insomnia , sleep disturbance, Gulf War Illness 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a...MBB or SED). Each Veteran will receive a total of 6 hours of treatment , in 2-hour sessions once a week over 3 consecutive weeks. Each Veteran...will be evaluated again after treatment has ended. Three months after treatment ends, Veterans will complete follow-up questionnaires. These

  10. Ação como solução ao problema mente e corpo na teoria de Piaget Action as the solution to the mind-body problem in Piaget's theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Vonèche

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Discute-se o problema da relação entre mente e corpo na teoria de Piaget. A relação entre mente e corpo é explicada por Piaget em termos de um paralelismo entre a psique e os processos físicos. Por um lado, o corpo é uma parte integral do mundo de objetos materiais e, como tal, obedece às regras da causalidade. Por outro lado, a mente é uma unidade formal e, como tal, obedece à lei da necessidade formal que é a implicação. Qual a relação entre eles? Todas as formas de conhecimento originam-se da ação sensório-motora. Ações são primeiro somente rítmicas e depois reguladoras. Regulações dão origem a diferentes formas de comportamento de regras e consciência de normas. Essa consciência requer uma distinção entre fatos e normas, causas e significados, assim como a distinção entre corpo e mente. No entanto, os dois pólos desses pares são sempre complementares um em relação ao outro. O princípio de equilibração regula o isomorfismo potencial entre mente e corpo, como seu desenvolvimento em uma espiral geral de conhecimento. O corpo constitui o mediador entre o self e o meio, assim como essa mediação constitui, inversamente, o self ele mesmo.This article discusses the relation between mind and body in Piagetian theory. The relation between mind and body is explained by Piaget in terms of a parallelism between psyche and physical processes. On one side, the body is a part of the world of material objects and, as such, obeys the rules of causality. On the other hand, the mind is a formal unity and, as such, obeys the rule of formal necessity that is implication. What is the relation between both? All forms of knowledge have the origin in sensory-motor actions. Actions are at first rhythmic and afterwards regulatory. Regulations give origin to different forms of rule behavior and norm consciousness. This consciousness requires a distinction between facts and norms, causes and meanings, as well as the distinction

  11. Comparison of Appetite-regulating Hormones and Body Composition in Pediatric Patients in Predialysis Stage of Chronic Kidney Disease and Healthy Control Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Eftekhari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM is a common complication in pediatric patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. Components incorporated in the regulation of appetite and body composition appear to be of the focus in renal insufficiency and may influence the CKD-associated PEM. The purpose of this study was to investigate plasma levels of appetite-regulating hormones and their correlation with the body composition variables in a pediatric in predialysis stage of CKD. Methods: Thirty children with CKD in predialysis stage were selected and compared with 30 healthy sex- and age-matched controls. Blood samples were collected in fasting. Serum total ghrelin, leptin, and obestatin levels were measured using enzyme immunometric assay methods. Anthropometric parameters measurement and body composition analysis were done using the bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA method. Results: Patients showed insignificant elevated total ghrelin (105.40±30.83 ng/l, leptin (5.32±1.17 ng/ml and obestatin (5.07±1.09 ng/ml levels in comparison with healthy participants. By using BIA, patients had significantly different Dry Lean Weight (P=0.048, Extra Cellular Water (P=0.045, Body Cell Mass (BCM (P=0.021, Basal Metabolic Rate (P=0.033 and Body Mass Index (P=0.029 compared with controls. Furthermore, the total body water was slightly and the ECW was significantly higher in CKD participants. There were significant negative correlation between obestatin and BCM (r=-0.40, P=0.03 and fat free mass index (FFMI (r=-0.40, P=0.029 in patients. Conclusion: It seems that our results are insufficient to clarify the role of appetite-regulating hormones in PEM in CKD patients. It is apparent that there are still many unknown parameters related to both appetite regulating and CKD-associated PEM.

  12. Healthy Dragon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙继山

    2005-01-01

    The Chinese economic dragon is healthy and dynamic. The dragorthead,Shanghai, is developing at a pace never before seen in world history, The dragon's body is also doing well, not least because there is tremendous competition across the country. Thus, four cities along the central Yangtze River Region are trying to strengthen their competitiveness.

  13. LA PARTICIPACIÓN DE LOS ENTES INOBSERVABLES EN EL PROBLEMA CUERPO-MENTE: ARMONÍA ENTRE EL INTELECTO Y LA NATURALEZA The participation of the unobserbvable entities in the mind-body problematic: Harmony between intelect and nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Espinoza Verdejo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analiza la participación de los entes inobservables o teóricos en las teorías filosóficas cuyo contenido es el problema de la relación entre el cuerpo y la mente. Las concepciones sustancialistas, fisicalistas, conductistas filosóficas y escépticas son las fuentes de inspiración y desde las cuales se busca determinar la pertinencia o falta de pertinencia de los entes teóricos en el problema cuerpo-mente.The object of this essay is to analyze the role played by unobservable or theoretical entities in the philosophical theories whose content is the mind-body problem. Substantialism, physicalism, philosophical behavioursm, and scepticism are the main sources of inspiration, and it is from them that I try to determine the pertinence or lack of pertinence of theoretical entities for the mind-body problem.

  14. Mindfulness for group facilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Krohn, Simon

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that mindfulness techniques can be used for enhancing the outcome of group performance. The word mindfulness has different connotations in the academic literature. Broadly speaking there is ‘mindfulness without meditation’ or ‘Western’ mindfulness which involves active...... thinking and ‘Eastern’ mindfulness which refers to an open, accepting state of mind, as intended with Buddhist-inspired techniques such as meditation. In this paper, we are interested in the latter type of mindfulness and demonstrate how Eastern mindfulness techniques can be used as a tool for facilitation....... A brief introduction to the physiology and philosophy of Eastern mindfulness constitutes the basis for the arguments of the effect of mindfulness techniques. The use of mindfulness techniques for group facilitation is novel as it changes the focus from individuals’ mindfulness practice...

  15. Self-reported health status, body mass index, and healthy lifestyle behaviors: differences between Baby Boomer and Generation X employees at a southeastern university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Melondie R; Kelly, Rebecca K

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess differences in self-reported health status, body mass index (BMI), and healthy lifestyle behaviors between Baby Boomer and Generation X faculty and staff at a southeastern university. Data were drawn from employee health risk assessment and BMI measures. A total of 730 Baby Boomer and 765 Generation X employees enrolled in a university health promotion and screening program were included in the study. Ordered logistic regressions were calculated separately for BMI, perceived health status, and three healthy lifestyle behaviors. After covariates such as job role, gender, race, education, and income were controlled, Baby Boomers were more likely than Generation X employees to report better health status and dietary habits. Baby Boomers were also more likely to engage in weekly aerobic physical activity (p < .001) yet were also at greater risk of being overweight and obese. The results highlight the need to consider generational differences when developing health promotion programs.

  16. The importance of body weight for the dose response relationship of oral vitamin D supplementation and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekwaru, John Paul; Zwicker, Jennifer D; Holick, Michael F; Giovannucci, Edward; Veugelers, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    Unlike vitamin D recommendations by the Institute of Medicine, the Clinical Practice Guidelines by the Endocrine Society acknowledge body weight differentials and recommend obese subjects be given two to three times more vitamin D to satisfy their body's vitamin D requirement. However, the Endocrine Society also acknowledges that there are no good studies that clearly justify this. In this study we examined the combined effect of vitamin D supplementation and body weight on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin (25(OH)D) and serum calcium in healthy volunteers. We analyzed 22,214 recordings of vitamin D supplement use and serum 25(OH)D from 17,614 healthy adult volunteers participating in a preventive health program. This program encourages the use of vitamin D supplementation and monitors its use and serum 25(OH)D and serum calcium levels. Participants reported vitamin D supplementation ranging from 0 to 55,000 IU per day and had serum 25(OH)D levels ranging from 10.1 to 394 nmol/L. The dose response relationship between vitamin D supplementation and serum 25(OH)D followed an exponential curve. On average, serum 25(OH)D increased by 12.0 nmol/L per 1,000 IU in the supplementation interval of 0 to 1,000 IU per day and by 1.1 nmol/L per 1,000 IU in the supplementation interval of 15,000 to 20,000 IU per day. BMI, relative to absolute body weight, was found to be the better determinant of 25(OH)D. Relative to normal weight subjects, obese and overweight participants had serum 25(OH)D that were on average 19.8 nmol/L and 8.0 nmol/L lower, respectively (Pweight subjects. This observational study provides body weight specific recommendations to achieve 25(OH)D targets.

  17. Whole-body cryostimulation--potential beneficial treatment for improving antioxidant capacity in healthy men--significance of the number of sessions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lubkowska

    Full Text Available It is claimed that WBC (whole-body cryotherapy enhances the resistance of the human body, also thanks to the beneficial effect on the antioxidant system. Accordingly, this research aimed to evaluate the effect of a series of whole-body cryostimulations on the level of non-enzymatic antioxidants and the activity of antioxidant enzymes in healthy men. The study was carried out on 30 young and healthy men aged 27.8±6.1 years with average body mass index and peak oxygen consumption (46.34±6.15 ml kg(-1 •min(-1. The participants were daily exposed for 3 minutes to cryogenic temperatures (-130°C. Blood samples were obtained in the morning before cryostimulation, again 30 min after exposure and the following day in the morning, during the 1(st, 10(th and 20(th session. Analysis concerned changes in plasma concentrations of total protein, albumin, glucose, uric acid and ceruloplasmin, and the most important components of the antioxidant system in red blood cells: superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, reduced and oxidized glutathione. To assess the oxidative stress level the 8-isoprostane concentration in plasma was measured. The obtained results indicate that cryogenic temperatures in repeated daily treatments result in changes in the peroxidant and antioxidant status. These changes seem to depend on the number of cryostimulations. After 20 daily treatments there was an increase in SOD, SOD:CAT ratio, a decrease in the concentration of reduced and oxidized glutathione and in the activity of GPx. It could be possible that differences in the activity of GSSG-R after 20 treatments depended on the body mass index of participants.

  18. Association of total body and visceral fat mass with iron deficiency in preadolescents: the Healthy Growth Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschonis, George; Chrousos, George P; Lionis, Christos; Mougios, Vassilis; Manios, Yannis

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the associations of obesity, percentage body fat and visceral fat mass with body Fe status in a representative sample of 1493 schoolchildren aged 9-13 years. Anthropometric, body composition, biochemical, clinical (Tanner stage, age of menarche) and dietary intake data were collected. Fe deficiency (ID) was defined as transferrin saturation (TS) deficiency anaemia (IDA) as ID with Hb < 120 g/l. Obese boys and girls and those in the highest quartiles of percentage body fat mass had significantly higher levels of serum ferritin (P ≤ 0.05) compared to their normal-weight peers and those in the corresponding lowest quartiles. Similarly, obese boys and girls and those in the highest quartiles of percentage body fat and visceral fat mass had significantly lower levels of TS (P ≤ 0.05) compared to normal-weight children and those in the corresponding lowest quartiles. The prevalence of ID and IDA was significantly higher in boys and girls in the highest quartiles of percentage body fat than in peers in the lowest quartile. Higher quartiles of percentage body fat and visceral fat mass were the main significant predictors of ID in boys, after controlling for other important confounders, with OR of 2.48 (95 % CI, 1.26, 4.88) and 2.12 (95 % CI, 1.07, 4.19), respectively. Similar significant associations were observed for girls. In conclusion, percentage body fat and visceral fat mass were positively associated with ID in both sexes of preadolescents. These associations might be attributed to the chronic inflammation induced by excess adiposity.

  19. Influence of body condition on plasma prednisolone and prednisone concentrations in clinically healthy cats after single oral dose administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center, Sharon A; Randolph, John F; Warner, Karen L; Simpson, Kenneth W; Rishniw, Mark

    2013-08-01

    Influence of body condition (over-conditioned vs. normal-conditioned) on plasma glucocorticoid concentrations after single dose oral prednisolone or prednisone in 11 cats (5 normal-conditioned and 6-over-conditioned) was investigated using a two-drug crossover trial (3-week washout interval). Body condition was determined using criterion-referenced bioelectrical impedance together with plasma drug concentrations (prednisolone [active drug] and prednisone [pro-drug]) measured by HPLC. Although interconversion of each drug to the other was confirmed, a single 2mg/kg body weight oral dose of prednisolone produced significantly higher plasma prednisolone concentration (∼4-fold higher AUC) compared to prednisone. Significantly higher plasma drug concentrations in over-conditioned cats (∼2-fold) compared to normal-conditioned cats might explain their perceived increased risk for glucocorticoid associated side effects (hepatic lipidosis, diabetes mellitus). Findings suggest low comparative bioavailability of oral prednisone compared to prednisolone in cats and consideration of lean body mass or ideal body weight for dosing practices.

  20. The "extended mind" approach for a new paradigm of psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Tetsuya

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, I would like to propose the idea of "extended mind" for a new paradigm of psychology. Kohler (Integrative Psychology & Behavioral Science 44:39-57, 2010) correctly pointed out the serious problems of the machine paradigm, and proposed the "organic" view as a new paradigm. But the term "organic" signifying the processes inside the body, is inadequate to express the characteristic of human mind. The recent philosophy of mind suggests that the mind is realized neither only in the brain nor only in the body, but in the whole system of brain-body-environment, namely, in the "extended mind". The characteristic of human mind resides in the interaction with the mediating tools, artifacts, and the humanized environment. We should propose an "extended mind approach" or an "ecological approach to humanized environment" as a new paradigm for a psychology.

  1. Effects of an 8-weeks erythropoietin treatment on mitochondrial and Whole body fat oxidation capacity during exercise in healthy males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guadalupe Grau, Amelia; Plenge, Ulla; Bønding, Signe Helbo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The present investigation was performed to elucidate if the non-erythropoietic ergogenic effect of a recombinant erythropoietin treatment results in an impact on skeletal muscle mitochondrial and whole body fatty acid oxidation capacity during exercise, myoglobin concentration and angiog......Abstract The present investigation was performed to elucidate if the non-erythropoietic ergogenic effect of a recombinant erythropoietin treatment results in an impact on skeletal muscle mitochondrial and whole body fatty acid oxidation capacity during exercise, myoglobin concentration......, pyruvate, succinate) with additional electron input from β-oxidation (octanoylcarnitine) (from 60 ± 13 to 87 ± 24 pmol · s(-1) · mg(-1) P ... of recombinant erythropoietin treatment increases mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation capacity and myoglobin concentration without any effect on whole body maximal fat oxidation....

  2. Asymmetry of Dopamine D2/3 Receptor Availability in Dorsal Putamen and Body Mass Index in Non-obese Healthy Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sang Soo; Yoon, Eun Jin; Kim, Sang Eun

    2015-03-01

    The dopaminergic system is involved in the regulation of food intake, which is crucial for the maintenance of body weight. We examined the relationship between striatal dopamine (DA) D2/3 receptor availability and body mass index (BMI) in 25 non-obese healthy male subjects using [(11)C]raclopride and positron emission tomography. None of [(11)C]raclopride binding potential (BP) values (measures of DA D2/3 receptor availability) in striatal subregions (dorsal caudate, dorsal putamen, and ventral striatum) in the left and right hemispheres was significantly correlated with BMI. However, there was a positive correlation between the right-left asymmetry index of [(11)C]raclopride BP in the dorsal putamen and BMI (r=0.43, pputamen relative to the left in non-obese individuals. The present results, combined with previous findings, may also suggest neurochemical mechanisms underlying the regulation of food intake in non-obese individuals.

  3. [Impaired theory of mind in anorexia nervosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gál, Zita; Egyed, Katalin; Pászthy, Bea; Németh, Dezsö

    2011-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a severe mental illness, which is characterized by a continuously growing occurrence in the population and by the shift of the onset for earlier ages. The understanding of factors playing role in AN and the importance of effective prevention is an essential issue in science as well as in the society. AN also affects the social domain of life, patients with AN may exhibit impaired social interaction, social isolation, difficulties in emotion recognition and egocentric thinking in cognitive processing. Therefore, the aim of present study was to investigate the theory of mind (ToM) deficits is anorexia nervosa. Although previous studies have reported ToM deficits in autism and in schizophrenia, the number of studies investigating ToM functioning in eating disorders are particularly low. Even though ToM difficulties, such as the affective ToM impairments were found in AN, however, the evidence of cognitive ToM deficits in anorexia patients is still lacking. Twenty anorexia nervosa patients and 20 healthy control adolescent girls participated in the experiment. EDI, BAT, Fallon-Rozin Test and Anamoprhic Micro Body Image Assesment Programme questionnaires and body-image tests were applied to discriminate anorexia nervosa group from healthy control group. The Hungarian version of Faux Pas Recognition Test was applied to evaluate ToM functioning. Compared to healthy control group, impairment in ToM functioning was found in AN group, especially in affective mental state attribution. Our results can raise new aspects for research, therapy and prevention of anorexia nervosa.

  4. Association between cerebral cannabinoid 1 receptor availability and body mass index in patients with food intake disorders and healthy subjects: a [(18)F]MK-9470 PET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccarini, J; Weltens, N; Ly, H G; Tack, J; Van Oudenhove, L; Van Laere, K

    2016-07-12

    Although of great public health relevance, the mechanisms underlying disordered eating behavior and body weight regulation remain insufficiently understood. Compelling preclinical evidence corroborates a critical role of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in the central regulation of appetite and food intake. However, in vivo human evidence on ECS functioning in brain circuits involved in food intake regulation as well as its relationship with body weight is lacking, both in health and disease. Here, we measured cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R) availability using positron emission tomography (PET) with [(18)F]MK-9470 in 54 patients with food intake disorders (FID) covering a wide body mass index (BMI) range (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, functional dyspepsia with weight loss and obesity; BMI range=12.5-40.6 kg/m(2)) and 26 age-, gender- and average BMI-matched healthy subjects (BMI range=18.5-26.6 kg/m(2)). The association between regional CB1R availability and BMI was assessed within predefined homeostatic and reward-related regions of interest using voxel-based linear regression analyses. CB1R availability was inversely associated with BMI in homeostatic brain regions such as the hypothalamus and brainstem areas in both patients with FID and healthy subjects. However, in FID patients, CB1R availability was also negatively correlated with BMI throughout the mesolimbic reward system (midbrain, striatum, insula, amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex), which constitutes the key circuit implicated in processing appetitive motivation and hedonic value of perceived food rewards. Our results indicate that the cerebral homeostatic CB1R system is inextricably linked to BMI, with additional involvement of reward areas under conditions of disordered body weight.

  5. Body issues, sexual satisfaction, and relationship status satisfaction in long-term childhood cancer survivors and healthy controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann, Vicky; Hagedoorn, Mariet; Gerhardt, Cynthia A.; Fults, Marci; Olshefski, Randal S.; Sanderman, Robbert; Tuinman, Marrit A.

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveResearch on body image and sexual satisfaction after adult onset cancer has shown significant and lasting impairments regarding survivors' sexuality and romantic relationships. However, knowledge about these topics and their associations in adult survivors of childhood cancer is largely lac

  6. Application of Whole-body Vibration: Technical and clinical studies in healthy persons and people with a neurological disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Bagheri (Javad)

    2013-01-01

    textabstract__Abstract__ The first use of vibration therapy to improve human fimction and muscle performance dates back to ancient Greece, a time when physicians used saws covered in cotton to transfer vibrations to specific parts of the body to improve muscle performance and relieve pain. However,

  7. Effects of gender, age, and body mass index on fat contents and apparent diffusion coefficients in healthy parotid glands: an MRI evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Hing-Chiu [National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, Taipei (China); Duke University Medical Center, Brain Imaging and Analysis Center, Durham, NC (United States); GE Healthcare, Applied Science Laboratory, Taipei (China); Juan, Chun-Jung; Hsu, Hsian-He [National Defense Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Taipei (China); Tri-Service General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Taipei (China); Chiu, Hui-Chu [Tatung University, Graduate Institute of Design Science, Taipei (China); Cheng, Cheng-Chieh; Chiu, Su-Chin [National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, Taipei (China); Liu, Yi-Jui [Feng Chia University, Department of Automatic Control Engineering, Taichung (China); Chung, Hsiao-Wen [National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, Taipei (China); Tri-Service General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University, MD.624, Department of Electrical Engineering, Taipei (China)

    2014-09-15

    To establish standard apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and the fat content as a function of age, gender and body mass index (BMI) in healthy parotid glands, and to address the influences of fat suppression on ADC measurements. A total of 100 healthy adults (gender and age evenly distributed) were prospectively recruited, with parotid fat content measured from gradient-echo images with fat-water separated using iterative decomposition with echo asymmetry and least squares (IDEAL). The ADCs were estimated using both fat-saturated and non-fat-saturated diffusion-weighted imaging via a periodically rotated overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction (PROPELLER) technique. Parotid fat content was larger in men than in women by about 10 percentage points (P < 0.005), and positively associated with BMI and age for both genders (mostly with P < 0.001). ADCs estimated with non-fat-saturated PROPELLER were significantly lower in men than in women (P < 0.005), but showed no gender difference if measured using fat-saturated PROPELLER (P = 0.840). The negative association between parotid ADC and age/BMI/fat (P < 0.001) showed greater regression slopes in non-fat-saturated PROPELLER than in fat-saturated data. Parotid fat content in healthy adults correlates positively with both age and BMI; the correlation with age is gender-dependent. Parotid ADC measurements are strongly influenced by fat saturation. (orig.)

  8. Reduced Appendicular Lean Body Mass, Muscle Strength, and Size of Type II Muscle Fibers in Patients with Spondyloarthritis versus Healthy Controls: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Røren Nordén

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The purpose of this study was to investigate body composition, muscle function, and muscle morphology in patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA. Methods. Ten male SpA patients (mean ± SD age 39±4.1 years were compared with ten healthy controls matched for sex, age, body mass index, and self-reported level of physical exercise. Body composition was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Musculus quadriceps femoris (QF strength was assessed by maximal isometric contractions prior to test of muscular endurance. Magnetic resonance imaging of QF was used to measure muscle size and calculate specific muscle strength. Percutaneous needle biopsy samples were taken from m. vastus lateralis. Results. SpA patients presented with significantly lower appendicular lean body mass (LBM (p=0.02, but there was no difference in bone mineral density, fat mass, or total LBM. Absolute QF strength was significantly lower in SpA patients (p=0.03 with a parallel trend for specific strength (p=0.08. Biopsy samples from the SpA patients revealed significantly smaller cross-sectional area (CSA of type II muscle fibers (p=0.04, but no difference in CSA type I fibers. Conclusions. Results indicate that the presence of SpA disease is associated with reduced appendicular LBM, muscle strength, and type II fiber CSA.

  9. High whey protein intake delayed the loss of lean body mass in healthy old rats, whereas protein type and polyphenol/antioxidant supplementation had no effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosoni, Laurent; Gatineau, Eva; Gatellier, Philippe; Migné, Carole; Savary-Auzeloux, Isabelle; Rémond, Didier; Rocher, Emilie; Dardevet, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Our aim was to compare and combine 3 nutritional strategies to slow down the age-related loss of muscle mass in healthy old rats: 1) increase protein intake, which is likely to stimulate muscle protein anabolism; 2) use leucine rich, rapidly digested whey proteins as protein source (whey proteins are recognized as the most effective proteins to stimulate muscle protein anabolism). 3) Supplement animals with a mixture of chamomile extract, vitamin E, vitamin D (reducing inflammation and oxidative stress is also effective to improve muscle anabolism). Such comparisons and combinations were never tested before. Nutritional groups were: casein 12% protein, whey 12% protein, whey 18% protein and each of these groups were supplemented or not with polyphenols/antioxidants. During 6 months, we followed changes of weight, food intake, inflammation (plasma fibrinogen and alpha-2-macroglobulin) and body composition (DXA). After 6 months, we measured muscle mass, in vivo and ex-vivo fed and post-absorptive muscle protein synthesis, ex-vivo muscle proteolysis, and oxidative stress parameters (liver and muscle glutathione, SOD and total antioxidant activities, muscle carbonyls and TBARS). We showed that although micronutrient supplementation reduced inflammation and oxidative stress, the only factor that significantly reduced the loss of lean body mass was the increase in whey protein intake, with no detectable effect on muscle protein synthesis, and a tendency to reduce muscle proteolysis. We conclude that in healthy rats, increasing protein intake is an effective way to delay sarcopenia.

  10. Is learning mindfulness associated with improved affect after mindfulness-based cognitive therapy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroevers, Maya J.; Brandsma, R.

    2010-01-01

    The increased popularity of mindfulness-based interventions and the growing body of empirical evidence confirming the positive effects of these interventions on well-being warrant more research to determine if the effects are indeed related to learning mindfulness. The present study extends previous

  11. Reproducibility, and age, body-weight and gender dependency of candidate skeletal muscle MRI outcome measures in healthy volunteers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrow, Jasper M.; Reilly, Mary M.; Hanna, Michael G. [UCL Institute of Neurology, Medical Research Council Centre for Neuromuscular Diseases, Department of Molecular Neuroscience, London (United Kingdom); Sinclair, Christopher D.J.; Yousry, Tarek A.; Thornton, John S. [UCL Institute of Neurology, Medical Research Council Centre for Neuromuscular Diseases, Department of Molecular Neuroscience, London (United Kingdom); UCL Institute of Neurology, Neuroradiological Academic Unit, Department of Brain Repair and Rehabilitation, London (United Kingdom); Fischmann, Arne [University of Basel Hospital, Department of Radiology, Division of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Basel (Switzerland)

    2014-07-15

    Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can potentially meet the pressing need for objective, sensitive, reproducible outcome measures in neuromuscular disease trials. We tested, in healthy volunteers, the consistency, reliability and sensitivity to normal inter-subject variation of MRI methods targeted to lower limb muscle pathology to inform the design of practical but comprehensive MRI outcome measure protocols for use in imminent patient studies. Forty-seven healthy volunteers, age 21-81 years, were subject at 3T to three-point Dixon fat-fraction measurement, T{sub 1}-relaxometry, T{sub 2}-relaxometry and magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR) imaging at mid-thigh and mid-calf level bilaterally. Fifteen subjects underwent repeat imaging at 2 weeks. Mean between-muscle fat fraction and T{sub 2} differences were small, but significant (p < 0.001). Fat fraction and T{sub 2} correlated positively, and MTR negatively with subject age in both the thigh and calf, with similar significant correlations with weight at thigh level only (p < 0.001 to p < 0.05). Scan-rescan and inter-observer intra-class correlation coefficients ranged between 0.62-0.84 and 0.79-0.99 respectively. Quantitative lower-limb muscle MRI using readily implementable methods was sensitive enough to demonstrate inter-muscle differences (small in health), and correlations with subject age and weight. In combination with high reliability, this strongly supports the suitability of these methods to provide longitudinal outcome measures in neuromuscular disease treatment trials. (orig.)

  12. Does Ramadan fasting alter body weight and blood lipids and fasting blood glucose in a healthy population? A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kul, Seval; Savaş, Esen; Öztürk, Zeynel Abidin; Karadağ, Gülendam

    2014-06-01

    In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis of self-controlled cohort studies comparing body weights, blood levels of lipids and fasting blood glucose levels before and after Ramadan taking into account gender differences. Several databases were searched up to June 2012 for studies showing an effect of Ramadan fasting in healthy subjects, yielding 30 articles. The primary finding of this meta-analysis was that after Ramadan fasting, low-density lipoprotein (SMD = -1.67, 95 % CI = -2.48 to -0.86) and fasting blood glucose levels (SMD = -1.10, 95 % CI = -1.62 to -0.58) were decreased in both sex groups and also in the entire group compared to levels prior to Ramadan. In addition, in the female subgroup, body weight (SMD = -0.04, 95 % CI = -0.20, 0.12), total cholesterol (SMD = 0.05, 95 % CI = -0.51 to 0.60), and triglyceride levels (SMD = 0.03, 95 % CI = -0.31, 0.36) remained unchanged, while HDL levels (SMD = 0.86, 95 % CI = 0.11 to 1.61, p = 0.03) were increased. In males, Ramadan fasting resulted in weight loss (SMD = -0.24, 95 % CI = -0.36, -0.12, p = 0.001). Also, a substantial reduction in total cholesterol (SMD = -0.44, 95 % CI = -0.77 to -0.11) and LDL levels (SMD = -2.22, 95 % CI = -3.47 to -0.96) and a small decrease in triglyceride levels (SMD = -0.35, 95 % CI = -0.67 to -0.02) were observed in males. In conclusion, by looking at this data, it is evident that Ramadan fasting can effectively change body weight and some biochemical parameters in healthy subjects especially in males compared to pre-Ramadan period.

  13. 在群体创造性学习运化动力中修炼身心能量%Cultivating Mind/Heart-Body/Energy in the Dynamics of Creative Collective Learning:Yuanji Theory of Knowledge Creation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    美达.胡斯曼; 张成林

    1999-01-01

    组织机械认知论和知识管理学领域中的一个关键问题是:在什么条件下领导和群体创造性学习运化动力的能量可以持续和增长,又如何在实践群体内部及不同实践群体之间,开发这种增加集体认知能力和知识创造力的动力?通过近期挪威北海上的一个石油井架极有创新的设计过程,运用元极理论阐明这个问题.%A crucial issue in the field of knowledge management and organizational learning is:What are the conditions that sustain and grow energy in leadership and creative collective learning,and how to develop the dynamics of collctive understanding and knowledge creation,within and among communities of practice?The authors explore this issue in the light of Yuanji,an ancient system of theory and living practice of mind/heart-body/energy cultivation,a tradition originating from the imperial court of Kublai Khan China.The issue is further illustrated by arecent story of a successful innovative offshore platform design process in the North Sea.The paper also relates to recent development in the understangding of theoretical physics,cognitive science,mind/body medicine,and knowledge creation.

  14. Comparison of Standing Posture Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis with DXA for Body Composition in a Large, Healthy Chinese Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuen-Tsann; Chen, Yu-Yawn; Wang, Chia-Wei; Chuang, Chih-Lin; Chiang, Li-Ming; Lai, Chung-Liang; Lu, Hsueh-Kuan; Dwyer, Gregory B.; Chao, Shu-Ping; Shih, Ming-Kuei; Hsieh, Kuen-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a common method for assessing body composition in research and clinical trials. BIA is convenient but when compared with other reference methods, the results have been inconclusive. The level of obesity degree in subjects is considered to be an important factor affecting the accuracy of the measurements. A total of 711 participants were recruited in Taiwan and were sub-grouped by gender and levels of adiposity. Regression analysis and Bland-Altman analysis were used to evaluate the agreement of the measured body fat percentage (BF%) between BIA and DXA. The BF% measured by the DXA and BIA methods (Tanita BC-418) were expressed as BF%DXA and BF%BIA8, respectively. A one-way ANOVA was used to test the differences in BF% measurements by gender and levels of adiposity. The estimated BF%BIA8 and BF%DXA in the all subjects, male and female groups were all highly correlated (r = 0.934, 0.901, 0.916, all P< 0.001). The average estimated BF%BIA8 (22.54 ± 9.48%) was significantly lower than the average BF%DXA (26.26 ± 11.18%). The BF%BIA8 was overestimated in the male subgroup (BF%DXA< 15%), compared to BF%DXA by 0.45%, respectively. In the other subgroups, the BF%BIA8 values were all underestimated. Standing BIA estimating body fat percentage in Chinese participants have a high correlation, but underestimated on normal and high obesity degree in both male and female subjects. PMID:27467065

  15. Integrative Medical Care Plus Mindfulness Training for Patients With Congestive Heart Failure: Proof of Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Kathi J; Carmin, Cheryl; Mehta, Bella; Binkley, Phillip

    2016-10-01

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) has a high rate of morbidity and mortality. It is often accompanied by other medical and psychosocial comorbidities that complicate treatment and adherence. We conducted a proof of concept pilot project to determine the feasibility of providing integrative group medical visits plus mindfulness training for patients recently discharged with CHF. Patients were eligible if they had been discharged from an inpatient stay for CHF within the 12 months prior to the new program. The Compassionate Approach to Lifestyle and Mind-Body (CALM) Skills for Patients with CHF consisted of 8 weekly visits focusing on patient education about medications, diet, exercise, sleep, and stress management; group support; and training in mind-body skills such as mindfulness, self-compassion, and loving-kindness. Over two 8-week sessions, 8/11 (73%) patients completed at least 4 visits. The patients had an average age of 57 years. The most common comorbidities were weight gain, sleep problems, and fatigue. After the sessions, 100% of patients planned to make changes to their diet, exercise, and stress management practices. Over half of the patients who met with a pharmacist had a medication-related problem. Improvements were observed in depression, fatigue, and satisfaction with life. Integrative group visits focusing on healthy lifestyle, support, and skill-building are feasible even among CHF patients and should be evaluated in controlled trials as a patient-centered approach to improving outcomes related to improving medication management, depression, fatigue, and quality of life.

  16. The importance of body weight for the dose response relationship of oral vitamin D supplementation and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in healthy volunteers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Paul Ekwaru

    Full Text Available Unlike vitamin D recommendations by the Institute of Medicine, the Clinical Practice Guidelines by the Endocrine Society acknowledge body weight differentials and recommend obese subjects be given two to three times more vitamin D to satisfy their body's vitamin D requirement. However, the Endocrine Society also acknowledges that there are no good studies that clearly justify this. In this study we examined the combined effect of vitamin D supplementation and body weight on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin (25(OHD and serum calcium in healthy volunteers. We analyzed 22,214 recordings of vitamin D supplement use and serum 25(OHD from 17,614 healthy adult volunteers participating in a preventive health program. This program encourages the use of vitamin D supplementation and monitors its use and serum 25(OHD and serum calcium levels. Participants reported vitamin D supplementation ranging from 0 to 55,000 IU per day and had serum 25(OHD levels ranging from 10.1 to 394 nmol/L. The dose response relationship between vitamin D supplementation and serum 25(OHD followed an exponential curve. On average, serum 25(OHD increased by 12.0 nmol/L per 1,000 IU in the supplementation interval of 0 to 1,000 IU per day and by 1.1 nmol/L per 1,000 IU in the supplementation interval of 15,000 to 20,000 IU per day. BMI, relative to absolute body weight, was found to be the better determinant of 25(OHD. Relative to normal weight subjects, obese and overweight participants had serum 25(OHD that were on average 19.8 nmol/L and 8.0 nmol/L lower, respectively (P<0.001. We did not observe any increase in the risk for hypercalcemia with increasing vitamin D supplementation. We recommend vitamin D supplementation be 2 to 3 times higher for obese subjects and 1.5 times higher for overweight subjects relative to normal weight subjects. This observational study provides body weight specific recommendations to achieve 25(OHD targets.

  17. Individual differences in reward sensitivity are related to food craving and relative body weight in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, Ingmar H A; Muris, Peter

    2005-10-01

    According to the theory of J.A. Gray, a strongly reactive approach system is highly sensitive to reward or to cues that signal reward. This implies that intake driven by the rewarding properties of food should be affected by individual differences in reactivity of the approach system. The present study examined whether reward sensitivity is associated with food craving and relative body weight in a sample of female college students. Participants completed the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire and the trait version of the Food Craving Questionnaire and also reported their weight and height in order to compute Body Mass Index (BMI). Sensitivity to reward was significantly related to food craving and BMI. Furthermore, the correlation between reward sensitivity and BMI was not attenuated when the influence of food craving was partialled out, indicating that the relation between sensitivity to reward and BMI was not mediated by food craving. This is the first study demonstrating a relation between the personality trait of sensitivity to reward and BMI. These findings are discussed in the context of the involvement of dopaminergic reward circuitry in overeating.

  18. Do not worry, be mindful: effects of induced worry and mindfulness on respiratory variability in a nonanxious population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlemincx, Elke; Vigo, Daniel; Vansteenwegen, Debora; Van den Bergh, Omer; Van Diest, Ilse

    2013-02-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is characterized by chronic worry. Mindfulness-based stress reduction is thought to remediate excessive worry, because it counteracts a permanent defense state of enhanced vigilance to potential threats. The present study aimed to compare respiratory variability (RV) during worry and mindfulness. Following an 8-minute baseline, 37 healthy participants underwent 11-min worry and mindfulness inductions, in randomized order, using auditory scripts. Respiration was measured by chest and abdominal inductance belts. RV was quantified by (1) autocorrelation to assess linear breathing variability and (2) sample entropy to assess nonlinear breathing variability. Compared to baseline and mindfulness, worry showed decreased autocorrelation in all respiratory parameters and compared to mindfulness, worry showed decreased entropy in respiratory rate. These results suggest that, in contrast to mindfulness, worry is characterized by decreased respiratory stability and flexibility, and therefore worry and mindfulness seem to have countering effects on RV and respiratory regulation.

  19. Child behavioural problems and body size among 2-6 year old children predisposed to overweight. results from the "healthy start" study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nanna J; Pedersen, Jeanett; Händel, Mina N

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Psychological adversities among young children may be associated with childhood overweight and obesity. We examined if an increased level of child behavioural problems was associated with body size among a selected group of 2-6 year old children, who were all predisposed to develop...... overweight. METHODS: Cross-sectional analyses were conducted using baseline data from the "Healthy Start" intervention study. A total of 3058 children were invited to participate, and data from 583 children who were all predisposed for obesity was analyzed. The Danish version of the Strengths......, and family stress level. CONCLUSION: The results suggested a threshold effect between SDQ-TD score and BMI z-score, where BMI z-score was associated with childhood behavioural problems only for those with the highest scores of SDQ-TD. No significant association between PSB score and BMI z-score was found....

  20. The normal limits, subclinical significance, related metabolic derangements and distinct biological effects of body site-specific adiposity in relatively healthy population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ho Yun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The accumulation of visceral adipose tissue that occurs with normal aging is associated with increased cardiovascular risks. However, the clinical significance, biological effects, and related cardiometabolic derangements of body-site specific adiposity in a relatively healthy population have not been well characterized. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we consecutively enrolled 608 asymptomatic subjects (mean age: 47.3 years, 27% female from 2050 subjects undergoing an annual health survey in Taiwan. We measured pericardial (PCF and thoracic peri-aortic (TAT adipose tissue volumes by 16-slice multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT (Aquarius 3D Workstation, TeraRecon, San Mateo, CA, USA and related these to clinical characteristics, body fat composition (Tanita 305 Corporation, Tokyo, Japan, coronary calcium score (CCS, serum insulin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP level and circulating leukocytes count. Metabolic risk was scored by Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines. RESULTS: TAT, PCF, and total body fat composition all increased with aging and higher metabolic scores (all p<0.05. Only TAT, however, was associated with higher circulating leukocyte counts (ß-coef.:0.24, p<0.05, serum insulin (ß-coef.:0.17, p<0.05 and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (ß-coef.:0.24, p<0.05. These relationships persisted after adjustment in multivariable models (all p<0.05. A TAT volume of 8.29 ml yielded the largest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC: 0.79, 95%CI: 0.74-0.83 to identify metabolic syndrome. TAT but not PCF correlated with higher coronary calcium score after adjustment for clinical variables (all p<0.05. CONCLUSION: In our study, we observe that age-related body-site specific accumulation of adipose tissue may have distinct biological effects. Compared to other adiposity measures, peri-aortic adiposity is more tightly associated with cardiometabolic risk profiles and

  1. Effects of growth hormone and/or sex steroid administration on whole-body protein turnover in healthy aged women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xin; Blackman, Marc R; Herreman, Karen; Pabst, Katharine M; Harman, S Mitchell; Caballero, Benjamin

    2005-09-01

    Aging is associated with reduced activities of the growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), and sex steroid axes, and with decreased lean body mass and protein synthesis. Using a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled design, we studied the effects of 6 months of administration of GH alone, sex hormone alone (hormone replacement therapy in women, testosterone enanthate [T] in men), or GH plus sex hormone on protein turnover in healthy men (n=60) and women (n=43), aged 65 to 88 years (mean, 71+/-4.4 years). Growth hormone administration significantly increased IGF-I levels in both sexes, more markedly in men. Sex steroid administration increased the levels of estrogen and testosterone in women and men, respectively (P=.05). Protein turnover was measured before and after the 26-week treatment period by means of a primed, constant l-[1-(13)C]leucine infusion. In men, GH plus T administration increased leucine flux from 80.2+/-2.8 to 93.6+/-4.2 micromol.h-1.kg-1 (P=.02). Leucine oxidation did not change significantly after hormone treatment in either sex. Growth hormone treatment led to nonsignificant upward trends in nonoxidative leucine disposal in men (9.1+/-5.2 mol.h-1.kg-1) and women (7.6+/-7.1 mol.h-1.kg-1). Among all groups combined, changes in nonoxidative leucine disposal were directly related to those of serum IGF-I level (r=0.248, P<.02). Whole-body protein turnover increased in GH plus T-treated men (0.6+/-0.2 g protein.kg-1.d-1; P<.01). These data suggest that low-dose GH administration increases protein synthesis in healthy aged women and men, and that the coadministration of testosterone plus GH enhances this effect in elderly men.

  2. Mindfulness for the treatment of stress disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Karen Johanne; Dahlgaard, Jesper Ovesen; Fjorback, Lone Overby

    2016-01-01

    for the increasing occurrence of stress-related disorders in modern societies, the underlying biological mechanisms are not completely understood. In this chapter, we describe the physiological response to stressors (allostasis), and how stress may cause harm to the body (allostatic load). We follow the explanatory...... increasing support from empirical studies, which indicate that mindfulness-based therapies mediate neuroplastic changes and changes in physiological stress mechanisms. We describe some of the experiences gained and results obtained using Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction in clinical treatment. Keywords......: Long-term stress, Stress response, Allostasis, Allostatic load, Evolution, Stress mechanisms, Stress disorders, Genes, Mindfulness treatment, MBSR, self empowerment...

  3. Children's mental time travel during mind wandering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Qun; Song, Xiaolan; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Qinqin

    2014-01-01

    The prospective bias is a salient feature of mind wandering in healthy adults, yet little is known about the temporal focus of children's mind wandering. In the present study, (I) we developed the temporal focus of mind wandering questionnaire for school-age children (TFMWQ-C), a 12-item scale with good test-retest reliability and construct validity. (II) The criterion validity was tested by thought sampling in both choice reaction time task and working memory task. A positive correlation was found between the temporal focus measured by the questionnaire and the one adopted during task-unrelated thoughts (TUTs) by thought sampling probes, especially in the trait level of future-oriented mind wandering. At the same time, children who experienced more TUTs tended to show worse behavioral performance during tasks. (III) The children in both tasks experienced more future-oriented TUTs than past-oriented ones, which was congruent with the results observed in adults; however, in contrast with previous research on adults, the prospective bias was not influenced by task demands. Together these results indicate that the prospective bias of mind wandering has emerged since the school-age (9∼13 years old), and that the relationship between mental time travel (MTT) during mind wandering and the use of cognitive resources differs between children and adults. Our study provides new insights into how this interesting feature of mind wandering may adaptively contribute to the development of children's MTT.

  4. Pilates and Mindfulness: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Marianne; Caldwell, Karen; Atkins, Laurie; Quin, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    The Pilates method as Joseph Hubertus Pilates originally defined it in the early 1920s, was called "Contrology," or the art of control, based on the ideal of attaining a complete coordination of body, mind, and spirit. Joseph Pilates's early writings emphasized the value of controlling the body rather than attending to the process of body…

  5. Mind God's mind: History, development, and teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetriou, Andreas; Makris, Nikos; Pnevmatikos, Dimitris

    2016-01-01

    We dispute the target article that belief in Big Gods facilitated development of large societies and suggest that the direction of causality might be inverted. We also suggest that plain theory of mind (ToM), although necessary, is not sufficient to conceive Big Gods. Grasp of other aspects of the mind is required. However, this theory is useful for the teaching of religion.

  6. Change my body, change my mind: the effects of illusory ownership of an out group hand on implicit attitudes towards that outgroup.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry eFarmer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of multisensory-induced changes on body-ownership and self-awareness using bodily illusions has been well established. More recently, experimental manipulation of bodily illusions have been combined with social cognition tasks to investigate whether changes in body-ownership can in turn change the way we perceive others. For example, experiencing ownership over a dark-skin rubber hand reduces implicit bias against dark-skin groups. Several studies have also shown that processing of skin colour and facial features play an important role in judgements of racial typicality and racial categorization independently and in an additive manner. The present study aimed at examining whether using multisensory stimulation to induce feelings of body ownership over a dark-skin rubber hand would lead to an increase in positive attitudes towards black faces. We here show, that the induced ownership of a body-part of different skin colour affected the participants’ implicit attitudes when processing facial features, in addition to the processing of skin colour as shown previously. Furthermore, when the levels of pre-existing attitudes towards black people were taken into account, the effect of the rubber hand illusion on the post-stimulation implicit attitudes was only significant for those participants who had a negative initial attitude towards black people, with no significant effects found for those who had positive initial attitudes towards black people. Taken together, our findings corroborate the hypothesis that the representation of the self and its relation to others, as given to us by body-related multisensory processing, is critical in maintaining but also in changing social attitudes.

  7. Mind Over Matter: Cocaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Term(s): Teachers / NIDA Teaching Guide / Mind Over Matter Teaching Guide and Series / Cocaine Print Mind Over Matter: Cocaine Order Free Publication in: English Spanish Download PDF 806.08 KB Cocaine is ...

  8. Mind Over Matter: Methamphetamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Term(s): Teachers / NIDA Teaching Guide / Mind Over Matter Teaching Guide and Series / Methamphetamine Print Mind Over Matter: Methamphetamine (Meth) Order Free Publication in: English Spanish Download PDF 739.54 KB Methamphetamine comes ...

  9. The effects of daily consumption of grapefruit on body weight, lipids, and blood pressure in healthy, overweight adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Caitlin A; Going, Scott B; Chow, Hsiao-Hui S; Patil, Bhimanagouda S; Thomson, Cynthia A

    2012-07-01

    Folklore has suggested that consuming grapefruit may promote weight control. Sparse data exist to support this hypothesis, although there is some evidence of health promotion effects with regard to blood pressure control and modulation of circulating lipids. The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to prospectively evaluate the role of grapefruit in reducing body weight and blood pressure and in promoting improvements in the lipid profile in overweight adults (N = 74). Following a 3-week washout diet low in bioactive-rich fruits and vegetables, participants were randomized to either the control diet (n = 32) or daily grapefruit (n = 42) in the amount of one half of a fresh Rio-Red grapefruit with each meal (3× daily) for 6 weeks. No differences between group in weight, blood pressure, or lipids were demonstrated. Grapefruit consumption was associated with modest weight loss (-0.61 ± 2.23 kg, P = .097), a significant reduction in waist circumference (-2.45 ± 0.60 cm, P = .0002), and a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure (-3.21 ± 10.13 mm Hg, P = .03) compared with baseline values. Improvements were observed in circulating lipids of those consuming grapefruit, with total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein significantly decreasing by -11.7 mg/dL (P = .002) and -18.7 mg/dL (P lipids, or blood pressure as compared with the control condition. However, the improvements in blood pressure and lipids demonstrated in the intervention group suggest that grapefruit should be further evaluated in the context of obesity and cardiovascular disease prevention.

  10. Is the Mind Real ?

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    The mind as a whole escapes objective studies because belief in mind- independent reality is self-contradictory and by definition excludes subjective experience (awareness, 'consciousness') from reality. The mind's center therefore vanishes in studies which imply exclusive objectivism or empiricism. This conceptual difficulty can be counteracted by acknowledging that all mental and world structures arise within an unstructured origin- and-matrix for knowledge-structures and beliefs. The mind'...

  11. Fringe Mind Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Sleutels

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a number of basic strategies for modeling the mind in historical perspective. The best-known strategies are expansionism and eliminativism, which are both problematic: eliminativism compromises our self-understanding, while expansionism is unable to cope with fringe minds. Using Julian Jaynes’s theory of the bicameral mind as an example, an alternative strategy is outlined to meet the challenges posed by the history of the mind.

  12. Mindfulness Exercises: How to Get Started

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... psychological health: A review of empirical studies. Clinical Psychology Review. 2011;31:1041. Nov. 10, 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/consumer-health/in-depth/mindfulness-exercises/art-20046356 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms Any use of ...

  13. How much should we weigh for a long and healthy life span?The need to reconcile caloric restriction versus longevity with body mass index versus mortality data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonello eLorenzini

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Total caloric restriction (CR without malnutrition is a well-established experimental approach to extend life span in laboratory animals. Although CR in humans is capable of shifting several endocrinological parameters it is not clear where the minimum inflection point of the U shaped curve linking body mass index (BMI with all-cause mortality lies. The exact trend of this curve, when used for planning preventive strategies for public health is of extreme importance. Normal BMI ranges from 18.5 to 24.9; many epidemiological studies show an inverse relationship between mortality and BMI inside the normal BMI range. Other studies show that the lowest mortality in the entire range of BMI is obtained in the overweight range (25 to 29.9. Reconciling the extension of life span in laboratory animals by experimental CR with the BMI-mortality curve of human epidemiology is not trivial. In fact, one interpretation is that the CR data are identifying a known: excess fat is deleterious for health; although a second interpretation may be that: additional leanness from a normal body weight may add health and life span delaying the process of aging. This short review hope to start a discussion aimed at finding the widest consensus on which weight range should be consider the healthiest for our species, contributing in this way to the picture of what is the correct life style for a long and healthy life span.

  14. C-reactive protein, waist circumference, and family history of heart attack are independent predictors of body iron stores in apparently healthy premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Ortegón, M F; Arbeláez, A; Mosquera, M; Méndez, F; Aguilar-de Plata, C

    2012-08-01

    Ferritin levels have been associated with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prediction of ferritin levels by variables related to cardiometabolic disease risk in a multivariate analysis. For this aim, 123 healthy women (72 premenopausal and 51 posmenopausal) were recruited. Data were collected through procedures of anthropometric measurements, questionnaires for personal/familial antecedents, and dietary intake (24-h recall), and biochemical determinations (ferritin, C reactive protein (CRP), glucose, insulin, and lipid profile) in blood serum samples obtained. Multiple linear regression analysis was used and variables with no normal distribution were log-transformed for this analysis. In premenopausal women, a model to explain log-ferritin levels was found with log-CRP levels, heart attack familial history, and waist circumference as independent predictors. Ferritin behaves as other cardiovascular markers in terms of prediction of its levels by documented predictors of cardiometabolic disease and related disorders. This is the first report of a relationship between heart attack familial history and ferritin levels. Further research is required to evaluate the mechanism to explain the relationship of central body fat and heart attack familial history with body iron stores values.

  15. Human Mind Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Tom

    2016-01-01

    When students generate mind maps, or concept maps, the maps are usually on paper, computer screens, or a blackboard. Human Mind Maps require few resources and little preparation. The main requirements are space where students can move around and a little creativity and imagination. Mind maps can be used for a variety of purposes, and Human Mind…

  16. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D, more so than its epimer, has a linear relationship to leaner body composition across infancy in healthy term infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazell, Tom J; Gallo, Sina; Berzina, Ilze; Vanstone, Catherine A; Rodd, Celia; Weiler, Hope A

    2014-10-01

    Vitamin D status positively associates with skeletal muscle mass and function in adolescents. The C-3 alpha epimer of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (3-epi-25(OH)D3) is high in infants, yet the potential impacts of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) and 3-epi-25(OH)D3 on skeletal muscle development are largely unexplored. The objective of this study was (i) to explore how the concentrations of 25(OH)D3 and 3-epi-25(OH)D3 track with body composition (lean mass (LM) and fat mass (FM)) and (ii) to determine the association between 25(OH)D3 and 3-epi-25(OH)D3 in infancy. Healthy breastfed infants (n = 132) were followed from 1 to 12 months of age as part of a vitamin D dose-response study (NCT00381914). Anthropometry and diet were assessed. Body composition was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Plasma 25(OH)D3 and 3-epi-25(OH)D3 concentrations were evaluated using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Plasma 25(OH)D3 and 3-epi-25(OH)D3 increased from 1 to 3 months of age and decreased thereafter (p 0.273) than those below this cutoff. LM was not associated with 25(OH)D3, whereas LM% was positively associated with 25(OH)D3 (β = 0.03; CI: 0.01 to 0.06; p = 0.006), while accounting for sex, weight-for-age Z-score, protein and fat intake, and age. For FM, the variables accounting for a significant amount of the variation were plasma 25(OH)D3 concentration (β = -2.38; CI: -4.35, -0.41; p = 0.019), weight-for-age Z-score, protein and fat intake, and time. In healthy infants, higher vitamin D status associates with leaner body composition, though the effect is smaller in magnitude relative to growth.

  17. Does the athletes’ body shape the athletes’ mind? A few ideas on athletes’ mental rotation performance. Commentary on Jansen and Lehmann

    OpenAIRE

    Heinen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Athletes exhibit differences in perceptual-cognitive abilities when compared to non-athletes. Recent theoretical developments focus on the role of the athletes’ body in perceptual-cognitive tasks such as mental rotation tasks. It is assumed that the degree to which stimuli in mental rotation tasks can be embodied facilitates the mental rotation process. The implications of this assumption are discussed and ideas for future research are presented.

  18. The Effects of Tai Chi Chuan on Improving Mind-Body Health for Knee Osteoarthritis Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Dien; Chen, Shuya; Lee, Chia-Lun; Lin, Hung-Yu; Lai, Ping-Tung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To conduct a meta-analysis and systematic review examining whether Tai Chi Chuan could have mental and physical benefits for patients with knee osteoarthritis. Methods. MEDLINE, PUBMED, EMBASE, and CINAHL databases were searched for relevant studies. Data of the studies were collected, and outcomes were classified using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health model. Effect sizes of the mental and physical components were determined, along with the recommendation grades of Philadelphia Panel Classification System for Tai Chi Chuan on knee osteoarthritis. Results. Eleven studies were selected and retrieved from the databases. The results of meta-analysis revealed that the effects of Tai Chi Chuan were observed for physical components in the body functions and structures domain. The effects favoring Tai Chi Chuan were observed in the physical component in the activities and participation domain. Insufficient data was included in the meta-analysis of the mental component. Conclusions. The review revealed that Tai Chi Chuan had beneficial outcomes for patients with knee osteoarthritis. The evidence-based results represented that it had small-to-moderate effects on body functions and structures, activities, and participation of physical component. However, there was insufficient evidence to support that Tai Chi Chuan had beneficial mental effect.

  19. Effects of repeated whole-body cold exposures on serum concentrations of growth hormone, thyrotropin, prolactin and thyroid hormones in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolander, Juhani; Leppäluoto, Juhani; Westerlund, Tarja; Oksa, Juha; Dugue, Benoit; Mikkelsson, Marja; Ruokonen, Aimo

    2009-06-01

    Cold therapy is used to relieve pain and inflammatory symptoms. Humoral changes may account for the pain alleviation related to the cold exposures. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of two types of cold therapy, winter swimming in ice-cold water (WS) and whole body cryotherapy (WBC), on the serum levels of the growth hormone, prolactin, thyrotropin and free fractions of thyroid hormones (fT3, fT4). One group of healthy females (n = 6) was exposed to WS (water 0-2 degrees C) for 20 s and another group (n = 6) to WBC (air 110 degrees C) for 2 min, three times a week for 12 weeks. Blood samples used for the hormone measurements were taken on weeks 1, 4 and 12 before and 35 min after the cold exposures and on the days of the respective weeks, when the cold exposures were not performed. During the WS treatments, serum thyrotropin increased significantly at 35 min on weeks 1 (p < 0.01) and 4 (p < 0.05), but the responses were within the health-related reference interval. During the WS, the serum prolactin measured at 35 min on week 12 was lower than during the control treatment, and no changes in fT3 or fT4 were observed. During the WBC, no changes in the serum levels of the studied hormones were observed during the 12 weeks. In conclusion, repeated WS and WBC treatments for healthy females do not lead to disorders related to altered secretions of the growth hormone, prolactin, thyrotropin, or thyroid hormones.

  20. Population-based estimation of renal function in healthy young Indian adults based on body mass index and sex correlating renal volume, serum creatinine, and cystatin C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajagopalan P

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Prashanth Rajagopalan,1 Georgi Abraham,2 Yuvaram NV Reddy,2 Ravivarman Lakshmanasami,1 ML Prakash,1 Yogesh NV Reddy2 1Department of General Medicine, Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute, Puducherry, 2Department of Nephrology, Madras Medical Mission Hospital, Chennai, India Abstract: This population-based prospective study was undertaken in Mahatma Gandhi Medical College to estimate the renal function in young healthy Indian adults. A young healthy heterogeneous Indian cohort comprising 978 individuals, predominantly medical students, was assessed by a detailed questionnaire, and variables such as height, weight, body mass index (BMI, birth weight, and blood pressure were documented. Laboratory investigations included serum creatinine, serum cystatin C, blood sugar, urine protein, and imaging of the kidneys with ultrasound. The mean age of the cohort was 25±6 years, comprising 672 males and 306 females. The estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs by the Cockcroft–Gault formula for BMI <18.5 kg/m2, 18.5–24.99 kg/m2, 25–29.99 kg/m2, and ≥30 kg/m2 were 71.29±10.45 mL/min, 86.38±13.46 mL/min, 98.88±15.29 mL/min, and 109.13±21.57 mL/min, respectively; the eGFRs using cystatin C for the four groups of BMI were 84.53±18.14 mL/min, 84.01±40.11 mL/min, 79.18±13.46 mL/min, and 77.30±10.90 mL/min, respectively. This study attempts to establish a normal range of serum creatinine and cystatin C values for the Indian population and shows that in young healthy Indian adults, eGFR and kidney volume vary by BMI and sex. Keywords: eGFR, birth weight, renal volume

  1. Mindfulness-Meditation-Based Pain Relief Is Not Mediated by Endogenous Opioids

    OpenAIRE

    Zeidan, Fadel; Adler-Neal, Adrienne L.; Wells, Rebecca E.; Stagnaro, Emily; May, Lisa M.; Eisenach, James C.; McHaffie, John G.; Coghill, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    Mindfulness meditation, a cognitive practice premised on sustaining nonjudgmental awareness of arising sensory events, reliably attenuates pain. Mindfulness meditation activates multiple brain regions that contain a high expression of opioid receptors. However, it is unknown whether mindfulness-meditation-based analgesia is mediated by endogenous opioids. The present double-blind, randomized study examined behavioral pain responses in healthy human volunteers during mindfulness meditation and...

  2. Writing in Mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Theiner

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the “extended mind” thesis, a significant portion of human cog-nition does not occur solely inside the head, but literally extends beyond the brain into the body and the world around us (Clark & Chalmers 1998; Clark 2003, 2008; Wilson 1995, 2004; Rowlands 1999, 2010; Menary 2007, 2012; Sutton 2010; Theiner 2011. One way to understand this thesis is that as human beings, we are particularly adept at creating and recruiting environmental props and scaffolds (media, tools, artifacts, symbol systems for the purpose of solving problems that would otherwise lie beyond our cognitive reach. We manipulate, scaffold, and re-design our environments in ways that transform the nature of difficult tasks that would baffle our unaided biological brains (e.g., math, logic, sequential problem-solving into simpler types of problems that we are naturally much better equipped to solve. A central tenet of the “extended mind” thesis, then, is that “much of what matters for human-level intelligence is hidden not in the brain, nor in the technology, but in the complex and iterated interactions and collaborations between the two” (Clark 2001: 154. Over the past fifteen years or so, the “extended mind” thesis has become a hot ticket in the philosophy of mind. As with all great ideas, the thesis was hardly conceived ex nihilo, but builds on, and re-articulates many earlier strands of thought. Unfortunately, many of those cognate strands have become marginalized in contemporary philosophy of mind and psychology, and do not receive the amount of attention they deserve. Part of what we hope to accomplish with this special issue is to reverse this trend, and to rekindle the dialogue between the “extended mind” thesis and its historical predecessors.

  3. Mindfulness as a Weight Loss Treatment for Veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Vicente Stanton

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite substantial evidence for their effectiveness in treating disordered eating and obesity, mindfulness-based treatments have not been broadly implemented among Veterans. A number of reviews have reported mindfulness to be beneficial in promoting healthy eating behaviors and weight loss among non-Veteran samples. We discuss this approach in the context of the Veterans Affairs system, the largest integrated healthcare provider in the United States and in the context of Veterans, among whom obesity is at epidemic proportions. In this article, we discuss what is known about treating obesity using a mindfulness approach, mindfulness interventions for Veterans, a new pilot mindfulness-based weight loss program designed for Veterans, and future directions for this type of obesity treatment in Veterans. We conclude that this population may be uniquely poised to benefit from mindfulness-based treatments.

  4. Study on the Effects of Different Landscapes on Elderly People's Body-Mind Health%不同园林景观类型对老年人身心健康影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘博新; 徐越

    2016-01-01

    众多研究表明自然景观相对于人工环境对人身心健康具有积极作用,本研究试图进一步探析不同景观类型对老年人的身心健康影响,以期获得老年人康复景观环境的设计依据。实验以中国杭州地区为例,选取草坪、水体、山林、农田、湿地5种景观,以室内环境作为对照,测试老年人身处其中的肌电反应值和精神疲劳恢复度。结果表明:老年人在自然景观中的身体放松效果明显好于室内,并且整体上产生较好的精神疲劳恢复。山林景观的放松效果最为显著,草坪景观次之,水体、农田和湿地相对较弱;老人在精神疲劳恢复中远离性感受最强;女性在山林和湿地景观中获得比男性更积极的身体反应。基于研究结果探讨了有利于老年人身心康复的景观设计策略。%Enormous researches have indicated that natural landscapes would bring more positive body-mind health effect than artificial environments. In order to acquire design evidence of healing landscape for elderly people, this study aims to further explore different landscape types’ influence on elderly people’s body-mind health. Taking Hangzhou as site example, the experiment tests subjects’ electromyography and mental fatigue recovery in 5 landscape types including lawn, lake, forest, farmland and wetland, and then takes indoor environment as comparison group. The result is that the elderly people have obviously better body relaxing effect in outdoor natural landscape than interior, and generaly have better mental fatigue recovery. The forest has the most relaxing effect, the lawn takes second place, while lake, farmland and wetland relatively have weaker effect. The elderly acquires strongest feeling of being away in the process of mental fatigue recovery. The female have more positive body reaction than the male in the scenes of forest and wetland. Based on the results, the design strategies of

  5. Prevalence of neutralizing antibodies against liver-tropic adeno-associated virus serotype vectors in 100 healthy Chinese and its potential relation to body constitutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Ling; Irene Zolotukhin; Arun Srivastava; Chang-quan Ling; Yuan Wang; Ying-lu Feng; Ya-ni Zhang; Jun Li; Xin-rui Hu; Li-na Wang; Mao-feng Zhong; Xiao-feng Zhai

    2015-01-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) serotype 2, 3 and 8 vectors are the most promising liver-tropic AAV serotype vectors. Liver diseases are signiifcant problems in China. However, to date, few studies on AAV neutralizing antibodies (Nabs) were working with the Chinese population or with the rAAV3 vectors. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of Nabs in Chinese population against wild-type AAV2, AAV3 and AAV8 capsids as wel as additional two AAV3 variants. In addition, we performed a preliminary analysis to investigate the potential inlfuence of traditional Chinese medicine body constitutions on AAV Nabs. Our work demonstrated that the majority of healthy Chinese subjects were positive for AAV Nabs, with the order of AAV2 > AAV3 = AAVLK03 > AAV8. There was no difference between: 1) AAV3 and its variants; 2) male and female subjects; and 3) different age cohorts (≤ 35, 36–50, and ≥ 51 years old). People in the Qi-deifciency constitution had signiifcantly increased AAV8 Nabs than people in the Gentleness constitution. Our studies may have impact on the future clinical design of AAV-based gene therapy in the Chinese population.

  6. Relationships between mindfulness practice and levels of mindfulness, medical and psychological symptoms and well-being in a mindfulness-based stress reduction program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, James; Baer, Ruth A

    2008-02-01

    Relationships were investigated between home practice of mindfulness meditation exercises and levels of mindfulness, medical and psychological symptoms, perceived stress, and psychological well-being in a sample of 174 adults in a clinical Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program. This is an 8- session group program for individuals dealing with stress-related problems, illness, anxiety, and chronic pain. Participants completed measures of mindfulness, perceived stress, symptoms, and well-being at pre- and post-MBSR, and monitored their home practice time throughout the intervention. Results showed increases in mindfulness and well-being, and decreases in stress and symptoms, from pre- to post-MBSR. Time spent engaging in home practice of formal meditation exercises (body scan, yoga, sitting meditation) was significantly related to extent of improvement in most facets of mindfulness and several measures of symptoms and well-being. Increases in mindfulness were found to mediate the relationships between formal mindfulness practice and improvements in psychological functioning, suggesting that the practice of mindfulness meditation leads to increases in mindfulness, which in turn leads to symptom reduction and improved well-being.

  7. Incretin secretion in relation to meal size and body weight in healthy subjects and people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilsbøll, T; Krarup, T; Sonne, J;

    2003-01-01

    , reflecting potential action) were measured during two meal tests (260 kcal and 520 kcal) in eight type 1 diabetic patients, eight lean healthy subjects, eight obese type 2 diabetic patients, and eight obese healthy subjects. Both in diabetic patients and in healthy subjects, significant increases in GLP-1...... with healthy subjects, whereas decreased GLP-1 responses were seen in type 2 diabetic patients, compared with matched obese healthy subjects. Incremental GLP-1 responses were normal in type 1 diabetic patients. Increased fasting concentrations of GIP and an early enhanced postprandial GIP response were seen...... in obese, compared with lean healthy subjects, whereas GLP-1 responses were the same in the two groups. beta-cell sensitivity to glucose, evaluated as the slope of insulin secretion rates vs. plasma glucose concentration, tended to increase in both type 2 diabetic patients (29%, P = 0.19) and obese healthy...

  8. On the Contemporary Applications of Mindfulness: Some Implications for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Interest in the Buddhist concept of mindfulness has burgeoned over the last few decades as a result of its application as a therapeutic strategy in mind-body medicine, psychotherapy, psychiatry, education, leadership and management, and a wide range of other theoretical and practical domains. Although many commentators welcome this extension of…

  9. Mindfulness-Based Interventions and the Affective Domain of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Terry

    2014-01-01

    Thanks largely to the work of Kabat-Zinn and associates applications of mindfulness-based practices have grown exponentially over the last decade or so, particularly in the fields of education, psychology, psychotherapy and mind-body health. Having its origins in Buddhist traditions, the more recent secular and therapeutic applications of the…

  10. Teaching Counselors Self-Care through Mindfulness Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, Sandy; Christopher, John Chambers; Dahlen, Penny; Christopher, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    Few counseling programs directly address the importance of self-care in reducing stress and burnout in their curricula. A course entitled Mind/Body Medicine and the Art of Self-Care was created to address personal and professional growth opportunities through self-care and mindfulness practices (meditation, yoga, gong, and conscious relaxation…

  11. Briefly Talk《Healthy Realm in Kid’s Park》%浅谈《幼儿园健康领域》教学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管春艳

    2014-01-01

    What the kid’s mind and body develops most is to speak of from the kid's healthy beginning first, the healthy definition means at the body mental state and society adapt to the good status of aspect.%幼儿的身心发展最主要的是先从幼儿的健康开始说起,健康的定义是指在身体心理和社会适应方面的良好状态。

  12. Age-Dependent Changes in Resting Energy Expenditure (REE: Insights from Detailed Body Composition Analysis in Normal and Overweight Healthy Caucasians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna Geisler

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Age-related changes in organ and tissue masses may add to changes in the relationship between resting energy expenditure (REE and fat free mass (FFM in normal and overweight healthy Caucasians. Secondary analysis using cross-sectional data of 714 healthy normal and overweight Caucasian subjects (age 18–83 years with comprehensive information on FFM, organ and tissue masses (as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, body density (as assessed by Air Displacement Plethysmography (ADP and hydration (as assessed by deuterium dilution (D2O and REE (as assessed by indirect calorimetry. High metabolic rate organs (HMR summarized brain, heart, liver and kidney masses. Ratios of HMR organs and muscle mass (MM in relation to FFM were considered. REE was calculated (REEc using organ and tissue masses times their specific metabolic rates. REE, FFM, specific metabolic rates, the REE-FFM relationship, HOMA, CRP, and thyroid hormone levels change with age. The age-related decrease in FFM explained 59.7% of decreases in REE. Mean residuals of the REE-FFM association were positive in young adults but became negative in older subjects. When compared to young adults, proportions of MM to FFM decreased with age, whereas contributions of liver and heart did not differ between age groups. HOMA, TSH and inflammation (plasma CRP-levels explained 4.2%, 2.0% and 1.4% of the variance in the REE-FFM residuals, but age and plasma T3-levels had no effects. HMR to FFM and MM to FFM ratios together added 11.8% on to the variance of REE-FFM residuals. Differences between REE and REEc increased with age, suggesting age-related changes in specific metabolic rates of organs and tissues. This bias was partly explained by plasmaT3-levels. Age-related changes in REE are explained by (i decreases in fat free mass; (ii a decrease in the contributions of organ and muscle masses to FFM; and (iii decreases in specific organ and tissue metabolic rates. Age-dependent changes in the

  13. Mindfulness and mind-wandering: finding convergence through opposing constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrazek, Michael D; Smallwood, Jonathan; Schooler, Jonathan W

    2012-06-01

    Research into both mindfulness and mind-wandering has grown rapidly, yet clarification of the relationship between these two seemingly opposing constructs is still absent. A first study addresses the relationship between a dispositional measure of mindfulness (Mindful Attention and Awareness Scale, MAAS) and converging measures of both self-reported and indirect markers of mind-wandering. Negative correlations between dispositional mindfulness and 4 measures of mind-wandering confirm the opposing relationship between the 2 constructs and further validate the use of the MAAS as a dispositional measure of mindfulness. A second study demonstrated that 8 minutes of mindful breathing reduces behavioral indicators of mind-wandering during a Sustained Attention to Response Task compared with both passive relaxation and reading. Together these studies clarify the opposition between the constructs of mindfulness and mind-wandering and so should lead to greater convergence between what have been predominately separate, yet mutually relevant, lines of research.

  14. Media and Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... activities include running, swimming, jumping rope, or soccer. Exercise is good for your mind and your body. Staying active relieves stress, helps you sleep better, and can help ease depression and anxiety. Should I go on a diet? Many teenage ...

  15. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2 activity, platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH in leukocytes and body composition in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitsavos Christos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2 also known as serum platelet activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH activity constitutes a novel risk marker for cardiovascular disease. Leukocytes constitute one main cellular source of circulating Lp-PLA2. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of both serum and leukocyte PAF-AH activities with fat distribution and lean tissue. One hundred healthy volunteers without cardiovascular disease history participated in this study (n = 52 men, 44 ± 13 years and n = 48 women, 43 ± 13 years. Body composition was assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, while anthropometrical indices were also measured. The activity of Lp-PLA2 and levels of lipid and glycemic parameters were determined in fasting samples. Results Mean Lp-PLA2 activity was 24.8 ± 4.5 and 19.6 ± 5.0 nmol/min/mL in men and women, respectively (P 2 activity in men after adjusting for LDL-cholesterol, age, smoking, hs-CRP and physical activity, whereas no associations were found with PAF-AH leukocyte homogenates activity. Hierarchical analysis revealed that the variables with the highest explanatory ability of Lp-PLA2 activity in men, were DXA deriving L1–L4 region of interest and arms fat (increase in R2 = 0.136, P = 0.005 and increase in R2 = 0.118, P = 0.009, respectively, followed by trunk fat and total fat. In women, no association of body composition variables with Lp-PLA2 nor PAF-AH leukocyte homogenates activity was found. Conclusion Lp-PLA2 activity is differentiated across levels of adiposity and topology of adipose tissue, whereas no association was found regarding PAF-AH leukocyte homogenates activity. Our findings suggest that Lp-PLA2 may compensate for the adiposity-associated increases in inflammatory and oxidative burden, in men.

  16. Whole-body distribution and radiation dosimetry of the dopamine transporter radioligand [{sup 11}C]PE2I in healthy volunteers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Maria-Joao [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, Institut d' Imagerie Biomedicale, Direction des Sciences du Vivant, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, F-91406 Orsay (France)]. E-mail: maria-joao.ribeiro@cea.fr; Ricard, Marcel [Service de Physique, Institut Gustave Roussy, 39 rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif (France); Lievre, Marie-Angele [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, Institut d' Imagerie Biomedicale, Direction des Sciences du Vivant, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, F-91406 Orsay (France); Bourgeois, Sandrine [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, Institut d' Imagerie Biomedicale, Direction des Sciences du Vivant, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, F-91406 Orsay (France); Emond, Patrick [INSERM U316, Laboratoire de Biophysique medicale et pharmaceutique, UFR des Sciences Pharmaceutiques, 37200 Tours (France); Gervais, Philippe [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, Institut d' Imagerie Biomedicale, Direction des Sciences du Vivant, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, F-91406 Orsay (France); Dolle, Frederic [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, Institut d' Imagerie Biomedicale, Direction des Sciences du Vivant, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, F-91406 Orsay (France); Syrota, Andre [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, Institut d' Imagerie Biomedicale, Direction des Sciences du Vivant, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, F-91406 Orsay (France)

    2007-05-15

    Introduction: This study reports on the biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of a cocaine analog, the (E)-N-(3-iodoprop-2-enyl)-2{beta}-carbomethoxy-3{beta}-(4'-tolyl)nortropane (PE2I), labeled with carbon 11 ([{sup 11}C]PE2I). [{sup 11}C]PE2I is used in positron emission tomography (PET) for examination of the dopamine neuronal transporter (DAT). DAT radioligands are often used to evaluate the progression of Parkinson's disease or the efficiency of neuroprotective therapeutics, and, typically, these studies required several successive PET scans. Methods: In three healthy male volunteers, whole-body scans were performed up to 2 h following intravenous injection of 321{+-}6 MBq of [{sup 11}C]PE2I. For each subject, regions of interest were defined over all visible organs to generate time-activity curves and calculate the percentage of injected activity. Time-activity data were fitted to a monoexponential model, as an uptake phase followed by a mono-exponential washout, or bi-exponential model to obtain residence times. With the use of the MIRD method, several source organs were considered in estimating residence time and mean effective radiation absorbed doses. Results: Blood pressure and ECG findings remained unchanged after radioligand injection. The primary route of clearance was renal. Ten minutes after injection, high activities were observed in the kidneys, urinary-bladder, stomach, liver, salivary glands and brain. The urine bladder wall, stomach and liver received the highest absorbed doses. The average effective dose of [{sup 11}C]PE2I was estimated to be 6.4{+-}0.6 {mu}Sv/MBq. Conclusion: The amount of [{sup 11}C]PE2I required for adequate DAT PET imaging results in an acceptable effective dose equivalent permitting two or three repeated cerebral PET studies, with the injection of 222 MBq for each study.

  17. Pharmacokinetics and tolerability of daptomycin at doses up to 12 milligrams per kilogram of body weight once daily in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benvenuto, Mark; Benziger, David P; Yankelev, Sara; Vigliani, Gloria

    2006-10-01

    Daptomycin, a novel lipopeptide, is bactericidal against a broad range of gram-positive strains, including methicillin- (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Daptomycin is approved at 4 mg/kg of body weight given intravenously once daily for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections and at 6 mg/kg for the treatment of S. aureus bloodstream infections (bacteremia), including right-sided endocarditis caused by methicillin-susceptible S. aureus and MRSA. The present study was designed to evaluate the multiple-dose pharmacokinetics and safety of daptomycin at doses of 6 to 12 mg/kg in healthy volunteers. Three cohorts of 12 subjects each were given daptomycin (10 mg/kg) or placebo once daily for 14 days, daptomycin (12 mg/kg) or placebo once daily for 14 days, or daptomycin (6 or 8 mg/kg) once daily for 4 days. Daptomycin produced dose-proportional increases in the area under the plasma concentration-time curve and in trough daptomycin levels and nearly dose-proportional increases in peak daptomycin concentrations. Other pharmacokinetic parameters measured on day 1 and at steady state were independent of the dose, including the half-life (approximately 8 h), weight-normalized plasma clearance (9 to 10 ml/h/kg), and volume of distribution (approximately 100 ml/kg). Plasma protein binding was 90% to 93% and was independent of the daptomycin concentration. Daptomycin did not produce electrocardiographic abnormalities or electrophysiological evidence of muscle or nerve toxicity. Daptomycin was well tolerated in subjects dosed with up to 12 mg/kg intravenously for 14 days. Doses of daptomycin higher than 6 mg/kg once daily may be considered in further studies to evaluate the safety and efficacy of daptomycin in difficult-to-treat infections.

  18. Development of the concept of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Maxwell R

    2007-12-01

    A short account is given of the development of concepts of soul, mind and brain in order to place in historical context the subject of neuropsychiatry. A selection of primary and secondary historical sources is used to trace development of these concepts. Beginning with the spirits of Animism in the 3rd millennium BC, the Greek invention of the soul and its properties, of thymos (emotion), menos (rage) and nous (intellect) are then traced from the time of Homer, in which the soul does not last the death of the body, to Plato in the 4th century BC who argued that the soul, incorporating the nous (now called mind) is incorporeal and immortal. Plato's pupil, Aristotle, commented on the impossibility of an incorporeal soul interacting with a corporeal body. He instituted a revolution in the concept of mind. This involved pointing out that 'mind' is a manner of speaking about our psychological powers as in thinking and remembering. Given that such powers are not a thing the problem does not arise as to the relation between mind and a corporeal body. These ideas of Plato and Aristotle were held by competing scholars and theologians during the next 2000 years. Plato was favoured by many in the Church who could more readily grasp the concept of an immortal and incorporeal soul within the context of Christian thought. Galen established in the 2nd century AD that psychological capacities are associated with the brain, and argued that the fluid-filled ventricles were the part of the brain involved. This argument stood for over 1500 years until the 17th century when Willis, as a consequence of the new blood perfusion techniques developed by Wren following Harvey, showed that blood did not enter the ventricles but the cortex, thereby transferring interest from the ventricles to the cortex. The hegemony of Plato's ideas was broken about this time by Descartes when he argued that the incorporeal soul does not consist of three parts (thymos, nous and menos) but is solely identical

  19. Resisting Mind Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Susan M.; Zimbardo, Philip G.

    1980-01-01

    Provides conceptual analyses of mind control techniques along with practical advice on how to resist these techniques. The authors stress that effective mind control stems more from everyday social relations than from exotic technological gimmicks. Suggestions are given for resisting persuasion, resisting systems, and challenging the system.…

  20. Elliott on Mind Matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maattanen, Pentti

    2000-01-01

    Argues that David Elliott's conception of the human mind presented in his book "Music Matters" is not coherent. Outlines three alternatives to Elliott's theory of mind. Suggests that the principles associated with the pragmatism of Charles Sanders Pierce would complement Elliott's ideas in his book. (CMK)

  1. Mindfulness and Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leland, Matt

    2015-01-01

    Mindfulness has long been practiced in Eastern spiritual traditions for personal improvement, and educators and educational institutions have recently begun to explore its usefulness in schools. Mindfulness training can be valuable for helping students be more successful learners and more connected members of an educational community. To determine…

  2. Teaching Tips: Mind Magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortenberry, Callie L.; Fowler, Teri W.

    2006-01-01

    Mind magnets are maps to guide instruction and facilitate the comprehension processes. They extend individual comprehension strategy instruction, which does not typically show students how to link application of appropriate strategies to whole texts. The mind magnet framework allows teachers to plan powerful interactions between the reader and the…

  3. Steering Your Mysterious Mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Ramjee

    Steering the Mysterious Mind, describes a unique, novel concept for a way to gain control of your mind. The five basic elements of human life, that is; Creativity, Content­ment, Confidence, Calmness, and Concentration (C5) have been introduced in my previous book Unlock Your Personalization...

  4. Fringe Mind Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleutels, J.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses a number of basic strategies for modeling the mind in historical perspective. The best-known strategies are expansionism and eliminativism, which are both problematic: eliminativism compromises our self-understanding, while expansionism is unable to cope with fringe minds. Using

  5. A neurologist looks at mind and brain: "the enchanted loom".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansotia, Phiroze

    2003-10-01

    For a long time, before we developed an appreciation of the neuroanatomy and neurophysiology of the brain, there was uncertainty as to the nature and source of the human mind. Philosophers linked the mind to mythical "humors" that controlled the human body, and others speculated that the mind was associated with "life-force" or soul. Few felt that there was a relation between the human mind and brain, but they had to wait for the Age of Enlightenment and scientific discovery in the 18th and 19th centuries to establish a clear association between the two. Three centuries ago Rene Descartes described the mind as an extracorporeal entity that was expressed through the pineal gland. Descartes was wrong about the pineal, but the debate he set off regarding the relationship between mind and brain rages on. This review looks at the history of speculation on the mind and the development of ideas that have led to our present understanding of this phenomenon. The basic anatomy and physiology of the brain is reviewed to help us understand the brain's association with the complex function we call mind. This is followed by a look at some syndromes that may result when part of the brain is damaged-the parietal lobe is arbitrarily selected as an example-and the resulting effect on the subject's mind. This assists us in understanding the association of mind and brain, and also to better understanding its components, behavior, function and dysfunction.

  6. Healthy shiftwork, healthy shiftworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogi, K

    2001-12-01

    Reflecting diversifying shift systems, extensive effort is put into managing shiftwork and reducing safety and health risks. It is accepted that shiftworkers are exposed to particular risks inherent in their irregular work schedules. This raises the question of how and to what extent we can ensure healthy work life for shiftworkers. In answering the question, we need to identify effective measures to improve both shiftworking conditions and the health of shiftworkers. Based on recent experiences in managing shiftwork, we note three directions of such measures: (a) comprehensive action to avoid risk-enhancing conditions based on general guidelines, (b) risk control as to workload, worksite ergonomics and risk reduction, and (c) support for flexible and restful working life. International standards are obviously relevant to these three aspects. Our own experiences in applying a set of ergonomic checkpoints to plant maintenance shiftwork demonstrate the usefulness of focusing on flexible work schedules and on multiple job-related factors such as night workload, ergonomic environment, resting conditions and training. There is a strong need for participatory planning and implementation of multi-area improvements as well as for relying on flexible schedules and autonomic teamwork. We may conclude that healthy shiftwork and healthy shiftworkers are compatible with each other only when certain conditions are met. In achieving this end, we need to combine (a) comprehensive measures to improve work schedules and job life, (b) strict risk management and (c) locally adjusted participatory steps for continual improvement.

  7. The Research on Interactive Software in the Regulating and Controlling System of the Body and Mind%“身心健康综合调控系统”软件的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁静群

    2012-01-01

    The form of the regulating and controlling system of the body and mind is divided into single - computer version and net - software, including the basic theory, video inter - action and general adjustment, on which seven elements are based, basic theory on human science, anatomy science, the evaluation of the sub -health, quick -recovery from the fatigue through massage, psychological health, sports description. Under such condition as the interaction of human and computer, the purpose of the research can be achieved, such as focus the test, evaluation, anticipation and the regulating and controlling together, and keeping the physical and psychological health.%身心健康综合调控系统形式为单机版/网络版软件,以3大模块即基础理论、视频互动、综合调控来统筹7项内容:人体科学基础理论、解剖薄弱环节与防护要点、亚健康评估、快速恢复疲劳、营养调控、心理健康、运动处方等。在人机互动条件下,将测试、评估、干预、综合调控一体化,最终达到科学、全面、平衡、趣味性地保持身心健康的目的。

  8. Grip op werkstress. Mindfulness ontstresst maatschappelijk werkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen van Horen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Taking control over work related stress. Mindfulness destresses social workersStress is a major social problem. Due to the increasing workload and the content of the work, social workers are at risk to develop stress (symptoms. The physical and psychological consequences of prolonged stress are serious. By living healthy, optimize working conditions and applying mindfulness, stress can be reduced. Mindfulness is an effective and useful way to reduce stress. It increases the resistance of workers against stress, improves brainfunctions and therefore has a positive effect on the performance. These effects are great, but they are still weakly methodologically substantiated. A pilot project within the youthcare though, was enthusiastically received and proves to be effective against stress symptoms. The exercises that are part of this pilot fit well with the needs of employees. For organizations mindfulnesstrainings are a time-and cost-effective way of structural stress prevention.Grip op werkstress. Mindfulness ontstresst maatschappelijk werkersStress is een omvangrijk maatschappelijk probleem. Door de toenemende werkdruk en de inhoud van het werk zijn maatschappelijk werkers een risicogroep om stress en stressklachten te ontwikkelen. De fysieke en psychische gevolgen die langdurige stress met zich meebrengt zijn ernstig. Door gezond te leven, de arbeidsomstandigheden te optimaliseren en mindfulness toe te passen kan stress terug worden gedrongen. Mindfulness is een effectieve en bruikbare manier om stress te verminderen. Het vergroot de weerbaarheid van werknemers tegen stress, het verbetert de hersenwerking en heeft daardoor een positief effect op het functioneren. Grote effecten dus, maar wel nog methodologisch zwak onderbouwd. Een pilot binnen de jeugdzorg op het gebied van mindfulness is enthousiast ontvangen en blijkt effectief tegen stressklachten. De oefeningen die onderdeel uitmaken van deze pilot sluiten goed aan bij de behoeften van

  9. Healthy Buddies[TM] Reduces Body Mass Index Z-Score and Waist Circumference in Aboriginal Children Living in Remote Coastal Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronsley, Rebecca; Lee, Andrew S.; Kuzeljevic, Boris; Panagiotopoulos, Constadina

    2013-01-01

    Background: Aboriginal children are at increased risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes. Healthy Buddies [TM]-First Nations (HB) is a curriculum-based, peer-led program promoting healthy eating, physical activity, and self-esteem. Methods: Although originally designed as a pilot pre-/post-analysis of 3 remote Aboriginal schools that requested and…

  10. No correlation between body mass index and striatal dopamine transporter availability in healthy volunteers using SPECT and [123I]PE2I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, G; Ziebell, M; Jensen, Peter Steen

    2013-01-01

    , dopamine is inactivated by reuptake via the dopamine transporter (DAT). The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis of lower DAT availability in obese healthy subjects using a selective DAT radiotracer in a sample of subjects with a wide range of BMI values. Design and Methods: Thirty-three healthy...

  11. A Moment of Mindfulness: Computer-Mediated Mindfulness Practice Increases State Mindfulness

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmood, Lynsey; Hopthrow, Tim; Randsley de Moura, Georgina

    2016-01-01

    Three studies investigated the use of a 5-minute, computer-mediated mindfulness practice in increasing levels of state mindfulness. In Study 1, 54 high school students completed the computer-mediated mindfulness practice in a lab setting and Toronto Mindfulness Scale (TMS) scores were measured before and after the practice. In Study 2 (N = 90) and Study 3 (N = 61), the mindfulness practice was tested with an entirely online sample to test the delivery of the 5-minute mindfulness practice via ...

  12. Body contact and body language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Helle Dagmar

    2008-01-01

    ­logue between a written text and a visceral on-line performance involving photographs and music, the reader/audience has the possibility to be touched both sensually and intellectually, although through communication is in cyberspace, missing the liveliness of direct body language. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-May......Body contact and body language are unique and existential and, although culturally dependent and socially embodied, they are also universal communication forms. For small children all over the world, warm, close and nourishing body contact is fundamental to their embodied experi­ence of themselves...... and the boundaries between self and world. In western societies, the modern premises for contact are in some ways developing from close contact to virtual communication. With this breadth of perspective in mind, the ques­tion is whether conscious and experimental work with body contact and body language in move...

  13. Creative collisions between body and mind

    CERN Multimedia

    Joannah Caborn Wengler

    2012-01-01

    Gilles Jobin, an internationally renowned dancer and choreographer from Geneva, is just starting his three-month residency at CERN. It’s the Organization’s first Collide@CERN dance and performance residency and is funded by the City and Canton of Geneva. Freshly installed in his new office, he’s just starting to get to grips with the combination of dance and high energy physics.   Jobin's 2011 piece "Spider Galaxies" was in part inspired by a visit to CERN and its music incorporated LHC data. © Cie Gilles Jobin 2011 – Photograph: Grégory Batardon. “I’m really in an exploratory phase of what I’m calling “The Metaphor Dance Project” at the moment,” Gilles Jobin explains. “And I’m learning so much. For example, I didn’t know that gravity is one of the weakest forces, and that the force which holds matter together and the...

  14. Dialectics of Mind, Body, and Place

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Kusan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents results from an exploratory study of what college students from northern Ontario think about and do to manage their mental health. Data gathered in semistructured interviews were analyzed using the constant comparative method. The purpose of the study is to advance our understanding of the ontogeny, substantive nature and deployment of mental health literacy (MHL. MHL has hitherto been defined as “knowledge and beliefs about mental disorders that aid their recognition, management or prevention.”. This definition effectively translates to knowledge of the contents of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, currently in its fifth edition. Results of the study suggest that the current definition of MHL is overly narrow, that individuals use knowledge of various types from various sources to manage their mental health, and that the literacies that inform mental health management practices are developed through iterative engagement in autologous knowledge-translation, at the core of which are cultured resonance, meaning-making, metacognitive evaluation, and heuristic experimentation. MHL is redefined as the self-generated and acquired knowledge with which people negotiate their mental health. Broadening the definition of MHL has potential to enhance the capacity of individuals and communities to manage mental health effectively.

  15. Disabled Athletes: Strong Minds,Strong Bodies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    DisabledAthletes:StrongMinds,StrongBodies¥RAOFENGQIThewomen'swheelchairmarathon.willpowerandtherefusaltogiveupinthefaceofnear...

  16. Henri Ey's neojacksonism and the psychopathology of disintegrated mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Benedetto; Ceccarelli, Maurizio; Di Giannantonio, Massimo

    2005-01-01

    The French psychiatrist Henri Ey developed his organo-dynamic theory of the mind function and consciousness 50 years ago incorporating Hughling Jackson's thinking, along with psychiatric and philosophical theorizations by Janet and Bergson. This model has not received the attention it deserved, but recent advances in neuroscience rekindled interest for Ey's theory. By overcoming the Cartesian mind-body dualism and treating the mind-body unit as an inseparable whole, this model opens the way for the integrated treatment of mental disorders. Ey's conceptualization of consciousness as being simultaneously both synchronous and diachronic anticipates current theories of consciousness (Damasio, Edelman, Mesulam).

  17. Physics of the Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlovsky, Leonid I

    2016-01-01

    Is it possible to turn psychology into "hard science"? Physics of the mind follows the fundamental methodology of physics in all areas where physics have been developed. What is common among Newtonian mechanics, statistical physics, quantum physics, thermodynamics, theory of relativity, astrophysics… and a theory of superstrings? The common among all areas of physics is a methodology of physics discussed in the first few lines of the paper. Is physics of the mind possible? Is it possible to describe the mind based on the few first principles as physics does? The mind with its variabilities and uncertainties, the mind from perception and elementary cognition to emotions and abstract ideas, to high cognition. Is it possible to turn psychology and neuroscience into "hard" sciences? The paper discusses established first principles of the mind, their mathematical formulations, and a mathematical model of the mind derived from these first principles, mechanisms of concepts, emotions, instincts, behavior, language, cognition, intuitions, conscious and unconscious, abilities for symbols, functions of the beautiful and musical emotions in cognition and evolution. Some of the theoretical predictions have been experimentally confirmed. This research won national and international awards. In addition to summarizing existing results the paper describes new development theoretical and experimental. The paper discusses unsolved theoretical problems as well as experimental challenges for future research.

  18. Mindfulness in cultural context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmayer, Laurence J

    2015-08-01

    Mindfulness meditation and other techniques drawn from Buddhism have increasingly been integrated into forms of psychotherapeutic intervention. In much of this work, mindfulness is understood as a mode of awareness that is present-centered and nonevaluative. This form of awareness is assumed to have intrinsic value in promoting positive mental health and adaptation by interrupting discursive thoughts that give rise to suffering. However, in the societies where it originated, mindfulness meditation is part of a larger system of Buddhist belief and practice with strong ethical and moral dimensions. Extracting techniques like mindfulness meditation from the social contexts in which they originate may change the nature and effects of the practice. The papers in this issue of Transcultural Psychiatry explore the implications of a cultural and contextual view of mindfulness for continued dialogue between Buddhist thought and psychiatry. This introductory essay considers the meanings of mindfulness meditation in cultural context and the uses of mindfulness as a therapeutic intervention in contemporary psychiatry and psychology.

  19. PHYSICS OF THE MIND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid Perlovsky

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Is it possible to turn psychology into hard science? Physics of the mind follows the fundamental methodology of physics in all areas where physics have been developed. What is common among Newtonian mechanics, statistical physics, quantum physics, thermodynamics, theory of relativity, astrophysics... and a theory of superstrings? The common among all areas of physics is a methodology of physics discussed in the first few lines of the paper. Is physics of the mind possible? Is it possible to describe the mind based on the few first principles as physics does? The mind with its variabilities and uncertainties, the mind from perception and elementary cognition to emotions and abstract ideas, to high cognition. Is it possible to turn psychology and neuroscience into hard sciences? The paper discusses established first principles of the mind, their mathematical formulations, and a mathematical model of the mind derived from these first principles, mechanisms of concepts, emotions, instincts, behavior, language, cognition, intuitions, conscious and unconscious, abilities for symbols, functions of the beautiful and musical emotions in cognition and evolution. Some of the theoretical predictions have been experimentally confirmed. This research won national and international awards. In addition to summarizing existing results the paper describes new development theoretical and experimental. The paper discusses unsolved theoretical problems as well as experimental challenges for future research.

  20. Physics of the Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlovsky, Leonid I.

    2016-01-01

    Is it possible to turn psychology into “hard science”? Physics of the mind follows the fundamental methodology of physics in all areas where physics have been developed. What is common among Newtonian mechanics, statistical physics, quantum physics, thermodynamics, theory of relativity, astrophysics… and a theory of superstrings? The common among all areas of physics is a methodology of physics discussed in the first few lines of the paper. Is physics of the mind possible? Is it possible to describe the mind based on the few first principles as physics does? The mind with its variabilities and uncertainties, the mind from perception and elementary cognition to emotions and abstract ideas, to high cognition. Is it possible to turn psychology and neuroscience into “hard” sciences? The paper discusses established first principles of the mind, their mathematical formulations, and a mathematical model of the mind derived from these first principles, mechanisms of concepts, emotions, instincts, behavior, language, cognition, intuitions, conscious and unconscious, abilities for symbols, functions of the beautiful and musical emotions in cognition and evolution. Some of the theoretical predictions have been experimentally confirmed. This research won national and international awards. In addition to summarizing existing results the paper describes new development theoretical and experimental. The paper discusses unsolved theoretical problems as well as experimental challenges for future research. PMID:27895558

  1. Mindfulness - en implicit utopi?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Maj

    2014-01-01

    mindfulness is used for individualized stress-reduction in order to keep up with existing or worsened working conditions instead of stress-reducing changes in the common working conditions. Mindfulness research emphasizes positive outcomes in coping with demands and challenges in everyday life especially...... considering suffering (for example stress and pain). While explicit constructions of Utopia present ideas of specific societal communities in well-functioning harmony, the interest in mindfulness can in contradistinction be considered an implicit critique of present life-conditions and an “implicit utopia...

  2. Mindfulness and clinical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, David

    2011-09-01

    Does mindfulness offer more to psychology than a useful therapeutic technique? This paper argues that it can also establish a state of presence which is understood in relation to the practice of phenomenology. Mindfulness is then both linked to a Western intellectual tradition and offers that tradition a systematic method. This is an opening for psychological investigation of the non-conceptual basis of everyday experience. The combination of this theoretical stance with the increasingly widespread practical training of clinical psychologists in mindfulness has broad implications for clinical practice; this is illustrated in relation to the descriptive approach to clinical problems, qualitative research, and reflective practice.

  3. Influence of the interaction between the adiponectin G276T polymorphism and body mass index on lipid levels in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riestra, Pía; García-Anguita, Alicia; Lasunción, Miguel A; Mangas, Alipio; de Oya, Manuel; Garcés, Carmen

    2012-04-01

    Adiponectin is an adipose tissue-specific hormone which is inversely associated with metabolic alterations related to atherosclerosis. Polymorphisms in the adiponectin gene (AdipoQ) have been related to low adiponectin levels as well as several cardiovascular risk factors, but this association remains controversial. In our study we investigated the relationship between the AdipoQ T45G (rs: 2241766) and G276T (rs: 1501299) polymorphisms and adiponectin concentrations, blood pressure, and lipid and insulin levels, in a population-based sample of 12- to 16-year-old children. The study included 815 healthy Spanish children (388 boys and 427 girls). Plasma glucose and lipid levels were determined by standard methods. Insulin concentrations were measured by RIA, and serum adiponectin levels were determined by ELISA. The AdipoQ T45G and AdipoQ G276T polymorphisms were determined by TaqMan(®) allelic discrimination assays. ANOVA or t test allowed for comparison of the studied parameters across genotypes or genotype groups, respectively. A linear regression analysis was performed to examine the independent relationships of the lipid variables with BMI (body mass index), AdipoQ G276T polymorphism and the interaction between the two. When independently comparing the effect of these polymorphisms in normal-weight and overweight children, we observed that overweight boys carriers of the minor allele T had significantly lower TC, LDL-C and apo A-I levels than non-carriers, but these differences were not apparent in normal-weight boys. Furthermore, linear regression analysis demonstrated that interaction between the BMI and the AdipoQ G276T polymorphism is a significant factor explaining the variations of TC and LDL-C levels. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report an association between the AdipoQ G276T polymorphism and lipid levels in overweight boys alone, thereby suggesting that the influence of the AdipoQ polymorphisms on cardiovascular risk factors may be

  4. Effects of 16-week high-intensity interval training using upper and lower body ergometers on aerobic fitness and morphological changes in healthy men: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osawa Y

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Yusuke Osawa,1,2,* Koichiro Azuma,3,* Shogo Tabata,3 Fuminori Katsukawa,2 Hiroyuki Ishida,2 Yuko Oguma,2 Toshihide Kawai,4 Hiroshi Itoh,4 Shigeo Okuda,5 Hideo Matsumoto3 1Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; 2Sports Medicine Research Center, Keio University, Kanagawa, Japan; 3Institute for Integrated Sports Medicine, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo, Japan; 4Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo, Japan; 5Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo, Japan *Yusuke Osawa and Koichiro Azuma are co-first authors of this article Abstract: It is unclear whether combined leg and arm high-intensity interval training (HIIT improves fitness and morphological characteristics equal to those of leg-based HIIT programs. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of HIIT using leg-cycling (LC and arm-cranking (AC ergometers with an HIIT program using only LC. Effects on aerobic capacity and skeletal muscle were analyzed. Twelve healthy male subjects were assigned into two groups. One performed LC-HIIT (n=7 and the other LC- and AC-HIIT (n=5 twice weekly for 16 weeks. The training programs consisted of eight to 12 sets of >90% VO2 (the oxygen uptake that can be utilized in one minute peak for 60 seconds with a 60-second active rest period. VO2 peak, watt peak, and heart rate were measured during an LC incremental exercise test. The cross-sectional area (CSA of trunk and thigh muscles as well as bone-free lean body mass were measured using magnetic resonance imaging and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The watt peak increased from baseline in both the LC (23%±38%; P<0.05 and the LC–AC groups (11%±9%; P<0.05. The CSA of the quadriceps femoris muscles also increased from baseline in both the LC (11%±4%; P<0.05 and the LC–AC groups (5%±5%; P<0.05. In contrast, increases were observed in the CSA of

  5. Waist circumference vs body mass index in association with cardiorespiratory fitness in healthy men and women: a cross sectional analysis of 403 subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagan Shiri Sherf

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Body mass index (BMI is more commonly used than waist circumference as a measure of adiposity in clinical and research settings. The purpose of this study was to compare the associations of BMI and waist circumference with cardiorespiratory fitness. Methods In a cross-sectional study of 403 healthy men and women aged 50 ± 8.8 years, BMI and waist circumference were measured. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed from estimated maximal O2 uptake (VO2max, as calculated from a maximal fitness test. Results Mean BMI (kg/m2 was 27.8 ± 3.7 and 25.5 ± 4.6; and mean waist circumference (cm 94.1 ± 9.7 and 84.3 ± 10.4 for men and women, respectively. Both men and women reported an average of 2.5 hours of weekly sports related physical activity, and 18% were current smokers. Correlation coefficients between both BMI and waist circumference, and VO2max were statistically significant in men (r = −0.280 and r = −0.377, respectively, p > 0.05 for both and in women (r = −0.514 and r = −0.491, respectively, p > 0.05 for both. In women, the contribution of BMI to the level of VO2max in a regression model was greater, while in men waist circumference contributed more to the final model. In these models, age, hours of training per week, and weekly caloric expenditure in sport activity, significantly associated with VO2max, while smoking did not. Conclusion The differences observed between the sexes in the associations of BMI and waist circumference with VO2max support the clinical use of both obesity measures for assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness.

  6. Psychology and mind in Aquinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Valdecasas, Miguel

    2005-09-01

    This article stresses the main lines of Thomas Aquinas's philosophy on the nature of the body-soul union. Following Aristotle, Aquinas sees the soul as a 'principle of life' which is intimately bound to a body. Together they form a non-contingent composition. In addition, the distinctive feature of the human soul is rationality, which implies that a human needs a mind to be what it is. However, this is not to say, as Descartes proposes, that the reason that I am a human is that I am fully self-conscious. On the contrary, I will show that self-consciousness is not necessarily a key to defining a human being. To that aim, and based on Aquinas's views, I draw a distinction between what I will call 'egos' and selves'.

  7. Comparison of total-body calcium with radiographic and photon absorptiometry measurement of appendicular bone mineral content. [Comparison of findings in patients with primary osteoporosis and healthy marathon runners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanzi, I; Colbert, C; Bachtell, R; Thompson, K; Aloia, J; Cohn, S

    1978-01-01

    Two groups of investigators utilized three techniques for evaluating bone mineral mass. In one institution, total-body calcium by total body neutron activation analysis, and bone mineral content of the radius by photon absorptiometry were measured concomitantly. In the other institution, the mean bone mineral content of the three inner phalanges of the left hand was measured by radiographic absorptiometry. These techniques were applied to two groups of subjects: 16 patients with primary osteoporosis and 14 healthy marathon runners. The higher correlation found in osteoporotic patients may be related to the diffuse nature of this condition and to differences in the distribution of skeletal mass in the marathon runners.

  8. Mindfulness and bodily distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjorback, Lone Overby

    2012-11-01

    We have created a mindfulness approach to treat patients who experience multiple, persistent, and disabling physical symptoms that cannot be explained by a well-defined medical or surgical condition. Randomized controlled trials in this area are few, and research is hampered by the lack of clear definitions. Bodily distress syndrome (BDS) or bodily stress is an empirically defined definition unifying various conditions such as fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, and somatization disorder. In the present PhD, we explored whether patients suffering from BDS may be committed to mental training in the form of mindfulness therapy, which is a mindfulness program specifically targeted patients suffering from BDS. The theoretical model for including mindfulness training in the treatment of BDS is based on identified neurobiological impairments in these patients and the neurobiological improvements that mindfulness training may offer. BDS is a major public health issue possibly associated with the pathology of the immuno-endocrine and autonomic nervous system. BDS patients are often stigmatized, and effective treatment is rarely delivered, which leaves these patients isolated, left by themselves, vulnerable to potentially harming medical and/or alternative treatments. Accordingly, there is a need for non-harming practical tools that patients can learn to master so that they can improve the ability to take responsibility for their own health and wellbeing. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) is a group program that employs mindfulness practice to alleviate suffering associated with physical, psychosomatic, and psychiatric disorders. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) is designed to prevent depressive relapse. Paper I and II present systematic literature reviews only of randomized controlled trials on MBSR and MBCT. The effect of MBSR has been explored on fibromyalgia in three studies, none of them showed convincing results, but gave some indications as to

  9. COMMUNITY OUTREACH PROGRAM ON HEALTHY WEIGHT WEEK TO CREATE AWARENESS ON THE INFLUENCE OF BEHAVIORAL FACTORS ON BODY MASS INDEX IN SCHOOL CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Healthy Weight Week, January 19th-25th, 2014, celebrates healthy non-diet lifestyles that can prevent eating and weight problems. The prevalence of child obesity is increasing rapidly worldwide.The behavioral factors such as television watching, exercise, internet browsing, videogames and fast food consumption along with academic stress greatly contributes to obesity. Aim of our study was to impart knowledge, to create awareness on obesity and to correlate the BMI with their behavioral factor...

  10. Open-Minded Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Erika; Ottati, Victor; Wilson, Chase; Kim, Soyeon

    2015-11-01

    The present research conceptualizes open-minded cognition as a cognitive style that influences how individuals select and process information. An open-minded cognitive style is marked by willingness to consider a variety of intellectual perspectives, values, opinions, or beliefs-even those that contradict the individual's opinion. An individual's level of cognitive openness is expected to vary across domains (such as politics and religion). Four studies develop and validate a novel measure of open-minded cognition, as well as two domain-specific measures of religious and political open-minded cognition. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (controlling for acquiescence bias) are used to develop the scales in Studies 1 to 3. Study 4 demonstrates that these scales possess convergent and discriminant validity. Study 5 demonstrates the scale's unique predictive validity using the outcome of Empathic Concern (Davis, 1980). Study 6 demonstrates the scale's unique predictive validity using the outcomes of warmth toward racial, religious, and sexual minorities.

  11. The Unconscious Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargh, John A; Morsella, Ezequiel

    2008-01-01

    The unconscious mind is still viewed by many psychological scientists as the shadow of a "real" conscious mind, though there now exists substantial evidence that the unconscious is not identifiably less flexible, complex, controlling, deliberative, or action-oriented than is its counterpart. This "conscious-centric" bias is due in part to the operational definition within cognitive psychology that equates unconscious with subliminal. We review the evidence challenging this restricted view of the unconscious emerging from contemporary social cognition research, which has traditionally defined the unconscious in terms of its unintentional nature; this research has demonstrated the existence of several independent unconscious behavioral guidance systems: perceptual, evaluative, and motivational. From this perspective, it is concluded that in both phylogeny and ontogeny, actions of an unconscious mind precede the arrival of a conscious mind-that action precedes reflection.

  12. Origins of Mindfulness & Meditation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2011-01-01

    Mindfulness & meditation are gaining popularity in the Western psychological practice in the past 3-4 decades, especially within psychotherapeutic approaches, health promotion, and stress reduction. The origins and the broader context, however, seem to be overlooked in some of these practices......- mind, centrality of consciousness and meditation as a part of daily conduct are presented. The basic constructs of Buddhism, an integral part of Indian psychology, in relation to mindfulness and meditation, are also delineated as illustrations of these assumptions. The second part reflects...... on the application of the meditative practices through cognitive existential study of mindfulness (Kabat-Zinn, 2003) and a study on the phenomenology of meditation (Madsen, 2007). Both emphasise an experienced instructor, regular practice as a part of daily life, conceptual consciousness understandings...

  13. Mindfulness in the Treatment of Suicidal Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoma, Jason B; Villatte, Jennifer L

    2012-01-05

    Suicidal behavior is exhibited by a diverse population of individuals and spans many diagnostic categories. In order to develop effective prevention and treatment programs, it is important to identify transdiagnostic processes that impact the many pathways to suicidality, are amenable to intervention, and affect clinical outcomes when modified. A growing body of data suggests that experiential avoidance, or the tendency to escape or avoid unwanted psychological experiences, even when such efforts cause harm, may represent one such universal process. This article reviews theory and evidence that support mindfulness and psychological acceptance as a means to target experiential avoidance in suicidal clients and thereby reduce the risk of suicide. The article also provides two case examples of the application of mindfulness to suicidality and discusses how mindfulness may help clinicians in managing the stress associated with treating suicidal clients.

  14. Mindfulness for the treatment of stress disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Karen Johanne; Dahlgaard, Jesper; Fjorback, Lone

    2015-01-01

    in modern societies, the underlying biological mechanisms are not completely understood. In this chapter, we describe the physiological response to stressors (allostasis), and how stress may cause harm to the body (allostatic load). We follow the explanatory track from epigenetic influences via altered gene...... that mindfulness-based therapies mediate neuroplastic changes and changes in physiological stress mechanisms. We describe some of the experiences gained and results obtained using Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction in clinical treatment....... Unexplained Symptoms”, “Functional Somatic Syndromes”, or “Bodily Distress Syndrome”. In our research clinic, we use Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction to treat patients with these disorders. The beneficial effects of the treatment have received increasing support from empirical studies, which indicate...

  15. The Unconscious Mind

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The unconscious mind is still viewed by many psychological scientists as the shadow of a “real” conscious mind, though there now exists substantial evidence that the unconscious is not identifiably less flexible, complex, controlling, deliberative, or action-oriented than is its counterpart. This “conscious-centric” bias is due in part to the operational definition within cognitive psychology that equates unconscious with subliminal. We review the evidence challenging this restricted view of ...

  16. Initial exploration about the imbalance between mind and body of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder%注意缺陷多动障碍儿童心身失衡初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李利清; 虞坚尔

    2012-01-01

    注意缺陷多动障碍是发生于儿童期的精神行为障碍性疾病,其核心症状为注意力不集中、多动与冲动.从中医心身医学角度来说,其发病机理在于心身动静失衡.外在表现的身体之动静平衡为标,内在心理潜意识之动静平衡为本.其潜意识的改变可以通过其意象去了解、去改善.意象是中医学的重要基础,五行学说、藏象学说等中医基础理论均建立在意象基础之上.意象的研究不仅可以成为联通现代心理学与中医学的桥梁,推动中医学、心理学之发展,而且也为心身失衡之注意缺陷多动障碍等疾病的诊治提供了新的思路.%Attention dificit hyperactivity disorder(ADHD)is a childhood mental and behavior disorder. The main symptoms are attention-deficit, hyperactivity and impulse. In terms of psychosomatics of TCM, its pathogenesis is the imbalance between mind and body. The manifestation can be compared with the branches of a tree while the subconsciouness can be compared with the roots of a tree. The change of subconsciousness can be interpreted and improved by adopting ideation and manifestation. Ideation and manifestation are foundermental to TCM in that five-element theory and five-visceral theory are based on ideation and manifestation. The study of ideation and manifestation builds a bridge between psycology and TCM , and push forward the development of psycology and TCM. It provides a new idea of diagnosis and treatment of ADHD.

  17. Blushing and the philosophy of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunge, Mario

    2007-01-01

    The introduction, an imaginary dialogue between a philosopher and a scientist, is followed by a brief discussion of the interactions between science, philosophy, and religion. Next comes an analysis of the three most popular philosophies of mind: classical mind-body dualism, computerism, and psychoneural monism. It is argued that the latter, held by medical psychologists since Hippocrates, and formulated explicitly by Cajal and Hebb, is the philosophy of mind that underlies contemporary cognitive and affective neuroscience. The standard objections to psychoneural monism (or materialism) are examined. Evolutionary psychology, though promissory, is judged to be more fancy than fact at its present stage. The conclusion is that the philosophy of mind is still in a poor shape, but that it can advance if it learns more from the science of mind. It would also help if scientific psychologists were to replace such tacitly dualistic expressions as "organ N instantiates (or subserves) mental function M" with "organ N performs mental function M", just as we say "the legs walk" instead of "walking is subserved by legs," and "the lungs breathe" instead of "the lungs instantiate breathing."

  18. Healthy Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wellness Policy Opportunities to create and support a healthy school environment. More Whole School, Whole Community, Whole Child A collaborative approach to learning and health Healthy Schools School Nutrition Environment Childhood Nutrition Facts Energy Drinks Obesity Prevention Youth ...

  19. Monistic dualism and the body electric: An ontology of disease, patient and clinician for person-centred healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pârvan, Alexandra

    2016-08-01

    Ontology is involved in medical care, because what both doctors and patients think the disease, the patient and the doctor are affects the giving and receiving of care, and hence the definition of medical care as profession. Going back to ancient philosophical views of disease as 'bounded entity' or as 'relation' (still echoed in contemporary theories and mindsets), I propose a way to think ontologically about disease that places it in necessary connection with the patient as person. Drawing on Augustine's views on disease, bodily integrity, and the human person as mind-body unit, I speak of 'monistic dualism' as the view where the unit and health of the person is continuously and personally generated by the mind's attention to and action on the body, whether the body is impaired or not. Monistic dualism is identified as the ontological position of both patients who are (or can become) healthy within illness and clinicians who are 'healthy' in their profession. It is what guides both to create what their body is in a personal state of integrity or health. This 'metaphysical body' is termed 'the body electric' in patients, and I argue that clinicians can attend properly to the diseased body by attending to patients' metaphysical body. As clinicians offer metaphysical care to themselves, employing monistic dualism to create their metaphysical body, they should not deny it to patients. Ontology cannot be part of medical care without making metaphysical care a requirement.

  20. Structural dichotomy of the mind; the role of sexual neuromodulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion G. Motofei

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The mind (mental function and sexuality represent two distinct environmental functions, but which are supported within the brain by a common (somatic-autonomic neurobiological substrate. As a consequence, mental function takes on autonomic characteristics from the sexual-autonomic system (like autonomy, duality, while sexual function takes on features from mental functioning (such as lateralization. In this paper we discuss the lateralized action of two classes of sexual neuromodulators: hormones and pheromones. This process of lateralization is assimilated with the structural dichotomy of the mind. A relatively similar process but related to informational dichotomy of the mind will be presented in a forthcoming paper. Structural and informational dichotomies of the mind represent essential aspects that need clarification in order to continue the solving of the mind-body process, a work in progress articulated through a succession of papers.

  1. Neural Networks for Mindfulness and Emotion Suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Hiroki; Katsunuma, Ruri; Oba, Kentaro; Terasawa, Yuri; Motomura, Yuki; Mishima, Kazuo; Moriguchi, Yoshiya

    2015-01-01

    Mindfulness, an attentive non-judgmental focus on "here and now" experiences, has been incorporated into various cognitive behavioral therapy approaches and beneficial effects have been demonstrated. Recently, mindfulness has also been identified as a potentially effective emotion regulation strategy. On the other hand, emotion suppression, which refers to trying to avoid or escape from experiencing and being aware of one's own emotions, has been identified as a potentially maladaptive strategy. Previous studies suggest that both strategies can decrease affective responses to emotional stimuli. They would, however, be expected to provide regulation through different top-down modulation systems. The present study was aimed at elucidating the different neural systems underlying emotion regulation via mindfulness and emotion suppression approaches. Twenty-one healthy participants used the two types of strategy in response to emotional visual stimuli while functional magnetic resonance imaging was conducted. Both strategies attenuated amygdala responses to emotional triggers, but the pathways to regulation differed across the two. A mindful approach appears to regulate amygdala functioning via functional connectivity from the medial prefrontal cortex, while suppression uses connectivity with other regions, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Thus, the two types of emotion regulation recruit different top-down modulation processes localized at prefrontal areas. These different pathways are discussed.

  2. Neural Networks for Mindfulness and Emotion Suppression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Murakami

    Full Text Available Mindfulness, an attentive non-judgmental focus on "here and now" experiences, has been incorporated into various cognitive behavioral therapy approaches and beneficial effects have been demonstrated. Recently, mindfulness has also been identified as a potentially effective emotion regulation strategy. On the other hand, emotion suppression, which refers to trying to avoid or escape from experiencing and being aware of one's own emotions, has been identified as a potentially maladaptive strategy. Previous studies suggest that both strategies can decrease affective responses to emotional stimuli. They would, however, be expected to provide regulation through different top-down modulation systems. The present study was aimed at elucidating the different neural systems underlying emotion regulation via mindfulness and emotion suppression approaches. Twenty-one healthy participants used the two types of strategy in response to emotional visual stimuli while functional magnetic resonance imaging was conducted. Both strategies attenuated amygdala responses to emotional triggers, but the pathways to regulation differed across the two. A mindful approach appears to regulate amygdala functioning via functional connectivity from the medial prefrontal cortex, while suppression uses connectivity with other regions, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Thus, the two types of emotion regulation recruit different top-down modulation processes localized at prefrontal areas. These different pathways are discussed.

  3. [Parent-child relationships and mindfulness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimasu, Kouichi; Oga, Hidefumi; Kagaya, Ryo; Kitabayashi, Makiko; Kanaya, Yuki

    2012-01-01

    Psychological approaches such as mindfulness-based stress reduction or mindfulness-based cognitive therapy could be effective for relieving a wide range of psychosocial stresses or frictions between parents and children. Several interventional approaches based on mindfulness have been shown to be useful for improving parent-child relationships not only among healthy families but also among those with difficult psychopathologies. Particularly in the relationships of parents with their children with developmental disorders such as autism or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders, these approaches may play an important role in that the motivations of both parents and children could be enhanced because they can actually feel that their mental condition improves through meaningful parent-child interactions that they experience in their daily lives. These approaches are also expected to improve communications between mothers and children through the development of a finely honed sensitivity. One practical example is shown for the mental growth of children by the mindfulness-based dietary education and the secondary effects of this education on the parents. We can also apply these effective methods to the improvement of general interpersonal relationships.

  4. A Controlled Intervention to Promote a Healthy Body Image, Reduce Eating Disorder Risk and Prevent Excessive Exercise among Trainee Health Education and Physical Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Zali; O'Dea, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the impact of two interventions on body image, eating disorder risk and excessive exercise among 170 (65% female) trainee health education and physical education (HE & PE) teachers of mean (standard deviation) age 21.6 (2.3) who were considered an "at-risk" population for poor body image and eating disorders. In the first year…

  5. Theory of mind deficit in adult patients with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiavarino, Claudia; Bianchino, Claudia; Brach-Prever, Silvia; Riggi, Chiara; Palumbo, Luigi; Bara, Bruno G; Bosco, Francesca M

    2015-10-01

    This article provides the first assessment of theory of mind, that is, the ability to reason about mental states, in adult patients with congenital heart disease. Patients with congenital heart disease and matched healthy controls were administered classical theory of mind tasks and a semi-structured interview which provides a multidimensional evaluation of theory of mind (Theory of Mind Assessment Scale). The patients with congenital heart disease performed worse than the controls on the Theory of Mind Assessment Scale, whereas they did as well as the control group on the classical theory-of-mind tasks. These findings provide the first evidence that adults with congenital heart disease may display specific impairments in theory of mind.

  6. The mind and sexuality: Introduction to a Psychophysiological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Rowland

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cognition and sexuality are two distinct relational functions that are partially interconnected through our mind. Even though medical sciences have progressed substantially over the past decades, the current understanding of the mind psycho-physiology is yet at an early stage. As an example, the “mind-body problem” draws attention to the fact that fundamental aspects related to the understanding of the mind are still unresolved. Thus, it continues to be unclear how abstract ideas and thoughts (which are immaterial in nature, unfolding in an intangible realm interface (and in some cases, interfere with the more concrete brain and body (which are physical in nature, thus resulting in an abstract/conscious control of concrete/biological functions of the body; such is the case with processes involved in both cognition and sexuality. Beginning with this seminal paper we therefore intend to approach the psycho-physiology of the mind as an essential element to the understanding of the two (cognitive and sexual relational functions, using the premises for that model as a basis for understanding of the larger “mind-body problem”.

  7. A semiotic model of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olds, D D

    2000-01-01

    A theory of signs is presented to arrive at a model of mind that provides a smooth transition from inanimate matter to the thinking brain. Principles of information theory and semiotics are invoked to create a conceptual scheme that can contribute to an understanding of the "mind-body problem." The thesis is pursued that in living systems, as opposed to inorganic ones, there occurs the phenomenon of semiotic transmission of information. The result is a "dualistic-materialist" position; the dualism arises from the fact that at the beginning of life a set of processes comes into being different from those of the inorganic world. This model has implications for psychology and psychoanalysis. It allows for semiotic systems at different levels--e.g., the molecular, the neural network, the language system, and higher mental functions--to be integrated. Analytic concepts such as free association, clinical technique, feedback systems, personality structure, transference, and repetition compulsions can be understood in both biological and semiotic terms. This model interdigitates with linguistic studies already done in psychoanalysis, as well as with biological models extrinsic to the field.

  8. Body mass index, chronological age and hormonal status are better predictors of biological skin age than arm skin autofluorescence in healthy women who have never smoked

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randag, A. C.; Graaff, R.; Dreise, M. M.; Vierkoetter, A.; Werker, P. M. N.; Stenekes, M. W.

    2015-01-01

    Background As life expectancy is increasing and healthy ageing becomes more and more important, skin ageing is a growing topic of interest from both a medical and a commercial point of view. The urgency to unravel the causes of skin ageing is rising. However, there is a lack of objective, simple, no

  9. Guy's Guide to Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Breakfasts Shyness A Guy's Guide to Body Image KidsHealth > For Teens > A Guy's Guide to Body ... image can be a problem. Why Is Body Image Important? Body image is a person's opinions, thoughts, ...

  10. Similarities and differences of Wushu exercise and "mindfulness of body" in Hinayana from the perspective of body%身体视角下武术练习与小乘佛教“身念处”的异同

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兆伟; 李跃忠; 周丽娟

    2012-01-01

    武术作为一种有意识的人类实践活动,它的作用对象就是身体,身体的内涵不仅包括具有解剖意义的皮肉筋骨等,还包括中国文化中独特的思想,如气脉等.小乘佛教中"身念处"的修行方式也是以身体为活动对象.从身体的角度出发,对两者进行比较研究,可以更清晰地认识到武术的本质.本文尝试从三个方面进行比较研究:对身体的关注方式、身体的训练方式及身体训练的精神性.%As a conscious practice of human, Wushu's object is the body, which contains not only skins, mus- cles, tendons and bones in anatomy, but also some concepts from Chinese traditional culture, such as " qi and pulse". The object of "mindfulness of body" in Hinayana is the body too. In order to achieve the essence of Wushu more clearly, authors researched similarities and differences of Wushu exercise and "mindfulness of body" frbm the perspective of body. Our research contains three parts: patterns of paying attention to the body, patterns of body training, spiritual goals of body training. Because of the complexity of these problems and hugeness of Wushu and Buddhist system, we came to preliminary conclusion only.

  11. A brief mindfulness intervention reduces unhealthy eating when hungry, but not the portion size effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchiori, D.R.; Papies, E.K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present research examined the effects of a mindfulness-based intervention to foster healthy eating. Specifically, we tested whether a brief mindfulness manipulation can prevent the portion size effect, and reduce overeating on unhealthy snacks when hungry. Methods: 110 undergraduate p

  12. A Moment of Mindfulness: Computer-Mediated Mindfulness Practice Increases State Mindfulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Lynsey; Hopthrow, Tim; Randsley de Moura, Georgina

    2016-01-01

    Three studies investigated the use of a 5-minute, computer-mediated mindfulness practice in increasing levels of state mindfulness. In Study 1, 54 high school students completed the computer-mediated mindfulness practice in a lab setting and Toronto Mindfulness Scale (TMS) scores were measured before and after the practice. In Study 2 (N = 90) and Study 3 (N = 61), the mindfulness practice was tested with an entirely online sample to test the delivery of the 5-minute mindfulness practice via the internet. In Study 2 and 3, we found a significant increase in TMS scores in the mindful condition, but not in the control condition. These findings highlight the impact of a brief, mindfulness practice for single-session, computer-mediated use to increase mindfulness as a state.

  13. Mind, brain and psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheth Hitesh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There is long-standing debate about superiority of mind over brain, in other words about superiority of mind over matter. And outcome of this debate is going to decide future of psychiatry. The psychiatrists believing in materialism may say that brain is all and by changing neurotransmitters level with new molecules of drugs would cure all illnesses. On the other hand, antipsychiatry activists and some psychotherapists oppose all types of treatment despite of convincing evidence that drug therapy is effective (although sometimes it is not as effective as it claims to be. However, truth lies somewhere in between. Pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy are like two legs of psychiatry and psychiatry cannot walk into a future on one leg. The studies have shown that judicious use of pharmacotherapy along with psychotherapy gives better outcome than any one of them used alone. We must heal dichotomy between mind and brain before we heal the patients.

  14. I think, therefore I am? Examining conceptions of the self, soul, and mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglin, Stephanie M

    2014-10-01

    In order to delineate among conceptions of the self, soul, and mind, participants reported where they believe these entities are located in the body and provided definitions of each entity. Results indicated that most people consider the self, soul, and mind localized in specific regions in the body. In contrast to previous research, however, some participants reported that the self is not centralized in one location. Participants tended to locate the self and mind in the head and the soul in the chest. The self and mind were commonly defined in mental terms and the soul as one's essence. These results suggest that people tend to distinguish the soul from the mind, both in how they define each entity and where they locate them in the body. Although some people locate the soul in the same region as the self, most people more closely align the mind with the self.

  15. Where is the problem of “Where is the mind?”?

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    We propose that the discussions about “where the mind is” depend directly on the metaphysical preconception and definition of “mind”. If we see the mind from one perspective (individualist), it will be only in the brain, and if we see it from another (active externalist), it will be embedded in the body and extended into the world. The “whereabouts” of the mind depends on our 1 of mind. Therefore, we should not ask if the mind is somewhere, but if it is somehow.

  16. Effectiveness of mindfulness meditation (Vipassana in the management of chronic low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangram G Patil

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic low back pain (CLBP is challenging to treat with its significant psychological and cognitive behavioural element involved. Mindfulness meditation helps alter the behavioural response in chronic pain situations. Significant body of research in the filed of mindfulness meditation comes from the work of Dr Kabat-Zinn. The current evidence in the field, though not grade one, shows that there is a place for mindfulness meditation in managing chronic pain conditions including CLBP. Further research to test the usefulness of mindfulness in CLBP should involve good quality randomized controlled trials of pure mindfulness based technique in matched subjects.

  17. Physics of the human mind

    CERN Document Server

    Lubashevsky, Ihor

    2017-01-01

    This book tackles the challenging question which mathematical formalisms and possibly new physical notions should be developed for quantitatively describing human cognition and behavior, in addition to the ones already developed in the physical and cognitive sciences. Indeed, physics is widely used in modeling social systems, where, in particular, new branches of science such as sociophysics and econophysics have arisen. However, many if not most characteristic features of humans like willingness, emotions, memory, future prediction, and moral norms, to name but a few, are not yet properly reflected in the paradigms of physical thought and theory. The choice of a relevant formalism for modeling mental phenomena requires the comprehension of the general philosophical questions related to the mind-body problem. Plausible answers to these questions are investigated and reviewed, notions and concepts to be used or to be taken into account are developed and some challenging questions are posed as open problems. Th...

  18. Mindfulness, Multitasking, and You.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Suzanne K

    2016-01-01

    The ability to multitask has been typically worn like a badge of honor for all case managers. Mindfulness, on the contrary, is the new kid on the block and is proving to increase resilience and decrease stress. Research shows that multitasking lowers IQ, shrinks the gray matter, and lowers productivity by 40%. Conversely, mindfulness increases gray matter and improves regions involved with learning and memory processes, modulation of emotional control, and the process of awareness. The research leaves more questions than answers but may be a key to engaged, focused, and less-stressed staff.

  19. MasterMind

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Desarrollo de una aplicación en Android que sea totalmente funcional. En este caso nos hemos propuesto desarrollar el juego MasterMind, un clásico de los juegos de mesa, pero adaptándolo a las nuevas tecnologías que nos permitirán darle una orientación social al estilo de Apalabrados o Mezcladitos. Desenvolupament d'una aplicació en Android que sigui totalment funcional. En aquest cas ens hem proposat desenvolupar el joc MasterMind, un clàssic dels jocs de taula, però adaptant-lo a les nov...

  20. The balanced mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allen, Micah; Smallwood, Jonathan; Christensen, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Self-generated thoughts unrelated to ongoing activities, also known as "mind-wandering," make up a substantial portion of our daily lives. Reports of such task-unrelated thoughts (TUTs) predict both poor performance on demanding cognitive tasks and blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) activity...... in the default mode network (DMN). However, recent findings suggest that TUTs and the DMN can also facilitate metacognitive abilities and related behaviors. To further understand these relationships, we examined the influence of subjective intensity, ruminative quality, and variability of mind...

  1. Memory, Mind and Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Memory, Mind and Language celebrates the 30th anniversary of the The Nordic Association of Linguists (NAL) and the main contribution is the history of those first 30 years. The book is also an overview of trends and basic problems in linguistics in the first decennium of the 21st century. It takes...... up a number of topics in the field, among them the question of synchrony vs. diachrony in the language sciences, and issues of how to investigate the relationship between language, brain and mind. The book proposes some preliminary solutions to that problem, and, most significantly, it touches...

  2. Sing, dance, play and be mindful [presentation

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lucey, Jim

    2014-04-09

    Increasingly good evidence emerges of the positive benefits of sport, exercise, music, dance and mindfulness-based stress reduction in the building of the mental strength necessary to overcome these troubled times. The integrity of our mental health is challenged as each of us is threatened by calamity. Groups and teams, community’s and clubs are effective means of collective support. And positive mental health skills and attitudes are associated with greater individual wellbeing and with longer and happier life. Mental health is the resource which will empower recovery in us and in our economy. Modern neuroscience is proving the centrality of the brain in positive wellbeing. The evidence shows that human recovery is enhanced by music and dance and by song and by exercise, and by mindfulness. That is why we mustn’t wait any longer to lead mentally healthy lives. In Ireland we must not wait any longer to be happy.\\r\

  3. Is it me or not me? Modulation of perceptual-motor awareness and visuomotor performance by mindfulness meditation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naranjo José

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attribution of agency involves the ability to distinguish our own actions and their sensory consequences which are self-generated from those generated by external agents. There are several pathological cases in which motor awareness is dramatically impaired. On the other hand, awareness-enhancement practices like tai-chi and yoga are shown to improve perceptual-motor awareness. Meditation is known to have positive impacts on perception, attention and consciousness itself, but it is still unclear how meditation changes sensorimotor integration processes and awareness of action. The aim of this study was to investigate how visuomotor performance and self-agency is modulated by mindfulness meditation. This was done by studying meditators’ performance during a conflicting reaching task, where the congruency between actions and their consequences is gradually altered. This task was presented to novices in meditation before and after an intensive 8 weeks mindfulness meditation training (MBSR. The data of this sample was compared to a group of long-term meditators and a group of healthy non-meditators. Results Mindfulness resulted in a significant improvement in motor control during perceptual-motor conflict in both groups. Novices in mindfulness demonstrated a strongly increased sensitivity to detect external perturbation after the MBSR intervention. Both mindfulness groups demonstrated a speed/accuracy trade-off in comparison to their respective controls. This resulted in slower and more accurate movements. Conclusions Our results suggest that mindfulness meditation practice is associated with slower body movements which in turn may lead to an increase in monitoring of body states and optimized re-adjustment of movement trajectory, and consequently to better motor performance. This extended conscious monitoring of perceptual and motor cues may explain how, while dealing with perceptual-motor conflict, improvement in motor

  4. Cultivating Mind Fitness through Mindfulness Training: Applied Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydenfeldt, Jo Ann; Herkenhoff, Linda; Coe, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Mindfulness reduces distress, promotes optimal health, improves attentional control, mental agility, emotional intelligence, and situational awareness. Stress management and cognitive performance in Marines who spent more hours practicing Mindfulness Based Mind Fitness Training were superior to those soldiers who practiced fewer hours. Students…

  5. Children’s Mental Time Travel during Mind Wandering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun eYe

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The prospective bias is a salient feature of mind wandering in healthy adults, yet little is known about the temporal focus of children’s mind wandering. In the present study, (I we developed the Temporal Focus of Mind Wandering Questionnaire for school-age children (TFMWQ-C, a 12-item scale with good test-retest reliability and construct validity. (II The criterion validity was tested by thought sampling in both Choice Reaction Time Task (CRT and Working Memory Task (WMT. A positive correlation was found between the temporal focus measured by the questionnaire and the one adopted during task-unrelated thoughts (TUTs by thought sampling probes, especially in the trait level of future-oriented mind wandering. At the same time, children who experienced more TUTs tended to show worse behavioral performance during tasks. (III The children in both tasks experienced more future-oriented TUTs than past-oriented ones, which was congruent with the results observed in adults; however, in contrast with previous research on adults, the prospective bias was not influenced by task demands. Together these results indicate that the prospective bias of mind wandering has emerged since the school age (9~13 years old, and that the relationship between mental time travel during mind wandering and the use of cognitive resources differs between children and adults. Our study provides new insights into how this interesting feature of mind wandering may adaptively contribute to the development of children’s mental time travel.

  6. Mindfulness and emotion regulation--an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Jacqueline; Herwig, Uwe; Opialla, Sarah; Hittmeyer, Anna; Jäncke, Lutz; Rufer, Michael; Grosse Holtforth, Martin; Brühl, Annette B

    2014-06-01

    Mindfulness--an attentive non-judgmental focus on present experiences--is increasingly incorporated in psychotherapeutic treatments as a skill fostering emotion regulation. Neurobiological mechanisms of actively induced emotion regulation are associated with prefrontally mediated down-regulation of, for instance, the amygdala. We were interested in neurobiological correlates of a short mindfulness instruction during emotional arousal. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated effects of a short mindfulness intervention during the cued expectation and perception of negative and potentially negative pictures (50% probability) in 24 healthy individuals compared to 22 controls. The mindfulness intervention was associated with increased activations in prefrontal regions during the expectation of negative and potentially negative pictures compared to controls. During the perception of negative stimuli, reduced activation was identified in regions involved in emotion processing (amygdala, parahippocampal gyrus). Prefrontal and right insular activations when expecting negative pictures correlated negatively with trait mindfulness, suggesting that more mindful individuals required less regulatory resources to attenuate emotional arousal. Our findings suggest emotion regulatory effects of a short mindfulness intervention on a neurobiological level.

  7. Mind Over Matter: Anabolic Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Term(s): Teachers / NIDA Teaching Guide / Mind Over Matter Teaching Guide and Series / Anabolic Steroids Print Mind Over Matter: Anabolic Steroids Order Free Publication in: English Spanish Download PDF 830.69 KB Anabolic steroids ...

  8. Neural correlates of mindful self-awareness in mindfulness meditators and meditation-naïve subjects revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, J; Brühl, A B; Scheerer, H; Jäncke, L; Herwig, U

    2016-09-01

    Mindful self-awareness is central to mindfulness meditation and plays a key role in its salutary effects. It has been related to decreased activation in cortical midline structures (CMS) and amygdala, and increased activation in somatosensory regions. However, findings in untrained individuals are contradictory, and scarce in experienced meditators. Using fMRI, we investigated experienced mindfulness meditators (LTM, n=21, average 4652 practice-hours) and matched meditation-naïve participants (MNP, n=19) during short periods of mindful self-awareness (FEEL) and self-referential thinking (THINK). We report somatosensory activations and decreases in CMS during FEEL for both groups, but significantly stronger decreases in prefrontal CMS in LTM. LTM further showed decreases in language-related and amygdala regions, but the latter was not significantly different between groups. Overall, higher activations in amygdala and mid-line regions during FEEL were related to levels of depressiveness. Neural patterns of mindful self-awareness emerge already in MNP but more pronounced in LTM. Specifically, meditation training might reduce self-reference and verbalization during mindful awareness. We further corroborate the suggested link between mindfulness and healthy self-related functions on the neural level. Longitudinal studies need to corroborate these findings.

  9. Theory of mind is independent of episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, R Shayna; Stuss, Donald T; Levine, Brian; Tulving, Endel

    2007-11-23

    Theory of mind (ToM) to infer other people's current mental states and episodic memory of personal happenings have been assumed to be closely related. We report two participants with severely impaired episodic memory who perform indistinguishably from healthy controls on objective ToM tests. These results suggest that ToM can function independently of episodic memory.

  10. Capturing Thoughts, Capturing Minds?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Janni

    2004-01-01

    Think Aloud is cost effective, promises access to the user's mind and is the applied usability technique. But 'keep talking' is difficult, besides, the multimodal interface is visual not verbal. Eye-tracking seems to get around the verbalisation problem. It captures the visual focus of attention...

  11. Mindfulness, Democracy, and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Andrea Marie; LaPrad, James G.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we explain how mindfulness can enhance a democratic way of being, connecting practices of awareness, reflection, dialog, and action to democratic citizenship and social arrangements. We begin by sharing our understanding of democracy as a philosophy and a political system. We then provide a background for the concept of…

  12. Attachment Theory and Mindfulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Rose; Shapiro, Shauna; Treleaven, David

    2012-01-01

    We initiate a dialog between two central areas in the field of psychology today: attachment theory/research and mindfulness studies. The impact of the early mother-infant relationship on child development has been well established in the literature, with attachment theorists having focused on the correlation between a mother's capacity for…

  13. Media, Minds, and Masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggot, James; Vino, Faith

    This booklet describes the language arts course "Media, Minds, and Masses," written for the Dade County, Fla., public schools. Topics for the course include the workings of contemporary radio, television, newspapers, magazines, and movies; the present status and power of media; the history and development of media; and the influences of…

  14. Mindfulness and psychological process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J Mark G

    2010-02-01

    The author reviews the articles in the Special Section on Mindfulness, starting from the assumption that emotions evolved as signaling systems that need to be sensitive to environmental contingencies. Failure to switch off emotion is due to the activation of mental representations of present, past, and future that are created independently of external contingencies. Mindfulness training can be seen as one way to teach people to discriminate such "simulations" from objects and contingencies as they actually are. The articles in this Special Section show how even brief laboratory training can have effects on processing affective stimuli; that long-term meditation practitioners show distinct reactions to pain; that longer meditation training is associated with differences in brain structure; that 8 weeks' mindfulness practice brings about changes in the way emotion is processed showing that participants can learn to uncouple the sensory, directly experienced self from the "narrative" self; that mindfulness training can affect working memory capacity, and enhance the ability of participants to talk about past crises in a way that enables them to remain specific and yet not be overwhelmed. The implications of these findings for understanding emotion and for further research is discussed.

  15. Mindfulness, mist of mirakel?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, J.T.

    2012-01-01

    Mindfulness wordt steeds meer gebruikt als onderdeel van een behandeling in de ggz. Over de definitie en de werking ervan bestaat echter geen consensus. Het is maar de vraag of elementen uit de boeddhistische leer en cultuur zomaar overgeplant kunnen worden naar de westerse gezondheidszorg. Van op z

  16. Minding Rachlin's Eliminative Materialism

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, J. J.

    2012-01-01

    Rachlin's teleological behaviorism eliminates the first-person ontology of conscious experience by identifying mental states with extended patterns of behavior, and thereby maintains the materialist ontology of science. An alternate view, informed by brain-based and externalist philosophies of mind, is shown also to maintain the materialist…

  17. Mindful Social Work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debaene, Raf

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Mindfulness gets growing attention in the education and practice of social work. It is seen as an important source of inspiration for social work and as a counterbalance for the rationalization of social work. Hick states that mindfulness “is an orientation to our everyday experiences that can be cultivated by means of various exercises and practices. By opening up in a particular way to their internal and external experiences, social workers and clients are better able to understand what is happening to them in both a psychological and sociological sense. With this understanding, people are better able to see the variety of ways in which they can respond. Habitual reactions are more easily avoided, and inner peace and balance are developed” (Hick 2009: 1. Despite this praise of mindfulness as an important source of inspiration and the expectation that its popularity might expand in the next century, it is argued in this essay by Raf Debaene that mindfulness, although possibly very useful in some settings, had very little to do with social work.

  18. Don't Forget about the Body: Exploring the Curricular Possibilities of Embodied Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, David J.; Larson, Jay B.

    2015-01-01

    Traditional pedagogy divides mind and body into a dichotomy that regards the body as little more than a subordinate instrument in service to the mind. Embodied pedagogy joins body and mind in a physical and mental act of knowledge construction. In this article we offer an integration of extant literature analyzing isolated applications of embodied…

  19. Mindful Emotion Regulation: Exploring the Neurocognitive Mechanisms behind Mindfulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Grecucci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to review some of the psychological and neural mechanisms behind mindfulness practice in order to explore the unique factors that account for its positive impact on emotional regulation and health. After reviewing the mechanisms of mindfulness and its effects on clinical populations we will consider how the practice of mindfulness contributes to the regulation of emotions. We argue that mindfulness has achieved effective outcomes in the treatment of anxiety, depression, and other psychopathologies through the contribution of mindfulness to emotional regulation. We consider the unique factors that mindfulness meditation brings to the process of emotion regulation that may account for its effectiveness. We review experimental evidence that points towards the unique effects of mindfulness specifically operating over and above the regulatory effects of cognitive reappraisal mechanisms. A neuroanatomical circuit that leads to mindful emotion regulation is also suggested. This paper thereby aims to contribute to proposed models of mindfulness for research and theory building by proposing a specific model for the unique psychological and neural processes involved in mindful detachment that account for the effects of mindfulness over and above the effects accounted for by other well-established emotional regulation processes such as cognitive reappraisal.

  20. The relationship between the activates of antioxidant enzymes in red blood cells and body mass index in Iranian type 2 diabetes and healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taheri Ehsaneh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by increased production of free radicals and oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione reductase (GR, and glutathione peroxide (GSH-PX in type 2 diabetic patients compared with healthy subjects. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 100 type 2 diabetic patients and 100 healthy controls. Total antioxidant capacity and fasting serum levels of SOD, GR, and GSH-Px were measured. All data were analyzed using SPSS software compatible with Microsoft Windows. Results The activity levels of SOD were lower in diabetic patients (111.93 ± 354.99 U/g Hb than in healthy controls (1158.53 ± 381.21 U/g Hb, but this was not significant. Activity levels of GSH-PX and GR in diabetics (62.33 ± 36.29 and 7.17 ± 5.51 U/g Hb, respectively were higher than in controls (24.62 ± 11.2 and 3.16 ± 2.95 U/g Hb, respectively. The statistical difference in enzyme activity of both GSH-Px and GR was significant (P Conclusion The increasing production of free radicals and changes in activity levels of antioxidant enzymes in order to scavenge free radicals and/or the effect of diabetes on the activity levels of antioxidant enzymes has an important effect on diabetic complications and insulin resistance. Evaluation of the levels of antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant factors in patients at different stages of the disease, and pharmaceutical and nutritional interventions, can be helpful in reducing oxidative stress in type 2 diabetic patients. There were positive relationship between BMI and the activity of antioxidant enzymes including SOD, GR and GPX in both groups.

  1. Brief body-scan meditation practice improves somatosensory perceptual decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirams, Laura; Poliakoff, Ellen; Brown, Richard J; Lloyd, Donna M

    2013-03-01

    We have previously found that attention to internal somatic sensations (interoceptive attention) during a heart beat perception task increases the misperception of external touch on a somatic signal detection task (SSDT), during which healthy participants erroneously report feeling near-threshold vibrations presented to their fingertip in the absence of a stimulus. However, it has been suggested that mindful interoceptive attention should result in more accurate somatic perception, due to its non-evaluative and controlled nature. To investigate this possibility, 62 participants completed the SSDT before and after a period of brief body-scan mindfulness meditation training, or a control intervention (listening to a recorded story). The meditation intervention reduced tactile misperception and increased sensitivity during the SSDT. This finding suggests that the perceptual effects of interoceptive attention depend on its particular nature, and raises the possibility that body-scan meditation could reduce the misperception of physical symptoms in individuals with medically unexplained symptoms.

  2. Systemic, cerebral and skeletal muscle ketone body and energy metabolism during acute hyper-D-β-hydroxybutyrataemia in post-absorptive healthy males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Kristian H; Seifert, Thomas; Secher, Niels H;

    2014-01-01

    Context: Ketone bodies are substrates during fasting and when on a ketogenic diet not the least for the brain and implicated in the management of epileptic seizures and dementia. Moreover, D-β-hydroxybutyrate (HOB) is suggested to reduce blood glucose and fatty acids levels. Objectives...

  3. Dispositional mindfulness co-varies with smaller amygdala and caudate volumes in community adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne A Taren

    Full Text Available Mindfulness, a psychological process reflecting attention and awareness to what is happening in the present moment, has been associated with increased well-being and decreased depression and anxiety in both healthy and patient populations. However, little research has explored underlying neural pathways. Recent work suggests that mindfulness (and mindfulness training interventions may foster neuroplastic changes in cortico-limbic circuits responsible for stress and emotion regulation. Building on this work, we hypothesized that higher levels of dispositional mindfulness would be associated with decreased grey matter volume in the amgydala. In the present study, a self-report measure of dispositional mindfulness and structural MRI images were obtained from 155 healthy community adults. Volumetric analyses showed that higher dispositional mindfulness is associated with decreased grey matter volume in the right amygdala, and exploratory analyses revealed that higher dispositional mindfulness is also associated with decreased grey matter volume in the left caudate. Moreover, secondary analyses indicate that these amygdala and caudate volume associations persist after controlling for relevant demographic and individual difference factors (i.e., age, total grey matter volume, neuroticism, depression. Such volumetric differences may help explain why mindful individuals have reduced stress reactivity, and suggest new candidate structural neurobiological pathways linking mindfulness with mental and physical health outcomes.

  4. Effects of mindfulness meditation training on anticipatory alpha modulation in primary somatosensory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Catherine E; Jones, Stephanie R; Wan, Qian; Pritchett, Dominique L; Wasserman, Rachel H; Wexler, Anna; Villanueva, Joel J; Shaw, Jessica R; Lazar, Sara W; Kaptchuk, Ted J; Littenberg, Ronnie; Hämäläinen, Matti S; Moore, Christopher I

    2011-05-30

    During selective attention, ∼7-14 Hz alpha rhythms are modulated in early sensory cortices, suggesting a mechanistic role for these dynamics in perception. Here, we investigated whether alpha modulation can be enhanced by "mindfulness" meditation (MM), a program training practitioners in sustained attention to body and breath-related sensations. We hypothesized that participants in the MM group would exhibit enhanced alpha power modulation in a localized representation in the primary somatosensory neocortex in response to a cue, as compared to participants in the control group. Healthy subjects were randomized to 8-weeks of MM training or a control group. Using magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recording of the SI finger representation, we found meditators demonstrated enhanced alpha power modulation in response to a cue. This finding is the first to show enhanced local alpha modulation following sustained attentional training, and implicates this form of enhanced dynamic neural regulation in the behavioral effects of meditative practice.

  5. Whole grain and body weight changes in apparently healthy adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies123

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pol, Korrie; Christensen, Robin; Bartels, Else M;

    2013-01-01

    Background: Whole grains have received increased attention for their potential role in weight regulation. A high intake has been associated with smaller weight gain in prospective cohort studies, whereas the evidence from randomized controlled studies has been less consistent. Objective: We...... assessed the effects of whole-grain compared with non–whole-grain foods on changes in body weight, percentage of body fat, and waist circumference by using a meta-analytic approach. Design: We conducted a systematic literature search in selected databases. Studies were included in the review if they were...... randomized controlled studies of whole-grain compared with a non–whole-grain control in adults. A total of 2516 articles were screened for eligibility, and relevant data were extracted from 26 studies. Weighted mean differences were calculated, and a metaregression analysis was performed by using the whole...

  6. Capromorelin increases food consumption, body weight, growth hormone, and sustained insulin-like growth factor 1 concentrations when administered to healthy adult Beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollers, B; Rhodes, L; Smith, R G

    2017-04-01

    This study's objective was to determine the effects in dogs of oral capromorelin, a ghrelin agonist, at different doses for 7 days on food consumption, body weight and serum concentrations of growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and cortisol. Adult Beagles (n = 6) were dosed with placebo BID, capromorelin at 3.0 mg/kg SID, 4.5 mg/kg SID, or 3.0 mg/kg BID. Food consumption, body weight, serum capromorelin, GH, IGF-1, and cortisol were measured at intervals on days 1, 4, 7, and 9. Capromorelin increased food consumption and body weight compared to placebo and caused increased serum GH, which returned to the baseline by 8 h postdose. The magnitude of the GH increase was less on days 4 and 7 compared to Day 1. IGF-1 concentrations increased on Day 1 in capromorelin-treated dogs and this increase was sustained through Day 7. Serum cortisol increased postdosing and returned to the baseline concentrations by 8 h. The magnitude of the increase was less on days 4 and 7 compared to Day 1. A dose of 3 mg/kg was chosen for further study in dogs based on this dose causing increased food consumption and sustained IGF-1 serum concentrations that may increase lean muscle mass when administered over extended periods.

  7. Evaluation the effects of L-arginine supplementation on exercise performance, body composition and serum sodium and potassium in healthy male athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahanger Karimian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: L- Arginine is a semi-essential amino acid that can affect athletic performance. Thus the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of L- arginine supplementation on athletic performance, body composition and serum sodium and potassium levels in male athletes. Materials and Methods: This study was a randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial. Participants, 56 male athletes with an average age of 20.85±4.29 years were selected in Isfahan University of Medical Science clubs in the winter of 2014. Athletes received l- arginine supplementation with a dose of 2 g daily for 45 days in the intervention group and the same amount of placebo (maltodextrin in the control group received. At the beginning and end of the study, the level of athletic performance, body composition and serum sodium and potassium levels were measured and data were analysis with using SPSS software version 19. Results: At the end of the study athletic performance in the group receiving supplements of L - arginine significantly improved compared to the control group (P=0.035. However, no significant changes in body composition and serum sodium and potassium levels were observed (P>0.05. Conclusion: Supplementation of L - arginine can improve athletic performance in semi-professional athletes.

  8. A comparative randomised controlled trial of the effects of Brain Wave Vibration training, Iyengar Yoga and Mindfulness on mood, well-being and salivary cortisol

    OpenAIRE

    Bowden, Deborah; Gaudry, Claire; An, Seung Chan; Gruzelier, John

    2012-01-01

    This randomised trial compared the effects of Brain Wave Vibration (BWV) training, which involves rhythmic yoga-like meditative exercises, with Iyengar yoga and Mindfulness. Iyengar provided a contrast for the physical components and mindfulness for the “mental” components of BWV. 35 healthy adults completed 10 75-minute classes of BWV, Iyengar, or Mindfulness over five weeks. Participants were assessed at pre- and postintervention for mood, sleep, mindfulness, absorption, health, memory, and...

  9. A Comparative Randomised Controlled Trial of the Effects of Brain Wave Vibration Training, Iyengar Yoga, and Mindfulness on Mood, Well-Being, and Salivary Cortisol

    OpenAIRE

    Deborah Bowden; Claire Gaudry; Seung Chan An; John Gruzelier

    2012-01-01

    This randomised trial compared the effects of Brain Wave Vibration (BWV) training, which involves rhythmic yoga-like meditative exercises, with Iyengar yoga and Mindfulness. Iyengar provided a contrast for the physical components and mindfulness for the “mental” components of BWV. 35 healthy adults completed 10 75-minute classes of BWV, Iyengar, or Mindfulness over five weeks. Participants were assessed at pre- and postintervention for mood, sleep, mindfulness, absorption, health, memory, and...

  10. Decade of the Mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spitzer Manfred

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the Fall of 2007, ten neuroscientists published a proposal for an interdisciplinary research initiative, the Decade of the Mind, that would focus on four "broad but intertwined areas": mental health, research on high-level cognitive functions, education, and computational applications (such as intelligent machines. I review the basic ideas behind the proposal and discuss the four proposed areas of research. I argue that for research on higher cognitive functions and in particular, for research and practice in education, the Decade of the Mind is a welcome initiative that may change our lives for the better. Therefore, the proposal, which is scientifically interdisciplinary in nature, has to be politically international.

  11. Mind, esprit, psychologie.

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    L’A. examine quelques raisons de la difficulté à délimiter un domaine français de la philosophie de l’esprit qui soit l’équivalent de la « philosophy of mind » : définir la « philosophie de l’esprit » aujourd’hui nécessiterait une réflexion préalable sur le statut de l’esprit, et sur les enjeux philosophiques et historiques de la constitution d’une « philosophy of mind », plutôt que l’acceptation non critique de théories du « mental ». L’A. tente de définir le domaine de la « philosophy of mi...

  12. Language facilitates introspection: Verbal mind-wandering has privileged access to consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Mikaël; Lerique, Sébastien; Adam, Vincent; Franklin, Michael S; Schooler, Jonathan W; Sackur, Jérôme

    2017-03-01

    Introspection and language are the cognitive prides of humankind, but their interactions in healthy cognition remain unclear. Episodes of mind-wandering, where personal thoughts often go unnoticed for some time before being introspected, offer a unique opportunity to study the role of language in introspection. In this paper, we show that inner speech facilitates awareness of mind-wandering. In two experiments, we either interfered with verbal working memory, via articulatory suppression (Exp. 1), or entrained it, via presentation of verbal material (Exp. 2), and measured the resulting awareness of mind-wandering. Articulatory suppression decreased the likelihood to spontaneously notice mind-wandering, whereas verbal material increased retrospective awareness of mind-wandering. In addition, an ecological study using smartphones confirmed that inner speech vividness positively predicted mind-wandering awareness (Exp. 3). Together, these findings support the view that inner speech facilitates introspection of one's thoughts, and therefore provides empirical evidence for a positive relation between language and consciousness.

  13. Physics and Five Problems in the Philosophy of Mind

    CERN Document Server

    Kauffman, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    Since Descartes' dualism, with his res extensa and res cogitans, six fundamental problems in the philosophy and natural history of mind are these: 1. how does mind act on matter? 2. If mind does not act on matter is mind a mere epiphenomenon? 3. What might be the source of free will? 4. What might be the source of a responsible free will? 5. Why might it have been selectively advantageous to evolve consciousness? 6. What is consciousness? I approach the first five of the above six problems based on two physical postulates. First the mind-brain system is a quantum coherent, but reversibly decohering and recohering system. This allows me to answer 1) above, mind does not act causally on brain at all, rather it acausally decohers to classicity (for all practical purposes), hence has consequences for brain and body as matter. Epiphenomenalism is averted. A quantum mind, because it is acausal on Copenhagen including Born, yields a free will, but a merely random free will, not a responsible free will. Second, the m...

  14. 整体身心调节干预对颅脑损伤认知障碍患者血清脑源性神经营养因子的影响%Influence of integrative body-mind training on the brain derived neurotrophic factors in serum of patients ;with traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹瑞秋; 赵雅宁; 郭霞; 吕志伟

    2015-01-01

    目的整体身心调节干预对颅脑损伤认知障碍患者血清脑源性神经营养因子( BDNF)的影响。方法采用投掷硬币随机分组法将85例认知障碍的颅脑损伤患者分为对照组(42例)和身心调节干预组(43例)。对照组给予针对性的认知康复训练,身心调节干预组在此基础上给予身心调节干预训练。采用执行缺陷综合征的行为评价( BADS)和洛文斯顿作业疗法认知评定测验( LOTCA)量表进行执行功能及认知能力评测;酶联免疫吸附试验( ELISE)检测血清BDNF的浓度。结果治疗前,两组患者的BADS各项指标评分以及LOTCA评分差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),BDNF浓度变化差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);治疗后,身心调节干预组BADS各项指标评分以及LOTCA评分优于对照组, BDNF血清浓度较对照组升高,差异有统计学意义( P<0.05)。结论整体身心调节行为干预可改善颅脑损伤患者执行功能障碍,与提高血清脑源性生长因子的浓度有关。%Objective To explore the influence of integrative body-mind training on the brain derived neurotrophic factors ( BDNF) in serum of patients with traumatic brain injury .Methods Randomly divided 85 cases into integrative body-mind training group(n=43)and control group(n=42).The control group took targeted cognitive interventions therapy .The treatment group with body-mind training combined coith cognitive training .The cognitive function and executive function were detected by the Behavioral Assessment of Dysexecutive Syndrome ( BADS) and Loewenstein Occupation Therapy Cognitive Assessment ( LOTCA).The level of BAND in serum was detected with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay .Results Before training, there was no significant difference in every BADS , LOTCA index and BAND level (P>0.05), After training, After training, they were much improved.Moreover,they were much more improved in integrativebody-mind

  15. The embodied mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1980s the study of the brain has developed from a primarily biological field to a significant interdisciplinary area with an already strong influence on the humanities and social sciences. In this article I describe fundamental elements in what I call the embodied mind paradigm and the ......, philosophy, sociology and film studies.This article is published as part of an ongoing collection dedicated to interdisciplinary research...

  16. Metaphilosophy of Mind: how Do Minds Investigate Minds? Refutation of the Theocentric View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Konrad

    2017-03-01

    I shall propose metaphilosophy of mind as the philosophy of mind investigating mind. That is to say, I pose the question of how knowledge of mind provided by cognitive science, broadly construed, is constrained by the epistemic position of the knower, i.e. by the very fact that it is undertaken by a mind. Here I would like to propose a minimal framework, based on two distinctions: (i) the standard one between empirical and conceptual analysis; (ii) a new one, between the internal questions of mind and the boundary questions of mind. I shall then combine these distinctions to arrive at several ways of investigating the mind, the brain and cognition. On this ground, I will discuss the notion of epistemological theocentrism as outlined by Henry Allison and argue against the perspective I call theocentric philosophy of mind. From this angle I will be able to address skepticism which cannot be defeated but actually can be, as I put it, disarmed. Finally, metaphilosophy of mind based on the abovementioned distinctions elicits a perspective that is not sufficiently delineated by cognitive scientists and philosophers: empirical way of addressing the boundary questions of mind.

  17. Marketing a Healthy Mind, Body, and Soul: An Analysis of How African American Men View the Church as a Social Marketer and Health Promoter of Colorectal Cancer Risk and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkins, Crystal Y.; Vanchy, Priya; Baker, Tamara A.; Daley, Christine; Ndikum-Moffer, Florence; Greiner, K. Allen

    2016-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ranks colorectal cancer (CRC) as the third most commonly diagnosed cancer among men in the United States; African American (AA) men are at even greater risk. The present study was from a larger study that investigates the church's role as a social marketer of CRC risk and prevention messages, and…

  18. Mind, Thinking and Creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janani Harish

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Global civilization is the product of diverse cultures, each contributing a unique perspective arising from the development of different mental faculties and powers of mind. The momentous achievements of modern science are the result of the cumulative development of mind’s capacity for analytic thinking, mathematical rendering and experimental validation. The near-exclusive preoccupation with analysis, universal laws, mechanism, materialism, and objective experience over the past two centuries has shaped the world we live in today, accounting both for its accomplishments and its insoluble problems. Today humanity confronts complex challenges that defy solution by piecemeal analysis, unidimensional theories, and fragmented strategies. Poverty, unemployment, economic crisis, fundamentalism, violence, climate change, war, refugees, reflect the limitations and blindspots that have resulted from a partial, one-sided application of the diverse capacities of the human mind. Human monocultures suffer from all the limitations as their biological counterparts. There is urgent need to revive the legitimacy of synthetic, organic and integrated modes of thinking, to restore the credibility of subjective self-experience in science, to reaffirm the place of symbol, analogy and metaphor as valid ways of knowing and communication in education, to recognize the unique role of the individual in social processes, to recognize the central role of insight and intuition in science as in art. This article examines themes presented at the WAAS-WUC course on Mind, Thinking and Creativity, conducted at Dubrovnik in April 2016.

  19. Effectiveness of mindfulness meditation (Vipassana) in the management of chronic low back pain

    OpenAIRE

    Sangram G Patil

    2009-01-01

    Summary Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is challenging to treat with its significant psychological and cognitive behavioural element involved. Mindfulness meditation helps alter the behavioural response in chronic pain situations. Significant body of research in the filed of mindfulness meditation comes from the work of Dr Kabat-Zinn. The current evidence in the field, though not grade one, shows that there is a place for mindfulness meditation in managing chronic pain conditions including CLBP....

  20. Judging strangers’ trustworthiness is associated with theory of mind skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie ePrevost

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Trusting people requires evaluating them to assess their trustworthiness. Evaluating a stranger’s intentions is likely to be one method of assessing trustworthiness. The present study tested the hypothesis that judgments of trustworthiness are associated with mindreading skills, also called theory of mind (ToM. We tested a group of healthy participants and a group of patients with paranoid schizophrenia. Both groups made theory of mind judgments and judged the trustworthiness of strangers. Participants were also assessed for their disposition to trust as well as levels of paranoid belief. As anticipated, healthy participants had normal ToM scores and patients with paranoid schizophrenia had poor ToM scores. In paranoid patients, better ability to read others' minds tended to be associated with judging others as more trustworthy, while the reverse was found in the healthy participants (better mind reading was associated with judging others as less trustworthy, suggesting a non-linear relationship between trust in others and being able to read their intentions.