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Sample records for body fluids

  1. Body fluid identification in forensics

    OpenAIRE

    Ja Hyun An1, Kyoung-Jin Shin1,2, Woo Ick Yang1 & Hwan Young Lee1,2,*

    2012-01-01

    At a crime scene can give important insights into crime scenereconstruction by supporting a link between sample donorsand actual criminal acts. For more than a century, numeroustypes of body fluid identification methods have beendeveloped, such as chemical tests, immunological tests,protein catalytic activity tests, spectroscopic methods andmicroscopy. However, these conventional body fluididentification methods are mostly presumptive, and are carriedout for only one body fluid at a time. The...

  2. Body fluid identification in forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ja Hyun An1, Kyoung-Jin Shin1,2, Woo Ick Yang1 & Hwan Young Lee1,2,*

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available At a crime scene can give important insights into crime scenereconstruction by supporting a link between sample donorsand actual criminal acts. For more than a century, numeroustypes of body fluid identification methods have beendeveloped, such as chemical tests, immunological tests,protein catalytic activity tests, spectroscopic methods andmicroscopy. However, these conventional body fluididentification methods are mostly presumptive, and are carriedout for only one body fluid at a time. Therefore, the use of amolecular genetics-based approach using RNA profiling orDNA methylation detection has been recently proposed tosupplant conventional body fluid identification methods.Several RNA markers and tDMRs (tissue-specific differentiallymethylated regions which are specific to forensically relevantbody fluids have been identified, and their specificities andsensitivities have been tested using various samples. In thisreview, we provide an overview of the present knowledge andthe most recent developments in forensic body fluididentification and discuss its possible practical application toforensic casework.

  3. Molecular tumor-diagnostics in body fluids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Jacques Benno de

    2000-01-01

    Tumor-derived nucleic acids are frequently present in body fluids (e.g. urine, blood, sputum, stool, bile, and cerebrospinal fluid) that had contact with malignant or premalignant tissues. Detection of this mutant DNA or quantification of aberrant gene expression may offer new noninvasive methods fo

  4. Occupational Exposure to Blood and Body Fluids

    OpenAIRE

    G Sadigh; Bahadori, M.

    2010-01-01

    Occupational exposure to blood and body fluids is an important hazard for health care workers, which places them at a high risk for blood-borne infections including hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus and results in psychological and emotional stresses. Several preventive measures have been proposed including pre-exposure (e.g., education, use of standard precautions, use of needle protective devices, and vaccination) and post-exposure (e.g., post-exposure pr...

  5. Fluid Flows driven by Oscillating Body Force

    CERN Document Server

    Vladimirov, V A

    2016-01-01

    In this note we consider general formulation of Euler's equations for an inviscid incompressible homogeneous fluid with an oscillating body force. Our aim is to derive the averaged equations for these flows with the help of two-timing method. Our main result is the general and simple form of the equation describing the averaged flows, which are derived without making any additional assumptions. The presented results can have many interesting applications.

  6. The Motion Of A Deformable Body In - Bounded Fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hamiltonian formalism for the motion of a deformable body in an inviscid irrotational fluid is generalized for the case of the motion in a bounded fluid. We found that the presence of the boundaries in a liquid leads to the chaotization of the body's motion. The ('memory' effect connected with a free surface boundary condition is also accounted for

  7. Body Fluid Identification Using mRNA Profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeder, Amy D; Haas, Cordula

    2016-01-01

    RNA analysis is a valuable tool for the identification of the forensically relevant body fluids, saliva, blood, menstrual blood, cervicovaginal fluid, and semen. Multiple human mRNA and bacterial RNA markers have been identified for each of these body fluids. RNA and DNA can be coextracted from the same portion of a sample and RNA markers for different body fluids can be multiplexed in a single PCR, thereby maximizing the number of analyses that can be performed with limited sample material. PMID:27259728

  8. Determination of trace elements in body fluids by XRF spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray emission spectroscopy is used for trace element analysis of body fluids. Analytical procedures that include sample preparation and XRF setup are described for the analysis of blood serum and amniotic fluid samples for different gravidity stages. The comparison between the distribution of these elements in amniotic fluid and serum is presented and discussed. (orig.)

  9. Body drop into a fluid tank and dynamic loads calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komarov Aleksandr Andreevich

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The theory of a body striking a fluid began intensively developing due to the tasks of hydroplanes landing. For the recent years the study of a stroke and submersion of bodies into fluid became even more current. We face them in the process of strength calculation of ship hulls and other structures in modern technology. These tasks solution represents great mathematical difficulty even in case of the mentioned simplifications. These difficulties emerge due to the unsteady character of fluid motion in case of body submersion, and also jet and spray phenomena, which lead to discontinuous motions. On the basis of G.V. Logvinovich’s concept the problem of loads determination with consideration for air gap is solved for both a body and reservoir enclosing structures when a body falls into a fluid. Numerical method is based on the decay of an arbitrary discontinuity.

  10. Body fluid volumes in rats with mestranol-induced hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because estrogens have been reported to produce sodium retention, this study investigated the possibility that hypertension in rats resulting from the ingestion of an estrogen used as an oral contraceptive could be due to increases in body fluid volumes. Female rats were given feed containing mestranol for 1, 3, and 6 mo; control rats were given the feed without mestranol. The mestranol-treated rats had higher arterial pressures than the controls only after 6 mo of treatment. Plasma volume, extracellular fluid volume, and total body water were measured in each rat by the distribution volumes of radioiodinated serum albumin, 32SO4, and tritiated water, respectively. The body fluid volumes, expressed per 100 g of body weight, were not different between the mestranol-treated rats and their controls at any of the three treatment times. Due to differences in body weight and lean body mass between the mestranol-treated and the control rats, these volumes also were expressed per 100 g of lean body mass. Again, no differences were observed between the mestranol-treated rats and the control rats for any of these body fluid compartments at any of the treatment times. These studies, therefore, were unable to provide evidence that increases in body fluid volumes contributed to the elevated arterial pressure in this rat model of oral contraceptive hypertension

  11. Forensic body fluid identification: state of the art

    OpenAIRE

    Harbison, SallyAnn

    2016-01-01

    SA Harbison, RI Fleming Forensic Biology, Institute of Environmental Science and Research Ltd, Mt Albert Science Centre, Auckland, New Zealand Abstract: Body fluid identification is a key component in the forensic scientists' tool box and has been carried out both at the crime scene and in the laboratory for many years. Historically, methods relied on (bio) chemical-based tests, many of which lacked specificity. In this review, current technologies for identifying body fluids are des...

  12. Inactivation of human interferon by body fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesario, T. C.; Mandell, A.; Tilles, J. G.

    1973-01-01

    Description of the effects of human feces, bile, saliva, serum, and cerebrospinal fluid on interferon activity. It is shown that crude interferon is inactivated by at least 50% more than with the control medium used, when incubated for 4 hr in vitro in the presence of serum, saliva, or cerebrospinal liquid, and by close to 100% when incubated with stool extract or bile.

  13. Steady Fall of a Rigid Body in Viscous Fluid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nečasová, Šárka

    Praha : Ústav termomechaniky AV ČR, 2005 - (Příhoda, J.; Kozel, K.), s. 77-80 ISBN 80-85918-92-7. [Topical Problems of Fluid Mechanics. Prague (CZ), 25.02.2004] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : steady fall * rigid body * viscous fluid Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  14. Fetal development of regulatory mechanisms for body fluid homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Guan

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The balance of body fluids is critical to health and the development of diseases. Although quite a few review papers have shown that several mechanisms, including hormonal and behavioral regulation, play an important role in body fluid homeostasis in adults, there is limited information on the development of regulatory mechanisms for fetal body fluid balance. Hormonal, renal, and behavioral control of body fluids function to some extent in utero. Hormonal mechanisms including the renin-angiotensin system, aldosterone, and vasopressin are involved in modifying fetal renal excretion, reabsorption of sodium and water, and regulation of vascular volume. In utero behavioral changes, such as fetal swallowing, have been suggested to be early functional development in response to dipsogens. Since diseases, such as hypertension, can be traced to fetal origin, it is important to understand the development of fetal regulatory mechanisms for body fluid homeostasis in this early stage of life. This review focuses on fetal hormonal, behavioral, and renal development related to regulation of body fluids in utero.

  15. Fluid sign in the treated bodies after percutaneous vertebroplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aims of this study are to describe non-healing in the treated vertebral body after percutaneous vertebroplasty and analyze the influence of vacuum cleft, location, and severity of collapse on the development of nonunion cement. Of 208 patients (266 treated vertebral bodies) who were treated with percutaneous vertebroplasty from September 2002 to May 2006, 23 patients (41 treated levels) with residual or recurrent pain underwent follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study. Retrospective chart review with analysis of preoperative and postoperative MRIs were performed in these 23 patients. In the 41 treated vertebral bodies, 22 of 41 bodies had vacuum cleft found in the preoperative MRI study. Eight of the 22 treated vertebral bodies with preoperative vacuum clefts were found to have fluid between the interface of cement and the residual bone in the collapsed vertebral bodies on follow-up MRI. The adjacent discs of these treated vertebral bodies were upward/downward displaced. The endplate of the adjacent vertebral body exhibited fibrotic change. Treated bodies with vacuum clefts and level A location (T9, T11, T12, and L1) had higher probability of developing nonunion of the cement with statistical significance. The probability of nonunion cement in severe collapsed bodies might be higher than that of union cement in mild collapsed ones, but was not statistically significant. Fluid sign in the treated body represents unhealed bone-cement interface. The location of the treated vertebral body and existence of vacuum cleft in the treated bodies may be important factors influencing the nonunion of cement. (orig.)

  16. Fluid sign in the treated bodies after percutaneous vertebroplasty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chao-Chun [China Medical University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Taichung (China); China Medical University, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Science, College of Health Care, Taichung (China); Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital and Tzu Chi University, Department of Medical Imaging, Hualien (China); Yen, Pao-Sheng [Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital and Tzu Chi University, Department of Medical Imaging, Hualien (China); Wen, Shu-Hui [Tzu Chi University, Department of Public Health, Hualien (China)

    2008-11-15

    The aims of this study are to describe non-healing in the treated vertebral body after percutaneous vertebroplasty and analyze the influence of vacuum cleft, location, and severity of collapse on the development of nonunion cement. Of 208 patients (266 treated vertebral bodies) who were treated with percutaneous vertebroplasty from September 2002 to May 2006, 23 patients (41 treated levels) with residual or recurrent pain underwent follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study. Retrospective chart review with analysis of preoperative and postoperative MRIs were performed in these 23 patients. In the 41 treated vertebral bodies, 22 of 41 bodies had vacuum cleft found in the preoperative MRI study. Eight of the 22 treated vertebral bodies with preoperative vacuum clefts were found to have fluid between the interface of cement and the residual bone in the collapsed vertebral bodies on follow-up MRI. The adjacent discs of these treated vertebral bodies were upward/downward displaced. The endplate of the adjacent vertebral body exhibited fibrotic change. Treated bodies with vacuum clefts and level A location (T9, T11, T12, and L1) had higher probability of developing nonunion of the cement with statistical significance. The probability of nonunion cement in severe collapsed bodies might be higher than that of union cement in mild collapsed ones, but was not statistically significant. Fluid sign in the treated body represents unhealed bone-cement interface. The location of the treated vertebral body and existence of vacuum cleft in the treated bodies may be important factors influencing the nonunion of cement. (orig.)

  17. Renal renin secretion as regulator of body fluid homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjær, Mads; Isaksson, Gustaf L; Stubbe, Jane;

    2013-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin system is essential for body fluid homeostasis and blood pressure regulation. This review focuses on the homeostatic regulation of the secretion of active renin in the kidney, primarily in humans. Under physiological conditions, renin secretion is determined mainly by sodium...

  18. Stationarity of extremum entropy fluid bodies in general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffrin, Joshua S.

    2015-09-01

    We consider perfect fluid bodies (‘stars’) in general relativity that are axisymmetric, asymptotically flat, and that admit a maximal hypersurface. We show that configurations that extremize the total entropy at fixed ADM mass, ADM angular momentum, and total particle number are stationary with circular flow. For such stars, this establishes that thermodynamic equilibrium implies dynamic equilibrium.

  19. [Determination of body fluid based on analysis of nucleic acids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korabečná, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Recent methodological approaches of molecular genetics allow isolation of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) from negligible forensic samples. Analysis of these molecules may be used not only for individual identification based on DNA profiling but also for the detection of origin of the body fluid which (alone or in mixture with other body fluids) forms the examined biological trace. Such an examination can contribute to the evaluation of procedural, technical and tactical value of the trace. Molecular genetic approaches discussed in the review offer new possibilities in comparison with traditional spectrum of chemical, immunological and spectroscopic tests especially with regard to the interpretation of mixtures of biological fluids and to the confirmatory character of the tests. Approaches based on reverse transcription of tissue specific mRNA and their subsequent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and fragmentation analysis are applicable on samples containing minimal amounts of biological material. Methods for body fluid discrimination based on examination of microRNA in samples provided so far confusing results therefore further development in this field is needed. The examination of tissue specific methylation of nucleotides in selected gene sequences seems to represent a promising enrichment of the methodological spectrum. The detection of DNA sequences of tissue related bacteria has been established and it provides satisfactory results mainly in combination with above mentioned methodological approaches. PMID:26419517

  20. Regulation of body fluid volume and electrolyte concentrations in spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. M.; Krauhs, J. M.; Leach, C. S.

    1997-01-01

    Despite a number of difficulties in performing experiments during weightlessness, a great deal of information has been obtained concerning the effects of spaceflight on the regulation of body fluid and electrolytes. Many paradoxes and questions remain, however. Although body mass, extracellular fluid volume, and plasma volume are reduced during spaceflight and remain so at landing, the changes in total body water are comparatively small. Serum or plasma sodium and osmolality have generally been unchanged or reduced during the spaceflight, and fluid intake is substantially reduced, especially during the first of flight. The diuresis that was predicted to be caused by weightlessness, has only rarely been observed as an increased urine volume. What has been well established by now, is the occurrence of a relative diuresis, where fluid intake decreases more than urine volume does. Urinary excretion of electrolytes has been variable during spaceflight, but retention of fluid and electrolytes at landing has been consistently observed. The glomerular filtration rate was significantly elevated during the SLS missions, and water and electrolyte loading tests have indicated that renal function is altered during readaptation to Earth's gravity. Endocrine control of fluid volumes and electrolyte concentrations may be altered during weightlessness, but levels of hormones in body fluids do not conform to predictions based on early hypotheses. Antidiuretic hormone is not suppressed, though its level is highly variable and its secretion may be affected by space motion sickness and environmental factors. Plasma renin activity and aldosterone are generally elevated at landing, consistent with sodium retention, but inflight levels have been variable. Salt intake may be an important factor influencing the levels of these hormones. The circadian rhythm of cortisol has undoubtedly contributed to its variability, and little is known yet about the influence of spaceflight on circadian

  1. Tidal dissipation in rotating fluid bodies: a simplified model

    CERN Document Server

    Ogilvie, Gordon I

    2009-01-01

    We study the tidal forcing, propagation and dissipation of linear inertial waves in a rotating fluid body. The intentionally simplified model involves a perfectly rigid core surrounded by a deep ocean consisting of a homogeneous incompressible fluid. Centrifugal effects are neglected, but the Coriolis force is considered in full, and dissipation occurs through viscous or frictional forces. The dissipation rate exhibits a complicated dependence on the tidal frequency and generally increases with the size of the core. In certain intervals of frequency, efficient dissipation is found to occur even for very small values of the coefficient of viscosity or friction. We discuss the results with reference to wave attractors, critical latitudes and other features of the propagation of inertial waves within the fluid, and comment on their relevance for tidal dissipation in planets and stars.

  2. Theoretical treatment of fluid flow for accelerating bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Gledhill, Irvy M.A.; Roohani, Hamed; Forsberg, Karl; Eliasson, Peter; Skews, Beric M.; Nordström, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Most computational fluid dynamics simulations are, at present, performed in a body-fixed frame, for aeronautical purposes. With the advent of sharp manoeuvre, which may lead to transient effects originating in the acceleration of the centre of mass, there is a need to have a consistent formulation of the Navier–Stokes equations in an arbitrarily moving frame. These expressions should be in a form that allows terms to be transformed between non-inertial and inertial frames and includes gravity...

  3. Steady fall of a rigid body in viscous fluid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nečasová, Šárka

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 63, Sp. Is. (2005), s. 2113-2119. ISSN 0362-546X. [Invited Talks from the Fourth World Congress of Nonlinear Analysts (WCNA 2004). Orlando, 30.7.2004-7.8.2004] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA201/02/0684 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : steady fall * rigid body * viscous fluid Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.519, year: 2005

  4. Theoretical treatment of fluid flow for accelerating bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gledhill, Irvy M. A.; Roohani, Hamed; Forsberg, Karl; Eliasson, Peter; Skews, Beric W.; Nordström, Jan

    2016-03-01

    Most computational fluid dynamics simulations are, at present, performed in a body-fixed frame, for aeronautical purposes. With the advent of sharp manoeuvre, which may lead to transient effects originating in the acceleration of the centre of mass, there is a need to have a consistent formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations in an arbitrarily moving frame. These expressions should be in a form that allows terms to be transformed between non-inertial and inertial frames and includes gravity, viscous terms, and linear and angular acceleration. Since no effects of body acceleration appear in the inertial frame Navier-Stokes equations themselves, but only in their boundary conditions, it is useful to investigate acceleration source terms in the non-inertial frame. In this paper, a derivation of the energy equation is provided in addition to the continuity and momentum equations previously published. Relevant dimensionless constants are derived which can be used to obtain an indication of the relative significance of acceleration effects. The necessity for using computational fluid dynamics to capture nonlinear effects remains, and various implementation schemes for accelerating bodies are discussed. This theoretical treatment is intended to provide a foundation for interpretation of aerodynamic effects observed in manoeuvre, particularly for accelerating missiles.

  5. Geometry of the Motion of Ideal Fluids and Rigid Bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Rajeev, S G

    2009-01-01

    Arnold pointed out that the Euler equation of incompressible ideal hydrodynamics describes geodesics on the group of volume-preserving diffeomorphisms. A simple analogue is the Euler equation for a rigid body, which is the geodesic equation on the rotation group with respect to a metric determined by the moment of inertia. The metric on the group is left-invariant but not right-invariant. We will reduce the geometry of such groups (using techniques popularized by Milnor) to algebra on their tangent space. In particular, the curvature can be expressed as a biquadratic form on the Lie algebra. Arnold's result that motion of incompressible fluids has instabilities (due to the sectional curvature being negative) can be recovered more simply. Surprisingly, such an instability arises in rigid body mechanics as well: the metric on SO(3) corresponding to the moment of inertia of a thin cylinder (coin) has negative sectional curvature in one tangent plane. Both ideal fluids and rigid bodies can be thought of as hamilt...

  6. Many-Body Effects on the Thermodynamics of Fluids, Mixtures, and Nanoconfined Fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desgranges, Caroline; Delhommelle, Jerome

    2015-11-10

    Using expanded Wang-Landau simulations, we show that taking into account the many-body interactions results in sharp changes in the grand-canonical partition functions of single-component systems, binary mixtures, and nanoconfined fluids. The many-body contribution, modeled with a 3-body Axilrod-Teller-Muto term, results in shifts toward higher chemical potentials of the phase transitions from low-density phases to high-density phases and accounts for deviations of more than, e.g., 20% of the value of the partition function for a single-component liquid. Using the statistical mechanics formalism, we analyze how this contribution has a strong impact on some properties (e.g., pressure, coexisting densities, and enthalpy) and a moderate impact on others (e.g., Gibbs or Helmholtz free energies). We also characterize the effect of the 3-body terms on adsorption isotherms and adsorption thermodynamic properties, thereby providing a full picture of the effect of the 3-body contribution on the thermodynamics of nanoconfined fluids. PMID:26574329

  7. Bioimpedance identifies body fluid loss after exercise in the heat: a pilot study with body cooling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Gatterer

    Full Text Available Assessment of post-exercise changes in hydration with bioimpedance (BI is complicated by physiological adaptations that affect resistance (R and reactance (Xc values. This study investigated exercise-induced changes in R and Xc, independently and in bioelectrical impedance vector analysis, when factors such as increased skin temperature and blood flow and surface electrolyte accumulation are eliminated with a cold shower.Healthy males (n = 14, 24.1±1.7 yr; height (H: 182.4±5.6 cm, body mass: 72.3±6.3 kg exercised for 1 hr at a self-rated intensity (15 BORG in an environmental chamber (33°C and 50% relative humidity, then had a cold shower (15 min. Before the run BI, body mass, hematocrit and Posm were measured. After the shower body mass was measured; BI measurements were performed continuously every 20 minutes until R reached a stable level, then hematocrit and Posm were measured again.Compared to pre-trial measurements body mass decreased after the run and Posm, Hct, R/H and Xc/H increased (p<0.05 with a corresponding lengthening of the impedance vector along the major axis of the tolerance ellipse (p<0.001. Changes in Posm were negatively related to changes in body mass (r = -0.564, p = 0.036 and changes in Xc/H (r = -0.577, p = 0.041.Present findings showed that after a bout of exercise-induced dehydration followed by cold shower the impedance vector lengthened that indicates fluid loss. Additionally, BI values might be useful to evaluate fluid shifts between compartments as lower intracellular fluid loss (changed Xc/R indicated greater Posm increase.

  8. Nitric oxide synthase blockade and body fluid volumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Balaszczuk

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of chronic nitric oxide synthase inhibition with N G-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME on body fluid distribution was studied in male Wistar rats weighing 260-340 g. Extracellular, interstitial and intracellular spaces, as well as plasma volume were measured after a three-week treatment with L-NAME (~70 mg/kg per 24 h in drinking water. An increase in extracellular space (16.1 ± 1.1 vs 13.7 ± 0.6 ml/100 g in control group, N = 12, P<0.01, interstitial space (14.0 ± 0.9 vs 9.7 ± 0.6 ml/100 g in control group, P<0.001 and total water (68.7 ± 3.9 vs 59.0 ± 2.9 ml/100 g, P<0.001 was observed in the L-NAME group (N = 8. Plasma volume was lower in L-NAME-treated rats (2.8 ± 0.2 ml/100 g than in the control group (3.6 ± 0.1 ml/100 g, P<0.001. Blood volume was also lower in L-NAME-treated rats (5.2 ± 0.3 ml/100 g than in the control group (7.2 ± 0.3 ml/100 g, P<0.001. The increase in total ratio of kidney wet weight to body weight in the L-NAME group (903 ± 31 vs 773 ± 45 mg/100 g in control group, P<0.01 but not in total kidney water suggests that this experimental hypertension occurs with an increase in renal mass. The fact that the heart weight to body weight ratio and the total heart water remained constant indicates that, despite the presence of high blood pressure, no modification in cardiac mass occurred. These data show that L-NAME-induced hypertension causes alterations in body fluid distribution and in renal mass.

  9. Correlation of lactoferrin with neutrophilic inflammation in body fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, C A; Fonteles, M G; Barrett, L J; Guerrant, R L

    1995-11-01

    We have reported that lactoferrin, a 77-kDa iron-binding glycoprotein found in secondary neutrophil granules, provides a useful marker of fecal leukocytes in fecal specimens from patients with inflammatory diarrhea (R. L. Guerrant, V. Araujo, E. Soares, K. Kotloff, A. A. M. Lima, W. H. Cooper, and A. G. Lee, J. Clin. Microbiol. 30:1238-1242, 1992). In order to determine the usefulness of this marker of neutrophilic inflammation in different body fluids, we examined blood, gingival swabs, sputum, and saliva using antilactoferrin antibodies (lactoferrin latex agglutination [LFLA]). LFLA titers in whole blood samples were 8,000). While the overlap precludes a useful role in the identification of neutropenia, these data confirm that lactoferrin titers of > 1:100 indeed indicate inflammation in fluid specimens. On quantitative elution of lactoferrin from gingival swabs, all 7 patients with dental plaque had titers of 1:200 to 1:400; 9 of 12 patients with clinical gingivitis had LFLA titers of 1:200 to 1:1,600, while all 7 individuals with healthy gums and teeth and 4 edentulous patients had LFLA titers of or = 1:400 (7 were 1:1,600) while 11 normal saliva samples showed titers of < or = 1:100. Lactoferrin titers in sputum, gingival swabs, and whole blood correlate with the presence of neutrophils or inflammation in these specimens and may offer a convenient rapid test for inflammatory processes. PMID:8574844

  10. Monitoring Change of Body Fluid during Physical Exercise using Bioimpedance Spectroscopy and Finite Element Simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa Röthlingshöfer; Mark Ulbrich; Sebastian Hahne; Steffen Leonhardt

    2011-01-01

    Athletes need a balanced body composition in order to achieve maximum performance. Especially dehydration reduces power and endurance during physical exercise. Monitoring the body composition, with a focus on body fluid, may help to avoid reduction in performance and other health problems.For this, a potential measurement method is bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS). BIS is a simple, non-invasive measurement method that allows to determine different body compartments (body fluid, fat, fat-free m...

  11. Estimation of Body Fluid Volume by Bioimpedance Spectroscopy in Patients with Hyponatremia

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jae Seok; Lee, Jun Young; Park, Hyeoncheol; Han, Byoung Geun; Choi, Seung Ok; Yang, Jae Won

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Estimation of body fluid volume in hyponatremia is useful for diagnosis and therapeutic decision-making. Physical examination has been generally used to estimate body fluid volume, but it depends on the physician's abilities. Bioimpedance spectroscopy has been suggested to be a reliable method for the estimation of body fluid volume. Therefore, this study investigated whether bioimpedance spectroscopy could replace physical examination in hyponatremia. Materials and Methods The study ...

  12. Crystallization from a milk-based revised simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A milk-based revised simulated body fluid (milk-rSBF) was prepared by a conventional route but instead of deionized water, all necessary chemicals were dissolved in whole cow's milk (3.2% fat). In order to accelerate crystallization and increase the amount of precipitates, the influence of milk was studied from condensed solutions equal to four times the ionic concentrations of rSBF (4rSBF). The experiments were performed under physiological conditions (solution pH = 7.35-7.40, temperature 37.0 ± 0.2 deg. C, duration 7 days) in a constant-composition double-diffusion device, which provided a slow crystallization under strictly controlled conditions. Similar experiments with 4rSBF but dissolved in deionized water were used as a control. An extra set of experiments with 4rSBF dissolved in deionized water but with an addition of 40 g l-1 bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used as another control. The influence of milk appeared to be similar to that of dissolved BSA: some components of milk (presumably albumins and proteins) were found to co-precipitate with calcium phosphates, which had a strong negative influence on both the crystallinity and the crystal sizes of the precipitates. In addition, both milk and BSA strongly inhibited crystallization of calcium phosphates: the precipitates turned out to contain a minor amount of calcium phosphates and a substantial amount of organic phase

  13. Corrosion and tribocorrosion of hafnium in simulated body fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rituerto Sin, J; Neville, A; Emami, N

    2014-08-01

    Hafnium is a passive metal with good biocompatibility and osteogenesis, however, little is known about its resistance to wear and corrosion in biological environments. The corrosion and tribocorrosion behavior of hafnium and commercially pure (CP) titanium in simulated body fluids were investigated using electrochemical techniques. Cyclic polarization scans and open circuit potential measurements were performed in 0.9% NaCl solution and 25% bovine calf serum solution to assess the effect of organic species on the corrosion behavior of the metal. A pin-on-plate configuration tribometer and a three electrode electrochemical cell were integrated to investigate the tribocorrosion performance of the studied materials. The results showed that hafnium has good corrosion resistance. The corrosion density currents measured in its passive state were lower than those measured in the case of CP titanium; however, it showed a higher tendency to suffer from localized corrosion, which was more acute when imperfections were present on the surface. The electrochemical breakdown of the oxide layer was retarded in the presence of proteins. Tribocorrosion tests showed that hafnium has the ability to quickly repassivate after the oxide layer was damaged; however, it showed higher volumetric loss than CP titanium in equivalent wear-corrosion conditions. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 102B: 1157-1164, 2014. PMID:24376175

  14. Radioimmunoassay of drugs in body fluids in a forensic context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first article of the volume describes the theory and practice of RIA with particular reference to the analysis of drugs in body fluids in a forensic context. RIA theory is outlined from basic principles but the inherent assumptions are often inapplicable in practice and so the empirical design of an assay is considered in detail. Particular emphasis is given to the development of assays for drugs screening that detect classes of structurally related compounds rather than individual drugs. The preparation of radiolabelled drugs, the synthesis of immunogens for raising anitisera, the production of polyclonal and monoclonal antisera, and methods for separating free and antibody-bound antigens are reviewed. Quality assurance, trouble-shooting and the possible hazards of forensic RIA are discussed, and published RIA methods for drug analysis are tabulated. Many non-isotopic immunoassays have been developed in recent years but are omitted from this account because to date they are less applicable than RIA to samples such as haemolysed blood that are frequently encountered in forensic toxicology. Future progress in forensic drug RIA is likely to be concerned with applying the technique to more compounds, improving the methods for preparing immunogens and radiolabelled drugs, and investigating the use of monoclonal anti-drug antibodies. (orig./MG)

  15. Evaluation of Human Body Fluids for the Diagnosis of Fungal Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Parisa Badiee

    2013-01-01

    Invasive fungal infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Because the etiologic agents of these infections are abundant in nature, their isolation from biopsy material or sterile body fluids is needed to document infection. This review evaluates and discusses different human body fluids used to diagnose fungal infections.

  16. Influence of Brownian Diffusion on Levitation of Bodies in Magnetic Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Bashtovoi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with experimental investigation of the levitation of magnetic and non-magnetic bodies in a magnetic fluid when essentially influenced by Brownian diffusion of magnetic particles in it. It is established that the point of levitation of bodies in a magnetic fluid varies with time.

  17. Influence of Brownian Diffusion on Levitation of Bodies in Magnetic Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    V. Bashtovoi; A. Reks; S. Klimovich; А. Motsar; P. Ryapolov; A. Storozhenko; I. Shabanova

    2013-01-01

    The present work deals with experimental investigation of the levitation of magnetic and non-magnetic bodies in a magnetic fluid when essentially influenced by Brownian diffusion of magnetic particles in it. It is established that the point of levitation of bodies in a magnetic fluid varies with time.

  18. Effect of bicarbonate on biodegradation behaviour of pure magnesium in a simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of bicarbonate on biodegradation of pure magnesium in a simulated body fluid is investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, polarization curve and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results show that magnesium biodegrades rapidly and non-uniformly during 27 h of immersion in four simulated body fluid solutions containing different concentrations of bicarbonate. The biodegradation rate first decreases and then increases with time. A small amount of bicarbonate in simulated body fluid has an inhibition effect on the Mg dissolution, while an overdose of bicarbonate addition activates the magnesium surface in the simulated body fluid. The interesting phenomena can be interpreted by a surface film model involving precipitation of calcium carbonate and further ionization of bicarbonate in the simulated body fluids, incorporation of calcium, carbonate and phosphate compounds in the surface film, and development of chloride-induced pitting corrosion damage on the magnesium with time

  19. Body fluid MMP-2 as a putative biomarker in metastatic breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    NOH, SEWON; Jung, Jae-Joon; Jung, Minkyu; KIM, KI-HYANG; Lee, Ha-young; WANG, BRANDON; CHO, JOANNA; Kim, Tae Soo; Jeung, Hei-Cheul; Rha, Sun Young

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the role of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 as novel biomarkers in the body fluid of patients with metastatic breast cancer. We measured the expression of MMPs in 37 samples of body fluid (10 peritoneal and 27 pleural fluids) from metastatic breast cancer patients between 2000 and 2009. Zymography and ELISA assays were used to determine the cut-off level and to quantify MMP expression from a positive control, HT-1080 conditioned media. MMP express...

  20. Digoxin-like immunoreactivity in human body fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical and chemical characteristics of a solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) for routine digoxin determination has been studied with the aim to confirm our previous observation of the presence of digoxin-like immunoreactive substance (DLIS) in serum (plasma) and urine of normal subjects not under digoxin treatment. The sensitivity of the assay was 2.1±0.6 pg/tube and the reproducibility, tested with two different urine pools in terms of digoxin-equivalents (d.e.), was 12.5% (285.6±35.7 pg/ml d.e., n=19) and 20.6% (123.8±25.5 pg/ml d.e., n=19), respectively. The mean DLIS concentration in the blood of 32 normal subjects was 15.6±8.0 pg/ml d.e. (range 0-60 pg/ml d.e.). The mean DLIS concentration in urine of 37 normal subjects (overnight collection) was 160.0±52.3 pg/ml d.e. (range 70-350 pg/ml d.e.), while the mean 24-hour DLIS excretion of 10 normal subjects was 97.3±39.7 ng d.e. Two urine pools were extracted with organic solvents. Good recoveries (80-100%) were obtained with methanol, while poor recoveries were obtained with methylene chloride, hexane and petroleum ether. The present study indicates that DLIS is not a large charged molecule, neither salt, nor fatty acid, which are considered the most frequent non-specific interferences in RIA systems. Urine samples may be more useful for pathophysiological studies on digoxin-like immunoreactivity in human body fluids, because of their higher DLIS concentrations (4-10 times the concetration in blood)

  1. Detection of pathogenic organisms in food, water, and body fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, William H.; Henley, Michael V.; Sayler, Gary S.

    2002-06-01

    The construction of specific bioluminescent bacteriophage for detection of pathogenic organism can be developed to overcome interferences in complex matrices such as food, water and body fluids. Detection and identification of bacteria often require several days and frequently weeks by standard methods of isolation, growth and biochemical test. Immunoassay detection often requires the expression of the bacterial toxin, which can lead to non-detection of cells that may express the toxin under conditions different from testing protocols. Immunoassays require production of a specific antibody to the agent for detection and interference by contaminants frequently affects results. PCR based detection may be inhibited by substances in complex matrices. Modified methods of the PCR technique, such as magnetic capture-hybridization PCR (MCH-PCR), appear to improve the technique by removing the DNA products away from the inhibitors. However, the techniques required for PCR-based detection are slow and the procedures require skilled personnel working with labile reagents. Our approach is based on transferring bioluminescence (lux) genes into a selected bacteriophage. Bacteriophages are bacterial viruses that are widespread in nature and often are genus and species specific. This specificity eliminates or reduces false positives in a bacteriophage assay. The phage recognizes a specific receptor molecule on the surface of a susceptible bacterium, attaches and then injects the viral nucleic acid into the cell. The injected viral genome is expressed and then replicated, generating numerous exact copies of the viral genetic material including the lux genes, often resulting in an increase in bioluminescence by several hundred fold.

  2. Body fluid identification of blood, saliva and semen using second generation sequencing of micro-RNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christel H.; Hjort, Benjamin Benn; Tvedebrink, Torben; Kielpinski, Lukasz Jan; Vinther, Jeppe; Morling, Niels

    2013-01-01

    We report a new second generation sequencing method for identification micro-RNA (miRNA) that can be used to identify body fluids and tissues. Principal component analysis of 10 miRNAs with high expression in 16 samples of blood, saliva and semen showed clear differences in the expression of mi......RNA in the investigated tissues. We expect that the method can also be used for identification of other miRNAs that can be used for identifying other body fluids and tissues. We also expect that the method can be used for identification of body fluids and tissues in practical forensic genetic case work...

  3. Inactivation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by ionizing radiation in body fluids and serological evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method to use ionizing radiation to inactivate HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) in human body fluids was studied in an effort to reduce the risk of accidental infection to forensic science laboratory workers. Experiments conducted indicate that an X-ray absorbed dose of 25 krad was required to completely inactivate HIV. This does not alter forensically important constituents such as enzymes and proteins in body fluids. This method of inactivation of HIV cannot be used on body fluids which will be subjected to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) typing

  4. Monitoring Change of Body Fluid during Physical Exercise using Bioimpedance Spectroscopy and Finite Element Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Röthlingshöfer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Athletes need a balanced body composition in order to achieve maximum performance. Especially dehydration reduces power and endurance during physical exercise. Monitoring the body composition, with a focus on body fluid, may help to avoid reduction in performance and other health problems.For this, a potential measurement method is bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS. BIS is a simple, non-invasive measurement method that allows to determine different body compartments (body fluid, fat, fat-free mass. However, because many physiological changes occur during physical exercise that can influence impedance measurements and distort results, it cannot be assumed that the BIS data are related to body fluid loss alone.To confirm that BIS can detect body fluid loss due to physical exercise, finite element (FE simulations were done. Besides impedance, also the current density contribution during a BIS measurement was modeled to evaluate the influence of certain tissues on BIS measurements.Simulations were done using CST EM Studio (Computer Simulation Technology, Germany and the Visible Human Data Set (National Library of Medicine, USA. In addition to the simulations, BIS measurements were also made on athletes. Comparison between the measured bioimpedance data and simulation data, as well as body weight loss during sport, indicates that BIS measurements are sensitive enough to monitor body fluid loss during physical exercise.doi:10.5617/jeb.178 J Electr Bioimp, vol. 2, pp. 79-85, 2011

  5. Long-term effects of growth hormone (GH) on body fluid distribution in GH deficient adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Sidse; Rosenfalck, A M; Frandsen, E;

    1999-01-01

    Short-term growth hormone (GH) treatment normalises body fluid distribution in adult GH deficient patients, but the impact of long-term treatment on body fluid homeostasis has hitherto not been thoroughly examined in placebo controlled trials. To investigate if the water retaining effect of GH...... persists for a longer time we examined the impact of 4 months GH treatment on extracellular volume (ECV) and plasma volume (PV) in GH deficient adults....

  6. Identification of body fluid-specific DNA methylation markers for use in forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Lyul; Kwon, Oh-Hyung; Kim, Jong Hwan; Yoo, Hyang-Sook; Lee, Han-Chul; Woo, Kwang-Man; Kim, Seon-Young; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Yong Sung

    2014-11-01

    DNA methylation, which occurs at the 5'-position of the cytosine in CpG dinucleotides, has great potential for forensic identification of body fluids, because tissue-specific patterns of DNA methylation have been demonstrated, and DNA is less prone to degradation than proteins or RNA. Previous studies have reported several body fluid-specific DNA methylation markers, but DNA methylation differences are sometimes low in saliva and vaginal secretions. Moreover, specific DNA methylation markers in four types of body fluids (blood, saliva, semen, and vaginal secretions) have not been investigated with genome-wide profiling. Here, we investigated novel DNA methylation markers for identification of body fluids for use in forensic science using the Illumina HumanMethylation 450K bead array, which contains over 450,000 CpG sites. Using methylome data from 16 samples of blood, saliva, semen, and vaginal secretions, we first selected 2986 hypermethylated or hypomethylated regions that were specific for each type of body fluid. We then selected eight CpG sites as novel, forensically relevant DNA methylation markers: cg06379435 and cg08792630 for blood, cg26107890 and cg20691722 for saliva, cg23521140 and cg17610929 for semen, and cg01774894 and cg14991487 for vaginal secretions. These eight selected markers were evaluated in 80 body fluid samples using pyrosequencing, and all showed high sensitivity and specificity for identification of the target body fluid. We suggest that these eight DNA methylation markers may be good candidates for developing an effective molecular assay for identification of body fluids in forensic science. PMID:25128690

  7. Discriminant Analysis of Raman Spectra for Body Fluid Identification for Forensic Purposes

    OpenAIRE

    Vitali Sikirzhytski; Kelly Virkler; Lednev, Igor K.

    2010-01-01

    Detection and identification of blood, semen and saliva stains, the most common body fluids encountered at a crime scene, are very important aspects of forensic science today. This study targets the development of a nondestructive, confirmatory method for body fluid identification based on Raman spectroscopy coupled with advanced statistical analysis. Dry traces of blood, semen and saliva obtained from multiple donors were probed using a confocal Raman microscope with a 785-nm excitation wave...

  8. Steady fall of a body in viscos compressible fluids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nečasová, Šárka; Penel, P.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 2 (2004), s. 137-149. ISSN 0972-0960 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/02/0854 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : steady fall * viscous compressible fluids Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  9. Nonlinear evolution of tidally forced inertial waves in rotating fluid bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Favier, B.; Barker, A.J.; Baruteau, C.; Ogilvie, G. I.

    2014-01-01

    We perform one of the first studies into the nonlinear evolution of tidally excited inertial waves in a uniformly rotating fluid body, exploring a simplified model of the fluid envelope of a planet (or the convective envelope of a solar-type star) subject to the gravitational tidal perturbations of an orbiting companion. Our model contains a perfectly rigid spherical core, which is surrounded by an envelope of incompressible uniform density fluid. The corresponding linear problem was studied ...

  10. Messenger RNA Profiling for Forensic Body Fluid Identifica-tion:Research and Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zheng; ZHANG Su-hua; ZHOU Di; ZHAO Shu-min; LI Cheng-tao

    2013-01-01

    Identifying the origin of body fluids left at a crime scene can give a significant insight into crime scene reconstruction by supporting a link betw een sample donors and actual criminal acts. How ev-er, the conventional body fluid identification methods are prone to various limitations, such as time con-sumption, intensive labor, nonparallel manner, varying degrees of sensitivity and limited specificity. Re-cently, the analysis of cell-specific messenger RNA expression (mRNA profiling) has been proposed to supplant conventional methods for body fluid identification. Since 2011, the collaborative exercises have been organized by the European DNA Profiling Group (EDNAP ) in order to evaluate the robustness and reproducibility of mRNA profiling for body fluid identification. The major advantages of mRNA profil-ing, compared to the conventional methods, include higher sensitivity, greater specificity, the ability of detecting several body fluids in one multiplex reaction, and compatibilitywith current DNA extraction and analysis procedure. In the current review ,we provided an overview of the present know ledge and detection methodologies of mRNA profiling for forensic body fluid identification and discussed its possi-ble practical application to forensic casew ork.

  11. Genome-wide methylation profiling and a multiplex construction for the identification of body fluids using epigenetic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwan Young; An, Ja Hyun; Jung, Sang-Eun; Oh, Yu Na; Lee, Eun Young; Choi, Ajin; Yang, Woo Ick; Shin, Kyoung-Jin

    2015-07-01

    The identification of body fluids found at crime scenes can contribute to solving crimes by providing important insights into crime scene reconstruction. In the present study, body fluid-specific epigenetic marker candidates were identified from genome-wide DNA methylation profiling of 42 body fluid samples including blood, saliva, semen, vaginal fluid and menstrual blood using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array. A total of 64 CpG sites were selected as body fluid-specific marker candidates by having more than 20% discrepancy in DNA methylation status between a certain type of body fluid and other types of body fluids and to have methylation or unmethylation pattern only in a particular type of body fluid. From further locus-specific methylation analysis in additional samples, 1 to 3 CpG sites were selected for each body fluid. Then, a multiplex methylation SNaPshot reaction was constructed to analyze methylation status of 8 body fluid-specific CpG sites. The developed multiplex reaction positively identifies blood, saliva, semen and the body fluid which originates from female reproductive organ in one reaction, and produces successful DNA methylation profiles in aged or mixed samples. Although it remains to be investigated whether this approach is more sensitive, more practical than RNA- or peptide-based assays and whether it can be successfully applied to forensic casework, the results of the present study will be useful for the forensic investigators dealing with body fluid samples. PMID:25796047

  12. Numerical Simulation of the Sedimentation of a Tripole-like Body in an Incompressible Viscous Fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez, L H.(Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana); Glowinski, R (University of Houston); Pettitt, Bernard M.(University of Houston)

    2002-08-01

    In this note, we discuss the application of a methodology combining distributed Lagrange multiplier based fictitious domain techniques, finite-element approximations and operator splitting, to the numerical simulation of the motion of a tripole-like rigid body falling in a Newtonian incompressible viscous fluid. The motion of the body is driven by the hydrodynamical forces and gravity. The numerical simulation shows that the distribution of mass of this rigid body and added moment of inertia compared to a simple cylinder (circular or elliptic) plays a significant role on the particle-fluid interaction. Apparently, for the parameters examined, the action of the moving rigid body on the fluid is stronger than the hydrodynamic forces acting on the rigid body.

  13. Measurement of body fluid proteins by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, MH; Thompson, EJ

    1982-01-01

    A development of the disc polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic system of Ornstein and Davis, which has been applied to the analysis of unconcentrated cerebrospinal fluid, is described. Modifications to the scanning densitometer have improved the signal:noise ratio of the gel scanning system. Using this technique, we have studied the dye-binding properties of albumin, and of beta- and gamma-globulins, and have shown that reproducible quantification of proteins can be achieved. The advantages of ...

  14. On the identifiability of a rigid body moving in a stationary viscous fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is devoted to a geometrical inverse problem associated with a fluid–structure system. More precisely, we consider the interaction between a moving rigid body and a viscous and incompressible fluid. Assuming a low Reynolds regime, the inertial forces can be neglected and, therefore, the fluid motion is modelled by the Stokes system. We first prove the well posedness of the corresponding system. Then we show an identifiability result: with one measure of the Cauchy forces of the fluid on one given part of the boundary and at some positive time, the shape of a convex body and its initial position are identified. (paper)

  15. Correlations between Different Heavy Metals in Diverse Body Fluids: Studies of Human Semen Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Mínguez-Alarcón

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been hypothesized that exposure to heavy metals may impair male reproduction. To measure the effect produced by low doses of heavy metals on semen parameters, it is necessary to clarify in which body fluids those measurements must be performed. Sixty-one men attending infertility clinics participated in our study. Concentrations of lead, cadmium, and mercury were measured in whole blood, blood plasma, and seminal plasma using spectroanalytical and electrochemical methods. Semen analyses were performed according to World Health Organization criteria. For statistical analysis, Spearman's rank correlations, mean comparison tests, and discriminant analysis were calculated. Significant correlations between the measured concentrations of the three heavy metals in the same biological fluids were observed. However, no similar relationship was seen when comparing the concentrations in different body fluids of the same metal. According to our results and previous publications, seminal plasma might be the best body fluid for assessing impairment of human semen parameters.

  16. X-ray fluorescence analysis in application for study of human brain tissue and body fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin slices of human brain tissue and body fluids were investigated using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry. Distribution of elements in brain tissue samples was studied using Microbeam X-Ray Fluorescence (MXRF) method. Total Reflection X-Ray fluorescence (TXRF) analysis was applied for determination of elemental contens in cerebrospinal fluid, serum and whole blood. The main goal of the study was to optimize analytical procedures for investigation of biomedical specimens using EDXRF method. MXRF method is useful for investigation of P, S, Cl, K, Ca and Fe. Moreover, it can be also applied for distinguishing between white and gray matter of the human brain. Two sample preparation methods were applied in TXRF spectrometry with respect to detection limit. In the first method the body fluids were analysed without any sample preparation. The other measurements were performed for the body fluids digested with nitric acid. For both methods gallium was used as an internal standard. Accuracy of the TXRF method was assessed using Certified Reference Material, A-13 (freeze-dried animal blood). High sensitivity of TXRF and proper sample preparation allowed to detect wide spectrum of elements between Cl and Sr. Faster and easier first sample preparation method allowed to detect elements including volatile ones like Cl or Br whereas digestion of fluids with nitric acid improved the detection limits significantly. Elemental analysis of thin brain tissue samples and body fluids will be applied for study of role of trace elements in selected neurological diseases. (author)

  17. Control of fluid-containing rotating rigid bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Gurchenkov, Anatoly A

    2013-01-01

    This book is devoted to the study of the dynamics of rotating bodies with cavities containing liquid. Two basic classes of motions are analyzed: rotation and libration. Cases of complete and partial filling of cavities with ideal liquid and complete filling with viscous liquid are treated. The volume presents a method for obtaining relations between angular velocities perpendicular to main rotation and external force momentums, which are treated as control. The developed models and methods of solving dynamical problems as well as numerical methods for solving problems of optimal control can be

  18. Effects of growth hormone (GH) treatment on body fluid distribution in patients undergoing elective abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jacob; Jensen, Martin Bach; Frandsen, E.;

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the possible beneficial effects of growth hormone (GH) in catabolic patients we examined the impact of GH on body fluid distribution in patients with ulcerative colitis undergoing elective abdominal surgery. DESIGN AND MEASUREMENTS: Twenty-four patients (14 female, 10 male......) aged 19-47 years were in a double-blinded study randomly assigned to receive either placebo (n = 12) or GH (n = 12) 6 i.u. s.c. twice daily from 2 days before until 7 days after ileo-anal J pouch surgery. Extracellular and plasma volume (ECV, PV) were determined using 82Br and 125I albumin dilution at...... day -2 and at day 7, and body composition was estimated by dual X-ray absorptiometry and bioimpedance. Changes in body weight and fluid balance were recorded and hence intracellular volume was assessed. RESULTS: During placebo treatment body weight decreased 4.3 +/- 0.6 kg; during GH treatment body...

  19. Towards instantaneous quantitative fluoroimaging drugs determination in body fluids with no added reagents

    OpenAIRE

    Strashnikova, Natalia V.; Gershanik, Arcady P.; Papiashvili, Nona; Khankin, Daniel; Cohen-Luria, Rivka; Mark, Shlomo; Kalisky, Yehoshua; Parola, Abraham H

    2010-01-01

    Our objective is to develop a simple monitoring technique for rapid, sensitive and quantitative drugs detection in body fluids, with no reagent added and no need for qualified professionals. The user-friendly automatic Fluo-imager will (a) measure the full-range 3D fluorescence map of the inserted fluid sample, (b) determine the chemical nature and concentration of the drugs and (c) transfer the results through internet to the diagnosis center. For these goals the fluorescence measurement dat...

  20. Discriminant Analysis of Raman Spectra for Body Fluid Identification for Forensic Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitali Sikirzhytski

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Detection and identification of blood, semen and saliva stains, the most common body fluids encountered at a crime scene, are very important aspects of forensic science today. This study targets the development of a nondestructive, confirmatory method for body fluid identification based on Raman spectroscopy coupled with advanced statistical analysis. Dry traces of blood, semen and saliva obtained from multiple donors were probed using a confocal Raman microscope with a 785-nm excitation wavelength under controlled laboratory conditions. Results demonstrated the capability of Raman spectroscopy to identify an unknown substance to be semen, blood or saliva with high confidence.

  1. Body fluid identification of blood, saliva and semen using second generation sequencing of micro-RNA

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Christel H.; Hjort, Benjamin Benn; Tvedebrink, Torben; Kielpinski, Lukasz Jan; Vinther, Jeppe; Morling, Niels

    2013-01-01

    We report a new second generation sequencing method for identification micro-RNA (miRNA) that can be used to identify body fluids and tissues. Principal component analysis of 10 miRNAs with high expression in 16 samples of blood, saliva and semen showed clear differences in the expression of miRNA in the investigated tissues. We expect that the method can also be used for identification of other miRNAs that can be used for identifying other body fluids and tissues. We also expect that the met...

  2. Guidelines for uniform reporting of body fluid biomarker studies in neurologic disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnanapavan, Sharmilee; Hegen, Harald; Khalil, Michael;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of these guidelines is to make the process of reporting body fluid biomarker studies in neurologic disorders more uniform and transparent, in line with existing standards for reporting research in other biomedical areas. Although biomarkers have been around for decades, there are......-point uniform reporting format ranging from introduction, materials and methods, through to results and discussion. Each item is discussed in detail in the guidance report. CONCLUSIONS: To enhance the future development of body fluid biomarkers, it will be important to standardize the reporting of...

  3. Effect of lower-body positive pressure on postural fluid shifts in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinghofer-Szalkay, H.; Kravik, S. E.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of the lower-body positive pressure (LBPP) on the orthostatic fluid and protein shifts were investigated in five men during combined tilt-table/antigravity suit inflation and deflation experiments. Changes in the mass densities of venous blood and plasma were measured and the values were used to calculate the densities of erythrocytes, whole-body blood, and shifted fluid. It was found that the application of 60 mm Hg LBPP during 60-deg head-up tilt prevented about half of the postural hemoconcentration occurring during passive head-up tilt.

  4. Corrosion behavior of coated and uncoated bio implants in SBF(simulated body fluid)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surgical implants used in medical applications are basically the specific type of stainless steel materials. Stainless steel has been used widely and successfully for various types of trauma and orthopedic reconstructions. If an uncoated (bare) stainless steel metal piece is implanted in any part of the body, it will get corrode in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) present inside the human body (a mixture of different salts). To overcome this problem a coating of Titanium Nitride (TiN) was developed on stainless steel bio-implants using physical vapor deposition (PVD) method. Both coated and uncoated implants were kept dipped in Simulated Body Fluid for five months. The samples were removed and tested for corrosion life assessment after every fifteen days using weight loss method. (author)

  5. Persistence of Ebola virus in various body fluids during convalescence: evidence and implications for disease transmission and control

    OpenAIRE

    A.A. Chughtai; Barnes, M; MacIntyre, C R

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The aim of this study was to review the current evidence regarding the persistence of Ebola virus (EBOV) in various body fluids during convalescence and discuss its implication on disease transmission and control. We conducted a systematic review and searched articles from Medline and EMBASE using key words. We included studies that examined the persistence of EBOV in various body fluids during the convalescent phase. Twelve studies examined the persistence of EBOV in body fluids, wit...

  6. Many-fluid Onsager density functional theories for orientational ordering in mixtures of anisotropic hard-body fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malijevský, Alexandr; Jackson, George; Varga, Szabolcs

    2008-10-14

    The extension of Onsager's second-virial theory [L. Onsager, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 51, 627 (1949)] for the orientational ordering of hard rods to mixtures of nonspherical hard bodies with finite length-to-breadth ratios is examined using the decoupling approximations of Parsons [Phys. Rev. A 19, 1225 (1979)] and Lee [J. Chem. Phys. 86, 6567 (1987); 89, 7036 (1988)]. Invariably the extension of the Parsons-Lee (PL) theory to mixtures has in the past involved a van der Waals one-fluid treatment in which the properties of the mixture are approximated by those of a reference one-component hard-sphere fluid with an effective diameter which depends on the composition of the mixture and the molecular parameters of the various components; commonly this is achieved by equating the molecular volumes of the effective hard sphere and of the components in the mixture and is referred to as the PL theory of mixtures. It is well known that a one-fluid treatment is not the most appropriate for the description of the thermodynamic properties of isotropic fluids, and inadequacies are often rectified with a many-fluid (MF) theory. Here, we examine MF theories which are developed from the virial theorem and the virial expansion of the Helmholtz free energy of anisotropic fluid mixtures. The use of the decoupling approximation of the pair distribution function at the level of a multicomponent hard-sphere reference system leads to our MF Parsons (MFP) theory of anisotropic mixtures. Alternatively the mapping of the virial coefficients of the hard-body mixtures onto those of equivalent hard-sphere systems leads to our MF Lee (MFL) theory. The description of the isotropic-nematic phase behavior of binary mixtures of hard Gaussian overlap particles is used to assess the adequacy of the four different theories, namely, the original second-virial theory of Onsager, the usual PL one-fluid theory, and the MF theories based on the Lee (MFL) and Parsons (MFP) approaches. A comparison with the

  7. Fluids, rivers, and vessels: metaphors and body concepts in Mesopotamian gynaecological texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinert, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the peculiar disease condition of "locked fluids" found in a number of gynaecological texts from 2(nd) and 1(st) millennium BCE Mesopotamia. To venture an interpretation of the underlying disease concept, the condition of "locked fluids" is first examined in the context of related and contrasting symptoms and female health problems connected to body fluids within the gynaecological corpus. The second part of this article turns to the physiological concepts of the (female) body linked to the disease condition of "locked fluids". The author highlights metaphors and comparisons with objects from daily life and the natural environment, which can be found in medical incantations and therapeutic rituals used to combat gynaecological disorders, as a key to indigenous concepts of physiology. The use of the same metaphors in connection with intestinal disorders points to an intuitive understanding of different processes within the body on the basis of comparisons and equations stemming from daily-life experiences. The last section presents similar notions to the Mesopotamian disease concept of "locked fluids", which are contained in gynaecological treatises of other cultures and times. PMID:24109494

  8. On the steady fall of a body in a compressible fluid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nečasová, Šárka; Penel, P.

    Atheny : WSEAS/IASME, 2005 - (Hassan, I.; Kobasko, N.; Nečasová, Š.), s. 30-35 ISBN 960-8457-33-5 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA201/05/0005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : steady fall * compressible fluids * rigid body Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  9. Researchers move closer to understanding chaotic motion of a solid body in a fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Nystrom, Lynn A.

    2010-01-01

    In a paper appearing in the Feb. 24 issue of the "Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A," Virginia Tech Engineering Science and Mechanics Professor Hassan Aref, and his colleague Johan Roenby at the Technical University of Denmark shed new light on the chaotic motion of a solid body moving through a fluid.

  10. Modification-specific proteomic analysis of glycoproteins in human body fluids by mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunkenborg, Jakob; Hägglund, Per; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2007-01-01

    -glycosylated proteins in body fluids and other complex samples. An approach for identification of N-glycosylated proteins and mapping of their glycosylation sites is described. In this approach, glycoproteins are initially selectively purified by lectin chromatography. Following tryptic digestion, glycopeptides are...

  11. On the linear problem arising from motion of a fluid around a moving rigid body

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nečasová, Šárka; Wolf, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 140, č. 2 (2015), s. 241-259. ISSN 0862-7959 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP201/11/1304 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : incompressible fluid * rotating rigid body * strong solution Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://hdl.handle.net/10338.dmlcz/144329

  12. COMMENTS ON TREATMENT OF OBESITY BASED ON SYNDROME DIFFERENTIATION OF BODY FLUID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彩荣; 郭丽霞; 李季; 符佳; 胡玲香

    2004-01-01

    Because of no exact name about obesity in traditional Chinese medicine, clinically there have no unified syndrome types about obesity. The present paper uses the original syndrome differentiation of body fluid and selects classical acupuncture and moxibustion prescriptions to treat obesity, which is conducive to further systematizing classical acupuncture and moxibustion prescriptions and providing sufficient basis for clinical popularization.

  13. Effect of irrigation fluid temperature on body temperature during arthroscopic elbow surgery in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.R. Thompson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This prospective randomised clinical trial evaluated the effect of warmed irrigation fluid on body temperature in anaesthetised dogs undergoing arthroscopic elbow surgery. Nineteen dogs undergoing elbow arthroscopy were included in the study and were randomly allocated to one of two groups. Group RT received irrigation fluid at room temperature (RT while dogs in group W received warmed (W irrigation fluid (36oC. A standardised patient management and anaesthetic protocol was used and body temperature was measured at four time points; (T1 pre-anaesthetic examination, (T2 arrival into theatre, (T3 end of surgery and (T4 arrival into recovery. There was no significant difference in body temperature at any time point between the groups. The mean overall decrease in body temperature between pre-anaesthetic examination (T1 and return to the recovery suite (T4 was significant in both groups, with a fall of 1.06±0.58oC (p<0.001 in group RT and 1.53±0.76oC (p<0.001 group W. There was no significant difference between the groups. At the end of surgery (T3 4/19 (21.1% of dogs were hypothermic (<37oC. The addition of warmed irrigation fluids to a temperature management protocol in dogs undergoing elbow arthroscopy during general anaesthesia did not lead to decreased temperature losses.

  14. Lecture notes on: Electrical theory behind the measurement of body fluids with bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jødal, Lars

    The lecture notes describe how body fluid volumes can be measured/estimated using the technique bio-impedance spectroscopy (BIS). The opening chapters assume little or none technical/mathematical knowledge and can hopefully be read by anyone interested in the techneque. Later chapters become more...

  15. Flow Visualization of Internal Waves and Wakes of a Streamlined Body in a Stratified Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Amin A. Bidokhti; Aliakbar Bidokhti

    2016-01-01

    The wake and internal waves of a moving three dimensional (3D) airfoil body in a stratified fluid has been investigated in a large stratified tank with a finite depth using movies of shadowgraphs of the flow fields. Typical Reynolds and Froude numbers of the flow varied between 103 and 104, and 0.3 and 2 respectively. The flows are generated often by towing the body in a uniformly stratified flow, while limited cases are carried out with body stationary and the channel was in recirculating mo...

  16. INVESTIGATING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ACUTE FLUID LOSS AND BODY FAT PERCENTAGE BY USING BIA METHOD TO DETERMİNE BODY COMPOSİTİON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA is so popular technique to analysis body fat mass (BFM, free fat mass (FFM, lean body mass (LBM and total body fluid (TBF in both healthy and patient subjects. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the acute weight(fluid loss on body fat mass and percentage by using BIA method. In this study 43 soccer players (age: 21.90; length: 179.62and weight: 73.90 who playing in college league in Afyonkarahisar province has been participated. Body weight, total body fluid, body fat percentage and fat mass of soccer players were measured by using BIA(Tanita method before and after the matches. Paired t test has been used to compare pretest and posttest values. Pearson's correlation analysis has been used to determine relationship between tests values. Statistically differences has been determined between pre-post body weight and body fat TBF (p<0,01. Also, highly negative correlation has been determined between pre-post body fluide loss percentage differences and pre-post body fat mass percentage differences (r=-,766; p<0,001. Theoretically, body fat loss is expected following weight loss after computation, anything but rising rate of body fat was observed. So it is speculated that bio-electric facing more resistance in the body due to fluid loss. Therefore more body fat calculated. Dehydration should be taken into account for the measurements made by the BIA method, because of changes in body fat percentages. It is suggested that fluid intake of the subjects should be under control before the measurementin the studies.

  17. Effects of Intense Physical Activity with Free Water Replacement on Bioimpedance Parameters and Body Fluid Estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Authors have emphasized the need for previous care in order to perform reliable bioimpedance acquisition. Despite of this need some authors have reported that intense physical training has little effect on Bioimpedance Analysis (BIA), while other ones have observed significant effects on bioimpedance parameters in the same condition, leading to body composition estimates considered incompatible with human physiology. The aim of this work was to quantify the changes in bioimpedance parameters, as well as in body fluids estimates by BIA, after four hours of intense physical activity with free water replacement in young males. Xitron Hydra 4200 equipment was used to acquire bioimpedance data before and immediately after the physical training. After data acquisition body fluids were estimates from bioimpedance parameters. Height and weight of all subjects were also acquired to the nearest 0.1 cm and 0.1 kg, respectively. Results point that among the bioimpedance parameter, extracellular resistance presented the most coherent behavior, leading to reliable estimates of the extracellular fluid and part of the total body water. Results also show decreases in height and weight of the participants, which were associated to the decrease in body hydration and in intervertebral discs.

  18. Effects of Intense Physical Activity with Free Water Replacement on Bioimpedance Parameters and Body Fluid Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, E. B.; Ulbricht, L.; Krueger, E.; Romaneli, E. F. R.; Souza, M. N.

    2012-12-01

    Authors have emphasized the need for previous care in order to perform reliable bioimpedance acquisition. Despite of this need some authors have reported that intense physical training has little effect on Bioimpedance Analysis (BIA), while other ones have observed significant effects on bioimpedance parameters in the same condition, leading to body composition estimates considered incompatible with human physiology. The aim of this work was to quantify the changes in bioimpedance parameters, as well as in body fluids estimates by BIA, after four hours of intense physical activity with free water replacement in young males. Xitron Hydra 4200 equipment was used to acquire bioimpedance data before and immediately after the physical training. After data acquisition body fluids were estimates from bioimpedance parameters. Height and weight of all subjects were also acquired to the nearest 0.1 cm and 0.1 kg, respectively. Results point that among the bioimpedance parameter, extracellular resistance presented the most coherent behavior, leading to reliable estimates of the extracellular fluid and part of the total body water. Results also show decreases in height and weight of the participants, which were associated to the decrease in body hydration and in intervertebral discs.

  19. Locomotion and control of a self-propelled shape-changing body in a perfect fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Chambrion, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we are interested in studying some issues relating to the general problem of locomotion by shape- changes in a two dimensional perfect fluis. Our results are two folds: first we introduce a rigorous model for a weighted self-propelled swimming body - one specificity of this model being that the number of the body's deformations degrees of freedom is infinite. The dynamic of the coupled system fluid-body is driven by the so-called Euler-Lagrange equations: a system of ODEs allowing to compute the rigid motion of the body with respect to its prescribed shape-changes. Second, we prove controllability results for this model using powerful tools of geometric control theory. For instance, we show that the body can follow (approximately) any prescribed trajectory while undergoing (approximately) any prescribed shape-changes (this surprising phenomenon will be called Moonwalking). Most of our theoretical results are illustrated by numerical simulations.

  20. Strongly coupled dynamics of fluids and rigid-body systems with the immersed boundary projection method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengjie; Eldredge, Jeff D.

    2015-08-01

    A strong coupling algorithm is presented for simulating the dynamic interactions between incompressible viscous flows and rigid-body systems in both two- and three-dimensional problems. In this work, the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible flow are solved on a uniform Cartesian grid by the vorticity-based immersed boundary projection method of Colonius and Taira. Dynamical equations for arbitrary rigid-body systems are also developed. The proposed coupling method attempts to unify the treatment of constraints in the fluid and structure-the incompressibility of the fluid, the linkages in the rigid-body system, and the conditions at the interface-through the use of Lagrange multipliers. The resulting partitioned system of equations is solved with a simple relaxation scheme, based on an identification of virtual inertia from the fluid. The scheme achieves convergence in only 2 to 5 iterations per time step for a wide variety of mass ratios. The formulation requires that only a subset of the discrete fluid equations be solved in each iteration. Several two- and three-dimensional numerical tests are conducted to validate and demonstrate the method, including a falling cylinder, flapping of flexible wings, self-excited oscillations of a system of many linked plates in a free stream, and passive pivoting of a finite aspect ratio plate under the influence of gravity in a free stream. The results from the current method are compared with previous experimental and numerical results and good agreement is achieved.

  1. Measurement of net whole-body transcapillary fluid transport and effective vascular compliance in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watenpaugh, D. E.; Gaffney, F. A.; Schneider, S. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Net whole-body transcapillary fluid transport (TFT) between the circulation and the interstitial (extravascular) space may be calculated as: IV - deltaPV - UV - IL, where IV=infused or ingested volume (when applicable), deltaPV = change in plasma volume, UV=urine volume, and IL=insensible loss. RESULTS: Infusion of 30 mL/kg isotonic saline over 25 minutes increased supine TFT from a basal capillary reabsorption of -106+/-24 mL/h (mean+/-SE) to a net filtration of 1,229+/-124 mL/h. One hour after infusion, reabsorption of -236+/-102 mL/h was seen, and control reabsorption levels returned by 3 hours. Four hours of 30 mm Hg lower body negative pressure (LBNP) elicited no net TFT, probably because of upper body reabsorptive compensation for lower body capillary filtration. When ingestion of 1 L of isotonic saline accompanied LBNP, filtration of 145+/-10 mL/h occurred. Reabsorption of extravascular fluid into the circulation always followed LBNP. CONCLUSION: Application of this technique could aid understanding of physiologic conditions, experimental interventions, disease states, and therapies that cause or are influenced by fluid shifts between intravascular and interstitial compartments.

  2. Pharmacokinetics of difloxacin and its concentration in body fluids and endometrial tissues of mares after repeated intragastric administration

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Aric R.; Haines, Gregory R.; Brown, Murray P.; Gronwall, Ronald; Merritt, Kelly

    2005-01-01

    Pharmacokinetics of difloxacin and its distribution within the body fluids and endometrium of 6 mares were studied after intragastric (IG) administration of 5 individual doses. Difloxacin concentrations were serially measured in serum, urine, peritoneal fluid, synovial fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, and endometrium over 120 h. Bacterial susceptibility to difloxacin was determined for 174 equine pathogens over a 7-month period. Maximum serum concentration (Cmax) was 2.25 ± 0.70 μg/mL at 3.12 ± 2....

  3. MAPU: Max-Planck Unified database of organellar, cellular, tissue and body fluid proteomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yanling; Zhang, Yong; Adachi, Jun;

    2007-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics has become a powerful technology to map the protein composition of organelles, cell types and tissues. In our department, a large-scale effort to map these proteomes is complemented by the Max-Planck Unified (MAPU) proteome database. MAPU contains several...... body fluid proteomes; including plasma, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid. Cell lines have been mapped to a depth of several thousand proteins and the red blood cell proteome has also been analyzed in depth. The liver proteome is represented with 3200 proteins. By employing high resolution MS and......://www.mapuproteome.com using a clickable interface of cell or body parts. Proteome data can be queried across proteomes by protein name, accession number, sequence similarity, peptide sequence and annotation information. More than 4500 mouse and 2500 human proteins have already been identified in at least one proteome. Basic...

  4. Cell-free microRNAs in blood and other body fluids, as cancer biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Quintero, Blanca

    2016-06-01

    The discovery of cell-free microRNAs (miRNAs) in serum, plasma and other body fluids has yielded an invaluable potential source of non-invasive biomarkers for cancer and other non-malignant diseases. miRNAs in the blood and other body fluids are highly stable in biological samples and are resistant to environmental conditions, such as freezing, thawing or enzymatic degradation, which makes them convenient as potential biomarkers. In addition, they are more easily sampled than tissue miRNAs. Altered levels of cell-free miRNAs have been found in every type of cancer analysed, and increasing evidence indicates that they may participate in carcinogenesis by acting as cell-to-cell signalling molecules. This review summarizes the biological characteristics and mechanisms of release of cell-free miRNAs that make them promising candidates as non-invasive biomarkers of cancer. PMID:27218664

  5. Enrichment methodology to increase the positivity of cultures from body fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Valle Daur

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Isolation and identification of etiological agents found in body fluids can be of critical importance for the recovery of patients suffering from potentially-severe infections, which are often followed by serious sequels. Eighty-two samples of different body fluids were analyzed using two different methods: (1 the conventional culture method (agar plating and (2 the enrichment culture technique, using the Bact/Alert® blood culture bottle. The number of positive cultures increased on average from 9.7% to 23.1% with the enrichment culture technique. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were the most frequently isolated bacteria. The enrichment method could provide a more accurate means the identifying etiological agents.

  6. Reflections on the Mechanism of Calcium Phosphate Nucleation on Titanium in Simulated Body Fluids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F. T. Cheng

    2005-01-01

    The results and main findings of studies reported in the literature in relation to the deposition of calcium phosphate on Ti in simulated body fluids are summarized. The effects of the surface hydroxyl groups and the sign of surface charge on the nucleation of calcium phosphate are reviewed. One major controversy among the conclusions of different studies is the order of adsorption of the calcium ions and the phosphate ions in the initial stage of immersion. A simple model based on the amphoteric nature of the hydroxyl groups on Ti is proposed in an attempt to delineate the nucleation process for calcium phosphate on Ti in simulated body fluids. HPO42- ions interact with the hydroxyl groups via ion exchange and/or electrostatic attraction, and Ca2+ ions, via electrostatic attraction only. There is no preferential order of adsorption. Seemingly inconsistent results in different studies possibly arise from different prior treatments of the samples, which affect the adsorption properties.

  7. INVESTIGATING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ACUTE FLUID LOSS AND BODY FAT PERCENTAGE BY USING BIA METHOD TO DETERMİNE BODY COMPOSİTİON

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet; VAN, Ali; Yücel

    2015-01-01

    Bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) is so popular technique to analysis body fat mass (BFM), free fat mass (FFM), lean body mass (LBM) and total body fluid (TBF) in both healthy and patient subjects. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the acute weight(fluid) loss on body fat mass and percentage by using BIA method. In this study 43 soccer players (age: 21.90; length: 179.62and weight: 73.90) who playing in college league in Afyonkarahisar province has been participated....

  8. On the long-time behaviour of a rigid body immersed in a viscous fluid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Feireisl, Eduard; Nečasová, Šárka

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 1 (2011), s. 59-66. ISSN 0003-6811 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/0917; GA AV ČR IAA100190804 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : rigid body * viscous fluid * Navier-Stokes system Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.744, year: 2011 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00036811003735964

  9. Bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy for the assessment of body fluid volumes of term neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira D.M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of fluid volume in neonates by a noninvasive, inexpensive, and fast method can contribute significantly to increase the quality of neonatal care. The objective of the present study was to calibrate an acquisition system and software to estimate the bioelectrical impedance parameters obtained by a method of bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy based on step response and to develop specific equations for the neonatal population to determine body fluid compartments. Bioelectric impedance measurements were performed by a laboratory homemade instrument. The volumes were estimated in a clinical study on 30 full-term neonates at four different times during the first month of life. During the first 24 hours of life the total body water, extracellular water and intracellular water were 2.09 ± 0.25, 1.20 ± 0.19, and 0.90 ± 0.25 liters, respectively. By the 48th hour they were 1.87 ± 0.27, 1.08 ± 0.17, and 0.79 ± 0.21 liters, respectively. On the 10th day they were 2.02 ± 0.25, 1.29 ± 0.21, and 0.72 ± 0.14 liters, respectively, and after 1 month they were 2.34 ± 0.27, 1.62 ± 0.20, and 0.72 ± 0.13 liters, respectively. The behavior of the estimated volume was correlated with neonatal body weight changes, leading to a better interpretation of such changes. In conclusion, this study indicates the feasibility of bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy as a method to help fluid administration in intensive care neonatal units, and also contribute to the development of new equations to estimate neonatal body fluid contents.

  10. Molecular Physiology of an Extra-renal Cl- Uptake Mechanism for Body Fluid Cl- Homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yi-Fang; Yan, Jia-Jiun; Tseng, Yung-Che; Chen, Ruo-Dong; Hwang, Pung-Pung

    2015-01-01

    The development of an ion regulatory mechanism for body fluid homeostasis was an important trait for vertebrates during the evolution from aquatic to terrestrial life. The homeostatic mechanism of Cl- in aquatic fish appears to be similar to that of terrestrial vertebrates; however, the mechanism in non-mammalian vertebrates is poorly understood. Unlike in mammals, in which the kidney plays a central role, in most fish species, the gill is responsible for the maintenance of Cl- homeostasis vi...

  11. Apatite-forming ability of vinylphosphonic acid-based copolymer in simulated body fluid: effects of phosphate group content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamai, Ryo; Shirosaki, Yuki; Miyazaki, Toshiki

    2016-10-01

    Phosphate groups on materials surfaces are known to contribute to apatite formation upon exposure of the materials in simulated body fluid and improved affinity of the materials for osteoblast-like cells. Typically, polymers containing phosphate groups are organic matrices consisting of apatite-polymer composites prepared by biomimetic process using simulated body fluid. Ca(2+) incorporation into the polymer accelerates apatite formation in simulated body fluid owing because of increase in the supersaturation degree, with respect to apatite in simulated body fluid, owing to Ca(2+) release from the polymer. However, the effects of phosphate content on the Ca(2+) release and apatite-forming abilities of copolymers in simulated body fluid are rather elusive. In this study, a phosphate-containing copolymer prepared from vinylphosphonic acid, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate was examined. The release of Ca(2+) in Tris-NaCl buffer and simulated body fluid increased as the additive amount of vinylphosphonic acid increased. However, apatite formation was suppressed as the phosphate groups content increased despite the enhanced release of Ca(2+) from the polymer. This phenomenon was reflected by changes in the surface zeta potential. Thus, it was concluded that the apatite-forming ability of vinylphosphonic acid-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-triethylene glycol dimethacrylate copolymer treated with CaCl2 solution was governed by surface state rather than Ca(2+) release in simulated body fluid. PMID:27585911

  12. GANDALF: Graphical Astrophysics code for N-body Dynamics And Lagrangian Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubber, David; Rosotti, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    GANDALF, a successor to SEREN (ascl:1102.010), is a hybrid self-gravitating fluid dynamics and collisional N-body code primarily designed for investigating star formation and planet formation problems. GANDALF uses various implementations of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) to perform hydrodynamical simulations of gas clouds undergoing gravitational collapse to form new stars (or other objects), and can perform simulations of pure N-body dynamics using high accuracy N-body integrators, model the intermediate phase of cluster evolution, and provide visualizations via its python interface as well as interactive simulations. Although based on many of the SEREN routines, GANDALF has been largely re-written from scratch in C++ using more optimal algorithms and data structures.

  13. Flow Visualization of Internal Waves and Wakes of a Streamlined Body in a Stratified Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin A. Bidokhti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The wake and internal waves of a moving three dimensional (3D airfoil body in a stratified fluid has been investigated in a large stratified tank with a finite depth using movies of shadowgraphs of the flow fields. Typical Reynolds and Froude numbers of the flow varied between 103 and 104, and 0.3 and 2 respectively. The flows are generated often by towing the body in a uniformly stratified flow, while limited cases are carried out with body stationary and the channel was in recirculating mode. For some experiments the density profile had a stepped like shape. The wake flow is often consisted of internal waves including random and coherent ones. Distortion of density fields was also observed ahead and above the body in cases where the Froude number was subcritical. Results show that as the Froude number (Fr=U/Nh, where U is the body relative velocity, N is buoyancy frequency and h is the thickness of the body is increased, the flow undergoes from a subcritical narrow wake (for Fr1. Typical wavelength of the exited internal waves is increased with Fr, as the theory predicts. The wake of the flow for Fr>1.4 appeared to collapse and some internal waves emission from it could be observed. Usually two types of internal waves, namely random small scale and large scale, more regular waves are observed.

  14. The ways of amniotic fluid sampling and its influence on lamellar body count

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Višnjevac Jovana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Even though artificial surfactant is now available, respiratory distress syndrome still remains a serious problem in neonatology. Prenatal analysis of the amniotic fluid can provide data giving insight into the fetal lung maturity, which enables planning of the further outcome of high-risk pregnancies. Surfactant prevents atelectasis by forming a layer rich in phospholipids between the air and liquid phase in alveoli thus leading to increased surface tension in them, which is a precondition for a good lung function after birth. Lamellar bodies are a form of stored surfactant, and their count in the amniotic fluid can be determined simply by a standard hematology analyzer. The method of determining lamellar body count has found an important place in prenatal diagnostics and is recommended as an initial method of a ”cascade” procedure of testing fetal lung maturity. However, considering the importance of procedure of sample collection, storage and centrifugation, which can significantly affect the results obtained for the lung maturity, the amniotic fluid samples must be absolutely free of contamination with blood, meconium, mucus, bacteria and leucocytes.

  15. The ways of amniotic fluid sampling and its influence on lamellar body count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visnjevac, Jovana; Novakov-Mikić, Aleksandra; Nikolić, Aleksandra

    2010-01-01

    Even though artificial surfactant is now available, respiratory distress syndrome still remains a serious problem in neonatology. Prenatal analysis of the amniotic fluid can provide data giving insight into the fetal lung maturity, which enables planning of the further outcome of high-risk pregnancies. Surfactant prevents atelectasis by forming a layer rich in phospholipids between the air and liquid phase in alveoli thus leading to increased surface tension in them, which is a precondition for a good lung function after birth. Lamellar bodies are a form of stored surfactant, and their count in the amniotic fluid can be determined simply by a standard hematology analyzer. The method of determining lamellar body count has found an important place in prenatal diagnostics and is recommended as an initial method of a "cascade" procedure of testing fetal lung maturity. However, considering the importance of procedure of sample collection, storage and centrifugation, which can significantly affect the results obtained for the lung maturity, the amniotic fluid samples must be absolutely free of contamination with blood, meconium, mucus, bacteria and leucocytes. PMID:21443154

  16. On the Motion of a Small Light Body Immersed in a Two Dimensional Incompressible Perfect Fluid with Vorticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Olivier; Lacave, Christophe; Sueur, Franck

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we consider the motion of a rigid body immersed in a two dimensional unbounded incompressible perfect fluid with vorticity. We prove that when the body shrinks to a massless pointwise particle with fixed circulation, the "fluid+rigid body" system converges to the vortex-wave system introduced by Marchioro and Pulvirenti (Mathematical theory of incompressible nonviscous fluids. Applied Mathematical Sciences 96, Springer-Verlag, 1994). This extends both the paper (Glass et al. Bull Soc Math France 142(3):489-536, 2014) where the case of a solid tending to a massive pointwise particle was tackled and the paper (Glass et al. Dynamics of a point vortex as limits of a shrinking solid in an irrotational fluid, 2014) where the massless case was considered but in a bounded cavity filled with an irrotational fluid.

  17. Pharmacokinetics and distribution of voriconazole in body fluids of dogs after repeated oral dosing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemetayer, J D; Dowling, P M; Taylor, S M; Papich, M G

    2015-10-01

    The goal of this project was to determine the pharmacokinetics of voriconazole and its concentration in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), aqueous humor, and synovial fluid in five healthy dogs following once daily oral dose of 6 mg/kg for 2 weeks. Body fluid and plasma drug concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Mild to moderate gastrointestinal adverse effects were seen. The mean AUC0-24 : minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ratio was 15.23 for a chosen MIC of 1 μg/mL, which is lower than the recommended target of 20-25 and also lower than previously reported in dogs, perhaps reflecting induction of metabolizing enzymes by multiple dosing. Voriconazole concentrations in the CSF, aqueous humor, and synovial fluid were only 13-30% the concurrent plasma concentration, which is lower than previously reported in other species. Results of this study suggest that twice daily, administration may be necessary to maintain therapeutic plasma concentrations in dogs but further studies are warranted. PMID:25691353

  18. Circulating MicroRNAs as Promising Biomarkers in Forensic Body Fluids Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumache, Raluca; Ciocan, Veronica; Muresan, Camelia; Rogobete, Alexandru Florin; Enache, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    In the last 20 years, DNA molecular analysis has become an important tool in forensic investigations. Currently, it is possible to genotype all types of biological traces or micro-traces containing nucleated cells if they are not entirely destroyed, chemically or bacterial. The DNA profiling is based on the short tandem repeats (STR) and aids in human identification from biological samples, but due to the recent advances in molecular genetics, other biomarkers have been proposed to be used in forensic identifications, such as: messenger RNA(mRNA), microRNA (miRNA), and DNA methylation. MicroRNAs are part of a class of small, non-coding RNAs that contain 19 - 23 nucleotides. MicroRNAs play an important role in the regulation of biochemical mechanisms, cell proliferation and other cellular mechanisms in the human body. The level of microRNAs in blood and other body fluids (urine, saliva, sweat) increases as a consequence of altered pathophysiological mechanisms and tissue insult. Moreover, the stability and specificity of microRNAs make them ideal candidates for circulating biomarkers in forensic bioanalytical procedures. In this review, we want to present a brief overview of biogenesis, functions, and applications of miRNAs in the identification of forensic body fluids. PMID:26554231

  19. NUMERICAL METHOD FOR MULTI-BODY FLUID INTERACTION BASED ON IMMERSED BOUNDARY METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MING Ping-jian; ZHANG Wen-ping

    2011-01-01

    A Cartesian grid based on Immersed Boundary Method(IBM),proposed by the present authors,is extended to unstructured grids.The advantages of IBM and Body Fitted Grid(BFG)are taken to enhance the computation efficiency of the fluid structure interaction in a complex domain.There are many methods to generate the BFG,among which the unstructured grid method is the most popular.The concept of Volume Of Solid(VOS)is used to deal with the multi rigid body and fluid interaction.Each body surface is represented by a set of points which can be traced in an anti-clockwise order with the solid area on the left side of surface.An efficient Lagrange point tracking algorithm on the fixed grid is applied to search the moving boundary grid points.This method is verified by low Reynolds number flows in the range from Re =100 to 1 000 in the cavity with a moving lid.The results are in a good agreement with experimental data in literature.Finally,the flow past two moving cylinders is simulated to test the capability of the method.

  20. A radioimmunoassay for measurement of human pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor in different body fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioimmunoassay for measurement of human pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor in nanogram quantities has been developed. The sensitivity of the assay now permits examination of the inhibitor content of various body fluids, wherein other methods exhibit serious shortcomings. In healthy blood donors the serum level was 8.1μg/l. In patients with acute pancreatitis levels as high as 320μg/l have been measured, and patients who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography showed an elevated inhibitor level in serum immediately after the examination without any clinical signs of disease, the highest registered value being 128μg/l. In peritoneal lavage fluid from patients with severe acute pancreatitis levels of 5-304μg/l have been measured. In urine the inhibitor level is about 14μg/l in healthy persons. The urine from one patient with proteinuria of glomerulo-tubular type contained 380μg/l. (orig.)

  1. Computation of some thermodynamic, structural, and transport properties of fluid oxygen using two-body and three-body intermolecular potentials from molecular dynamics simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Comparison between our molecular dynamics simulated results of reduced pressure (P*) and experimental data at T* = 1 (122 K) at different reduced densities (ρ*) using different two-body and three-body intermolecular potentials. It is shown that the three-body potential of Hauschild and Prausnitz gives better accordance with the experiment than other potentials. - Abstract: We have performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulation to obtain pressure, internal energy, radial distribution function, and self-diffusion coefficient of fluid oxygen using effective two-site Lennard-Jones (2SLJ) and two-body Hartree-Fock dispersion (HFD)-like potentials. To take higher-body forces into account, we have used three-body potentials of Hauschild and Prausnitz [T. Hauschild, J.M. Prausnitz, Molec. Simul. 11 (1993) 177] and Miyano [Y. Miyano, Fluid Phase Equilib. 104 (1995) 71] with the two-body HFD-like potential. We have also considered the spin correction in our simulation which improved our energy results. The significance of this work is that the three-body potential of Hauschild and Prausnitz extended as a function of density and temperature and can be used with the HFD-like potential to improve the prediction of the pressures of fluid oxygen without requiring an expensive three-body calculation. The molecular dynamics simulation of oxygen has been also used to determine a new equation of state.

  2. Solid-Phase Extraction Strategies to Surmount Body Fluid Sample Complexity in High-Throughput Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics

    OpenAIRE

    Marco R. Bladergroen; van der Burgt, Yuri E. M.

    2015-01-01

    For large-scale and standardized applications in mass spectrometry- (MS-) based proteomics automation of each step is essential. Here we present high-throughput sample preparation solutions for balancing the speed of current MS-acquisitions and the time needed for analytical workup of body fluids. The discussed workflows reduce body fluid sample complexity and apply for both bottom-up proteomics experiments and top-down protein characterization approaches. Various sample preparation methods t...

  3. Curvilinear Immersed Boundary Method for Simulating Fluid Structure Interaction with Complex 3D Rigid Bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borazjani, Iman; Ge, Liang; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2008-08-10

    The sharp-interface CURVIB approach of Ge and Sotiropoulos [L. Ge, F. Sotiropoulos, A Numerical Method for Solving the 3D Unsteady Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations in Curvilinear Domains with Complex Immersed Boundaries, Journal of Computational Physics 225 (2007) 1782-1809] is extended to simulate fluid structure interaction (FSI) problems involving complex 3D rigid bodies undergoing large structural displacements. The FSI solver adopts the partitioned FSI solution approach and both loose and strong coupling strategies are implemented. The interfaces between immersed bodies and the fluid are discretized with a Lagrangian grid and tracked with an explicit front-tracking approach. An efficient ray-tracing algorithm is developed to quickly identify the relationship between the background grid and the moving bodies. Numerical experiments are carried out for two FSI problems: vortex induced vibration of elastically mounted cylinders and flow through a bileaflet mechanical heart valve at physiologic conditions. For both cases the computed results are in excellent agreement with benchmark simulations and experimental measurements. The numerical experiments suggest that both the properties of the structure (mass, geometry) and the local flow conditions can play an important role in determining the stability of the FSI algorithm. Under certain conditions unconditionally unstable iteration schemes result even when strong coupling FSI is employed. For such cases, however, combining the strong-coupling iteration with under-relaxation in conjunction with the Aitken's acceleration technique is shown to effectively resolve the stability problems. A theoretical analysis is presented to explain the findings of the numerical experiments. It is shown that the ratio of the added mass to the mass of the structure as well as the sign of the local time rate of change of the force or moment imparted on the structure by the fluid determine the stability and convergence of the FSI

  4. In vitro mineralization of surface-modified porous polycaprolactone scaffolds in simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porous polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds were fabricated by combination of porogen-leaching and freeze-drying processes. Ice particulates were used as porogen materials. The porous PCL scaffolds were modified by potassium hydroxide solution with concentration of 1 mol/L at room temperature for 8 h, subsequently biomineralized in simulated body fluid for 2 h and 8 h, respectively. The microstructure and characteristics of the PCL scaffolds were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and EDS. The results showed (1) PCL scaffolds had high degree of connectivity and different pore sizes. (2) Plate-like apatite was observed on the surface of the scaffolds after being immersed into SBF for 8 h

  5. In-vitro evaluation of corrosion resistance of nitrogen ion implanted titanium simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titanium and its alloy Ti6Al4V enjoy widespread use in various biomedical applications because of favourable local tissue response, higher corrosion resistance and fatigue strength than the stainless steels and cobalt-chromium alloy previously used. The study reported in this paper aims to optimize the conditions of nitrogen ion implantation on commercially pure titanium and to correlate the implantation parameters to the corrosion resistance. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to analyse surface concentration and the implantation processes. An improvement in the electrochemical behaviour of the passive film was shown to occur with nitrogen ion implantation on titanium, in simulated body fluids. (UK)

  6. Characterisation of body fluid specific microRNA markers by capillary electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Graham; Uchimoto, Mari L.; Coult, Natalie; World, Damien; Beasley, Emma; Avenell, Philip

    2013-01-01

    The characterisation of RNA molecules for the purpose of body fluid identification is currently a major field in forensic genetics; with a great deal of effort going towards the analysis of messenger RNA (mRNA). There is also some effort with targeting microRNA (miRNA) which is a more stable RNA molecule than mRNA; due to its short size and role in RNA interference. Most research into forensic miRNA analysis is based around quantitative PCR (qPCR). No substantial research has yet been carried...

  7. In vitro mineralization of surface-modified porous polycaprolactone scaffolds in simulated body fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ning Chengyun [College of Materials Science and Technology, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China); Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou (China)], E-mail: imcyning@scut.edu.cn; Cheng Haimei [College of Materials Science and Technology, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China); Zhu Wenjun [Guanghua School of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Yin Zhaoyi [College of Materials Science and Technology, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China); Chen Hao [Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou (China); Zheng Huade; Lei Shumei; Yin Shiheng [College of Materials Science and Technology, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China); Tan Guoxin [Institute of Chemical Engineering and Light Industry, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangdong 510006 (China)

    2008-11-15

    Porous polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds were fabricated by combination of porogen-leaching and freeze-drying processes. Ice particulates were used as porogen materials. The porous PCL scaffolds were modified by potassium hydroxide solution with concentration of 1 mol/L at room temperature for 8 h, subsequently biomineralized in simulated body fluid for 2 h and 8 h, respectively. The microstructure and characteristics of the PCL scaffolds were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and EDS. The results showed (1) PCL scaffolds had high degree of connectivity and different pore sizes. (2) Plate-like apatite was observed on the surface of the scaffolds after being immersed into SBF for 8 h.

  8. In vitro mineralization of surface-modified porous polycaprolactone scaffolds in simulated body fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Chengyun; Cheng, Haimei; Zhu, Wenjun; Yin, Zhaoyi; Chen, Hao; Zheng, Huade; Lei, Shumei; Yin, Shiheng; Tan, Guoxin

    2008-11-01

    Porous polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds were fabricated by combination of porogen-leaching and freeze-drying processes. Ice particulates were used as porogen materials. The porous PCL scaffolds were modified by potassium hydroxide solution with concentration of 1 mol/L at room temperature for 8 h, subsequently biomineralized in simulated body fluid for 2 h and 8 h, respectively. The microstructure and characteristics of the PCL scaffolds were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and EDS. The results showed (1) PCL scaffolds had high degree of connectivity and different pore sizes. (2) Plate-like apatite was observed on the surface of the scaffolds after being immersed into SBF for 8 h.

  9. Fluid status in peritoneal dialysis patients: the European Body Composition Monitoring (EuroBCM study cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Van Biesen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Euvolemia is an important adequacy parameter in peritoneal dialysis (PD patients. However, accurate tools to evaluate volume status in clinical practice and data on volume status in PD patients as compared to healthy population, and the associated factors, have not been available so far. METHODS: We used a bio-impedance spectroscopy device, the Body Composition Monitor (BCM to assess volume status in a cross-sectional cohort of prevalent PD patients in different European countries. The results were compared to an age and gender matched healthy population. RESULTS: Only 40% out of 639 patients from 28 centres in 6 countries were normovolemic. Severe fluid overload was present in 25.2%. There was a wide scatter in the relation between blood pressure and volume status. In a multivariate analysis in the subgroup of patients from countries with unrestricted availability of all PD modalities and fluid types, older age, male gender, lower serum albumin, lower BMI, diabetes, higher systolic blood pressure, and use of at least one exchange per day with the highest hypertonic glucose were associated with higher relative tissue hydration. Neither urinary output nor ultrafiltration, PD fluid type or PD modality were retained in the model (total R² of the model = 0.57. CONCLUSIONS: The EuroBCM study demonstrates some interesting issues regarding volume status in PD. As in HD patients, hypervolemia is a frequent condition in PD patients and blood pressure can be a misleading clinical tool to evaluate volume status. To monitor fluid balance, not only fluid output but also dietary input should be considered. Close monitoring of volume status, a correct dialysis prescription adapted to the needs of the patient and dietary measures seem to be warranted to avoid hypervolemia.

  10. FREE-SURFACE WAVES AND FAR WAKES GENERATED BY A FLOATING BODY IN A VISCOUS FLUID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Dong-qiang

    2003-01-01

    The free-surface waves and the flow field due to a body moving on the surface of an incompressible viscous fluid of infinite depth were studied analytically. The floating body was modeled as a normal point pressure on the free surface. Based on the Oseen approximation for governing equations and the linearity assumption for boundary conditions, the exact solutions in integral form for the free-surface elevation, the velocities and the pressure were given. By employing Lighthill's two-stage scheme, the asymptotic representations in far field for large Reynolds numbers were derived explicitly. The effect of viscosity on the wave profiles was expressed by an exponential decay factor, which removes the singular behavior predicted by the potential theory.

  11. Simulated body-fluid tests and electrochemical investigations on biocompatibility of metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the in-vitro and electrochemical investigations of four metallic glasses (MGs) for finding potential MG-based bio-materials. The simulation body-fluid Hanks solution is utilized for testing the corrosion resistance of MGs, and microorganisms of Escherichia coli are used in testing the bio-toxicity. In addition, a simple cyclic voltammetry method is used for rapid verification of the potential electrochemical responses. It is found that the Zr-based MG can sustain in the body-fluid, exhibiting the best corrosion resistance and electrochemical stability. The microbiologic test shows that E. coli can grow on the surface of the Zr-based metallic glass, confirming the low cell toxicity of this Zr-based MG. Highlights: ► Vanadium is added in Cu–Zr–Al alloy to induce B2-CuZr formation. ► The more induced B2-CuZr phase can improve compressive plasticity. ► The plasticity improvement might be caused by B2 phase dynamic coarsening.

  12. Identification of misfolded proteins in body fluids for the diagnosis of prion diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Properzi, Francesca; Pocchiari, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) or prion diseases are fatal rare neurodegenerative disorders affecting man and animals and caused by a transmissible infectious agent. TSE diseases are characterized by spongiform brain lesions with neuronal loss and the abnormal deposition in the CNS, and to less extent in other tissues, of an insoluble and protease resistant form of the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)), named PrP(TSE). In man, TSE diseases affect usually people over 60 years of age with no evident disease-associated risk factors. In some cases, however, TSE diseases are unequivocally linked to infectious episodes related to the use of prion-contaminated medicines, medical devices, or meat products as in the variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Clinical signs occur months or years after infection, and during this silent period PrP(TSE), the only reliable marker of infection, is not easily measurable in blood or other accessible tissues or body fluids causing public health concerns. To overcome the limit of PrP(TSE) detection, several highly sensitive assays have been developed, but attempts to apply these techniques to blood of infected hosts have been unsuccessful or not yet validated. An update on the latest advances for the detection of misfolded prion protein in body fluids is provided. PMID:24027585

  13. Generation of a novel transgenic rat model for tracing extracellular vesicles in body fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Aya; Kawamata, Masaki; Yoshioka, Yusuke; Katsuda, Takeshi; Kikuchi, Hisae; Nagai, Yoshitaka; Adachi, Naoki; Numakawa, Tadahiro; Kunugi, Hiroshi; Ochiya, Takahiro; Tamai, Yoshitaka

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) play an important role in the transfer of biomolecules between cells. To elucidate the intercellular transfer fate of EVs in vivo, we generated a new transgenic (Tg) rat model using green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged human CD63. CD63 protein is highly enriched on EV membranes via trafficking into late endosomes and is often used as an EV marker. The new Tg rat line in which human CD63-GFP is under control of the CAG promoter exhibited high expression of GFP in various body tissues. Exogenous human CD63-GFP was detected on EVs isolated from three body fluids of the Tg rats: blood serum, breast milk and amniotic fluid. In vitro culture allowed transfer of serum-derived CD63-GFP EVs into recipient rat embryonic fibroblasts, where the EVs localized in endocytic organelles. These results suggested that this Tg rat model should provide significant information for understanding the intercellular transfer and/or mother-child transfer of EVs in vivo. PMID:27539050

  14. Internal air flow analysis of a bladeless micro aerial vehicle hemisphere body using computational fluid dynamic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, M. N. K., E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Zuradzman, M. Razlan, E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Hazry, D., E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Khairunizam, Wan, E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Shahriman, A. B., E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Yaacob, S., E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Ahmed, S. Faiz, E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my [Centre of Excellence for Unmanned Aerial Systems, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 01000 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); and others

    2014-12-04

    This paper explain the analysis of internal air flow velocity of a bladeless vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) hemisphere body. In mechanical design, before produce a prototype model, several analyses should be done to ensure the product's effectiveness and efficiency. There are two types of analysis method can be done in mechanical design; mathematical modeling and computational fluid dynamic. In this analysis, I used computational fluid dynamic (CFD) by using SolidWorks Flow Simulation software. The idea came through to overcome the problem of ordinary quadrotor UAV which has larger size due to using four rotors and the propellers are exposed to environment. The bladeless MAV body is designed to protect all electronic parts, which means it can be used in rainy condition. It also has been made to increase the thrust produced by the ducted propeller compare to exposed propeller. From the analysis result, the air flow velocity at the ducted area increased to twice the inlet air. This means that the duct contribute to the increasing of air velocity.

  15. Internal air flow analysis of a bladeless micro aerial vehicle hemisphere body using computational fluid dynamic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper explain the analysis of internal air flow velocity of a bladeless vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) hemisphere body. In mechanical design, before produce a prototype model, several analyses should be done to ensure the product's effectiveness and efficiency. There are two types of analysis method can be done in mechanical design; mathematical modeling and computational fluid dynamic. In this analysis, I used computational fluid dynamic (CFD) by using SolidWorks Flow Simulation software. The idea came through to overcome the problem of ordinary quadrotor UAV which has larger size due to using four rotors and the propellers are exposed to environment. The bladeless MAV body is designed to protect all electronic parts, which means it can be used in rainy condition. It also has been made to increase the thrust produced by the ducted propeller compare to exposed propeller. From the analysis result, the air flow velocity at the ducted area increased to twice the inlet air. This means that the duct contribute to the increasing of air velocity

  16. Modeling the time evolution of the nanoparticle-protein corona in a body fluid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Dell'Orco

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nanoparticles in contact with biological fluids interact with proteins and other biomolecules, thus forming a dynamic corona whose composition varies over time due to continuous protein association and dissociation events. Eventually equilibrium is reached, at which point the continued exchange will not affect the composition of the corona. RESULTS: We developed a simple and effective dynamic model of the nanoparticle protein corona in a body fluid, namely human plasma. The model predicts the time evolution and equilibrium composition of the corona based on affinities, stoichiometries and rate constants. An application to the interaction of human serum albumin, high density lipoprotein (HDL and fibrinogen with 70 nm N-iso-propylacrylamide/N-tert-butylacrylamide copolymer nanoparticles is presented, including novel experimental data for HDL. CONCLUSIONS: The simple model presented here can easily be modified to mimic the interaction of the nanoparticle protein corona with a novel biological fluid or compartment once new data will be available, thus opening novel applications in nanotoxicity and nanomedicine.

  17. Cardiovascular and Body Fluid Adjustments During Bed Rest and Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.; Tomko, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Although a few scientific bed rest (BR) studies were conducted soon after World War II, advent of the space program provided impetus for utilizing prolonged (days-months) BR, which employed the horizontal or 6 degree head-down tilt (HDT) body positions, to simulate responses of healthy people to microgravity. Shorter (hours) HDT protocols were used to study initial mechanisms of the acclimation-deconditioning (reduction of physical fitness) syndromes. Of the major physiological factors modified during BR, reduced force on bones, ligaments, and muscles, and greatly reduced hydrostatic pressure within the cardiovascular system, the latter: which involves shifts of blood from the lower extremities into the upper body, increase in central venous pressure, and diuresis, appears to be the initial stimulus for acclimation. Increase in central venous pressure occurs in subjects during weightless parabolic flight, but not in astronauts early during orbital flight. But significant reduction in total body water (hypohydration) and plasma volume (hypovolemia) occurs in subjects during both BR and microgravity. Response of interstitial fluid volume is not as clear, It has been reported to increase during BR, and it may have increased in Skylab II and IV astronauts. Reduction of total body water, and greater proportional reduction of extracellular volume, indicates increased cellular volume which may contribute to inflight cephalic edema. Cerebral pressure abates after a few days of HDT, but not during flight. accompanied by normal (eugravity) blood constituent concentrations suggesting some degree of acclimation had occurred. But during reentry, with moderately increased +Gz (head-to-foot) acceleration and gravitational force, the microgravity "euhydration" becomes functional progressive dehydration contributing to the general reentry syndrome (GRS) which, upon landing the Shuttle, can and often results in gastrointestinal distress, disorientation, vertigo, fatigue, and

  18. Corrosion resistance of NiTi alloy in simulated body fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kaczmarek

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Corrosion resistance of an implant alloy is a very important determinant of its biocompatibility. The nature of an environment and surface treatments have a significant influence on corrosion. Most of the knowledge on the corrosion behavior of NiTi is from studies of “standard” corrosion tests. In fact, the knowledge of the corrosion behavior of NiTi inside the body is very limited. The main aim of the research was evaluation of corrosion resistance of NiTi alloy in various simulated body fluids.Design/methodology/approach: The evaluation of the electrochemical behavior of NiTi alloy was realized by recording of anodic polarization curves with the use of the potentiodynamic method. The tests were carried out for differently modified surfaces in diverse simulated body fluids.Findings: Surface condition of a metallic biomaterial determines its corrosion resistance. In the course of the work the good corrosion resistance of all the tested samples (with different surface conditions was observed.Research limitations/implications: The obtained results are the basis for the optimization of physicochemical properties of the NiTi alloy. The future research should be focused on selected specific implants specially with respect to their application features.Practical implications: On the basis of the obtained results it can be stated that the suggested surface treatment can be applicable for NiTi alloys due to the increase of the corrosion resistance.Originality/value: The paper presents the influence of various methods of the surface treatment on corrosion resistance of the NiTi alloy. The suggested surface treatment methods can be applied to implants intended for diverse medical applications, especially in cardiology and urology.

  19. Casimir micro-sphere diclusters and three-body effects in fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Varela, Jaime; McCauley, Alexander P; Johnson, Steven G

    2010-01-01

    Our previous article [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 060401 (2010)] predicted that Casimir forces induced by the material-dispersion properties of certain dielectrics can give rise to stable configurations of objects. This phenomenon was illustrated via a dicluster configuration of non-touching objects consisting of two spheres immersed in a fluid and suspended against gravity above a plate. Here, we examine these predictions from the perspective of a practical experiment and consider the influence of non-additive, three-body, and nonzero-temperature effects on the stability of the two spheres. We conclude that the presence of Brownian motion reduces the set of experimentally realizable silicon/teflon spherical diclusters to those consisting of layered micro-spheres, such as the hollow- core (spherical shells) considered here.

  20. Silica enhanced formation of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 deg. C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadjadi, M.S., E-mail: m.s.sadjad@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Sciences and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ebrahimi, H.R. [Department of Chemistry, Sciences and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Meskinfam, M. [Department of Chemistry, Tonekabon Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tonekabon (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zare, K. [Department of Chemistry, University of Shahid Beheshti, Eveen Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-10-17

    Highlights: {yields} We report on fast formation of hexagonal nanocrystals of calcium hydroxyapatite (HA) in silica-containing simulated body fluid solution at 37 deg. C. {yields} Bioactivity and biodegradability of TCP precursor have been confirmed by the dissolution of TCP and formation of a bone like layer of new HA nanoparticles outside of the precursor after 24 h soaking in SBF solution. {yields} Successive nucleation and formation of tiny hexagonal HA nanoplates and nanorods have been confirmed by TEM results after 24 h soaking of TCP in silica-containing BSF solution. - Abstract: The chemical modification of implant (prosthesis) surfaces is being investigated worldwide for improving the fixation of orthopaedic and dental implants. The main goal in this surface modification approach is to achieve a faster bone growth and chemical bonding of the implant to the newly generated and/or remodeled bone. In this work, we report fast formation of hexagonal nanocrystals of calcium hydroxyapatite (HA) in simulated body fluid (SBF, inorganic components of human blood plasma) solutions at 37 deg. C, using calcium phosphate (TCP) and sodium silicate as precursors. Characterization and chemical analysis of the synthesized powders were performed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results indicated enhanced nucleation and formation of bone like layer of HA nanocrystals at the surface of TCP nanoparticles and occurrence of HA nanocrystals during 24 h soaking of TCP in SBF solution containing silica ions. The average size of a nanoparticle, using Scherrer formula, was found to be 18.2 nm.

  1. Effect of anodization on corrosion behaviour and biocompatibility of Cp-titanium in simulated body fluid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Archana Singh; B P Singh; Mohan R Wani; Dinesh Kumar; J K Singh; Vakil Singh

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this investigation is to study the effectiveness of anodized surface of commercial purity titanium (Cp-Ti) on its corrosion behaviour in simulated body fluid (SBF) and proliferation of osteoblast cells on it, to assess its potentiality as a process of surface modification in enhancing corrosion resistance and osseointegration of dental implants. Highly ordered nano-porous oxide layer, with nano-sized pores, is developed on the surface of Cp-Ti through electrochemical anodization in the electrolyte of aqueous solution of 0.5% HF at 15 V for 30 min at 24 °C. The nano-porous feature of the anodized surface is characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). Pores of some anodized samples are sealed by exposing the anodized surface in boiling water. Corrosion behaviour of the anodized specimen is studied in Ringer’s solution at 30 ± 2 °C, using electrochemical impedance and cyclic polarization technique. Biocompatibility of the anodized surface is accessed using MG63 osteoblast cells. Both corrosion as well as pitting resistance of Cp-Ti in simulated body fluid are found to be highest in the anodized and sealed condition and followed in decreasing order by those of anodized and unanodized ones. Significantly higher MG63 osteoblast cell proliferations are found on the anodized surface than that on the unanodized one. Anodized Cp-Ti develops nano-size surface pores, like that of natural bone. It enhances corrosion and pitting resistance and also the process of osteoblast cell proliferation on Cp-Ti.

  2. Corrosion behaviour of AISI 316L steel in artificial body fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Kajzer

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper presents the comparison of corrosion resistance of AISI 316L stainless steel in various corrosive media such as artificial urine, Tyrode’s physiological solution and artificial plasma.Design/methodology/approach: The tests were carried out on samples of the following surfaces: grinded – average roughness Ra = 0.31 μm and electropolished and chemically passivated average roughness Ra = 0.10 μm. The corrosion tests were realized by recording of anodic polarization curves with the use of the potentiodynamic method. The VoltaLab® PGP 201 system for electrochemical tests was applied. The tests were carried out in electrolyte simulating urine (pH = 6-6.4, Tyrode’s physiological solution (pH = 6.8-7.4 and plasma (pH = 7.2-7.6 at the temperature of 37±1°C.Findings: Surface condition of AISI 316L stainless steel determines its corrosion resistance. The highest values of breakdown potentials were recorded for all electropolished and chemically passivated samples in all simulated body fluids. The highest values of anodic current density were recorded for samples tested in artificial urine, the lowest values were recorded for samples tested in Tyrode’s physiological solution.Research limitations/implications: The obtained results are the basis for the optimization of physicochemical properties of the AISI 316L stainless steel.Practical implications: On the basis of the obtained results it can be stated that stainless steel meets the basic biocompatibility criteria and can be applied in reconstruction surgery, operative cardiology and urology.Originality/value: The paper presents the influence of various corrosive media simulating human body fluids on corrosion resistance of AISI 316L stainless steel.

  3. Silica enhanced formation of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 deg. C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → We report on fast formation of hexagonal nanocrystals of calcium hydroxyapatite (HA) in silica-containing simulated body fluid solution at 37 deg. C. → Bioactivity and biodegradability of TCP precursor have been confirmed by the dissolution of TCP and formation of a bone like layer of new HA nanoparticles outside of the precursor after 24 h soaking in SBF solution. → Successive nucleation and formation of tiny hexagonal HA nanoplates and nanorods have been confirmed by TEM results after 24 h soaking of TCP in silica-containing BSF solution. - Abstract: The chemical modification of implant (prosthesis) surfaces is being investigated worldwide for improving the fixation of orthopaedic and dental implants. The main goal in this surface modification approach is to achieve a faster bone growth and chemical bonding of the implant to the newly generated and/or remodeled bone. In this work, we report fast formation of hexagonal nanocrystals of calcium hydroxyapatite (HA) in simulated body fluid (SBF, inorganic components of human blood plasma) solutions at 37 deg. C, using calcium phosphate (TCP) and sodium silicate as precursors. Characterization and chemical analysis of the synthesized powders were performed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results indicated enhanced nucleation and formation of bone like layer of HA nanocrystals at the surface of TCP nanoparticles and occurrence of HA nanocrystals during 24 h soaking of TCP in SBF solution containing silica ions. The average size of a nanoparticle, using Scherrer formula, was found to be 18.2 nm.

  4. Differentiation of five body fluids from forensic samples by expression analysis of four microRNAs using quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Eva; Reinke, Ann-Kathrin; Courts, Cornelius

    2016-05-01

    Applying molecular genetic approaches for the identification of forensically relevant body fluids, which often yield crucial information for the reconstruction of a potential crime, is a current topic of forensic research. Due to their body fluid specific expression patterns and stability against degradation, microRNAs (miRNA) emerged as a promising molecular species, with a range of candidate markers published. The analysis of miRNA via quantitative Real-Time PCR, however, should be based on a relevant strategy of normalization of non-biological variances to deliver reliable and biologically meaningful results. The herein presented work is the as yet most comprehensive study of forensic body fluid identification via miRNA expression analysis based on a thoroughly validated qPCR procedure and unbiased statistical decision making to identify single source samples. PMID:26878708

  5. Tectonic "short circuit" of sub-horizontal fluid-saturated bodies as a possible mechanism of the earthquake

    CERN Document Server

    Nechayev, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    An alternative earthquake mechanism is proposed. The traditional stress mechanism of fracture formation assigned a support role. As a proximate cause of the earthquake the destruction of the roofs of sub-horizontal fluid-saturated bodies (SHFB) is considered. This collapse may occur due to redistribution of fluid pressure within the system of SHFB connected by cracks (tectonic or other nature). It can cause both shifts of rock blocks contributing to seismic shocks and various effects characteristic of foreshocks and aftershocks.

  6. Determination of reduced sulfur compounds by high-performance liquid chromatography in hydrothermal seawater and body fluids from Riftia pachyptila

    OpenAIRE

    Gru, Cecile; Sarradin, Pierre-Marie; Legoff, Hélène; Narcon, Sandrine; Caprais, Jean-Claude; Lallier, Francois

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes a method for the determination of reduced sulfur compounds in hydrothermal seawater and body fluids from the hydrothermal tube worm Riftia pachyptila. Sulfur is a hey component of the hydrothermal ecosystem based on chemosynthesis, Sulfur compounds were derivatized at pH 8 (4.3 for sulfide in biological fluid) with a fluorescent reagent, monobromobimane, and separated by reverse-phase HPLC. The eluted compounds were detected by spectrofluorimetry. This method allowed: the...

  7. Developed and evaluated a multiplex mRNA profiling system for body fluid identification in Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Feng; Luo, Haibo; Hou, Yiping

    2015-10-01

    In forensic casework, identification the cellular origin from a biological sample is crucial to the case investigation and reconstruction in crime scene. DNA/RNA co-extraction for STR typing and human body fluids identification has been proposed as an efficient and comprehensive assay for forensic analysis. Several cell-specific messenger RNA (mRNA) markers for identification of the body fluids have been proposed by previous studies. In this study, a novel multiplex mRNA profiling system included 19 markers was developed and performed by reverse transcription endpoint polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The multiplex combined 3 housekeeping gene markers and 16 cell-specific markers that have been used to identify five types of human body fluids: peripheral blood, semen, saliva, vaginal secretions and menstrual blood. The specificity, sensitivity, stability and detectability of the mixture were explored in our study. Majority of the cell-specific mRNA markers showed high specificity, although cross-reactivity was observed sporadically. Specific profiling for per body fluid was obtained. Moreover, the interpretation guidelines for inference of body fluid types were performed according to the A. Lindenbergh et al. The scoring guidelines can be applied to any RNA multiplex, which was based on six different scoring categories (observed, observed and fits, sporadically observed and fits, not observed, sporadically observed, not reliable, and non-specific due to high input). The simultaneous extraction of DNA showed positive full or partial profiling results of all samples. It demonstrated that the approach of combined STR-profiling and RNA profiling was suitable and reliable to detect the donor and origin of human body fluids in Chinese Han population. PMID:26311108

  8. Corrosion resistance of Cr-Ni-Mo steel in simulated body fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Kajzer

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper presents the comparison of corrosion resistance of Cr-Ni-Mo stainless steel in variouscorrosive media simulating human body fluids.Design/methodology/approach: The corrosion tests were realized by recording of anodic polarization curveswith the use of the potentiodynamic method. The VoltaLab® PGP 201 system for electrochemical tests wasapplied. The tests were carried out in electrolyte simulating urine (pH = 6 ÷ 6.4, Tyrode’s physiological solution(pH = 6.8 ÷ 7.4 and plasma (pH = 7.2 ÷ 7.6 at the temperature of 37±1°C.Findings: Surface condition of metallic biomaterial determines its corrosion resistance. The highest values ofbreakdown potentials are recorded for electropolished and chemically passivated samples tested in artificial urine.The lowest values of anodic current density were recorded for samples tested in Tyrode’s physiological solution.Research limitations/implications: The obtained results are the basis for the optimization of physicochemicalproperties of the metallic biomaterial.Practical implications: On the basis of the obtained results it can be stated that stainless steel can be applied inreconstruction surgery, operative cardiology and urology.Originality/value: The paper presents the influence of various corrosive media simulating human body fluidson corrosion resistance of Cr-Ni-Mo stainless steel.

  9. Persistence of Ebola virus in various body fluids during convalescence: evidence and implications for disease transmission and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chughtai, A A; Barnes, M; Macintyre, C R

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to review the current evidence regarding the persistence of Ebola virus (EBOV) in various body fluids during convalescence and discuss its implication on disease transmission and control. We conducted a systematic review and searched articles from Medline and EMBASE using key words. We included studies that examined the persistence of EBOV in various body fluids during the convalescent phase. Twelve studies examined the persistence of EBOV in body fluids, with around 800 specimens tested in total. Available evidence suggests that EBOV can persist in some body fluids after clinical recovery and clearance of virus from the blood. EBOV has been isolated from semen, aqueous humor, urine and breast milk 82, 63, 26 and 15 days after onset of illness, respectively. Viral RNA has been detectable in semen (day 272), aqueous humor (day 63), sweat (day 40), urine (day 30), vaginal secretions (day 33), conjunctival fluid (day 22), faeces (day 19) and breast milk (day 17). Given high case fatality and uncertainties around the transmission characteristics, patients should be considered potentially infectious for a period of time after immediate clinical recovery. Patients and their immediate contacts should be informed about these risks. Convalescent patients may need to abstain from sex for at least 9 months or should use condoms until their semen tests are negative. Breastfeeding should be avoided during the convalescent phase. There is a need for more research on persistence, and a uniform approach to infection control guidelines in convalescence. PMID:26808232

  10. Numerical investigation of incompressible fluid flow and heat transfer across a bluff body in a channel flow

    OpenAIRE

    Taymaz Imdat; Aslan Erman; Benim Ali Cemal

    2015-01-01

    The Lattice Boltzmann Method is applied to computationally investigate the laminar flow and heat transfer of an incompressible fluid with constant material properties in a two-dimensional channel with a built-in bluff body. In this study, a triangular prism is taken as the bluff body. Not only the momentum transport, but also the energy transport is modeled by the Lattice Boltzmann Method. A uniform lattice structure with a single time relaxation rule is us...

  11. An improved method for quantification of extra domain A-containing cellular fibronectin (EDAcFN) in different body fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylätupa, S; Mertaniemi, P; Haglund, C; Partanen, P

    1995-01-31

    A quantitative direct enzyme immunoassay for the extra domain A-containing isoform of cellular fibronectin (EDAcFN) was established for screening of large series of blood samples and various body fluids of different pH and viscosity. The method is based on the monoclonal antibody DH1 recognizing the extra domain A in cellular fibronectin (EDAcFN). Studies on the effect of dilution of plasma and serum samples in this direct assay indicated that the measured concentration of cFN in the samples greatly depend on the ratio of sample dilution. The linearity of the assay was improved with sample dilution and the optimal dilution was 1:5. Stored diluted samples retained their cFN content at +4 degrees C, and -20 degrees C and -70 degrees C for months in contrast to samples stored undiluted. With this direct EIA the detection limit was 0.05 micrograms/ml and the linear portion of the standard curve could be extended above 30 micrograms/ml. Thus, the cFN concentration of blood samples could be measured reliably without inhibition also in samples with very high concentration of cFN. This is particularly important when measuring blood samples from cancer patients, since these samples may contain more than 20 micrograms/ml EDAcFN. The assay was standardized for blood samples but, due to the possibility of sample dilution, it also enabled reliable quantification of EDAcFN in various other body fluids. Undiluted some of the samples with non-neutral pH (urine, bile) or with high viscosity (seminal plasma) interfered with the assay. In addition to blood samples, the EDAcFN concentration was determined in samples of urine, bile, amniotic fluid, cervicovaginal secretions, seminal fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, pleural fluid and saliva. Thereby, this modified method was shown to be applicable to various body fluids. PMID:7758225

  12. Newton's Investigation of the Resistance to Moving Bodies in Continuous Fluids and the Nature of "Frontier Science"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauld, Colin F.

    2010-01-01

    Newton's experiments into the resistance which fluids offer to moving bodies provide some insight into the way he related theory and experiment. His theory demonstrates a way of thought typical of 17th century physics and his experiments are simple enough to be replicated by present day students. Newton's investigations using pendulums were…

  13. Exposure to and precautions for blood and body fluids among workers in the funeral home franchises of Fort Worth, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwanyanwu, O C; Tabasuri, T H; Harris, G R

    1989-08-01

    In 1982 the Centers for Disease Control published a set of recommendations and measures to protect persons working in health care settings or performing mortician services from possible exposure to the human immunodeficiency virus. This study of a number of funeral homes in the Fort Worth area was designed to determine the level of exposure of funeral home workers to blood and other body fluids and also to assess existing protective measures and practices in the industry. Workers in 22 funeral home franchises were surveyed with a predesigned questionnaire. Eighty-five responses from 20 of the 22 establishments were received. All 85 respondents admitted exposure of varying degrees to blood and body fluids. Sixty persons (70%) admitted heavy exposure, that is, frequent splashes. Analysis of the responses showed that 81 of 85 (95.3%) persons consistently wore gloves while performing tasks that might expose them to blood or other body fluids. Of the 60 persons who were heavily exposed, 43 wore long-sleeved gowns, 27 wore waterproof aprons, 17 surgical masks, and 15 goggles. The study further revealed that 52.9% (45/85) of the respondents had sustained accidental cuts or puncture wounds on the job. In light of these findings it is important to target educational efforts to persons in this industry to help them minimize their risks of infection with blood and body fluid borne infections. PMID:2549820

  14. The porosity and roughness of electrodeposited calcium phosphate coatings in simulated body fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đošić Marija S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium phosphate coatings were electrochemically deposited on titanium from the aqueous solution of Ca(NO32 and NH4H2PO4 with the current density of 10 mA cm-2 for deposition time of 15 min. The obtained brushite coatings, (CaHPO4·2H2O, were converted to hydroxyapatite (HA by soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF for 2, 7 and 14 days. The brushite and hydroxyapatite coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM. It was shown that the increase in soaking time increases the porosity, roughness and crystallite domain size of HA coatings and decreases the unit cell parameters and unit cell volume, while does not affect the HA mean pore area. The calcium and phosphorus ions concentrations in SBF were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS and UV-Vis spectroscopy, respectively and the mechanism of HA growth based on dissolution-precipitation was proposed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 45019, br. III 45015 i br. OI 72004

  15. Fabrication of DNA/Hydroxyapatite nanocomposites by simulated body fluid for gene delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hydroxyapatite (HA) formation on the surface of DNA molecules in simulated body fluid (SBF) was examined. The osteoconductivity is estimated using SBF having ion concentrations approximately equal to those of human blood plasma. After immersion for 4 weeks in SBF at 36.5 °C, the HA crystallites possessing 1-14 micrometer in diameter grew on the surface of DNA molecules. The leaf flake-like and spherical shapes morphologies were observed through scanning electron microscopy analysis. Original peaks of both of DNA and HA were characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The Ca/P ratio (1.1-1.5) in HA was estimated by energy dispersive X-ray analysis. After biomineralization, the calculated weight ratio of DNA/HA was 18/82 by thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis. The molecular orbital computer simulation has been used to probe the interaction of DNA with two charge-balancing ions, CaOH+ and CaH2PO4+. The adsorption enthalpy of the two ions on DNA having negative value was the evidence for the interface in mineralization of HA in SBF

  16. Surface characterization of stainless steel AISI 316 L in contact with simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titanium and cobalt alloys, as well as some stainless steels, are often used in orthopedic surgery. In the more developed countries, stainless steel is used only for temporary implants since it does not hold up as well as other alloys to corrosion in a physiological medium. Nevertheless, stainless steel alloys are frequently used for permanent implants in developing countries. Therefore, more knowledge about its reaction to corrosion is needed as well as the characteristics of the surface layer generated in a physiological medium in order to control potential toxicity from the release of metallic ions into the organism. The surface films usually have a different composition and chemical state from the base material. The surface characterization of alloys used in orthopedic surgery should not be underestimated, since it heavily influences the behavior of the implant through the relationship of the surface film-tissue and the possible migration of metallic ions from the base metal to the surrounding tissue. This work presents a study of the surface composition and resistance to the corrosion of stainless steel AISI 316L in simulated body fluid (SBF) aired at pH 7.25 and 37oC. The resistance to the corrosion was studied with an electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and anodic polarization curves (CW)

  17. Study of nanobiomaterial hydroxyapatite in simulated body fluid: Formation and growth of apatite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavan, Pradnya N.; Bahir, Manjushri M.; Mene, Ravindra U.; Mahabole, Megha P. [School of Physical Sciences, SRTM University, Nanded 431606 (India); Khairnar, Rajendra S., E-mail: rk2kin@yahoo.co [School of Physical Sciences, SRTM University, Nanded 431606 (India)

    2010-04-15

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is main mineral component of hard tissues. It is widely used in biomedical applications due to its excellent bioactivity and biocompatibility. Nanosized HAp is synthesized by wet chemical process. The synthesized HAp is characterized by XRD, FTIR, AFM and SEM for structural, morphological and functional groups analysis. The Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) is prepared by using chlorides, carbonates, oxides, and sulphates of alkali metals at 37 deg. C. The ion exchange process is carried out to exchange calcium cation by sodium and potassium. The pure HAp and ion exchanged HAp pellets are used as source of nucleating agent for apatite layer formation, in SBF maintained at 37 deg. C using incubator for different periods of time to study the bioactivity. The dielectric study is carried out on incubated pure and ion exchanged HAp pellets. XRD analysis confirms the hexagonal phase of hydroxyapatite. FTIR shows the presence of functional groups. SEM observations reveal that the growth of highly porous apatite layer on HAp surface increases with time. The dielectric constant is found to be in the range 3-12. It is seen that the synthesized HAp bioceramic nano material not only supports the growth of apatite layer but also accelerates the growth onto itself.

  18. Bioactive hydroxyapatite/graphene composite coating and its corrosion stability in simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Bioactive HAP/Gr coating on Ti was successfully obtained by EPD. • Increased fracture toughness of the HAP/Gr coating compared to pure HAP coating. • HAP/Gr coating exhibited superior biomimetic mineralization vs. pure HAP coating. • Gr improved the mechanical properties and thermal stability of HAP/Gr coating. • HAP/Gr coating was classified as non-cytotoxic against the targeted PBMC. - Abstract: The hydroxyapatite/graphene (HAP/Gr) composite was electrodeposited on Ti using the electrophoretic deposition process to obtain uniform bioactive coating with improved mechanical strength and favorable corrosion stability in simulated body fluid (SBF). Incorporation of Gr was verified by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and X-ray photoelectron analysis. The HAP/Gr composite coating exhibited reduced surface cracks, nearly double the hardness, and elastic modulus increased by almost 50% compared to pure HAP coating, as estimated by a nanoindentation test. The bioactive HAP/Gr composite coating provided a newly formed apatite layer in SBF with enhanced corrosion stability, as evidenced by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The thermal stability of the HAP/Gr coating was improved in comparison to the pure HAP coating, and the Ca/P ratio was closer to the stoichiometric value. No antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli could be verified. The HAP/Gr composite coating was classified as non-cytotoxic when tested against healthy peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)

  19. Bioactive hydroxyapatite/graphene composite coating and its corrosion stability in simulated body fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janković, Ana; Eraković, Sanja [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, 11 000 Belgrade (Serbia); Mitrić, Miodrag [Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, Mike Petrovića Alasa 12-14, 11 000 Belgrade (Serbia); Matić, Ivana Z.; Juranić, Zorica D. [Institute of Oncology and Radiology of Serbia, Pasterova 14, 11 000 Belgrade (Serbia); Tsui, Gary C.P.; Tang, Chak-yin [Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Mišković-Stanković, Vesna [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, 11 000 Belgrade (Serbia); Rhee, Kyong Yop, E-mail: rheeky@khu.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 449-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Soo Jin [Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-05

    Highlights: • Bioactive HAP/Gr coating on Ti was successfully obtained by EPD. • Increased fracture toughness of the HAP/Gr coating compared to pure HAP coating. • HAP/Gr coating exhibited superior biomimetic mineralization vs. pure HAP coating. • Gr improved the mechanical properties and thermal stability of HAP/Gr coating. • HAP/Gr coating was classified as non-cytotoxic against the targeted PBMC. - Abstract: The hydroxyapatite/graphene (HAP/Gr) composite was electrodeposited on Ti using the electrophoretic deposition process to obtain uniform bioactive coating with improved mechanical strength and favorable corrosion stability in simulated body fluid (SBF). Incorporation of Gr was verified by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and X-ray photoelectron analysis. The HAP/Gr composite coating exhibited reduced surface cracks, nearly double the hardness, and elastic modulus increased by almost 50% compared to pure HAP coating, as estimated by a nanoindentation test. The bioactive HAP/Gr composite coating provided a newly formed apatite layer in SBF with enhanced corrosion stability, as evidenced by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The thermal stability of the HAP/Gr coating was improved in comparison to the pure HAP coating, and the Ca/P ratio was closer to the stoichiometric value. No antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli could be verified. The HAP/Gr composite coating was classified as non-cytotoxic when tested against healthy peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)

  20. Modeling Physiological Systems in the Human Body as Networks of Quasi-1D Fluid Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staples, Anne

    2008-11-01

    Extensive research has been done on modeling human physiology. Most of this work has been aimed at developing detailed, three-dimensional models of specific components of physiological systems, such as a cell, a vein, a molecule, or a heart valve. While efforts such as these are invaluable to our understanding of human biology, if we were to construct a global model of human physiology with this level of detail, computing even a nanosecond in this computational being's life would certainly be prohibitively expensive. With this in mind, we derive the Pulsed Flow Equations, a set of coupled one-dimensional partial differential equations, specifically designed to capture two-dimensional viscous, transport, and other effects, and aimed at providing accurate and fast-to-compute global models for physiological systems represented as networks of quasi one-dimensional fluid flows. Our goal is to be able to perform faster-than-real time simulations of global processes in the human body on desktop computers.

  1. Evaluation of commercial kits for dual extraction of DNA and RNA from human body fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweighardt, Andrew J; Tate, Courtney M; Scott, Kristina A; Harper, Kathryn A; Robertson, James M

    2015-01-01

    STR typing of DNA evidence can identify the donor with a high power of discrimination but cannot identify the tissue origin of a body-fluid stain. Using RNA to attribute a crime scene stain to a particular tissue may aid in reconstruction efforts. With blood from 10 donors, four DNA and RNA coextraction kits were evaluated by measuring yields and STR and mRNA profiles. T tests indicated some significant differences in kit performance. The Zymo Research ZR-Duet(™) kit performed best based on average DNA (41.4 ng) and mRNA (4.07 ng) yields and was the only kit to provide complete DNA/RNA profiles for all samples. The consistency of this kit was challenged by data from additional blood and saliva donors. Further testing is advised before a superior kit is unequivocally chosen. Stand-alone DNA or RNA purification generally offers higher yield, but coextraction may still allow successful STR profiling and tissue source identification. PMID:25284026

  2. Fabrication of Titanium/Fluorapatite Composites and In Vitro Behavior in Simulated Body Fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hezhou Ye; Xing Yang Liu; Hanping Hong

    2013-01-01

    Titanium/fluorapatite (Ti/FA) composites with various FA additions were fabricated by powder metallurgy.The decomposition of FA during sintering was accelerated by the presence of Ti.The main reaction products of FA and Ti were identified as CaO,Ti phosphides,and CaTiO3.The addition of FA significantly inhibited the densification of Ti.The in vitro bioactivity of the composites was evaluated in a simulated body fluid (SBF).After immersion into the SBF,all the Ti/FA composites induced nucleation and growth of bone-like carbonated apatite on the surface.Co-precipitation of CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2 was also detected on the surface of the composite with high FA addition at an early stage of immersion.Furthermore,the release of fluorine ions from the composite was confirmed,which could promote bone regeneration and retard the formation of caries in the biological environment.The in vitro behavior was attributed to multiple factors,including the surface conditions and the constituents of the composite.The results demonstrated that the Ti/FA composites were bioactive in nature even with a low FA addition and they could introduce the benefit of fluorine ions in the service.

  3. Radioenzymatic assay of femtomole concentrations of DOPA in tissues and body fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A single isotope radioenzymatic procedure for the measurement of DOPA has been developed. The assay combines 0-methylation of DOPA by purified COMT using [3H]SAM as the methyl donor and subsequent purification as the DNFB derivative of 3-0-[methyl-3H]DOPA. The present method is about 100 times more sensitive than currently available DOPA methods. This is due to decreased blank values and increased enzymatic conversion giving transmethylation values of 50% with tissue extracts and values of almost 100% with pure solutions. Although COMT methylates a wide variety of catechol compounds, specificity of the assay is achieved by selective extraction and purification of the final product by tlc. The method has good inter-assay reliability, the coefficient of variation being about 3.5%. This ultramicromethod was used to determine the steady-state concentrations of endogenous DOPA in minute samples of brain areas of the rat. In untreated rats brain DOPA levels varied with the mode of death; the highest levels were found in animals killed by microwave irradiation. Unconjugated DOPA was measured in microlite aliquots of human body fluids. (author)

  4. Biomimetic Coating of Modified Titanium Surfaces with Hydroxyapatite Using Simulated Body Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsin Nazir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the viability of coating commercially pure titanium (CPTi surfaces, modified via sandblasting and acid etching, with hydroxyapatite (HA/tricalcium phosphate coatings using a simulated body fluid (SBF solution. The samples were immersed in SBF from 3 to 7 days. The morphology and the chemistry of the HA/tricalcium phosphate coating were then analysed. Prior to immersion in SBF, the samples were sandblasted and acid etched to mimic the morphology and roughness of commercially available dental implants. The SBF aided in the formation of crystalline HA/tricalcium phosphate coatings on all the samples. The coatings were uniform and had roughness values higher than the underlying substrate. The highest roughness values for the coatings on the surfaces were obtained at 7 days of immersion in SBF with average Sa values of 2.9 ± 0.2 µm. The presence of HA/tricalcium phosphate on the surfaces was confirmed by the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM, Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS, the X-Ray Diffraction (XRD, and the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR analysis. This study shows that it is possible to obtain an adequate and uniform hydroxyapatite coating on pure titanium substrates in a shorter period of time with characteristics that favour the ultimate goal of implants therapy, that is, osseointegration.

  5. In vitro bioactivity of 3D Ti-mesh with bioceramic coatings in simulated body fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available 3D Ti-mesh has been coated with bioceramics under different coating conditions, such as material compositions and micro-porosity, using a dip casting method. Hydroxyapatite (HA, micro-HA particles (HAp, a bioglass (BG and their different mixtures together with polymer additives were used to control HA-coating microstructures. Layered composites with the following coating-to-substrate designs, such as BG/Ti, HA + BG/BG/Ti and HAp + BG/BG/Ti, were fabricated. The bioactivity of these coated composites and the uncoated Ti-mesh substrate was then investigated in a simulated body fluid (SBF. The Ti-mesh substrate and BG/Ti composite did not induce biomimetic apatite deposition when they were immersed in SBF for the selected BG, a pressable dental ceramic, used in this study. After seven days in SBF, an apatite layer was formed on both HA + BG/BG/Ti and HAp + BG/BG/Ti composites. The difference is the apatite layer on the HAp + BG/BG/Ti composite was rougher and contained more micro-pores, while the apatite layer on the HA + BG/BG/Ti composite was dense and smooth. The formation of biomimetic apatite, being more bioresorbable, is favored for bone regeneration.

  6. Fabrication of DNA/Hydroxyapatite nanocomposites by simulated body fluid for gene delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeshita, Takayuki; Okamoto, Masami [Advanced Polymeric Nanostructured Materials Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Toyota Technological Institute, 2-12-1 Hisakata, Tempaku, Nagoya 468-8511 (Japan)

    2015-05-22

    The hydroxyapatite (HA) formation on the surface of DNA molecules in simulated body fluid (SBF) was examined. The osteoconductivity is estimated using SBF having ion concentrations approximately equal to those of human blood plasma. After immersion for 4 weeks in SBF at 36.5 °C, the HA crystallites possessing 1-14 micrometer in diameter grew on the surface of DNA molecules. The leaf flake-like and spherical shapes morphologies were observed through scanning electron microscopy analysis. Original peaks of both of DNA and HA were characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The Ca/P ratio (1.1-1.5) in HA was estimated by energy dispersive X-ray analysis. After biomineralization, the calculated weight ratio of DNA/HA was 18/82 by thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis. The molecular orbital computer simulation has been used to probe the interaction of DNA with two charge-balancing ions, CaOH{sup +} and CaH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup +}. The adsorption enthalpy of the two ions on DNA having negative value was the evidence for the interface in mineralization of HA in SBF.

  7. Fabrication of DNA/Hydroxyapatite nanocomposites by simulated body fluid for gene delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Takayuki; Okamoto, Masami

    2015-05-01

    The hydroxyapatite (HA) formation on the surface of DNA molecules in simulated body fluid (SBF) was examined. The osteoconductivity is estimated using SBF having ion concentrations approximately equal to those of human blood plasma. After immersion for 4 weeks in SBF at 36.5 °C, the HA crystallites possessing 1-14 micrometer in diameter grew on the surface of DNA molecules. The leaf flake-like and spherical shapes morphologies were observed through scanning electron microscopy analysis. Original peaks of both of DNA and HA were characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The Ca/P ratio (1.1-1.5) in HA was estimated by energy dispersive X-ray analysis. After biomineralization, the calculated weight ratio of DNA/HA was 18/82 by thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis. The molecular orbital computer simulation has been used to probe the interaction of DNA with two charge-balancing ions, CaOH+ and C a H2P O4+ . The adsorption enthalpy of the two ions on DNA having negative value was the evidence for the interface in mineralization of HA in SBF.

  8. Hydroxyapatite-Coated Magnesium-Based Biodegradable Alloy: Cold Spray Deposition and Simulated Body Fluid Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorakma, Abdullah C. W.; Zuhailawati, Hussain; Aishvarya, V.; Dhindaw, B. K.

    2013-10-01

    A simple modified cold spray process in which the substrate of AZ51 alloys were preheated to 400 °C and sprayed with hydroxyapatite (HAP) using high pressure cold air nozzle spray was designed to get biocompatible coatings of the order of 20-30 μm thickness. The coatings had an average modulus of 9 GPa. The biodegradation behavior of HAP-coated samples was tested by studying with simulated body fluid (SBF). The coating was characterized by FESEM microanalysis. ICPOES analysis was carried out for the SBF solution to know the change in ion concentrations. Control samples showed no aluminum corrosion but heavy Mg corrosion. On the HAP-coated alloy samples, HAP coatings started dissolving after 1 day but showed signs of regeneration after 10 days of holding. All through the testing period while the HAP coating got eroded, the surface of the sample got deposited with different apatite-like compounds and the phase changed with course from DCPD to β-TCP and β-TCMP. The HAP-coated samples clearly improved the biodegradability of Mg alloy, attributed to the dissolution and re-precipitation of apatite showed by the coatings as compared to the control samples.

  9. Fluid Shifts: Otoacoustical Emission Changes in Response to Posture and Lower Body Negative Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgoza, R.; Kemp, D.; Ebert, D.; Danielson, R.; Stenger, M.; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The purpose of the NASA Fluid Shifts Study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight and to correlate these findings with vision changes and other elements of the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. VIIP signs and symptoms, as well as postflight lumbar puncture data, suggest that elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) may be associated with spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. Due to the invasive nature of direct measures of ICP, a noninvasive technique of monitoring ICP is desired for use during spaceflight. The phase angle and amplitude of otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) have been shown to be sensitive to posture change and ICP (1, 2), therefore use of OAEs is an attractive option. OAEs are low-level sounds produced by the sensory cells of the cochlea in response to auditory stimulation. These sounds travel peripherally from the cochlea, through the oval window, to the ear canal where they can be recorded. OAE transmission is sensitive to changes in the stiffness of the oval window, occurring as a result of changes in cochlear pressure. Increased stiffness of the oval window largely affects the transmission of sound from the cochlea at frequencies between 800 Hz and 1600 Hz. OAEs can be self-recorded in the laboratory or on the ISS using a handheld device. Our primary objectives regarding OAE measures in this experiment were to 1) validate this method during preflight testing of each crewmember (while sitting, supine and in head-down tilt position), and 2) determine if OAE measures (and presumably ICP) are responsive to lower body negative pressure and to spaceflight. METHODS: Distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) and transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) were recorded preflight using the Otoport Advance OAE system (Otodynamics Ltd., Hatfield, UK). Data were collected in four conditions (seated

  10. Pharmacokinetics of difloxacin and its concentration in body fluids and endometrial tissues of mares after repeated intragastric administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Pharmacokinetics of difloxacin and its distribution within the body fluids and endometrium of 6 mares were studied after intragastric (IG) administration of 5 individual doses. Difloxacin concentrations were serially measured in serum, urine, peritoneal fluid, synovial fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, and endometrium over 120 h. Bacterial susceptibility to difloxacin was determined for 174 equine pathogens over a 7-month period. Maximum serum concentration (Cmax) was 2.25 ± 0.70 μg/mL at 3.12 ± 2.63 h and Cmax after the 5th dose was 2.41 ± 0.86 μg/mL at 97.86 ± 1.45 h. The mean elimination half-life (t1/2) was 8.75 ± 2.77 h and area under the serum concentration versus time curve (AUC) was 25.13 ± 8.79 μg h/mL. Highest mean synovial fluid concentration was 1.26 ± 0.49 μg/mL at 100 h. Highest mean peritoneal fluid concentration was 1.50 ± 0.56 μg/mL at 98 h. Highest mean endometrial concentration was 0.78 ± 0.48 μg/g at 97.5 h. Mean cerebrospinal fluid concentration was 0.87 ± 0.52 μg/mL at 99 h. Highest mean urine concentration was 92.05 ± 30.35 μg/mL at 104 h. All isolates of Salmonella spp. and Pasteurella spp. were susceptible. In general, gram-negative organisms were more susceptible than gram-positives. Difloxacin appears to be safe, adequately absorbed, and well distributed to body fluids and endometrial tissues of mares and may be useful in the treatment of susceptible bacterial infections in adult horses. PMID:16187554

  11. The usefulness of in vitro proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy for differentiating between abdominal body fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether in vitro proton (1H) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is useful for distinguishing between abdominal types of fluids. Thirty fluid samples that were obtained from patients who were undergoing diagnostic or therapeutic percutaneous drainage of abdominal fluids were examined in this study. According to their gross appearance and smell, each sample was classified as either purulent fluid (n=12) or non-purulent fluid (n=18). The non-purulent fluids were subdivided into hemorrhagic fluid (n=2), serosanguinous fluid with debris (n=2), and serosanguinous fluid without debris (n=14). In addition, according to the cytologic analysis, each sample was classified as either benign fluid (n=23) or malignant fluid (n=7). A set of humoral pathological examinations that included biochemical analysis and culture of the fluid were performed for all the fluid samples. In vitro 1H MRS was performed by using a 1.5T MR system and a bird cage head coil. MR spectra were obtained by using point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) (TR/TE=2000/30 msec) with water suppression. The MR spectra were analyzed on the basis of agreement between a radiologist and a physicist who worked in consensus. The MR spectra obtained from 30 samples could be classified into 8 different patterns, according to the presence of lipid (0.9/1.3 ppm), lactate (1.3 ppm), acetate (1.9 ppm) and succinate (2.4 ppm) peaks. The MR spectral patterns of the purulent fluids (n=12) were classified as follows: pattern-1 (n=7, 58%), pattern-2 (n=2, 17%), pattern-3 (n=1, 8%), pattern-6 (n=1, 8%) and pattern-8 (n=1, 8%). The MR spectral patterns of the non-purulent fluids (n=18) were classified as follows: pattern-4 (n=1, 6%), pattern-5 (n=5, 28%), pattern-6 (n =1, 6%), pattern-7 (n =3, 17%) and pattern-8 (n=8, 44%). The MR spectral patterns of the purulent fluids were significantly different from those of the non-purulent fluids (ρ 1H MRS could be useful for differentiating

  12. Molecular Physiology of an Extra-renal Cl- Uptake Mechanism for Body Fluid Cl- Homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Fang; Yan, Jia-Jiun; Tseng, Yung-Che; Chen, Ruo-Dong; Hwang, Pung-Pung

    2015-01-01

    The development of an ion regulatory mechanism for body fluid homeostasis was an important trait for vertebrates during the evolution from aquatic to terrestrial life. The homeostatic mechanism of Cl- in aquatic fish appears to be similar to that of terrestrial vertebrates; however, the mechanism in non-mammalian vertebrates is poorly understood. Unlike in mammals, in which the kidney plays a central role, in most fish species, the gill is responsible for the maintenance of Cl- homeostasis via Cl- transport uptake mechanisms. Previous studies in zebrafish identified Na+-Cl- cotransporter (NCC) 2b-expressing cells in the gills and skin as the major ionocytes responsible for Cl- uptake, similar to distal convoluted tubular cells in mammalian kidney. However, the mechanism by which basolateral ions exit from NCC cells is still unclear. Of the in situ hybridization signals of twelve members of the clc Cl- channel family, only that of clc-2c exhibited an ionocyte pattern in the gill and embryonic skin. Double in situ hybridization/immunocytochemistry confirmed colocalization of apical NCC2b with basolateral CLC-2c. Acclimation to a low Cl- environment increased mRNA expression of both clc-2c and ncc2b, and also the protein expression of CLC-2c in embryos and adult gills. Loss-of-function of clc-2c resulted in a significant decrease in whole body Cl- content in zebrafish embryos, a phenotype similar to that of ncc2b mutants; this finding suggests a role for CLC-2c in Cl- uptake. Translational knockdown of clc-2c stimulated ncc2b mRNA expression and vice versa, revealing cooperation between these two transporters in the context of zebrafish Cl- homeostasis. Further comparative genomic and phylogenetic analyses revealed that zebrafish CLC-2c is a fish-specific isoform that diverged from a kidney-predominant homologue, in the same manner as NCC2b and its counterparts (NCCs). Several lines of molecular and cellular physiological evidences demonstrated the cofunctional role

  13. Molecular Physiology of an Extra-renal Cl(-) Uptake Mechanism for Body Fluid Cl(-) Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Fang; Yan, Jia-Jiun; Tseng, Yung-Che; Chen, Ruo-Dong; Hwang, Pung-Pung

    2015-01-01

    The development of an ion regulatory mechanism for body fluid homeostasis was an important trait for vertebrates during the evolution from aquatic to terrestrial life. The homeostatic mechanism of Cl(-) in aquatic fish appears to be similar to that of terrestrial vertebrates; however, the mechanism in non-mammalian vertebrates is poorly understood. Unlike in mammals, in which the kidney plays a central role, in most fish species, the gill is responsible for the maintenance of Cl(-) homeostasis via Cl(-) transport uptake mechanisms. Previous studies in zebrafish identified Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC) 2b-expressing cells in the gills and skin as the major ionocytes responsible for Cl(-) uptake, similar to distal convoluted tubular cells in mammalian kidney. However, the mechanism by which basolateral ions exit from NCC cells is still unclear. Of the in situ hybridization signals of twelve members of the clc Cl(-) channel family, only that of clc-2c exhibited an ionocyte pattern in the gill and embryonic skin. Double in situ hybridization/immunocytochemistry confirmed colocalization of apical NCC2b with basolateral CLC-2c. Acclimation to a low Cl(-) environment increased mRNA expression of both clc-2c and ncc2b, and also the protein expression of CLC-2c in embryos and adult gills. Loss-of-function of clc-2c resulted in a significant decrease in whole body Cl(-) content in zebrafish embryos, a phenotype similar to that of ncc2b mutants; this finding suggests a role for CLC-2c in Cl(-) uptake. Translational knockdown of clc-2c stimulated ncc2b mRNA expression and vice versa, revealing cooperation between these two transporters in the context of zebrafish Cl(-) homeostasis. Further comparative genomic and phylogenetic analyses revealed that zebrafish CLC-2c is a fish-specific isoform that diverged from a kidney-predominant homologue, in the same manner as NCC2b and its counterparts (NCCs). Several lines of molecular and cellular physiological evidences demonstrated

  14. Changes of body fluid and hematology in toad and their rehabilitation following intermittent exposure to simulated high altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, H. M.; Boral, M. C.

    1986-06-01

    Three groups of adult male toads were exposed intermittently in a decompression chamber for a daily period of 4 and 8 hours at a time for 6 consecutive days to an “altitude” of 12,000; 18,000 and 24,000 feet (3658; 5486; 7315 m) respectively. Most of the exposed animals were sacrificed immediately after the last exposure, but only a few animals experiencing 8 hours of exposure were sacrificed after a further 16 hours of exposure at normal atmospheric pressure. Eight hours of daily exposure for 6 days causes a decrease of body fluids and an increase of hematological parameters in all the altitude exposed animals compared with to the changes noted in the animals having 4 hours of daily exposure for 6 days at the same altitude levels. The animals that were exposed to pressures equivalent to altitudes of 12,000 and 18,000 feet daily for 8 hours were found to return nearly to their normal body fluids and hematological balance after 16 hours of exposure to normal atmospheric pressure, whereas the animals exposed for a similar period at an equivalent 24,000 feet failed to get back their normal balance of body fluids and hematology after 16 hours of exposure at normal atmospheric pressure. The present experiment shows that the body weight loss and changes of body fluid and hematological parameters in the toad after exposure to simulated high altitude are due not only to dehydration, but suggest that hypoxia may also have a role.

  15. Controlling of dielectric parameters of insulating hydroxyapatite by simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) samples were synthesized under various amounts of citric acid using the sol–gel method. Before and after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 14 and 28 days, the structural properties of HAp samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy and dielectric measurements. The crystallite size (D) was found to be in the range of 25.17–33.06 nm with the crystallinity percent (XC%) of 69.53–86.09. The lattice parameters of a and c were calculated to be in the ranges of 9.373–9.434 Å and 6.828–6.896 Å, respectively. The morphology of the as-synthesized samples was changed with the amount of citric acid and soaking period in SBF. The Ca/P molar ratios indicated a decrease with increasing immersion time, and Ca-deficiency was observed. The relative permittivity (ε′) and dielectric loss (ε″) were significantly affected by citric acid content and soaking period in SBF. It was seen that the alternating current conductivity (σac) increased with increasing frequency and the σac values changed with increasing soaking period and amount of citric acid. - Highlights: • The crystallite size is in the range of 25.17–33.06 nm. • The Ca/P molar ratio showed a decrease with increasing immersion time. • Citric acid content and soaking period in SBF affect the relative permittivity. • The alternating current conductivity increased with increasing frequency

  16. The usefulness of in vitro proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy for differentiating between abdominal body fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jeong Won; Shin, Sang Soo; Song, Sang Gook; Seon, Hyun Ju; Kim, Jae Kyu; Jeong, Gwang Woo [Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Yong Yeon; Lim, Hyo Soon; Kang, Heoung Keun [Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Hwasun (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether in vitro proton ({sup 1}H) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is useful for distinguishing between abdominal types of fluids. Thirty fluid samples that were obtained from patients who were undergoing diagnostic or therapeutic percutaneous drainage of abdominal fluids were examined in this study. According to their gross appearance and smell, each sample was classified as either purulent fluid (n=12) or non-purulent fluid (n=18). The non-purulent fluids were subdivided into hemorrhagic fluid (n=2), serosanguinous fluid with debris (n=2), and serosanguinous fluid without debris (n=14). In addition, according to the cytologic analysis, each sample was classified as either benign fluid (n=23) or malignant fluid (n=7). A set of humoral pathological examinations that included biochemical analysis and culture of the fluid were performed for all the fluid samples. In vitro {sup 1}H MRS was performed by using a 1.5T MR system and a bird cage head coil. MR spectra were obtained by using point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) (TR/TE=2000/30 msec) with water suppression. The MR spectra were analyzed on the basis of agreement between a radiologist and a physicist who worked in consensus. The MR spectra obtained from 30 samples could be classified into 8 different patterns, according to the presence of lipid (0.9/1.3 ppm), lactate (1.3 ppm), acetate (1.9 ppm) and succinate (2.4 ppm) peaks. The MR spectral patterns of the purulent fluids (n=12) were classified as follows: pattern-1 (n=7, 58%), pattern-2 (n=2, 17%), pattern-3 (n=1, 8%), pattern-6 (n=1, 8%) and pattern-8 (n=1, 8%). The MR spectral patterns of the non-purulent fluids (n=18) were classified as follows: pattern-4 (n=1, 6%), pattern-5 (n=5, 28%), pattern-6 (n =1, 6%), pattern-7 (n =3, 17%) and pattern-8 (n=8, 44%). The MR spectral patterns of the purulent fluids were significantly different from those of the non-purulent fluids ({rho} < .05). The MR spectral patterns

  17. WAVES GENERATED BY A 3D MOVING BODY IN A TWO-LAYER FLUID OF FINITE DEPTH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Wei; YOU Yun-xiang; MIAO Guo-ping; ZHAO Feng; ZHANG Jun

    2005-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the waves generated by a 3-D body advancing beneath the free surface with constant speed in a two-layer fluid of finite depth. By applying Green's theorem, a layered integral equation system based on the Rankine source for the perturbed velocity potential generated by the moving body was derived with the potential flow theory. A four-node isoparametric element method was used to treat with the solution of the layered integral equation system. The surface and interface waves generated by a moving ball were calculated numerically. The results were compared with the analytical results for a moving source with constant velocity.

  18. Generalized mapping of multi-body dissipative particle dynamics onto fluid compressibility and the Flory-Huggins theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, Safa; Boromand, Arman; Khani, Shaghayegh; Wagner, Jacob; Yamanoi, Mikio; Maia, Joao

    2015-04-01

    In this work, a generalized relation between the fluid compressibility, the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter (χ), and the simulation parameters in multi-body dissipative particle dynamics (MDPD) is established. This required revisiting the MDPD equation of state previously reported in the literature and developing general relationships between the parameters used in the MDPD model. We derive a relationship to the Flory-Huggins χ parameter for incompressible fluids similar to the work previously done in dissipative particle dynamics by Groot and Warren. The accuracy of this relationship is evaluated using phase separation in small molecules and the solubility of polymers in dilute solvent solutions via monitoring the scaling of the radius of gyration (Rg) for different solvent qualities. Finally, the dynamics of the MDPD fluid is studied with respect to the diffusion coefficient and the zero shear viscosity.

  19. Structure and stability of rapidly rotating fluid bodies in general relativity. III. Beyond the angular velocity peak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butterworth, E.M.

    1979-07-01

    A method previously described by Butterworth and Ipser for constructing models of rapidly rotating fluid bodies in general relativity is modified to enable construction of solutions whose sources are very highly flattened. In particular, solutions with increasing oblateness and decreasing angular velocity are exhibited. Also, a discussion is given of the possible association of the terminal of relativistic sequences by equatorial shedding and the first secular axisymmetric instability of the Maclaurin spheroids.

  20. Electrochemical Investigations of Polycaprolactone-Coated AZ31 Mg Alloy in Earle's Balance Salt Solution and Conventional Simulated Body Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Benjamin M.; Zhang, Lei

    2016-06-01

    Polycaprolactone (PCL) coating has been shown to increase the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys when exposed to a simulated body fluid. A PCL dip coating was applied to AZ31 Mg alloy. Samples were immersed in both Earle's Balance Salt Solution (EBSS) and conventional simulated body fluids (c-SBF) up to 14 days. Microscopic morphology, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and potentiodynamic polarization tests were performed to evaluate the corrosion behavior changes of PCL coatings against immersion times in EBSS and c-SBF as compared to the uncoated AZ31 substrate. PCL-coated samples demonstrated improved corrosion resistance compared to bare AZ31 in both EBSS and c-SBF, indicating that the PCL coating exhibited good corrosion protection of AZ31 in simulated body fluid. Samples immersed in EBSS showed significantly higher electrochemical impedance values and slower corrosion progression as compared to the samples in c-SBF, because of the decreased chloride content and CO2 buffering mechanism of the EBSS.

  1. The Application of SILAC Mouse in Human Body Fluid Proteomics Analysis Reveals Protein Patterns Associated with IgA Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilin Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Body fluid proteome is the most informative proteome from a medical viewpoint. But the lack of accurate quantitation method for complicated body fluid limited its application in disease research and biomarker discovery. To address this problem, we introduced a novel strategy, in which SILAC-labeled mouse serum was used as internal standard for human serum and urine proteome analysis. The SILAC-labeled mouse serum was mixed with human serum and urine, and multidimensional separation coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (IEF-LC-MS/MS analysis was performed. The shared peptides between two species were quantified by their SILAC pairs, and the human-only peptides were quantified by mouse peptides with coelution. The comparison for the results from two replicate experiments indicated the high repeatability of our strategy. Then the urine from Immunoglobulin A nephropathy patients treated and untreated was compared by this quantitation strategy. Fifty-three peptides were found to be significantly changed between two groups, including both known diagnostic markers for IgAN and novel candidates, such as Complement C3, Albumin, VDBP, ApoA,1 and IGFBP7. In conclusion, we have developed a practical and accurate quantitation strategy for comparison of complicated human body fluid proteome. The results from such strategy could provide potential disease-related biomarkers for evaluation of treatment.

  2. A stable fluid-structure-interaction solver for low-density rigid bodies using the immersed boundary projection method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lācis, Uǧis; Taira, Kunihiko; Bagheri, Shervin

    2016-01-01

    Dispersion of low-density rigid particles with complex geometries is ubiquitous in both natural and industrial environments. We show that while explicit methods for coupling the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and Newton's equations of motion are often sufficient to solve for the motion of cylindrical particles with low density ratios, for more complex particles - such as a body with a protrusion - they become unstable. We present an implicit formulation of the coupling between rigid body dynamics and fluid dynamics within the framework of the immersed boundary projection method. Similarly to previous work on this method, the resulting matrix equation in the present approach is solved using a block-LU decomposition. Each step of the block-LU decomposition is modified to incorporate the rigid body dynamics. We show that our method achieves second-order accuracy in space and first-order in time (third-order for practical settings), only with a small additional computational cost to the original method. Our implicit coupling yields stable solution for density ratios as low as 10-4. We also consider the influence of fictitious fluid located inside the rigid bodies on the accuracy and stability of our method.

  3. Analysis and Design Tools for Fluid-Structure Interaction with Multi-Body Flexible Structures Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall objective of this proposal (Phases I and II) is to develop a robust and accurate solver for fluid-structure interaction computations capable of...

  4. General-relativistic rotation laws in rotating fluid bodies: constant linear velocity

    CERN Document Server

    Knopik, Jerzy; Malec, Edward

    2015-01-01

    New rotation laws have been recently found for general-relativistic self-gravitating stationary fluids. It was not clear whether they apply to systems rotating with a constant linear velocity. In this paper we fill this gap. The answer is positive. That means, in particular, that these systems should exhibit the recently discovered general-relativistic weak-field effects within rotating tori: the dynamic anti-dragging and the deviation from the Keplerian motion induced by the fluid selfgravity.

  5. Tides in rotating barotropic fluid bodies: the contribution of inertial waves and the role of internal structure

    CERN Document Server

    Ogilvie, Gordon I

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the linear response to low-frequency tidal forcing of fluid bodies that are slowly and uniformly rotating, are neutrally stratified and may contain a solid or fluid core. This problem may be regarded as a simplified model of astrophysical tides in convective regions of stars and giant planets. The response can be separated into non-wavelike and wavelike parts, where the former is related instantaneously to the tidal potential and the latter may involve resonances or other singularities. The imaginary part of the potential Love number of the body, which is directly related to the rates of energy and angular momentum exchange in the tidal interaction and to the rate of dissipation of energy, may have a complicated dependence on the tidal frequency. However, a certain frequency-average of this quantity is independent of the dissipative properties of the fluid and can be determined by means of an impulse calculation. The result is a strongly increasing function of the size of the core when the tidal po...

  6. The Influence of Body Position on Cerebrospinal Fluid Pressure Gradient and Movement in Cats with Normal and Impaired Craniospinal Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radoš, Milan; Erceg, Gorislav; Petošić, Antonio; Jurjević, Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Intracranial hypertension is a severe therapeutic problem, as there is insufficient knowledge about the physiology of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure. In this paper a new CSF pressure regulation hypothesis is proposed. According to this hypothesis, the CSF pressure depends on the laws of fluid mechanics and on the anatomical characteristics inside the cranial and spinal space, and not, as is today generally believed, on CSF secretion, circulation and absorption. The volume and pressure changes in the newly developed CSF model, which by its anatomical dimensions and basic biophysical features imitates the craniospinal system in cats, are compared to those obtained on cats with and without the blockade of craniospinal communication in different body positions. During verticalization, a long-lasting occurrence of negative CSF pressure inside the cranium in animals with normal cranio-spinal communication was observed. CSF pressure gradients change depending on the body position, but those gradients do not enable unidirectional CSF circulation from the hypothetical site of secretion to the site of absorption in any of them. Thus, our results indicate the existence of new physiological/pathophysiological correlations between intracranial fluids, which opens up the possibility of new therapeutic approaches to intracranial hypertension. PMID:24748150

  7. Numerical investigation of incompressible fluid flow and heat transfer across a bluff body in a channel flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taymaz Imdat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lattice Boltzmann Method is applied to computationally investigate the laminar flow and heat transfer of an incompressible fluid with constant material properties in a two-dimensional channel with a built-in bluff body. In this study, a triangular prism is taken as the bluff body. Not only the momentum transport, but also the energy transport is modeled by the Lattice Boltzmann Method. A uniform lattice structure with a single time relaxation rule is used. For obtaining a higher flexibility on the computational grid, interpolation methods are applied, where the information is transferred from the lattice structure to the computational grid by Lagrange interpolation. The flow is investigated for different Reynolds numbers, while keeping the Prandtl number at the constant value of 0.7. The results show how the presence of a triangular prism effects the flow and heat transfer patterns for the steady-state and unsteady-periodic flow regimes. As an assessment of the accuracy of the developed Lattice Boltzmann code, the results are compared with those obtained by a commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics code. It is observed that the present Lattice Boltzmann code delivers results that are of similar accuracy to the well-established Computational Fluid Dynamics code, with much smaller computational time for the prediction of the unsteady phenomena.

  8. Free convection over a non-isothermal axisymmetric body immersed in a porous medium saturated with an electrically conducting non-Newtonian fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Bagai, Shobha; Nishad, Chandrashekhar

    2013-01-01

    The study investigates the problem of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) free convection over a non-isothermal axisymmetric body under the action of transverse magnetic field. The body is embedded in a porous medium saturated with electrically conducting non-Newtonian power law fluid. In order to obtain similarity solution, it is assumed that the viscosity of the fluid decays exponentially with temperature. The qualitative results are illustrated for a vertical flat plate, horizontal cylinder and sphere.

  9. Fluid and electrolyte control systems in the human body: A study report

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    Research in the area of modeling of the fluid and electrolyte system is briefly reviewed and a model of this system, which is adequate for a basic description of the requisite physiological processes, is presented. The use of this model as an individual subsystem model and as a component of a more complete human model is discussed.

  10. Using of electrodiffusion measurement method for hydrodymanic investigation of bodies moving in fluid under restraint conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Berman, V. P.; Fadeichev, V. V.; Vlasák, Pavel

    Kiev: Nacionalnij techničnij universitet Ukraini Kiivskij politechničnij institut, 1998, s. 236-237. [Measurement 98. Kiev (UA), 07.09.1998-10.09.1998] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK1076602 Keywords : lift off-force * electrodiffusion method * capsule flow Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  11. Silane/TiO 2 coating to control the corrosion rate of magnesium alloys in simulated body fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Córdoba, L.C.; Montemor, M.F.; ,; ,

    2016-01-01

    A silane-based coating modified with titanium IV iso-propoxide was developed to slow down the corrosion rate of AZ31 and ZE41 magnesium alloys intended as biodegradable implants materials. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to monitor the corrosion evolution over 7 weeks in simulated body fluid at 37 °C. A homogeneous crack-free 3 μm-thick coating provided corrosion protection for 2 and 3 weeks to the ZE41 and the AZ31, respectively.The corrosion mechanisms and the nature o...

  12. Asbestos bodies in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids of brake lining and asbestos cement workers.

    OpenAIRE

    Dumortier, P; De Vuyst, P; Strauss, P.; Yernault, J C

    1990-01-01

    Asbestos body (AB) concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage samples of 15 brake lining (BL) workers exposed only to chrysotile have been determined and compared with those from 44 asbestos cement (AC) workers extensively exposed to amphiboles. The mean AB concentrations (263 +/- 802 and 842 +/- 2086 AB/ml respectively) for those groups did not differ significantly but were much higher than those found in control groups. Analytical electron microscopy of asbestos body cores showed that in the ...

  13. Fluid Redistribution and Heart Rate in Humans During Whole-Body Tilting, G(z) Centrifugation, and Lower Body Negative Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watenpaugh, D. E.; Breit, G. A.; Ballard, R. E.; Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    Gravity creates blood pressure gradients which redistribute body fluids towards the feet. Positive G(z) centrifugation and lower body negative pressure (LBNP) have been proposed to simulate these and other effects of gravity during long-term existence in microgravity. We hypothesized that the magnitude of upper-to-lower body fluid redistribution would increase according to the following order: short-arm centrifugation (SAC), long-arm centrifugation (LAC), head-up tilt (HUT), and LBNP. To test this hypothesis, we employed strain gauge plethysmography of the neck, thigh and calf during HUT and supine SAC and LAC up to lG(z) at the feet, and during supine LBNP to 100 mm Hg. Supine 100 mm Hg LBNP generates footward force and produces transmural blood pressures in the foot approximately equal to 1 G(z) (90 deg) HUT. Heart rate was measured via cardiotachometry. Control measurements were made while supine. SAC and LAC elicited similar increases in thigh volume at 1 G(z) (2.3 +/- 0.4 and 2.1 +/- 0.1%, respectively; mean +/- se, n greater than or equal to 7). At 100 mm Hg LBNP, thigh volume increased (3.4 +/- 0.3%) significantly more than during l G(z) centrifugation (p less than 0.05). Surprisingly, due to a paradoxical 0.6% reduction of thigh volume between 0.8 and 1.0 G(z) HUT, thigh volume was increased only 0.6 +/- 0.3% at 1 G(z) HUT. The calf demonstrated similar, although less definitive, responses to the various gravitational stimuli. Neck volume tended to decrease less during HUT than during the other stimuli. Heart rate increased similarly during HUT (18 +/- 2 beats/min) and LAC (12 +/- 2 beats/min), and exhibited still greater elevation during LBNP (29 +/- 4 beats/min), yet did not increase during SAC. These results suggest upright posture activates mechanisms that counteract footward fluid redistribution which are not activated during supine applications of simulated gravity. LAC more closely approximated effects of normal gravity (HUT) than LBNP. Therefore

  14. Bone-like apatite formation on HA/316L stainless steel composite surface in simulated body fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Xin; CHEN Jian; ZOU Jian-peng; WAN Qian; ZHOU Zhong-cheng; RUAN Jian-ming

    2009-01-01

    HA/316L stainless steel(316L SS) biocomposites were prepared by hot-pressing technique. The formation of bone-like apatite on the biocomposite surfaces in simulated body fluid(SBF) was analyzed by digital pH meter, plasma emission spectrometer, scanning electron microscope(SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray energy spectrometer(EDX). The results indicate that the pH value in SBF varies slightly during the immersion. It is a dynamic process of dissolution-precipitation for the formation of apatite on the surface. With prolonging immersion time, Ca and P ion concentrations increase gradually, and then approach equilibrium. The bone-like apatite layer forms on the composites surface, which possesses benign bioactivity and favorable biocompatibility and achieves osseointegration, and can provide firm fixation between HA60/316L SS composite implants and human body bone.

  15. The ways of amniotic fluid sampling and its influence on lamellar body count

    OpenAIRE

    Višnjevac Jovana; Novakov-Mikić Aleksandra; Nikolić Aleksandra

    2010-01-01

    Even though artificial surfactant is now available, respiratory distress syndrome still remains a serious problem in neonatology. Prenatal analysis of the amniotic fluid can provide data giving insight into the fetal lung maturity, which enables planning of the further outcome of high-risk pregnancies. Surfactant prevents atelectasis by forming a layer rich in phospholipids between the air and liquid phase in alveoli thus leading to increased surface tension in them, which is a precondi...

  16. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy and Corrosion Behavior of Co/CeO2 Nanocomposite Coatings in Simulating Body Fluid Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benea, Lidia

    2013-02-01

    A series of Co/CeO2 (25 nm) nanocomposite coating materials by electrodeposition were successfully prepared containing different cerium oxide composition in the cobalt-plating bath. Stainless steel (304L) was used as support material for nanocomposite coatings. The nano-CeO2 is uniformly incorporated into cobalt matrix, and the effect on surface morphologies was identified by scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. Codeposition of nano-CeO2 particles with cobalt disturbs the regular surface morphology of the cobalt coatings. It should be noted that the as-prepared Co/CeO2 nanocomposite coatings were found to be much superior in corrosion resistance over those of pure cobalt coatings materials based on a series of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements in simulating body fluid solution. With increase in the nano-CeO2 particles concentration in the cobalt electrolyte, it is observed that the corrosion resistance of Co/CeO2 increases. Co/CeO2 nanocomposite coatings have higher polarization resistance as compared with pure cobalt layers in simulating body fluid solution.

  17. Modelling flow and heat transfer around a seated human body by computational fluid dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Dan Nørtoft; Voigt, Lars Peter Kølgaard

    2003-01-01

    A database (http://www.ie.dtu.dk/manikin) containing a detailed representation of the surface geometry of a seated female human body was created from a surface scan of a thermal manikin (minus clothing and hair). The radiative heat transfer coefficient and the natural convection flow around...

  18. Pleural mesothelioma and exposure to asbestos: evaluation from work histories and analysis of asbestos bodies in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or lung tissue in 131 patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Pairon, J C; Orlowski, E; Iwatsubo, Y; Billon-Galland, M A; Dufour, G.; Chamming's, S; Archambault, C; Bignon, J; Brochard, P

    1994-01-01

    Exposure to asbestos was evaluated in 131 patients with pleural malignant mesothelioma in the Paris area between 1986 and 1992 using data from a detailed specific questionnaire and light microscopy analysis of the retention of asbestos bodies in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or lung tissue. Probable or definite exposure to significant levels of asbestos dust was identified in only 48 (36.6%) subjects, and significant asbestos body counts (above 1 asbestos body/ml in bronchoalveolar lavage flui...

  19. Fluids of Pseudo-Hard Bodies: From Simulations to Equations of State

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rouha, M.; Nezbeda, Ivo

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 278, 1-2 (2009), s. 15-19. ISSN 0378-3812 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400720710; GA AV ČR IAA400720802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : pseudo-hard bodies * virial coefficients * perturbed virial expansion Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.857, year: 2009

  20. Paradoxes of body fluid volume regulation in health and disease. A unifying hypothesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Schrier, R W; Niederberger, M

    1994-01-01

    The body's normal homeostasis is maintained by the integrity of the excretory capacity of the kidneys. In advanced cardiac failure, however, the avidity of the renal sodium and water retention contributes to the occurrence of pulmonary congestion and peripheral edema. In patients with advanced cirrhosis, the kidneys again fail to excrete the amounts of sodium and water ingested, thus leading to ascites and peripheral edema. The signals for this renal retention of sodium and water in a patient...

  1. Standard-free method for body fluid samples such as saliva, sweat, snivel and tear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed standard-free methods for PIXE analysis of hair, nail, urine and serum, and they have widely been applied to studies on human exposure to some toxic elements caused by pollution in many countries. Although these samples are known to be quite suited for evaluating human exposure to toxic elements, there is a cause where it is required to quantitatively analyze other samples taken from people. We have examined sweat, saliva, snivel and tear, which are expected to be useful for estimating concentration of various elements in a human body. However, sufficient quantities of them are difficult to be taken from a human body and it is required to establish standard-free methods for these samples. In the present work, standard-free methods for sweat and saliva were established and its accuracy and reproducibility are confirmed. It becomes possible to quantitatively analyze only a drop of sweat and saliva by means of this method. For snivel and tear, potassium concentration is obtained by the internal-standard method for a small-spot sample and the conversion coefficient required for the standard-free method was evaluated. It is found that analyses of these samples give us useful information about some specific elements. As the standard-free methods are free from dryness of samples, which becomes a serious problem in the case where the internal-standard method is applied, it is expected to give more essential information about elemental concentration in a human body. (author)

  2. A stable fluid-structure-interaction solver for low-density rigid bodies using the immersed boundary projection method

    CERN Document Server

    Lācis, Uǧis; Bagheri, Shervin

    2015-01-01

    Dispersion of low-density rigid particles with complex geometries is ubiquitous in both natural and industrial environments. We show that while explicit methods for coupling the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and Newton's equations of motion are often sufficient to solve for the motion of cylindrical particles with low density ratios, for more complex particles - such as a body with a protrusion - they become unstable. We present an implicit formulation of the coupling between rigid body dynamics and fluid dynamics within the framework of the immersed boundary projection method. Similar to previous work on this method, the resulting matrix equation in the present approach is solved using a block-LU decomposition. Each step of the block-LU decomposition is modified to incorporate the rigid body dynamics. We show that our method achieves second-order accuracy in space and first-order in time (third-order for practical settings), only with a small additional computational cost to the original method. Our...

  3. Penetration of cefonicid into human breast milk and various body fluids and tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, M A; Wu, Y H; Jacob, L S; Pitkin, D H

    1984-01-01

    A new cephalosporin, cefonicid (1 g), was given intramuscularly to 49 patients 1 hr before they were to undergo surgery and to 10 healthy lactating women. The concentration of cefonicid was assayed by disk agar diffusion with the use of Bacillus subtilis as the test organism. Concentrations of cefonicid in tissue and fluid specimens were obtained. The data demonstrate that within 1 hr of intramuscular injection of cefonicid, effective concentrations of cefonicid in serum and tissue for common microbial pathogens were achieved. This finding suggests that cefonicid would be useful for perioperative prophylaxis in surgical patients. Although the concentration of cefonicid in breast milk was low at 1 hr after injection, more information is needed regarding the subsequent secretion of cefonicid before a conclusive statement can be made concerning the danger of sensitization in infants of nursing mothers. PMID:6522923

  4. Fabrication of nanotube arrays on commercially pure titanium and their apatite-forming ability in a simulated body fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Hsueh-Chuan; Wu, Shih-Ching; Hsu, Shih-Kuang [Department of Dental Technology and Materials Science, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taiwan, ROC (China); Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Materials Science, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chang, Yu-Chen [Department of Mechanical and Automation Engineering, Da-Yeh University, Taiwan, ROC (China); Ho, Wen-Fu, E-mail: fujii@nuk.edu.tw [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National University of Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2015-02-15

    In this study, we investigated self-organized TiO{sub 2} nanotubes that were grown using anodization of commercially pure titanium at 5 V or 10 V in NH{sub 4}F/NaCl electrolyte. The nanotube arrays were annealed at 450 °C for 3 h to convert the amorphous nanotubes to anatase and then they were immersed in simulated body fluid at 37 °C for 0.5, 1, and 14 days. The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the apatite-formation abilities of anodized Ti nanotubes with different tube diameters and lengths. The nanotubes that formed on the surfaces of Ti were examined using a field emission scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope. When the anodizing potential was increased from 5 V to 10 V, the pore diameter of the nanotube increased from approximately 24–30 nm to 35–53 nm, and the tube length increased from approximately 590 nm to 730 nm. In vitro testing of the heat-treated nanotube arrays indicated that Ca-P formation occurred after only 1 day of immersion in simulated body fluid. This result was particularly apparent in the samples that were anodized at 10 V. It was also found that the thickness of the Ca-P layer increases as the applied potential for anodized c.p. Ti increases. The average thickness of the Ca-P layer on Ti that was anodized at 5 V and 10 V was approximately 170 nm and 190 nm, respectively, after immersion in simulated body fluid for 14 days. - Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} nanotube on Ti surface was formed by anodic oxidation in a NaCl/NH{sub 4}F solution. • TiO{sub 2} layers show a tube length of 590 nm and 730 nm at 5 V and 10 V, respectively. • After soaking in SBF, Ca-P layer completely covered the entire nanotubular surfaces. • The Ca-P layer was thicker on the Ti surface anodized at 10 V.

  5. Paralytic shellfish poisoning: post-mortem analysis of tissue and body fluid samples from human victims in the Patagonia fjords.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Carlos; del Carmen Bravo, María; Lagos, Marcelo; Lagos, Néstor

    2004-02-01

    In July 5, 2002 fishermen working in harvesting sea urchin (Loxechinus albus) in the Patagonia Chilean fjords were intoxicated by consumption of filter-feeder bivalve Aulacomya ater. After the ingestion of 7-9 ribbed mussel, two fishermen died 3-4 h after shellfish consumption. The forensic examination in both victims did not show pathological abnormalities with the exception of the lungs conditions, crackling to the touch, pulmonary congestion and edema. The toxic mussel sample showed a toxicity measured by mouse bioassay of 8575 microg of STX (saxitoxin) equivalent by 100 g of shellfish meat. Using post-column derivatization HPLC method with fluorescent on line detection was possible to measure mass amount of each paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxin yielding individual toxin concentrations. These PSP toxins were identified in the gastric content, body fluids (urine, bile and cerebrospinal fluid) and tissue samples (liver, kidney, lung, stomach, spleen, heart, brain, adrenal glands, pancreas and thyroids glands). The toxin profiles of each body fluid and tissue samples and the amount of each PSP toxin detected are reported. The PSP toxins found in the gastric content, were STX and the gonyautoxins (GTX4, GTX1, GTX5, GTX3 and GTX2) which showed to be the major amount of PSP toxins found in the victims biological samples. The PSP toxin composition in urine and bile showed as major PSP toxins neoSaxitoxin (neoSTX) and GTX4/GTX1 epimers, both STX analogues with an hydroxyl group (-OH) in the N(1) of the tetrahydropurine nucleus. The neoSTX was not present in the gastric content sample, indicating that the oxidation of N(1) in the STX tetrahydropurine nucleus resulted neoSTX, in a similar way that GTX3/GTX2 epimers were transformed in GTX4/GTX1 epimers. Beside this metabolic transformation, also the hydrolysis of carbamoyl group from STX to form its decarbomoyl analogue decarbamoylsaxitoxin was detected in liver, kidney and lung. These two findings show that PSP

  6. Stability of carbon nanotube yarn biofuel cell in human body fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Cheong Hoon; Lee, Jae Ah; Choi, Young-Bong; Kim, Hyug-Han; Spinks, Geoffrey M.; Lima, Márcio D.; Baughman, Ray H.; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2015-07-01

    High performance with stability, easy-handling electrodes, and biofluid-flow controllable system with mechanical strength of the biofuel cell can be considered as the critical issues for future human body implant. These three challenges are sufficiently considered by using the effective platform regarding the high surface area from multi-walled carbon nanotube-conducting polymer with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), and size/shape dependent flexible yarn electrodes for the implantation of biofuel cell. High power biofuel cell of mW cm-2 range in physiological condition (low glucose-containing phosphate buffered saline solution and human blood serum) controlling the stirring degree is also first demonstrated for future implantation in this study. Biofuel cells for future implantation in human body vitally require long-term stability and high power outputs. We have demonstrated that a high-surface area yarn-based biofuel cell retained over 70% of its initial power output after an extended 20 days period of continuous operation in human blood serum, while delivering a power density of ∼1.0 mW cm-2. Subsequently, our enhanced enzymatic biofuel cell system would be potentially used as an innovative power source for the next generation implantable electronics.

  7. Investigations with a simplified method for radiometric determination of vitamin B12 in body fluids and feeding stuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A modified method for radiometrical determination of vitamin B12 is described, which in difference to the known methods is based on measurement of free B12 after absorption to albumin-coated charcoal instead of measurement of intrinsic factor B12-complex. The conditions for extraction from serum, milk, rumen-liquor and urine have been investigated and the effect of pH on IF-B12-binding in presence of these body fluids examined. Parallel microbiological determinations (O.m.- and L.1.-test) were in good correlation (r = 0,93-0,97) to radiometrically determined B12-contents in milk and rumen-liquor, but not to that in serum of dairy cows (r = 0,54-0,82). The analytical procedures are given in detail. (orig.)

  8. Corrosion mechanism and model of pulsed DC microarc oxidation treated AZ31 alloy in simulated body fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu Yanhong, E-mail: ygu2@alaska.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States); Chen Chengfu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States); Bandopadhyay, Sukumar [Department of Mining Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States); Ning Chengyun [College of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhang Yongjun [Department of Mining Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States); Guo Yuanjun [College of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2012-06-01

    This paper addresses the effect of pulse frequency on the corrosion behavior of microarc oxidation (MAO) coatings on AZ31 Mg alloys in simulated body fluid (SBF). The MAO coatings were deposited by a pulsed DC mode at four different pulse frequencies of 300 Hz, 500 Hz, 1000 Hz and 3000 Hz with a constant pulse ratio. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests were used for corrosion rate and electrochemical impedance evaluation. The corroded surfaces were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and optical microscopy. All the results exhibited that the corrosion resistance of MAO coating produced at 3000 Hz is superior among the four frequencies used. The XRD spectra showed that the corrosion products contain hydroxyapatite, brucite and quintinite. A model for corrosion mechanism and corrosion process of the MAO coating on AZ31 Mg alloy in the SBF is proposed.

  9. Dissolution and precipitation behaviors of silicon-containing ceramic coating on Mg-Zn-Ca alloy in simulated body fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yaokun; Chen, Chuanzhong; Wang, Diangang; Huang, Danlan

    2014-10-01

    We prepared Si-containing and Si-free coatings on Mg-1.74Zn-0.55Ca alloy by micro-arc oxidation. The dissolution and precipitation behaviors of Si-containing coating in simulated body fluid (SBF) were discussed. Corrosion products were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS). Electrochemical workstation, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES), flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) and pH meter were employed to detect variations of electrochemical parameter and ions concentration respectively. Results indicate that the fast formation of calcium phosphates is closely related to the SiOx(n-) groups, which induce the heterogeneous nucleation of amorphous hydroxyapatite (HA) by sorption of calcium and phosphate ions. PMID:25174544

  10. Preparation and studies on surface modifications of calcium-silico-phosphate ferrimagnetic glass-ceramics in simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure and magnetic behaviour of 34SiO2-(45 - x) CaO-16P2O5-4.5 MgO-0.5 CaF2 - x Fe2O3 (where x = 5, 10, 15, 20 wt.%) glasses have been investigated. Ferrimagnetic glass-ceramics are prepared by melt quench followed by controlled crystallization. The surface modification and dissolution behaviour of these glass-ceramics in simulated body fluid (SBF) have also been studied. Phase formation and magnetic behaviour have been studied using XRD and SQUID magnetometer. The room temperature Moessbauer study has been done to monitor the local environment around Fe cations and valence state of Fe ions. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to study the surface modification in glass-ceramics when immersed in simulated body fluid. Formation of bioactive layer in SBF has been ascertained using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The SBF solutions were analyzed using an absorption spectrophotometer. The magnetic measurements indicated that all these glasses possess paramagnetic character and the [Fe2+/Fe3+] ions ratio depends on the composition of glass and varied with Fe2O3 concentration in glass matrix. In glass-ceramics saturation magnetization increases with increase in amount of Fe2O3. The nanostructure of hematite and magnetite is formed in the glass-ceramics with 15 and 20 wt.% Fe2O3, which is responsible for the magnetic property of these glass-ceramics. Introduction of Fe2O3 induces several modifications at the glass-ceramics surface when immersed in SBF solution and thereby affecting the surface dissolution and the formation of the bioactive layer.

  11. Influence of hot rolling parameters on microstructure and biodegradability of Mg-1Ca alloy in simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Three different reduction levels and temperatures were taken into account. → Corrosion properties were investigated by electrochemical and immersion tests. → The biodegradability of Mg-1Ca alloy in SBF was improved by rolling process. → Higher reduction combined with lower temperature in rolling was more satisfying. -- Abstract: Binary Mg-1Ca alloy has been considered as a potential material for implant applications due to its non-toxic and biodegradable properties. However, the high corrosion tendency of the alloy, as a serious drawback, limited its practical efficiency. In this study, the effect of hot rolling on biodegradability of Mg-1Ca was investigated as a process to improve the microstructure and corrosion resistance of the alloy in simulated body fluid. The as-cast alloy was rolled to various reduction levels at different temperatures. Optical and scanning electron microscopy together with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis were used characterize the microstructure of the as-cast and rolled samples. Immersion and potentiodynamic polarization tests were performed to examine the electrochemical and corrosion behavior of the samples in simulated body fluid. The results showed that the high corrosion tendency of as-cast Mg-1Ca was remarkably reduced by the hot rolling process due to the microstructure refinement. It was found that the corrosion rate of the samples which experienced higher reduction percentages decreased to some extent. However, the weight loss results indicated that the rolling process at higher temperatures caused more corrosion products to emerge on the surface of the samples. It can be associated with the accumulation and growth of Mg2Ca phase at the grain boundaries.

  12. Adverse incidents resulting in exposure to body fluids at a UK dental teaching hospital over a 6-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hughes A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A Hughes,1 L Davies,1 R Hale,1 JE Gallagher21Kings College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, 2King's College London Dental Institute, London, United KingdomBackground: The safety and protection of patients and health care workers is of paramount importance in dentistry, and this includes students in training who provide clinical care. Given the nature of dental care, adverse incidents can and do occur, exposing health care workers to body fluids and putting them at risk of infection, including contracting a blood-borne virus. The aim of this research was to analyze trends in the volume, rate, nature, management, and outcome of adverse incidents reported at one dental teaching hospital from 2005 to 2010.Methods: Descriptive analysis of trends in the volume, rate, nature, management, and outcome of adverse incidents reported at one dental teaching hospital over a six-year period was undertaken in relation to the level of outpatient and day surgery activity.Results: In total, 287 incidents were reported over a six-year period, which amounted to 0.039% of outpatient or day surgery appointments. Nearly three quarters of all the incidents (n = 208, 72% took place during treatment or whilst clearing away after the appointment. The most frequent incidents were associated with administration of local anesthetic (n = 63, 22%, followed by burs used in dental hand pieces (n = 51, 18%.Conclusion: This research confirms that adverse incidents are a feature of dental hospitals and reports the common sources. The importance of accurate and consistent reporting of data to ensure that these issues are monitored to inform action and reduce risks to staff, students, and patients are highlighted.Keywords: risk management, blood-borne virus, dental hospital, body fluids exposure, adverse event reporting

  13. A fluid Foucault pendulum: the impossibility of achieving solid-body rotation on Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Robert; Zimmerman, Daniel; Triana, Santiago; Lathrop, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    Rotating fluid dynamics is key to our understanding of the Earth's atmosphere, oceans, and core, along with a plethora of astrophysical objects. Laboratory study of these natural systems often involves spinning experimental devices, which are assumed to tend to rigid rotation when unstirred. We present results showing that even at the tabletop scale, there is a measurable oscillatory flow driven by the precession of the experiment's axis as the earth rotates. We measure this flow in a rotating cylinder with an adjustable aspect ratio. The horizontal flow in the rotating frame is measured using particle tracking. The steady state is well-described by an inertial mode whose amplitude is maximum when the height to diameter ratio is 0.995, which matches theoretical predictions. We also quantify the resonant amplitude of the inertial mode in the cylinder and estimate the amplitude in other devices. We compare our results to similar studies done in spherical devices. [Triana et al., JGR, 117 (2012), B04103][Boisson et al., EPL, 98 (2012), 59002].

  14. A Numerical Study on Water Waves Generated by A Submerged Moving Body in A Two-Layer Fluid System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jia-Zhen; NG Chiu-On; ZHANG Dao-Hua

    2009-01-01

    This is a numerical study on the time development of surface waves generated by a submerged body moving steadily in a two-layer fluid system, in which a layer of water is underlain by a layer of viscous mud. The fully nonlinear Navier-Stokes equations are solved on FLUENT with the Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) multiphase scheme in order to simulate the free surface waves as well as the water-mud interface waves as functions of time. The numerical model is validated by mimick-ing a reported experiment in a one-layer system before it is applied to a two-layer system, it is found that the presence of bottom mud in a water layer can lead to large viscous damping of the surface waves. For the investigation of the problem systematically, the effects of the Froude number and the mud layer thickness, density and viscosity relative to those of water are evaluated and discussed in detail.

  15. Removal of zearalenone toxin from synthetics gastric and body fluids using talc and diatomite: a batch kinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprynskyy, Myroslav; Gadzała-Kopciuch, Renata; Nowak, Karolina; Buszewski, Bogusław

    2012-06-01

    Adsorption kinetics of zearalenone (ZEA) toxin from synthetic gastric fluid (SGF) and synthetic body fluid (SBF) by talc and diatomite was studied in the batch experiments. Chemical composition, morphology and structure of the used adsorbents were examined by scanning electron microscopy, FTIR spectroscopy and low-temperature nitrogen adsorption/desorption method. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was used for ZEA determining. The study results showed that ZEA is more effectively adsorbed on the talc (73% and 54% from SGF and SBF respectively). The efficiency on the diatomite was lower (53% and 42% from SGF and SBF respectively). The first order kinetics model was applied to describe the adsorption process. Rate of the ZEA adsorption from SGF is very rapid initially with about 95% of amount of the toxin adsorbed during first 5 min, while ZEA is adsorbed from SBF in two steps. The values of determined Gibbs free energy of adsorption (from -13 to -17 kJ/mol) indicated that adsorption of ZEA toxin by the both adsorbents are spontaneous and exothermic. PMID:22326340

  16. Steady incompressible potential flow around lifting bodies immersed in a fluid. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiuchiolo, E. A.

    1974-01-01

    The refinement was investigated of a method for evaluating the pressure distribution on a body surface of arbitrary shape in incompressible flow. The solution was obtained in terms of the velocity potential, through numerical approximations which require the use of a high speed digital computer. The box method and the modal method are described in detail, and were applied to a very thin, rectangular wing in incompressible, steady flow. The box method is found to be more practical as it is applicable to more general geometries (the modal method requires a new set of functions for each geometry), and requires less computer time (fifty percent of that required by the modal method for the same problem).

  17. Comparative study of acetazolamide and spironolactone on body fluid compartments on induction to high altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M. V.; Jain, S. C.; Rawal, S. B.; Divekar, H. M.; Parshad, Rajinder; Tyagi, A. K.; Sinha, K. C.

    1986-03-01

    Studies were conducted on 29 male healthy subjects having no previous experience of living at high altitude. These subjects were divided into three groups, i.e., subjects treated with placebo, acetazolamide and spironolactone. These subjects were first studied in Delhi. The drug schedule was started 24 hour prior to the airlift of these subjects to an altitude of 3,500 m and was continued for 48 hour after arrival at high altitude. Total body water, extra cellular water, plasma volume, blood electrolytes, pH, pO2, pCO2 and blood viscosity were determined on 3rd and 12th day of their stay at high altitude. Total body water, extra cellular water intracellular water and plasma volume decreased on high altitude exposure. There was a further slight decrease in these compartments with acetazolamide and spironolactone. It was also observed that spironolactone drives out more water from the extracellular compartment. Loss of plasma water was also confirmed by increased plasma osmolality. Increase in arterial blood pH was noticed on hypoxic exposure but the increase was found less in acetazolamide and spironolactone cases. This decrease in pH is expected to result in better oxygen delivery to the tissues at the low oxygen tension. It was also confirmed because blood pO2 increased in both the groups. No significant change in plasma electrolytes was observed in subjects of various groups. Blood viscosity slightly increased on exposure to high altitude. The degree of rise was found less in the group treated with spironolactone. This study suggests that both the drugs are likely to be beneficial in ameliorating/prevention of AMS syndrome.

  18. Non-Darcy Free Convection of Power-Law Fluids Over a Two-Dimensional Body Embedded in a Porous Medium

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed

    2010-11-27

    A boundary layer analysis was presented to study the non-Darcy-free convection of a power-law fluid over a non-isothermal two-dimensional body embedded in a porous medium. The Ostwald-de Waele power-law model was used to characterize the non-Newtonian fluid behavior. Similarity solutions were obtained with variations in surface temperature or surface heat flux. In view of the fact that most of the non-Newtonian fluids have large Prandtl numbers, this study was directed toward such fluids. The effects of the porous medium parameters, k1 and k2, body shape parameter, m, and surface thermal variations parameter, p, as well as the power-law index, n, were examined. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  19. LABILE IRON IN CELLS AND BODY FLUIDS . Physiology, Pathology and Pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvi Ioav Cabantchik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In living systems iron appears predominantly associated with proteins, but can also be detected in forms referred as labile iron, which denotes the combined redox properties of iron and its amenability to exchange between ligands, including chelators. The labile cell iron (LCI composition varies with metal concentration and substances with chelating groups but also with pH and the redox potential. Although physiologically in the lower µM range, LCI plays a key role in cell iron economy as cross-roads of metabolic pathways. LCI levels are continually regulated by an iron-responsive machinery that balances iron uptake versus deposition into ferritin. However, LCI rises aberrantly in some cell types due to faulty cell utilization pathways or infiltration by pathological iron forms that are found in hemosiderotic plasma. As LCI attains pathological levels, it can catalyze reactive O species (ROS formation that, at particular threshold, can surpass cellular anti-oxidant capacities and seriously damage its constituents. While in normal plasma and interstitial fluids, virtually all iron is securely carried by circulating transferrin (that renders iron essentially non-labile, in systemic iron overload (IO, the total plasma iron binding capacity is often surpassed by a massive iron influx from hyperabsorptive gut or from erythrocyte overburdened spleen and/or liver. As plasma transferrin approaches iron saturation, labile plasma iron (LPI emerges in forms that can infiltrate cells by unregulated routes and raise LCI to toxic levels. Despite the limited knowledge available on LPI speciation in different types and degrees of iron overload, LPI measurements can be and are in fact used for identifying systemic IO and for initiating/adjusting chelation regimens to attain full-day LPI protection. A recent application of labile iron assay is the detection of labile components in iv iron formulations per se as well as in plasma (LPI following parenteral iron

  20. Hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope fractionation in body fluid compartments of dairy cattle according to season, farm, breed, and reproductive stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeni, Fabio; Petrera, Francesca; Capelletti, Maurizio; Dal Prà, Aldo; Bontempo, Luana; Tonon, Agostino; Camin, Federica

    2015-01-01

    Environmental temperature affects water turnover and isotope fractionation by causing water evaporation from the body in mammals. This may lead to rearrangement of the water stable isotope equilibrium in body fluids. We propose an approach to detect possible variations in the isotope ratio in different body fluids on the basis of different homoeothermic adaptations in varying reproductive stages. Three different reproductive stages (pregnant heifer, primiparous lactating cow, and pluriparous lactating cow) of two dairy cattle breeds (Italian Friesian and Modenese) were studied in winter and summer. Blood plasma, urine, faecal water, and milk were sampled and the isotope ratios of H (2H/1H) and O (18O/16O) were determined. Deuterium excess and isotope-fractionation factors were calculated for each passage from plasma to faeces, urine and milk. The effects of the season, reproductive stages and breed on δ2H and δ18O were significant in all the fluids, with few exceptions. Deuterium excess was affected by season in all the analysed fluids. The correlations between water isotope measurements in bovine body fluids ranged between 0.6936 (urine-milk) and 0.7848 (urine-plasma) for δ2H, and between 0.8705 (urine-milk) and 0.9602 (plasma-milk) for δ18O. The increase in both isotopic δ values in all body fluids during summer is representative of a condition in which fractionation took place as a consequence of a different ratio between ingested and excreted water, which leads to an increased presence of the heavy isotopes. The different body water turnover between adult lactating cattle and non-lactating heifers was confirmed by the higher isotopic δ for the latter, with a shift in the isotopic equilibrium towards values more distant from those of drinking water. PMID:25996911

  1. Transient fluid-structure interaction of elongated bodies by finite-element method using elliptical and spheroidal absorbing boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, S. K.; Premkumar, R.

    2003-12-01

    In a domain method of solution of exterior scalar wave equation, the radiation condition needs to be imposed on a truncation boundary of the modeling domain. The Bayliss, Gunzberger, and Turkel (BGT) boundary dampers, which require a circular cylindrical and spherical truncation boundaries in two-(2D) and three-(3D)-dimensional problems, respectively, have been particularly successful in the analysis of scattering and radiation problems. However, for an elongated body, elliptical (2D) or spheroidal (3D) truncation boundaries have potential to reduce the size of modeling domain and hence computational effort. For harmonic problems, such extensions of the first- and second-order BGT dampers are available in the literature. In this paper, BGT dampers in both elliptical and spheroidal coordinate systems have been developed for transient problems involving acoustic radiation as well as fluid-structure interaction and implemented in the context of finite-element method based upon unsymmetric pressure-displacement formulation. Applications to elongated radiators and shells are reported using several numerical examples with excellent comparisons. It is demonstrated that significant computational economy can be achieved for elongated bodies with the use of these dampers.

  2. Nanostructured hydroxyapatite/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) composite coating for controlling magnesium degradation in simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biodegradable magnesium (Mg) and its alloys have many attractive properties (e.g. comparable mechanical properties to cortical bone) for orthopedic implant applications, but they degrade too rapidly in the human body to meet clinical requirements. Nanostructured hydroxyapatite (nHA)/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) composite coatings provide synergistic properties for controlling degradation of Mg-based substrates and improving bone–implant integration. In this study, nHA/PLGA composites were spin coated onto Mg-based substrates and the results showed that the nHA/PLGA coatings retained nano-scale features with nHA dispersed in PLGA matrix. In comparison with non-coated Mg, the nHA/PLGA composite coated Mg increased the corrosion potential and decreased the corrosion current in revised simulated body fluid (rSBF). After 24 h of immersion in rSBF, increased calcium phosphate (CaP) deposition and formation of Mg-substituted CaP rosettes were observed on the surface of the nHA/PLGA coated Mg, indicating greater bioactivity. In contrast, no significant CaP was deposited on the PLGA coated Mg. Since both PLGA coating and nHA/PLGA coating showed some degree of delamination from Mg-based substrates during extended immersion in rSBF, the coating processing and properties should be further optimized in order to take full advantage of biodegradable Mg and nHA/PLGA nanocomposites for orthopedic applications. (paper)

  3. Nanostructured hydroxyapatite/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) composite coating for controlling magnesium degradation in simulated body fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ian; Akari, Khalid; Liu, Huinan

    2013-09-01

    Biodegradable magnesium (Mg) and its alloys have many attractive properties (e.g. comparable mechanical properties to cortical bone) for orthopedic implant applications, but they degrade too rapidly in the human body to meet clinical requirements. Nanostructured hydroxyapatite (nHA)/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) composite coatings provide synergistic properties for controlling degradation of Mg-based substrates and improving bone-implant integration. In this study, nHA/PLGA composites were spin coated onto Mg-based substrates and the results showed that the nHA/PLGA coatings retained nano-scale features with nHA dispersed in PLGA matrix. In comparison with non-coated Mg, the nHA/PLGA composite coated Mg increased the corrosion potential and decreased the corrosion current in revised simulated body fluid (rSBF). After 24 h of immersion in rSBF, increased calcium phosphate (CaP) deposition and formation of Mg-substituted CaP rosettes were observed on the surface of the nHA/PLGA coated Mg, indicating greater bioactivity. In contrast, no significant CaP was deposited on the PLGA coated Mg. Since both PLGA coating and nHA/PLGA coating showed some degree of delamination from Mg-based substrates during extended immersion in rSBF, the coating processing and properties should be further optimized in order to take full advantage of biodegradable Mg and nHA/PLGA nanocomposites for orthopedic applications.

  4. A sensitive and practical RP-HPLC-FLD for determination of the low neuroactive amino acid levels in body fluids and its application in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Juan-Li; Yu, Si-Yang; Wu, Shi-Hua; Bao, Ai-Min

    2016-03-11

    Ion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) generally fails as a method to determine low levels of free amino acids (AAs) in body fluids. Here we present a modified reversed-phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) protocol for the determination of AAs in body fluids and its application in mood disorder patients. We improved a previous research protocol by modifying i) sample preparation, including deproteination, ii) derivitization, including derivating agent and condition, and iii) sample separation, which is mainly determined by the pH value, the components and the additives of the mobile phases. The combination of these modifications, together with fluorescence detection (FLD), allows sensitive and practical determination of free AA levels in body fluids of depressive patients. This protocol was validated by determining the postmortem cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) glutamic acid (Glu) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels of 8 major depressive disorder (MDD) patients, 9 bipolar disorder (BD) patients, and 19 well-matched controls, while also testing the plasma and CSF AA levels of living MDD patients. CSF Glu and GABA levels were both significantly decreased in MDD but not in BD patients. The data indicate that this RP-HPLC-FLD protocol is applicable for detection of low levels of neuroactive AAs in body fluids, as well as for routine clinical applications. PMID:26808642

  5. Smart fast blood counting of trace volumes of body fluids from various mammalian species using a compact custom-built microscope cytometer (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Zachary J.; Gao, Tingjuan; Lin, Tzu-Yin; Carrade-Holt, Danielle; Lane, Stephen M.; Matthews, Dennis L.; Dwyre, Denis M.; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian

    2016-03-01

    Cell counting in human body fluids such as blood, urine, and CSF is a critical step in the diagnostic process for many diseases. Current automated methods for cell counting are based on flow cytometry systems. However, these automated methods are bulky, costly, require significant user expertise, and are not well suited to counting cells in fluids other than blood. Therefore, their use is limited to large central laboratories that process enough volume of blood to recoup the significant capital investment these instruments require. We present in this talk a combination of a (1) low-cost microscope system, (2) simple sample preparation method, and (3) fully automated analysis designed for providing cell counts in blood and body fluids. We show results on both humans and companion and farm animals, showing that accurate red cell, white cell, and platelet counts, as well as hemoglobin concentration, can be accurately obtained in blood, as well as a 3-part white cell differential in human samples. We can also accurately count red and white cells in body fluids with a limit of detection ~3 orders of magnitude smaller than current automated instruments. This method uses less than 1 microliter of blood, and less than 5 microliters of body fluids to make its measurements, making it highly compatible with finger-stick style collections, as well as appropriate for small animals such as laboratory mice where larger volume blood collections are dangerous to the animal's health.

  6. MicroRNAs transported by exosomes in body fluids as mediators of intercellular communication in cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salido-Guadarrama I

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Iván Salido-Guadarrama,1 Sandra Romero-Cordoba,1 Oscar Peralta-Zaragoza,2 Alfredo Hidalgo-Miranda,1 Mauricio Rodríguez-Dorantes1 1Oncogenomics Laboratory, National Institute of Genomics Medicine, Mexico City, Mexico; 2Direction of Chronic Infections and Cancer, Research Center in Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico Abstract: Cancer-cell communication is an important and complex process, achieved through a diversity of mechanisms that allows tumor cells to mold and influence their environment. In recent years, evidence has accumulated indicating that cells communicate via the release and delivery of microRNAs (miRNAs packed into tumor-released (TR exosomes. Understanding the role and mode of action of miRNAs from TR exosomes is of paramount importance in the field of cancer biomarker discovery and for the development of new biomedical applications for cancer therapeutics. In this review, we focus on miRNAs secreted via TR exosomes, which by acting in a paracrine or endocrine manner, facilitate a diversity of signaling mechanisms between cancer cells. We address their contribution as signaling molecules, to the establishment, maintenance, and enhancement of the tumor microenvironment and the metastatic niche in cancer. Finally, we address the potential role of these molecules as biomarkers in cancer diagnosis and prognosis and their impact as a biomedical tool in cancer therapeutics. Keywords: tumor cells, multivesicular bodies, interference RNA, biomarkers and therapeutics

  7. In vitro degradation of ZM21 magnesium alloy in simulated body fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witecka, Agnieszka; Bogucka, Aleksandra; Yamamoto, Akiko; Máthis, Kristián; Krajňák, Tomáš; Jaroszewicz, Jakub; Święszkowski, Wojciech

    2016-08-01

    In vitro degradation behavior of squeeze cast (CAST) and equal channel angular pressed (ECAP) ZM21 magnesium alloy (2.0wt% Zn-0.98wt% Mn) was studied using immersion tests up to 4w in three different biological environments. Hanks' Balanced Salt Solution (Hanks), Earle's Balanced Salt Solution (Earle) and Eagle minimum essential medium supplemented with 10% (v/v) fetal bovine serum (E-MEM+10% FBS) were used to investigate the effect of carbonate buffer system, organic compounds and material processing on the degradation behavior of the ZM21 alloy samples. Corrosion rate of the samples was evaluated by their Mg(2+) ion release, weight loss and volume loss. In the first 24h, the corrosion rate sequence of the CAST samples was as following: Hanks>E-MEM+10% FBS>Earle. However, in longer immersion periods, the corrosion rate sequence was Earle>E-MEM+10% FBS≥Hanks. Strong buffering effect provided by carbonate buffer system helped to maintain the pH avoiding drastic increase of the corrosion rate of ZM21 in the initial stage of immersion. Organic compounds also contributed to maintain the pH of the fluid. Moreover, they adsorbed on the sample surface and formed an additional barrier on the insoluble salt layer, which was effective to retard the corrosion of CAST samples. In case of ECAP, however, this effect was overcome by the occurrence of strong localized corrosion due to the lower pH of the medium. Corrosion of ECAP samples was much greater than that of CAST, especially in Hanks, due to higher sensitivity of ECAP to localized corrosion and the presence of Cl(-). The present work demonstrates the importance of using an appropriate solution for a reliable estimation of the degradation rate of Mg-base degradable implants in biological environments, and concludes that the most appropriate solution for this purpose is E-MEM+10% FBS, which has the closest chemical composition to human blood plasma. PMID:27157728

  8. Effects of Implant Design Parameters on Fluid Convection, Potentiating 3rd Body Debris Ingress into the Bearing Surface during THA Impingement/Subluxation

    OpenAIRE

    Lundberg, Hannah J.; Pedersen, Douglas R.; Baer, Thomas E.; Muste, Marian; Callaghan, John J.; Brown, Thomas D.

    2007-01-01

    Aseptic loosening from polyethylene wear debris is the leading cause of failure for metal-on-polyethylene total hip implants. Third body debris ingress to the bearing space results in femoral head roughening and acceleration of polyethylene wear. How third body particles manage to enter the bearing space between the closely conforming articulating surfaces of the joint is not well understood. We hypothesize that one such mechanism is from convective fluid transport during subluxation of the t...

  9. Facile semi-automated forensic body fluid identification by multiplex solution hybridization of NanoString® barcode probes to specific mRNA targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danaher, Patrick; White, Robin Lynn; Hanson, Erin K; Ballantyne, Jack

    2015-01-01

    A DNA profile from the perpetrator does not reveal, per se, the circumstances by which it was transferred. Body fluid identification by mRNA profiling may allow extraction of contextual 'activity level' information from forensic samples. Here we describe the development of a prototype multiplex digital gene expression (DGE) method for forensic body fluid/tissue identification based upon solution hybridization of color-coded NanoString(®) probes to 23 mRNA targets. The method identifies peripheral blood, semen, saliva, vaginal secretions, menstrual blood and skin. We showed that a simple 5 min room temperature cellular lysis protocol gave equivalent results to standard RNA isolation from the same source material, greatly enhancing the ease-of-use of this method in forensic sample processing. We first describe a model for gene expression in a sample from a single body fluid and then extend that model to mixtures of body fluids. We then describe calculation of maximum likelihood estimates (MLEs) of body fluid quantities in a sample, and we describe the use of likelihood ratios to test for the presence of each body fluid in a sample. Known single source samples of blood, semen, vaginal secretions, menstrual blood and skin all demonstrated the expected tissue-specific gene expression for at least two of the chosen biomarkers. Saliva samples were more problematic, with their previously identified characteristic genes exhibiting poor specificity. Nonetheless the most specific saliva biomarker, HTN3, was expressed at a higher level in saliva than in any of the other tissues. Crucially, our algorithm produced zero false positives across this study's 89 unique samples. As a preliminary indication of the ability of the method to discern admixtures of body fluids, five mixtures were prepared. The identities of the component fluids were evident from the gene expression profiles of four of the five mixtures. Further optimization of the biomarker 'CodeSet' will be required

  10. Role of α2-adrenoceptors in the lateral parabrachial nucleus in the control of body fluid homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A.F. Andrade

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Central α2-adrenoceptors and the pontine lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN are involved in the control of sodium and water intake. Bilateral injections of moxonidine (α2-adrenergic/imidazoline receptor agonist or noradrenaline into the LPBN strongly increases 0.3 M NaCl intake induced by a combined treatment of furosemide plus captopril. Injection of moxonidine into the LPBN also increases hypertonic NaCl and water intake and reduces oxytocin secretion, urinary sodium, and water excreted by cell-dehydrated rats, causing a positive sodium and water balance, which suggests that moxonidine injected into the LPBN deactivates mechanisms that restrain body fluid volume expansion. Pretreatment with specific α2-adrenoceptor antagonists injected into the LPBN abolishes the behavioral and renal effects of moxonidine or noradrenaline injected into the same area, suggesting that these effects depend on activation of LPBN α2-adrenoceptors. In fluid-depleted rats, the palatability of sodium is reduced by ingestion of hypertonic NaCl, limiting intake. However, in rats treated with moxonidine injected into the LPBN, the NaCl palatability remains high, even after ingestion of significant amounts of 0.3 M NaCl. The changes in behavioral and renal responses produced by activation of α2-adrenoceptors in the LPBN are probably a consequence of reduction of oxytocin secretion and blockade of inhibitory signals that affect sodium palatability. In this review, a model is proposed to show how activation of α2-adrenoceptors in the LPBN may affect palatability and, consequently, ingestion of sodium as well as renal sodium excretion.

  11. Anti-Taenia solium monoclonal antibodies for the detection of parasite antigens in body fluids from patients with neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Adriana; Sáenz, Patricia; Marzal, Miguel W; Orrego, Miguel A; Castillo, Yesenia; Rivera, Andrea; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; García, Hector H; Nash, Theodore E

    2016-07-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC), an infection of the brain by Taenia solium (Ts) cysts, is the most common cause of adult-onset epilepsy in developing countries. Serological testing consists primarily of varying methods to detect antibodies in body fluids and more recently antigen (Ag) detection assays to identify individuals or animals with viable parasites. Antigen assays currently in use employ monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) raised against T. saginata, which have known cross reactivity to animal cestodes but are highly specific in human samples. We produced, characterized and tested 21 mAbs raised against T. solium whole cyst antigens, vesicular fluid or excretory secretory products. Reactivity of the TsmAbs against specific cyst structures was determined using immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry on histological sections of Ts muscle cysts. Four TsmAbs reacted to vesicular space alone, 9 to the neck and cyst wall, one to the neck and vesicular space and 7 to the neck, cyst wall and vesicular space. An in-house ELISA assay to detect circulating Ts antigen, using the TsmAbs as capture antibodies and a rabbit polyclonal anti-Ts whole cyst antibody as a detector antibody demonstrated that eight of the 21 TsmAbs detected antigens in known NCC-positive human sera and three of these also in urine samples. Reactivity was expressed as normalized ratios of optical densities (OD positive control/OD negative control). Three TsmAbs had ratios >10 and five between 2 and 10. The TsmAbs have potential utility for the diagnosis and post-treatment monitoring of patients with viable NCC infections. PMID:27018063

  12. Role of α{sub 2}-adrenoceptors in the lateral parabrachial nucleus in the control of body fluid homeostasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, C.A.F.; Andrade-Franzé, G.M.F.; De Paula, P.M.; De Luca, L.A. Jr.; Menani, J.V. [Departamento de Fisiologia e Patologia, Faculdade de Odontologia, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2014-01-10

    Central α{sub 2}-adrenoceptors and the pontine lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN) are involved in the control of sodium and water intake. Bilateral injections of moxonidine (α{sub 2}-adrenergic/imidazoline receptor agonist) or noradrenaline into the LPBN strongly increases 0.3 M NaCl intake induced by a combined treatment of furosemide plus captopril. Injection of moxonidine into the LPBN also increases hypertonic NaCl and water intake and reduces oxytocin secretion, urinary sodium, and water excreted by cell-dehydrated rats, causing a positive sodium and water balance, which suggests that moxonidine injected into the LPBN deactivates mechanisms that restrain body fluid volume expansion. Pretreatment with specific α{sub 2}-adrenoceptor antagonists injected into the LPBN abolishes the behavioral and renal effects of moxonidine or noradrenaline injected into the same area, suggesting that these effects depend on activation of LPBN α{sub 2}-adrenoceptors. In fluid-depleted rats, the palatability of sodium is reduced by ingestion of hypertonic NaCl, limiting intake. However, in rats treated with moxonidine injected into the LPBN, the NaCl palatability remains high, even after ingestion of significant amounts of 0.3 M NaCl. The changes in behavioral and renal responses produced by activation of α{sub 2}-adrenoceptors in the LPBN are probably a consequence of reduction of oxytocin secretion and blockade of inhibitory signals that affect sodium palatability. In this review, a model is proposed to show how activation of α{sub 2}-adrenoceptors in the LPBN may affect palatability and, consequently, ingestion of sodium as well as renal sodium excretion.

  13. Multicomponent analysis of radiolytic products in human body fluids using high field proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grootveld, M.C.; Herz, H.; Naughton, D.; Perera, A.; Knappitt, J.; Blake, D.R.; Claxson, A.W.D. [London Hospital Medical College (United Kingdom). The Inflammation Research Group; Haywood, R.; Hawkes, G.E. [Queen Mary and Westfield College, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry

    1994-05-01

    High field proton Hahn spin-echo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been employed to investigate radiolytic damage to biomolecules present in intact human body fluids. {gamma}-Radiolysis of healthy or rheumatoid human serum (5.00 kGy) in the presence of atmospheric O{sub 2} gave rise to reproducible elevations in the concentration of NMR-detectable acetate which are predominantly ascribable to the prior oxidation of lactate to pyruvate by hydroxyl radical ({sup .}OH) followed by oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate by radiolytically-generated hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and/or further {sup .}OH radical. Increases in the serum levels of non-protein-bound, low-molecular-mass components such as citrate and glutamine were also observed subsequent to {gamma}-radiolysis, an observation which may reflect their mobilisation from protein binding-sites by {sup .}OH radical, superoxide anion and/or HO{sub 2}. Moreover, substantial radiolytically-mediated elevations in the concentration of serum formate were also detectable. In addition to the above modifications, {gamma}-radiolysis of inflammatory knee-joint synovial fluid (SF) generated a low-molecular-mass oligosaccharide species derived from the radiolytic fragmentation of hyaluronate. The radiolytically-mediated production of acetate in SF samples was markedly greater than that observed in serum samples, a consequence of the much higher levels of {sup .}OH radical-scavenging lactate present. Indeed, increases in SF acetate concentration were detectable at doses as low as 48 Gy. We conclude that high field proton NMR analysis provides much useful information regarding the relative radioprotectant abilities of endogenous components and the nature, status and levels of radiolytic products generated in intact biofluids. (author).

  14. Role of α2-adrenoceptors in the lateral parabrachial nucleus in the control of body fluid homeostasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Central α2-adrenoceptors and the pontine lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN) are involved in the control of sodium and water intake. Bilateral injections of moxonidine (α2-adrenergic/imidazoline receptor agonist) or noradrenaline into the LPBN strongly increases 0.3 M NaCl intake induced by a combined treatment of furosemide plus captopril. Injection of moxonidine into the LPBN also increases hypertonic NaCl and water intake and reduces oxytocin secretion, urinary sodium, and water excreted by cell-dehydrated rats, causing a positive sodium and water balance, which suggests that moxonidine injected into the LPBN deactivates mechanisms that restrain body fluid volume expansion. Pretreatment with specific α2-adrenoceptor antagonists injected into the LPBN abolishes the behavioral and renal effects of moxonidine or noradrenaline injected into the same area, suggesting that these effects depend on activation of LPBN α2-adrenoceptors. In fluid-depleted rats, the palatability of sodium is reduced by ingestion of hypertonic NaCl, limiting intake. However, in rats treated with moxonidine injected into the LPBN, the NaCl palatability remains high, even after ingestion of significant amounts of 0.3 M NaCl. The changes in behavioral and renal responses produced by activation of α2-adrenoceptors in the LPBN are probably a consequence of reduction of oxytocin secretion and blockade of inhibitory signals that affect sodium palatability. In this review, a model is proposed to show how activation of α2-adrenoceptors in the LPBN may affect palatability and, consequently, ingestion of sodium as well as renal sodium excretion

  15. Biochemical Technology Program progress report for the period January 1--June 30, 1976. [Centrifugal analyzers and advanced analytical systems for blood and body fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mrochek, J.E.; Burtis, C.A.; Scott, C.D. (comps.)

    1976-09-01

    This document, which covers the period January 1-June 30, 1976, describes progress in the following areas: (1) advanced analytical techniques for the clinical laboratory, (2) fast clinical analyzers, (3) development of a miniaturized analytical clinical laboratory system, (4) centrifugal fast analyzers for animal toxicological studies, and (5) chemical profile of body fluids.

  16. Tissue weights and adaptation response of the toad after 96 hours of exposure to simulated high altitude — A body fluid and hematological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, H. M.; Boral, M. C.

    1985-12-01

    Adult male toads were exposed to simulated high altitude of 24,000 feet for 96 hrs of continuous exposure in a decompression chamber. The animals were sacrificed immediately after the exposure period. Significant increase of the weight of the ventricle and spleen is observed in altitude exposed animals. Red blood cell, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit ratio and red cell mass are significantly increased in high altitude exposed animals in comparison to control. MCV (mean corpuscular volume) and MCH (mean corpuscular hemoglobin) are decreased in altitude exposed group. Plasma volume, blood volume, extracellular fluid volume, intracellular fluid volume and total body water are decreased significantly after altitude exposure for 96 hrs. These physiological changes are thought to be due to dehydration of this animal at simulated high altitude and it is highly affected after 96 hrs of exposure as evidenced by the significant reduction of total body water and intracellular fluid volume.

  17. Carbonated hydroxyapatite starting from calcite and different orthophosphates under moderate hydrothermal conditions: Synthesis and surface reactivity in simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Carbonated apatite (CAP) could be easily obtained from CaCO3 and orthophosphates. • Highest CaCO3 dissolution and apatitic carbonate content were obtained with H3PO4. • A-B-type CAP was formed. • The synthesized CAP was thermally stable up to 1000 °C. • This CAP showed high biomineralization activity before and after thermal treatment. - Abstract: The one-step synthesis of carbonated hydroxyapatite (CAP) using calcite and different orthophosphates was investigated in a closed batch reactor. Only orthophosphoric acid could lead to the complete decomposition of calcite particles, when the reaction temperature was set at 80 °C. On the other hand, the reaction time and the dilution of the initial calcite suspension had no significant influence on the formation of the solid products. CAP was formed as the main crystalline calcium phosphate with the carbonate content in the range of 4.2–4.6 wt.%. The thermal decarbonation of the synthesized CAP started at 750 °C but it was only significant at 1000 °C under air atmosphere. This thermal decarbonation was total at 1200 °C or above. All CAP samples and products following thermal treatments were found bioactive in the test using simulated body fluid (SBF) solution

  18. Carbonated hydroxyapatite starting from calcite and different orthophosphates under moderate hydrothermal conditions: Synthesis and surface reactivity in simulated body fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham Minh, Doan, E-mail: doan.phamminh@mines-albi.fr; Nzihou, Ange; Sharrock, Patrick

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Carbonated apatite (CAP) could be easily obtained from CaCO{sub 3} and orthophosphates. • Highest CaCO{sub 3} dissolution and apatitic carbonate content were obtained with H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. • A-B-type CAP was formed. • The synthesized CAP was thermally stable up to 1000 °C. • This CAP showed high biomineralization activity before and after thermal treatment. - Abstract: The one-step synthesis of carbonated hydroxyapatite (CAP) using calcite and different orthophosphates was investigated in a closed batch reactor. Only orthophosphoric acid could lead to the complete decomposition of calcite particles, when the reaction temperature was set at 80 °C. On the other hand, the reaction time and the dilution of the initial calcite suspension had no significant influence on the formation of the solid products. CAP was formed as the main crystalline calcium phosphate with the carbonate content in the range of 4.2–4.6 wt.%. The thermal decarbonation of the synthesized CAP started at 750 °C but it was only significant at 1000 °C under air atmosphere. This thermal decarbonation was total at 1200 °C or above. All CAP samples and products following thermal treatments were found bioactive in the test using simulated body fluid (SBF) solution.

  19. Cyclic delamination behavior of plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coating on Ti-6Al-4V substrates in simulated body fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Yuichi; Kawaguchi, Hayato; Mutoh, Yoshiharu

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to clarify the effect of a simulated body fluid (SBF) on the cyclic delamination behavior of a plasma-sprayed hydroxapatite (HAp) coating. A HAp coating is deposited on the surfaces of surgical metallic materials in order to enhance the bond between human bone and such surfaces. However, the HAp coating is susceptible to delamination by cyclic loading from the patient's gait. Although hip joints are subjected to both positive and negative moments, only the effects of tensile bending stresses on vertical crack propagation behavior have been investigated. Thus, the cyclic delamination behavior of a HAp coating was observed at the stress ratio R=-1 in order to determine the effects of tensile/compressive loading on the delamination behavior. The delamination growth rate increased with SBF immersion, which decreased the delamination life. Raman spectroscopy analysis revealed that the selective phase dissolution in the HAp coating was promoted at interfaces. Finite element analysis revealed that the energy release rate Gmax showed a positive value even in cases with compressive loading, which is a driving force for the delamination of a HAp coating. A prediction model for the delamination growth life was developed that combines a fracture mechanics parameter with the assumed stress-dependent dissolution rate. The predicted delamination life matched the experimental data well in cases of lower stress amplitudes with SBF. PMID:27287152

  20. In vitro biomineralization of a novel hydroxyapatite/superhydrophilic multiwalled carbon nanotube nanocomposite using simulated body fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neves, Marcele Florencio; Brazil, Tayra Rodrigues; Marciano, Fernanda Roberta; Lobo, Anderson Oliveira, E-mail: aolobo@univap.br [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba(IP and D,/NANOBIO/UniVap), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento. Lab. de Nanotecnologia Biomedica; Soares, Luis Eduardo Silva [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba(IP and D/LEVB/UniVap), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento. Lab. de Espectroscopia Vibracional Biomdica; Corat, Evaldo Jose [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisa Espacial (LAS/INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Lab. Associado de Sensores e Materiais

    2013-11-01

    Nano biomaterials based on superhydrophilic vertically-aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (VAMWCNT-O{sub 2} ) are promising for their properties and bone tissue biocompatibility. VAMWCNT-O{sub 2} films with nanohydroxyapatite (nHAp) aim to improve mechanical properties and biocompatibility of this new nanocomposite due to its resemblance to bone matrix structure. This study aimed to produce in vitro biomineralized nHAp/VAMWCNT-O2 nanocomposites using simulated body fluid (SBF) with two different pHs (6.10 and 7.40) during 7 days to obtain a new surface design with higher crystallinity and better morphology of nHAp/VAMWCANT-O{sub 2} nanocomposites. The objective is to obtain biomineralized nano biomaterials to enable its applicability as 'scaffold' to cellular support and consequent bone tissue formation, accelerating the osseointegration. Layer densification has been achieved due to polycrystalline nano apatites deposition on surface and between the biomineralized nHAp/VAMWCNT-O{sub 2} nanocomposites, without any heat treatment. Therefore, through its characteristics and properties these nanocomposite applications can be considered extremely viable for acceleration of in vivo regenerative processes. (author)

  1. Electrodeposition of HAp coatings on Ti6Al4V alloy and its electrochemical behavior in simulated body fluid solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh Dinh, Thi Mai; Thom Nguyen, Thi; Pham, Thi Nam; Phuong Nguyen, Thu; Thu Trang Nguyen, Thi; Hoang, Thai; Grossin, David; Bertrand, Ghislaine; Drouet, Christophe

    2016-06-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) coatings were prepared on Ti6Al4V substrate by electrodeposition method from electrolyte solution containing Ca(NO3)2, NH4H2PO4 and NaNO3. The results show that the HAp coatings were single phase crystals of HAp. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images present that HAp/Ti6Al4V have flake shapes which arrange to form like-coral agglomerates. In vitro test of the Ti6Al4V and HAp/Ti6Al4V in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution was investigated with different immersion times. pH of SBF solution decreased and the mass of materials increased. SEM images prove the formation of apatite on the surface of Ti6Al4V and HAp/Ti6Al4V. The corrosion current density during immersion time of substrate is always higher than the one of HAp/Ti6Al4V because the deposited HAp can protect well for the substrate.

  2. Corrosion mechanism of micro-arc oxidation treated biocompatible AZ31 magnesium alloy in simulated body fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Lia; Fang Lu; Honglong Li; Wenjun Zhu; Haobo Pan; Guoxin Tand; Yonghua Lao; Chengyun Ning; Guoxin Ni

    2014-01-01

    The rapid degradation of magnesium (Mg) based alloys has prevented their further use in orthopedic trauma fixation and vascular intervention, and therefore it is essential to investigate the corrosion mechanism for improving the corrosion resistance of these alloys. In this work, the effect of applied voltage on the surface morphology and the corrosion behavior of micro-arc oxidation (MAO) with different voltages were carried out to obtain biocompatible ceramic coatings on AZ31 Mg alloy. The effects of applied voltage on the surface morphology and the corrosion behavior of MAO samples in the simulated body fluid (SBF) were studied systematically. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) were employed to characterize the morphologies and phase compositions of coating before and after corrosion. The results showed that corrosion resistance of the MAO coating obtained at 250 V was better than the others in SBF. The dense layer of MAO coating and the corrosion precipitation were the key factors for corrosion behavior. The corrosion of precipitation Mg(OH)2 and the calcium phosphate (Ca–P) minerals on the surface of MAO coatings could enhance their corrosion resistance effectively. In addition, the mechanism of MAO coated Mg alloys was proposed.

  3. Biomineralization behavior of a vinylphosphonic acid-based copolymer added with polymerization accelerator in simulated body fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Hamai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Apatite-polymer composites have been evaluated in terms of its potential application as bone substitutes. Biomimetic processes using simulated body fluid (SBF are well-known methods for preparation of such composites. They are reliant on specific functional groups to induce the heterogeneous apatite nucleation and phosphate groups possess good apatite-forming ability in SBF. Improving the degree of polymerization is important for obtaining phosphate-containing polymers, because the release of significant quantities of monomer or low molecular weight polymers can lead to suppression of the apatite formation. To date, there have been very few studies pertaining to the effect of adding a polymerization accelerator to the polymerization reaction involved in the formation of these composite materials under physiological conditions. In this study, we have prepared a copolymer from triethylene glycol dimethacrylate and vinylphosphonic acid (VPA in the presence of different amounts of sodium p-toluenesulfinate (p-TSS as a polymerization accelerator. The effects of p-TSS on the chemical durability and apatite formation of the copolymers were investigated in SBF. The addition of 0.1–1.0 wt% of p-TSS was effective for suppressing the dissolution of the copolymers in SBF, whereas larger amount had a detrimental effect. A calcium polyvinylphosphate instead of the apatite was precipitated in SBF.

  4. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of silver doped hydroxyapatite coating in simulated body fluid used as corrosive agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mišković-Stanković Vesna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium is a key biomedical material due its good biocompatibility, mechanical properties and corrosion stability, but infections of the implantation site still pose serious threat. One approach to prevent infection is to improve antimicrobial ability of the coating material. Silver doped hydroxyapatite (Ag/HAP nanoparticles were synthesized by new modified precipitation method. The synthesized powder was used for preparation of Ag/HAP coating on titanium by electrophoretic deposition. The coating was characterized in terms of phase composition and structure by Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR and X-ray diffraction (XRD; surface morphology and chemical composition was assessed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS. Research focused on evaluation of the corrosion behaviour of Ag/HAP coating in simulated body fluid (SBF at 37 ºC during prolonged immersion time by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. Silver doped HAP coating provided good corrosion protection in SBF solution. [Acknowledgements. This research was financed by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia, contracts No. III 45019 and by National Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC. Dr Ana Jankovic was financed by the FP7 Nanotech FTM Grant Agreement 245916

  5. In vitro biomineralization of a novel hydroxyapatite/superhydrophilic multiwalled carbon nanotube nanocomposite using simulated body fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nano biomaterials based on superhydrophilic vertically-aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (VAMWCNT-O2 ) are promising for their properties and bone tissue biocompatibility. VAMWCNT-O2 films with nanohydroxyapatite (nHAp) aim to improve mechanical properties and biocompatibility of this new nanocomposite due to its resemblance to bone matrix structure. This study aimed to produce in vitro biomineralized nHAp/VAMWCNT-O2 nanocomposites using simulated body fluid (SBF) with two different pHs (6.10 and 7.40) during 7 days to obtain a new surface design with higher crystallinity and better morphology of nHAp/VAMWCANT-O2 nanocomposites. The objective is to obtain biomineralized nano biomaterials to enable its applicability as 'scaffold' to cellular support and consequent bone tissue formation, accelerating the osseointegration. Layer densification has been achieved due to polycrystalline nano apatites deposition on surface and between the biomineralized nHAp/VAMWCNT-O2 nanocomposites, without any heat treatment. Therefore, through its characteristics and properties these nanocomposite applications can be considered extremely viable for acceleration of in vivo regenerative processes. (author)

  6. Granulocytes of sea anemone Actinia equina (Linnaeus, 1758 body fluid contain and release cytolysins forming plaques of lysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MG Parisi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cnidaria phylum includes organisms that are among the most poisonous animals. The exact composition of cnidarian bioactive molecules is not known in detail, but little is known on the cells that produce the toxins. Here we have shown that the presence of cytolysins is not exclusive of nematocysts. A plaque-forming assay was carried out with cell populations extracted from the percoled body fluid showed for the first time that anthozoan granulocytes are able to form plaque of lysis. We have partitioned the total population of free cells into three distinct discrete bands by discontinuous Percoll gradient, and we have identified six small different types cells: morular granulocytes; cells with large or small peripherical granules, granulocytes with irregular shape containing blue and red granules, cells showing one fine red granule of uniform size and, finally, cells with elongated shape and small dispersed granules. Cell lysate of each cellular band resulted cytolytic toward different erythrocytes types. SDS page analysis of the lysate cell fraction showed a predominant of 20 kDa that corresponds to the weight of the cytolytic equinatoxin. The nature of equinatoxins-related activity was demonstrated by inhibition experiments using bovine sphingomyelin.

  7. A 3D, fully Eulerian, VOF-based solver to study the interaction between two fluids and moving rigid bodies using the fictitious domain method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Ashish; Raessi, Mehdi

    2016-04-01

    We present a three-dimensional (3D) and fully Eulerian approach to capturing the interaction between two fluids and moving rigid structures by using the fictitious domain and volume-of-fluid (VOF) methods. The solid bodies can have arbitrarily complex geometry and can pierce the fluid-fluid interface, forming contact lines. The three-phase interfaces are resolved and reconstructed by using a VOF-based methodology. Then, a consistent scheme is employed for transporting mass and momentum, allowing for simulations of three-phase flows of large density ratios. The Eulerian approach significantly simplifies numerical resolution of the kinematics of rigid bodies of complex geometry and with six degrees of freedom. The fluid-structure interaction (FSI) is computed using the fictitious domain method. The methodology was developed in a message passing interface (MPI) parallel framework accelerated with graphics processing units (GPUs). The computationally intensive solution of the pressure Poisson equation is ported to GPUs, while the remaining calculations are performed on CPUs. The performance and accuracy of the methodology are assessed using an array of test cases, focusing individually on the flow solver and the FSI in surface-piercing configurations. Finally, an application of the proposed methodology in simulations of the ocean wave energy converters is presented.

  8. A 3D GPU-accelerated MPI-parallel computational tool for simulating interaction of moving rigid bodies with two-fluid flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Ashish; Raessi, Mehdi

    2014-11-01

    We present a 3D MPI-parallel, GPU-accelerated computational tool that captures the interaction between a moving rigid body and two-fluid flows. Although the immediate application is the study of ocean wave energy converters (WECs), the model was developed at a general level and can be used in other applications. Solving the full Navier-Stokes equations, the model is able to capture non-linear effects, including wave-breaking and fluid-structure interaction, that have significant impact on WEC performance. To transport mass and momentum, we use a consistent scheme that can handle large density ratios (e.g. air/water). We present a novel reconstruction scheme for resolving three-phase (solid-liquid-gas) cells in the volume-of-fluid context, where the fluid interface orientation is estimated via a minimization procedure, while imposing a contact angle. The reconstruction allows for accurate mass and momentum transport in the vicinity of three-phase cells. The fast-fictitious-domain method is used for capturing the interaction between a moving rigid body and two-fluid flow. The pressure Poisson solver is accelerated using GPUs in the MPI framework. We present results of an array of test cases devised to assess the performance and accuracy of the computational tool.

  9. Three-scale model of single bone osteon modelled as double-porous fluid saturated body: Study of influence of micro/meso-structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turjanicová J.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the multiscale description of a single osteon of cortical bones. The cortical bone tissue is modeled as a double-porous medium decomposed into the solid matrix and the fluid saturated canals. The resulting homogenized model describes deformation of such medium in response to a static loading by external forces and to an injection of slightly compressible fluid. Three numerical examples are presented, showing the influence of selected lower-scales geometrical features on the macroscopic body behavior.

  10. Corrosion and bioactivity performance of graphene oxide coating on TiNb shape memory alloys in simulated body fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saud, Safaa N; Hosseinian S, Raheleh; Bakhsheshi-Rad, H R; Yaghoubidoust, F; Iqbal, N; Hamzah, E; Ooi, C H Raymond

    2016-11-01

    In the present work, the microstructure, corrosion, and bioactivity of graphene oxide (GO) coating on the laser-modified and -unmodified surfaces of TiNb shape memory alloys (SMAs) were investigated. The surface morphology and chemical composition was examined using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The surface modification was carried out via a femtosecond laser with the aim to increase the surface roughness, and thus increase the adhesion property. FE-SEM analysis of the laser-treated Ti-30at.% Nb revealed the increase in surface roughness and oxygen/nitrogen containing groups on the Ti-30at.% Nb surface after being surface modified via a femtosecond laser. Furthermore, the thickness of GO was increased from 35μm to 45μm after the surface was modified. Potentiodynamic polarisation and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies revealed that both the GO and laser/GO-coated samples exhibited higher corrosion resistance than that of the uncoated TiNb SMA sample. However, the laser/GO-coated sample presented the highest corrosion resistance in SBF at 37°C. In addition, during soaking in the simulated body fluid (SBF), both the GO and laser/GO coating improved the formation of apatite layer. Based on the bioactivity results, the GO coating exhibited a remarkable antibacterial activity against gram-negative bacteria compared with the uncoated. In conclusion, the present results indicate that Ti-30at.% Nb SMAs may be promising alternatives to NiTi for certain biomedical applications. PMID:27524069

  11. Degradation behavior of n-MAO/EPD bio-ceramic composite coatings on magnesium alloy in simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A bio-ceramic n-MAO/EPD coating was prepared by combined MAO and EPD technique. • The precipitates of Ca/P compound are formed on the surface samples during immersion. • The n-MAO/EPD coating with HA dense structure has a favorable anti-corrosion effect. • Two degradation mechanism models for the n-MAO and n-MAO/EPD coating were proposed. - Abstract: The bio-ceramic composite coatings have been fabricated on ZK60 magnesium (Mg) alloy to improve its bio-corrosion resistance in a simulated body fluid (SBF). Firstly, micro-arc oxidation coatings (n-MAO coating) with the addition of zirconium oxide (ZrO2) and cerium oxide (CeO2) nano-particles were prepared by MAO technique on ZK60Mg alloy in alkaline electrolyte. Secondly, nano-hydroxyapatite (HA) was deposited on the surface of n-MAO coatings by using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) technique. The degradation behavior of the coated samples was investigated by means of immersion tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in the SBF at 36.5 ± 0.5 °C. The variation of phase composition, surface and cross-section morphology of coatings at different immersion stages were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The results showed that the precipitation layer with biological activity formed on the surface of coated samples during the SBF immersion, which can inhibit Mg alloys from degrading effectively. The n-MAO/EPD composite coating with HA dense structure has a favorable anti-corrosion effect compared to the n-MAO coating. Degradation mechanism model of the corrosion process at different corrosion stages for two kinds of coatings were proposed. The long-term corrosion protection of the n-MAO/EPD composite coating was governed significantly by the synergistic effect of phase composition stability and micro structural integrity

  12. Simulated body fluid and water absorption effects on poly(methyl methacrylate/hydroxyapatite denture base composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA/hydroxyapatite (HA composite has potential application in denture base materials. The denture base materials should exhibit good mechanical properties and dimensional stability in moist environment. Silane coupling agent [3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxy silane (γ-MPS] was used to treat the HA fillers in order to enhance the interfacial interaction between the PMMA and HA. In this research, the kinetics and effects of Simulated Body Fluid (SBF and water absorption on the flexural properties of PMMA/HA composites were studied for an immersion duration of 2 months. The mathematical treatment used in analyzing the data was the single free phase model of diffusion, which assumed Fickian diffusion and utilized Fick’s second law of diffusion. The kinetics of water absorption of the PMMA/HA composites conformed to Fickian law behavior, whereby the initial moisture absorption follows a linear relationship between the percentage gain at any time t and t1/2, followed by saturation. It was found that the equilibrium moisture content and the diffusion coefficient are depending on the concentration of γ-MPS in PMMA/5HA composites. The reduction of equilibrium moisture content of PMMA/5HA is due to the hydrophobic behavior of γ-MPS and compatibility of PMMA with HA. The retention ability in flexural modulus and strength of PMMA/HA composites upon subjected towater absorption are considerably good. The reduction of flexural strength of the PMMA/HA composites after water absorption and SBF absorption could be attributed to the plasticizing effect of water molecules.

  13. Degradation behavior of n-MAO/EPD bio-ceramic composite coatings on magnesium alloy in simulated body fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Ying, E-mail: yxiong@zjut.edu.cn [College of Mechanical Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Lu, Chao [College of Mechanical Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Wang, Chao; Song, Renguo [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Materials Surface Science and Technology, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • A bio-ceramic n-MAO/EPD coating was prepared by combined MAO and EPD technique. • The precipitates of Ca/P compound are formed on the surface samples during immersion. • The n-MAO/EPD coating with HA dense structure has a favorable anti-corrosion effect. • Two degradation mechanism models for the n-MAO and n-MAO/EPD coating were proposed. - Abstract: The bio-ceramic composite coatings have been fabricated on ZK60 magnesium (Mg) alloy to improve its bio-corrosion resistance in a simulated body fluid (SBF). Firstly, micro-arc oxidation coatings (n-MAO coating) with the addition of zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) and cerium oxide (CeO{sub 2}) nano-particles were prepared by MAO technique on ZK60Mg alloy in alkaline electrolyte. Secondly, nano-hydroxyapatite (HA) was deposited on the surface of n-MAO coatings by using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) technique. The degradation behavior of the coated samples was investigated by means of immersion tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in the SBF at 36.5 ± 0.5 °C. The variation of phase composition, surface and cross-section morphology of coatings at different immersion stages were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The results showed that the precipitation layer with biological activity formed on the surface of coated samples during the SBF immersion, which can inhibit Mg alloys from degrading effectively. The n-MAO/EPD composite coating with HA dense structure has a favorable anti-corrosion effect compared to the n-MAO coating. Degradation mechanism model of the corrosion process at different corrosion stages for two kinds of coatings were proposed. The long-term corrosion protection of the n-MAO/EPD composite coating was governed significantly by the synergistic effect of phase composition stability and micro structural integrity.

  14. Driven-dissipative Euler close-quote s equations for a rigid body: A chaotic system relevant to fluid dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhering to the lore that vorticity is a critical ingredient of fluid turbulence, a triad of coupled helicity (vorticity) states of the incompressible Navier-Stokes fluid are followed. Effects of the remaining states of the fluid on the triad are then modeled as a simple driving term. Numerical solution of the equations yield attractors that seem strange and chaotic. This suggests that the unpredictability of nonlinear fluid dynamics (i.e., turbulence) may be traced back to the most primordial structure of the Navier-Stokes equation; namely, the driven triadic interaction. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  15. Two-Dimensional Self-Propelled Fish Motion in Medium: An Integrated Method for Deforming Body Dynamics and Unsteady Fluid Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present (1) the dynamical equations of deforming body and (2) an integrated method for deforming body dynamics and unsteady fluid dynamics, to investigate a modelled freely self-propelled fish. The theoretical model and practical method is applicable for studies on the general mechanics of animal locomotion such as flying in air and swimming in water, particularly of free self-propulsion. The present results behave more credibly than the previous numerical studies and are close to the experimental results, and the aligned vortices pattern is discovered in cruising swimming

  16. Two-Dimensional Self-Propelled Fish Motion in Medium:An Integrated Method for Deforming Body Dynamics and Unsteady Fluid Dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yan; Wu Guan-Hao; YU Yong-Liang; TONG Bing-Gang

    2008-01-01

    We present(1)the dynamical equations of deforming body and(2)an integrated method for deforming body dynamics and unsteady fluid dynamics,to investigate a modelled freely serf-propelled fish.The theoretical model and practical method is applicable for studies on the general mechanics of animal locomotion such as flying in air and swimming in water,particularly of free self-propulsion.The present results behave more credibly than the previous numerical studies and are close to the experimental results,and the aligned vortices pattern is discovered in cruising swimming.

  17. A collaborative European exercise on mRNA-based body fluid/skin typing and interpretation of DNA and RNA results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Berge, M; Carracedo, A; Gomes, I;

    2014-01-01

    The European Forensic Genetics Network of Excellence (EUROFORGEN-NoE) undertook a collaborative project on mRNA-based body fluid/skin typing and the interpretation of the resulting RNA and DNA data. Although both body fluids and skin are composed of a variety of cell types with different functions...... participating laboratories were asked to integrate the DNA and RNA results and associate donor and cell type where possible. A large variation for the integrated interpretations of the DNA and RNA data was obtained including correct interpretations. We infer that with expertise in analysing RNA profiles, clear...... and gene expression profiles, we refer to the procedure as 'cell type inference'. Nine laboratories participated in the project and used a 20-marker multiplex to analyse samples that were centrally prepared and thoroughly tested prior to shipment. Specimens of increasing complexity were assessed that...

  18. Integration of phase separation with ultrasound-assisted salt-induced liquid-liquid microextraction for analyzing the fluoroquinones in human body fluids by liquid chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, H; Gao, M.; Wang, M.; Zhang, R.; W. Wang; Dahlgren, RA; Wang, X.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Herein, we developed a novel integrated device to perform phase separation based on ultrasound-assisted salt-induced liquid-liquid microextraction for determination of five fluoroquinones (FQs) in human body fluids. The integrated device consisted of three simple HDPE components used to separate the extraction solvent from the aqueous phase prior to retrieving the extractant. A series of extraction parameters were optimized using the response surface method based on centr...

  19. Development of highly sensitive and specific mRNA multiplex system (XCYR1 for forensic human body fluids and tissues identification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xu

    Full Text Available The identification of human body fluids or tissues through mRNA-based profiling is very useful for forensic investigations. Previous studies have shown mRNA biomarkers are effective to identify the origin of biological samples. In this study, we selected 16 tissue specific biomarkers to evaluate their specificities and sensitivities for human body fluids and tissues identification, including porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD, hemoglobin beta (HBB and Glycophorin A (GLY for circulatory blood, protamine 2 (PRM2 and transglutaminase 4 (TGM4 for semen, mucin 4 (MUC4 and human beta defensin 1(HBD1 for vaginal secretion, matrix metalloproteinases 7 and 11 (MMP7 and MMP11 for menstrual blood, keratin 4(KRT4 for oral mucosa, loricrin (LOR and cystatin 6 (CST6 for skin, histatin 3(HTN3 for saliva, statherin (STATH for nasal secretion, dermcidin (DCD for sweat and uromodulin (UMOD for urine. The above mentioned ten common forensic body fluids or tissues were used in the evaluation. Based on the evaluation, a reverse transcription (RT PCR multiplex assay, XCYR1, which includes 12 biomarkers (i.e., HBB, GLY, HTN3, PRM2, KRT4, MMP11, MUC4, DCD, UMOD, MMP7, TGM4, and STATH and 2 housekeeping genes [i.e., glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH and 18SrRNA], was developed. This assay was further validated with real casework samples and mock samples (with both single source and mixture and it was approved that XCYR1 is effective to identify common body fluids or tissues (i.e., circulatory blood, saliva, semen, vaginal secretion, menstrual blood, oral mucosa, nasal secretion, sweat and urine in forensic casework samples.

  20. Pulsatile flow and heat transfer of a magneto-micropolar fluid through a stenosed artery under the influence of body acceleration

    OpenAIRE

    Shit, G. C.; Roy, M.

    2012-01-01

    With an aim to investigate the effect of externally imposed body acceleration and magnetic field on pulsatile flow of blood through an arterial segment having stenosis is under consideration in this paper. The flow of blood is presented by a unsteady micropolar fluid and the heat transfer characteristics have been taken into account. The non-linear equations that governing the flow are solved numerically using finite difference technique by employing a suitable coordinate transformation. The ...

  1. On the existence of global strong solutions to the equations modeling a motion of a rigid body around a viscous fluid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nečasová, Šárka; Wolf, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 3 (2016), s. 1539-1562. ISSN 1078-0947 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-00522S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : incompressible fluid * motion of rigid body * strong solutions Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.826, year: 2014 http://www.aimsciences.org/journals/displayArticlesnew.jsp?paperID=11589

  2. The effect of sodium silicate concentration on microstructure and corrosion properties of MAO-coated magnesium alloy AZ31 in simulated body fluid

    OpenAIRE

    B. Salami; Afshar, A.; Mazaheri, A.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, magnesium and its alloys are considered as biodegradable implants. However magnesium implants may rapidly corrode before the natural healing process of the tissue is completed. In this investigation, micro arc oxidation process has been studied for avoiding primary corrosion of the magnesium alloy in simulated body fluid. Anodized coating was formed on AZ31 alloy in nontoxic silicate-alkaline solution at constant current. The effects of silicate concentration and conductivity...

  3. Comprehensive investigation of postmortem glucose levels in blood and body fluids with regard to the cause of death in forensic autopsy cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian-Hua; Michiue, Tomomi; Inamori-Kawamoto, Osamu; Ikeda, Sayuko; Ishikawa, Takaki; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2015-11-01

    The serum glucose level is regulated within a narrow range by multiple factors under physiological conditions, but is greatly modified in the death process and after death. The present study comprehensively investigated glucose levels in blood and body fluids, including pericardial fluid (PCF), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and vitreous humor, reviewing forensic autopsy cases (n=672). Right heart blood glucose level was often higher than at other sites, and the CSF glucose level was the lowest, showing greater dissociation in acute/subacute death cases. The glucose level was higher in the diabetic (high HbA1c) than in the non-diabetic (low HbA1c) group at each site (pdeath due to ischemic heart disease. Fatal methamphetamine (MA) abuse, sepsis, malnutrition (starvation) and hypoglycemia due to antidiabetics showed markedly lower blood glucose levels. Ketones in bilateral cardiac blood and PCF were increased in diabetic ketoacidosis and fatal alcohol abuse as well as in most cases of hyperthermia (heatstroke), hypothermia (cold exposure) and malnutrition. These findings suggest that combined analysis of glucose, HbA1c and ketones in blood and body fluids is useful to investigate not only fatal diabetic metabolic disorders but also death processes due to other causes, including alcohol and MA abuse, as well as thermal disorders, sepsis and malnutrition. PMID:26593993

  4. Endogenous and exogenous factors influencing the concentrations of adiponectin in body fluids and tissues in the bovine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerwein, Helga; Häußler, Susanne

    2016-07-01

    of the literature about the adiponectin protein in cattle addressing the following aspects: (1) the course of the adiponectin serum concentrations during development in both sexes, during inflammation, nutritional energy deficit and energy surplus, and lactation-induced changes including the response to supplementation with conjugated linoleic acids and with niacin, (2) the concentrations of adiponectin in subcutaneous vs visceral fat depots of dairy cows, (3) the protein expression of adiponectin in tissues other than adipose, and (4) the concentrations in different body fluids including milk. PMID:27345322

  5. Fatty acids and small organic compounds bind to mineralo-organic nanoparticles derived from human body fluids as revealed by metabolomic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Jan; Wu, Cheng-Yeu; Hung, Cheng-Yu; Wong, Tsui-Yin; Cheng, Ann-Joy; Cheng, Mei-Ling; Shiao, Ming-Shi; Young, John D.

    2016-03-01

    Nanoparticles entering the human body instantly become coated with a ``protein corona'' that influences the effects and distribution of the particles in vivo. Yet, whether nanoparticles may bind to other organic compounds remains unclear. Here we use an untargeted metabolomic approach based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography and quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry to identify the organic compounds that bind to mineral nanoparticles formed in human body fluids (serum, plasma, saliva, and urine). A wide range of organic compounds is identified, including fatty acids, glycerophospholipids, amino acids, sugars, and amides. Our results reveal that, in addition to the proteins identified previously, nanoparticles harbor an ``organic corona'' containing several fatty acids which may affect particle-cell interactions in vivo. This study provides a platform to study the organic corona of biological and synthetic nanoparticles found in the human body.Nanoparticles entering the human body instantly become coated with a ``protein corona'' that influences the effects and distribution of the particles in vivo. Yet, whether nanoparticles may bind to other organic compounds remains unclear. Here we use an untargeted metabolomic approach based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography and quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry to identify the organic compounds that bind to mineral nanoparticles formed in human body fluids (serum, plasma, saliva, and urine). A wide range of organic compounds is identified, including fatty acids, glycerophospholipids, amino acids, sugars, and amides. Our results reveal that, in addition to the proteins identified previously, nanoparticles harbor an ``organic corona'' containing several fatty acids which may affect particle-cell interactions in vivo. This study provides a platform to study the organic corona of biological and synthetic nanoparticles found in the human body. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See

  6. Tribological and corrosion behaviors of warm-and hot-rolled Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloys in simulated body fluid conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Taekyung; Mathew, Eshaan; Rajaraman, Santhosh; Manivasagam, Geetha; Singh, Ashok Kumar; Lee, Chong Soo

    2015-01-01

    Development of submicrocrystalline structure in biomedical alloy such as Ti-13Nb-13Zr (in wt%) through warm-rolling process has been found to enhance mechanical properties compared to conventional thermomechanical processing routes including hot-rolling process. The present study investigated the tribological and corrosion behaviors of warm-rolled (WR) and hot-rolled Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloys which have not been studied to date. Both tribological and corrosion experiments were carried out in simulated body fluid conditions (Hank's solution at 37°C) based on the fact that the investigated alloys would be used in a human body as orthopedic implants. The WR Ti-13Nb-13Zr demonstrated a submicrocrystalline structure that provided a significant enhancement in hardness, strength, and corrosion resistance. Meanwhile, there was no notable difference in wear resistance between the WR and hot-rolled samples despite the different microstructure and hardness. The present study confirmed the enormous potential of WR Ti-13Nb-13Zr with not only great mechanical properties but also high corrosion resistance in the simulated body fluid. PMID:26491322

  7. General-relativistic rotation laws in rotating fluid bodies, new weak-field effects and the post-newtonian expansion

    CERN Document Server

    Mach, Patryk; Pirog, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Recent general-relativistic extensions of Newtonian rotation laws for self-gravitating stationary fluids allow one to rederive, in the first post-Newtonian approximation, the well known geometric dragging of frames, and two new weak-field effects within rotating tori. These are the recently discovered anti-dragging and a new effect that measures the deviation from the Keplerian motion and/or the contribution of the fluids selfgravity. They can be applied to the study of the existence of the (post-)Newtonian limits of solutions and in investigations of inequalities relating parameters of rotating black holes.

  8. Point vortex dynamics as zero-radius limit of the motion of a rigid body in an irrotational fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Glass, Olivier; Munnier, Alexandre; Sueur, Franck

    2016-01-01

    The vortex point system is usually considered as an idealized model where thevorticity of an ideal incompressible two-dimensional fluid is concentrated in afinite number of moving points. In the case of a single vortex in an otherwise irrotational ideal fluid occupying a bounded and simply-connected two-dimensional domain the motion is given by the so-called Kirchhoff-Routh velocity which depends only on the domain.The main result of this paper establishes that this dynamics canalso be obtain...

  9. Pulsatile flow and heat transfer of a magneto-micropolar fluid through a stenosed artery under the influence of body acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Shit, G C

    2012-01-01

    With an aim to investigate the effect of externally imposed body acceleration and magnetic field on pulsatile flow of blood through an arterial segment having stenosis is under consideration in this paper. The flow of blood is presented by a unsteady micropolar fluid and the heat transfer characteristics have been taken into account. The non-linear equations that governing the flow are solved numerically using finite difference technique by employing a suitable coordinate transformation. The numerical results have been observed for axial and microrotation component of velocity, fluid acceleration, wall shear stress(WSS), flow resistance, temperature and the volumetric flow rate. It thus turns out that the rate of heat transfer increases with the increase of Hartmann number $H$, while the wall shear stress has a reducing effect on the Hartmann number $H$ and an enhancing effect on microrotation parameter $K$ as well as the constriction height $\\delta$.

  10. Corrosion behavior of Mg-3Zn/bioglass (45S5) composite in simulated body fluid (SBF) and phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ab llah, N.; Jamaludin, S. B.; Daud, Z. C.; Zaludin, M. A. F.; Jamal, Z. A. Z.; Idris, M. S.; Osman, R. A. M.

    2016-07-01

    Magnesium has emerged as promising materials in biomaterials research due to its good mechanical and physical properties closer to human bones. However, magnesium has poor corrosion resistance to chloride ions that exist in human blood plasma thus preventing its application in biomedical. The addition of zinc and bioglass can reduce magnesium corrosion rate. In this work, the effect of different solution media (Simulated Body Fluid and Phosphate Buffered Saline) to the corrosion behavior of Mg-Zn/bioglass (45S5) composites was investigated. The composites of Mg-3Zn added with 5, 10, 15, 20, 15 and 30 wt. % bioglass were fabricated by powder metallurgy. The composites were prepared by mixing at 140 rpm for 1 hour, pressing at 500 MPa and sintering in an argon environment at a temperature of 450°C for 3 hours. Sintered samples were immersed in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) and Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS) in order to investigate the corrosion behavior. Samples mass loss was determined after 3 days of immersion. Samples microstructure and corrosion products were analyzed using optical microscope and x-ray diffraction (XRD) respectively. The results revealed that the samples immersed in the Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS) shows lower mass loss compare to the samples immersed in the Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) for all composition except for Mg-3Zn without bio-glass. The results indicated that the existence of high phosphate ions in PBS has retarded the corrosion rate of composite Mg-3Zn/45S5. The pH value of the PBS solution after immersion showed significant increase between 10.3 and 11.09. Diffraction pattern (XRD) showed the presence of Mg(OH)2 as the major corrosion product for samples immersed in the SBF and PBS solutions. The mass loss of samples decreased with the addition of bio-glass.

  11. The epinet data of four Indian hospitals on incidence of exposure of healthcare workers to blood and body fluid: A multicentric prospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murali Chakravarthy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Sharps injury (SI and blood and body fluid exposure are occupational hazards to healthcare workers (HCWs. Although data from the developed countries have shown the enormity of the problem, data from developing countries, such as India, arelacking. Purpose : The purpose of this study was to cumulate data from fourmajor hospitals in India and analyze the incidence of SI and blood and body fluid exposure in HCWs. Materials and Methods : Four Indian hospitals (hospital A, B, C and D from major cities of India participated in this multicentric study. Data ranging from 6 to 26 months were collected from these hospitals using Exposure Prevention Information network (EPINet which is the database created by International Healthcare Worker Safety Research and Resource Center, University of Virginia. Results : Two hundred and forty-three sharp injuries and 22 incidents of blood or body fluid exposure were encountered in the cumulated 50 months of our study. The incidence of SIswas thehighestamong nurses (55% of allthe HCWs, akin to the global data. An injury rate of nearly 20% among housekeeping staff seems to be specific to the Indian data. Patient′s room followed by operation theater appeared to be common locations of injury in our study. The source of the injury was identified in majority (64% of the injuries. A major part of the group was not the primary users of the sharp (38%. Disposable needles caused nearly half of the injuries. Suture needles contributed to a reasonable number of injuries in one of the hospitals. Conclusions : The incidence of SI is the highest among nurses and the housekeeping staff (>30% each. A substantial number of injuries are avoidable.

  12. PORE-SCALE SIMULATION OF FLUID FLOW IN PACKED-BED REACTORS VIA RIGID-BODY SIMULATIONS AND CFD

    OpenAIRE

    Icardi, Matteo; Marchisio, Daniele,; Boccardo, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    The problem of fluid flow in porous media is of paramount importance in the process, oil and metallurgical industries, since it is involved in the extraction of minerals and oil, in aquifer dynamics, as well as chemical reactions carried out in fixed bed catalytic reactors. Its CFD simulation is particularly interesting, as it offers the possibility of reducing the extent of costly experimental investigations, but presents a number of technical challenges. One of the main issues is the genera...

  13. Wearable Multi-Frequency and Multi-Segment Bioelectrical Impedance Spectroscopy for Unobtrusively Tracking Body Fluid Shifts during Physical Activity in Real-Field Applications: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Federica; Magnani, Alessandro; Maggioni, Martina A.; Stahn, Alexander; Rampichini, Susanna; Merati, Giampiero; Castiglioni, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Bioelectrical Impedance Spectroscopy (BIS) allows assessing the composition of body districts noninvasively and quickly, potentially providing important physiological/clinical information. However, neither portable commercial instruments nor more advanced wearable prototypes simultaneously satisfy the demanding needs of unobtrusively tracking body fluid shifts in different segments simultaneously, over a broad frequency range, for long periods and with high measurements rate. These needs are often required to evaluate exercise tests in sports or rehabilitation medicine, or to assess gravitational stresses in aerospace medicine. Therefore, the aim of this work is to present a new wearable prototype for monitoring multi-segment and multi-frequency BIS unobtrusively over long periods. Our prototype guarantees low weight, small size and low power consumption. An analog board with current-injecting and voltage-sensing electrodes across three body segments interfaces a digital board that generates square-wave current stimuli and computes impedance at 10 frequencies from 1 to 796 kHz. To evaluate the information derivable from our device, we monitored the BIS of three body segments in a volunteer before, during and after physical exercise and postural shift. We show that it can describe the dynamics of exercise-induced changes and the effect of a sit-to-stand maneuver in active and inactive muscular districts separately and simultaneously. PMID:27187389

  14. Wearable Multi-Frequency and Multi-Segment Bioelectrical Impedance Spectroscopy for Unobtrusively Tracking Body Fluid Shifts during Physical Activity in Real-Field Applications: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Federica; Magnani, Alessandro; Maggioni, Martina A; Stahn, Alexander; Rampichini, Susanna; Merati, Giampiero; Castiglioni, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Bioelectrical Impedance Spectroscopy (BIS) allows assessing the composition of body districts noninvasively and quickly, potentially providing important physiological/clinical information. However, neither portable commercial instruments nor more advanced wearable prototypes simultaneously satisfy the demanding needs of unobtrusively tracking body fluid shifts in different segments simultaneously, over a broad frequency range, for long periods and with high measurements rate. These needs are often required to evaluate exercise tests in sports or rehabilitation medicine, or to assess gravitational stresses in aerospace medicine. Therefore, the aim of this work is to present a new wearable prototype for monitoring multi-segment and multi-frequency BIS unobtrusively over long periods. Our prototype guarantees low weight, small size and low power consumption. An analog board with current-injecting and voltage-sensing electrodes across three body segments interfaces a digital board that generates square-wave current stimuli and computes impedance at 10 frequencies from 1 to 796 kHz. To evaluate the information derivable from our device, we monitored the BIS of three body segments in a volunteer before, during and after physical exercise and postural shift. We show that it can describe the dynamics of exercise-induced changes and the effect of a sit-to-stand maneuver in active and inactive muscular districts separately and simultaneously. PMID:27187389

  15. Wearable Multi-Frequency and Multi-Segment Bioelectrical Impedance Spectroscopy for Unobtrusively Tracking Body Fluid Shifts during Physical Activity in Real-Field Applications: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Villa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Bioelectrical Impedance Spectroscopy (BIS allows assessing the composition of body districts noninvasively and quickly, potentially providing important physiological/clinical information. However, neither portable commercial instruments nor more advanced wearable prototypes simultaneously satisfy the demanding needs of unobtrusively tracking body fluid shifts in different segments simultaneously, over a broad frequency range, for long periods and with high measurements rate. These needs are often required to evaluate exercise tests in sports or rehabilitation medicine, or to assess gravitational stresses in aerospace medicine. Therefore, the aim of this work is to present a new wearable prototype for monitoring multi-segment and multi-frequency BIS unobtrusively over long periods. Our prototype guarantees low weight, small size and low power consumption. An analog board with current-injecting and voltage-sensing electrodes across three body segments interfaces a digital board that generates square-wave current stimuli and computes impedance at 10 frequencies from 1 to 796 kHz. To evaluate the information derivable from our device, we monitored the BIS of three body segments in a volunteer before, during and after physical exercise and postural shift. We show that it can describe the dynamics of exercise-induced changes and the effect of a sit-to-stand maneuver in active and inactive muscular districts separately and simultaneously.

  16. Integration of phase separation with ultrasound-assisted salt-induced liquid-liquid microextraction for analyzing the fluoroquinones in human body fluids by liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huili; Gao, Ming; Wang, Mei; Zhang, Rongbo; Wang, Wenwei; Dahlgren, Randy A; Wang, Xuedong

    2015-03-15

    Herein, we developed a novel integrated device to perform phase separation based on ultrasound-assisted salt-induced liquid-liquid microextraction for determination of five fluoroquinones (FQs) in human body fluids. The integrated device consisted of three simple HDPE components used to separate the extraction solvent from the aqueous phase prior to retrieving the extractant. A series of extraction parameters were optimized using the response surface method based on central composite design. Optimal conditions consisted of 945μL acetone extraction solvent, pH 2.1, 4.1min stir time, 5.9g Na2SO4, and 4.0min centrifugation. Under optimized conditions, the limits of detection (at S/N=3) were 0.12-0.66μgL(-1), the linear range was 0.5-500μgL(-1) and recoveries were 92.6-110.9% for the five FQs extracted from plasma and urine. The proposed method has several advantages, such as easy construction from inexpensive materials, high extraction efficiency, short extraction time, and compatibility with HPLC analysis. Thus, this method shows excellent prospects for sample pretreatment and analysis of FQs in human body fluids. PMID:25660716

  17. Effects of zirconium and nitrogen plasma immersion ion implantation on the electrochemical corrosion behavior of Mg–Y–RE alloy in simulated body fluid and cell culture medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Dual Zr and N plasma ion implantation are conducted on WE43Mg alloy. • Zr and N implanted WE43 (ZrN-WE43) enhanced corrosion resistance in cell culture medium. • ZrN-WE43 enhanced corrosion resistance in simulated body fluid (SBF). • ZrN-WE43 shows near capacitive impedance spectra in cell culture medium. • Calcium phosphate is formed on the corrosion product. - Abstract: The effects of dual Zr and N plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) on the corrosion behavior of WE43Mg alloy are evaluated in simulated body fluid (SBF) and cell culture medium (cDMEM). Zr and N PIII improves the corrosion resistance of WE43 which exhibits smaller icorr, larger R1 and R2, smaller CPE2, and larger phase angle maxima in SBF and cDMEM. The Zr and N PIII WE43 samples exhibit 12-folds decrease in icorr in SBF and 71-folds decrease in icorr with near capacitive EIS in cDMEM. Analysis of the corrosion products reveals calcium phosphate

  18. Identification of autoantigens in body fluids by combining pull-downs and organic precipitations of intact immune complexes with quantitative label-free mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merl, Juliane; Deeg, Cornelia A; Swadzba, Margarete E; Ueffing, Marius; Hauck, Stefanie M

    2013-12-01

    Most autoimmune diseases are multifactorial diseases and are caused by the immunological reaction against a number of autoantigens. Key for understanding autoimmune pathologies is the knowledge of the targeted autoantigens, both initially and during disease progression. We present an approach for autoantigen identification based on isolation of intact autoantibody-antigen complexes from body fluids. After organic precipitation of high molecular weight proteins and free immunoglobulins, released autoantigens were identified by quantitative label-free liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. We confirmed feasibility of target enrichment and identification from highly complex body fluid proteomes by spiking of a predefined antibody-antigen complex at low level of abundance. As a proof of principle, we studied the blinding disease autoimmune uveitis, which is caused by autoreactive T-cells attacking the inner eye and is accompanied by autoantibodies. We identified three novel autoantigens in the spontaneous animal model equine recurrent uveitis (secreted acidic phosphoprotein osteopontin, extracellular matrix protein 1, and metalloproteinase inhibitor 2) and confirmed the presence of the corresponding autoantibodies in 15-25% of patient samples by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Thus, this workflow led to the identification of novel autoantigens in autoimmune uveitis and may provide a versatile and useful tool to identify autoantigens in other autoimmune diseases in the future. PMID:24059262

  19. Evaluation of a blood-specific DNA methylated region and trial for allele-specific blood identification from mixed body fluid DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Ken; Akutsu, Tomoko; Takamura, Ayari; Sakurada, Koichi

    2016-09-01

    The identification of blood samples obtained from crime scenes has been an important step in forensic investigation. Recently, a novel approach using the blood-specific methylated CpG site cg06379435 has been reported. In this study, we developed a real-time polymerase-chain-reaction-based method that can simply and rapidly quantitate the methylation ratio of cg06379435 and its neighboring CpGs and set the threshold ratios for blood identification by analyzing various body fluid samples. Blood identification using the thresholds was successfully performed in the analysis of a small amount (1ng) of DNA from blood and various aged blood samples, including 29-year-old stains. We also demonstrated a test for allele-specific blood identification from a mixed DNA sample by bisulfite sequencing analysis of these CpG sites and their neighboring single nucleotide polymorphism, rs7359943 (A/G), which is of relevance in cases where mixed samples are obtained from crime scenes. The stability of DNA methylation in aged samples and the usefulness of neighboring genetic information shown in this study suggest that DNA-methylation-based body fluid identification will play a major role in future forensic investigations. PMID:27591539

  20. Effect of equal channel angular extrusion on wear and corrosion behavior of the orthopedic Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy in simulated body fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suresh, K.S. [Department of Materials. Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Geetha, M., E-mail: geethamanivasagam@vit.ac.in [School of Mechanical and Building Sciences, VIT University, Vellore (India); Richard, C. [Laboratoire de Mecanique et de Rheologie EA 2640, Polytech' Tours, 37000 Tours (France); Landoulsi, J. [Laboratoire de Reactivite de Surface, UMR 7197 CNRS, Universite Pierre and Marie Curie - Paris VI, 4 Place Jussieu, Case 178, F-75252 Paris (France); Ramasawmy, H. [University of Mauritius, Faculty of Engineering, Reduit (Mauritius); Suwas, S. [Department of Materials. Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Asokamani, R. [School of Mechanical and Building Sciences, VIT University, Vellore (India)

    2012-05-01

    We report investigations on the texture, corrosion and wear behavior of ultra-fine grained (UFG) Ti-13Nb-Zr alloy, processed by equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) technique, for biomedical applications. The microstructure obtained was characterized by X-ray line profile analysis, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD). We focus on the corrosion resistance and the fretting behavior, the main considerations for such biomaterials, in simulated body fluid. To this end, potentiodynamic polarization tests were carried out to evaluate the corrosion behavior of the UFG alloy in Hanks solution at 37 Degree-Sign C. The fretting wear behavior was carried out against bearing steel in the same conditions. The roughness of the samples was also measured to examine the effect of topography on the wear behavior of the samples. Our results showed that the ECAE process increases noticeably the performance of the alloy as orthopedic implant. Although no significant difference was observed in the fretting wear behavior, the corrosion resistance of the UFG alloy was found to be higher than the non-treated material. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Relevancy of ECAE process applied to titanium alloy for biomedical applications. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Significant improvement of mechanical properties of the surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Noticeable increase of the corrosion resistance in simulated body fluid.

  1. Effect of equal channel angular extrusion on wear and corrosion behavior of the orthopedic Ti–13Nb–13Zr alloy in simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report investigations on the texture, corrosion and wear behavior of ultra-fine grained (UFG) Ti–13Nb–Zr alloy, processed by equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) technique, for biomedical applications. The microstructure obtained was characterized by X-ray line profile analysis, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD). We focus on the corrosion resistance and the fretting behavior, the main considerations for such biomaterials, in simulated body fluid. To this end, potentiodynamic polarization tests were carried out to evaluate the corrosion behavior of the UFG alloy in Hanks solution at 37 °C. The fretting wear behavior was carried out against bearing steel in the same conditions. The roughness of the samples was also measured to examine the effect of topography on the wear behavior of the samples. Our results showed that the ECAE process increases noticeably the performance of the alloy as orthopedic implant. Although no significant difference was observed in the fretting wear behavior, the corrosion resistance of the UFG alloy was found to be higher than the non-treated material. Highlights: ► Relevancy of ECAE process applied to titanium alloy for biomedical applications. ► Significant improvement of mechanical properties of the surface. ► Noticeable increase of the corrosion resistance in simulated body fluid.

  2. Spinning fluids reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jan D; Hupka, Jan; Aranowski, Robert

    2012-11-20

    A spinning fluids reactor, includes a reactor body (24) having a circular cross-section and a fluid contactor screen (26) within the reactor body (24). The fluid contactor screen (26) having a plurality of apertures and a circular cross-section concentric with the reactor body (24) for a length thus forming an inner volume (28) bound by the fluid contactor screen (26) and an outer volume (30) bound by the reactor body (24) and the fluid contactor screen (26). A primary inlet (20) can be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce flow-through first spinning flow of a first fluid within the inner volume (28). A secondary inlet (22) can similarly be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce a second flow of a second fluid within the outer volume (30) which is optionally spinning.

  3. Adsorption of Fluids of Pseudo-Hard Bodies and EPM5 Water on Solid Surface: Density Functional Theory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slovák, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 101, č. 8 (2003), s. 1171-1181. ISSN 0026-8976 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4072908 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : adsorption * primitive models * pseudo-hard body Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.591, year: 2003

  4. On the motion of rigid bodies in a compressible viscous fluid under the action of gravitational forces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ducomet, B.; Nečasová, Šárka

    Prague : Institute of Math ematics AS CR, 2012 - (Brandts, J.; Chleboun, J.; Korotov, S.; Segeth, K.; Šístek, J.; Vejchodský, T.), s. 83-98 ISBN 978-80-85823-60-8. [Applications of Math ematics 2012. Prague (CZ), 02.05.2012-05.05.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP201/11/1304 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : compressible viscous fluid * motion Subject RIV: BA - General Math ematics http://www. math .cas.cz/~am2012/proceedings/contributions/ducomet.pdf

  5. Novel /sup 125/I radioimmunoassay for the analysis of. delta. /sup 9/-tetrahydrocannabinol and its metabolites in human body fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, B.; Mason, P.A.; Moffat, A.C.; King, L.J.

    A cannabinoid radioimmunoassay (RIA) that detects some of the major ..delta../sup 9/-THC metabolites is developed and evaluated for use in forensic science. It incorporates a novel /sup 125/I radiotracer, is sensitive, reliable, relatively quick, and simple to use. The RIA uses a commercially available antiserum and detects a number of cannabinoid metabolites, including ..delta../sup 9/-THC-11-oic acid and its glucuronide conjugate in biological fluids. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of blood and urine samples submitted for forensic analysis.

  6. Tribological and corrosion behaviors of warm- and hot-rolled Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloys in simulated body fluid conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee T

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Taekyung Lee,1 Eshaan Mathew,2 Santhosh Rajaraman,2 Geetha Manivasagam,2 Ashok Kumar Singh,3 Chong Soo Lee4 1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USA; 2Centre for Biomaterials Science and Technology, School for Mechanical and Building Sciences, Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India; 3Defense Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad, India; 4Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology (GIFT, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH, Pohang, Republic of Korea Abstract: Development of submicrocrystalline structure in biomedical alloy such as Ti-13Nb-13Zr (in wt% through warm-rolling process has been found to enhance mechanical properties compared to conventional thermomechanical processing routes including hot-rolling process. The present study investigated the tribological and corrosion behaviors of warm-rolled (WR and hot-rolled Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloys which have not been studied to date. Both tribological and corrosion experiments were carried out in simulated body fluid conditions (Hank’s solution at 37°C based on the fact that the investigated alloys would be used in a human body as orthopedic implants. The WR Ti-13Nb-13Zr demonstrated a submicrocrystalline structure that provided a significant enhancement in hardness, strength, and corrosion resistance. Meanwhile, there was no notable difference in wear resistance between the WR and hot-rolled samples despite the different microstructure and hardness. The present study confirmed the enormous potential of WR Ti-13Nb-13Zr with not only great mechanical properties but also high corrosion resistance in the simulated body fluid. Keywords: titanium alloy, multi-pass caliber-rolling, grain refinement, tribology, corrosion

  7. Internal waves patterns in the wake of a 3D body towed in a two-layer fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacaze, Laurent; Mercier, Matthieu; Thual, Olivier; Paci, Alexandre

    2014-11-01

    Stratified flows over obstacles are important features in meteorology and oceanography. The characterization of these flows is crucial in order to propose models of geophysical processes such as mixing and ocean circulation or orographic drag in the atmosphere. For some specific stratification profiles, the energy of internal waves generated by the obstacle can be trapped at a given depth, at the base of the oceanic mixing layer or at the top of the atmospheric boundary layer for instance. This scenario can be modelled by a two-layer stratified fluid for which gravity waves spread at the interface between the two layers. The work presented here focuses on a two-layer flow over a 3D obstacle, or equivalently, an obstacle towed in a fluid at rest. Experiments performed both in the large-scale flume of CNRM-GAME Toulouse (METEO-FRANCE & CNRS) and in a smaller tank apparatus, are presented with a specific attention on the measurement of the 3D wave patterns. A non-hydrostatic linear analysis is used to describe the observed wave patterns. The experiments highlight the strong influence of the Froude number on the generated waves. More specifically, we investigate the nature of the wake angle obtained from the wave pattern, and discuss a transition from Kelvin to Mach angle.

  8. Metal ion concentrations in body fluids after implantation of hip replacements with metal-on-metal bearing--systematic review of clinical and epidemiological studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albrecht Hartmann

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The use of metal-on-metal (MoM total hip arthroplasty (THA increased in the last decades. A release of metal products (i.e. particles, ions, metallo-organic compounds in these implants may cause local and/or systemic adverse reactions. Metal ion concentrations in body fluids are surrogate measures of metal exposure. OBJECTIVE: To systematically summarize and critically appraise published studies concerning metal ion concentrations after MoM THA. METHODS: Systematic review of clinical trials (RCTs and epidemiological studies with assessment of metal ion levels (cobalt, chromium, titanium, nickel, molybdenum in body fluids after implantation of metalliferous hip replacements. Systematic search in PubMed and Embase in January 2012 supplemented by hand search. Standardized abstraction of pre- and postoperative metal ion concentrations stratified by type of bearing (primary explanatory factor, patient characteristics as well as study quality characteristics (secondary explanatory factors. RESULTS: Overall, 104 studies (11 RCTs, 93 epidemiological studies totaling 9.957 patients with measurement of metal ions in body fluids were identified and analyzed. Consistently, median metal ion concentrations were persistently elevated after implantation of MoM-bearings in all investigated mediums (whole blood, serum, plasma, erythrocytes, urine irrespective of patient characteristics and study characteristics. In several studies very high serum cobalt concentrations above 50 µg/L were measured (detection limit typically 0.3 µg/L. Highest metal ion concentrations were observed after treatment with stemmed large-head MoM-implants and hip resurfacing arthroplasty. DISCUSSION: Due to the risk of local and systemic accumulation of metallic products after treatment with MoM-bearing, risk and benefits should be carefully balanced preoperatively. The authors support a proposed "time out" for stemmed large-head MoM-THA and recommend a restricted

  9. The Influence of Zn Content on the Corrosion and Wear Performance of Mg-Zn-Ca Alloy in Simulated Body Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua; Liu, Debao; Zhao, Yue; Jin, Feng; Chen, Minfang

    2016-07-01

    Mg-Zn-Ca alloy has been attracting increasing attention as a potential biodegradable implant material. In this paper, Mg-3Zn-0.2Ca and Mg-4Zn-0.2Ca alloys were prepared by means of vacuum melting and subsequent hot extrusion process. The influences of Zn content on the microstructure, mechanical properties, and corrosion and wear behavior of Mg-Zn-Ca alloys in simulated body fluid (SBF) were studied. The results show that with increased Zn content, the grain size and corrosion resistance were decreased, while the mechanical strength and wear resistance were increased, under both dry sliding and SBF-lubricated conditions. For the same Mg-Zn-Ca alloy, the wear loss rate under SBF lubrication was higher than dry sliding condition, indicating a strong corrosion-assisted wear effect of SBF to the Mg-Zn-Ca alloy.

  10. Effect of titanium ions on the ion release rate and uptake at the interface of silica based xerogels with simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •New insights into corrosion of bioactive glasses in simulated body fluid. •Effect of TiO2 added to bioactive glasses on their behaviour in aqueous media. •Incorporation of TiO2 slows the corrosion rate of bioactive glasses. •TiO2 influences the ion release rate of phosphate, but scarcely affects that of silicate. -- Abstract: The dissolution and surface layer changes of new xTiO2(100 − x)[4SiO2·CaO·0.3P2O5] sol–gel derived xerogels (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 20 mol%) have been investigated in Kokubo’s simulated body fluid (SBF). The ionic leaching rate was analysed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES). ICP-AES results showed a relatively fast dissolution of titanium free sample, with a high release of phosphorous and calcium ions in the first hour of incubation while the release of silicon ions continuously increased up to 6 h of immersion. The titanium dioxide addition up to 20 mol% differently influences the release of phosphorus, calcium and silicon ions, i.e. TiO2 strongly stabilises the phosphorus ions, to a lesser extent the calcium ions, and has almost no effect on the silicon ions release. The structural changes were evaluated using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The XRD results show that all samples remain mainly amorphous after immersion in SBF. The changes occurred in the surrounding of phosphorous and silicon ions are well reflected in FTIR spectra and they were correlated with the samples stability in SBF

  11. Mercury concentrations in human placenta, umbilical cord, cord blood and amniotic fluid and their relations with body parameters of newborns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were conducted on samples taken from giving birth women (n = 40) living in Poland, representing three age groups: 19–25, 26–30 and 31–38 years old. Mercury concentrations were measured with CV-AAS in placenta, umbilical cord, cord blood and amniotic fluid. The placentas weight did not exceed the 750 g value and was heavier than 310 g. Mean values of Hg concentrations in blood, placenta and umbilical cord were similar (c.a. 9 μg/g). High levels of mercury were noted in cord blood which in 75% of all observations exceeded (up to 17 μg/L) the safe dose set by US EPA (5.8 μg/L). No statistically significant differences in medium level of Hg in all the studied tissues among age groups of women were observed. Positive correlations between Hg concentrations in placenta and umbilical cord and cord blood were revealed as well as some negative ones between mercury concentrations and pregnancy parameters. -- Highlights: •Concentrations of mercury in cord blood exceed the safety threshold level. •Maternal age was not an influential factor of Hg concentrations in studied samples. •Positive correlations between Hg levels in different tissues were observed. •Negative correlation between Hg concentrations and pregnancy parameters were noted. -- Maternal age was not an influential factor of mercury concentrations in studied samples. 75% of cord blood samples exceeded the Hg threshold concentration

  12. Action of fluid on aqueduct body during strong earthquake%强震下流体对渡槽槽身的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李遇春; 楼梦麟

    2000-01-01

    The boundary element method is applied to simulate nonlinear sloshing of fluid,dynamic horizontal force and overturning moment actingon the aqueduct body during earthquake.The computational results of BEM(nonlinear)are compared with that of linearized theories.The numerical results reveal that a great horizontal force acting on the aqueduct body may occurred during strong earthquake.This action must be considered in seismic resistance design.%本文应用边界元法计算了强震下流体的非线性晃动及其对槽身的水平力及翻转力矩,将所得数值结果与线性解析方法的计算结果作了比较,分析了两类结果的异同点。计算表明:强震时,流体对槽身可能会产生很大的横向水平力,建议在抗震设计时考虑这一作用因素。

  13. Fluid Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, M.; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S.; Lauriie, S.; Garcia, K.; Sargsyan, A.; Martin, D.; Ribeiro, L.; Lui, J.; Macias, B.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R.; Chang, D.; Johnston, S.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Smith, S.

    2016-01-01

    NASA is focusing on long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low-Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but more than 50% of ISS astronauts experienced more profound, chronic changes with objective structural and functional findings such as papilledema and choroidal folds. Globe flattening, optic nerve sheath dilation, and optic nerve tortuosity also are apparent. This pattern is referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. VIIP signs and symptoms, as well as postflight lumbar puncture data, suggest that elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) may be associated with the spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight, and to correlate these findings with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as the VIIP-related effects of those shifts, is predicted by the crewmember's preflight conditions and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations (such as head-down tilt). Lastly, we will evaluate the patterns of fluid distribution in ISS astronauts during acute reversal of fluid shifts through application of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) interventions to characterize and explain general and individual responses. METHODS: We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the Figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, calcaneus tissue thickness (by

  14. Fluid accumulation threshold measured by acute body weight change after admission in general surgical intensive care units: how much should be concerning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chittawatanarat K

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Kaweesak Chittawatanarat,1 Todsaporn Pichaiya,2 Kamtone Chandacham,1 Tidarat Jirapongchareonlap,1 Narain Chotirosniramit11Division of Surgical Critical Care and Trauma, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, 2Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Associated Medical Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, ThailandBackground: The objective of this study (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01351506 was to identify the threshold level of fluid accumulation measured by acute body weight (BW change during the first week in a general surgical intensive care unit (ICU, which is associated with ICU mortality and other adverse outcomes.Methods: Four hundred sixty-five patients were prospectively followed for a 28-day period. The maximum BW change threshold during the first week was evaluated by the maximum percentage change in BW from the ICU admission weight (Max%ΔBW. Daily screening of adverse events in the ICU were recorded. The cutoff point of Max%ΔBW on ICU mortality was defined by considering the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve, intersection of the sensitivity and specificity, and the Youden Index. Univariable and multivariable regression analyses were used to demonstrate the associations. Statistical significance was defined as P<0.05.Results: The appropriate cutoff value of Max%ΔBW threshold was 5%. Regarding the multivariable regression model, in overall patients, the occurrence of the following adverse events (expressed as adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval] were significantly associated with a Max%ΔBW of >5%: ICU mortality (2.38 [1.25–4.54] (P=0.008, ICU mortality in patients without renal replacement therapy (RRT (2.47 [1.21–5.06] (P=0.013, reintubation within 72 hours (2.51 [1.04–6.00] (P=0.039, RRT requirement (2.67 [1.13–6.33] (P=0.026, and delirium (1.97 [1.08–3.57] (P=0.025. Regarding the postoperative subgroup, a Max%ΔBW value of more than 5% was significantly associated with: ICU

  15. Comparison of four techniques for the detection of Clostridium perfringens type D epsilon toxin in intestinal contents and other body fluids of sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzal, F A; Kelly, W R; Thomas, R; Hornitzky, M; Galea, F

    2003-03-01

    Polyclonal capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PC-ELISA), monoclonal capture ELISA (MC-ELISA), mouse neutralization test (MNT), and counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIEP), were compared for their ability to detect epsilon toxin in intestinal contents and body fluids of sheep and goats. When used to evaluate intestinal contents of sheep artificially spiked with epsilon prototoxin, PC-ELISA detected 0.075 mouse lethal dose (MLD)50/ml, whereas the MNT, MC-ELISA, and CIEP detected 6, 25, and 50 MLD50/ml, respectively. Amounts of epsilon toxin detected by PC-ELISA, MC-ELISA, MNT, and CIEP in sheep pericardial fluid artificially spiked with epsilon prototoxin were 0.075, 0.75, 6, and 200 MLD50/ml, respectively. For assaying epsilon toxin in aqueous humor, PC-ELISA and MC-ELISA detected 0.075 MLD50/ml, whereas CIEP detected 200 MLD50/ml (MNT was not evaluated). When 51 samples of intestinal contents of sheep and goats (32 positive and 19 negative to MNT) were analyzed by the other 3 techniques, the relative sensitivity of PC-ELISA, MC-ELISA, and CIEP was 93.75, 84.37, and 37.50%, respectively. The specificity of PC-ELISA, MC-ELISA, and CIEP was 31.57, 57.89, and 84.21%, respectively. The absolute sensitivity of PC-ELISA, MC-ELISA, CIEP, and MNT was 90.90, 69.69, 15.15, and 54.54%. The absolute specificity of the 4 techniques was 100%. These results show that there is a marked inconsistency among techniques routinely used to detect Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin. Until more consistent results are achieved, the diagnosis of enterotoxemia should not only be based solely on epsilon toxin detection, but also on clinical and pathological data. PMID:12661718

  16. Nosocomial Infections: Multicenter surveillance of antimicrobial resistance profile of Staphylococcus aureus and Gram negative rods isolated from blood and other sterile body fluids in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Poorabbas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Antibiotic resistance is increasing, especially in healthcare-associated infections causing significant public health concerns worldwide. National information is required to make appropriate policies, update list of essential drugs for treatment, and evaluate the effects of intervention strategies. A nationwide surveillance of antimicrobial resistant bacteria in nosocomial infections was established in Iran in 2008, so that the data obtained through the surveillance would enable us to construct a database.Materials and Methods: Seven major teaching hospitals in Shiraz, Tabriz, Sari, Mashhad, Sanandaj, Ahwaz and Isfahan participated in this study. A total of 858 strains isolated from blood and other sterile body fluids were tested. Identification at the species level was performed with conventional biochemical methods and the API system. Susceptibility tests were done using disk diffusion method. The methicillin-resistance in S. aureus (MRSA was determined by the oxacillin agar screen plate and respective MIC values were assessed using the E-test strips. The confirmatory disk diffusion methods were applied for phenotypic identification of extended-spectrum β- lactamase (ESBL production for E. coli and K. pneumoniae, according to CLSI guidelines.Results: Cultivation and re-identification of the strains yielded 858 isolates, consisting of 224 S. aureus, 148 Klebsiellaspp., 105 Serratia spp., 146 E. coli, 67 Acinetobacter spp., 38 Enterobacter spp., 95 Pseudomonas spp., 71 P.aeruginosa.35 Stenotrophomonas sp., and 8 other organisms. MRSA was detected in 37.5% of the isolates. No vancomycin-resistant or vancomycin-intermediate resistant S. aureus was detected. With the exception of Acinetobacter and Stenotrophomonas, 85% of the Gram-negative isolates were found to be susceptible in vitro to imipenem. Overall, about 61% of K. pneumoniae and 35% of E. coli isolates were ESBL producing.Conclusion: Multidrug resistant isolates

  17. The interpretation of forensic biochemical expert test made in human body fluids: scientific - legal analysis in the research on sexual offenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contributions of science and technology have covered the whole of human life, and relationships of coexistence are even found in the various disciplines of knowledge through legal forensics. Therefore, it is increasingly imperative that the law enforcement agents are interdisciplinary professionals, with knowledge beyond the legal knowledge to enable them make the most of the scientific knowledge in judicial proceedings. Among the natural sciences applied to right, forensic biochemistry has contributed an extremely relevant test for the investigation of various sexual offenses, much has been so, that the Organismo de Investigacion Judicial of Costa Rica has in its Departamento de Laboratorios de Ciencias Forenses with specialized sections in this discipline. A diversity of skills are performed of presumptive and confirmatory character for the presence of biological fluids, sexually transmitted diseases and identification of DNA by genetic markers. Updated information is given with respect to the correct interpretation of forensic biochemical expertises achievable for identification of semen, blood and human saliva in the investigation of sexual offenses. A scientific and legal language is used allowing the most of this information in the criminal process. The main objective has been to interpret, legal and scientifically, forensic biochemical expert evidence performed in human body fluids during the investigation of sexual offenses. A legal, doctrinal and scientific review is presented with compilation of related jurisprudence and criminology reports analysis of Seccion de Bioquimica of the Departamento de Laboratorios Forenses of the Organismo de Investigacion Juridica issued during the investigation of sexual offenses. Two types of attainable skills have existed for the identification of biological fluids, each with a different binding. In addition, it has been clear, due to the lexicon employed when making a forensic biochemist opinion, that to make a proper

  18. Determination of medicinal and illicit drugs in post mortem dental hard tissues and comparison with analytical results for body fluids and hair samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klima, Miriam; Altenburger, Markus J; Kempf, Jürgen; Auwärter, Volker; Neukamm, Merja A

    2016-08-01

    In burnt or skeletonized bodies dental hard tissue sometimes is the only remaining specimen available. Therefore, it could be used as an alternative matrix in post mortem toxicology. Additionally, analysis of dental tissues could provide a unique retrospective window of detection. For forensic interpretation, routes and rates of incorporation of different drugs as well as physicochemical differences between tooth root, tooth crown and carious material have to be taken into account. In a pilot study, one post mortem tooth each from three drug users was analyzed for medicinal and illicit drugs. The pulp was removed in two cases; in one case the tooth was root canal treated. The teeth were separated into root, crown and carious material and drugs were extracted from the powdered material with methanol under ultrasonication. The extracts were screened for drugs by LC-MS(n) (ToxTyper™) and quantitatively analyzed with LC-ESI-MS/MS in MRM mode. The findings were compared to the analytical results for cardiac blood, femoral blood, urine, stomach content and hair. In dental hard tissues, 11 drugs (amphetamine, MDMA, morphine, codeine, norcodeine, methadone, EDDP, fentanyl, tramadol, diazepam, nordazepam, and promethazine) could be detected and concentrations ranged from approximately 0.13pg/mg to 2,400pg/mg. The concentrations declined in the following order: carious material>root>crown. Only the root canal treated tooth showed higher concentrations in the crown than in the root. In post mortem toxicology, dental hard tissue could be a useful alternative matrix facilitating a more differentiated consideration of drug consumption patterns, as the window of detection seems to overlap those for body fluids and hair. PMID:26930453

  19. Nucleation and characterization of hydroxyapatite on thioglycolic acid-capped reduced graphene oxide/silver nanoparticles in simplified simulated body fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Jun; Zhang, Zhaochun, E-mail: zhangzhaochun@shu.edu.cn; Yu, Zhenwei; He, Zhenni; Yang, Shanshan; Jiang, Huiyi

    2014-01-15

    Herein hydroxyapatite (HA) has been synthesized by the nucleation on the surfaces of reduced graphene oxide/silver nanoparticles (rGO/AgNPs) chemisorbed with thioglycolic acid (TGA). The self-assembled monolayer of TGA formed on rGO/AgNPs was immersed in simplified simulated body fluid under gentle growth conditions, forming rGO/AgNPs/TGA/HA biocomposite. The phase structures and functional groups of biocomposite were analyzed by X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Enhanced Raman spectrum of TGA on prepared rGO/AgNPs was obtained with excitation at 633 nm, showing that TGA was chemisorbed on AgNPs through S atom and TGA molecular plane exhibited a tilted orientation with respect to AgNPs. The morphologies of biocomposite were investigated by means of atomic force microscope and transmission electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive spectrum. Analysis shows that the AgNPs uniformly distributed on the rGO nanosheets with the size of about 15–20 nm and HA formation initiated through Ca{sup 2+}-adsorption upon complexation with -COO{sup −} groups of TGA on AgNPs. The results obtained indicated that the rGO/AgNPs/TGA/HA biocomposite may have immense potential application in bone tissue engineering fields for its outstanding and stable activities.

  20. Effect of different processings on mechanical property and corrosion behavior in simulated body fluid of Mg-Zn-Y-Nd alloy for cardiovascular stent application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shi-Jie; Liu, Qian; Qian, Ya-Feng; Sun, Bin; Wang, Li-Guo; Wu, Jing-Min; Guan, Shao-Kang

    2014-09-01

    The biomagnesium alloys have been considered to be one of the most potential biodegradable metal materials due to its good mechanical compatibility, biological compatibility, biological security and biodegradable characteristics. However, the two major problems of high degradation rates in physiological environment and low mechanical properties prevent the development of biomagnesium alloys. In the present work, the samples of Mg-Zn-Y-Nd alloy were prepared by cyclic extrusion compression (CEC) and equal channel angular pressing (ECAP). The microstructures, mechanical properties of alloy and its corrosion behavior in simulated body fluid (SBF) were evaluated. The results reveal that Mg-Zn-Y-Nd alloy consists of equiaxial fine grain structure with the homogeneous distribution of micrometer size and nano-sized second phase, which was caused by the dynamic recrystallization during the ECAP and CEC. The corrosion resistance of alloy was improved. The tensile and corrosion resistance were improved, especially the processed alloy exhibit uniform corrosion performances and decreased corrosion rate. This will provide theoretical ground for Mg-Zn-Y-Nd alloy as vascular stent application.

  1. Alterations in Body Fluid Balance During Fin Swimming in 29 °C Water in a Population of Special Forces Divers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagna, O; Desruelle, A V; Blatteau, J E; Schmid, B; Dumoulin, G; Regnard, J

    2015-12-01

    Highly trained "combat swimmers" encounter physiological difficulties when performing missions in warm water. The aim of this study was to assess the respective roles of immersion and physical activity in perturbing fluid balance of military divers on duty in warm water. 12 trained divers performed 2 dives each (2 h, 3 m depth) in fresh water at 29 °C. Divers either remained Static or swam continuously (Fin) during the dive. In the Fin condition, oxygen consumption and heart rate were 2-fold greater than during the Static dive. Core and skin temperatures were also higher (Fin: 38.5±0.4 °C and 36.2±0.3 °C and Static: 37.2±0.3 °C and 34.3±0.3 °C; respectively p=0.0002 and p=0.0003). During the Fin dive, the average mass loss was 989 g (39% urine loss, 41% sweating and 20% insensible water loss and blood sampling); Static divers lost 720 g (84% urine loss, 2% sweating and 14% insensible water loss and blood sampling) (p=0.003). In the Fin condition, a greater decrease in total body mass and greater sweating occurred, without effects on circulating renin and aldosterone concentrations; diuresis was reduced, and plasma volume decreased more than in the Static condition. PMID:26422054

  2. Nucleation and characterization of hydroxyapatite on thioglycolic acid-capped reduced graphene oxide/silver nanoparticles in simplified simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herein hydroxyapatite (HA) has been synthesized by the nucleation on the surfaces of reduced graphene oxide/silver nanoparticles (rGO/AgNPs) chemisorbed with thioglycolic acid (TGA). The self-assembled monolayer of TGA formed on rGO/AgNPs was immersed in simplified simulated body fluid under gentle growth conditions, forming rGO/AgNPs/TGA/HA biocomposite. The phase structures and functional groups of biocomposite were analyzed by X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Enhanced Raman spectrum of TGA on prepared rGO/AgNPs was obtained with excitation at 633 nm, showing that TGA was chemisorbed on AgNPs through S atom and TGA molecular plane exhibited a tilted orientation with respect to AgNPs. The morphologies of biocomposite were investigated by means of atomic force microscope and transmission electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive spectrum. Analysis shows that the AgNPs uniformly distributed on the rGO nanosheets with the size of about 15–20 nm and HA formation initiated through Ca2+-adsorption upon complexation with -COO− groups of TGA on AgNPs. The results obtained indicated that the rGO/AgNPs/TGA/HA biocomposite may have immense potential application in bone tissue engineering fields for its outstanding and stable activities.

  3. Surface Modification and In Vitro Characterization of Cp-Ti and Ti-5Al-2Nb-1Ta Alloy in Simulated Body Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasikumar, Y.; Rajendran, N.

    2012-10-01

    Ti and its alloys are widely used in manufacturing orthopedic implants as prostheses for joint replacement because of their high corrosion resistance and excellent biocompatibility. However, they lack in bone-bonding ability and leads to higher rate of osteolysis and subsequent loosening of implants. In order to enhance the bone-bonding ability of these alloys, various surface-modification techniques are generally employed. The present investigation is mainly concerned with the surface modification of Cp-Ti and Ti-5Al-2Nb-1Ta alloy using a mixture of alkali and hydrogen peroxide followed by subsequent heat treatment to produce a porous gel layer with anatase structure, which enhances osseointegration. The morphological behavior was examined by x-ray diffractometer (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX). The in vitro characterization of all the specimens was evaluated by immersing the specimens in simulated body fluid solution to assess the apatite formation over the metal surface. The apatite formation was confirmed by XRD, SEM-EDX, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Further, the electrochemical corrosion behaviors of both the untreated and treated specimens were evaluated using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results revealed that the surface-modified and heat-treated specimens exhibited higher corrosion resistance and excellent biocompatibility when compared to the chemical and untreated specimens.

  4. The effect of sodium silicate concentration on microstructure and corrosion properties of MAO-coated magnesium alloy AZ31 in simulated body fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Salami

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, magnesium and its alloys are considered as biodegradable implants. However magnesium implants may rapidly corrode before the natural healing process of the tissue is completed. In this investigation, micro arc oxidation process has been studied for avoiding primary corrosion of the magnesium alloy in simulated body fluid. Anodized coating was formed on AZ31 alloy in nontoxic silicate-alkaline solution at constant current. The effects of silicate concentration and conductivity of electrolyte solution on microstructure and corrosion properties of coating were evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy showed that a thick and condensed coating is formed after enough anodizing period. Energy dispersive spectroscopy showed that Si, O and Mg are the main components of the coating. Corrosion resistance of the coated and uncoated samples was assessed using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests in SBF at 37 °C and pH of 7.4. Maximum corrosion resistance was achieved at 30 g/L concentration of sodium silicate in anodizing solution. It was observed that further increase in silicate concentration decreased the corrosion resistance.

  5. Biomineralization of electrospun poly(L-lactic acid)/gelatin composite fibrous scaffold by using a supersaturated simulated body fluid with continuous CO2 bubbling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To promote the biomineralization, supersaturated simulated body fluids (SBFs), e.g. five times SBF (5 x SBF), were usually applied. In these SBFs, however, homogeneous nucleation of Ca-P mineralites and deposition unavoidably took place owing to the HCO3- decomposition and the pH value increment, which made the prediction of bone bioactivity of substrates controversial. In this study, the classically prepared 5 x SBF was continuously bubbled with CO2 to keep the pH value stable at 6.4 and the solution transparent, and a kind of electrospun poly(L-lactic acid)/gelatin composite fibers was used for the biomineralization study. In such a modified 5 x SBF, heterogenenous nucleation occurred dominantly and thermodynamical unstable brushites (dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, DCPD) were detected shortly on both electrospun PLLA fibers and PLLA/gelatin (1:1 in weight) composite fibers. In comparison with electrospun PLLA fibers, the sheet-like DCPD mineralites transformed into flaky carbonated calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) within 24 h on the PLLA/gelatin composite fibers due to the accelerating effect of gelatin component. The formed apatite coating contained much less Mg2+ ions than that deposited in the classical 5 x SBF. The results of this study showed that supersaturated SBFs buffered with gassy CO2 were expected good choices for the accelerated biomineralization, and for the prediction of the bone bonding bioactivity of substrates.

  6. Fretting wear behaviour of hydroxyapatite–titanium composites in simulated body fluid, supplemented with 5 g l−1 bovine serum albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damaged articulating joints can be repaired or replaced with synthetic biomaterials, which can release wear debris due to articulation, leading to the osteolysis. In a recent work, it has been shown that it is possible to achieve a better combination of flexural strength/fracture toughness as well as in vitro bioactivity and cytocompatibility properties in spark plasma sintered hydroxyapatite–titanium (HA–Ti) composites. Although hydroxyapatite and titanium are well documented for their good biocompatibility, nanosized hydroxyapatite (HA) and titanium (Ti) particles can cause severe toxicity to cells. In order to address this issue, fretting wear study of HA–Ti composites under dry and wet (1× SBF, supplemented with 5 g l−1 bovine serum albumin (BSA)) condition was performed to assess the wear resistance as well as wear debris formation, in vitro. The experimental results reveal one order of magnitude lower wear rate for HA–10 wt% Ti (7.5 × 10−5 mm3 N−1 m−1) composite than monolithic HA (3.9 × 10−4 mm3 N−1 m−1) in simulated body fluid. The difference in the tribological properties has been analyzed in the light of phase assemblages and mechanical properties. Overall, the results suggest the potential use of HA–Ti composites over existing HA-based biocomposites in orthopedic as well as dental applications. (paper)

  7. Intention to comply with post-exposure management among nurses exposed to blood and body fluids in Taiwan: application of the theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, N-Y; Yeh, S-H; Tsay, S-L; Ma, H-J; Chen, C-H; Pan, S-M; Feng, M-C; Chiang, M-C; Lee, Y-W; Chang, L-H; Jang, J-F

    2011-04-01

    Nurses are at significant risk from occupationally acquired bloodborne virus infections following a needlestick and sharps injury. This study aimed to apply the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) to predict nurses' intention to comply with occupational post-exposure management. A cross-sectional survey was applied to select registered nurses who worked in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-designated hospitals. An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire based on the TPB was distributed to 1630 nurses and 1134 (69.5%) questionnaires were returned. From these, a total of 802 nurses (71%) reported blood and body fluid exposure incidents during 2003-2005 and this group was used for analysis. Only 44.6% of the 121 exposed nurses who were prescribed post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) by infectious disease doctors returned to the clinic for interim monitoring, and only 56.6% of exposed nurses confirmed their final serology status. Structural equation modelling was used to test the TPB indicating perceived behavioural control (the perception of the difficulty or ease of PEP management, β=0.58), subjective norm (the perception of social pressure to adhere to PEP, β=0.15), and attitudes (β=0.12) were significant direct effects on nurses' intention to comply with post-exposure management. The hypothesised model test indicated that the model fitted with the expected relationships and directions of theoretical constructs [χ(2) (14, N=802)=23.14, P=0.057, GFI=0.987, RMSEA=0.039]. The TPB model constructs accounted for 54% of the variance in nurses' intention to comply with post-exposure management. The TPB is an appropriate model for predicting nurses' intention to comply with post-exposure management. Healthcare facilities should have policies to decrease the inconvenience of follow-up to encourage nurses to comply with post-exposure management. PMID:21276639

  8. A simple evaluation of numbers of asbestos bodies in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid under light microscopy. Analysis of 35 pulmonary nodular lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 1 asbestos body (AB) per ml of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) under light microscopy was defined as AB positive (ABP) and suggests an occupational asbestos exposure. We microscopically evaluated the AB number per one ml of BALF, which we defined as the AB concentration (ABC), using bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cytocentrifuge slides obtained from 35 patients having pulmonary nodular lesions (20 carcinoma and 15 nonneoplastic disease) and examined the correlation between ABC and clinicopathological data including findings on Helical computed tomography scan (HCTS) and occupational history of asbestos exposure (OHAE). BAL was performed by the standard technique without removing mucous with a gauze filter. AB was microscopically defined as a structure consisting of a core of transparent asbestos surrounded by an iron-protein coat. Twenty of 35 patients were ABP (ABP rate; 57%) and ABC ranged from 0 to 207.98/ml (mean ABC; 11.33/ml). Mean ABC was significantly higher in patients with OHAE (15.04/ml) compared to that in patients without OHAE (3.23/ml). Twenty-two of 35 patients (63%) lacked abnormality on HCTS and among these, 12 patients (55%) were ABP. In 20 pulmonary carcinoma patients, the ABP rate was 85% and ABC ranged from 0 to 31.1/ml (Mean ABC; 2.99/ml). The ABP rate of pulmonary carcinoma patients was 40% (8 patients) and among these, 5 patients (63%) did not show any abnormality on HCTS. In conclusion, our method was simple and useful and should be applied to patients with pulmonary nodular lesions and OHAE, even if there are no abnormalities on HCTS. (author)

  9. Biocompatibility and corrosion behavior of the shape memory NiTi alloy in the physiological environments simulated with body fluids for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to unique properties of NiTi shape memory alloys such as high corrosion resistance, biocompatibility, super elasticity and shape memory behavior, NiTi shape memory alloys are suitable materials for medical applications. Although TiO2 passive layer in these alloys can prevent releasing of nickel to the environment, high nickel content and stability of passive layer in these alloys are very debatable subjects. In this study a NiTi shape memory alloy with nominal composition of 50.7 atom% Ni was investigated by corrosion tests. Electrochemical tests were performed in two physiological environments of Ringer solution and NaCl 0.9% solution. Results indicate that the breakdown potential of the NiTi alloy in NaCl 0.9% solution is higher than that in Ringer solution. The results of Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) reveal that low pitting corrosion occurred in Ringer solution compared with NaCl solution at potentiostatic tests. The pH value of the solutions increases after the electrochemical tests. The existence of hydride products in the X-ray diffraction analysis confirms the decrease of the concentration of hydrogen ion in solutions. Topographical evaluations show that corrosion products are nearly same in all samples. The biocompatibility tests were performed by reaction of mouse fibroblast cells (L929). The growth and development of cells for different times were measured by numbering the cells or statistics investigations. The figures of cells for different times showed natural growth of cells. The different of the cell numbers between the test specimen and control specimen was negligible; therefore it may be concluded that the NiTi shape memory alloy is not toxic in the physiological environments simulated with body fluids.

  10. Development of a new multi-analyte assay for the simultaneous detection of opioids in serum and other body fluids using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckart, K; Röhrich, J; Breitmeier, D; Ferner, M; Laufenberg-Feldmann, R; Urban, R

    2015-09-15

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method using electrospray ionization in positive ionization mode was developed for the simultaneous detection of multiple opioid-type drugs in plasma. The presented assay allows the quantitative determination of alfentanil, buprenorphine, codeine, desomorphine, dextromethorphan, dextrorphan, dihydrocodeine, dihydromorphine, ethylmorphine, fentanyl, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, methadone, morphine, naloxone, naltrexone, oxycodone, oxymorphone, pentazocine, pethidine, pholcodine, piritramide, remifentanil, sufentanil, and tramadol as well as the metabolites 6-monoacetylmorphine, bisnortilidine, morphine-3-glucuronide, morphine-6-glucuronide, naltrexol, norbuprenorphine, norfentanyl, norpethidine, nortilidine, and O-desmethyltramadol. Serum and blood samples were purified by solid-phase extraction. The analytes were separated on a phenyl-hexyl (100mm) column by formic acid/acetonitrile gradient elution using an UPLC 1290 Infinity coupled with a 6490 Triple Quadrupole mass spectrometer. The limits of detection ranged from 0.02 to 0.6ng/mL and the lower limits of quantification ranged from 0.1 to 2.0ng/mL. The calibration curves were linear between Calibration Levels 1-6 for all 35 substances. Recovery rates ranged between 51 and 88% for all compounds except alfentanil, bisnortilidine, pethidine, and morphine-3-glucuronide. The matrix effect ranged from 86% for ethylmorphine to 105% for desomorphine. Using the validation procedure proposed by the German Society of Toxicological and Forensic Chemistry, acceptable precision and accuracy data for almost all analytes were obtained. The method was successfully applied to 206 authentic serum samples provided by the palliative and intensive care units of the University Medical Center and the police authorities. Furthermore, a suspected fatal intoxication is demonstrated by an analysis of the sufentanil in post mortem body fluids and tissues. PMID:26241181

  11. Determination of solvent thinner components in human body fluids by capillary gas chromatography with trapping at low oven temperature for headspace samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, X P; Kumazawa, T; Sato, K; Watanabe, K; Seno, H; Suzuki, O

    1998-01-01

    A simple and sensitive method is presented for determination of solvent thinner components in human body fluids by capillary gas chromatography (GC) with a low oven temperature for trapping headspace vapor components. After heating a blood or urine sample containing ethyl acetate, benzene, butan-1-ol, toluene, butyl acetate, isoamyl acetate and ethylbenzene (internal standard) in a 7.5 ml vial at 90 degrees C for 30 min, 5 ml of headspace vapor were drawn into a glass syringe. All vapor was introduced through an injection port in the splitless mode into a DB-624 medium-bore capillary column at a 5 degrees C oven temperature for trapping the volatile compounds, and the oven temperature was programmed up to 110 degrees C for their detection by GC. These conditions gave sharp peaks, a good separation of each peak and low background noise for both whole blood and urine samples. As much as 3.58-55.1 and 3.52-57.9% of the six compounds, which had been added to vials, could be introduced to the GC instrument for whole blood and urine, respectively. The intra-day RSD values in terms of the introduction rate (net recovery) of the six compounds in whole blood and urine samples were < or = 8.1%. The calibration curves showed linearity in the range 0.78-400 ng per 0.5 ml whole blood or urine. The detection limits were 0.5-5 ng per 0.5 ml. The data on toluene in post mortem blood in an actual case are also presented. PMID:9581030

  12. In vitro investigation of biodegradable polymeric coating for corrosion resistance of Mg-6Zn-Ca alloy in simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A silane-based biodegradable coating was developed and investigated to improve corrosion resistance of an Mg-6Zn-Ca magnesium alloy to delay the biodegradation of the alloy in the physiological environment. Conditions were optimized to develop a stable and uniform hydroxide layer on the alloys surface—known to facilitate silane-substrate adhesion. A composite coating of two silanes, namely, diethylphosphatoethyltriethoxysilane (DEPETES) and bis-[3-(triethoxysilyl) propyl] tetrasulfide (BTESPT), was developed, by the sol-gel route. Corrosion resistance of the coated alloy was characterized in a modified-simulated body fluid (m-SBF), using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The silane coating provided significant and durable corrosion resistance. During the course of this, hydrogen evolution and pH variation, if any, were monitored for both bare and coated alloys. The coating morphology was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) and the cross-linking in the coating was studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). As indicated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) results, an important finding was the presence of hydrated magnesium phosphate on the sample that was subjected to immersion in m-SBF for 216 h. Magnesium phosphate is reported to support osteoblast formation and tissue healing. - Highlights: • A silane-based coating was investigated for improving corrosion resistance. • Coating was developed on Mg-6Zn-Ca alloy to delay its biodegradation in m-SBF. • Corrosion resistance was characterized, using polarization and EIS. • The coating morphology was characterized using SEM, EDAX, XRD and FTIR. • 1:4 volume ratio of DEPETES:BTESPT showed significant corrosion resistance

  13. In vitro investigation of biodegradable polymeric coating for corrosion resistance of Mg-6Zn-Ca alloy in simulated body fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaur, Swati, E-mail: gaurswat@gmail.com [IITB–Monash Research Academy, IIT Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India); Singh Raman, R.K. [Department of Mechanical, Monash University, Clayton, VIC-3800 (Australia); Department of Aerospace Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC-3800 (Australia); Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC-3800 (Australia); Khanna, A.S. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, IIT Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India)

    2014-09-01

    A silane-based biodegradable coating was developed and investigated to improve corrosion resistance of an Mg-6Zn-Ca magnesium alloy to delay the biodegradation of the alloy in the physiological environment. Conditions were optimized to develop a stable and uniform hydroxide layer on the alloys surface—known to facilitate silane-substrate adhesion. A composite coating of two silanes, namely, diethylphosphatoethyltriethoxysilane (DEPETES) and bis-[3-(triethoxysilyl) propyl] tetrasulfide (BTESPT), was developed, by the sol-gel route. Corrosion resistance of the coated alloy was characterized in a modified-simulated body fluid (m-SBF), using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The silane coating provided significant and durable corrosion resistance. During the course of this, hydrogen evolution and pH variation, if any, were monitored for both bare and coated alloys. The coating morphology was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) and the cross-linking in the coating was studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). As indicated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) results, an important finding was the presence of hydrated magnesium phosphate on the sample that was subjected to immersion in m-SBF for 216 h. Magnesium phosphate is reported to support osteoblast formation and tissue healing. - Highlights: • A silane-based coating was investigated for improving corrosion resistance. • Coating was developed on Mg-6Zn-Ca alloy to delay its biodegradation in m-SBF. • Corrosion resistance was characterized, using polarization and EIS. • The coating morphology was characterized using SEM, EDAX, XRD and FTIR. • 1:4 volume ratio of DEPETES:BTESPT showed significant corrosion resistance.

  14. A sensitive and semi-quantitative method for determination of multi-drug residues in animal body fluids using multiplex dipstick immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shuaijuan; Zhou, Tianjiao; Yin, Bingjie; He, Pingli

    2016-07-13

    The objective of this research was to develop a multiplex dipstick immunoassay method for the simultaneous determination of multi-veterinary drug residues, such as β-agonists, sulfonamides, and tetracyclines in milk, urine, and serum. The multiplex dipstick assay format was based on an indirect competitive approach: Three test lines (different antigens) and one control line (goat anti-mouse IgG) were located on the strip membrane. Labeled antibodies were freeze-dried in microwells. Samples did not require pretreatment and could be directly analyzed within 10 min. Threshold levels in different sample matrices were visually estimated at 0.3-0.45 ng mL(-1) for clenbuterol; 3-4 ng mL(-1) for sulfadiazine; and 4.5-6 ng mL(-1) for tetracycline, respectively. The linear relationship between the concentrations of veterinary drug residues and the Au nanoparticles plasmon absorbance allowed quantitative determination of these veterinary drug residues. The recoveries of clenbuterol, sulfadiazine and tetracycline in spiked samples ranged from 78.4% to 112.6%, and the relative standard deviations were below 11.2%. Analysis of animal samples suggested that the proposed multiplex dipstick assay method was consistent with the LC-MS/MS method. The percentage of false results was less than or equal to 5%. Thus, the proposed multiplex dipstick assay is inexpensive, easy-to-use, and suitable for the purposes of rapid and comprehensive screening of 3 families of β-agonists, sulfonamides and tetracyclines including 26 drugs in animal body fluids. PMID:27237838

  15. A comparison of ARMS and direct sequencing for EGFR mutation analysis and Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors treatment prediction in body fluid samples of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR mutation is strongly associated with the therapeutic effect of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Nevertheless, tumor tissue that needed for mutation analysis is frequently unavailable. Body fluid was considered to be a feasible substitute for the analysis, but arising problems in clinical practice such as relatively lower mutation rate and poor clinical correlation are not yet fully resolved. Method In this study, 50 patients (32 pleural fluids and 18 plasmas with TKIs therapy experience and with direct sequencing results were selected from 220 patients for further analysis. The EGFR mutation status was re-evaluated by Amplification Refractory Mutation System (ARMS, and the clinical outcomes of TKIs were analyzed retrospectively. Results As compared with direct sequencing, 16 positive and 23 negative patients were confirmed by ARMS, and the other 11 former negative patients (6 pleural fluids and 5 plasmas were redefined as positive, with a fairly well clinical outcome (7 PR, 3 SD, and 1 PD. The objective response rate (ORR of positive patients was significant, 81.3% (direct sequencing and 72.7% (ARMS for pleural fluids, and 80% (ARMS for plasma. Notably, even reclassified by ARMS, the ORR for negative patients was still relatively high, 60% for pleural fluids and 46.2% for plasma. Conclusions When using body fluids for EGFR mutation analysis, positive result is consistently a good indicator for TKIs therapy, and the predictive effect was no less than that of tumor tissue, no matter what method was employed. However, even reclassified by ARMS, the correlation between negative results and clinical outcome of TKIs was still unsatisfied. The results indicated that false negative mutation still existed, which may be settled by using method with sensitivity to single DNA molecule or by optimizing the extraction procedure with RNA or CTC to

  16. Effect of Glycerol-Induced Hyperhydration on Body Fluid and Electrolyte Balance in Endurance Athletes during The Course of Treadmill Exercise Performed at 30 °C for 90 minute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Pense

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of glycerol-induced hyperhydration on body fluid and electrolyte balancein endurance athletes during the course of treadmill exercise performed at 30C for 90min. 9 elit level male long-distance runnerwere participated to this study (age: x = 18,7 ±1,3 years, height: x = 170,7±5,2 cm, body weight: x = 58,8±6,6 kg, VO2max:63,94±3,04 ml.kg-1. First, VO2max of the subjects were determined with an incremental treadmill running protocol. In a randomized,double-blind cross over experimental design subjects were tested three times with 3 days intervals (wash out following ingestion of20 ml.kg-1BW of three different mixture of solutions: 1 diluted sports drink with 1.2 gr.kg-1BW glycerol (GS 2 diluted sports drink(SP and 3 aspartame flavored distilled water (WS. Exercise trials were conducted at an exercise intensity of 65% maximal oxygenconsumption (VO2max for 90 min at 30±1.8C and 25-35% relative humidity. Blood and urin samples were collected pre and postfluid ingestion, at the 30th, 60th and 90th min of exercise trials to determine body fluid and electrolyte balance. Data were analyzedusing two-way (treatmentxtime analyses of variance (ANOVA. Significance level was defined as p0.05. Inconclusion, glycerol-induced hyperhydration has no advantage compared to the other solutions ingested on body fluid andelectrolyte balance in endurance athletes during 90 min of treadmill run.

  17. Hydrodynamics of the interaction between bodies in a viscous fluid in the vicinity of their contact at low and high Reynolds numbers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrov, A. G.; Kharlamov, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 2 (2013), s. 179-191. ISSN 0015-4628 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/09/2066 Grant ostatní: Russian Foundation for Basic Research(RU) 11-01-00535; Russian Foundation for Basic Research(RU) 11-01-00857; Target Analytical Program; Development of the Scientific Potential of the Higher School(RU) 2.1.2/3604 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : lubrication layer theory * viscous and inviscid fluids * thin layer * contact vicinity Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.320, year: 2013

  18. Evaluation of the grand-canonical partition function using expanded Wang-Landau simulations. IV. Performance of many-body force fields and tight-binding schemes for the fluid phases of silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desgranges, Caroline; Delhommelle, Jerome

    2016-03-28

    We extend Expanded Wang-Landau (EWL) simulations beyond classical systems and develop the EWL method for systems modeled with a tight-binding Hamiltonian. We then apply the method to determine the partition function and thus all thermodynamic properties, including the Gibbs free energy and entropy, of the fluid phases of Si. We compare the results from quantum many-body (QMB) tight binding models, which explicitly calculate the overlap between the atomic orbitals of neighboring atoms, to those obtained with classical many-body (CMB) force fields, which allow to recover the tetrahedral organization in condensed phases of Si through, e.g., a repulsive 3-body term that favors the ideal tetrahedral angle. Along the vapor-liquid coexistence, between 3000 K and 6000 K, the densities for the two coexisting phases are found to vary significantly (by 5 orders of magnitude for the vapor and by up to 25% for the liquid) and to provide a stringent test of the models. Transitions from vapor to liquid are predicted to occur for chemical potentials that are 10%-15% higher for CMB models than for QMB models, and a ranking of the force fields is provided by comparing the predictions for the vapor pressure to the experimental data. QMB models also reveal the formation of a gap in the electronic density of states of the coexisting liquid at high temperatures. Subjecting Si to a nanoscopic confinement has a dramatic effect on the phase diagram with, e.g. at 6000 K, a decrease in liquid densities by about 50% for both CMB and QMB models and an increase in vapor densities between 90% (CMB) and 170% (QMB). The results presented here provide a full picture of the impact of the strategy (CMB or QMB) chosen to model many-body effects on the thermodynamic properties of the fluid phases of Si. PMID:27036464

  19. Evaluation of the grand-canonical partition function using expanded Wang-Landau simulations. IV. Performance of many-body force fields and tight-binding schemes for the fluid phases of silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desgranges, Caroline; Delhommelle, Jerome

    2016-03-01

    We extend Expanded Wang-Landau (EWL) simulations beyond classical systems and develop the EWL method for systems modeled with a tight-binding Hamiltonian. We then apply the method to determine the partition function and thus all thermodynamic properties, including the Gibbs free energy and entropy, of the fluid phases of Si. We compare the results from quantum many-body (QMB) tight binding models, which explicitly calculate the overlap between the atomic orbitals of neighboring atoms, to those obtained with classical many-body (CMB) force fields, which allow to recover the tetrahedral organization in condensed phases of Si through, e.g., a repulsive 3-body term that favors the ideal tetrahedral angle. Along the vapor-liquid coexistence, between 3000 K and 6000 K, the densities for the two coexisting phases are found to vary significantly (by 5 orders of magnitude for the vapor and by up to 25% for the liquid) and to provide a stringent test of the models. Transitions from vapor to liquid are predicted to occur for chemical potentials that are 10%-15% higher for CMB models than for QMB models, and a ranking of the force fields is provided by comparing the predictions for the vapor pressure to the experimental data. QMB models also reveal the formation of a gap in the electronic density of states of the coexisting liquid at high temperatures. Subjecting Si to a nanoscopic confinement has a dramatic effect on the phase diagram with, e.g. at 6000 K, a decrease in liquid densities by about 50% for both CMB and QMB models and an increase in vapor densities between 90% (CMB) and 170% (QMB). The results presented here provide a full picture of the impact of the strategy (CMB or QMB) chosen to model many-body effects on the thermodynamic properties of the fluid phases of Si.

  20. Cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin (orexin) levels are elevated by play but are not raised by exercise and its associated heart rate, blood pressure, respiration or body temperature changes

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, M.-F.; Nienhuis, R.; Maidment, N.; Lam, H.A.; Siegel, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Hypocretin (Hcrt) has been implicated in the control of motor activity and in respiration and cardiovascular changes. Loss of Hcrt in narcolepsy is linked to sleepiness and to cataplexy, a sudden loss of muscle tone which is triggered by sudden strong emotions. In the current study, we have compared the effects of treadmill running to yard play on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Hcrt level in normal dogs. We find that treadmill locomotion, at a wide range of speeds, does not increase Hcrt level bey...

  1. Disposable reversed-phase chromatography columns for improved detection of carboxylic acids in body fluids by electron-capture gas-liquid chromatography.

    OpenAIRE

    Daneshvar, M. I.; Brooks, J B; Winstead, R M

    1987-01-01

    Disposable reversed-phase chromatography columns were tested for their effectiveness in removing unreacted trichloroethanol (TCE) from derivatized samples for gas-liquid chromatography analysis. Derivatized acidic chloroform extracts of saponified whole cells of Mycobacterium species, spent culture media, and derivatized acidic chloroform extracts of serum and cerebrospinal fluids from patients with tuberculous meningitis were tested. Samples were added to preconditioned reversed-phase chroma...

  2. 2010年中国CHINET临床分离自无菌体液的细菌分布和耐药性监测%CHINET 2010 surveillance of bacterial distribution and resistance in sterile body fluids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小江; 陈中举; 胡云建; 艾效曼; 张泓; 孔菁; 贾蓓; 黄文祥; 王传清; 王爱敏; 魏莲花; 徐英春; 吴玲; 卓超; 苏丹虹; 张朝霞; 季萍; 徐元宏; 沈继录; 单斌; 杜艳; 俞云松; 杨青; 汪复; 朱德妹; 倪语星; 孙景勇; 孙自镛

    2012-01-01

    临床治疗造成严重威胁.%Objective To investigate the distribution and antimicrobial resistance of the bacteria isolated from cerebrospi-nal fluid and other sterile body fluids from hospitals in several regions of China. Methods Twelve general hospitals and two children's hospitals were involved in this program. Disc diffusion test (Kirby-Bauer method), E-test and MIC determination were employed to study the antimicrobial resistance. The data were analyzed by WHONET 5. 4 software according to CLSI 2010 breakpoints. Results A total of 2 409 nonduplicate clinical isolates were collected from January to December in 2010, of which gram negative organisms and gram positive cocci accounted for 56.2% (1 353/2 409) and 43. 8% (1 056/2 409), respectively. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS), B. baumannii, K, pneumoniae, S. aureus and E. coli were the most common bacterial species in cerebrospinal fluid. E. coli, CNS, E. faecium, K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa were the most frequently isolated species from other sterile body fluids. About 78.6% and 69,7% of the S. aureus and CNS isolates from cerebrospinal fluid were methicillin resistant, respectively, while 60. 3% and 67. 2% of the S. aureus and CNS strains from other sterile body fluids were methicillin resistant, respectively. No staphylococcal strain was found resistant to vancomycin, teicoplanin or linezolid. None of the enterococcal strains from cerebro-spinal fluid was resistant to vancomycin. A total of 17 E. faecium strains from other sterile body fluid were found resistant to vancomycin. ESBLs-producing strains accounted for 62. 5% and 30. 0% in the E. coli and Klebsiella (K. pneumoniae, K. oxytoca) isolates from cerebrospinal fluid , respectively. About 50. 4% and 27. 3% of the E. coli and Klebsiella (K. pneumoniae , K. oxytoca) isolated from other sterile body fluid were ESBLs-producing strains. Pan-resist ant strains were identified in the A. baumannii (n=10, 18. 2%), K. pneumoniae (n = 8, 27. 6%) and P. aeruginosa {n= 1, 7. 7

  3. Implications of an ultramafic body in a basalt-dominated oceanic hydrothermal system on the vent fluid composition and on processes within sediments overlying a hydrothermal discharge zone: results of reactive-transport modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt-Epping, P.; Diamond, L. W.

    2009-04-01

    We use 2D reactive transport simulations to assess the hydraulic, thermal and chemical implications of an ultramafic body of lherzolitic composition within a basalt-dominated oceanic hydrothermal system. The simulations are fully coupled and hence account for the progressive serpentinization and the associated porosity/permeability reduction of the model lherzolite over time. We focus on the chemical fingerprints that reveal the presence of the ultramafic body at depth and that may be detected by direct seafloor exploration. These are the vent fluid composition and the porewater and mineral alteration within the rock column overlying a hydrothermal discharge zone. We compare ocean crust sections with and without sedimentary cover. Simulations suggest that the boundary between the basalt and the lherzolite constitutes a sharp reaction front. The type and distribution of alteration phases that form at the reaction front are a result of fluid flow across the basalt-lherzolite interface and thus are determined by the geometry and rate of hydrothermal fluid flow. Consequently, observations of the occurrence and extent of alteration phases, such as Fe-rich chlorite in the lherzolite or of rodingitization of the basalt, may be interpreted in terms of the reactive-transport model to reconstruct paleo-fluid flow in the permeable oceanic basement. The alteration of the lherzolite produces a fluid that is strongly reducing and depleted in silica. The most important chemical indicator of this rock-water interaction is an elevated H2 concentration. Under reducing (i.e. SO4-2 and CO2 free) conditions the enrichment in H2 is proportional to the extent of reaction between the fluid and the ultramafic rock. Under these conditions H2 behaves conservatively and the fluid remains enriched in H2 even though the concentration of all other major aqueous species is quickly buffered to new values when the fluid subsequently passes through basalt. This produces a vent fluid which is

  4. Induction of arthritis with Mycoplasma hyosynoviae in pigs: Clinical response and re-isolation of the organism from body fluids and organs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagedorn-Olsen, T.; Nielsen, N.C.; Friis, N.F.

    1999-01-01

    mycoplasma is cultivable from synovial fluids and other tissues. In this article we report on the clinical response to infection and the results obtained from re-isolation attempts. In three inoculation experiments with M. hyosynoviae, clinical arthritis was produced by intravenous and by intranasal exposure...... half of the cases the onset was acute and the lameness severe, Epically involving the hindlegs and with affected pigs assuming a dog-sitting position. A systemic phase was found in the majority (86 %) of the pigs. However, the infection was in two cases established in the tonsils without detection of a...

  5. The Origin, Function and Diagnostic Potential of Extracellular microRNA in Human Body Fluids%人体体液中细胞外microRNA的起源、功能及潜在诊疗价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张甦洋; 谢佳昀; 梁宏伟; 陈熹; 张辰宇

    2013-01-01

    Recently,numerous studies have documented the importance of microRNAs (miRNAs) as an essential cornerstone of the genetic system.Once thought as unstable RNA molecules,miRNAs are now known to circulate in the bloodstream and other body fluids in a stable,cell-free form.Importantly,extracellular miRNAs are aberrantly present in plasma,serum and other body fluids during the pathogenesis of many diseases and,thus,are promising noninvasive or minimally invasive biomarkers to assess the pathological status of the body.However,the origin and biological function of extracellular miRNAs remains incompletely understood.In this review,we summarize the recent literature on the biogenesis and working models of extracellular miRNAs,and we highlight the impact of extending these ongoing extracellular miRNA studies to clinical applications.%最近大量的研究表明micro RNAs(miRNAs)是一类重要的调控因子.曾经被认为是非常不稳定的RNA分子——miRNA,却可以稳定存在于血液和其他体液中.更加重要的是,细胞外miRNAs被发现和多种疾病密切相关,它们可以作为诸如肿瘤等各种疾病的非侵入性生物标志物.然而,目前关于细胞外miRNA的来源以及生物学功能还不甚清楚.本文将总结最近细胞外miRNA的研究进展,并将重点介绍细胞外miRNA在疾病诊断及治疗中的作用.

  6. Simulation research on fluid field of limited space around the human body%有限空间人体周围流场的仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡志刚; 崔红力; 管小荣; 张庆华

    2011-01-01

    As an important content of the research and development of personal health care robot, the contact area, speed and pressure between human skin and circulating water during the process of bath should be taken into consideration, since these parameters have significant impact on the bathing effect. To enhance the effect of auto-bathing and provide research basis for structural design of bath and control strategy of circulating water, the CFD model of the limited space and human body was established based on the statistically significant human size. According to the cycling approach of water flow, and the geometric boundary conditions of bath and human body, the flow field around human body in the bath was dispersed, refining the grid of the flow field around human body. The numerical simulation and computation of three-dimensional flow field, the velocity distribution near the surface of human body and the intake of trace chart under different cycling modes were achieved. The numerical solution of the changing flow field around human body in time and space quantitatively was given, providing reference for structural optimization design and the bathing mode research.%作为个人卫生护理机器人研发的重要内容,在洗浴过程中必须考虑人体皮肤与循环水流的接触面积、速度和压力,因为这些参数对洗浴效果影响较大.为提高自动洗浴效果,为浴槽结构设计和循环水自动控制策略提供研究依据,基于统计意义上的人体尺寸,建立了有限空间和人体的CFD模型.结合水流的循环方式、浴槽和人体的几何边界条件,对浴槽内人体周围的流场进行离散,细化接近人体周围的流场网格.对三维流场进行数值模拟计算,计算出水流不同循环模式作用下,人体近表面的速度分布及各循环模式下进水口的迹线图,在时间和空间上定量给出浴槽内人体周围流场变化的数值解,为结构优化设计和洗浴模式研究提供参考.

  7. Structure and thermodynamics of a mixture of patchy and spherical colloids: a multi-body association theory with complete reference fluid information

    CERN Document Server

    Bansal, Artee; Cox, Kenneth R; Chapman, Walter G

    2016-01-01

    A mixture of solvent particles with short-range, directional interactions and solute particles with short-range, isotropic interactions that can bond multiple times is of fundamental interest in understanding liquids and colloidal mixtures. Because of multi-body correlations predicting the structure and thermodynamics of such systems remains a challenge. Earlier Marshall and Chapman developed a theory wherein association effects due to interactions multiply the partition function for clustering of particles in a reference hard-sphere system. The multi-body effects are incorporated in the clustering process, which in their work was obtained in the absence of the bulk medium. The bulk solvent effects were then modeled approximately within a second order perturbation approach. However, their approach is inadequate at high densities and for large association strengths. Based on the idea that the clustering of solvent in a defined coordination volume around the solute is related to occupancy statistics in that def...

  8. Simple, inexpensive method of determining total body water using a tracer dose of D2O and infrared absorption of biological fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved infrared spectrophotometric method using tracer doses of D2O for determination of total body water (TBW) is described. Evaluation of sample preparation procedures showed that only vacuum sublimation yielded acceptable recoveries of D2O standards in the range of 0.01-0.30 mg/ml in urine and plasma (101 +/- 2.5 and 99.6 +/- 2.6%, mean +/- SD, respectively). Oral administration of a 10 g dose of D2O was shown to equilibrate within 2 hr in the saliva and plasma of 10 healthy men and women, including obese (30% body fat) subjects. Calculated TBW was 39.1 +/- 6.4 L which represented 74 +/- 1.6% of the fat free mass determined by hydrodensitometry. The precision of the described infrared method was 2.5%. Based upon the observed sensitivity of this method, it would be possible to administer smaller oral D2O doses, 5-6 g, and obtain reliable TBW values. The practical advantages of this method are low cost and a simple analysis that permits repeated TBW measurements over brief periods without an undue buildup of background deuterium levels in the body

  9. Use of sodC versus ctrA for real-time polymerase chain reaction-based detection of Neisseria meningitidis in sterile body fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Takenori Higa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the use of a newly described sodC-based real-time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay for detecting Neisseria meningitidis in normally sterile sites, such as cerebrospinal fluid and serum. The sodC-based RT-PCR assay has an advantage over ctrA for detecting nongroupable N. meningitidis isolates, which are commonly present in asymptomatic pharyngeal carriage. However, in our study, sodC-based RT-PCR was 7.5% less sensitive than ctrA. Given the public health impact of possible false-negative results due to the use of the sodC target gene alone, sodC-based RT-PCR for the diagnosis of meningococcal meningitis should be used with caution.

  10. Computational fluid dynamic studies of certain ducted bluff-body flowfields relevant to turbojet combustors. Volume 2: Time-averaged flowfield predictions for a proposed centerbody combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, M. S.; Krishnamurthy, L.

    1986-07-01

    The near-wake region in a ducted bluff-body combustor was investigated by finite-difference computations. The numerical predictions are based upon the time-independent, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations and the k-epsilon turbulence model. The steady-state calculations address both nonreacting and reacting flowfields in a novel configuration to more realistically simulate some of the essential features of the primary zone of a gas turbine combustion chamber. This configuration is characterized by turbulent mixing and combustion in the recirculating near-wake region downstream of an axisymmetric bluff body due to two annular air streams--an outer swirl-free flow and an inner swirling flow--and a central fuel jet. The latter contains propane for reacting flows and carbon dioxide for nonreacting flows. In view of the large number of geometrical and flow parameters involved, the reported results are concerned with only a limited parametric examination with the major emphasis being on nonreacting flows. Questions addressed for a particular set of geometric parameters include the effects of variation of mass flow rates in all three streams and the influence of swirl in the middle stream. Reacting computations investigate the influence of swirl on combustion, as well as that of combustion on the flowfield.

  11. Conditions of Mytilus edulis extracellular body fluids and shell composition in a pH-treatment experiment: Acid-base status, trace elements and δ11B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Agnes; Fietzke, Jan; Melzner, Frank; BöHm, Florian; Thomsen, JöRn; Garbe-SchöNberg, Dieter; Eisenhauer, Anton

    2012-01-01

    Mytilus edulis were cultured for 3 months under six different seawater pCO2 levels ranging from 380 to 4000 μatm. Specimen were taken from Kiel Fjord (Western Baltic Sea, Germany) which is a habitat with high and variable seawater pCO2 and related shifts in carbonate system speciation (e.g., low pH and low CaCO3 saturation state). Hemolymph (HL) and extrapallial fluid (EPF) samples were analyzed for pH and total dissolved inorganic carbon (CT) to calculate pCO2 and [HCO3-]. A second experiment was conducted for 2 months with three different pCO2 levels (380, 1400 and 4000 μatm). Boron isotopes (δ11B) were investigated by LA-MC-ICP-MS (Laser Ablation-Multicollector-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry) in shell portions precipitated during experimental treatment time. Additionally, elemental ratios (B/Ca, Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca) in the EPF of specimen from the second experiment were measured via ICP-OES (Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry). Extracellular pH was not significantly different in HL and EPF but systematically lower than ambient water pH. This is due to high extracellular pCO2 values, a prerequisite for metabolic CO2 excretion. No accumulation of extracellular [HCO3-] was measured. Elemental ratios (B/Ca, Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca) in the EPF increased slightly with pH which is in accordance with increasing growth and calcification rates at higher seawater pH values. Boron isotope ratios were highly variable between different individuals but also within single shells. This corresponds to a high individual variability in fluid B/Ca ratios and may be due to high boron concentrations in the organic parts of the shell. The mean δ11B value shows no trend with pH but appears to represent internal pH (EPF) rather than ambient water pH.

  12. Donnan effect on chloride ion distribution as a determinant of body fluid composition that allows action potentials to spread via fast sodium channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurbel Sven

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Proteins in any solution with a pH value that differs from their isoelectric point exert both an electric Donnan effect (DE and colloid osmotic pressure. While the former alters the distribution of ions, the latter forces water diffusion. In cells with highly Cl--permeable membranes, the resting potential is more dependent on the cytoplasmic pH value, which alters the Donnan effect of cell proteins, than on the current action of Na/K pumps. Any weak (positive or negative electric disturbances of their resting potential are quickly corrected by chloride shifts. In many excitable cells, the spreading of action potentials is mediated through fast, voltage-gated sodium channels. Tissue cells share similar concentrations of cytoplasmic proteins and almost the same exposure to the interstitial fluid (IF chloride concentration. The consequence is that similar intra- and extra-cellular chloride concentrations make these cells share the same Nernst value for Cl-. Further extrapolation indicates that cells with the same chloride Nernst value and high chloride permeability should have similar resting membrane potentials, more negative than -80 mV. Fast sodium channels require potassium levels >20 times higher inside the cell than around it, while the concentration of Cl- ions needs to be >20 times higher outside the cell. When osmotic forces, electroneutrality and other ions are all taken into account, the overall osmolarity needs to be near 280 to 300 mosm/L to reach the required resting potential in excitable cells. High plasma protein concentrations keep the IF chloride concentration stable, which is important in keeping the resting membrane potential similar in all chloride-permeable cells. Probable consequences of this concept for neuron excitability, erythrocyte membrane permeability and several features of circulation design are briefly discussed.

  13. Contact with hospital syringes containing body fluids: implications for medical waste management regulation Jeringas en contacto con sangre y fluidos corporales utilizadas en el hospital: implicaciones para el manejo de desechos hospitalarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Volkow

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine amount of syringes used in the hospital and extent of contact with blood and body fluids of these syringes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Syringe use was surveyed at a tertiary care center for one week; syringes were classified into the following four categories according to use: a contained blood; b contained other body fluids (urine, gastric secretion, cerebrospinal fluid, wound drainage; c used exclusively for drug dilution and application in plastic intravenous (IV tubes, and d for intramuscular (IM, subcutaneous (SC, or intradermic (ID injections. RESULTS: A total of 7 157 plastic disposable syringes was used; 1 227 (17% contained blood during use, 346 (4.8%, other body fluids, 5 257 (73% were used exclusively for drug dilution and application in plastic IV lines, and 327 (4.5% were utilized for IM, SC, or ID injections. An estimated 369 140 syringes used annually, or eight syringes per patient per in-hospital day. All syringes were disposed of as regulated medical waste, in observance of the law. CONCLUSIONS: There is an urgent need to review recommendations for medical waste management by both international agencies and local governments, based on scientific data and a cost-benefit analysis, to prevent resource waste and further environmental damage.OBJETIVO: Cuantificar el número de jeringas que se utilizan en el hospital y calcular cuántas de éstas entran en contacto con sangre o fluidos corporales. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se hizo una encuesta del uso de jeringas en un hospital de tercer nivel de atención durante toda una semana. Se clasificaron, de acuerdo con el uso que se les dio, en cuatro categorías: a aspiración de sangre, b otros fluidos corporales (orina, secreción gástrica, líquido cefalorraquídeo, drenaje de herida, etcétera, c uso exclusivo para diluir medicamentos y administrarlos a través de tubos de terapia intravenosa, d para aplicación de inyecciones intramusculares (IM, subcutáneas (SC o

  14. Occupational Exposure to Blood and Body Fluids in a Department of Oral Sciences: Results of a Thirteen-Year Surveillance Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. A. Gatto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Aim of this analysis was to identify trends that will aid in the prevention of injury. Methods. Our data were collected from 1999 to 2011 during a surveillance program of occupational exposures to blood or other potentially infectious materials in a Dental School by using a standard coded protocol. Results. 63 exposures were reported. 56/63 (89% percutaneous and 7/63 (11% mucosal, involving a splash to the eye of the dental care workers (DCW. 25/63 (40% involved students, 23/63 (36% DCW attending masters and doctorate, 13/63 (21% DCW attending as tutors and 2/63 (3% staff. 45/63 (71% and 18/63 (29% occurred respectively during and after the use of the device; of last ones, 1/18 (0.05% were related to instrument clean-up and 1/18 (0.05% to laboratory activity, 12/18 (67% occurred when a DCW collided with a sharp object during the setting, and 4/18 (22% during other activities. The instrument and the body part most likely involved were needle and finger respectively. The overall exposure rate was 4.78 per 10,000 patient visits. Conclusions Our results may serve as benchmark that Dental Schools can employ to assess their frequency of injury.

  15. Fluid Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazin, Philip

    1987-01-01

    Outlines the contents of Volume II of "Principia" by Sir Isaac Newton. Reviews the contributions of subsequent scientists to the physics of fluid dynamics. Discusses the treatment of fluid mechanics in physics curricula. Highlights a few of the problems of modern research in fluid dynamics. Shows that problems still remain. (CW)

  16. 外形任意的多孔介质轴对称物体中充满非Newton幂律流体时的自然对流%Natural Convection of Non-Newtonian Power-Law Fluid Over Axisymmetric and Two-Dimensional Bodies of Arbitrary Shape in a Fluid-Saturated Porous Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S·M·阿布德尔-盖德; M·R·伊德

    2011-01-01

    在一个轴对称、外形任意的多孔介质二维体中,充满了有屈服应力的非Newton幂律流体时,数值分析其自由对流及其传热/传质问题,利用相似变换,将边界层控制方程及其边界条件变换为无量纲形式,然后用有限差分法求解该方程组.所研究的参数为流变常数、浮力比和Lewis数.给出并讨论了典型的速度、温度及浓度曲线,发现屈服应力参数值和非Newton流体的幂律指数对结果有着显著的影响.%Numerical analysis of free convection coupled heat and mass transfer was presented for non-Newtonian power-law fluids with yield stress flowing over two-dimensional or axisymmetric body of arbitrary shape in a fluid-saturated porous medium.The governing boundary layer equations and boundary conditions were cast into a dimensionless form by similarity transformation and the resulting system of equations was solved by a finite difference method.The parameters studied were the rheologicai constants, the buoyancy ratio, and the Lewis number.Representative velocity as well as temperature and concentration profiles were presented and discussed.It was found that the result depend strongly on the values of the yield stress parameter, and the power-law index of non-Newtonian fluid.

  17. Flow around Ahmed Body

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uruba, Václav; Sedlák, K.

    Praha : Ústav termomechaniky AV ČR, v. v. i., 2009 - (Příhoda, J.; Kozel, K.), s. 107-110 ISBN 978-80-87012-19-2. [Topical Problems of Fluid Mechanics 2009. Praha (CZ), 25.02.2009-26.02.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/08/1112 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : Ahmed body * dynamics * wake Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  18. The characteristics of internal waves generated by a revolution body in a stratified fluid with a pycnocline%具有密度跃层分层流体中回转体激发内波特性实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王进; 尤云祥; 胡天群; 王小青; 朱敏慧

    2012-01-01

    Experiments are conducted for the characteristics of both body and wake-generated internal waves due to a revolution body(aspect ratio 7:1) in a stratified fluid with a pycnocline where the revolution body is horizontally towed in forward and backward ways.Results show that the body-generated internal waves are a type of stationary multiple-mode Lee wave structures,and the wake-generated internal waves are a type of non-stationary quasi-Lee structures produced by the large-scale coherent structure in the turbulent wake acting as a moving excitation with respect to the towed revolution body.The transition between Lee and quasi-Lee waves occurs at a critical Froude number Fr_c which is shown to be linearly dependent on the aspect ratios of the revolution bodies where the wave patterns for Fr Fr_c are dominated by Lee waves,whereas the wave patterns for Fr Fr_c are dominated by quasi-Lee waves, Fr is the Froude number for the characteristic diameter of the revolution body.For the quasi-Lee waves,the dimensionless peak-topeak amplitudes linearly increase with Fr and the Froude numbers relative to the correlation velocities remain at a relatively constant value of approximately 0.8 regardless of the aspect ratios.Moreover,the head and the tail shapes of the revolution body have no remarkable influence on the critical Froude number Fr_c,as well as both the Froude numbers relative to the correlation velocities and the dimensionless peak-to-peak amplitudes of the quasi-Lee waves.%在具有连续密度跃层的分层流体中,对长径比为7:1的回转体在迎水和背水运动下激发体积效应与尾迹效应内波特性开展了系列实验.结果表明,体积效应激发内波属于一种相对于回转体定常的多模态Lee波结构,而尾迹效应激发主控内波为相对于回转体非定常的拟Lee波结构,这是一类由湍流尾迹中大尺度相干结构作为移动源激发的内波结构,在Lee波与拟Lee波之间存在

  19. Fluids engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluids engineering has played an important role in many applications, from ancient flood control to the design of high-speed compact turbomachinery. New applications of fluids engineering, such as in high-technology materials processing, biotechnology, and advanced combustion systems, have kept up unwaining interest in the subject. More accurate and sophisticated computational and measurement techniques are also constantly being developed and refined. On a more fundamental level, nonlinear dynamics and chaotic behavior of fluid flow are no longer an intellectual curiosity and fluid engineers are increasingly interested in finding practical applications for these emerging sciences. Applications of fluid technology to new areas, as well as the need to improve the design and to enhance the flexibility and reliability of flow-related machines and devices will continue to spur interest in fluids engineering. The objectives of the present seminar were: to exchange current information on arts, science, and technology of fluids engineering; to promote scientific cooperation between the fluids engineering communities of both nations, and to provide an opportunity for the participants and their colleagues to explore possible joint research programs in topics of high priority and mutual interest to both countries. The Seminar provided an excellent forum for reviewing the current state and future needs of fluids engineering for the two nations. With the Seminar ear-marking the first formal scientific exchange between Korea and the United States in the area of fluids engineering, the scope was deliberately left broad and general

  20. Influence of design on bioactivity of novel CaSiO3-CaMg(SiO3)2 bioceramics: in vitro simulated body fluid test and thermodynamic simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainz, M A; Pena, P; Serena, S; Caballero, A

    2010-07-01

    A new type of bioactive ceramic has been designed and obtained from high-temperature phase information from the wollastonite (CaSiO(3))-diopside (CaMg(SiO(3))(2)) phase equilibrium diagram. The selected composition was that corresponding to the eutectic point of the pseudobinary CaSiO(3)-CaMg(SiO(3))(2) system. The sintering behaviour, phase evolution, microstructural changes and in vitro bioactivity of CaSiO(3)-CaMg(SiO(3))(2) eutectic bioceramics were analysed by differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and image analysis. A simulation of the dissolution properties of the different materials studied, in water as well as in simulated body fluid (SBF), was also carried out by thermodynamic calculations, with the purpose of understanding the in vitro results obtained. The results demonstrate that the CaMg(SiO(3))(2) is significantly less soluble than CaSiO(3), developing an in situ porous structure (biomimetic porous bone material) with adequate biodegradation rate and stability strength when immersed in SBF. The influence of the microstructure (porosity, grain size and phase composition) on the in vitro bioactivity of the obtained bioceramics was also examined. PMID:20060937

  1. Textured fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Guenther, Gerhard K.

    1995-01-01

    The rheology and development morphology of textured fluids have been investigated. The first fluid considered in this work was a liquid crystalline polymer consisting of isotropic and anisotropic solutions of poly-p-phenyleneterephthalamide (PPT) in sulfuric acid. The second textured fluid considered in this work was an immiscible polymer blend consisting of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and nylon 6,6. The role played by liquid crystalline order (LCO) and a polydomain ...

  2. Fluid mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Kundu, Pijush K; Dowling, David R

    2011-01-01

    Fluid mechanics, the study of how fluids behave and interact under various forces and in various applied situations-whether in the liquid or gaseous state or both-is introduced and comprehensively covered in this widely adopted text. Revised and updated by Dr. David Dowling, Fluid Mechanics, 5e is suitable for both a first or second course in fluid mechanics at the graduate or advanced undergraduate level. Along with more than 100 new figures, the text has been reorganized and consolidated to provide a better flow and more cohesion of topics.Changes made to the

  3. Collisions of rigid bodies, deformable bodies and fluids

    OpenAIRE

    DIMNET, E; Fremond, M.; GORMAZ, R; San Martin, J.

    2003-01-01

    The system made of two solids is deformable because the relative position of the solids may change. This idea is applied to an old and complex problem of mechanics : the collision theory. The major findings are constitutive laws which are coherent from the thermodynamics point of view. They give robust and productive models and numerical methods, for instance for rocks avalanches and collisions of solids and flluids.

  4. Neuroendocrine control of body fluid homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCann S.M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiotensin II and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP play important and opposite roles in the control of water and salt intake, with angiotensin II promoting the intake of both and ANP inhibiting the intake of both. Following blood volume expansion, baroreceptor input to the brainstem induces the release of ANP within the hypothalamus that releases oxytocin (OT that acts on its receptors in the heart to cause the release of ANP. ANP activates guanylyl cyclase that converts guanosine triphosphate into cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP. cGMP activates protein kinase G that reduces heart rate and force of contraction, decreasing cardiac output. ANP acts similarly to induce vasodilation. The intrinsic OT system in the heart and vascular system augments the effects of circulating OT to cause a rapid reduction in effective circulating blood volume. Furthermore, natriuresis is rapidly induced by the action of ANP on its tubular guanylyl cyclase receptors, resulting in the production of cGMP that closes Na+ channels. The OT released by volume expansion also acts on its tubular receptors to activate nitric oxide synthase. The nitric oxide released activates guanylyl cyclase leading to the production of cGMP that also closes Na+ channels, thereby augmenting the natriuretic effect of ANP. The natriuresis induced by cGMP finally causes blood volume to return to normal. At the same time, the ANP released acts centrally to decrease water and salt intake.

  5. Portable Programmable Multifunction Body Fluids Analyzer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Liquid Logic proposes to develop a very capable analyzer based on its digital microfluidic technology. Such an analyzer would be:  Capable of both...

  6. Fluid Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorsen, Michael

    These lecture notes are intended mainly for the 7th semester course "Fluid Dynamics" offered by the Study Committee on Civil Engineering, Aalborg University.......These lecture notes are intended mainly for the 7th semester course "Fluid Dynamics" offered by the Study Committee on Civil Engineering, Aalborg University....

  7. Stirring by swimming bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider the stirring of an inviscid fluid caused by the locomotion of bodies through it. The swimmers are approximated by non-interacting cylinders or spheres moving steadily along straight lines. We find the displacement of fluid particles caused by the nearby passage of a swimmer as a function of an impact parameter. We use this to compute the effective diffusion coefficient from the random walk of a fluid particle under the influence of a distribution of swimming bodies. We compare with the results of simulations. For typical sizes, densities and swimming velocities of schools of krill, the effective diffusivity in this model is five times the thermal diffusivity. However, we estimate that viscosity increases this value by two orders of magnitude.

  8. On the atmosphere of a moving body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Johan Rønby; Aref, Hassan

    2010-01-01

    We explore whether a rigid body moving freely with no circulation around it in a two-dimensional ideal fluid can carry a fluid "atmosphere" with it in its motion. Somewhat surprisingly, the answer appears to be "yes." When the body is elongated and the motion is dominated by rotation, we demonstr......We explore whether a rigid body moving freely with no circulation around it in a two-dimensional ideal fluid can carry a fluid "atmosphere" with it in its motion. Somewhat surprisingly, the answer appears to be "yes." When the body is elongated and the motion is dominated by rotation, we...... demonstrate numerically that, indeed, regions of fluid follow the body in its motion. We see this as an example of the stability of Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser tori. These observations of an atmosphere around a moving body with no circulation around it appear to be new. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics...

  9. Stochastic interpenetration of fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinkamp, M.J.; Clark, T.T.; Harlow, F.H.

    1995-11-01

    We describe a spectral approach to the investigation of fluid instability, generalized turbulence, and the interpenetration of fluids across an interface. The technique also applies to a single fluid with large variations in density. Departures of fluctuating velocity components from the local mean are far subsonic, but the mean Mach number can be large. Validity of the description is demonstrated by comparisons with experiments on turbulent mixing due to the late stages of Rayleigh-Taylor instability, when the dynamics become approximately self-similar in response to a constant body force. Generic forms for anisotropic spectral structure are described and used as a basis for deriving spectrally integrated moment equations that can be incorporated into computer codes for scientific and engineering analyses.

  10. Changes in body fluid and energy compartments during prolonged hunger strike Alterações nos compartimentos hídricos e energéticos do organismo durante a greve de fome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Faintuch

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged total food deprivation in non-obese adults is rare, and few studies have documented body composition changes in this setting. In a group of eight hunger strikers who refused alimentation for 43 days, water and energy compartments were estimated, aiming to assess the impact of progressive starvation. Measurements included body mass index (BMI, triceps skinfold (TSF, arm muscle circumference (AMC, and bioimpedance (BIA determinations of water, fat, lean body mass (LBM, and total resistance. Indirect calorimetry was also performed in one occasion. The age of the group was 43.3±6.2 years (seven males, one female. Only water, intermittent vitamins and electrolytes were ingested, and average weight loss reached 17.9%. On the last two days of the fast (43rd-44th day rapid intravenous fluid, electrolyte, and vitamin replenishment were provided before proceeding with realimentation. Body fat decreased approximately 60% (BIA and TSF, whereas BMI reduced only 18%. Initial fat was estimated by BIA as 52.2±5.4% of body weight, and even on the 43rd day it was still measured as 19.7±3.8% of weight. TSF findings were much lower and commensurate with other anthropometric results. Water was comparatively low with high total resistance, and these findings rapidly reversed upon the intravenous rapid hydration. At the end of the starvation period, BMI (21.5±2.6 kg/m² and most anthropometric determinations were still acceptable, suggesting efficient energy and muscle conservation. Conclusions: 1 All compartments diminished during fasting, but body fat was by far the most affected; 2 Total water was low and total body resistance comparatively elevated, but these findings rapidly reversed upon rehydration; 3 Exaggerated fat percentage estimates from BIA tests and simultaneous increase in lean body mass estimates suggested that this method was inappropriate for assessing energy compartments in the studied population; 4 Patients were not morphologically

  11. 带自由面流体的多体耗散粒子动力学模拟%The study of fluid with free surface by many-body dissipative particle dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周楠; 陈硕

    2014-01-01

    利用多体耗散粒子动力学(MDPD)方法对介观尺度下液滴动力学进行了模拟分析。探讨了MDPD系统中液气共存界面的形成,并对表面张力进行了模拟研究。研究结果表明, MDPD方法形成的液气共存界面满足Laplace定律。通过改变不同的粒子间保守力作用参数,获得了液滴在固体壁面上不同的接触角,并研究了保守力作用参数与接触角之间的变化规律。进一步模拟了液滴在复杂微通道内的流动,研究结果有助于解释带自由面流体在粗糙表面上的运动行为。%The dynamics of a drop on a mesoscopic scale is investigated by using the many-body dissipative particle dynamic (MDPD) method. The formation of liquid-vapor coexistence interface in the MDPD system is explored. The simulations of the pressure inside/outside the drop and the surface tension are carried out, and it is verified that Laplace’s law is satisfied in our simulation. Different contact angles are obtained by changing conservative interaction parameters between particles. The relationship between MDPD paremeters and contact angles is discussed. Based on the results, the flow behaviors of a drop moving in grooved microcannels are simulated. The results in this paper are useful in studying the fluid with free surfaces flow behavior on rough surface.

  12. Fluid dynamics of dilatant fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakanishi, Hiizu; Nagahiro, Shin-ichiro; Mitarai, Namiko

    2012-01-01

    of the state variable, we demonstrate that the model can describe basic features of the dilatant fluid such as the stress-shear rate curve that represents discontinuous severe shear thickening, hysteresis upon changing shear rate, and instantaneous hardening upon external impact. An analysis of the......A dense mixture of granules and liquid often shows a severe shear thickening and is called a dilatant fluid. We construct a fluid dynamics model for the dilatant fluid by introducing a phenomenological state variable for a local state of dispersed particles. With simple assumptions for an equation...... model reveals that the shear thickening fluid shows an instability in a shear flow for some regime and exhibits the shear thickening oscillation (i.e., the oscillatory shear flow alternating between the thickened and the relaxed states). The results of numerical simulations are presented for one- and...

  13. Fluid juggling

    CERN Document Server

    Soto, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    This fluid dynamics video is an entry for the Gallery of Fluid Motion for the 66th Annual Meeting of the Fluid Dynamics Division of the American Physical Society. We show the curious behaviour of a light ball interacting with a liquid jet. For certain conditions, a ball can be suspended into a slightly inclined liquid jet. We studied this phenomenon using a high speed camera. The visualizations show that the object can be `juggled' for a variety of flow conditions. A simple calculation showed that the ball remains at a stable position due to a Bernoulli-like effect. The phenomenon is very stable and easy to reproduce.

  14. Fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, Peter S

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a focused, readable account of the principal physical and mathematical ideas at the heart of fluid dynamics. Graduate students in engineering, applied math, and physics who are taking their first graduate course in fluids will find this book invaluable in providing the background in physics and mathematics necessary to pursue advanced study. The book includes a detailed derivation of the Navier-Stokes and energy equations, followed by many examples of their use in studying the dynamics of fluid flows. Modern tensor analysis is used to simplify the mathematical derivations, thus allowing a clearer view of the physics. Peter Bernard also covers the motivation behind many fundamental concepts such as Bernoulli's equation and the stream function. Many exercises are designed with a view toward using MATLAB or its equivalent to simplify and extend the analysis of fluid motion including developing flow simulations based on techniques described in the book.

  15. Creativity and Embodied Fluid Movements

    OpenAIRE

    Broadhead, Alastair

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing body of evidence suggesting that the embodiment of certain movements can stimulate creative idea formation. Embodied Creativity suggests that embodying particular movements, often fluid, free movements can improve creative thinking over the embodiment of nonfluid movements. In the first of two experiments participants were required to navigate a character through a bespoke virtual environment while (a) following a fluid, free flowing pathway, (b) a nonfluid pathway, or ...

  16. Fundamental trends in fluid-structure interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Galdi, Giovanni P

    2010-01-01

    The interaction of a fluid with a solid body is a widespread phenomenon in nature, occurring at different scales and different applied disciplines. Interestingly enough, even though the mathematical theory of the motion of bodies in a liquid is one of the oldest and most classical problems in fluid mechanics, mathematicians have, only very recently, become interested in a systematic study of the basic problems related to fluid-structure interaction, from both analytical and numerical viewpoints. ""Fundamental Trends in Fluid-Structure Interaction"" is a unique collection of important papers wr

  17. On the atmosphere of a moving body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Johan Rønby; Aref, Hassan

    2010-01-01

    We have explored whether a rigid body moving freely with no circulation around it in a two-dimensional ideal fluid can carry a fluid ``atmosphere'' with it in its motion. Somewhat surprisingly, the answer appears to be ``yes''. When the body is elongated and the motion is dominated by rotation, we...... demonstrate numerically that, indeed, regions of fluid follow the body in its motion. Since there is a double-island structure for the case of pure rotation, as already found by Morton and Darwin many years ago, we see the existence of an atmosphere for the moving body as an example of the stability...

  18. 硅酸盐水泥在模拟体液中降解和矿化性能%Degradability and biomineralization ability of Portland cement in simulated body fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈耀忠; 吕晓迎; 刘根娣

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the degradability and biomineralization ability of Portland cement (PC ), samples of PC were immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF)for 3,7 and 14 d respectively.X-ray diffraction (XRD),a Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR)and a scanning electron microscope (SEM)were used to investigate the biomineralization ability of PC;meanwhile,the weight loss of the samples and the pH value changes of their immersion media were monitored.The results show that with the soaking time prolonged,the weight of PC increases.The immersion media has a high alkalinity in the first three days,and then,the pH value declines.The XRD and FTIR patterns and the SEM images show that in SBF for 3 days,calcium carbonate is formed on the sur-face of PC and for 7 days carbonated hydroxyapatite is formed.Therefore,PC displays good biomin-eralization ability in SBF.%为了检测硅酸盐水泥(PC)在模拟体液(SBF)中降解和生物矿化性能,将硅酸盐水泥样品分别浸泡于模拟体液3,7及14 d后,采用X射线衍射仪(XRD)、傅里叶红外光谱(FTIR)及扫描电镜(SEM)等方法研究其生物矿化性能;并同时检测其失重率及模拟体液浸泡液的pH值变化情况.研究结果发现:随着浸泡时间的增长,硅酸盐水泥的质量增加;模拟体液在浸泡前3d碱性较强,随后其pH值逐渐降低.X射线衍射、红外光谱图谱及扫描电镜图像表明:硅酸盐水泥浸泡3d后,在其表面有碳酸钙生成;浸泡7d后,其表面有碳酸羟基磷灰石生成.因此,硅酸盐水泥具有良好的生物矿化能力.

  19. Research progress of body fluid neurons in the regulation of innate immunity in Caenorhabditis Elegans%体液调控神经元在调控秀丽线虫固有免疫中的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马安然

    2015-01-01

    秀丽隐杆线虫在受到病原菌感染时,会迅速激活固有免疫。神经免疫间的交流可以通过神经系统释放神经递质、神经肽及激素来调控固有免疫反应,包括已知的多巴胺信号通路、TGF-β信号通路和胰岛素信号通路。近年来的研究表明,NPR-1神经环路也参与固有免疫的调控,并且三个体液调控神经元 AQR、PQR 和 URX 是通过 NPR-1神经环路调节固有免疫的。线虫的神经系统只有302个神经元,结构也相对简单,线虫的 npr-1基因可编码与哺乳动物神经肽 Y(neuropeptideY,NPY)具有受体相似的 GPCR,这些优势为研究高等生物神经免疫间交流的分子机制提供了基础。本文就体液调控神经元在调控秀丽线虫固有免疫方面展开讨论,希望可以为高等生物神经免疫间的调节机制提供重要的思路和方法。%Caenorhabditis elegans would rapidly activate innate immunity once being infected with pathogens. Neuro-immune interactions which are through the nervous system to release such as neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and hormones to regulate the innate immune response. Those pathways include known dopamine signaling pathway, TGF-β signaling pathway and insulin signaling pathways. Recent studies show that NPR-1 neural circuits are also involved in the regulation of innate immunity and three neurons AQR, PQR and URX exposed to body fluid are under the regulation of NPR-1 neural circuits. Elegans nervous system has only 302 neurons and the structure is relatively simple and the npr-1 gene of elegans can encode GPCR which is similar to the mammalian neuropeptide Y (neuropeptideY, NPY) receptor, providing an edge for studying higher organisms on neuro-immune interactions. Research progress in relation to the field has been reviewed in present paper.

  20. R Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caimmi, R.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A theory of collisionless fluids is developed in a unified picture, where nonrotating $(widetilde{Omega_1}=widetilde{Omega_2}= widetilde{Omega_3}=0$ figures with some given random velocity component distributions, and rotating $(widetilde{Omega_1} ewidetilde{Omega_2} e widetilde{Omega_3} $ figures with a different random velocity component distributions, make adjoint configurations to the same system. R fluids are defined as ideal, self-gravitating fluids satisfying the virial theorem assumptions, in presence of systematic rotation around each of the principal axes of inertia. To this aim, mean and rms angular velocities and mean and rms tangential velocity components are expressed, by weighting on the moment of inertia and the mass, respectively. The figure rotation is defined as the mean angular velocity, weighted on the moment of inertia, with respectto a selected axis. The generalized tensor virial equations (Caimmi and Marmo 2005 are formulated for R fluidsand further attention is devoted to axisymmetric configurations where, for selected coordinateaxes, a variation in figure rotation has to be counterbalanced by a variation in anisotropy excess and viceversa. A microscopical analysis of systematic and random motions is performed under a fewgeneral hypotheses, by reversing the sign of tangential or axial velocity components of anassigned fraction of particles, leaving the distribution function and other parametersunchanged (Meza 2002. The application of the reversion process to tangential velocitycomponents is found to imply the conversion of random motion rotation kinetic energy intosystematic motion rotation kinetic energy. The application ofthe reversion process to axial velocity components is found to imply the conversionof random motion translation kinetic energy into systematic motion translation kinetic energy, and theloss related to a change of reference frame is expressed in terms of systematic motion (imaginary rotation kinetic

  1. Euler's fluid equations: Optimal control vs optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An optimization method used in image-processing (metamorphosis) is found to imply Euler's equations for incompressible flow of an inviscid fluid, without requiring that the Lagrangian particle labels exactly follow the flow lines of the Eulerian velocity vector field. Thus, an optimal control problem and an optimization problem for incompressible ideal fluid flow both yield the same Euler fluid equations, although their Lagrangian parcel dynamics are different. This is a result of the gauge freedom in the definition of the fluid pressure for an incompressible flow, in combination with the symmetry of fluid dynamics under relabeling of their Lagrangian coordinates. Similar ideas are also illustrated for SO(N) rigid body motion.

  2. Avaliação da maturidade pulmonar fetal pela contagem dos corpos lamelares no líquido amniótico Evaluation of fetal lung maturity by lamellar bodies counting in amniotic fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Maykot Kuerten Gil

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: comparar o teste de contagem de corpos lamelares (CCL no líquido amniótico com o teste da polarização fluorescente (PF como parâmetro diagnóstico para avaliação da maturidade pulmonar fetal. MÉTODO: estudo transversal, analítico e controlado realizado com 60 gestantes atendidas no período de março de 2002 a dezembro de 2007. Foram colhidas amostras de líquido amniótico e realizados os testes de CCL e PF (TDxFLM II, considerados de referência, e comparados à presença ou ausência da Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório (SDR. Foram estabelecidos valores de corte para maturidade de 30 mil corpos lamelares/µL para o teste da CCL e 55 mg/g de albumina para o PF. Foram avaliadas as características maternas e perinatais, a evolução neonatal e o desempenho dos testes diagnósticos para predição da maturidade pulmonar fetal. Na análise estatística, foram utilizadas medidas descritivas e calculados os valores referentes à sensibilidade, especificidade, valor preditivo positivo e negativo dos testes, considerando-se significativos valores de pPURPOSE: to compare the lamellar body number density (LBND count in amniotic fluid using the fluorescent polarization (FP test as a diagnostic parameter for the assessment of fetal pulmonary maturity. METHOD: this was an analytical, controlled cross-sectional study conducted on 60 pregnant women from March 2002 to December 2007. Amniotic fluid specimens were obtained by amniocentesis or at the time of caesarean section, and submitted to the LBND and FP tests (TDxFLM®, Abbott Laboratories, the latter considered to be a reference test, and compared in terms of the presence or absence of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS. Cut-off values for maturity were established at 30,000 lamellar bodies/µL for the LBND test and 55 mg/g albumin for the FP test. Maternal and perinatal characteristics and neonatal evolution were evaluated, and the performance of the diagnostic tests regarding

  3. Body Odor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Body Odor Posted under Health Guides . Updated 29 October 2014. + ... guy has to deal with. What causes body odor? During puberty, your sweat glands become much more ...

  4. Body Hygiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Diaper-Changing Steps for Childcare Settings Body Hygiene Dental Hygiene Water Fluoridation Facial Cleanliness Fish Pedicures and ... spread of hygiene-related diseases . Topics for Body Hygiene Facial Cleanliness Dental Hygiene Water Fluoridation Fish Pedicures and Fish Spas ...

  5. Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help your child have a healthy body image Cosmetic surgery Breast surgery Botox Liposuction Varicose or spider veins Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) Eating disorders Anorexia nervosa Binge eating ... nervosa Cosmetics and your health Depression during and after pregnancy ...

  6. Body Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about how the body works, what basic human anatomy is, and what happens when parts of the body don't function properly. Blood Bones, Muscles, and Joints Brain and Nervous System Digestive System Endocrine System Eyes Female Reproductive System ...

  7. Water and electrolytes. [in human bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Harrison, M. H.

    1986-01-01

    It has been found that the performance of the strongest and fittest people will deteriorate rapidly with dehydration. The present paper is concerned with the anatomy of the fluid spaces in the body, taking into account also the fluid shifts and losses during exercise and their effects on performance. Total body water is arbitrarily divided into that contained within cells (cellular) and that located outside the cells (extracellular). The anatomy of body fluid compartments is considered along with the effects of exercise on body water, fluid shifts with exercise, the consequences of sweating, dehydration and exercise, heat acclimatization and endurance training, the adverse effects of dehydration, thirst and drinking during exercise, stimuli for drinking, and water, electrolyte, and carbohydrate replacement during exercise. It is found that the deterioration of physical exercise performance due to dehydration begins when body weight decreases by about 1 percent.

  8. Rotating Polygons on a Fluid Surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Tomas; Jansson, Thomas; Haspang, Martin; Jensen, Kaare; Herson, Pascal

    The free surface of a rotating fluid will, due to the centrifugal force, be pressed radially outward. If the fluid rotates as a rigid body in a cylindrical container the surface will assume a parabolic shape. If, however, the flow is driven by rotating the bottom plate, the axial symmetry can bre...

  9. Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteomics of Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. Stoop (Marcel)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractMultiple sclerosis (MScl) is a highly heterogeneous disease of the central nervous system, and its pathology is characterized by a combination of factors such as inflammation, demyelination and axonal damage [1, 2]. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a relatively interesting body fluid in whic

  10. The proteomic toolbox for studying cerebrospinal fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gool, A.J. van; Hendrickson, R.C.

    2012-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) can be considered the most promising biosample for the discovery and analysis of biomarkers in neuroscience, an area of great medical need. CSF is a body fluid that surrounds the brain and provides a rich pool of biochemical markers, both proteomic and metabolomic, that ref

  11. Body embellishment

    OpenAIRE

    Zellweger, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The exhibition Body Embellishment explores the most innovative artistic expression in the 21st-century international arenas of body extension, augmentation, and modification, focusing on jewelry, tattoos, nail arts, and fashion. The areas of focus are jewelry, tattoos, nail arts, and fashion. Avant-garde jewelry consciously engages the body by intersecting and expanding the planes of the human form. Tattoos are at once on and in the body. Nail art, from manicures to pedicures, has humble ...

  12. Body Clock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪毓

    2000-01-01

    Body clocks” are biological methods of controling body activities.Every living thing has one. In humans, a body clock controls normal periods of sleeping and waking. It controls the time swhen you are most likely to feel pain.Eating, sleeping and exercising at about the same time each day will help keep body activities normal. But changes in your life, a new job, for example, destroy the balance and thus cause health problems.

  13. On the Ahmed Body Wake

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uruba, Václav; Hladík, Ondřej

    Praha : Ústav termomechaniky AV ČR v. v. i., 2009 - (Jonáš, P.; Uruba, V.), s. 51-52 ISBN 978-80-87012-21-5. [Colloquium Fluid Dynamics 2009. Praha (CZ), 21.10.2009-23.10.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/08/1112 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : Ahmed body * wake * dynamics Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  14. Fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ruban, Anatoly I

    This is the first book in a four-part series designed to give a comprehensive and coherent description of Fluid Dynamics, starting with chapters on classical theory suitable for an introductory undergraduate lecture course, and then progressing through more advanced material up to the level of modern research in the field. The present Part 1 consists of four chapters. Chapter 1 begins with a discussion of Continuum Hypothesis, which is followed by an introduction to macroscopic functions, the velocity vector, pressure, density, and enthalpy. We then analyse the forces acting inside a fluid, and deduce the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible and compressible fluids in Cartesian and curvilinear coordinates. In Chapter 2 we study the properties of a number of flows that are presented by the so-called exact solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations, including the Couette flow between two parallel plates, Hagen-Poiseuille flow through a pipe, and Karman flow above an infinite rotating disk. Chapter 3 is d...

  15. Astrophysical fluid dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, Gordon I.

    2016-06-01

    > These lecture notes and example problems are based on a course given at the University of Cambridge in Part III of the Mathematical Tripos. Fluid dynamics is involved in a very wide range of astrophysical phenomena, such as the formation and internal dynamics of stars and giant planets, the workings of jets and accretion discs around stars and black holes and the dynamics of the expanding Universe. Effects that can be important in astrophysical fluids include compressibility, self-gravitation and the dynamical influence of the magnetic field that is `frozen in' to a highly conducting plasma. The basic models introduced and applied in this course are Newtonian gas dynamics and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) for an ideal compressible fluid. The mathematical structure of the governing equations and the associated conservation laws are explored in some detail because of their importance for both analytical and numerical methods of solution, as well as for physical interpretation. Linear and nonlinear waves, including shocks and other discontinuities, are discussed. The spherical blast wave resulting from a supernova, and involving a strong shock, is a classic problem that can be solved analytically. Steady solutions with spherical or axial symmetry reveal the physics of winds and jets from stars and discs. The linearized equations determine the oscillation modes of astrophysical bodies, as well as their stability and their response to tidal forcing.

  16. Astrophysical fluid dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, Gordon I.

    2016-03-01

    These lecture notes and example problems are based on a course given at the University of Cambridge in Part III of the Mathematical Tripos. Fluid dynamics is involved in a very wide range of astrophysical phenomena, such as the formation and internal dynamics of stars and giant planets, the workings of jets and accretion discs around stars and black holes and the dynamics of the expanding Universe. Effects that can be important in astrophysical fluids include compressibility, self-gravitation and the dynamical influence of the magnetic field that is `frozen in' to a highly conducting plasma. The basic models introduced and applied in this course are Newtonian gas dynamics and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) for an ideal compressible fluid. The mathematical structure of the governing equations and the associated conservation laws are explored in some detail because of their importance for both analytical and numerical methods of solution, as well as for physical interpretation. Linear and nonlinear waves, including shocks and other discontinuities, are discussed. The spherical blast wave resulting from a supernova, and involving a strong shock, is a classic problem that can be solved analytically. Steady solutions with spherical or axial symmetry reveal the physics of winds and jets from stars and discs. The linearized equations determine the oscillation modes of astrophysical bodies, as well as their stability and their response to tidal forcing.

  17. Pericardial Fluid Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Pericardial Fluid Analysis Share this page: Was this page helpful? Formal name: Pericardial Fluid Analysis Related tests: Pleural Fluid Analysis , Peritoneal Fluid Analysis , ...

  18. Peritoneal Fluid Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Peritoneal Fluid Analysis Share this page: Was this page helpful? Formal name: Peritoneal Fluid Analysis Related tests: Pleural Fluid Analysis , Pericardial Fluid Analysis , ...

  19. Optimal composition of fluid-replacement beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lindsay B; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this article is to provide a review of the fundamental aspects of body fluid balance and the physiological consequences of water imbalances, as well as discuss considerations for the optimal composition of a fluid replacement beverage across a broad range of applications. Early pioneering research involving fluid replacement in persons suffering from diarrheal disease and in military, occupational, and athlete populations incurring exercise- and/or heat-induced sweat losses has provided much of the insight regarding basic principles on beverage palatability, voluntary fluid intake, fluid absorption, and fluid retention. We review this work and also discuss more recent advances in the understanding of fluid replacement as it applies to various populations (military, athletes, occupational, men, women, children, and older adults) and situations (pathophysiological factors, spaceflight, bed rest, long plane flights, heat stress, altitude/cold exposure, and recreational exercise). We discuss how beverage carbohydrate and electrolytes impact fluid replacement. We also discuss nutrients and compounds that are often included in fluid-replacement beverages to augment physiological functions unrelated to hydration, such as the provision of energy. The optimal composition of a fluid-replacement beverage depends upon the source of the fluid loss, whether from sweat, urine, respiration, or diarrhea/vomiting. It is also apparent that the optimal fluid-replacement beverage is one that is customized according to specific physiological needs, environmental conditions, desired benefits, and individual characteristics and taste preferences. PMID:24715561

  20. Auxillary Fluid Flowmeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    RezaNejad Gatabi, Javad; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Ebrahimi Darkhaneh, Hadi;

    2010-01-01

    The Auxiliary Fluid Flow meter is proposed to measure the fluid flow of any kind in both pipes and open channels. In this kind of flow measurement, the flow of an auxiliary fluid is measured Instead of direct measurement of the main fluid flow. The auxiliary fluid is injected into the main fluid ...

  1. Self-force and fluid resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isoyama, Soichiro; Mendes, Raissa F. P.; Poisson, Eric

    2016-04-01

    The gravitational self-force acting on a particle orbiting a massive central body has thus far been computed for vacuum spacetimes involving a black hole. In this work we continue an ongoing effort to study the self-force in nonvacuum situations. We replace the black hole by a material body consisting of a perfect fluid, and determine the impact of the fluid's dynamics on the self-force and resulting orbital evolution. We show that as the particle inspirals toward the fluid body, its gravitational perturbations trigger a number of quasinormal modes of the fluid-gravity system, which produce resonant features in the conservative and dissipative components of the self-force. As a proof-of-principle, we demonstrate this phenomenon in a simplified framework in which gravity is mediated by a scalar potential satisfying a wave equation in Minkowski spacetime.

  2. Self-force and fluid resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Isoyama, Soichiro; Poisson, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The gravitational self-force acting on a particle orbiting a massive central body has thus far been computed for vacuum spacetimes involving a black hole. In this work we continue an ongoing effort to study the self-force in nonvacuum situations. We replace the black hole by a material body consisting of a perfect fluid, and determine the impact of the fluid's dynamics on the self-force and resulting orbital evolution. We show that as the particle inspirals toward the fluid body, its gravitational perturbations trigger a number of quasinormal modes of the fluid-gravity system, which produce resonant features in the conservative and dissipative components of the self-force. As a proof-of-principle, we demonstrate this phenomenon in a simplified framework in which gravity is mediated by a scalar potential satisfying a wave equation in Minkowski spacetime.

  3. Gyroelastic fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerbel, G.D.

    1981-01-20

    A study is made of a scale model in three dimensions of a guiding center plasma within the purview of gyroelastic (also known as finite gyroradius-near theta pinch) magnetohydrodynamics. The (nonlinear) system sustains a particular symmetry called isorrhopy which permits the decoupling of fluid modes from drift modes. Isorrhopic equilibria are analyzed within the framework of geometrical optics resulting in (local) dispersion relations and ray constants. A general scheme is developed to evolve an arbitrary linear perturbation of a screwpinch equilibrium as an invertible integral transform (over the complete set of generalized eigenfunctions defined naturally by the equilibrium). Details of the structure of the function space and the associated spectra are elucidated. Features of the (global) dispersion relation owing to the presence of gyroelastic stabilization are revealed. An energy principle is developed to study the stability of the tubular screwpinch.

  4. Gyroelastic fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study is made of a scale model in three dimensions of a guiding center plasma within the purview of gyroelastic (also known as finite gyroradius-near theta pinch) magnetohydrodynamics. The (nonlinear) system sustains a particular symmetry called isorrhopy which permits the decoupling of fluid modes from drift modes. Isorrhopic equilibria are analyzed within the framework of geometrical optics resulting in (local) dispersion relations and ray constants. A general scheme is developed to evolve an arbitrary linear perturbation of a screwpinch equilibrium as an invertible integral transform (over the complete set of generalized eigenfunctions defined naturally by the equilibrium). Details of the structure of the function space and the associated spectra are elucidated. Features of the (global) dispersion relation owing to the presence of gyroelastic stabilization are revealed. An energy principle is developed to study the stability of the tubular screwpinch

  5. Bioimpedance can solve problems of fluid overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Samer R; Zhu, Fansan; Levin, Nathan W

    2015-03-01

    Bioimpedance (BI) techniques for measuring normal hydration status (NHS) can be generally classified as (1) by frequency as single frequency at 50 kHz, BI analysis, and multifrequency BI spectroscopy and (2) by method as whole body (wrist to ankle) measurement and calf BI spectroscopy. The aim of this article was to review current BI methods for clinical practice in patients with end-stage of kidney disease. BI vector analysis using whole-body single-frequency BI at 50 kHz may be useful for population studies to indicate a range of degree of fluid loading and of nutritional status. Whole body multifrequency BI spectroscopy is used to estimate extracellular (ECV), intracellular fluid volume, and total body water in dialysis patients. The whole-body BI model is used in the body composition monitor (BCM). The whole-body BI model is established with ECV, intracellular fluid volume, and body weight based on parameters from regression analysis in healthy subjects to calculate fluid overload in dialysis patients. Calf BI methods have been developed to measure NHS by 2 ways: (1) continuous measurement of the intradialytic resistance curve until flattening occurs; (2) calf normalized resistivity in the range of healthy subjects (18.5 × 10(-2) Ω m(3)/kg in male and 19.1 × 10(-2) Ω m(3)/kg in female). In general, for population studies, BI vector analysis or ECV/total body water may be useful; BCM is a commercially available device that can certainly guide volume reduction safely over time. For more exact measure of fluid overload, calf BI methods appear to be most accurate, but these are at present research tools. BI techniques are not only useful in assessing NHS but also in the study of nutrition and body composition. PMID:25556307

  6. Body punk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kevin

    BODYPUNK - A Treatise on male body builders and the meaning of the body in the shadow of an Anti Doping Campaign Based on a qualitative study, the thesis investigates the visual representation of the male bodybuilder found in the national anti doping campaign: ‗ "The hunt has begun" along with an...... analysis of the embodied meaning of men‘s bodybuilding....

  7. Body Weight and Body Image

    OpenAIRE

    McFarlane Traci; Olmsted Marion P

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Health Issue Body weight is of physical and psychological importance to Canadian women; it is associated with health status, physical activity, body image, and self-esteem. Although the problems associated with overweight and obesity are indeed serious, there are also problems connected to being underweight. Weight prejudice and the dieting industry intensify body image concerns for Canadian women and can have a major negative impact on self-esteem. Key Findings Women have lower BMIs...

  8. Shock Re-equilibration of Fluid Inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, M. E. Elwood; Horz, F.; Bodnar, R. J.

    2004-01-01

    Fluid inclusions (microscopic volumes of fluid trapped within minerals as they precipitate) are extremely common in terrestrial minerals formed under a wide range of geological conditions from surface evaporite deposits to kimberlite pipes. While fluid inclusions in terrestrial rocks are nearly ubiquitous, only a few fluid inclusion-bearing meteorites have been documented. The scarcity of fluid inclusions in meteoritic materials may be a result of (a) the absence of fluids when the mineral was formed on the meteorite parent body or (b) the destruction of fluid inclusions originally contained in meteoritic materials by subsequent shock metamorphism. However, the effects of impact events on pre-existing fluid inclusions trapped in target and projectile rocks has received little study. Fluid inclusions trapped prior to the shock event may be altered (re-equilibrated) or destroyed due to the high pressures, temperatures, and strain rates associated with impact events. By examining the effects of shock deformation on fluid inclusion properties and textures we may be able to better constrain the pressure-temperature path experienced by terrestrial and meteoritic shocked materials and also gain a clearer understanding of why fluid inclusions are rarely found in meteorite samples.

  9. The effect of gait on swimming in viscoelastic fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Elfring, Gwynn J

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we give formulas for the swimming of simplified two-dimensional bodies in complex fluids using the reciprocal theorem. By way of these formulas we calculate the swimming velocity due to small-amplitude deformations on the simplest of these bodies, a two-dimensional sheet, to explore general conditions on the swimming gait under which the sheet may move faster, or slower, in a viscoelastic fluid compared to a Newtonian fluid.

  10. Fluid-solid modeling of lymphatic valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulk, Alexander; Ballard, Matthew; Nepiyushchikh, Zhanna; Dixon, Brandon; Alexeev, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    The lymphatic system performs important physiological functions such as the return of interstitial fluid to the bloodstream to maintain tissue fluid balance, as well as the transport of immune cells in the body. It utilizes contractile lymphatic vessels, which contain valves that open and close to allow flow in only one direction, to directionally pump lymph against a pressure gradient. We develop a fluid-solid model of geometrically representative lymphatic valves. Our model uses a hybrid lattice-Boltzmann lattice spring method to capture fluid-solid interactions with two-way coupling between a viscous fluid and lymphatic valves in a lymphatic vessel. We use this model to investigate the opening and closing of lymphatic valves, and its effect on lymphatic pumping. This helps to broaden our understanding of the fluid dynamics of the lymphatic system.

  11. Thermophysical Properties of Fluids and Fluid Mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengers, Jan V.; Anisimov, Mikhail A.

    2004-05-03

    The major goal of the project was to study the effect of critical fluctuations on the thermophysical properties and phase behavior of fluids and fluid mixtures. Long-range fluctuations appear because of the presence of critical phase transitions. A global theory of critical fluctuations was developed and applied to represent thermodynamic properties and transport properties of molecular fluids and fluid mixtures. In the second phase of the project, the theory was extended to deal with critical fluctuations in complex fluids such as polymer solutions and electrolyte solutions. The theoretical predictions have been confirmed by computer simulations and by light-scattering experiments. Fluctuations in fluids in nonequilibrium states have also been investigated.

  12. Body lice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lice - body; Pediculosis corporis; Vagabond disease ... Diaz JH. Lice (pediculosis). In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases . 8th ...

  13. Bog bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels

    2015-01-01

    the bog bodies have been studied using medical and natural scientific methods, and recently many bog bodies have been re-examined using especially modern, medical imaging techniques. Because of the preservation of soft tissue, especially the skin, it has been possible to determine lesions and trauma......In northern Europe during the Iron Age, many corpses were deposited in bogs. The cold, wet and anaerobic environment leads in many cases to the preservation of soft tissues, so that the bodies, when found and excavated several thousand years later, are remarkably intact. Since the 19th century....... Conversely, the preservation of bones is less good, as the mineral component has been leached out by the acidic bog. Together with water-logging of collagenous tissue, this means that if the bog body is simply left to dry out when found, as was the case pre-19th century, the bones may literally warp...

  14. Joint fluid Gram stain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gram stain of joint fluid ... A sample of joint fluid is needed. The fluid sample is sent to a lab where a small drop is placed in a ... on how to prepare for the removal of joint fluid, see joint fluid aspiration .

  15. Magnetized drive fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosensweig, R.E.; Zahn, M.

    1986-04-01

    A process is described for recovering a first fluid from a porous subterranean formation which comprises injecting a displacement fluid in an effective amount to displace the first fluid, injecting a ferrofluid, applying a magnetic field containing a gradient of field intensity within the formation, driving the displacement fluid through the formation with the ferrofluid and recovering first fluid.

  16. Catenaries in viscous fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Chakrabarti, Brato

    2015-01-01

    This work explores a simple model of a slender, flexible structure in a uniform flow, providing analytical solutions for the translating, axially flowing equilibria of strings subjected to a uniform body force and drag forces linear in the velocities. The classical catenaries are extended to a five-parameter family of curves. A sixth parameter affects the tension in the curves. Generic configurations are planar, represented by a single first order equation for the tangential angle. The effects of varying parameters on representative shapes, orbits in angle-curvature space, and stress distributions are shown. As limiting cases, the solutions include configurations corresponding to "lariat chains" and the towing, reeling, and sedimentation of flexible cables in a highly viscous fluid. Regions of parameter space corresponding to infinitely long, semi-infinite, and finite length curves are delineated. Almost all curves subtend an angle less than $\\pi$ radians, but curious special cases with doubled or infinite ra...

  17. Chaos in body-vortex interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Johan Rønby; Aref, Hassan

    2010-01-01

    The model of body–vortex interactions, where the fluid flow is planar, ideal and unbounded, and the vortex is a point vortex, is studied. The body may have a constant circulation around it. The governing equations for the general case of a freely moving body of arbitrary shape and mass density an...

  18. Synovial fluid analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joint fluid analysis; Joint fluid aspiration ... El-Gabalawy HS. Synovial fluid analysis, synovial biopsy, and synovial pathology. In: Firestein GS, Budd RC, Gabriel SE, McInnes IB, O'Dell JR, eds. Kelly's Textbook of ...

  19. Physics of the Human Body

    CERN Document Server

    Herman, Irving P

    2007-01-01

    Physics of the Human Body comprehensively addresses the physical and engineering aspects of human physiology by using and building on first-year college physics and mathematics. Topics include the mechanics of the static body and the body in motion, the materials properties of the body, muscles in the body, the energetics of body metabolism, fluid flow in the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, the acoustics of sound waves in speaking and hearing, vision and the optics of the eye, the electrical properties of the body, and the basic engineering principles of feedback and control in regulating all aspects of function. The goal of this text is to understand physical issues concerning the human body, in part by developing and then using simple and subsequently more refined models of the macrophysics of the human body. Many chapters include a brief review of the necessary physical principles. There are problems at the end of each chapter; solutions to selected problems are also provided. This text is geared t...

  20. Body composition in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoli, Angela; Garaci, Francesco; Cafarelli, Francesco Pio; Guglielmi, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    Nutritional status is the results of nutrients intake, absorption and utilization, able to influence physiological and pathological conditions. Nutritional status can be measured for individuals with different techniques, such as CT Body Composition, quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Ultrasound, Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry and Bioimpendance. Because obesity is becoming a worldwide epidemic, there is an increasing interest in the study of body composition to monitor conditions and delay in development of obesity-related diseases. The emergence of these evidence demonstrates the need of standard assessment of nutritional status based on body weight changes, playing an important role in several clinical setting, such as in quantitative measurement of tissues and their fluctuations in body composition, in survival rate, in pathologic condition and illnesses. Since body mass index has been shown to be an imprecise measurement of fat-free and fat mass, body cell mass and fluids, providing no information if weight changes, consequently there is the need to find a better way to evaluate body composition, in order to assess fat-free and fat mass with weight gain and loss, and during ageing. Monitoring body composition can be very useful for nutritional and medical interventional. This review is focused on the use of Body Composition in Clinical Practice. PMID:26971404

  1. Self lubricating fluid bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention concerns self lubricating fluid bearings, which are used in a shaft sealed system extending two regions. These regions contain fluids, which have to be isolated. A first seal is fluid tight for the first region between the carter shaft and the shaft. The second seal is fluid tight between the carter and the shaft, it communicates with the second region. The first fluid region is the environment surrounding the shaft carter. The second fluid region is a part of a nuclear reactor which contains the cooling fluid. The shaft is conceived to drive a reactor circulating and cooling fluid

  2. Signifying Bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

     In our everyday lives we strive to stay healthy and happy, while we live as our selves, engage with each other, and discover an infinite world of possibilities. Health arises and diminishes as human beings draw on a vibrant ecology of actions, interactions and coactions. Intricate processes of...... biosemiosis connect signifying bodies with their natural surroundings, cultural activities and subjective experiences. Health stretches all the way from the ecosocial surroundings, through the skin and into the self-organizing processes of every living cell. Signifying Bodies lays out a new approach to health...... and health care. Eschewing all forms of dualism, the authors emphasise the interdependency of how we act, think, feel and function. They advocate a relational turn in health care, in which bodies live and learn from suffering and care. In this view, health is inseparable from both living beings and...

  3. Body Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The high-tech art of digital signal processing (DSP) was pioneered at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in the mid-1960s for use in the Apollo Lunar Landing Program. Designed to computer enhance pictures of the Moon, this technology became the basis for the Landsat Earth resources satellites and subsequently has been incorporated into a broad range of Earthbound medical and diagnostic tools. DSP is employed in advanced body imaging techniques including Computer-Aided Tomography, also known as CT and CATScan, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). CT images are collected by irradiating a thin slice of the body with a fan-shaped x-ray beam from a number of directions around the body's perimeter. A tomographic (slice-like) picture is reconstructed from these multiple views by a computer. MRI employs a magnetic field and radio waves, rather than x-rays, to create images.

  4. Body Rainbow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    Phubu did not know how long hehad walked after leaving Baxoi, buthe did know that he was halfwaybetween home and Lhasa. Feelingthe weight of the sack containingPhumo's body on his back, Fhubuhad calmed down from the grief anddesperation. He had just one wish:to carry Phumo to Lhasa. He knewthat Phumo had gone, and her soulwas no longer in this body. But hewas determined to finish the trip, notonly because he had promised so, butalso that he believed that it would beredemption for him.

  5. Sacralising Bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur, Ravinder

    2010-01-01

    sacralisation is realised through co-production within a social setting when the object of sacralisation is recognised as such by others. In contemporary Iran, however, the moment of sacralising bodies by the state is also the moment of its own subversion as the political-theological field of martyrdom is......-sacrifice became central to the mass mobilisation against the monarchy. Once the revolutionary government came into existence, this sacred tradition was regulated to create ‘martyrs’ as a fixed category, in order to consolidate the legacy of the revolution. In this political theatre, the dead body is a site of...

  6. Static Isotropic Spacetimes with Radially Imperfect Fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Konopka, Tomasz

    2009-01-01

    When solving the equations of General Relativity in a symmetric sector, it is natural to consider the same symmetry for the geometry and stress-energy. This implies that for static and isotropic spacetimes, the most general natural stress-energy tensor is a sum of a perfect fluid and a radial imperfect fluid component. In the special situations where the perfect fluid component vanishes or is a spacetime constant, the solutions to Einstein's equations can be thought of as modified Schwarzschild and Schwarzschild-de Sitter spaces. Exact solutions of this type are derived and it is shown that whereas deviations from the unmodified solutions can be made small, among the manifestations of the imperfect fluid component is a shift in angular momentum scaling for orbiting test-bodies at large radius. Based on this effect, the question of whether the imperfect fluid component can feasibly describe dark matter phenomenology is addressed.

  7. 19F nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of the carbamate reaction of alpha-fluoro-beta-alanine (FBAL), the major catabolite of fluoropyrimidines. Application to FBAL carbamate determination in body fluids of patients treated with 5'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    alpha-Fluoro-beta-alanine (FBAL), the major catabolite of the antineoplastic fluoropyrimidines, is an amino acid which is in equilibrium with its carbamate derivative in weakly alkaline aqueous solutions containing carbonate. In both water and control biological fluids (urine, plasma) spiked with FBAL (and sodium bicarbonate, in some cases), 19F NMR was used: (i) to determine the pH range over which FBAL carbamate is present (pH greater than or equal to 7), the maximum concentration formed occurring around pH 9, (ii) to show that the amino group of FBAL interacts very slowly with a non-protein plasma component to form a compound X, unstable in acid medium. The presumed structure of X is RCONHCH2CHFCOOH, with R different from an alkyl group but still unidentified. The behavior of FBAL in urine and plasma of rats treated with FBAL or 5'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine (5'-dFUrd), a prodrug of 5-fluorouracil, and from patients treated with 5'-dFUrd was investigated. FBAL carbamate was not present in acid medium and was therefore absent in acidic human urine. However, it was found in alkaline rat urine. FBAL carbamate was found in plasma along with the compound X. The 19F NMR spectra of FBAL and derivatives are complex since alpha-fluoro-beta-ureido-propionic acid, the precursor of FBAL in the catabolic pathway of antineoplastic fluoropyrimidines, produces a signal overlapping that of FBAL carbamate, and very close to that of compound X

  8. Physics of the human body

    CERN Document Server

    Herman, Irving P

    2016-01-01

    This book comprehensively addresses the physics and engineering aspects of human physiology by using and building on first-year college physics and mathematics. Topics include the mechanics of the static body and the body in motion, the mechanical properties of the body, muscles in the body, the energetics of body metabolism, fluid flow in the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, the acoustics of sound waves in speaking and hearing, vision and the optics of the eye, the electrical properties of the body, and the basic engineering principles of feedback and control in regulating all aspects of function. The goal of this text is to clearly explain the physics issues concerning the human body, in part by developing and then using simple and subsequently more refined models of the macrophysics of the human body. Many chapters include a brief review of the underlying physics. There are problems at the end of each chapter; solutions to selected problems are also provided. This second edition enhances the treat...

  9. 羊水板层小体计数对预测早产儿肺成熟度的价值研究%Study of the amniotic fluid lamellar body count about prediction in preterm infants lung maturity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱进秋; 黎曼侬; 李佳; 郭芳; 罗维真; 杨晏斌

    2012-01-01

    [Objectives] To discuss the clinical value of the lamellar bodies,and to estimate the preterm infants lung maturity. [Methods! The lamellar body count of preterm infants was examined for finding the best cut-off value,the positive predictive value,negative predictive value,sensitivity,specificity of lung maturity,especially in gestational age less than 34 weeks. [Results] The best cut-off value was ≥98 000/μL lamellar bodies to predict the lung maturity, with a positive predictive value of 27. 1%,negative predictive value of 100% .sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 41. 9%. With a positive predictive value of 53. 6%,negative predictive value of 100% .sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 23. 5% in preterm infants with gestational age less than 34 weeks. 23. 5% of preterm infants could avoid intubation and use of the surfactant. The best cut-off value was ≤33 000/μL lamellar bodies to predict the lung immaturity, with a positive predictive value of 46. 7. 8%,negative predictive value .of 96. 7% .sensitivity of 87. 5% and specificity of 78. 4%. With a positive predictive value of 72% , negative predictive value of 85. 7%, sensitivity of 86. 7% and specificity of 70. 6% in preterm infants with gestational age less than 34 weeks. 70. 6% of preterm infants could avoid intubation and use of the surfactant. The incidence of RDS was 20% if the suspicious value between 33 000 ~ 98 000/μL lamellar bodies. [Conclusion] Lamellar body count is a good screening test for predicting the degree of neonatal lung maturity.%[目的]探讨板层小体对预测早产儿肺成熟度的临床价值. [方法]对早产儿进行板层小体计数,找出反应肺成熟度的判定界值,并统计其对肺成熟度的阳性预测值、阴性预测值、敏感性、特异性以及对34周以下早产儿的预测情况. [结果]成熟判定界值≥98 000/μL时其阴性预测值100%;阳性预测值27.1%;敏感性100%;特异性41.9%;34周以

  10. Fluidos no período pós-operatório: efeitos da falta de ajuste ao peso corpóreo Líquidos en el período postoperatorio: efectos de la falta de ajuste al peso corporal Fluids in the postoperative period: effects of lack of adjustment to body weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Risso Vazquez

    2011-06-01

    electrolitos (296 ± 195 vs. 192 ± 117 mEq [Na +]orina/ 24 hs., p = 0,0246. Cuando los líquidos administrados fueron ajustados por peso corporal, el volumen y cantidad de electrolitos fueron mayores en el grupo de bajo peso (79 ± 21 vs. 47 ± 22 ml/kg/24h, p OBJECTIVE: To compare the differences in fluid and electrolyte balance in patients with low and high weight in the first postoperative day. METHODS: Over a period of 18 months, we prospectively evaluated 150 patients in the first 24 hours after surgery, in a university-affiliated hospital intensive care unit. Patients with low weight ( 90 Kg were compared in terms of fluid intake and output. RESULTS: No significant differences were observed in the volume (4334 ± 1097 vs. 4644 ± 1957 ml/24 h and composition of the fluids administered (481 ± 187 vs. 586 ± 288 mEq [Na+]administered/24 h. The 24 h urine output was similar (2474 ± 1597 vs.2208 ± 678 ml/24 h but low weight group showed higher electrolyte elimination (296 ± 195 vs.192 ± 117 mEq [Na+]urine /24 h, p = 0.0246. When the administered fluids were adjusted for body weight, the volume and amount of electrolytes of fluids administered were higher in the low weight group (79 ± 21 vs. 47 ± 22 ml/kg/24 h, p < 0.0001 and 8.8 ± 3.4 vs. 5.8 ± 3.3 mEq [Na+]administered/kg/24 h, p = 0.017, respectively. This group also showed higher urine output and electrolyte elimination (45 ± 28 vs. 22 ± 7 ml/kg/24 h, p = 0.0002 and 5.3 ± 3.5 vs. 1.8 ± 1.2 mEq [Na+]urine/kg/24 h, p < 0.0001, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The lack of adjustment of the fluid therapy to body weight determined that low weight patients received more fluid than high weight patients according to their body weight. This fluid overload could be compensated by increased urine output and electrolyte elimination.

  11. Body contact and body language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Helle Dagmar

    2008-01-01

    and the boundaries between self and world. In western societies, the modern premises for contact are in some ways developing from close contact to virtual communication. With this breadth of perspective in mind, the ques­tion is whether conscious and experimental work with body contact and body language in move......­ment psychology and education provide potential for intense personal develop­ment as well as for social and cultural learning processes. This performative research project originates from the research project entitled, Movement Psy­chol­ogy: The Language of the Body and the Psy­chol­ogy of Movement based...... on the Dance Therapy Form Dansergia. The author, who is a practi­tioner-researcher, is methodologically inspir­ed by phenomenology, performative methods and a narrative and auto-ethnographic approach. The project will be presented in an organic, cre­at­ive and performative way. Through a moving dia...

  12. Body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper gives a survey on some applications of the whole body counter in clinical practice and a critical study of its application as a routine testing method. Remarks on the necessary precautions are followed by a more detailed discussion of the determination of the natural potassium content, the iron metabolism, the vitamin B12 test, investigations of the metabolism of the bone using 47Ca and 85Sr, investigations with iodine and iodine-labelled substances, clearance investigations (in particular the 51Cr EDTA clearance test), as well as the possibilities of neutron activation in vivo. (ORU/AK)

  13. Dynamic analysis of multibody system immersed in a fluid medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is concerned primarily with the development and evaluation of an analysis method for the reponse prediction of immersed systems to seismic and other dynamic excitations. For immersed multibody systems, the hydrodynamic interaction causes coupled motion among the solid bodies. Also, under intense external excitations, impact between bodies may occur. The complex character of such systems inhibit the use of conventional analytical solutions in closed form. Therefore, approximate numerical schemes have been devised. For an incompressible, inviscid fluid, the hydrodynamic forces exerted by the fluid on solid bodies are determined to be linearly proportional to the acceleration of the vibrating solid bodies; i.e., the presence of the fluid only affects the inertia of the solid body system. A finite element computer program has been developed for computing this hydrodynamic (or added) mass effect. This program can be used to determine the hydrodynamic mass of a two-dimensional fluid field with solid bodies of arbitrary geometry. Triangular elements and linear pressure interpolation function are used to discretize the fluid region. The component element method is used to determine the dynamic response of the multibody system to externally applied mechanical loading or support excitation. The present analysis method for predicting the dynamic response of submerged multibody system is quite general and pertains to any number of solid bodies. However in this paper, its application is demonstrated only for 4 and 25 body systems. (Auth.)

  14. Zero-G fluid mechanics in animal and man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, H.

    1986-01-01

    Significant cardiovascular change occurs with spaceflight. Loss of normal hydrostatic pressure gradients (head-to-foot), present while upright on earth, results in significant headward fluid shift of vascular and interstitial fluids. The resultant fluid change also shifts the hydrostatic indifference point for the circulation. The persistent distention of neck veins and change in upper body tissue compliance initiates steps to adapt to and compensate for the sensed excess fluid. These result in a loss of intravascular volume through neuro-humoral mechanisms and the presence of a smaller heart size, leading to a state where the subject has a reduced adaptive capacity to stress, particularly to fluid shifts to the lower body as occurs when once again returning to earth. This article reviews what is known about the weightlessness-induced headward fluid shift and its effects on cardiovascular function.

  15. Electrochemistry in Supercritical Fluids: A Mini Review

    OpenAIRE

    Toghill, Kathryn E.; Mendez, Manuel A.; Voyame, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    A brief overview of the literature relating to electrochemical studies and processes undertaken in supercritical fluids is presented. This review mostly concerns carbon dioxide and hydrofluorocarbons, given the accessibility of their supercritical states, and does not consider the emerging body of research in expanded phase electrochemistry.

  16. QUASI-ONE DIMENSIONAL CLASSICAL FLUIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Percus, J K; Q.-H.Wang

    2003-01-01

    We study the equilibrium statistical mechanics of simple fluids in narrow pores. A systematic expansion is made about a one-dimensional limit of this system. It starts with a density functional, constructed from projected densities, which depends upon projected one and two-body potentials. The nature of higher order corrections is discussed.

  17. QUASI-ONE DIMENSIONAL CLASSICAL FLUIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K.Percus

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the equilibrium statistical mechanics of simple fluids in narrow pores. A systematic expansion is made about a one-dimensional limit of this system. It starts with a density functional, constructed from projected densities, which depends upon projected one and two-body potentials. The nature of higher order corrections is discussed.

  18. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Foreign Body Retrieval Foreign body retrieval is the removal ... of foreign body detection and removal? What is Foreign Body Retrieval? Foreign body retrieval involves the removal ...

  19. Pancreatitis-associated fluid collections involving the spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical and radiographic features of 2 patients with dissecting pancreatitis-associated fluid collections involving the spleen are described. A typical appearance of left upper quadrant fluid collection lateral to the splenic pulp was observed by ultrasonography (US) or computed body tomography (CBT). Although these findings are nonspecific, a left upper quadrant fluid collection may be characterized definitively by US/CBT-guided needle aspiration. (orig.)

  20. Peritoneal fluid culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - peritoneal fluid ... sent to the laboratory for Gram stain and culture. The sample is checked to see if bacteria ... based on more than just the peritoneal fluid culture (which may be negative even if you have ...

  1. A fluid particle model

    OpenAIRE

    Español, Pep

    1997-01-01

    We present a mechanistic model for a Newtonian fluid called fluid particle dynamics. By analyzing the concept of ``fluid particle'' from the point of view of a Voronoi tessellation of a molecular fluid, we propose an heuristic derivation of a dissipative particle dynamics algorithm that incorporates shear forces between dissipative particles. The inclusion of these non-central shear forces requires the consideration of angular velocities of the dissipative particles in order to comply with th...

  2. Fluid Movement and Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slepian, Michael L.; Ambady, Nalini

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive scientists describe creativity as fluid thought. Drawing from findings on gesture and embodied cognition, we hypothesized that the physical experience of fluidity, relative to nonfluidity, would lead to more fluid, creative thought. Across 3 experiments, fluid arm movement led to enhanced creativity in 3 domains: creative generation,…

  3. 吸头小柱微萃取-解吸电晕束电离质谱用于快速分析体液中的降压药物%Coupling Micropipette Tip-based Micro-extraction with Desorption Corona Beam Ionization Mass Spectrometry for Rapid Analysis of Antihypertensive Drugs in Body Fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游金清; 郝艳红; 黄云清; 程玉鹏; 孙文剑; 余琼卫; 袁必锋; 冯钰锜

    2013-01-01

    We developed a convenient method by coupling micropipette tip-based micro-extraction ( TBME) with desorption corona beam ionization mass spectrometry ( DCBI-MS) for rapid analysis of medicines in biological samples. The operation of TBME is easy and fast, and it can enrich the analyte concentration and eliminate background interference, which makes it suitable as a novel sample preparation method before ambient Ionization. We have systematically optimized the extraction conditions and the instrument parameters. The typical analysis procedure includes the steps of extraction, drying and DCBI-MS detection, and the all processes take less than three minutes. The method was successfully used for the analysis of antihypertensive drugs such as nifedipine, nitrendipine and nimodipine and illegal drugs in body fluid. The method is of considerable interest for broadening the application of ambient ionization mass spectrometry for body fluid analysis.%将C18ZipTip吸头小柱微萃取(Micropipette tip-based micro-extraction)与解吸电晕束电离质谱(Desorption corona beam ionization mass spectrometry,DCBI-MS)联用,用于快速分析复杂生物样品中的小分子药物.吸头小柱微萃取装置简单、操作快速,适合作为与常压直接离子化质谱技术联用的前处理技术,能实现分析物的富集和基质干扰的消除.优化了萃取条件和离子源的参数,最终选择20%(V/V)乙腈溶液作为上样溶液,4 μL乙腈作为解吸液.分析全过程包括萃取、自然挥干、电晕束解析电离等步骤,并可以在3 min内完成.此方法用于血浆中的地平类降血压药及尿液中氯胺酮的快速分析,结果满意.这种方法拓展了常压直接离子化质谱技术在体液分析中的应用.

  4. 体液平衡和微循环动态监测在腹部术后病人容量状态评估中的应用研究%Study on application of body fluid balance and microcirculation dynamic monitoring for volume state assessment of patients after accepting abdominal surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛颢; 马丽英; 张艳燕

    2011-01-01

    [目的]评价体液平衡和微循环动态监测在腹部手术后病人容量状态评估中的作用.[方法]选取我院外科病房接受腹部外科手术的成年病人300例,随机分为加强监测治疗组和常规治疗组各150例.加强监测治疗组根据2008年英国及爱尔兰外科学会对病人加强体液平衡的动态监测和微循环状态的观察并及时调整液体治疗方案.常规治疗组病人根据国内诊疗常规及本院以往经验进行常规的监测和治疗.收集并比较两组病人术后脏器功能不全的发生率、病死率,并对两组脏器功能不全病人的构成情况进行分析.[结果]加强监测治疗组病人手术后脏器功能不全的发生率、病死率较常规治疗组显著降低,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);心功能不全和呼吸功能不全是两组病人脏器功能不全的主要原因.[结论]通过加强对腹部手术后病人容量和微循环状态的动态监测和有效评估有助于及时调整并制订合理的个体化液体治疗方案,降低手术后脏器功能不全的发生率和病死率,改善腹部手术病人的预后.%Objective: To evaluate the effect of body fluid balance and microcirculation dynamic monitoring in volume state assessment for patients after accepting abdominal surgery. Methods: A total of 300 adult patients accepted abdominal surgery in surgical wards in our hospital were selected and randomly divided into test group and control group 150 cases each. Patients of test group were strengthened the dynamic monitoring of fluid balance and observation of microcirculation state and adj usted fluids treatment regimen in time according to the 2008 British and Irish surgical association "Treatment guidelines for adult surgical patients undergoing intravenous fluid infusion". Patients of control were just given conventional monitoring and treatment based on routing diagnosis and treatment in China and previous experiences. Both the incidence rate of

  5. Interfacial gauge methods for incompressible fluid dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saye, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Designing numerical methods for incompressible fluid flow involving moving interfaces, for example, in the computational modeling of bubble dynamics, swimming organisms, or surface waves, presents challenges due to the coupling of interfacial forces with incompressibility constraints. A class of methods, denoted interfacial gauge methods, is introduced for computing solutions to the corresponding incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. These methods use a type of "gauge freedom" to reduce the numerical coupling between fluid velocity, pressure, and interface position, allowing high-order accurate numerical methods to be developed more easily. Making use of an implicit mesh discontinuous Galerkin framework, developed in tandem with this work, high-order results are demonstrated, including surface tension dynamics in which fluid velocity, pressure, and interface geometry are computed with fourth-order spatial accuracy in the maximum norm. Applications are demonstrated with two-phase fluid flow displaying fine-scaled capillary wave dynamics, rigid body fluid-structure interaction, and a fluid-jet free surface flow problem exhibiting vortex shedding induced by a type of Plateau-Rayleigh instability. The developed methods can be generalized to other types of interfacial flow and facilitate precise computation of complex fluid interface phenomena. PMID:27386567

  6. Engineering fluid mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    This book is intended to serve as a unique and comprehensive textbook for scientists and engineers as well as advanced students in thermo-fluid courses. It provides an intensive monograph essential for understanding dynamics of ideal fluid, Newtonian fluid, non-Newtonian fluid and magnetic fluid. These distinct, yet intertwined subjects are addressed in an integrated manner. It starts with coherent treatment of fundamental continuum mechanics, with an emphasis on the intrinsic angular momentum, by which the concepts of ferrohydrodynamics are progressively built up, and serve as a foundation fo

  7. Fluid and particle mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Michell, S J

    2013-01-01

    Fluid and Particle Mechanics provides information pertinent to hydraulics or fluid mechanics. This book discusses the properties and behavior of liquids and gases in motion and at rest. Organized into nine chapters, this book begins with an overview of the science of fluid mechanics that is subdivided accordingly into two main branches, namely, fluid statics and fluid dynamics. This text then examines the flowmeter devices used for the measurement of flow of liquids and gases. Other chapters consider the principle of resistance in open channel flow, which is based on improper application of th

  8. Membrane fluids and Dirac membrane fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, M G

    2004-01-01

    The relation between two different methods of membrane fluid description is clarified by construction of combined method. Dirac membrane field appears naturally in new approach. It provides a possibility to consider new aspects of electrodynamics-type theories with electric and magnetic sources. The membrane fluid models automatically prohibit simulatenos existence of electric and magnetic currents. Possible applications to the dark energy problem are mentioned.

  9. Fluid cooled electrical assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, Lawrence E.; Romero, Guillermo L.

    2007-02-06

    A heat producing, fluid cooled assembly that includes a housing made of liquid-impermeable material, which defines a fluid inlet and a fluid outlet and an opening. Also included is an electrical package having a set of semiconductor electrical devices supported on a substrate and the second major surface is a heat sink adapted to express heat generated from the electrical apparatus and wherein the second major surface defines a rim that is fit to the opening. Further, the housing is constructed so that as fluid travels from the fluid inlet to the fluid outlet it is constrained to flow past the opening thereby placing the fluid in contact with the heat sink.

  10. Analysis of an idealized body-vortex systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Johan Rønby; Aref, Hassan

    2008-01-01

    We explore the class of dynamical systems consisting of a body, N point vortices, and one or more passive particles in an ideal, unbounded, planar fluid. The body is represented by a closed curve and is free to move in response to the fluid motion. The vortices have fixed strengths and are intended...... well in hand. They can be analyzed using techniques from the theory of dynamical systems with a finite number of degrees of freedom. The simplest such system, a single point vortex and a circular body, is integrable. If we add vortices, or change other features of the system such as the body shape, the...

  11. A NUT-like solution with fluid matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stationary solutions of the Einstein equation are investigated when the source is a rigidly rotating fluid. Using the three-dimensional spin coefficient method the angular dependence of the metric tensor can be analytically calculated if the eigenray congruence is geodesic and shearfree. The nonstatic solutions of this class do not describe physically realistic bodies, but instead, bodies with NUT-type geometry. (author)

  12. 基于中医健康状态气血津液辨识法的毒瘾中医病理因素研究%Research on the Traditional Chinese Medicine Pathological Factors of Addiction Based on Differentiation Method of qi-blood and Body Fluids under TCM Health State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨朝阳; 苏志扬; 蔡美美; 李灿东; 黄世庚; 吕京和

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the traditional Chinese medicine ( TCM )pathological factors of addiction. Methods: We applied the research results~qi-blood and body fluid state identification system in beta version—to the research on TCM pathological factors of addiction. The diagnosis standards of drug addicts conformed to the Standards in Chinese Classification and Diagnosis of Mental Disorders, CCMD-3. The Chinese medical pathological factors were collected by means of Syndrome Elements Authentication. Results: The public security group and judicial group have significant differences in Yin deficiency, blood deficiency, Yang deficiency, phlegm and damp ( P 第三版(CCMD-3);中医病理因素采用证素辨证方法采集.结果:公安组与司法组在阴虚、血虚、阳虚、痰、湿有统计学意义(P<0.05),且司法组的程度大于公安组.结论:痰是毒品成瘾的主要病理因素,虚实夹杂是毒品成瘾的证候学特点.

  13. Dementia with Lewy Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Dementia With Lewy Bodies Information Page Synonym(s): Lewy Body ... and Information Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Dementia With Lewy Bodies? Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) ...

  14. Rotational dynamics of a superhelix towed in a Stokes fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, Sunghwan; Fauci, Lisa; Shelley, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    Motivated by the intriguing motility of spirochetes (helically-shaped bacteria that screw through viscous fluids due to the action of internal periplasmic flagella), we examine the fundamental fluid dynamics of superhelices translating and rotating in a Stokes fluid. A superhelical structure may be thought of as a helix whose axial centerline is not straight, but also a helix. We examine the particular case where these two superimposed helices have different handedness, and employ a combination of experimental, analytic, and computational methods to determine the rotational velocity of superhelical bodies being towed through a very viscous fluid. We find that the direction and rate of the rotation of the body is a result of competition between the two superimposed helices; for small axial helix amplitude, the body dynamics is controlled by the short-pitched helix, while there is a cross-over at larger amplitude to control by the axial helix. We find far better, and excellent, agreement of our experimental res...

  15. Existence of time-periodic weak solutions to the stochastic Navier-Stokes equations around a moving body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The existence of time-periodic stochastic motions of an incompressible fluid is obtained. Here the fluid is subject to a time-periodic body force and an additional time-periodic stochastic force that is produced by a rigid body moves periodically stochastically with the same period in the fluid

  16. Using record player demonstrations as analog models for geophysical fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grannan, A. M.; Cheng, J. S.; Hawkins, E. K.; Ribeiro, A.; Aurnou, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    All celestial bodies, including stars, planets, satellites, and asteroids, rotate. The influence of rotation on the fluid layers in these bodies plays an important and diverse role, affecting many processes including oceanic and atmospheric circulation at the surface and magnetic field generation occurring in the interior. To better understand these large-scale processes, record players and containers of water are used as analog models to demonstrate the basic interplay between rotation and fluid motions. To contrast between rotating and non-rotating fluid motions, coffee creamer and food coloring are used as fluid tracers to provide a hands-on method of understanding the influence of rotation on the shapes of the planets, weather patterns, and the alignment of magnetic fields with rotational axes. Such simple demonstrations have been successfully employed for children in public outreach events and for adults in graduate level fluid dynamics courses.

  17. Influence of recombinant human growth hormone on body fluid compartments and water-sodium retention in severe bum patients%重组人生长激素对严重烧伤患者体液分布及水钠潴留的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵华伟; 仇旭光; 陈国贤; 韩春茂

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influence of recombinant human growth hormone(rhGH) on body fluid compartments and water-sodium retention in severe burn patients. Methods Thirty adult patients with severe burn were divided into treatment(T)and control(C)groups by block randomized design.Patients in both groups were subcutaneously injected with same amount of rhGH(12 IU/d)or isotonic saline during 7-21 post burn day(PBD).The total body water(TBW),intracellular water(ICW),extracellular water(ECW)were measured by bioelectrieal impedance analysis(BIA) on 7,14,21 PBD.The 24 h uninary output of Na+ was determined by ion selective electrode method(ISE).esults There were no significant difference in levels of TBW,ICW,ECW and 24 h uninary output of Na+ between two groups on 7,14,21 PBD(P>0.05).No difference in results was found between groups at different time points(P>0.05).After the data were analyzed, the level of TBW(36±6 L),ICW(21±4 L)on 21 PBD were evidently lower than those on 7 PBD(38±6 L.23±7 L.P<0.01). Conclusion The level of ICW and TBW in severe bum patients decreased along with the time.Proper dosage of rhGH has no significant effect on body fluid compartments and water-sodium retention.%目的 了解重组人生长激素(rhGH)对严重烧伤患者体液分布及水钠潴留的影响.方法 成年重度烧伤患者30例,按区组随机法分为治疗组和对照组.伤后第7天开始分别为2组患者皮下注射rhGH(12 U/d)和等量等渗盐水,持续14 d.于伤后第7天(用药前)及伤后第14、21天(用药后第7、14天),应用生物电阻抗法观察2组患者机体总水量(TBW)、细胞内水量(ICW)及细胞外水量(ECW),同时应用离子选择电极法测量24 h尿钠,进行对比分析和综合统计. 结果 治疗组与对照组比较,伤后第7、14、21天的TBW、ICW、ECW及24 h尿钠变化差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).各组内不同时相点比较,差异亦无统计学意义(P>0.05).但将2组患者数据合并

  18. Applications of supercritical fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Gerd

    2010-01-01

    This review discusses supercritical fluids in industrial and near-to-industry applications. Supercritical fluids are flexible tools for processing materials. Supercritical fluids have been applied to mass-transfer processes, phase-transition processes, reactive systems, materials-related processes, and nanostructured materials. Some applications are already at industrial capacity, whereas others remain under development. In addition to extraction, application areas include impregnation and cleaning, multistage countercurrent separation, particle formation, coating, and reactive systems such as hydrogenation, biomass gasification, and supercritical water oxidation. Polymers are modified with supercritical fluids, and colloids and emulsions as well as nanostructured materials exhibit interesting phenomena when in contact with supercritical fluids that can be industrially exploited. For these applications to succeed, the properties of supercritical fluids in combination with the materials processed must be clearly determined and fundamental knowledge of the complex behavior must be made readily available. PMID:22432584

  19. Fiber optic fluid detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, S. Michael

    1989-01-01

    Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element (11, 11a to 11j) having a cladding or coating of a material (23, 23a to 23j) which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector (24, 24a to 24j) may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses.

  20. The characteristics of internal waves excited by towed bodies with different aspect ratios in a stratified fluid%密度分层流体中不同长径比拖曳潜体激发内波特性实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王进; 尤云祥; 胡天群; 朱敏慧; 王小青; 魏岗

    2012-01-01

    在具有连续密度跃层的分层流体中,针对3种不同长径比拖曳潜体激发内波的运动学与动力学特性进行了系列实验.从拖曳潜体产生扰动密度场的动态时间序列测量结果入手,表明体积效应激发内波属于一种相对于拖曳潜体定常的多模态Lee波结构,而尾迹效应激发主控内波为相对于拖曳潜体非定常的拟Lee波结构,这是一类由湍流尾迹中大尺度相干结构作为移动源激发的内波结构.研究表明,在Lee波与拟Lee波之间存在一个与长径比近似为线性关系的临界转捩Froude数Frc,而且转捩后拟Lee波相关速度相应Froude数近似为一个常数0.8.研究进一步表明,存在一个与长径比近似为线性关系的Froude数Frp,当Fr<Frp时,Lee波为主控内波,无因次内波峰-峰幅值随Fr增大而增大;当Frp<Fr<Frc时,虽然Lee波仍为主控内波,但无因次内波峰-峰幅值随Fr增大而减小,而拟Lee波的影响逐渐增大;当Fr>Frc时,拟Lee波为主控内波,无因次内波峰-峰幅值随Fr增大近似线性增大,而且长径比的影响可以忽略,其中Fr为拖曳潜体特征直径Froude数.%Experiments are conducted for the kinematic and dynamic characteristics of the internal waves excited by horizontally towed bodies with three aspect ratios in a stratified fluid with a pycnocline. Based on the dynamic measurements of the density perturbation generated by towed bodies, it is shown that the body-generated waves are a type of stationary Lee wave structures with multi-modes; moreover the wake-generated waves are a type of non-stationary quasi-Lee wave structures with respect to the towed bodies, where the quasi-Lee waves are shown to be produced by the large-scale coherent structure in turbulent wakes acting as a moving excitation. Results show that the transition between the Lee and quasi-Lee waves occurs at a critical Froude number Frc which is shown to be linearly dependent of the aspect ratio, and

  1. Lateral Vortex Dynamics behind Ahmed Body

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uruba, Václav

    Karlsruhe , 2010. s. 1-1. ISBN N. [GAMM annual meeting 2010 /81./. 22.03.2010-26.03.2010, Karlsruhe ] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/08/1112; GA ČR GAP101/10/1230 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : lateral vortex * dynamics * bluff body Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  2. HEAT TRANSFER FLUIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Lenert, Andrej; Nam, Youngsuk; Wang, Evelyn N.

    2012-01-01

    The choice of heat transfer fluids has significant effects on the performance, cost, and reliability of solar thermal systems. In this chapter, we evaluate existing heat transfer fluids such as oils and molten salts based on a new figure of merit capturing the combined effects of thermal storage capacity, convective heat transfer characteristics, and hydraulic performance of the fluids. Thermal stability, freezing point, and safety issues are also discussed. Through a comparative analysis, we...

  3. Electrodeposition from supercritical fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Bartlett, P.; Cook, D.A.; George, M.W.; Hector, A; Ke, J; Levason, W.; Reid, G; Smith, D.; W. Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that it is possible to electrodeposit a range of materials, such as Cu, Ag and Ge, from various supercritical fluids, including hydrofluorocarbons and mixtures of CO2 with suitable co-solvents. In this perspective we discuss the relatively new field of electrodeposition from supercritical fluids. The perspective focuses on some of the underlying physical chemistry and covers both practical and scientific aspects of electrodeposition from supercritical fluids. We also...

  4. Dissipative fluid dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With restriction to an irrotational velocity field, equations of motion for a nuclear fluid with dissipation are derived from the quantum-mechanical variational principle. Memory effects in the resulting Navier-Stokes-like equations ascribe elastoplasticity to the fluid whenever the intrinsic equilibration times are comparable to the collective time scale. The markovian limits yield the Euler equation, the Navier-Stokes equation and the fluid-dynamical equation for irrotational velocity fields. (orig.)

  5. Disposing of fluid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toxic liquid waste, eg liquid radioactive waste, is disposed of by locating a sub-surface stratum which, before removal of any fluid, has a fluid pressure in the pores thereof which is less than the hydrostatic pressure which is normal for a stratum at that depth in the chosen area, and then feeding the toxic liquid into the stratum at a rate such that the fluid pressure in the stratum never exceeds the said normal hydrostatic pressure. (author)

  6. Some applications of magnetic resonance imaging in fluid mechanics: Complex flows and complex fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Bonn, D.; Rodts, S.; Groenink, M.; Rafaï, S.; Shahidzadeh-Bonn, N.; Coussot, P.

    2008-01-01

    The review deals with applications of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques to study flow. We first briefly discuss the principles of flow measurement by MRI and give examples of some applications, such as multiphase flows, the MRI rheology of complex fluid flows, and blood flows in the human body.

  7. Fluids of Pseudo-hard Bodies: The Direct Correlation Function

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slovák, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 12 (2002), s. 1981-1987. ISSN 0026-8976 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4072908 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : models * water Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.617, year: 2002

  8. BIOSENSORS: A SENSITIVE STRATEGY TO DETECT GLUCOSE IN BODY FLUIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riddhi Patel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades diabetes is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in the world, thus inventing glucose biosensors with accurate continuous monitoring is of growing concern amongst the scientists worldwide. This manuscript reviews the development of glucose biosensors over the last 50 years since the invention of the first glucose sensing electrode and various approaches considered to develop accurate and modern techniques of glucose sensing. This review provides brief introduction to principles of various glucose biosensors with systemization and classification of glucose monitoring principles. Thus the main aim of this manuscript is to check history of glucose biosensors, comment on their current status and commercial aspects, and examine future challenges.

  9. Chaos and Integrability in Ideal Body-Fluid Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Johan Rønby

    2011-01-01

    of relative equilibria, their stability, and the qualitatively dierent kinds of motion is studied analytically and numerically. We then perform small parametric perturbations destroying the symmetry or conservation law that makes the system integrable. The emergence of chaos in the system is diagnosed...... of additional conserved quantities is discussed. A survey of the integrable motions of the system is given. Integrability is demonstrated explicitly by exploiting conservation laws to devise reduced phase space coordinates in which the orbits of the system are the contours of an energy landscape. The existence...

  10. Electrorheological fluids and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Peter F.; McIntyre, Ernest C.

    2015-06-02

    Electrorheological fluids and methods include changes in liquid-like materials that can flow like milk and subsequently form solid-like structures under applied electric fields; e.g., about 1 kV/mm. Such fluids can be used in various ways as smart suspensions, including uses in automotive, defense, and civil engineering applications. Electrorheological fluids and methods include one or more polar molecule substituted polyhedral silsesquioxanes (e.g., sulfonated polyhedral silsesquioxanes) and one or more oils (e.g., silicone oil), where the fluid can be subjected to an electric field.

  11. Electrodeposition from supercritical fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, P N; Cook, D A; George, M W; Hector, A L; Ke, J; Levason, W; Reid, G; Smith, D C; Zhang, W

    2014-05-28

    Recent studies have shown that it is possible to electrodeposit a range of materials, such as Cu, Ag and Ge, from various supercritical fluids, including hydrofluorocarbons and mixtures of CO2 with suitable co-solvents. In this perspective we discuss the relatively new field of electrodeposition from supercritical fluids. The perspective focuses on some of the underlying physical chemistry and covers both practical and scientific aspects of electrodeposition from supercritical fluids. We also discuss possible applications for supercritical fluid electrodeposition and suggest some key developments that are required to take the field to the next stage. PMID:24469309

  12. Theoretical Fluid Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Shivamoggi, Bhimsen K

    1998-01-01

    "Although there are many texts and monographs on fluid dynamics, I do not know of any which is as comprehensive as the present book. It surveys nearly the entire field of classical fluid dynamics in an advanced, compact, and clear manner, and discusses the various conceptual and analytical models of fluid flow." - Foundations of Physics on the first edition. Theoretical Fluid Dynamics functions equally well as a graduate-level text and a professional reference. Steering a middle course between the empiricism of engineering and the abstractions of pure mathematics, the author focuses

  13. Spiral fluid separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Glen A. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A fluid separator for separating particulate matter such as contaminates is provided which includes a series of spiral tubes of progressively decreasing cross sectional area connected in series. Each tube has an outlet on the outer curvature of the spiral. As fluid spirals down a tube, centrifugal force acts to force the heavier particulate matter to the outer wall of the tube, where it exits through the outlet. The remaining, and now cleaner, fluid reaches the next tube, which is smaller in cross sectional area, where the process is repeated. The fluid which comes out the final tube is diminished of particulate matter.

  14. Fluid dynamics transactions

    CERN Document Server

    Fiszdon, W

    2013-01-01

    Fluid Dynamics Transactions, Volume 2 compiles 46 papers on fluid dynamics, a subdiscipline of fluid mechanics that deals with fluid flow. The topics discussed in this book include developments in interference theory for aeronautical applications; diffusion from sources in a turbulent boundary layer; unsteady motion of a finite wing span in a compressible medium; and wall pressure covariance and comparison with experiment. The certain classes of non-stationary axially symmetric flows in magneto-gas-dynamics; description of the phenomenon of secondary flows in curved channels by means of co

  15. Some connections between fluid mechanics and the solving of industrial and environmental fluid-flow problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, J. C. R.

    1981-05-01

    The ways in which advances in fluid mechanics have led to improvements in engineering design are discussed, with attention to the stimulation of fluid mechanics research by industrial and environmental problems. The development of many practical uses of fluid flow without the benefit of scientific study is also emphasized. Among the topics discussed are vortices and coherent structures in turbulent flows, lubrication, jet and multiphase flows, the control and exploitation of waves, the effect of unsteady forces on structures, and dispersion phenomena. Among the practical achievements covered are the use of bluff shields to control separated flow over truck bodies and reduce aerodynamic drag, ink-jet printing, hovercraft stability, fluidized-bed combustion, the fluid/solid instabilities caused by air flow around a computer memory floppy disc, and various wind turbines.

  16. HYDRODYNAMIC INTERACTIONS BETWEEN TWO BODIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of model tests, potential flow theory, and viscous Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method, the hydrodynamic interactions between two underwater bodies were investigated to determine the influencing factors, changing rule, interaction mechanism, and appropriate methods describing them. Some special phenomena were discovered in two series of near-wall interaction experiments. The mathematical model and predicting methods were presented for interacting forces near wall, and the calculation results agreed well with the experimental ones. From the comparisons among numerical results with respect to nonviscosity, numerical results with respect to viscosity, and measured results, data on the influence of viscosity on hydrodynamic interactions were obtained. For hydrodynamic interaction related to multi-body unsteady motions with six degrees of freedom that is difficult to simulate in tests, numerical predictions of unsteady interacting forces were given.

  17. Supercritical Fluid Chromatography, Pressurized Liquid Extraction and Supercritical Fluid Extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, Matthew C.; Yonker, Clement R.

    2006-06-15

    In this review we examine the related fields of supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). We reviewed the published literature in the period from November 2003 to November 2005. Well over 300 papers were published in this period. This large body of work indicates continuing active growth of the field, but an exhaustive review is beyond the scope of this work. We have chosen to include a sampling of publications that best represent the continuing trends and new ideas in the field. In keeping with past reviews on this subject1, we have broadened our scope to include fluid systems operating at high temperature and pressure, but below the critical point. Various terms have been applied to this state: sub-critical fluid extraction, pressurized liquid extraction, and accelerated solvent extraction. The term accelerated solvent extraction has been used by instrument manufacturers to refer to this process, but we will use the more descriptive term pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) to refer to these systems. Most of the research in the field is of an “evolutionary” rather than “revolutionary” nature. As in the previous review period, applications papers make up a majority of the published work. Pharmaceutical applications continue to be a strong theme. Most of the pharmaceutical work has centered on preparative, rather than analytical, separations. Chiral separations are an exception, as analytical scale separations of chiral compounds are an area of intense interest. Food and natural products represent the next largest body of work. Major themes are the isolation and characterization of high-value added foodstuffs, fragrances, and flavor compounds from novel natural materials or agricultural by-products. The areas of food, natural products, and pharmaceutical separation science converge in the area of so-called nutraceuticals. These are typically high-value products, either sold alone or as part of a fortified food, that

  18. Statistical Fluid Mechanics and Statistical Mechanics of Fluid Turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turbulence in a fluid has two mutually contradictory aspects, that is, the apparent ran-domeness as a whole and the intrinsic determinicity due to the fluid-dynamical equations. In the traditional approarch to this subject, the velocity field of turbulence has been represented by the mean products of the turbulent velocities at several points and a time, and the equations governing the dynamical system composed of the mean velocity products are solved to obtain the mean velocity products as the deterministic functions in time. The works along this approach constitute the main body of turbulence research as outlined by Monin and Yaglom (1975) under the title of 'Statistical Fluid Mechanics'. It should be noted, however, that this approach has the diffculty of unclosedness of the equations for the mean velocity products due to the nonlinearity of the Navier-Stokes equations and an appropriate closure hypothesis is still awaited. In the statistical approach to turbulence, on the other hand, the random velocity field of turbulence is represented by the joint-probability distributions of the multi-point turbulent velocities. This approach has been taken by Lundgren (1967) and Monin (1967) independently, and the system of equations for the probability distributions of the multi-point velocities has been formulated. This system of equations is also unclosed, but in this case the problem is much easier to deal with since the unclosedness is not due to the nonlinearity but to the higher-order derivatives in the viscous term of the Navier-Stokes equations. Tatsumi (2001) proposed the cross-independence closure hypothesis for this purpose and proved its validity for homogeneous isotropic turbulence. More recently, the theory has extended by Tatsumi (2011) to general inhomogeneous turbulence and the closure is shown to provide an exact closure. This theory is outlined and discussed in the later part of this paper.

  19. Fluid Structure Interaction Analysis of Planar Buoy

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Rakeshbhai; Hanif, Muhammad Adnan; Oad, Rajev Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Different types of wave energy convertors are being studied using the heave motion of floating bodies to generate electricity. In this thesis, we investigate the interaction of floating buoys from hydrodynamic point of view. The dynamic heave response of buoy under two different load cases and represented by single degree of freedom model is studied. The fluid-structure interactions based on 2-dimensional linear potential flow theory were modeled and simulated using finite element method. The...

  20. Anomalous structure and dynamics of the Gaussian-core fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krekelberg, William P; Kumar, Tanuj; Mittal, Jeetain; Errington, Jeffrey R; Truskett, Thomas M

    2009-03-01

    It is known that there are thermodynamic states for which the Gaussian-core fluid displays anomalous properties such as expansion upon isobaric cooling (density anomaly) and increased single-particle mobility upon isothermal compression (self-diffusivity anomaly). Here, we investigate how temperature and density affect its short-range translational structural order, as characterized by the two-body excess entropy. We find that there is a wide range of conditions for which the short-range translational order of the Gaussian-core fluid decreases upon isothermal compression (structural order anomaly). As we show, the origin of the structural anomaly is qualitatively similar to that of other anomalous fluids (e.g., water or colloids with short-range attractions) and is connected to how compression affects static correlations at different length scales. Interestingly, we find that the self-diffusivity of the Gaussian-core fluid obeys a scaling relationship with the two-body excess entropy that is very similar to the one observed for a variety of simple liquids. One consequence of this relationship is that the state points for which structural, self-diffusivity, and density anomalies of the Gaussian-core fluid occur appear as cascading regions on the temperature-density plane; a phenomenon observed earlier for models of waterlike fluids. There are, however, key differences between the anomalies of Gaussian-core and waterlike fluids, and we discuss how those can be qualitatively understood by considering the respective interparticle potentials of these models. Finally, we note that the self-diffusivity of the Gaussian-core fluid obeys different scaling laws depending on whether the two-body or total excess entropy is considered. This finding, which deserves more comprehensive future study, appears to underscore the significance of higher-body correlations for the behavior of fluids with bounded interactions. PMID:19391927

  1. Mg-1.0Ca合金微弧氧化膜在模拟体液中的腐蚀降解行为%Corrosion degradation behaviors of micro arc oxidation coatings on Mg-1.0Ca alloys in simulated body fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张荣发; 张勇强; 张淑芳; 郭世柏; 刘洋; 向军淮

    2015-01-01

    在含植酸钠和碳酸钙的碱性溶液中,采用微弧氧化技术在 Mg-1.0Ca 合金表面制备钙磷盐涂层。采用扫描电镜、能谱仪和X射线衍射仪分析氧化膜的表面形貌、成分和相组成;通过析氢试验、表面观察法以及浸泡腐蚀失重法分析比较镁钙合金氧化前后在模拟体液中的腐蚀降解行为。结果表明:微弧氧化能显著降低 Mg-1.0Ca合金的腐蚀降解速率;浸泡后氧化试样表面钙含量明显增加,表明氧化膜具有很好的生物活性。%The calcium phosphate coatings were prepared by micro arc oxidation (MAO) technique on Mg-1.0Ca alloys in an alkaline solution containing sodium phytate and calcium carbonate. The surface morphology, chemical compositions and phase structure were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The corrosion degradation behavior of Mg-1.0Ca alloys before and after MAO treatment in a simulated body fluid (SBF) were compared through the hydrogen evolution test, surface observation method and immersion corrosion weight loss method. The results demonstrate that MAO treatment can significantly reduce the corrosion degradation rate of Mg-1.0Ca alloys. After immersion in SBF, the calcium content of the MAO samples increases significantly, indicating that the obtained micro arc coatings achieve excellent bioactivity.

  2. Dynamic analysis of multibody system immersed in a fluid medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is concerned primarily with the development and evaluation of an analysis method for the response prediction of immersed multibody systems to seismic and other dynamic excitations. For immersed multibody systems to seismic and other dynamic excitations. For immersed multibody systems, the hydrodynamic interaction causes coupled motion among the solid bodies. Also, under intense external excitations, impact between bodies may occur. The complex character of such systems inhibit the use of conventional analytical solutions in closed form. Therefore, approximate numerical schemes have been devised. For an incompressible, inviscid fluid, the hydrodynamic forces exerted by the fluid on solid bodies are determined to be linearly proportional to the acceleration of the vibrating solid bodies; i.e., the presence of the fluid only affects the inertia of the solid body system. A finite element computer program has been developed for computing this hydrodynamic (or added) mass effect. This program can be used to determine the hydrodynamic mass of a two-dimensional fluid field with solid bodies of arbitrary geometry. Triangular elements and linear pressure interpolation function are used to discretize the fluid region. The component element method is used to determine the dynamic response of the multibody system to externally applied mechanical loading or support excitation. In the component element method, each structural body is modeled by component elements of conceptual spring-damper type. This method is particularly advantageous for systems having nonlinearities. Direct timewise numerical integration scheme is used to solve the governing dynamic equation of the system. Analytical study is carried out and compared with an experimental result for the forced vibration of 4 simply supported beams in water. Also studied is a case of 25 (5x5) beams within a square fluid-filled container by using two different approaches

  3. FRACTURING FLUID CHARACTERIZATION FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subhash Shah

    2000-08-01

    Hydraulic fracturing technology has been successfully applied for well stimulation of low and high permeability reservoirs for numerous years. Treatment optimization and improved economics have always been the key to the success and it is more so when the reservoirs under consideration are marginal. Fluids are widely used for the stimulation of wells. The Fracturing Fluid Characterization Facility (FFCF) has been established to provide the accurate prediction of the behavior of complex fracturing fluids under downhole conditions. The primary focus of the facility is to provide valuable insight into the various mechanisms that govern the flow of fracturing fluids and slurries through hydraulically created fractures. During the time between September 30, 1992, and March 31, 2000, the research efforts were devoted to the areas of fluid rheology, proppant transport, proppant flowback, dynamic fluid loss, perforation pressure losses, and frictional pressure losses. In this regard, a unique above-the-ground fracture simulator was designed and constructed at the FFCF, labeled ''The High Pressure Simulator'' (HPS). The FFCF is now available to industry for characterizing and understanding the behavior of complex fluid systems. To better reflect and encompass the broad spectrum of the petroleum industry, the FFCF now operates under a new name of ''The Well Construction Technology Center'' (WCTC). This report documents the summary of the activities performed during 1992-2000 at the FFCF.

  4. Fluid mechanics. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The second volume contains the chapter 4 to 6. Whereas chapter 1 deals with the introduction into the mechanics of fluids and chapter 2 with the fundamental laws of fluid and thermal fluid dynamics, in chapter 3 elementary flow phenomena in fluids with constant density are treated. Chapter 4 directly continues chapter 3 and describes elementary flow phenomena in fluids with varying density. Fluid statics again is treated as a special case. If compared with the first edition the treatment of unsteady laminar flow and of pipe flow for a fluid with varying density were subject to a substantial extension. In chapter 5 rotation-free and rotating potential flows are presented together. By this means it is achieved to explain the behaviour of the multidimensional fictionless flow in closed form. A subchapter describes some related problems of potential theory like the flow along a free streamline and seepage flow through a porous medium. The boundary layer flows in chapter 6 are concerned with the flow and temperature boundary layer in laminar and turbulent flows at a fired wall. In it differential and integral methods are applied of subchapter reports on boundary layer flows without a fixed boundary, occurring e.g. in an open jet and in a wake flow. The problems of intermittence and of the Coanda effect are briefly mentioned. (orig./MH)

  5. Lewy Body Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewy body disease is one of the most common causes of dementia in the elderly. Dementia is the loss of mental ... to affect normal activities and relationships. Lewy body disease happens when abnormal structures, called Lewy bodies, build ...

  6. Body Odor (For Girls)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gynecology Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Body Odor Posted under Health Guides . Updated 26 June 2015. + ... moisture, your body cools down. Where does body odor come from? When sweat mixes with the natural ...

  7. Body & Lifestyle Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Close X Home > Pregnancy > Body & lifestyle changes Body & lifestyle changes E-mail to a friend Please fill ... between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Body & lifestyle changes Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care ...

  8. Inclusion Body Myositis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Inclusion Body Myositis Information Page Table of Contents (click ... and Information Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Inclusion Body Myositis? Inclusion body myositis (IBM) is one ...

  9. Supersymmetric sound in fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Hoyos, Carlos; Oz, Yaron

    2012-01-01

    We consider hydrodynamics in the context of spontaneously broken supersymmetry, which includes a massless fermionic mode, the phonino. We use two complementary approaches to describe the system: First, we construct a generating functional from which we derive the equations of motion of the fluid and of the phonino propagating through the fluid. Second, we use an effective field theory approach which utilizes a non-linear realization of supersymmetry to analyze the interactions between phoninos and phonons, and demonstrate the conservation of entropy in ideal fluids. We comment on possible phenomenological consequences for gravitino physics in the early universe.

  10. Thermal Fluid Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is made up of 5 chapters. They are fluid mechanics, fluid machines, Industrial thermodynamics, steam boiler and steam turbine. It introduces hydrostatics, basic theory of fluid movement and law of momentum. It also deals with centrifugal pump, axial flow pump, general hydraulic turbine, and all phenomena happening in the pump. It covers the law of thermodynamics, perfect gas, properties of steam, and flow of gas and steam and water tube boiler. Lastly it explains basic format, theory, loss and performance as well as principle part of steam turbine.

  11. Fire resistant hydraulic fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deakin, P. (Croda Application Chemicals Ltd. (UK). Mining Sales and Service)

    The use of fire resistant fluids is now widespread and in certain applications, namely underground, mandatory within the coal mining industry. However, safety is a paramount objective in all industries and within the author's company which supplies and services other industries such as metal forming and automotive construction, greater emphasis is being placed on the use of fire resistant hydraulic fluids. Their involvement with development, manufacture and application is continually expanding. This document describes the various fire resistant hydraulic fluids and why they are used in particular applications. 1 tab.

  12. Magnetic Fluids--Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoon, S. R.; Tanner, B. K.

    1985-01-01

    Basic physical concepts of importance in understanding magnetic fluids (fine ferromagnetic particles suspended in a liquid) are discussed. They include home-made magnetic fluids, stable magnetic fluids, and particle surfactants. (DH)

  13. Fluid Mechanics of Everyday Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Parziale, N J; Schmidt, B E; Rabinovitch, J; Dunne, R

    2013-01-01

    High speed Schlieren videos were produced highlighting the fluid mechanics found in everyday objects. This video (entry 102369) was submitted as part of the Gallery of Fluid Motion 2013, which is a showcase of fluid dynamics videos.

  14. Foreign body orbital cyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanfard, Younes; Heegard, Steffen; Fledelius, Hans C.;

    2001-01-01

    Ophthalmology, penetrating orbital injury, orbital foreign body, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), histology......Ophthalmology, penetrating orbital injury, orbital foreign body, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), histology...

  15. Culture - joint fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joint fluid culture ... fungi, or viruses grow. This is called a culture. If these germs are detected, other tests may ... is no special preparation needed for the lab culture. How to prepare for the removal of joint ...

  16. Fluid pumping apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Phillip B.

    2006-01-17

    A method and apparatus suitable for coupling seismic or other downhole sensors to a borehole wall in high temperature and pressure environments. In one embodiment, one or more metal bellows mounted to a sensor module are inflated to clamp the sensor module within the borehole and couple an associated seismic sensor to a borehole wall. Once the sensing operation is complete, the bellows are deflated and the sensor module is unclamped by deflation of the metal bellows. In a further embodiment, a magnetic drive pump in a pump module is used to supply fluid pressure for inflating the metal bellows using borehole fluid or fluid from a reservoir. The pump includes a magnetic drive motor configured with a rotor assembly to be exposed to borehole fluid pressure including a rotatable armature for driving an impeller and an associated coil under control of electronics isolated from borehole pressure.

  17. Polymer Fluid Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, R. Byron

    1980-01-01

    Problems in polymer fluid dynamics are described, including development of constitutive equations, rheometry, kinetic theory, flow visualization, heat transfer studies, flows with phase change, two-phase flow, polymer unit operations, and drag reduction. (JN)

  18. Basic fluid system trainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semans, Joseph P.; Johnson, Peter G.; LeBoeuf, Jr., Robert F.; Kromka, Joseph A.; Goron, Ronald H.; Hay, George D.

    1993-01-01

    A trainer, mounted and housed within a mobile console, is used to teach and reinforce fluid principles to students. The system trainer has two centrifugal pumps, each driven by a corresponding two-speed electric motor. The motors are controlled by motor controllers for operating the pumps to circulate the fluid stored within a supply tank through a closed system. The pumps may be connected in series or in parallel. A number of valves are also included within the system to effect different flow paths for the fluid. In addition, temperature and pressure sensing instruments are installed throughout the closed system for measuring the characteristics of the fluid, as it passes through the different valves and pumps. These measurements are indicated on a front panel mounted to the console, as a teaching aid, to allow the students to observe the characteristics of the system.

  19. Fluid management system technology discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symons, E. Patrick

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on fluid management system technology discipline for Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics covered include: subcritical cryogenic storage and transfer; fluid handling; and components and instrumentation.

  20. Messinian Salinity Crisis and basin fluid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoni, Claudia; Cartwight, Joe

    2014-05-01

    Syn- and post-depositional movement of fluids through sediments is one of the least understood aspects in the evolution of a basin. The conventional hydrostratigraphic view on marine sedimentary basins assumes that compactional and meteoric groundwater fluid circulation drives fluid movement and defines its timing. However, in the past few years, several examples of instantaneous and catastrophic release of fluids have been observed even through low-permeability sediments. A particularly complex case-study involves the presence of giant salt bodies in the depocentres of marine basins. Evaporites dramatically change the hydrostratigraphy and fluid-dynamics of the basin, and influence the P/T regimes, e.g. through changes in the geothermal gradient and in the compaction of underlying sediments. Our paper reviews the impact of the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) and evaporites on fluid flow in the Mediterranean sub-basins. The analysis of geological and geophysical sub-surface data provides examples from this basin, and the comparison with analogues in other well-known evaporitic provinces. During the MSC, massive sea-level changes occurred in a relatively limited time interval, and affected the balance of fluid dynamics, e.g. with sudden release or unusual trapping of fluids. Fluid expulsion events are here analysed and classified in relation to the long and short-term effects of the MSC. Our main aim is to build a framework for the correct identification of the fluid flow-related events, and their genetic mechanisms. On basin margins, where evaporites are thin or absent, the sea-level changes associated with the MSC force a rapid basinward shift of the mixing zone of meteoric/gravity flow and saline/compactional flow, 100s-km away from its pre-MSC position. This phenomenon changes the geometry of converging flows, creates hydraulic traps for fluids, and triggers specific diagenetic reactions in pre-MSC deep marine sediments. In basin-centre settings, unloading and

  1. Dense Fluid Flow Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Corpetti, Thomas; Memin, Etienne; Pérez, Patrick

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we address the problem of estimating and analyzing the motion in image sequences showing fluid phenomenon. Due to the great deal of spatial and temporal distortions that luminance patterns exhibit in images of fluid, standard techniques from Computer Vision, originally designed for quasi-rigid motions with stable salient features, are not well adapted in this context. In that prospect, we investigate a dedicated energy-based motion estimator. The considered functional includes a...

  2. Particles, fluids and vortices

    OpenAIRE

    J.W. van Holten

    2001-01-01

    Classical particle mechanics on curved spaces is related to the flow of ideal fluids, by a dual interpretation of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation. As in second quantization, the procedure relates the description of a system with a finite number of degrees of freedom to one with infinitely many degrees of freedom. In some two-dimensional fluid mechanics models a duality transformation between the velocity potential and the stream function can be performed relating sources and sinks in one model t...

  3. Spin fluids and hyperfluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brocato Maurizio

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The general theory of continua with microstructure reviewed in [2] (and, in particular, the theory of gyrocontinua studied in [1] is adapted to apply to perfect spin fluids and hyperuids [10]. Obvious changes are needed due to the prevailing interest for solids in [1] and to some extent in [2]; here, in addition, the conservative character of the continuum is exploited. Finally, the roles of metric, coframe, connection, torsion and curvature in fluids are explored. .

  4. Spin fluids and hyperfluids

    OpenAIRE

    Brocato Maurizio; Capriz Gianfranco

    2002-01-01

    The general theory of continua with microstructure reviewed in [2] (and, in particular, the theory of gyrocontinua studied in [1]) is adapted to apply to perfect spin fluids and hyperuids [10]. Obvious changes are needed due to the prevailing interest for solids in [1] and to some extent in [2]; here, in addition, the conservative character of the continuum is exploited. Finally, the roles of metric, coframe, connection, torsion and curvature in fluids are explored. .

  5. Nematode locomotion in unconfined and confined fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbao, Alejandro; Wajnryb, Eligiusz; Vanapalli, Siva A.; Blawzdziewicz, Jerzy

    2013-08-01

    The millimeter-long soil-dwelling nematode Caenorhabditis elegans propels itself by producing undulations that propagate along its body and turns by assuming highly curved shapes. According to our recent study [V. Padmanabhan et al., PLoS ONE 7, e40121 (2012), 10.1371/journal.pone.0040121] all these postures can be accurately described by a piecewise-harmonic-curvature model. We combine this curvature-based description with highly accurate hydrodynamic bead models to evaluate the normalized velocity and turning angles for a worm swimming in an unconfined fluid and in a parallel-wall cell. We find that the worm moves twice as fast and navigates more effectively under a strong confinement, due to the large transverse-to-longitudinal resistance-coefficient ratio resulting from the wall-mediated far-field hydrodynamic coupling between body segments. We also note that the optimal swimming gait is similar to the gait observed for nematodes swimming in high-viscosity fluids. Our bead models allow us to determine the effects of confinement and finite thickness of the body of the nematode on its locomotion. These effects are not accounted for by the classical resistive-force and slender-body theories.

  6. Fullerol ionic fluids

    KAUST Repository

    Fernandes, Nikhil

    2010-01-01

    We report for the first time an ionic fluid based on hydroxylated fullerenes (fullerols). The ionic fluid was synthesized by neutralizing the fully protonated fullerol with an amine terminated polyethylene/polypropylene oxide oligomer (Jeffamine®). The ionic fluid was compared to a control synthesized by mixing the partially protonated form (sodium form) of the fullerols with the same oligomeric amine in the same ratio as in the ionic fluids (20 wt% fullerol). In the fullerol fluid the ionic bonding significantly perturbs the thermal transitions and melting/crystallization behavior of the amine. In contrast, both the normalized heat of fusion and crystallization of the amine in the control are similar to those of the neat amine consistent with a physical mixture of the fullerols/amine with minimal interactions. In addition to differences in thermal behavior, the fullerol ionic fluid exhibits a complex viscoelastic behavior intermediate between the neat Jeffamine® (liquid-like) and the control (solid-like). © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  7. Generic Controllability of 3D Swimmers in a Perfect Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Chambrion, Thomas; Munnier, Alexandre

    2011-01-01

    We address the problem of controlling a dynamical system governing the motion of a 3D weighted shape changing body swimming in a perfect fluid. The rigid displacement of the swimmer results from the exchange of momentum between prescribed shape changes and the flow, the total impulse of the fluid-swimmer system being constant for all times. We prove the following tracking results: (i) Synchronized swimming: Maybe up to an arbitrarily small change of its density, any swimmer can approximately ...

  8. Body Matters: Narratives of the Body

    OpenAIRE

    Asandi, Iren; Filipovska, Kalina; Neault, Megan; Olsen, Sara Høier

    2014-01-01

    This project engages the notion of the subjective body in a pasture of social constructions in order to gather an understanding of the narratives created by women about their bodies in relation to cosmetic surgery. The empirical data for this project comes from our virtual ethnographic research on the various forums from the MyLooks website. Moreover, perspectives regarding the body, beauty ideals and theoretical positions from Kathryn Morgan and Kathy Davis fill out the structure of the proj...

  9. Determination of Star Bodies from -Centroid Bodies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lujun Guo; Gangsong Leng

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, we prove that an origin-symmetric star body is uniquely determined by its -centroid body. Furthermore, using spherical harmonics, we establish a result for non-symmetric star bodies. As an application, we show that there is a unique member of $_p\\langle K \\rangle$ characterized by having larger volume than any other member, for all real ≥ 1 that are not even natural numbers, where $_p\\langle K \\rangle$ denotes the -centroid equivalence class of the star body .

  10. Fluid Balance of Adolescent Swimmers During Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J D; Kavouras, Stavros A; Robillard, Joseph I; Bardis, Costas N; Johnson, Evan C; Ganio, Matthew S; McDermott, Brendon P; White, Michael A

    2016-03-01

    Adams, JD, Kavouras, SA, Robillard, JI, Bardis, CN, Johnson, EC, Ganio, MS, McDermott, BP, and White, MA. Fluid balance of adolescent swimmers during training. J Strength Cond Res 30(3): 621-625, 2016-Swimming, either competitively or leisurely, is a unique activity that involves prolonged exercise while immersed in stable water temperatures. This environment could have an influence on the hydration status of swimmers independently of fluid balance. Forty-six healthy adolescent swimmers (26 males and 20 females; 12.8 ± 2.3 years; 50.6 ± 13.4 kg) were studied during a typical training session in an indoor swimming pool. First morning, prepractice and postpractice urine samples were tested for osmolality and specific gravity, whereas all athletes consumed fluids ad libitum. Sixty-seven percent of the athletes were hypohydrated (urine osmolality [Uosm] ≥700 mmol·kg) based on their first morning urine sample, which increased to 78% immediately before training. During the 2-hour swimming practice, the minimal sweat loss (0.39 ± 0.27 L) combined with ad libitum fluid availability resulted in unchanged body weight (0.1 ± 0.3 kg). Additionally, thirst was similar (before practice: 46 ± 26, after practice: 55 ± 33 mm on a 100-mm visual analog scale) at pretraining and posttraining time points (p > 0.05). Interestingly, postpractice Uosm was reduced significantly compared with the prepractice value (630 vs. 828 mmol·kg; p = 0.001), without any significant change in body weight (0.1 ± 0.3 kg; p > 0.05). In conclusion, the present data indicated that more than two-thirds of the young swimmers appeared in their practice suboptimally hydrated. Although no changes in body mass were observed during the swimming practice, the decrease in urine hydration markers after swimming might less accurately reflect hydration state. PMID:26907836

  11. Viscous Flow with Large Fluid-Fluid Interface Displacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Hassager, Ole; Saasen, Arild

    1998-01-01

    The arbitrary Lagrange-Euler (ALE) kinematic description has been implemented in a 3D transient finite element program to simulate multiple fluid flows with fluid-fluid interface or surface displacements. The description of fluid interfaces includes variable interfacial tension, and the formulati...

  12. Media and Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Media and Body Image Home For Patients Search FAQs Media and Body ... and Body Image TFAQ002, June 2016 PDF Format Media and Body Image Especially For Teens How can the media make ...

  13. Reinforced Airfoil Shaped Body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to an airfoil shaped body with a leading edge and a trailing edge extending along the longitudinal extension of the body and defining a profile chord, the airfoil shaped body comprising an airfoil shaped facing that forms the outer surface of the airfoil shaped body...

  14. Adolescence and Body Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinshenker, Naomi

    2002-01-01

    Discusses body image among adolescents, explaining that today's adolescents are more prone to body image distortions and dissatisfaction than ever and examining the historical context; how self-image develops; normative discontent; body image distortions; body dysmorphic disorder (BDD); vulnerability of boys (muscle dysmorphia); who is at risk;…

  15. Anisotropic fluids with two-perfect-fluid components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A two-perfect-fluid model of an anisotropic fluid is presented. The energy-momentum tensor associated with the sum of two perfect fluids, one perfect and one null fluid, and two null fluids is examined. Special attention is devoted to the study of the stress tensor. The special case wherein the two perfect fluids are irrotational is studied. A relation between the Einstein equations for this particular case and the Einstein equations for a massless complex scalar field is found. The general solution of Einstein equations for an anisotropic fluid constructed with two-null-fluid components in the plane-symmetric case is discussed. The energy-momentum tensor of a cloud of strings and the energy-momentum tensor of an anisotropic fluid formed by two null fluids are compared

  16. Ciliary kinematics of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in Complex Fluids: Role of viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, Arvind; Qin, Boyang; Arratia, Paulo

    2014-11-01

    The motility behavior of microorganisms can be significantly affected by the rheology of their fluidic environment. Guided by our experiments on the swimming gait of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in viscoelastic fluids, we focus on ciliary waveforms in Newtonian fluids and systematically study the effect of increasing viscosity. We find that the beat frequency as well as the wave speed are both strongly influenced by fluid viscosity. Interestingly, ciliary waveforms at low viscosity show a larger influence of the cell body than waveforms at higher viscosity. We use slender body theory and principal component analysis to elucidate the role of fluid viscosity in regulating the kinematics of the swimming process.

  17. Intravenous Fluid Generation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuillen, John; McKay, Terri; Brown, Daniel; Zoldak, John

    2013-01-01

    The ability to stabilize and treat patients on exploration missions will depend on access to needed consumables. Intravenous (IV) fluids have been identified as required consumables. A review of the Space Medicine Exploration Medical Condition List (SMEMCL) lists over 400 medical conditions that could present and require treatment during ISS missions. The Intravenous Fluid Generation System (IVGEN) technology provides the scalable capability to generate IV fluids from indigenous water supplies. It meets USP (U.S. Pharmacopeia) standards. This capability was performed using potable water from the ISS; water from more extreme environments would need preconditioning. The key advantage is the ability to filter mass and volume, providing the equivalent amount of IV fluid: this is critical for remote operations or resource- poor environments. The IVGEN technology purifies drinking water, mixes it with salt, and transfers it to a suitable bag to deliver a sterile normal saline solution. Operational constraints such as mass limitations and lack of refrigeration may limit the type and volume of such fluids that can be carried onboard the spacecraft. In addition, most medical fluids have a shelf life that is shorter than some mission durations. Consequently, the objective of the IVGEN experiment was to develop, design, and validate the necessary methodology to purify spacecraft potable water into a normal saline solution, thus reducing the amount of IV fluids that are included in the launch manifest. As currently conceived, an IVGEN system for a space exploration mission would consist of an accumulator, a purifier, a mixing assembly, a salt bag, and a sterile bag. The accumulator is used to transfer a measured amount of drinking water from the spacecraft to the purifier. The purifier uses filters to separate any air bubbles that may have gotten trapped during the drinking water transfer from flowing through a high-quality deionizing cartridge that removes the impurities in

  18. Orbital Fluid Transfer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, A. S., (Nick); Ryder, Mel; Tyler, Tony R.

    1998-01-01

    An automated fluid and power interface system needs to be developed for future space missions which require on orbit consumable replenishment. Current method of fluid transfer require manned vehicles and extravehicular activity. Currently the US does not have an automated capability for consumable transfer on-orbit. This technology would benefit both Space Station and long duration satellites. In order to provide this technology the Automated Fluid Interface System (AFIS) was developed. The AFIS project was an advanced development program aimed at developing a prototype satellite servicer for future space operations. This mechanism could transfer propellants, cryogens, fluids, gasses, electrical power, and communications from a tanker unit to the orbiting satellite. The development of this unit was a cooperative effort between Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, and Moog, Inc. in East Aurora, New York. An engineering model was built and underwent substantial development testing at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). While the AFIS is not suitable for spaceflight, testing and evaluation of the AFIS provided significant experience which would be beneficial in building a flight unit. The lessons learned from testing the AFIS provided the foundation for the next generation fluid transfer mechanism, the Orbital Fluid Transfer System (OFTS). The OFTS project was a study contract with MSFC and Moog, Inc. The OFTS was designed for the International Space Station (ISS), but its flexible design could used for long duration satellite missions and other applications. The OFTS was designed to be used after docking. The primary function was to transfer bipropellants and high pressure gases. The other items addressed by this task included propellant storage, hardware integration, safety and control system issues. A new concept for high pressure couplings was also developed. The results of the AFIS testing provided an excellent basis for the OFTS design. The OFTS

  19. Euler's fluid equations: Optimal control vs optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm, Darryl D., E-mail: d.holm@ic.ac.u [Department of Mathematics, Imperial College London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2009-11-23

    An optimization method used in image-processing (metamorphosis) is found to imply Euler's equations for incompressible flow of an inviscid fluid, without requiring that the Lagrangian particle labels exactly follow the flow lines of the Eulerian velocity vector field. Thus, an optimal control problem and an optimization problem for incompressible ideal fluid flow both yield the same Euler fluid equations, although their Lagrangian parcel dynamics are different. This is a result of the gauge freedom in the definition of the fluid pressure for an incompressible flow, in combination with the symmetry of fluid dynamics under relabeling of their Lagrangian coordinates. Similar ideas are also illustrated for SO(N) rigid body motion.

  20. Static Isotropic Space-Times with Radially Imperfect Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopka, Tomasz

    When one is solving the equations of general relativity in a symmetric sector, it is natural to consider the same symmetry for the geometry and stress-energy. This implies that for static and isotropic space-times, the most general natural stress-energy tensor is a sum of a perfect fluid and a radially imperfect fluid component. In the special situations where the perfect fluid component vanishes or is a space-time constant, the solutions to Einstein's equations can be thought of as modified Schwarzschild and Schwarzschild-de Sitter spaces. Exact solutions of this type are derived and it is shown that whereas deviations from the unmodified solutions can be made small, among the manifestations of the imperfect fluid component is a shift in angular momentum scaling for orbiting test bodies at large radius. Based on this effect, the question of whether the imperfect fluid component can feasibly describe dark matter phenomenology is addressed.

  1. Nonrelativistic Dark-Energy Fluid in a Baby Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Stichel, P C

    2008-01-01

    We show that the dynamical realization of the acceleration-enlarged Galilean symmetry leads to nonrelativistic massless particles whose energy may be negative. We present a fluid mechanical generalisation of this observation and use it to contruct a nonrelativistic two-dimensional fluid model which possesses solutions with a negative energy density. Considering this model as describing dark energy in a baby universe (two space dimensions) we show that its negative energy density leads to a repulsive gravitational interaction of the fluid with any test body.

  2. General -Harmonic Blaschke Bodies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yibin Feng; Weidong Wang

    2014-02-01

    Lutwak introduced the harmonic Blaschke combination and the harmonic Blaschke body of a star body. Further, Feng and Wang introduced the concept of the -harmonic Blaschke body of a star body. In this paper, we define the notion of general -harmonic Blaschke bodies and establish some of its properties. In particular, we obtain the extreme values concerning the volume and the -dual geominimal surface area of this new notion.

  3. Two-phase cooling fluids; Les fluides frigoporteurs diphasiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lallemand, A. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), 69 - Lyon (France)

    1997-12-31

    In the framework of the diminution of heat transfer fluid consumption, the concept of indirect refrigerating circuits, using cooling intermediate fluids, is reviewed and the fluids that are currently used in these systems are described. Two-phase cooling fluids advantages over single-phase fluids are presented with their thermophysical characteristics: solid fraction, two-phase mixture enthalpy, thermal and rheological properties, determination of heat and mass transfer characteristics, and cold storage through ice slurry

  4. Body composition changes in monkeys during long-term exposure to high acceleration fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, N.; Rahlmann, D. F.; Kodama, A. M.; Smith, A. H.

    1977-01-01

    Adult male pig-tailed monkeys, weighing 10-14 kg, were subjected to continuous centrifuging stress for 7 months in acceleration fields up to 2.5 g. In vivo analytical techniques were used to evaluate parameters of body composition, body-fluid distribution, and hematology. Statistically significant losses in total body mass, lean body mass, total body water, extracellular water content and interstitial water content proportional to the level of high g were demonstrated.

  5. Fluid driven reciprocating apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, J.C.

    1997-04-01

    An apparatus is described comprising a pair of fluid driven pump assemblies in a back-to-back configuration to yield a bi-directional pump. Each of the pump assemblies includes a piston or diaphragm which divides a chamber therein to define a power section and a pumping section. An intake-exhaust valve is connected to each of the power sections of the pump chambers, and function to direct fluid, such as compressed air, into the power section and exhaust fluid therefrom. At least one of the pistons or diaphragms is connected by a rod assembly which is constructed to define a signal valve, whereby the intake-exhaust valve of one pump assembly is controlled by the position or location of the piston or diaphragm in the other pump assembly through the operation of the rod assembly signal valve. Each of the pumping sections of the pump assemblies are provided with intake and exhaust valves to enable filling of the pumping section with fluid and discharging fluid therefrom when a desired pressure has been reached. 13 figs.

  6. Fluid Mechanics: The Pamphlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variano, Evan

    2012-11-01

    One impediment to student learning in introductory fluid mechanics courses is that the fundamental laws of physics can become lost in the ``noise'' of dozens of semi-empirical equations describing special cases. This can be exacerbated by trends in textbooks and other teaching media. This talk will explore a minimalist approach, whereby the entire content of introductory fluids is distilled to a single 1-page pamphlet, designed to emphasize the governing equations and their near-universal applicability. We are particularly interested in hearing feedback from the audience on ways to further distill the content while keeping it accessible and useful. To further emphasize the difference between the fundamental laws and the many specific cases, we have begun assembling a complementary resource: a field guide to fluid phenomena, which mixes the approach of Van Dyke's book with a standard field guide. This is designed to emphasize that there is a ``zoology'' of fluid phenomena, to which the same small set of fundamental laws has been applied repeatedly. These materials may be useful in helping AP Physics teachers cover fluid mechanics, which is an under-utilized opportunity to introduce young scientists to our field of study.

  7. Boiler using combustible fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, H.; Meier, J.G.

    1974-07-03

    A fluid fuel boiler is described comprising a combustion chamber, a cover on the combustion chamber having an opening for introducing a combustion-supporting gaseous fluid through said openings, means to impart rotation to the gaseous fluid about an axis of the combustion chamber, a burner for introducing a fluid fuel into the chamber mixed with the gaseous fluid for combustion thereof, the cover having a generally frustro-conical configuration diverging from the opening toward the interior of the chamber at an angle of between 15/sup 0/ and 55/sup 0/; means defining said combustion chamber having means defining a plurality of axial hot gas flow paths from a downstream portion of the combustion chamber to flow hot gases into an upstream portion of the combustion chamber, and means for diverting some of the hot gas flow along paths in a direction circumferentially of the combustion chamber, with the latter paths being immersed in the water flow path thereby to improve heat transfer and terminating in a gas outlet, the combustion chamber comprising at least one modular element, joined axially to the frustro-conical cover and coaxial therewith. The modular element comprises an inner ring and means of defining the circumferential, radial, and spiral flow paths of the hot gases.

  8. Amniotic fluid embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Kiranpreet; Bhardwaj, Mamta; Kumar, Prashant; Singhal, Suresh; Singh, Tarandeep; Hooda, Sarla

    2016-01-01

    Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is one of the catastrophic complications of pregnancy in which amniotic fluid, fetal cells, hair, or other debris enters into the maternal pulmonary circulation, causing cardiovascular collapse. Etiology largely remains unknown, but may occur in healthy women during labour, during cesarean section, after abnormal vaginal delivery, or during the second trimester of pregnancy. It may also occur up to 48 hours post-delivery. It can also occur during abortion, after abdominal trauma, and during amnio-infusion. The pathophysiology of AFE is not completely understood. Possible historical cause is that any breach of the barrier between maternal blood and amniotic fluid forces the entry of amniotic fluid into the systemic circulation and results in a physical obstruction of the pulmonary circulation. The presenting signs and symptoms of AFE involve many organ systems. Clinical signs and symptoms are acute dyspnea, cough, hypotension, cyanosis, fetal bradycardia, encephalopathy, acute pulmonary hypertension, coagulopathy etc. Besides basic investigations lung scan, serum tryptase levels, serum levels of C3 and C4 complements, zinc coproporphyrin, serum sialyl Tn etc are helpful in establishing the diagnosis. Treatment is mainly supportive, but exchange transfusion, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and uterine artery embolization have been tried from time to time. The maternal prognosis after amniotic fluid embolism is very poor though infant survival rate is around 70%. PMID:27275041

  9. Fluorescent fluid interface position sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2004-02-17

    A new fluid interface position sensor has been developed, which is capable of optically determining the location of an interface between an upper fluid and a lower fluid, the upper fluid having a larger refractive index than a lower fluid. The sensor functions by measurement, of fluorescence excited by an optical pump beam which is confined within a fluorescent waveguide where that waveguide is in optical contact with the lower fluid, but escapes from the fluorescent waveguide where that waveguide is in optical contact with the upper fluid.

  10. Body Image and Body Dysmorphic Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas-Aragones, Lucia; Marron, Servando E

    2016-08-23

    Most people would like to change something about their bodies and the way that they look, but for some it becomes an obsession. A healthy skin plays an important role in a person's physical and mental wellbeing, whereas a disfiguring appearance is associated with body image concerns. Skin diseases such as acne, psoriasis and vitiligo produce cosmetic disfigurement and patients suffering these and other visible skin conditions have an increased risk of depression, anxiety, feelings of stigmatization and self-harm ideation. Body image affects our emotions, thoughts, and behaviours in everyday life, but, above all, it influences our relationships. Furthermore, it has the potential to influence our quality of life. Promotion of positive body image is highly recommended, as it is important in improving people's quality of life, physical health, and health-related behaviors. Dermatologists have a key role in identifying body image concerns and offering patients possible treatment options. PMID:27283435

  11. Assessment of perioperative fluid balance

    OpenAIRE

    Bumbaširević V.; Marković D.; Vlajković G.; Sinđelić R.

    2009-01-01

    Careful assessment of the fluid balance is required in the perioperative period since appropriate fluid therapy is essential for successful patient's outcome. Haemodynamic monitoring allows understanding the physiology of the circulation and changes of fluid balance in the perioperative period. This is diagnostic aid and guide for fluid replacement therapy. Patient's volume status is frequently assessed by different haemodynamic variables that could be targeted as the endpoints for fluid ther...

  12. Flow in Wake of Ahmed Body

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uruba, Václav; Knob, Martin; Sedlák, K.

    -, č. 6 (2009), s. 266-269. ISSN 1335-2938. [Stretnutie katedier mechaniky tekutín a termomechaniky. Jasná, Demanovská dolina, 24.06.2009-26.06.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/08/1112 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : Ahmed body * wake * PIV * FLUENT Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  13. Experimental Simulation of Shock Reequilibration of Fluid Inclusions During Meteorite Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, M. E. Elwood; Hoerz, R. J.; Bodnar, R. J.

    2003-01-01

    Fluid inclusions are microscopic volumes of fluid trapped within minerals as they precipitate. Fluid inclusions are common in terrestrial minerals formed under a wide array of geological settings from surface evaporite deposits to kimberlite pipes. While fluid inclusions in terrestrial rocks are the rule rather than the exception, only few fluid inclusion-bearing meteorites have been documented. The rarity of fluid inclusions in meteoritic material may be explained in two ways. First, it may reflect the absence of fluids (water?) on meteorite parent bodies. Alternatively, fluids may have been present when the rock formed, but any fluid inclusions originally trapped on the parent body were destroyed by the extreme P-T conditions meteorites often experience during impact events. Distinguishing between these two possibilities can provide significant constraints on the likelihood of life on the parent body. Just as textures, structures, and compositions of mineral phases can be significantly altered by shock metamorphism upon hypervelocity impact, fluid inclusions contained within component minerals may be altered or destroyed due to the high pressures, temperatures, and strain rates associated with impact events. Reequilibration may occur when external pressure-temperature conditions differ significantly from internal fluid isochoric conditions, and result in changes in fluid inclusion properties and/or textures. Shock metamorphism and fluid inclusion reequilibration can affect both the impacted target material and the meteoritic projectile. By examining the effects of shock deformation on fluid inclusion properties and textures we may be able to better constrain the pressure-temperature path experienced by shocked materials and also gain a clearer understanding of why fluid inclusions are rarely found in meteoritic samples.

  14. Fluid intake in Mexican adults: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Homero Martinez

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: An adequate hydration is critical for a series of body functions, including proper regulation of core body temperature, elimination of waste metabolites by the kidney and maintenance of normal physical and cognitive functions. Some institutions have set recommendations for adequate intake of water, but these recommendations vary widely. Objective: To estimate the usual daily consumption of fluids (water and all other beverages) by a selective sample of Mexican population. Method...

  15. Computational fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Blazek, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics: Principles and Applications, Third Edition presents students, engineers, and scientists with all they need to gain a solid understanding of the numerical methods and principles underlying modern computation techniques in fluid dynamics. By providing complete coverage of the essential knowledge required in order to write codes or understand commercial codes, the book gives the reader an overview of fundamentals and solution strategies in the early chapters before moving on to cover the details of different solution techniques. This updated edition includes new

  16. Fluid therapy in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Geof W; Berchtold, Joachim

    2014-07-01

    Early and aggressive fluid therapy is critical in correcting the metabolic complications associated with calf diarrhea. Oral electrolyte therapy can be used with success in calves, but careful consideration should be given to the type of oral electrolyte used. Electrolyte solutions with high osmolalities can significantly slow abomasal emptying and can be a risk factor for abomasal bloat in calves. Milk should not be withheld from calves with diarrhea for more than 12 to 24 hours. Hypertonic saline and hypertonic sodium bicarbonate can be used effectively for intravenous fluid therapy on farms when intravenous catheterization is not possible. PMID:24980729

  17. Mechanics of fluid flow

    CERN Document Server

    Basniev, Kaplan S; Chilingar, George V 0

    2012-01-01

    The mechanics of fluid flow is a fundamental engineering discipline explaining both natural phenomena and human-induced processes, and a thorough understanding of it is central to the operations of the oil and gas industry.  This book, written by some of the world's best-known and respected petroleum engineers, covers the concepts, theories, and applications of the mechanics of fluid flow for the veteran engineer working in the field and the student, alike.  It is a must-have for any engineer working in the oil and gas industry.

  18. Transport in inhomogeneous quantum critical fluids and in the Dirac fluid in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Andrew; Crossno, Jesse; Fong, Kin Chung; Kim, Philip; Sachdev, Subir

    2016-02-01

    We develop a general hydrodynamic framework for computing direct current, thermal, and electric transport in a strongly interacting finite-temperature quantum system near a Lorentz-invariant quantum critical point. Our framework is nonperturbative in the strength of long-wavelength fluctuations in the background-charge density of the electronic fluid and requires the rate of electron-electron scattering to be faster than the rate of electron-impurity scattering. We use this formalism to compute transport coefficients in the Dirac fluid in clean samples of graphene near the charge neutrality point, and find results insensitive to long-range Coulomb interactions. Numerical results are compared to recent experimental data on thermal and electrical conductivity in the Dirac fluid in graphene and a substantially improved quantitative agreement over existing hydrodynamic theories is found. We comment on the interplay between the Dirac fluid and acoustic and optical phonons, and qualitatively explain the experimentally observed effects. Our work paves the way for quantitative contact between experimentally realized condensed matter systems and the wide body of high-energy inspired theories on transport in interacting many-body quantum systems.

  19. Characterization of the porcine synovial fluid proteome and a comparison to the plasma proteome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tue Bjerg Bennike

    2015-12-01

    In addition, we analyzed the proteome of human plasma, and compared the proteomes to the obtained porcine synovial fluid proteome. The proteome of the two body fluids were found highly similar, underlining the detected plasma derived nature of many synovial fluid components. The healthy porcine synovial fluid proteomics data, human rheumatoid arthritis synovial fluid proteomics data used in the method optimization, human plasma proteomics data, and search results, have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium via the PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifier PXD000935.

  20. Experimental characterisation of nonlocal photon fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Vocke, David; Marino, Francesco; Wright, Ewan M; Carusotto, Iacopo; Faccio, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    Quantum gases of atoms and exciton-polaritons are nowadays a well established theoretical and experimental tool for fundamental studies of quantum many-body physics and suggest promising applications to quantum computing. Given their technological complexity, it is of paramount interest to devise other systems where such quantum many-body physics can be investigated at a lesser technological expense. Here we examine a relatively well-known system of laser light propagating through thermo-optical defocusing media: based on a hydrodynamical description of light as a quantum fluid of interacting photons, we propose such systems as a valid, room temperature alternative to atomic or exciton-polariton condensates for studies of many-body physics. First, we show that by using a technique traditionally used in oceanography, it is possible to perform a direct measurement of the single-particle part of the dispersion relation of the elementary excitations on top of the photon fluid and to detect its global flow. Then, ...