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Sample records for body fluid identification

  1. Body fluid identification in forensics

    OpenAIRE

    Ja Hyun An1, Kyoung-Jin Shin1,2, Woo Ick Yang1 & Hwan Young Lee1,2,*

    2012-01-01

    At a crime scene can give important insights into crime scenereconstruction by supporting a link between sample donorsand actual criminal acts. For more than a century, numeroustypes of body fluid identification methods have beendeveloped, such as chemical tests, immunological tests,protein catalytic activity tests, spectroscopic methods andmicroscopy. However, these conventional body fluididentification methods are mostly presumptive, and are carriedout for only one body fluid at a time. The...

  2. Body fluid identification in forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ja Hyun An1, Kyoung-Jin Shin1,2, Woo Ick Yang1 & Hwan Young Lee1,2,*

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available At a crime scene can give important insights into crime scenereconstruction by supporting a link between sample donorsand actual criminal acts. For more than a century, numeroustypes of body fluid identification methods have beendeveloped, such as chemical tests, immunological tests,protein catalytic activity tests, spectroscopic methods andmicroscopy. However, these conventional body fluididentification methods are mostly presumptive, and are carriedout for only one body fluid at a time. Therefore, the use of amolecular genetics-based approach using RNA profiling orDNA methylation detection has been recently proposed tosupplant conventional body fluid identification methods.Several RNA markers and tDMRs (tissue-specific differentiallymethylated regions which are specific to forensically relevantbody fluids have been identified, and their specificities andsensitivities have been tested using various samples. In thisreview, we provide an overview of the present knowledge andthe most recent developments in forensic body fluididentification and discuss its possible practical application toforensic casework.

  3. Body Fluid Identification Using mRNA Profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeder, Amy D; Haas, Cordula

    2016-01-01

    RNA analysis is a valuable tool for the identification of the forensically relevant body fluids, saliva, blood, menstrual blood, cervicovaginal fluid, and semen. Multiple human mRNA and bacterial RNA markers have been identified for each of these body fluids. RNA and DNA can be coextracted from the same portion of a sample and RNA markers for different body fluids can be multiplexed in a single PCR, thereby maximizing the number of analyses that can be performed with limited sample material. PMID:27259728

  4. Forensic body fluid identification: state of the art

    OpenAIRE

    Harbison, SallyAnn

    2016-01-01

    SA Harbison, RI Fleming Forensic Biology, Institute of Environmental Science and Research Ltd, Mt Albert Science Centre, Auckland, New Zealand Abstract: Body fluid identification is a key component in the forensic scientists' tool box and has been carried out both at the crime scene and in the laboratory for many years. Historically, methods relied on (bio) chemical-based tests, many of which lacked specificity. In this review, current technologies for identifying body fluids are des...

  5. Body fluid identification of blood, saliva and semen using second generation sequencing of micro-RNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christel H.; Hjort, Benjamin Benn; Tvedebrink, Torben; Kielpinski, Lukasz Jan; Vinther, Jeppe; Morling, Niels

    2013-01-01

    We report a new second generation sequencing method for identification micro-RNA (miRNA) that can be used to identify body fluids and tissues. Principal component analysis of 10 miRNAs with high expression in 16 samples of blood, saliva and semen showed clear differences in the expression of mi......RNA in the investigated tissues. We expect that the method can also be used for identification of other miRNAs that can be used for identifying other body fluids and tissues. We also expect that the method can be used for identification of body fluids and tissues in practical forensic genetic case work...

  6. Discriminant Analysis of Raman Spectra for Body Fluid Identification for Forensic Purposes

    OpenAIRE

    Vitali Sikirzhytski; Kelly Virkler; Lednev, Igor K.

    2010-01-01

    Detection and identification of blood, semen and saliva stains, the most common body fluids encountered at a crime scene, are very important aspects of forensic science today. This study targets the development of a nondestructive, confirmatory method for body fluid identification based on Raman spectroscopy coupled with advanced statistical analysis. Dry traces of blood, semen and saliva obtained from multiple donors were probed using a confocal Raman microscope with a 785-nm excitation wave...

  7. Identification of body fluid-specific DNA methylation markers for use in forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Lyul; Kwon, Oh-Hyung; Kim, Jong Hwan; Yoo, Hyang-Sook; Lee, Han-Chul; Woo, Kwang-Man; Kim, Seon-Young; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Yong Sung

    2014-11-01

    DNA methylation, which occurs at the 5'-position of the cytosine in CpG dinucleotides, has great potential for forensic identification of body fluids, because tissue-specific patterns of DNA methylation have been demonstrated, and DNA is less prone to degradation than proteins or RNA. Previous studies have reported several body fluid-specific DNA methylation markers, but DNA methylation differences are sometimes low in saliva and vaginal secretions. Moreover, specific DNA methylation markers in four types of body fluids (blood, saliva, semen, and vaginal secretions) have not been investigated with genome-wide profiling. Here, we investigated novel DNA methylation markers for identification of body fluids for use in forensic science using the Illumina HumanMethylation 450K bead array, which contains over 450,000 CpG sites. Using methylome data from 16 samples of blood, saliva, semen, and vaginal secretions, we first selected 2986 hypermethylated or hypomethylated regions that were specific for each type of body fluid. We then selected eight CpG sites as novel, forensically relevant DNA methylation markers: cg06379435 and cg08792630 for blood, cg26107890 and cg20691722 for saliva, cg23521140 and cg17610929 for semen, and cg01774894 and cg14991487 for vaginal secretions. These eight selected markers were evaluated in 80 body fluid samples using pyrosequencing, and all showed high sensitivity and specificity for identification of the target body fluid. We suggest that these eight DNA methylation markers may be good candidates for developing an effective molecular assay for identification of body fluids in forensic science. PMID:25128690

  8. Discriminant Analysis of Raman Spectra for Body Fluid Identification for Forensic Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitali Sikirzhytski

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Detection and identification of blood, semen and saliva stains, the most common body fluids encountered at a crime scene, are very important aspects of forensic science today. This study targets the development of a nondestructive, confirmatory method for body fluid identification based on Raman spectroscopy coupled with advanced statistical analysis. Dry traces of blood, semen and saliva obtained from multiple donors were probed using a confocal Raman microscope with a 785-nm excitation wavelength under controlled laboratory conditions. Results demonstrated the capability of Raman spectroscopy to identify an unknown substance to be semen, blood or saliva with high confidence.

  9. Body fluid identification of blood, saliva and semen using second generation sequencing of micro-RNA

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Christel H.; Hjort, Benjamin Benn; Tvedebrink, Torben; Kielpinski, Lukasz Jan; Vinther, Jeppe; Morling, Niels

    2013-01-01

    We report a new second generation sequencing method for identification micro-RNA (miRNA) that can be used to identify body fluids and tissues. Principal component analysis of 10 miRNAs with high expression in 16 samples of blood, saliva and semen showed clear differences in the expression of miRNA in the investigated tissues. We expect that the method can also be used for identification of other miRNAs that can be used for identifying other body fluids and tissues. We also expect that the met...

  10. Genome-wide methylation profiling and a multiplex construction for the identification of body fluids using epigenetic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwan Young; An, Ja Hyun; Jung, Sang-Eun; Oh, Yu Na; Lee, Eun Young; Choi, Ajin; Yang, Woo Ick; Shin, Kyoung-Jin

    2015-07-01

    The identification of body fluids found at crime scenes can contribute to solving crimes by providing important insights into crime scene reconstruction. In the present study, body fluid-specific epigenetic marker candidates were identified from genome-wide DNA methylation profiling of 42 body fluid samples including blood, saliva, semen, vaginal fluid and menstrual blood using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array. A total of 64 CpG sites were selected as body fluid-specific marker candidates by having more than 20% discrepancy in DNA methylation status between a certain type of body fluid and other types of body fluids and to have methylation or unmethylation pattern only in a particular type of body fluid. From further locus-specific methylation analysis in additional samples, 1 to 3 CpG sites were selected for each body fluid. Then, a multiplex methylation SNaPshot reaction was constructed to analyze methylation status of 8 body fluid-specific CpG sites. The developed multiplex reaction positively identifies blood, saliva, semen and the body fluid which originates from female reproductive organ in one reaction, and produces successful DNA methylation profiles in aged or mixed samples. Although it remains to be investigated whether this approach is more sensitive, more practical than RNA- or peptide-based assays and whether it can be successfully applied to forensic casework, the results of the present study will be useful for the forensic investigators dealing with body fluid samples. PMID:25796047

  11. Circulating MicroRNAs as Promising Biomarkers in Forensic Body Fluids Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumache, Raluca; Ciocan, Veronica; Muresan, Camelia; Rogobete, Alexandru Florin; Enache, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    In the last 20 years, DNA molecular analysis has become an important tool in forensic investigations. Currently, it is possible to genotype all types of biological traces or micro-traces containing nucleated cells if they are not entirely destroyed, chemically or bacterial. The DNA profiling is based on the short tandem repeats (STR) and aids in human identification from biological samples, but due to the recent advances in molecular genetics, other biomarkers have been proposed to be used in forensic identifications, such as: messenger RNA(mRNA), microRNA (miRNA), and DNA methylation. MicroRNAs are part of a class of small, non-coding RNAs that contain 19 - 23 nucleotides. MicroRNAs play an important role in the regulation of biochemical mechanisms, cell proliferation and other cellular mechanisms in the human body. The level of microRNAs in blood and other body fluids (urine, saliva, sweat) increases as a consequence of altered pathophysiological mechanisms and tissue insult. Moreover, the stability and specificity of microRNAs make them ideal candidates for circulating biomarkers in forensic bioanalytical procedures. In this review, we want to present a brief overview of biogenesis, functions, and applications of miRNAs in the identification of forensic body fluids. PMID:26554231

  12. Developed and evaluated a multiplex mRNA profiling system for body fluid identification in Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Feng; Luo, Haibo; Hou, Yiping

    2015-10-01

    In forensic casework, identification the cellular origin from a biological sample is crucial to the case investigation and reconstruction in crime scene. DNA/RNA co-extraction for STR typing and human body fluids identification has been proposed as an efficient and comprehensive assay for forensic analysis. Several cell-specific messenger RNA (mRNA) markers for identification of the body fluids have been proposed by previous studies. In this study, a novel multiplex mRNA profiling system included 19 markers was developed and performed by reverse transcription endpoint polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The multiplex combined 3 housekeeping gene markers and 16 cell-specific markers that have been used to identify five types of human body fluids: peripheral blood, semen, saliva, vaginal secretions and menstrual blood. The specificity, sensitivity, stability and detectability of the mixture were explored in our study. Majority of the cell-specific mRNA markers showed high specificity, although cross-reactivity was observed sporadically. Specific profiling for per body fluid was obtained. Moreover, the interpretation guidelines for inference of body fluid types were performed according to the A. Lindenbergh et al. The scoring guidelines can be applied to any RNA multiplex, which was based on six different scoring categories (observed, observed and fits, sporadically observed and fits, not observed, sporadically observed, not reliable, and non-specific due to high input). The simultaneous extraction of DNA showed positive full or partial profiling results of all samples. It demonstrated that the approach of combined STR-profiling and RNA profiling was suitable and reliable to detect the donor and origin of human body fluids in Chinese Han population. PMID:26311108

  13. Identification of misfolded proteins in body fluids for the diagnosis of prion diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Properzi, Francesca; Pocchiari, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) or prion diseases are fatal rare neurodegenerative disorders affecting man and animals and caused by a transmissible infectious agent. TSE diseases are characterized by spongiform brain lesions with neuronal loss and the abnormal deposition in the CNS, and to less extent in other tissues, of an insoluble and protease resistant form of the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)), named PrP(TSE). In man, TSE diseases affect usually people over 60 years of age with no evident disease-associated risk factors. In some cases, however, TSE diseases are unequivocally linked to infectious episodes related to the use of prion-contaminated medicines, medical devices, or meat products as in the variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Clinical signs occur months or years after infection, and during this silent period PrP(TSE), the only reliable marker of infection, is not easily measurable in blood or other accessible tissues or body fluids causing public health concerns. To overcome the limit of PrP(TSE) detection, several highly sensitive assays have been developed, but attempts to apply these techniques to blood of infected hosts have been unsuccessful or not yet validated. An update on the latest advances for the detection of misfolded prion protein in body fluids is provided. PMID:24027585

  14. Evaluation of a blood-specific DNA methylated region and trial for allele-specific blood identification from mixed body fluid DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Ken; Akutsu, Tomoko; Takamura, Ayari; Sakurada, Koichi

    2016-09-01

    The identification of blood samples obtained from crime scenes has been an important step in forensic investigation. Recently, a novel approach using the blood-specific methylated CpG site cg06379435 has been reported. In this study, we developed a real-time polymerase-chain-reaction-based method that can simply and rapidly quantitate the methylation ratio of cg06379435 and its neighboring CpGs and set the threshold ratios for blood identification by analyzing various body fluid samples. Blood identification using the thresholds was successfully performed in the analysis of a small amount (1ng) of DNA from blood and various aged blood samples, including 29-year-old stains. We also demonstrated a test for allele-specific blood identification from a mixed DNA sample by bisulfite sequencing analysis of these CpG sites and their neighboring single nucleotide polymorphism, rs7359943 (A/G), which is of relevance in cases where mixed samples are obtained from crime scenes. The stability of DNA methylation in aged samples and the usefulness of neighboring genetic information shown in this study suggest that DNA-methylation-based body fluid identification will play a major role in future forensic investigations. PMID:27591539

  15. Facile semi-automated forensic body fluid identification by multiplex solution hybridization of NanoString® barcode probes to specific mRNA targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danaher, Patrick; White, Robin Lynn; Hanson, Erin K; Ballantyne, Jack

    2015-01-01

    A DNA profile from the perpetrator does not reveal, per se, the circumstances by which it was transferred. Body fluid identification by mRNA profiling may allow extraction of contextual 'activity level' information from forensic samples. Here we describe the development of a prototype multiplex digital gene expression (DGE) method for forensic body fluid/tissue identification based upon solution hybridization of color-coded NanoString(®) probes to 23 mRNA targets. The method identifies peripheral blood, semen, saliva, vaginal secretions, menstrual blood and skin. We showed that a simple 5 min room temperature cellular lysis protocol gave equivalent results to standard RNA isolation from the same source material, greatly enhancing the ease-of-use of this method in forensic sample processing. We first describe a model for gene expression in a sample from a single body fluid and then extend that model to mixtures of body fluids. We then describe calculation of maximum likelihood estimates (MLEs) of body fluid quantities in a sample, and we describe the use of likelihood ratios to test for the presence of each body fluid in a sample. Known single source samples of blood, semen, vaginal secretions, menstrual blood and skin all demonstrated the expected tissue-specific gene expression for at least two of the chosen biomarkers. Saliva samples were more problematic, with their previously identified characteristic genes exhibiting poor specificity. Nonetheless the most specific saliva biomarker, HTN3, was expressed at a higher level in saliva than in any of the other tissues. Crucially, our algorithm produced zero false positives across this study's 89 unique samples. As a preliminary indication of the ability of the method to discern admixtures of body fluids, five mixtures were prepared. The identities of the component fluids were evident from the gene expression profiles of four of the five mixtures. Further optimization of the biomarker 'CodeSet' will be required

  16. Development of highly sensitive and specific mRNA multiplex system (XCYR1 for forensic human body fluids and tissues identification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xu

    Full Text Available The identification of human body fluids or tissues through mRNA-based profiling is very useful for forensic investigations. Previous studies have shown mRNA biomarkers are effective to identify the origin of biological samples. In this study, we selected 16 tissue specific biomarkers to evaluate their specificities and sensitivities for human body fluids and tissues identification, including porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD, hemoglobin beta (HBB and Glycophorin A (GLY for circulatory blood, protamine 2 (PRM2 and transglutaminase 4 (TGM4 for semen, mucin 4 (MUC4 and human beta defensin 1(HBD1 for vaginal secretion, matrix metalloproteinases 7 and 11 (MMP7 and MMP11 for menstrual blood, keratin 4(KRT4 for oral mucosa, loricrin (LOR and cystatin 6 (CST6 for skin, histatin 3(HTN3 for saliva, statherin (STATH for nasal secretion, dermcidin (DCD for sweat and uromodulin (UMOD for urine. The above mentioned ten common forensic body fluids or tissues were used in the evaluation. Based on the evaluation, a reverse transcription (RT PCR multiplex assay, XCYR1, which includes 12 biomarkers (i.e., HBB, GLY, HTN3, PRM2, KRT4, MMP11, MUC4, DCD, UMOD, MMP7, TGM4, and STATH and 2 housekeeping genes [i.e., glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH and 18SrRNA], was developed. This assay was further validated with real casework samples and mock samples (with both single source and mixture and it was approved that XCYR1 is effective to identify common body fluids or tissues (i.e., circulatory blood, saliva, semen, vaginal secretion, menstrual blood, oral mucosa, nasal secretion, sweat and urine in forensic casework samples.

  17. Identification of autoantigens in body fluids by combining pull-downs and organic precipitations of intact immune complexes with quantitative label-free mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merl, Juliane; Deeg, Cornelia A; Swadzba, Margarete E; Ueffing, Marius; Hauck, Stefanie M

    2013-12-01

    Most autoimmune diseases are multifactorial diseases and are caused by the immunological reaction against a number of autoantigens. Key for understanding autoimmune pathologies is the knowledge of the targeted autoantigens, both initially and during disease progression. We present an approach for autoantigen identification based on isolation of intact autoantibody-antigen complexes from body fluids. After organic precipitation of high molecular weight proteins and free immunoglobulins, released autoantigens were identified by quantitative label-free liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. We confirmed feasibility of target enrichment and identification from highly complex body fluid proteomes by spiking of a predefined antibody-antigen complex at low level of abundance. As a proof of principle, we studied the blinding disease autoimmune uveitis, which is caused by autoreactive T-cells attacking the inner eye and is accompanied by autoantibodies. We identified three novel autoantigens in the spontaneous animal model equine recurrent uveitis (secreted acidic phosphoprotein osteopontin, extracellular matrix protein 1, and metalloproteinase inhibitor 2) and confirmed the presence of the corresponding autoantibodies in 15-25% of patient samples by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Thus, this workflow led to the identification of novel autoantigens in autoimmune uveitis and may provide a versatile and useful tool to identify autoantigens in other autoimmune diseases in the future. PMID:24059262

  18. Molecular tumor-diagnostics in body fluids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Jacques Benno de

    2000-01-01

    Tumor-derived nucleic acids are frequently present in body fluids (e.g. urine, blood, sputum, stool, bile, and cerebrospinal fluid) that had contact with malignant or premalignant tissues. Detection of this mutant DNA or quantification of aberrant gene expression may offer new noninvasive methods fo

  19. [Determination of body fluid based on analysis of nucleic acids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korabečná, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Recent methodological approaches of molecular genetics allow isolation of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) from negligible forensic samples. Analysis of these molecules may be used not only for individual identification based on DNA profiling but also for the detection of origin of the body fluid which (alone or in mixture with other body fluids) forms the examined biological trace. Such an examination can contribute to the evaluation of procedural, technical and tactical value of the trace. Molecular genetic approaches discussed in the review offer new possibilities in comparison with traditional spectrum of chemical, immunological and spectroscopic tests especially with regard to the interpretation of mixtures of biological fluids and to the confirmatory character of the tests. Approaches based on reverse transcription of tissue specific mRNA and their subsequent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and fragmentation analysis are applicable on samples containing minimal amounts of biological material. Methods for body fluid discrimination based on examination of microRNA in samples provided so far confusing results therefore further development in this field is needed. The examination of tissue specific methylation of nucleotides in selected gene sequences seems to represent a promising enrichment of the methodological spectrum. The detection of DNA sequences of tissue related bacteria has been established and it provides satisfactory results mainly in combination with above mentioned methodological approaches. PMID:26419517

  20. Occupational Exposure to Blood and Body Fluids

    OpenAIRE

    G Sadigh; Bahadori, M.

    2010-01-01

    Occupational exposure to blood and body fluids is an important hazard for health care workers, which places them at a high risk for blood-borne infections including hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus and results in psychological and emotional stresses. Several preventive measures have been proposed including pre-exposure (e.g., education, use of standard precautions, use of needle protective devices, and vaccination) and post-exposure (e.g., post-exposure pr...

  1. Fluid Flows driven by Oscillating Body Force

    CERN Document Server

    Vladimirov, V A

    2016-01-01

    In this note we consider general formulation of Euler's equations for an inviscid incompressible homogeneous fluid with an oscillating body force. Our aim is to derive the averaged equations for these flows with the help of two-timing method. Our main result is the general and simple form of the equation describing the averaged flows, which are derived without making any additional assumptions. The presented results can have many interesting applications.

  2. Messenger RNA Profiling for Forensic Body Fluid Identifica-tion:Research and Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zheng; ZHANG Su-hua; ZHOU Di; ZHAO Shu-min; LI Cheng-tao

    2013-01-01

    Identifying the origin of body fluids left at a crime scene can give a significant insight into crime scene reconstruction by supporting a link betw een sample donors and actual criminal acts. How ev-er, the conventional body fluid identification methods are prone to various limitations, such as time con-sumption, intensive labor, nonparallel manner, varying degrees of sensitivity and limited specificity. Re-cently, the analysis of cell-specific messenger RNA expression (mRNA profiling) has been proposed to supplant conventional methods for body fluid identification. Since 2011, the collaborative exercises have been organized by the European DNA Profiling Group (EDNAP ) in order to evaluate the robustness and reproducibility of mRNA profiling for body fluid identification. The major advantages of mRNA profil-ing, compared to the conventional methods, include higher sensitivity, greater specificity, the ability of detecting several body fluids in one multiplex reaction, and compatibilitywith current DNA extraction and analysis procedure. In the current review ,we provided an overview of the present know ledge and detection methodologies of mRNA profiling for forensic body fluid identification and discussed its possi-ble practical application to forensic casew ork.

  3. Standoff Human Identification Using Body Shape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzner, Shari; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Amidan, Brett G.; Boettcher, Evelyn J.; Lochtefeld, Darrell; Webb, Timothy

    2015-09-01

    The ability to identify individuals is a key component of maintaining safety and security in public spaces and around critical infrastructure. Monitoring an open space is challenging because individuals must be identified and re-identified from a standoff distance nonintrusively, making methods like fingerprinting and even facial recognition impractical. We propose using body shape features as a means for identification from standoff sensing, either complementing other identifiers or as an alternative. An important challenge in monitoring open spaces is reconstructing identifying features when only a partial observation is available, because of the view-angle limitations and occlusion or subject pose changes. To address this challenge, we investigated the minimum number of features required for a high probability of correct identification, and we developed models for predicting a key body feature—height—from a limited set of observed features. We found that any set of nine randomly selected body measurements was sufficient to correctly identify an individual in a dataset of 4426 subjects. For predicting height, anthropometric measures were investigated for correlation with height. Their correlation coefficients and associated linear models were reported. These results—a sufficient number of features for identification and height prediction from a single feature—contribute to developing systems for standoff identification when views of a subject are limited.

  4. [Identification of a body from dental findings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyropoulos, N

    1989-01-01

    The author starts by briefly reviewing the meaning and applications of Forensic Dentistry emphasizing the ethical and legal responsibility of the dentist who is called upon by the police and the Service of Forensic Medicine to contribute to the identification of a dead person. Next, the author describes an interesting case where the identification was possible by documenting more than ten points coinciding between the dental record of the person suspected to be the dead and the findings from the examination of the oral cavity of the body. PMID:2519155

  5. The Motion Of A Deformable Body In - Bounded Fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hamiltonian formalism for the motion of a deformable body in an inviscid irrotational fluid is generalized for the case of the motion in a bounded fluid. We found that the presence of the boundaries in a liquid leads to the chaotization of the body's motion. The ('memory' effect connected with a free surface boundary condition is also accounted for

  6. Determination of trace elements in body fluids by XRF spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray emission spectroscopy is used for trace element analysis of body fluids. Analytical procedures that include sample preparation and XRF setup are described for the analysis of blood serum and amniotic fluid samples for different gravidity stages. The comparison between the distribution of these elements in amniotic fluid and serum is presented and discussed. (orig.)

  7. Modification-specific proteomic analysis of glycoproteins in human body fluids by mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunkenborg, Jakob; Hägglund, Per; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2007-01-01

    -glycosylated proteins in body fluids and other complex samples. An approach for identification of N-glycosylated proteins and mapping of their glycosylation sites is described. In this approach, glycoproteins are initially selectively purified by lectin chromatography. Following tryptic digestion, glycopeptides are...

  8. Correlation of lactoferrin with neutrophilic inflammation in body fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, C A; Fonteles, M G; Barrett, L J; Guerrant, R L

    1995-11-01

    We have reported that lactoferrin, a 77-kDa iron-binding glycoprotein found in secondary neutrophil granules, provides a useful marker of fecal leukocytes in fecal specimens from patients with inflammatory diarrhea (R. L. Guerrant, V. Araujo, E. Soares, K. Kotloff, A. A. M. Lima, W. H. Cooper, and A. G. Lee, J. Clin. Microbiol. 30:1238-1242, 1992). In order to determine the usefulness of this marker of neutrophilic inflammation in different body fluids, we examined blood, gingival swabs, sputum, and saliva using antilactoferrin antibodies (lactoferrin latex agglutination [LFLA]). LFLA titers in whole blood samples were 8,000). While the overlap precludes a useful role in the identification of neutropenia, these data confirm that lactoferrin titers of > 1:100 indeed indicate inflammation in fluid specimens. On quantitative elution of lactoferrin from gingival swabs, all 7 patients with dental plaque had titers of 1:200 to 1:400; 9 of 12 patients with clinical gingivitis had LFLA titers of 1:200 to 1:1,600, while all 7 individuals with healthy gums and teeth and 4 edentulous patients had LFLA titers of or = 1:400 (7 were 1:1,600) while 11 normal saliva samples showed titers of < or = 1:100. Lactoferrin titers in sputum, gingival swabs, and whole blood correlate with the presence of neutrophils or inflammation in these specimens and may offer a convenient rapid test for inflammatory processes. PMID:8574844

  9. Body drop into a fluid tank and dynamic loads calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komarov Aleksandr Andreevich

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The theory of a body striking a fluid began intensively developing due to the tasks of hydroplanes landing. For the recent years the study of a stroke and submersion of bodies into fluid became even more current. We face them in the process of strength calculation of ship hulls and other structures in modern technology. These tasks solution represents great mathematical difficulty even in case of the mentioned simplifications. These difficulties emerge due to the unsteady character of fluid motion in case of body submersion, and also jet and spray phenomena, which lead to discontinuous motions. On the basis of G.V. Logvinovich’s concept the problem of loads determination with consideration for air gap is solved for both a body and reservoir enclosing structures when a body falls into a fluid. Numerical method is based on the decay of an arbitrary discontinuity.

  10. Body fluid volumes in rats with mestranol-induced hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because estrogens have been reported to produce sodium retention, this study investigated the possibility that hypertension in rats resulting from the ingestion of an estrogen used as an oral contraceptive could be due to increases in body fluid volumes. Female rats were given feed containing mestranol for 1, 3, and 6 mo; control rats were given the feed without mestranol. The mestranol-treated rats had higher arterial pressures than the controls only after 6 mo of treatment. Plasma volume, extracellular fluid volume, and total body water were measured in each rat by the distribution volumes of radioiodinated serum albumin, 32SO4, and tritiated water, respectively. The body fluid volumes, expressed per 100 g of body weight, were not different between the mestranol-treated rats and their controls at any of the three treatment times. Due to differences in body weight and lean body mass between the mestranol-treated and the control rats, these volumes also were expressed per 100 g of lean body mass. Again, no differences were observed between the mestranol-treated rats and the control rats for any of these body fluid compartments at any of the treatment times. These studies, therefore, were unable to provide evidence that increases in body fluid volumes contributed to the elevated arterial pressure in this rat model of oral contraceptive hypertension

  11. Inactivation of human interferon by body fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesario, T. C.; Mandell, A.; Tilles, J. G.

    1973-01-01

    Description of the effects of human feces, bile, saliva, serum, and cerebrospinal fluid on interferon activity. It is shown that crude interferon is inactivated by at least 50% more than with the control medium used, when incubated for 4 hr in vitro in the presence of serum, saliva, or cerebrospinal liquid, and by close to 100% when incubated with stool extract or bile.

  12. Steady Fall of a Rigid Body in Viscous Fluid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nečasová, Šárka

    Praha : Ústav termomechaniky AV ČR, 2005 - (Příhoda, J.; Kozel, K.), s. 77-80 ISBN 80-85918-92-7. [Topical Problems of Fluid Mechanics. Prague (CZ), 25.02.2004] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : steady fall * rigid body * viscous fluid Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  13. Fetal development of regulatory mechanisms for body fluid homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Guan

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The balance of body fluids is critical to health and the development of diseases. Although quite a few review papers have shown that several mechanisms, including hormonal and behavioral regulation, play an important role in body fluid homeostasis in adults, there is limited information on the development of regulatory mechanisms for fetal body fluid balance. Hormonal, renal, and behavioral control of body fluids function to some extent in utero. Hormonal mechanisms including the renin-angiotensin system, aldosterone, and vasopressin are involved in modifying fetal renal excretion, reabsorption of sodium and water, and regulation of vascular volume. In utero behavioral changes, such as fetal swallowing, have been suggested to be early functional development in response to dipsogens. Since diseases, such as hypertension, can be traced to fetal origin, it is important to understand the development of fetal regulatory mechanisms for body fluid homeostasis in this early stage of life. This review focuses on fetal hormonal, behavioral, and renal development related to regulation of body fluids in utero.

  14. Interface identification in magnetic fluid dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brauer Hartmut

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In magnetic fluid dynamics appears the problem of reconstruction of free boundary between conducting fluids, e.g. in aluminum electrolysis cells. We have investigated how the interface between two fluids of different conductivity of a highly simplified model of an aluminum electrolysis cell could be reconstructed by means of external magnetic field measurements using simple genetic algorithm.

  15. Fluid sign in the treated bodies after percutaneous vertebroplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aims of this study are to describe non-healing in the treated vertebral body after percutaneous vertebroplasty and analyze the influence of vacuum cleft, location, and severity of collapse on the development of nonunion cement. Of 208 patients (266 treated vertebral bodies) who were treated with percutaneous vertebroplasty from September 2002 to May 2006, 23 patients (41 treated levels) with residual or recurrent pain underwent follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study. Retrospective chart review with analysis of preoperative and postoperative MRIs were performed in these 23 patients. In the 41 treated vertebral bodies, 22 of 41 bodies had vacuum cleft found in the preoperative MRI study. Eight of the 22 treated vertebral bodies with preoperative vacuum clefts were found to have fluid between the interface of cement and the residual bone in the collapsed vertebral bodies on follow-up MRI. The adjacent discs of these treated vertebral bodies were upward/downward displaced. The endplate of the adjacent vertebral body exhibited fibrotic change. Treated bodies with vacuum clefts and level A location (T9, T11, T12, and L1) had higher probability of developing nonunion of the cement with statistical significance. The probability of nonunion cement in severe collapsed bodies might be higher than that of union cement in mild collapsed ones, but was not statistically significant. Fluid sign in the treated body represents unhealed bone-cement interface. The location of the treated vertebral body and existence of vacuum cleft in the treated bodies may be important factors influencing the nonunion of cement. (orig.)

  16. Fluid sign in the treated bodies after percutaneous vertebroplasty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chao-Chun [China Medical University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Taichung (China); China Medical University, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Science, College of Health Care, Taichung (China); Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital and Tzu Chi University, Department of Medical Imaging, Hualien (China); Yen, Pao-Sheng [Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital and Tzu Chi University, Department of Medical Imaging, Hualien (China); Wen, Shu-Hui [Tzu Chi University, Department of Public Health, Hualien (China)

    2008-11-15

    The aims of this study are to describe non-healing in the treated vertebral body after percutaneous vertebroplasty and analyze the influence of vacuum cleft, location, and severity of collapse on the development of nonunion cement. Of 208 patients (266 treated vertebral bodies) who were treated with percutaneous vertebroplasty from September 2002 to May 2006, 23 patients (41 treated levels) with residual or recurrent pain underwent follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study. Retrospective chart review with analysis of preoperative and postoperative MRIs were performed in these 23 patients. In the 41 treated vertebral bodies, 22 of 41 bodies had vacuum cleft found in the preoperative MRI study. Eight of the 22 treated vertebral bodies with preoperative vacuum clefts were found to have fluid between the interface of cement and the residual bone in the collapsed vertebral bodies on follow-up MRI. The adjacent discs of these treated vertebral bodies were upward/downward displaced. The endplate of the adjacent vertebral body exhibited fibrotic change. Treated bodies with vacuum clefts and level A location (T9, T11, T12, and L1) had higher probability of developing nonunion of the cement with statistical significance. The probability of nonunion cement in severe collapsed bodies might be higher than that of union cement in mild collapsed ones, but was not statistically significant. Fluid sign in the treated body represents unhealed bone-cement interface. The location of the treated vertebral body and existence of vacuum cleft in the treated bodies may be important factors influencing the nonunion of cement. (orig.)

  17. Detection of pathogenic organisms in food, water, and body fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, William H.; Henley, Michael V.; Sayler, Gary S.

    2002-06-01

    The construction of specific bioluminescent bacteriophage for detection of pathogenic organism can be developed to overcome interferences in complex matrices such as food, water and body fluids. Detection and identification of bacteria often require several days and frequently weeks by standard methods of isolation, growth and biochemical test. Immunoassay detection often requires the expression of the bacterial toxin, which can lead to non-detection of cells that may express the toxin under conditions different from testing protocols. Immunoassays require production of a specific antibody to the agent for detection and interference by contaminants frequently affects results. PCR based detection may be inhibited by substances in complex matrices. Modified methods of the PCR technique, such as magnetic capture-hybridization PCR (MCH-PCR), appear to improve the technique by removing the DNA products away from the inhibitors. However, the techniques required for PCR-based detection are slow and the procedures require skilled personnel working with labile reagents. Our approach is based on transferring bioluminescence (lux) genes into a selected bacteriophage. Bacteriophages are bacterial viruses that are widespread in nature and often are genus and species specific. This specificity eliminates or reduces false positives in a bacteriophage assay. The phage recognizes a specific receptor molecule on the surface of a susceptible bacterium, attaches and then injects the viral nucleic acid into the cell. The injected viral genome is expressed and then replicated, generating numerous exact copies of the viral genetic material including the lux genes, often resulting in an increase in bioluminescence by several hundred fold.

  18. Renal renin secretion as regulator of body fluid homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjær, Mads; Isaksson, Gustaf L; Stubbe, Jane;

    2013-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin system is essential for body fluid homeostasis and blood pressure regulation. This review focuses on the homeostatic regulation of the secretion of active renin in the kidney, primarily in humans. Under physiological conditions, renin secretion is determined mainly by sodium...

  19. Stationarity of extremum entropy fluid bodies in general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffrin, Joshua S.

    2015-09-01

    We consider perfect fluid bodies (‘stars’) in general relativity that are axisymmetric, asymptotically flat, and that admit a maximal hypersurface. We show that configurations that extremize the total entropy at fixed ADM mass, ADM angular momentum, and total particle number are stationary with circular flow. For such stars, this establishes that thermodynamic equilibrium implies dynamic equilibrium.

  20. Differentiation of five body fluids from forensic samples by expression analysis of four microRNAs using quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Eva; Reinke, Ann-Kathrin; Courts, Cornelius

    2016-05-01

    Applying molecular genetic approaches for the identification of forensically relevant body fluids, which often yield crucial information for the reconstruction of a potential crime, is a current topic of forensic research. Due to their body fluid specific expression patterns and stability against degradation, microRNAs (miRNA) emerged as a promising molecular species, with a range of candidate markers published. The analysis of miRNA via quantitative Real-Time PCR, however, should be based on a relevant strategy of normalization of non-biological variances to deliver reliable and biologically meaningful results. The herein presented work is the as yet most comprehensive study of forensic body fluid identification via miRNA expression analysis based on a thoroughly validated qPCR procedure and unbiased statistical decision making to identify single source samples. PMID:26878708

  1. Regulation of body fluid volume and electrolyte concentrations in spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. M.; Krauhs, J. M.; Leach, C. S.

    1997-01-01

    Despite a number of difficulties in performing experiments during weightlessness, a great deal of information has been obtained concerning the effects of spaceflight on the regulation of body fluid and electrolytes. Many paradoxes and questions remain, however. Although body mass, extracellular fluid volume, and plasma volume are reduced during spaceflight and remain so at landing, the changes in total body water are comparatively small. Serum or plasma sodium and osmolality have generally been unchanged or reduced during the spaceflight, and fluid intake is substantially reduced, especially during the first of flight. The diuresis that was predicted to be caused by weightlessness, has only rarely been observed as an increased urine volume. What has been well established by now, is the occurrence of a relative diuresis, where fluid intake decreases more than urine volume does. Urinary excretion of electrolytes has been variable during spaceflight, but retention of fluid and electrolytes at landing has been consistently observed. The glomerular filtration rate was significantly elevated during the SLS missions, and water and electrolyte loading tests have indicated that renal function is altered during readaptation to Earth's gravity. Endocrine control of fluid volumes and electrolyte concentrations may be altered during weightlessness, but levels of hormones in body fluids do not conform to predictions based on early hypotheses. Antidiuretic hormone is not suppressed, though its level is highly variable and its secretion may be affected by space motion sickness and environmental factors. Plasma renin activity and aldosterone are generally elevated at landing, consistent with sodium retention, but inflight levels have been variable. Salt intake may be an important factor influencing the levels of these hormones. The circadian rhythm of cortisol has undoubtedly contributed to its variability, and little is known yet about the influence of spaceflight on circadian

  2. Enrichment methodology to increase the positivity of cultures from body fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Valle Daur

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Isolation and identification of etiological agents found in body fluids can be of critical importance for the recovery of patients suffering from potentially-severe infections, which are often followed by serious sequels. Eighty-two samples of different body fluids were analyzed using two different methods: (1 the conventional culture method (agar plating and (2 the enrichment culture technique, using the Bact/Alert® blood culture bottle. The number of positive cultures increased on average from 9.7% to 23.1% with the enrichment culture technique. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were the most frequently isolated bacteria. The enrichment method could provide a more accurate means the identifying etiological agents.

  3. Tidal dissipation in rotating fluid bodies: a simplified model

    CERN Document Server

    Ogilvie, Gordon I

    2009-01-01

    We study the tidal forcing, propagation and dissipation of linear inertial waves in a rotating fluid body. The intentionally simplified model involves a perfectly rigid core surrounded by a deep ocean consisting of a homogeneous incompressible fluid. Centrifugal effects are neglected, but the Coriolis force is considered in full, and dissipation occurs through viscous or frictional forces. The dissipation rate exhibits a complicated dependence on the tidal frequency and generally increases with the size of the core. In certain intervals of frequency, efficient dissipation is found to occur even for very small values of the coefficient of viscosity or friction. We discuss the results with reference to wave attractors, critical latitudes and other features of the propagation of inertial waves within the fluid, and comment on their relevance for tidal dissipation in planets and stars.

  4. Strongly coupled dynamics of fluids and rigid-body systems with the immersed boundary projection method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengjie; Eldredge, Jeff D.

    2015-08-01

    A strong coupling algorithm is presented for simulating the dynamic interactions between incompressible viscous flows and rigid-body systems in both two- and three-dimensional problems. In this work, the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible flow are solved on a uniform Cartesian grid by the vorticity-based immersed boundary projection method of Colonius and Taira. Dynamical equations for arbitrary rigid-body systems are also developed. The proposed coupling method attempts to unify the treatment of constraints in the fluid and structure-the incompressibility of the fluid, the linkages in the rigid-body system, and the conditions at the interface-through the use of Lagrange multipliers. The resulting partitioned system of equations is solved with a simple relaxation scheme, based on an identification of virtual inertia from the fluid. The scheme achieves convergence in only 2 to 5 iterations per time step for a wide variety of mass ratios. The formulation requires that only a subset of the discrete fluid equations be solved in each iteration. Several two- and three-dimensional numerical tests are conducted to validate and demonstrate the method, including a falling cylinder, flapping of flexible wings, self-excited oscillations of a system of many linked plates in a free stream, and passive pivoting of a finite aspect ratio plate under the influence of gravity in a free stream. The results from the current method are compared with previous experimental and numerical results and good agreement is achieved.

  5. Theoretical treatment of fluid flow for accelerating bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Gledhill, Irvy M.A.; Roohani, Hamed; Forsberg, Karl; Eliasson, Peter; Skews, Beric M.; Nordström, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Most computational fluid dynamics simulations are, at present, performed in a body-fixed frame, for aeronautical purposes. With the advent of sharp manoeuvre, which may lead to transient effects originating in the acceleration of the centre of mass, there is a need to have a consistent formulation of the Navier–Stokes equations in an arbitrarily moving frame. These expressions should be in a form that allows terms to be transformed between non-inertial and inertial frames and includes gravity...

  6. Steady fall of a rigid body in viscous fluid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nečasová, Šárka

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 63, Sp. Is. (2005), s. 2113-2119. ISSN 0362-546X. [Invited Talks from the Fourth World Congress of Nonlinear Analysts (WCNA 2004). Orlando, 30.7.2004-7.8.2004] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA201/02/0684 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : steady fall * rigid body * viscous fluid Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.519, year: 2005

  7. Characterisation of body fluid specific microRNA markers by capillary electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Graham; Uchimoto, Mari L.; Coult, Natalie; World, Damien; Beasley, Emma; Avenell, Philip

    2013-01-01

    The characterisation of RNA molecules for the purpose of body fluid identification is currently a major field in forensic genetics; with a great deal of effort going towards the analysis of messenger RNA (mRNA). There is also some effort with targeting microRNA (miRNA) which is a more stable RNA molecule than mRNA; due to its short size and role in RNA interference. Most research into forensic miRNA analysis is based around quantitative PCR (qPCR). No substantial research has yet been carried...

  8. Theoretical treatment of fluid flow for accelerating bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gledhill, Irvy M. A.; Roohani, Hamed; Forsberg, Karl; Eliasson, Peter; Skews, Beric W.; Nordström, Jan

    2016-03-01

    Most computational fluid dynamics simulations are, at present, performed in a body-fixed frame, for aeronautical purposes. With the advent of sharp manoeuvre, which may lead to transient effects originating in the acceleration of the centre of mass, there is a need to have a consistent formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations in an arbitrarily moving frame. These expressions should be in a form that allows terms to be transformed between non-inertial and inertial frames and includes gravity, viscous terms, and linear and angular acceleration. Since no effects of body acceleration appear in the inertial frame Navier-Stokes equations themselves, but only in their boundary conditions, it is useful to investigate acceleration source terms in the non-inertial frame. In this paper, a derivation of the energy equation is provided in addition to the continuity and momentum equations previously published. Relevant dimensionless constants are derived which can be used to obtain an indication of the relative significance of acceleration effects. The necessity for using computational fluid dynamics to capture nonlinear effects remains, and various implementation schemes for accelerating bodies are discussed. This theoretical treatment is intended to provide a foundation for interpretation of aerodynamic effects observed in manoeuvre, particularly for accelerating missiles.

  9. Geometry of the Motion of Ideal Fluids and Rigid Bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Rajeev, S G

    2009-01-01

    Arnold pointed out that the Euler equation of incompressible ideal hydrodynamics describes geodesics on the group of volume-preserving diffeomorphisms. A simple analogue is the Euler equation for a rigid body, which is the geodesic equation on the rotation group with respect to a metric determined by the moment of inertia. The metric on the group is left-invariant but not right-invariant. We will reduce the geometry of such groups (using techniques popularized by Milnor) to algebra on their tangent space. In particular, the curvature can be expressed as a biquadratic form on the Lie algebra. Arnold's result that motion of incompressible fluids has instabilities (due to the sectional curvature being negative) can be recovered more simply. Surprisingly, such an instability arises in rigid body mechanics as well: the metric on SO(3) corresponding to the moment of inertia of a thin cylinder (coin) has negative sectional curvature in one tangent plane. Both ideal fluids and rigid bodies can be thought of as hamilt...

  10. Human Identification at a Distance Using Body Shape Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shape of human body is unique from one person to another. This paper presents an intelligent system approach for human identification at a distance using human body shape information. The body features used are the head, shoulder, and trunk. Image processing techniques for detection of these body features were developed in this work. Then, the features are recognized using fuzzy logic approach and used as inputs to a recognition system based on a multilayer neural network. The developed system is only applicable for recognizing a person from its frontal view and specifically constrained to male gender to simplify the algorithm. In this research, the accuracy for human identification using the proposed method is 77.5%. Thus, it is proved that human can be identified at a distance using body shape information

  11. Many-Body Effects on the Thermodynamics of Fluids, Mixtures, and Nanoconfined Fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desgranges, Caroline; Delhommelle, Jerome

    2015-11-10

    Using expanded Wang-Landau simulations, we show that taking into account the many-body interactions results in sharp changes in the grand-canonical partition functions of single-component systems, binary mixtures, and nanoconfined fluids. The many-body contribution, modeled with a 3-body Axilrod-Teller-Muto term, results in shifts toward higher chemical potentials of the phase transitions from low-density phases to high-density phases and accounts for deviations of more than, e.g., 20% of the value of the partition function for a single-component liquid. Using the statistical mechanics formalism, we analyze how this contribution has a strong impact on some properties (e.g., pressure, coexisting densities, and enthalpy) and a moderate impact on others (e.g., Gibbs or Helmholtz free energies). We also characterize the effect of the 3-body terms on adsorption isotherms and adsorption thermodynamic properties, thereby providing a full picture of the effect of the 3-body contribution on the thermodynamics of nanoconfined fluids. PMID:26574329

  12. Identification of Helicopter Rigid Body Dynamics from Flight Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatinder Singh

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses helicopter modelling and identification related aspects. By applying thesystem identification methodology, longitudinal and lateral-directional rigid body helicopter dynamics are identified from flight data. Aerodynamic parameters from single input excitation as wellas multimanoeuver evaluation are estimated utilising output-error approach. The formulatedmathematical models yield adequate fit to measured time histories. Results obtained from the proof-of-match for model validation indicate that the identified derivatives can satisfactorily predictlongitudinal dynamics to a given arbitrary input. It is further demonstrated for the present study thatlateral body dynamics can be adequately predicted by including cross-coupling terms in the estimation model.

  13. Bioimpedance identifies body fluid loss after exercise in the heat: a pilot study with body cooling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Gatterer

    Full Text Available Assessment of post-exercise changes in hydration with bioimpedance (BI is complicated by physiological adaptations that affect resistance (R and reactance (Xc values. This study investigated exercise-induced changes in R and Xc, independently and in bioelectrical impedance vector analysis, when factors such as increased skin temperature and blood flow and surface electrolyte accumulation are eliminated with a cold shower.Healthy males (n = 14, 24.1±1.7 yr; height (H: 182.4±5.6 cm, body mass: 72.3±6.3 kg exercised for 1 hr at a self-rated intensity (15 BORG in an environmental chamber (33°C and 50% relative humidity, then had a cold shower (15 min. Before the run BI, body mass, hematocrit and Posm were measured. After the shower body mass was measured; BI measurements were performed continuously every 20 minutes until R reached a stable level, then hematocrit and Posm were measured again.Compared to pre-trial measurements body mass decreased after the run and Posm, Hct, R/H and Xc/H increased (p<0.05 with a corresponding lengthening of the impedance vector along the major axis of the tolerance ellipse (p<0.001. Changes in Posm were negatively related to changes in body mass (r = -0.564, p = 0.036 and changes in Xc/H (r = -0.577, p = 0.041.Present findings showed that after a bout of exercise-induced dehydration followed by cold shower the impedance vector lengthened that indicates fluid loss. Additionally, BI values might be useful to evaluate fluid shifts between compartments as lower intracellular fluid loss (changed Xc/R indicated greater Posm increase.

  14. Nitric oxide synthase blockade and body fluid volumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Balaszczuk

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of chronic nitric oxide synthase inhibition with N G-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME on body fluid distribution was studied in male Wistar rats weighing 260-340 g. Extracellular, interstitial and intracellular spaces, as well as plasma volume were measured after a three-week treatment with L-NAME (~70 mg/kg per 24 h in drinking water. An increase in extracellular space (16.1 ± 1.1 vs 13.7 ± 0.6 ml/100 g in control group, N = 12, P<0.01, interstitial space (14.0 ± 0.9 vs 9.7 ± 0.6 ml/100 g in control group, P<0.001 and total water (68.7 ± 3.9 vs 59.0 ± 2.9 ml/100 g, P<0.001 was observed in the L-NAME group (N = 8. Plasma volume was lower in L-NAME-treated rats (2.8 ± 0.2 ml/100 g than in the control group (3.6 ± 0.1 ml/100 g, P<0.001. Blood volume was also lower in L-NAME-treated rats (5.2 ± 0.3 ml/100 g than in the control group (7.2 ± 0.3 ml/100 g, P<0.001. The increase in total ratio of kidney wet weight to body weight in the L-NAME group (903 ± 31 vs 773 ± 45 mg/100 g in control group, P<0.01 but not in total kidney water suggests that this experimental hypertension occurs with an increase in renal mass. The fact that the heart weight to body weight ratio and the total heart water remained constant indicates that, despite the presence of high blood pressure, no modification in cardiac mass occurred. These data show that L-NAME-induced hypertension causes alterations in body fluid distribution and in renal mass.

  15. Monitoring Change of Body Fluid during Physical Exercise using Bioimpedance Spectroscopy and Finite Element Simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa Röthlingshöfer; Mark Ulbrich; Sebastian Hahne; Steffen Leonhardt

    2011-01-01

    Athletes need a balanced body composition in order to achieve maximum performance. Especially dehydration reduces power and endurance during physical exercise. Monitoring the body composition, with a focus on body fluid, may help to avoid reduction in performance and other health problems.For this, a potential measurement method is bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS). BIS is a simple, non-invasive measurement method that allows to determine different body compartments (body fluid, fat, fat-free m...

  16. Broad screening and identification of β-agonists in feed and animal body fluid and tissues using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry combined with spectra library search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tingting; Cao, Jingjing; Li, Zhen; Wang, Xian; He, Pingli

    2016-02-01

    Broad screening and identification of β-agonists in feed, serum, urine, muscle and liver samples was achieved in a quick and highly sensitive manner using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS) combined with a spectra library search. Solid-phase extraction technology was employed for sample purification and enrichment. After extraction and purification, the samples were analyzed using a Q-Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometer under full-scan and data-dependent MS/MS mode. The acquired mass spectra were compared with an in-house library (compound library and MS/MS mass spectral library) built with TraceFinder Software which contained the M/Z of the precursor ion, chemical formula, retention time, character fragment ions and the entire MS/MS spectra of 32 β-agonist standards. Screening was achieved by comparing 5 key mass spectral results and positive matches were marked. Using the developed method, the identification results from 10 spiked samples and 238 actual samples indicated that only 2% of acquired mass spectra produced false identities. The method validation results showed that the limit of detection ranged from 0.021-3.854 μg kg(-1)and 0.015-1.198 ng mL(-1) for solid and liquid samples, respectively. PMID:26304337

  17. Estimation of Body Fluid Volume by Bioimpedance Spectroscopy in Patients with Hyponatremia

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jae Seok; Lee, Jun Young; Park, Hyeoncheol; Han, Byoung Geun; Choi, Seung Ok; Yang, Jae Won

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Estimation of body fluid volume in hyponatremia is useful for diagnosis and therapeutic decision-making. Physical examination has been generally used to estimate body fluid volume, but it depends on the physician's abilities. Bioimpedance spectroscopy has been suggested to be a reliable method for the estimation of body fluid volume. Therefore, this study investigated whether bioimpedance spectroscopy could replace physical examination in hyponatremia. Materials and Methods The study ...

  18. Crystallization from a milk-based revised simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A milk-based revised simulated body fluid (milk-rSBF) was prepared by a conventional route but instead of deionized water, all necessary chemicals were dissolved in whole cow's milk (3.2% fat). In order to accelerate crystallization and increase the amount of precipitates, the influence of milk was studied from condensed solutions equal to four times the ionic concentrations of rSBF (4rSBF). The experiments were performed under physiological conditions (solution pH = 7.35-7.40, temperature 37.0 ± 0.2 deg. C, duration 7 days) in a constant-composition double-diffusion device, which provided a slow crystallization under strictly controlled conditions. Similar experiments with 4rSBF but dissolved in deionized water were used as a control. An extra set of experiments with 4rSBF dissolved in deionized water but with an addition of 40 g l-1 bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used as another control. The influence of milk appeared to be similar to that of dissolved BSA: some components of milk (presumably albumins and proteins) were found to co-precipitate with calcium phosphates, which had a strong negative influence on both the crystallinity and the crystal sizes of the precipitates. In addition, both milk and BSA strongly inhibited crystallization of calcium phosphates: the precipitates turned out to contain a minor amount of calcium phosphates and a substantial amount of organic phase

  19. Corrosion and tribocorrosion of hafnium in simulated body fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rituerto Sin, J; Neville, A; Emami, N

    2014-08-01

    Hafnium is a passive metal with good biocompatibility and osteogenesis, however, little is known about its resistance to wear and corrosion in biological environments. The corrosion and tribocorrosion behavior of hafnium and commercially pure (CP) titanium in simulated body fluids were investigated using electrochemical techniques. Cyclic polarization scans and open circuit potential measurements were performed in 0.9% NaCl solution and 25% bovine calf serum solution to assess the effect of organic species on the corrosion behavior of the metal. A pin-on-plate configuration tribometer and a three electrode electrochemical cell were integrated to investigate the tribocorrosion performance of the studied materials. The results showed that hafnium has good corrosion resistance. The corrosion density currents measured in its passive state were lower than those measured in the case of CP titanium; however, it showed a higher tendency to suffer from localized corrosion, which was more acute when imperfections were present on the surface. The electrochemical breakdown of the oxide layer was retarded in the presence of proteins. Tribocorrosion tests showed that hafnium has the ability to quickly repassivate after the oxide layer was damaged; however, it showed higher volumetric loss than CP titanium in equivalent wear-corrosion conditions. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 102B: 1157-1164, 2014. PMID:24376175

  20. Radioimmunoassay of drugs in body fluids in a forensic context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first article of the volume describes the theory and practice of RIA with particular reference to the analysis of drugs in body fluids in a forensic context. RIA theory is outlined from basic principles but the inherent assumptions are often inapplicable in practice and so the empirical design of an assay is considered in detail. Particular emphasis is given to the development of assays for drugs screening that detect classes of structurally related compounds rather than individual drugs. The preparation of radiolabelled drugs, the synthesis of immunogens for raising anitisera, the production of polyclonal and monoclonal antisera, and methods for separating free and antibody-bound antigens are reviewed. Quality assurance, trouble-shooting and the possible hazards of forensic RIA are discussed, and published RIA methods for drug analysis are tabulated. Many non-isotopic immunoassays have been developed in recent years but are omitted from this account because to date they are less applicable than RIA to samples such as haemolysed blood that are frequently encountered in forensic toxicology. Future progress in forensic drug RIA is likely to be concerned with applying the technique to more compounds, improving the methods for preparing immunogens and radiolabelled drugs, and investigating the use of monoclonal anti-drug antibodies. (orig./MG)

  1. Evaluation of Human Body Fluids for the Diagnosis of Fungal Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Parisa Badiee

    2013-01-01

    Invasive fungal infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Because the etiologic agents of these infections are abundant in nature, their isolation from biopsy material or sterile body fluids is needed to document infection. This review evaluates and discusses different human body fluids used to diagnose fungal infections.

  2. Influence of Brownian Diffusion on Levitation of Bodies in Magnetic Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Bashtovoi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with experimental investigation of the levitation of magnetic and non-magnetic bodies in a magnetic fluid when essentially influenced by Brownian diffusion of magnetic particles in it. It is established that the point of levitation of bodies in a magnetic fluid varies with time.

  3. Influence of Brownian Diffusion on Levitation of Bodies in Magnetic Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    V. Bashtovoi; A. Reks; S. Klimovich; А. Motsar; P. Ryapolov; A. Storozhenko; I. Shabanova

    2013-01-01

    The present work deals with experimental investigation of the levitation of magnetic and non-magnetic bodies in a magnetic fluid when essentially influenced by Brownian diffusion of magnetic particles in it. It is established that the point of levitation of bodies in a magnetic fluid varies with time.

  4. Effect of bicarbonate on biodegradation behaviour of pure magnesium in a simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of bicarbonate on biodegradation of pure magnesium in a simulated body fluid is investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, polarization curve and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results show that magnesium biodegrades rapidly and non-uniformly during 27 h of immersion in four simulated body fluid solutions containing different concentrations of bicarbonate. The biodegradation rate first decreases and then increases with time. A small amount of bicarbonate in simulated body fluid has an inhibition effect on the Mg dissolution, while an overdose of bicarbonate addition activates the magnesium surface in the simulated body fluid. The interesting phenomena can be interpreted by a surface film model involving precipitation of calcium carbonate and further ionization of bicarbonate in the simulated body fluids, incorporation of calcium, carbonate and phosphate compounds in the surface film, and development of chloride-induced pitting corrosion damage on the magnesium with time

  5. Body fluid MMP-2 as a putative biomarker in metastatic breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    NOH, SEWON; Jung, Jae-Joon; Jung, Minkyu; KIM, KI-HYANG; Lee, Ha-young; WANG, BRANDON; CHO, JOANNA; Kim, Tae Soo; Jeung, Hei-Cheul; Rha, Sun Young

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the role of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 as novel biomarkers in the body fluid of patients with metastatic breast cancer. We measured the expression of MMPs in 37 samples of body fluid (10 peritoneal and 27 pleural fluids) from metastatic breast cancer patients between 2000 and 2009. Zymography and ELISA assays were used to determine the cut-off level and to quantify MMP expression from a positive control, HT-1080 conditioned media. MMP express...

  6. Digoxin-like immunoreactivity in human body fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical and chemical characteristics of a solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) for routine digoxin determination has been studied with the aim to confirm our previous observation of the presence of digoxin-like immunoreactive substance (DLIS) in serum (plasma) and urine of normal subjects not under digoxin treatment. The sensitivity of the assay was 2.1±0.6 pg/tube and the reproducibility, tested with two different urine pools in terms of digoxin-equivalents (d.e.), was 12.5% (285.6±35.7 pg/ml d.e., n=19) and 20.6% (123.8±25.5 pg/ml d.e., n=19), respectively. The mean DLIS concentration in the blood of 32 normal subjects was 15.6±8.0 pg/ml d.e. (range 0-60 pg/ml d.e.). The mean DLIS concentration in urine of 37 normal subjects (overnight collection) was 160.0±52.3 pg/ml d.e. (range 70-350 pg/ml d.e.), while the mean 24-hour DLIS excretion of 10 normal subjects was 97.3±39.7 ng d.e. Two urine pools were extracted with organic solvents. Good recoveries (80-100%) were obtained with methanol, while poor recoveries were obtained with methylene chloride, hexane and petroleum ether. The present study indicates that DLIS is not a large charged molecule, neither salt, nor fatty acid, which are considered the most frequent non-specific interferences in RIA systems. Urine samples may be more useful for pathophysiological studies on digoxin-like immunoreactivity in human body fluids, because of their higher DLIS concentrations (4-10 times the concetration in blood)

  7. Body identification, biometrics and medicine: ethical and social considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordini, Emilio; Ottolini, Corinna

    2007-01-01

    Identity is important when it is weak. This apparent paradox is the core of the current debate on identity. Traditionally, verification of identity has been based upon authentication of attributed and biographical characteristics. After small scale societies and large scale, industrial societies, globalization represents the third period of personal identification. The human body lies at the heart of all strategies for identity management. The tension between human body and personal identity is critical in the health care sector. The health care sector is second only to the financial sector in term of the number of biometric users. Many hospitals and healthcare organizations are in progress to deploy biometric security architecture. Secure identification is critical in the health care system, both to control logic access to centralized archives of digitized patients' data, and to limit physical access to buildings and hospital wards, and to authenticate medical and social support personnel. There is also an increasing need to identify patients with a high degree of certainty. Finally there is the risk that biometric authentication devices can significantly reveal any health information. All these issues require a careful ethical and political scrutiny. PMID:17536154

  8. Inactivation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by ionizing radiation in body fluids and serological evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method to use ionizing radiation to inactivate HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) in human body fluids was studied in an effort to reduce the risk of accidental infection to forensic science laboratory workers. Experiments conducted indicate that an X-ray absorbed dose of 25 krad was required to completely inactivate HIV. This does not alter forensically important constituents such as enzymes and proteins in body fluids. This method of inactivation of HIV cannot be used on body fluids which will be subjected to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) typing

  9. Monitoring Change of Body Fluid during Physical Exercise using Bioimpedance Spectroscopy and Finite Element Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Röthlingshöfer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Athletes need a balanced body composition in order to achieve maximum performance. Especially dehydration reduces power and endurance during physical exercise. Monitoring the body composition, with a focus on body fluid, may help to avoid reduction in performance and other health problems.For this, a potential measurement method is bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS. BIS is a simple, non-invasive measurement method that allows to determine different body compartments (body fluid, fat, fat-free mass. However, because many physiological changes occur during physical exercise that can influence impedance measurements and distort results, it cannot be assumed that the BIS data are related to body fluid loss alone.To confirm that BIS can detect body fluid loss due to physical exercise, finite element (FE simulations were done. Besides impedance, also the current density contribution during a BIS measurement was modeled to evaluate the influence of certain tissues on BIS measurements.Simulations were done using CST EM Studio (Computer Simulation Technology, Germany and the Visible Human Data Set (National Library of Medicine, USA. In addition to the simulations, BIS measurements were also made on athletes. Comparison between the measured bioimpedance data and simulation data, as well as body weight loss during sport, indicates that BIS measurements are sensitive enough to monitor body fluid loss during physical exercise.doi:10.5617/jeb.178 J Electr Bioimp, vol. 2, pp. 79-85, 2011

  10. Long-term effects of growth hormone (GH) on body fluid distribution in GH deficient adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Sidse; Rosenfalck, A M; Frandsen, E;

    1999-01-01

    Short-term growth hormone (GH) treatment normalises body fluid distribution in adult GH deficient patients, but the impact of long-term treatment on body fluid homeostasis has hitherto not been thoroughly examined in placebo controlled trials. To investigate if the water retaining effect of GH...... persists for a longer time we examined the impact of 4 months GH treatment on extracellular volume (ECV) and plasma volume (PV) in GH deficient adults....

  11. Steady fall of a body in viscos compressible fluids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nečasová, Šárka; Penel, P.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 2 (2004), s. 137-149. ISSN 0972-0960 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/02/0854 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : steady fall * viscous compressible fluids Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  12. Nonlinear evolution of tidally forced inertial waves in rotating fluid bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Favier, B.; Barker, A.J.; Baruteau, C.; Ogilvie, G. I.

    2014-01-01

    We perform one of the first studies into the nonlinear evolution of tidally excited inertial waves in a uniformly rotating fluid body, exploring a simplified model of the fluid envelope of a planet (or the convective envelope of a solar-type star) subject to the gravitational tidal perturbations of an orbiting companion. Our model contains a perfectly rigid spherical core, which is surrounded by an envelope of incompressible uniform density fluid. The corresponding linear problem was studied ...

  13. Numerical Simulation of the Sedimentation of a Tripole-like Body in an Incompressible Viscous Fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez, L H.(Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana); Glowinski, R (University of Houston); Pettitt, Bernard M.(University of Houston)

    2002-08-01

    In this note, we discuss the application of a methodology combining distributed Lagrange multiplier based fictitious domain techniques, finite-element approximations and operator splitting, to the numerical simulation of the motion of a tripole-like rigid body falling in a Newtonian incompressible viscous fluid. The motion of the body is driven by the hydrodynamical forces and gravity. The numerical simulation shows that the distribution of mass of this rigid body and added moment of inertia compared to a simple cylinder (circular or elliptic) plays a significant role on the particle-fluid interaction. Apparently, for the parameters examined, the action of the moving rigid body on the fluid is stronger than the hydrodynamic forces acting on the rigid body.

  14. Measurement of body fluid proteins by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, MH; Thompson, EJ

    1982-01-01

    A development of the disc polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic system of Ornstein and Davis, which has been applied to the analysis of unconcentrated cerebrospinal fluid, is described. Modifications to the scanning densitometer have improved the signal:noise ratio of the gel scanning system. Using this technique, we have studied the dye-binding properties of albumin, and of beta- and gamma-globulins, and have shown that reproducible quantification of proteins can be achieved. The advantages of ...

  15. On the identifiability of a rigid body moving in a stationary viscous fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is devoted to a geometrical inverse problem associated with a fluid–structure system. More precisely, we consider the interaction between a moving rigid body and a viscous and incompressible fluid. Assuming a low Reynolds regime, the inertial forces can be neglected and, therefore, the fluid motion is modelled by the Stokes system. We first prove the well posedness of the corresponding system. Then we show an identifiability result: with one measure of the Cauchy forces of the fluid on one given part of the boundary and at some positive time, the shape of a convex body and its initial position are identified. (paper)

  16. Correlations between Different Heavy Metals in Diverse Body Fluids: Studies of Human Semen Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Mínguez-Alarcón

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been hypothesized that exposure to heavy metals may impair male reproduction. To measure the effect produced by low doses of heavy metals on semen parameters, it is necessary to clarify in which body fluids those measurements must be performed. Sixty-one men attending infertility clinics participated in our study. Concentrations of lead, cadmium, and mercury were measured in whole blood, blood plasma, and seminal plasma using spectroanalytical and electrochemical methods. Semen analyses were performed according to World Health Organization criteria. For statistical analysis, Spearman's rank correlations, mean comparison tests, and discriminant analysis were calculated. Significant correlations between the measured concentrations of the three heavy metals in the same biological fluids were observed. However, no similar relationship was seen when comparing the concentrations in different body fluids of the same metal. According to our results and previous publications, seminal plasma might be the best body fluid for assessing impairment of human semen parameters.

  17. Evaluation of commercial kits for dual extraction of DNA and RNA from human body fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweighardt, Andrew J; Tate, Courtney M; Scott, Kristina A; Harper, Kathryn A; Robertson, James M

    2015-01-01

    STR typing of DNA evidence can identify the donor with a high power of discrimination but cannot identify the tissue origin of a body-fluid stain. Using RNA to attribute a crime scene stain to a particular tissue may aid in reconstruction efforts. With blood from 10 donors, four DNA and RNA coextraction kits were evaluated by measuring yields and STR and mRNA profiles. T tests indicated some significant differences in kit performance. The Zymo Research ZR-Duet(™) kit performed best based on average DNA (41.4 ng) and mRNA (4.07 ng) yields and was the only kit to provide complete DNA/RNA profiles for all samples. The consistency of this kit was challenged by data from additional blood and saliva donors. Further testing is advised before a superior kit is unequivocally chosen. Stand-alone DNA or RNA purification generally offers higher yield, but coextraction may still allow successful STR profiling and tissue source identification. PMID:25284026

  18. X-ray fluorescence analysis in application for study of human brain tissue and body fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin slices of human brain tissue and body fluids were investigated using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry. Distribution of elements in brain tissue samples was studied using Microbeam X-Ray Fluorescence (MXRF) method. Total Reflection X-Ray fluorescence (TXRF) analysis was applied for determination of elemental contens in cerebrospinal fluid, serum and whole blood. The main goal of the study was to optimize analytical procedures for investigation of biomedical specimens using EDXRF method. MXRF method is useful for investigation of P, S, Cl, K, Ca and Fe. Moreover, it can be also applied for distinguishing between white and gray matter of the human brain. Two sample preparation methods were applied in TXRF spectrometry with respect to detection limit. In the first method the body fluids were analysed without any sample preparation. The other measurements were performed for the body fluids digested with nitric acid. For both methods gallium was used as an internal standard. Accuracy of the TXRF method was assessed using Certified Reference Material, A-13 (freeze-dried animal blood). High sensitivity of TXRF and proper sample preparation allowed to detect wide spectrum of elements between Cl and Sr. Faster and easier first sample preparation method allowed to detect elements including volatile ones like Cl or Br whereas digestion of fluids with nitric acid improved the detection limits significantly. Elemental analysis of thin brain tissue samples and body fluids will be applied for study of role of trace elements in selected neurological diseases. (author)

  19. Control of fluid-containing rotating rigid bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Gurchenkov, Anatoly A

    2013-01-01

    This book is devoted to the study of the dynamics of rotating bodies with cavities containing liquid. Two basic classes of motions are analyzed: rotation and libration. Cases of complete and partial filling of cavities with ideal liquid and complete filling with viscous liquid are treated. The volume presents a method for obtaining relations between angular velocities perpendicular to main rotation and external force momentums, which are treated as control. The developed models and methods of solving dynamical problems as well as numerical methods for solving problems of optimal control can be

  20. Effects of growth hormone (GH) treatment on body fluid distribution in patients undergoing elective abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jacob; Jensen, Martin Bach; Frandsen, E.;

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the possible beneficial effects of growth hormone (GH) in catabolic patients we examined the impact of GH on body fluid distribution in patients with ulcerative colitis undergoing elective abdominal surgery. DESIGN AND MEASUREMENTS: Twenty-four patients (14 female, 10 male......) aged 19-47 years were in a double-blinded study randomly assigned to receive either placebo (n = 12) or GH (n = 12) 6 i.u. s.c. twice daily from 2 days before until 7 days after ileo-anal J pouch surgery. Extracellular and plasma volume (ECV, PV) were determined using 82Br and 125I albumin dilution at...... day -2 and at day 7, and body composition was estimated by dual X-ray absorptiometry and bioimpedance. Changes in body weight and fluid balance were recorded and hence intracellular volume was assessed. RESULTS: During placebo treatment body weight decreased 4.3 +/- 0.6 kg; during GH treatment body...

  1. A modified Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) Clustering algorithm and its application on carbonate fluid identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lifeng; Sun, Sam Zandong; Yu, Hongyu; Yue, Xingtong; Zhang, Dong

    2016-06-01

    Considering the fact that the fluid distribution in carbonate reservoir is very complicated and the existing fluid prediction methods are not able to produce ideal predicted results, this paper proposes a new fluid identification method in carbonate reservoir based on the modified Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) Clustering algorithm. Both initialization and globally optimum cluster center are produced by Chaotic Quantum Particle Swarm Optimization (CQPSO) algorithm, which can effectively avoid the disadvantage of sensitivity to initial values and easily falling into local convergence in the traditional FCM Clustering algorithm. Then, the modified algorithm is applied to fluid identification in the carbonate X area in Tarim Basin of China, and a mapping relation between fluid properties and pre-stack elastic parameters will be built in multi-dimensional space. It has been proven that this modified algorithm has a good ability of fuzzy cluster and its total coincidence rate of fluid prediction reaches 97.10%. Besides, the membership of different fluids can be accumulated to obtain respective probability, which can evaluate the uncertainty in fluid identification result.

  2. Towards instantaneous quantitative fluoroimaging drugs determination in body fluids with no added reagents

    OpenAIRE

    Strashnikova, Natalia V.; Gershanik, Arcady P.; Papiashvili, Nona; Khankin, Daniel; Cohen-Luria, Rivka; Mark, Shlomo; Kalisky, Yehoshua; Parola, Abraham H

    2010-01-01

    Our objective is to develop a simple monitoring technique for rapid, sensitive and quantitative drugs detection in body fluids, with no reagent added and no need for qualified professionals. The user-friendly automatic Fluo-imager will (a) measure the full-range 3D fluorescence map of the inserted fluid sample, (b) determine the chemical nature and concentration of the drugs and (c) transfer the results through internet to the diagnosis center. For these goals the fluorescence measurement dat...

  3. Guidelines for uniform reporting of body fluid biomarker studies in neurologic disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnanapavan, Sharmilee; Hegen, Harald; Khalil, Michael;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of these guidelines is to make the process of reporting body fluid biomarker studies in neurologic disorders more uniform and transparent, in line with existing standards for reporting research in other biomedical areas. Although biomarkers have been around for decades, there are......-point uniform reporting format ranging from introduction, materials and methods, through to results and discussion. Each item is discussed in detail in the guidance report. CONCLUSIONS: To enhance the future development of body fluid biomarkers, it will be important to standardize the reporting of...

  4. Effect of lower-body positive pressure on postural fluid shifts in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinghofer-Szalkay, H.; Kravik, S. E.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of the lower-body positive pressure (LBPP) on the orthostatic fluid and protein shifts were investigated in five men during combined tilt-table/antigravity suit inflation and deflation experiments. Changes in the mass densities of venous blood and plasma were measured and the values were used to calculate the densities of erythrocytes, whole-body blood, and shifted fluid. It was found that the application of 60 mm Hg LBPP during 60-deg head-up tilt prevented about half of the postural hemoconcentration occurring during passive head-up tilt.

  5. Corrosion behavior of coated and uncoated bio implants in SBF(simulated body fluid)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surgical implants used in medical applications are basically the specific type of stainless steel materials. Stainless steel has been used widely and successfully for various types of trauma and orthopedic reconstructions. If an uncoated (bare) stainless steel metal piece is implanted in any part of the body, it will get corrode in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) present inside the human body (a mixture of different salts). To overcome this problem a coating of Titanium Nitride (TiN) was developed on stainless steel bio-implants using physical vapor deposition (PVD) method. Both coated and uncoated implants were kept dipped in Simulated Body Fluid for five months. The samples were removed and tested for corrosion life assessment after every fifteen days using weight loss method. (author)

  6. Persistence of Ebola virus in various body fluids during convalescence: evidence and implications for disease transmission and control

    OpenAIRE

    A.A. Chughtai; Barnes, M; MacIntyre, C R

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The aim of this study was to review the current evidence regarding the persistence of Ebola virus (EBOV) in various body fluids during convalescence and discuss its implication on disease transmission and control. We conducted a systematic review and searched articles from Medline and EMBASE using key words. We included studies that examined the persistence of EBOV in various body fluids during the convalescent phase. Twelve studies examined the persistence of EBOV in body fluids, wit...

  7. Unlocking thin bed potential: gas identification through downhole fluid analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loi, D.; Mazzoni, S.; Gigliotti, M.; Baio, C.; Borghi, M.; Baldini, D.; Italiano, F. [Schlumberger (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Thin beds have been recently proposed as an alternative to multilayer sand reservoirs for countering the decline in production from offshore gas fields. However, this approach is still not applied because of difficulties in identifying gas bearing zones. This paper presents a critical review of existing thin bed evaluation techniques and describes a successful case history in the Adriatic sea in which wireline formation testing (RFT) technology, using a dual packer string with downhole fluid analysis capabilities, including fluid density measurement, was used to distinguish gas zones from water zones. This approach gave a 100% success ratio for downhole fluid analysis stations in a tight environment and provided an effective way to acquire reservoir pressure without supercharging effects and allow the operator to confirm gas presence in several thin bed levels. Moreover, this approach also helps to improve optimization of completion techniques (FracPack and High Rate Water Pack) and saves the cost of multiple well testings, thus reducing total costs.

  8. Many-fluid Onsager density functional theories for orientational ordering in mixtures of anisotropic hard-body fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malijevský, Alexandr; Jackson, George; Varga, Szabolcs

    2008-10-14

    The extension of Onsager's second-virial theory [L. Onsager, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 51, 627 (1949)] for the orientational ordering of hard rods to mixtures of nonspherical hard bodies with finite length-to-breadth ratios is examined using the decoupling approximations of Parsons [Phys. Rev. A 19, 1225 (1979)] and Lee [J. Chem. Phys. 86, 6567 (1987); 89, 7036 (1988)]. Invariably the extension of the Parsons-Lee (PL) theory to mixtures has in the past involved a van der Waals one-fluid treatment in which the properties of the mixture are approximated by those of a reference one-component hard-sphere fluid with an effective diameter which depends on the composition of the mixture and the molecular parameters of the various components; commonly this is achieved by equating the molecular volumes of the effective hard sphere and of the components in the mixture and is referred to as the PL theory of mixtures. It is well known that a one-fluid treatment is not the most appropriate for the description of the thermodynamic properties of isotropic fluids, and inadequacies are often rectified with a many-fluid (MF) theory. Here, we examine MF theories which are developed from the virial theorem and the virial expansion of the Helmholtz free energy of anisotropic fluid mixtures. The use of the decoupling approximation of the pair distribution function at the level of a multicomponent hard-sphere reference system leads to our MF Parsons (MFP) theory of anisotropic mixtures. Alternatively the mapping of the virial coefficients of the hard-body mixtures onto those of equivalent hard-sphere systems leads to our MF Lee (MFL) theory. The description of the isotropic-nematic phase behavior of binary mixtures of hard Gaussian overlap particles is used to assess the adequacy of the four different theories, namely, the original second-virial theory of Onsager, the usual PL one-fluid theory, and the MF theories based on the Lee (MFL) and Parsons (MFP) approaches. A comparison with the

  9. Fluids, rivers, and vessels: metaphors and body concepts in Mesopotamian gynaecological texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinert, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the peculiar disease condition of "locked fluids" found in a number of gynaecological texts from 2(nd) and 1(st) millennium BCE Mesopotamia. To venture an interpretation of the underlying disease concept, the condition of "locked fluids" is first examined in the context of related and contrasting symptoms and female health problems connected to body fluids within the gynaecological corpus. The second part of this article turns to the physiological concepts of the (female) body linked to the disease condition of "locked fluids". The author highlights metaphors and comparisons with objects from daily life and the natural environment, which can be found in medical incantations and therapeutic rituals used to combat gynaecological disorders, as a key to indigenous concepts of physiology. The use of the same metaphors in connection with intestinal disorders points to an intuitive understanding of different processes within the body on the basis of comparisons and equations stemming from daily-life experiences. The last section presents similar notions to the Mesopotamian disease concept of "locked fluids", which are contained in gynaecological treatises of other cultures and times. PMID:24109494

  10. On the steady fall of a body in a compressible fluid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nečasová, Šárka; Penel, P.

    Atheny : WSEAS/IASME, 2005 - (Hassan, I.; Kobasko, N.; Nečasová, Š.), s. 30-35 ISBN 960-8457-33-5 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA201/05/0005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : steady fall * compressible fluids * rigid body Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  11. Researchers move closer to understanding chaotic motion of a solid body in a fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Nystrom, Lynn A.

    2010-01-01

    In a paper appearing in the Feb. 24 issue of the "Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A," Virginia Tech Engineering Science and Mechanics Professor Hassan Aref, and his colleague Johan Roenby at the Technical University of Denmark shed new light on the chaotic motion of a solid body moving through a fluid.

  12. On the linear problem arising from motion of a fluid around a moving rigid body

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nečasová, Šárka; Wolf, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 140, č. 2 (2015), s. 241-259. ISSN 0862-7959 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP201/11/1304 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : incompressible fluid * rotating rigid body * strong solution Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://hdl.handle.net/10338.dmlcz/144329

  13. COMMENTS ON TREATMENT OF OBESITY BASED ON SYNDROME DIFFERENTIATION OF BODY FLUID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彩荣; 郭丽霞; 李季; 符佳; 胡玲香

    2004-01-01

    Because of no exact name about obesity in traditional Chinese medicine, clinically there have no unified syndrome types about obesity. The present paper uses the original syndrome differentiation of body fluid and selects classical acupuncture and moxibustion prescriptions to treat obesity, which is conducive to further systematizing classical acupuncture and moxibustion prescriptions and providing sufficient basis for clinical popularization.

  14. Effect of irrigation fluid temperature on body temperature during arthroscopic elbow surgery in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.R. Thompson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This prospective randomised clinical trial evaluated the effect of warmed irrigation fluid on body temperature in anaesthetised dogs undergoing arthroscopic elbow surgery. Nineteen dogs undergoing elbow arthroscopy were included in the study and were randomly allocated to one of two groups. Group RT received irrigation fluid at room temperature (RT while dogs in group W received warmed (W irrigation fluid (36oC. A standardised patient management and anaesthetic protocol was used and body temperature was measured at four time points; (T1 pre-anaesthetic examination, (T2 arrival into theatre, (T3 end of surgery and (T4 arrival into recovery. There was no significant difference in body temperature at any time point between the groups. The mean overall decrease in body temperature between pre-anaesthetic examination (T1 and return to the recovery suite (T4 was significant in both groups, with a fall of 1.06±0.58oC (p<0.001 in group RT and 1.53±0.76oC (p<0.001 group W. There was no significant difference between the groups. At the end of surgery (T3 4/19 (21.1% of dogs were hypothermic (<37oC. The addition of warmed irrigation fluids to a temperature management protocol in dogs undergoing elbow arthroscopy during general anaesthesia did not lead to decreased temperature losses.

  15. Lecture notes on: Electrical theory behind the measurement of body fluids with bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jødal, Lars

    The lecture notes describe how body fluid volumes can be measured/estimated using the technique bio-impedance spectroscopy (BIS). The opening chapters assume little or none technical/mathematical knowledge and can hopefully be read by anyone interested in the techneque. Later chapters become more...

  16. Flow Visualization of Internal Waves and Wakes of a Streamlined Body in a Stratified Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Amin A. Bidokhti; Aliakbar Bidokhti

    2016-01-01

    The wake and internal waves of a moving three dimensional (3D) airfoil body in a stratified fluid has been investigated in a large stratified tank with a finite depth using movies of shadowgraphs of the flow fields. Typical Reynolds and Froude numbers of the flow varied between 103 and 104, and 0.3 and 2 respectively. The flows are generated often by towing the body in a uniformly stratified flow, while limited cases are carried out with body stationary and the channel was in recirculating mo...

  17. INVESTIGATING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ACUTE FLUID LOSS AND BODY FAT PERCENTAGE BY USING BIA METHOD TO DETERMİNE BODY COMPOSİTİON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA is so popular technique to analysis body fat mass (BFM, free fat mass (FFM, lean body mass (LBM and total body fluid (TBF in both healthy and patient subjects. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the acute weight(fluid loss on body fat mass and percentage by using BIA method. In this study 43 soccer players (age: 21.90; length: 179.62and weight: 73.90 who playing in college league in Afyonkarahisar province has been participated. Body weight, total body fluid, body fat percentage and fat mass of soccer players were measured by using BIA(Tanita method before and after the matches. Paired t test has been used to compare pretest and posttest values. Pearson's correlation analysis has been used to determine relationship between tests values. Statistically differences has been determined between pre-post body weight and body fat TBF (p<0,01. Also, highly negative correlation has been determined between pre-post body fluide loss percentage differences and pre-post body fat mass percentage differences (r=-,766; p<0,001. Theoretically, body fat loss is expected following weight loss after computation, anything but rising rate of body fat was observed. So it is speculated that bio-electric facing more resistance in the body due to fluid loss. Therefore more body fat calculated. Dehydration should be taken into account for the measurements made by the BIA method, because of changes in body fat percentages. It is suggested that fluid intake of the subjects should be under control before the measurementin the studies.

  18. Identification of proteins in fluid collected from nerve regeneration chambers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Yilin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined whether there are novel neurotrophic factors (NTFs in nerve regeneration conditioned fluid (NRCF. Nerve regeneration chamber models were established in the sciatic nerves of 25 New Zealand rabbits, and NRCF was extracted from the chambers l week postoperatively. Proteins in NRCF were separated by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE, and Western blot and ELISA were used to identify the proteins. A novel NTF was identified in a protein fraction corresponding to 220 kDa.

  19. Effects of Intense Physical Activity with Free Water Replacement on Bioimpedance Parameters and Body Fluid Estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Authors have emphasized the need for previous care in order to perform reliable bioimpedance acquisition. Despite of this need some authors have reported that intense physical training has little effect on Bioimpedance Analysis (BIA), while other ones have observed significant effects on bioimpedance parameters in the same condition, leading to body composition estimates considered incompatible with human physiology. The aim of this work was to quantify the changes in bioimpedance parameters, as well as in body fluids estimates by BIA, after four hours of intense physical activity with free water replacement in young males. Xitron Hydra 4200 equipment was used to acquire bioimpedance data before and immediately after the physical training. After data acquisition body fluids were estimates from bioimpedance parameters. Height and weight of all subjects were also acquired to the nearest 0.1 cm and 0.1 kg, respectively. Results point that among the bioimpedance parameter, extracellular resistance presented the most coherent behavior, leading to reliable estimates of the extracellular fluid and part of the total body water. Results also show decreases in height and weight of the participants, which were associated to the decrease in body hydration and in intervertebral discs.

  20. Effects of Intense Physical Activity with Free Water Replacement on Bioimpedance Parameters and Body Fluid Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, E. B.; Ulbricht, L.; Krueger, E.; Romaneli, E. F. R.; Souza, M. N.

    2012-12-01

    Authors have emphasized the need for previous care in order to perform reliable bioimpedance acquisition. Despite of this need some authors have reported that intense physical training has little effect on Bioimpedance Analysis (BIA), while other ones have observed significant effects on bioimpedance parameters in the same condition, leading to body composition estimates considered incompatible with human physiology. The aim of this work was to quantify the changes in bioimpedance parameters, as well as in body fluids estimates by BIA, after four hours of intense physical activity with free water replacement in young males. Xitron Hydra 4200 equipment was used to acquire bioimpedance data before and immediately after the physical training. After data acquisition body fluids were estimates from bioimpedance parameters. Height and weight of all subjects were also acquired to the nearest 0.1 cm and 0.1 kg, respectively. Results point that among the bioimpedance parameter, extracellular resistance presented the most coherent behavior, leading to reliable estimates of the extracellular fluid and part of the total body water. Results also show decreases in height and weight of the participants, which were associated to the decrease in body hydration and in intervertebral discs.

  1. Locomotion and control of a self-propelled shape-changing body in a perfect fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Chambrion, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we are interested in studying some issues relating to the general problem of locomotion by shape- changes in a two dimensional perfect fluis. Our results are two folds: first we introduce a rigorous model for a weighted self-propelled swimming body - one specificity of this model being that the number of the body's deformations degrees of freedom is infinite. The dynamic of the coupled system fluid-body is driven by the so-called Euler-Lagrange equations: a system of ODEs allowing to compute the rigid motion of the body with respect to its prescribed shape-changes. Second, we prove controllability results for this model using powerful tools of geometric control theory. For instance, we show that the body can follow (approximately) any prescribed trajectory while undergoing (approximately) any prescribed shape-changes (this surprising phenomenon will be called Moonwalking). Most of our theoretical results are illustrated by numerical simulations.

  2. Measurement of net whole-body transcapillary fluid transport and effective vascular compliance in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watenpaugh, D. E.; Gaffney, F. A.; Schneider, S. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Net whole-body transcapillary fluid transport (TFT) between the circulation and the interstitial (extravascular) space may be calculated as: IV - deltaPV - UV - IL, where IV=infused or ingested volume (when applicable), deltaPV = change in plasma volume, UV=urine volume, and IL=insensible loss. RESULTS: Infusion of 30 mL/kg isotonic saline over 25 minutes increased supine TFT from a basal capillary reabsorption of -106+/-24 mL/h (mean+/-SE) to a net filtration of 1,229+/-124 mL/h. One hour after infusion, reabsorption of -236+/-102 mL/h was seen, and control reabsorption levels returned by 3 hours. Four hours of 30 mm Hg lower body negative pressure (LBNP) elicited no net TFT, probably because of upper body reabsorptive compensation for lower body capillary filtration. When ingestion of 1 L of isotonic saline accompanied LBNP, filtration of 145+/-10 mL/h occurred. Reabsorption of extravascular fluid into the circulation always followed LBNP. CONCLUSION: Application of this technique could aid understanding of physiologic conditions, experimental interventions, disease states, and therapies that cause or are influenced by fluid shifts between intravascular and interstitial compartments.

  3. [Identification of transmission fluid based on NIR spectroscopy by combining sparse representation method with manifold learning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lu-Lu; Luo, Mei-Fu; Zhang, Yu; Yu, Xin-Jie; Kong, Wen-Wen; Liu, Fei

    2014-01-01

    An identification method based on sparse representation (SR) combined with autoencoder network (AN) manifold learning was proposed for discriminating the varieties of transmission fluid by using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy technology. NIR transmittance spectra from 600 to 1 800 nm were collected from 300 transmission fluid samples of five varieties (each variety consists of 60 samples). For each variety, 30 samples were randomly selected as training set (totally 150 samples), and the rest 30 ones as testing set (totally 150 samples). Autoencoder network manifold learning was applied to obtain the characteristic information in the 600-1800 nm spectra and the number of characteristics was reduced to 10. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to extract several relevant variables to represent the useful information of spectral variables. All of the training samples made up a data dictionary of the sparse representation (SR). Then the transmission fluid variety identification problem was reduced to the problem as how to represent the testing samples from the data dictionary (training samples data). The identification result thus could be achieved by solving the L-1 norm-based optimization problem. We compared the effectiveness of the proposed method with that of linear discriminant analysis (LDA), least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) and sparse representation (SR) using the relevant variables selected by principal component analysis (PCA) and AN. Experimental results demonstrated that the overall identification accuracy of the proposed method for the five transmission fluid varieties was 97.33% by AN-SR, which was significantly higher than that of LDA or LS-SVM. Therefore, the proposed method can provide a new effective method for identification of transmission fluid variety. PMID:24783534

  4. Pharmacokinetics of difloxacin and its concentration in body fluids and endometrial tissues of mares after repeated intragastric administration

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Aric R.; Haines, Gregory R.; Brown, Murray P.; Gronwall, Ronald; Merritt, Kelly

    2005-01-01

    Pharmacokinetics of difloxacin and its distribution within the body fluids and endometrium of 6 mares were studied after intragastric (IG) administration of 5 individual doses. Difloxacin concentrations were serially measured in serum, urine, peritoneal fluid, synovial fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, and endometrium over 120 h. Bacterial susceptibility to difloxacin was determined for 174 equine pathogens over a 7-month period. Maximum serum concentration (Cmax) was 2.25 ± 0.70 μg/mL at 3.12 ± 2....

  5. MAPU: Max-Planck Unified database of organellar, cellular, tissue and body fluid proteomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yanling; Zhang, Yong; Adachi, Jun;

    2007-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics has become a powerful technology to map the protein composition of organelles, cell types and tissues. In our department, a large-scale effort to map these proteomes is complemented by the Max-Planck Unified (MAPU) proteome database. MAPU contains several...... body fluid proteomes; including plasma, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid. Cell lines have been mapped to a depth of several thousand proteins and the red blood cell proteome has also been analyzed in depth. The liver proteome is represented with 3200 proteins. By employing high resolution MS and......://www.mapuproteome.com using a clickable interface of cell or body parts. Proteome data can be queried across proteomes by protein name, accession number, sequence similarity, peptide sequence and annotation information. More than 4500 mouse and 2500 human proteins have already been identified in at least one proteome. Basic...

  6. Cell-free microRNAs in blood and other body fluids, as cancer biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Quintero, Blanca

    2016-06-01

    The discovery of cell-free microRNAs (miRNAs) in serum, plasma and other body fluids has yielded an invaluable potential source of non-invasive biomarkers for cancer and other non-malignant diseases. miRNAs in the blood and other body fluids are highly stable in biological samples and are resistant to environmental conditions, such as freezing, thawing or enzymatic degradation, which makes them convenient as potential biomarkers. In addition, they are more easily sampled than tissue miRNAs. Altered levels of cell-free miRNAs have been found in every type of cancer analysed, and increasing evidence indicates that they may participate in carcinogenesis by acting as cell-to-cell signalling molecules. This review summarizes the biological characteristics and mechanisms of release of cell-free miRNAs that make them promising candidates as non-invasive biomarkers of cancer. PMID:27218664

  7. Reflections on the Mechanism of Calcium Phosphate Nucleation on Titanium in Simulated Body Fluids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F. T. Cheng

    2005-01-01

    The results and main findings of studies reported in the literature in relation to the deposition of calcium phosphate on Ti in simulated body fluids are summarized. The effects of the surface hydroxyl groups and the sign of surface charge on the nucleation of calcium phosphate are reviewed. One major controversy among the conclusions of different studies is the order of adsorption of the calcium ions and the phosphate ions in the initial stage of immersion. A simple model based on the amphoteric nature of the hydroxyl groups on Ti is proposed in an attempt to delineate the nucleation process for calcium phosphate on Ti in simulated body fluids. HPO42- ions interact with the hydroxyl groups via ion exchange and/or electrostatic attraction, and Ca2+ ions, via electrostatic attraction only. There is no preferential order of adsorption. Seemingly inconsistent results in different studies possibly arise from different prior treatments of the samples, which affect the adsorption properties.

  8. Identification of Novel Fluid-Fluid Interfacial Area in Geologic Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, J. B.; Brusseau, M. L. L.

    2015-12-01

    Pore-scale fluid processes in geological media are critical for applications such as oil and gas recovery, radioactive waste disposal, carbon sequestration, soil moisture distribution, soil and groundwater pollution, and land stability. The continued improvement of high-resolution image acquisition and processing methods has provided a means to directly measure pore-scale fluid processes for natural geomedia, and to test the usefulness of theoretical and computational models developed to simulate them. High-resolution synchrotron X-ray microtomography was used to measure air-water interfacial area at multiple wetting-phase saturations for natural sand. Analysis of the raw and processed image data with advanced visualization tools revealed the presence of air-water interface associated with macroscopic features such as pits and crevices on the surfaces of the solids. These features and respective fluid interfaces, which are not accounted for in current theoretical or computational models, may have a significant impact on accurate understanding and simulation of multi-phase flow, energy, heat, and mass transfer, and contaminant transport.

  9. INVESTIGATING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ACUTE FLUID LOSS AND BODY FAT PERCENTAGE BY USING BIA METHOD TO DETERMİNE BODY COMPOSİTİON

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet; VAN, Ali; Yücel

    2015-01-01

    Bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) is so popular technique to analysis body fat mass (BFM), free fat mass (FFM), lean body mass (LBM) and total body fluid (TBF) in both healthy and patient subjects. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the acute weight(fluid) loss on body fat mass and percentage by using BIA method. In this study 43 soccer players (age: 21.90; length: 179.62and weight: 73.90) who playing in college league in Afyonkarahisar province has been participated....

  10. On the long-time behaviour of a rigid body immersed in a viscous fluid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Feireisl, Eduard; Nečasová, Šárka

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 1 (2011), s. 59-66. ISSN 0003-6811 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/0917; GA AV ČR IAA100190804 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : rigid body * viscous fluid * Navier-Stokes system Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.744, year: 2011 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00036811003735964

  11. Bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy for the assessment of body fluid volumes of term neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira D.M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of fluid volume in neonates by a noninvasive, inexpensive, and fast method can contribute significantly to increase the quality of neonatal care. The objective of the present study was to calibrate an acquisition system and software to estimate the bioelectrical impedance parameters obtained by a method of bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy based on step response and to develop specific equations for the neonatal population to determine body fluid compartments. Bioelectric impedance measurements were performed by a laboratory homemade instrument. The volumes were estimated in a clinical study on 30 full-term neonates at four different times during the first month of life. During the first 24 hours of life the total body water, extracellular water and intracellular water were 2.09 ± 0.25, 1.20 ± 0.19, and 0.90 ± 0.25 liters, respectively. By the 48th hour they were 1.87 ± 0.27, 1.08 ± 0.17, and 0.79 ± 0.21 liters, respectively. On the 10th day they were 2.02 ± 0.25, 1.29 ± 0.21, and 0.72 ± 0.14 liters, respectively, and after 1 month they were 2.34 ± 0.27, 1.62 ± 0.20, and 0.72 ± 0.13 liters, respectively. The behavior of the estimated volume was correlated with neonatal body weight changes, leading to a better interpretation of such changes. In conclusion, this study indicates the feasibility of bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy as a method to help fluid administration in intensive care neonatal units, and also contribute to the development of new equations to estimate neonatal body fluid contents.

  12. Molecular Physiology of an Extra-renal Cl- Uptake Mechanism for Body Fluid Cl- Homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yi-Fang; Yan, Jia-Jiun; Tseng, Yung-Che; Chen, Ruo-Dong; Hwang, Pung-Pung

    2015-01-01

    The development of an ion regulatory mechanism for body fluid homeostasis was an important trait for vertebrates during the evolution from aquatic to terrestrial life. The homeostatic mechanism of Cl- in aquatic fish appears to be similar to that of terrestrial vertebrates; however, the mechanism in non-mammalian vertebrates is poorly understood. Unlike in mammals, in which the kidney plays a central role, in most fish species, the gill is responsible for the maintenance of Cl- homeostasis vi...

  13. Apatite-forming ability of vinylphosphonic acid-based copolymer in simulated body fluid: effects of phosphate group content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamai, Ryo; Shirosaki, Yuki; Miyazaki, Toshiki

    2016-10-01

    Phosphate groups on materials surfaces are known to contribute to apatite formation upon exposure of the materials in simulated body fluid and improved affinity of the materials for osteoblast-like cells. Typically, polymers containing phosphate groups are organic matrices consisting of apatite-polymer composites prepared by biomimetic process using simulated body fluid. Ca(2+) incorporation into the polymer accelerates apatite formation in simulated body fluid owing because of increase in the supersaturation degree, with respect to apatite in simulated body fluid, owing to Ca(2+) release from the polymer. However, the effects of phosphate content on the Ca(2+) release and apatite-forming abilities of copolymers in simulated body fluid are rather elusive. In this study, a phosphate-containing copolymer prepared from vinylphosphonic acid, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate was examined. The release of Ca(2+) in Tris-NaCl buffer and simulated body fluid increased as the additive amount of vinylphosphonic acid increased. However, apatite formation was suppressed as the phosphate groups content increased despite the enhanced release of Ca(2+) from the polymer. This phenomenon was reflected by changes in the surface zeta potential. Thus, it was concluded that the apatite-forming ability of vinylphosphonic acid-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-triethylene glycol dimethacrylate copolymer treated with CaCl2 solution was governed by surface state rather than Ca(2+) release in simulated body fluid. PMID:27585911

  14. Identification of the clay body structure by the optical microscope

    OpenAIRE

    Mirtič, Breda; Planjšek, Mojca

    2015-01-01

    Plastic clay is used for manufacturing of the building ceramic. Low amounts of different mineral components are added in order to optimize the manufacturig process and to modify the properties as well as the product image. Results of the investigations of the fired clay bodies are presented in the article. The clay bodies were fired in the oxidation and in the reduction atmosphere at different temperatures. Different amounts of grog, ?$MnO_2$?, ?$TiO_2$?, quartz and fritta were added. Investi...

  15. GANDALF: Graphical Astrophysics code for N-body Dynamics And Lagrangian Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubber, David; Rosotti, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    GANDALF, a successor to SEREN (ascl:1102.010), is a hybrid self-gravitating fluid dynamics and collisional N-body code primarily designed for investigating star formation and planet formation problems. GANDALF uses various implementations of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) to perform hydrodynamical simulations of gas clouds undergoing gravitational collapse to form new stars (or other objects), and can perform simulations of pure N-body dynamics using high accuracy N-body integrators, model the intermediate phase of cluster evolution, and provide visualizations via its python interface as well as interactive simulations. Although based on many of the SEREN routines, GANDALF has been largely re-written from scratch in C++ using more optimal algorithms and data structures.

  16. Flow Visualization of Internal Waves and Wakes of a Streamlined Body in a Stratified Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin A. Bidokhti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The wake and internal waves of a moving three dimensional (3D airfoil body in a stratified fluid has been investigated in a large stratified tank with a finite depth using movies of shadowgraphs of the flow fields. Typical Reynolds and Froude numbers of the flow varied between 103 and 104, and 0.3 and 2 respectively. The flows are generated often by towing the body in a uniformly stratified flow, while limited cases are carried out with body stationary and the channel was in recirculating mode. For some experiments the density profile had a stepped like shape. The wake flow is often consisted of internal waves including random and coherent ones. Distortion of density fields was also observed ahead and above the body in cases where the Froude number was subcritical. Results show that as the Froude number (Fr=U/Nh, where U is the body relative velocity, N is buoyancy frequency and h is the thickness of the body is increased, the flow undergoes from a subcritical narrow wake (for Fr1. Typical wavelength of the exited internal waves is increased with Fr, as the theory predicts. The wake of the flow for Fr>1.4 appeared to collapse and some internal waves emission from it could be observed. Usually two types of internal waves, namely random small scale and large scale, more regular waves are observed.

  17. Female-to-Male Transsexual Individuals Demonstrate Different Own Body Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feusner, Jamie D; Dervisic, Jasenko; Kosidou, Kyriaki; Dhejne, Cecilia; Bookheimer, Susan; Savic, Ivanka

    2016-04-01

    Transsexualism is characterized by feelings of incongruity between one's natal sex and one's gender identity. It is unclear whether transsexual individuals have a body image that is more congruent with their gender identity than their sex assigned at birth (natal sex) and, if so, whether there are contributions from perceptual dysfunctions. We compared 16 pre-hormone treatment female-to-male transsexual (FtM) individuals to 20 heterosexual female and 20 heterosexual male controls on a visual identification task. Participants viewed photographs of their own body that were morphed by different degrees to bodies of other females or males, and were instructed to rate "To what degree is this picture you?" We also tested global vs. local visual processing using the inverted faces task. FtM differed from both control groups in demonstrating higher self-identification ratings for bodies morphed to the sex congruent with their gender identity, and across a broad range of morph percentages. This difference was more pronounced for longer viewing durations. FtM showed reduced accuracy for upright faces compared with female controls for short duration stimuli, but no advantage for inverted faces. These results suggest different own body identification in FtM, consisting of a relatively diffuse identification with body images congruent with their gender identity. This is more likely accounted for by conscious, cognitive factors than perceptual differences. PMID:26292839

  18. Lost and found: The identification process of human bodies recovered from the North Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duijst, Wilma; Passier, Charlotte; Oude Grotebevelsborg, Bernice; de Kat, Dorothee; van Daalen, Marjolijn; Oostra, Roelof Jan

    2016-07-01

    Files of the Dutch bureau of missing persons at the North Sea (BVPN) were investigated to analyse the process that led to identification of human bodies recovered from the North Sea between 1980 and 2013. Of the 94 cases that were analysed 41.5% was identified by the family, 23.4% by the use of DNA and 17% by the use of the dental status. The linking pin for the identification was the place where the body was found (14.9%), the general appearance (12.8%), jewellery (11.6%) and media attention (9.6%). In only a few cases the DNA or fingerprint database was used for identification. When a person is not reported missing the identification is problematic because of the lack of antemortem data. National and international databases of people who have gone missing, can help solve this problem. PMID:27107563

  19. The ways of amniotic fluid sampling and its influence on lamellar body count

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Višnjevac Jovana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Even though artificial surfactant is now available, respiratory distress syndrome still remains a serious problem in neonatology. Prenatal analysis of the amniotic fluid can provide data giving insight into the fetal lung maturity, which enables planning of the further outcome of high-risk pregnancies. Surfactant prevents atelectasis by forming a layer rich in phospholipids between the air and liquid phase in alveoli thus leading to increased surface tension in them, which is a precondition for a good lung function after birth. Lamellar bodies are a form of stored surfactant, and their count in the amniotic fluid can be determined simply by a standard hematology analyzer. The method of determining lamellar body count has found an important place in prenatal diagnostics and is recommended as an initial method of a ”cascade” procedure of testing fetal lung maturity. However, considering the importance of procedure of sample collection, storage and centrifugation, which can significantly affect the results obtained for the lung maturity, the amniotic fluid samples must be absolutely free of contamination with blood, meconium, mucus, bacteria and leucocytes.

  20. The ways of amniotic fluid sampling and its influence on lamellar body count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visnjevac, Jovana; Novakov-Mikić, Aleksandra; Nikolić, Aleksandra

    2010-01-01

    Even though artificial surfactant is now available, respiratory distress syndrome still remains a serious problem in neonatology. Prenatal analysis of the amniotic fluid can provide data giving insight into the fetal lung maturity, which enables planning of the further outcome of high-risk pregnancies. Surfactant prevents atelectasis by forming a layer rich in phospholipids between the air and liquid phase in alveoli thus leading to increased surface tension in them, which is a precondition for a good lung function after birth. Lamellar bodies are a form of stored surfactant, and their count in the amniotic fluid can be determined simply by a standard hematology analyzer. The method of determining lamellar body count has found an important place in prenatal diagnostics and is recommended as an initial method of a "cascade" procedure of testing fetal lung maturity. However, considering the importance of procedure of sample collection, storage and centrifugation, which can significantly affect the results obtained for the lung maturity, the amniotic fluid samples must be absolutely free of contamination with blood, meconium, mucus, bacteria and leucocytes. PMID:21443154

  1. STATE OF THE ART TECHNIQUES USED FOR NOISE SOURCE IDENTIFICATION ON COMPLEX BODIES

    OpenAIRE

    Corneliu STOICA

    2010-01-01

    Over the last few decades, many approaches have been undertaken in order to asses detailed noise source identification on complex bodies, i.e. aircrafts, cars, machinery. Noise source identification implies to accurately obtain the position and frequency of the dominant noise sources. There are cases where traditional testing methods can not be applied at all or their use involves some limitations. Optical systems used for near field analysis require a line of sight that may not be available....

  2. Identification of radioactively contaminated organs in the human body using a whole-body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new type of whole-body counter for measuring a three-dimensional radioactivity distribution in the human body has been developed. Gamma rays emitted from a human body are detected by 20 NaI(T1) scintillators which are arranged in a circle around the body, with scanning from toe to head. The radioactivity distribution in the body is analysed from the measured counting rate distribution according to an emission computed tomography technique. Preliminary experiments have been carried out using a homogeneous acrylate block phantom containing one or two standard gamma-ray sources of 137Cs, with satisfactory results. The source position in the phantom was identified with a spatial resolution of +-5 cm longitudinally, +-8 cm laterally and +-5 cm vertically. (author)

  3. Identification of antigenically related polypeptides at centrioles and basal bodies.

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, W.; Fung, B.; Shyamala, M; Kasamatsu, H

    1981-01-01

    An antigen localized at the centriolar region has been identified by indirect immunofluorescence studies in African green monkey kidney, human, hamster, rat, and mouse cells. The antigen consists of two polypeptides of 14,000 and 17,000 daltons. A related antigen is also present at the basal body region in ciliated cells from chicken, cat, mouse, pig, steer, and rabbit trachea and from rabbit fimbria. Immunoelectron microscopy shows that the immunoreactive antigen is indeed located in the reg...

  4. On the Motion of a Small Light Body Immersed in a Two Dimensional Incompressible Perfect Fluid with Vorticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Olivier; Lacave, Christophe; Sueur, Franck

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we consider the motion of a rigid body immersed in a two dimensional unbounded incompressible perfect fluid with vorticity. We prove that when the body shrinks to a massless pointwise particle with fixed circulation, the "fluid+rigid body" system converges to the vortex-wave system introduced by Marchioro and Pulvirenti (Mathematical theory of incompressible nonviscous fluids. Applied Mathematical Sciences 96, Springer-Verlag, 1994). This extends both the paper (Glass et al. Bull Soc Math France 142(3):489-536, 2014) where the case of a solid tending to a massive pointwise particle was tackled and the paper (Glass et al. Dynamics of a point vortex as limits of a shrinking solid in an irrotational fluid, 2014) where the massless case was considered but in a bounded cavity filled with an irrotational fluid.

  5. Pharmacokinetics and distribution of voriconazole in body fluids of dogs after repeated oral dosing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemetayer, J D; Dowling, P M; Taylor, S M; Papich, M G

    2015-10-01

    The goal of this project was to determine the pharmacokinetics of voriconazole and its concentration in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), aqueous humor, and synovial fluid in five healthy dogs following once daily oral dose of 6 mg/kg for 2 weeks. Body fluid and plasma drug concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Mild to moderate gastrointestinal adverse effects were seen. The mean AUC0-24 : minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ratio was 15.23 for a chosen MIC of 1 μg/mL, which is lower than the recommended target of 20-25 and also lower than previously reported in dogs, perhaps reflecting induction of metabolizing enzymes by multiple dosing. Voriconazole concentrations in the CSF, aqueous humor, and synovial fluid were only 13-30% the concurrent plasma concentration, which is lower than previously reported in other species. Results of this study suggest that twice daily, administration may be necessary to maintain therapeutic plasma concentrations in dogs but further studies are warranted. PMID:25691353

  6. NUMERICAL METHOD FOR MULTI-BODY FLUID INTERACTION BASED ON IMMERSED BOUNDARY METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MING Ping-jian; ZHANG Wen-ping

    2011-01-01

    A Cartesian grid based on Immersed Boundary Method(IBM),proposed by the present authors,is extended to unstructured grids.The advantages of IBM and Body Fitted Grid(BFG)are taken to enhance the computation efficiency of the fluid structure interaction in a complex domain.There are many methods to generate the BFG,among which the unstructured grid method is the most popular.The concept of Volume Of Solid(VOS)is used to deal with the multi rigid body and fluid interaction.Each body surface is represented by a set of points which can be traced in an anti-clockwise order with the solid area on the left side of surface.An efficient Lagrange point tracking algorithm on the fixed grid is applied to search the moving boundary grid points.This method is verified by low Reynolds number flows in the range from Re =100 to 1 000 in the cavity with a moving lid.The results are in a good agreement with experimental data in literature.Finally,the flow past two moving cylinders is simulated to test the capability of the method.

  7. A radioimmunoassay for measurement of human pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor in different body fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioimmunoassay for measurement of human pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor in nanogram quantities has been developed. The sensitivity of the assay now permits examination of the inhibitor content of various body fluids, wherein other methods exhibit serious shortcomings. In healthy blood donors the serum level was 8.1μg/l. In patients with acute pancreatitis levels as high as 320μg/l have been measured, and patients who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography showed an elevated inhibitor level in serum immediately after the examination without any clinical signs of disease, the highest registered value being 128μg/l. In peritoneal lavage fluid from patients with severe acute pancreatitis levels of 5-304μg/l have been measured. In urine the inhibitor level is about 14μg/l in healthy persons. The urine from one patient with proteinuria of glomerulo-tubular type contained 380μg/l. (orig.)

  8. Computation of some thermodynamic, structural, and transport properties of fluid oxygen using two-body and three-body intermolecular potentials from molecular dynamics simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Comparison between our molecular dynamics simulated results of reduced pressure (P*) and experimental data at T* = 1 (122 K) at different reduced densities (ρ*) using different two-body and three-body intermolecular potentials. It is shown that the three-body potential of Hauschild and Prausnitz gives better accordance with the experiment than other potentials. - Abstract: We have performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulation to obtain pressure, internal energy, radial distribution function, and self-diffusion coefficient of fluid oxygen using effective two-site Lennard-Jones (2SLJ) and two-body Hartree-Fock dispersion (HFD)-like potentials. To take higher-body forces into account, we have used three-body potentials of Hauschild and Prausnitz [T. Hauschild, J.M. Prausnitz, Molec. Simul. 11 (1993) 177] and Miyano [Y. Miyano, Fluid Phase Equilib. 104 (1995) 71] with the two-body HFD-like potential. We have also considered the spin correction in our simulation which improved our energy results. The significance of this work is that the three-body potential of Hauschild and Prausnitz extended as a function of density and temperature and can be used with the HFD-like potential to improve the prediction of the pressures of fluid oxygen without requiring an expensive three-body calculation. The molecular dynamics simulation of oxygen has been also used to determine a new equation of state.

  9. Solid-Phase Extraction Strategies to Surmount Body Fluid Sample Complexity in High-Throughput Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics

    OpenAIRE

    Marco R. Bladergroen; van der Burgt, Yuri E. M.

    2015-01-01

    For large-scale and standardized applications in mass spectrometry- (MS-) based proteomics automation of each step is essential. Here we present high-throughput sample preparation solutions for balancing the speed of current MS-acquisitions and the time needed for analytical workup of body fluids. The discussed workflows reduce body fluid sample complexity and apply for both bottom-up proteomics experiments and top-down protein characterization approaches. Various sample preparation methods t...

  10. Curvilinear Immersed Boundary Method for Simulating Fluid Structure Interaction with Complex 3D Rigid Bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borazjani, Iman; Ge, Liang; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2008-08-10

    The sharp-interface CURVIB approach of Ge and Sotiropoulos [L. Ge, F. Sotiropoulos, A Numerical Method for Solving the 3D Unsteady Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations in Curvilinear Domains with Complex Immersed Boundaries, Journal of Computational Physics 225 (2007) 1782-1809] is extended to simulate fluid structure interaction (FSI) problems involving complex 3D rigid bodies undergoing large structural displacements. The FSI solver adopts the partitioned FSI solution approach and both loose and strong coupling strategies are implemented. The interfaces between immersed bodies and the fluid are discretized with a Lagrangian grid and tracked with an explicit front-tracking approach. An efficient ray-tracing algorithm is developed to quickly identify the relationship between the background grid and the moving bodies. Numerical experiments are carried out for two FSI problems: vortex induced vibration of elastically mounted cylinders and flow through a bileaflet mechanical heart valve at physiologic conditions. For both cases the computed results are in excellent agreement with benchmark simulations and experimental measurements. The numerical experiments suggest that both the properties of the structure (mass, geometry) and the local flow conditions can play an important role in determining the stability of the FSI algorithm. Under certain conditions unconditionally unstable iteration schemes result even when strong coupling FSI is employed. For such cases, however, combining the strong-coupling iteration with under-relaxation in conjunction with the Aitken's acceleration technique is shown to effectively resolve the stability problems. A theoretical analysis is presented to explain the findings of the numerical experiments. It is shown that the ratio of the added mass to the mass of the structure as well as the sign of the local time rate of change of the force or moment imparted on the structure by the fluid determine the stability and convergence of the FSI

  11. In vitro mineralization of surface-modified porous polycaprolactone scaffolds in simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porous polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds were fabricated by combination of porogen-leaching and freeze-drying processes. Ice particulates were used as porogen materials. The porous PCL scaffolds were modified by potassium hydroxide solution with concentration of 1 mol/L at room temperature for 8 h, subsequently biomineralized in simulated body fluid for 2 h and 8 h, respectively. The microstructure and characteristics of the PCL scaffolds were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and EDS. The results showed (1) PCL scaffolds had high degree of connectivity and different pore sizes. (2) Plate-like apatite was observed on the surface of the scaffolds after being immersed into SBF for 8 h

  12. In-vitro evaluation of corrosion resistance of nitrogen ion implanted titanium simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titanium and its alloy Ti6Al4V enjoy widespread use in various biomedical applications because of favourable local tissue response, higher corrosion resistance and fatigue strength than the stainless steels and cobalt-chromium alloy previously used. The study reported in this paper aims to optimize the conditions of nitrogen ion implantation on commercially pure titanium and to correlate the implantation parameters to the corrosion resistance. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to analyse surface concentration and the implantation processes. An improvement in the electrochemical behaviour of the passive film was shown to occur with nitrogen ion implantation on titanium, in simulated body fluids. (UK)

  13. In vitro mineralization of surface-modified porous polycaprolactone scaffolds in simulated body fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ning Chengyun [College of Materials Science and Technology, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China); Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou (China)], E-mail: imcyning@scut.edu.cn; Cheng Haimei [College of Materials Science and Technology, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China); Zhu Wenjun [Guanghua School of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Yin Zhaoyi [College of Materials Science and Technology, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China); Chen Hao [Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou (China); Zheng Huade; Lei Shumei; Yin Shiheng [College of Materials Science and Technology, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China); Tan Guoxin [Institute of Chemical Engineering and Light Industry, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangdong 510006 (China)

    2008-11-15

    Porous polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds were fabricated by combination of porogen-leaching and freeze-drying processes. Ice particulates were used as porogen materials. The porous PCL scaffolds were modified by potassium hydroxide solution with concentration of 1 mol/L at room temperature for 8 h, subsequently biomineralized in simulated body fluid for 2 h and 8 h, respectively. The microstructure and characteristics of the PCL scaffolds were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and EDS. The results showed (1) PCL scaffolds had high degree of connectivity and different pore sizes. (2) Plate-like apatite was observed on the surface of the scaffolds after being immersed into SBF for 8 h.

  14. In vitro mineralization of surface-modified porous polycaprolactone scaffolds in simulated body fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Chengyun; Cheng, Haimei; Zhu, Wenjun; Yin, Zhaoyi; Chen, Hao; Zheng, Huade; Lei, Shumei; Yin, Shiheng; Tan, Guoxin

    2008-11-01

    Porous polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds were fabricated by combination of porogen-leaching and freeze-drying processes. Ice particulates were used as porogen materials. The porous PCL scaffolds were modified by potassium hydroxide solution with concentration of 1 mol/L at room temperature for 8 h, subsequently biomineralized in simulated body fluid for 2 h and 8 h, respectively. The microstructure and characteristics of the PCL scaffolds were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and EDS. The results showed (1) PCL scaffolds had high degree of connectivity and different pore sizes. (2) Plate-like apatite was observed on the surface of the scaffolds after being immersed into SBF for 8 h.

  15. Comparing the face to the body, which is better for identification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Teghan; Henneberg, Maciej

    2016-03-01

    As early as the nineteenth century, measurements of the face and body were used for forensic identification. It was believed that no two individuals had the exact same measurements. However, this was overtaken by fingerprint analysis because it was considered more reliable in court proceedings as the probabilities of finding matching individuals could be calculated. With the standardisation of photographs, identification primarily occurs from the face. With the ability to take measurements from photographs, why not use the body? The Army Anthropometry Survey (ANSUR) database contains anthropometric measurements of 3982 individuals. Eight facial and eight body measurements were compared to investigate whether or not there is enough information on the body to use for identification. Measurements were compared by adding one measurement to the other(s) in a stepwise approach until there were no duplicate cases where two or more individuals share the same combination of measurements. Results consistently show that less body measurements are needed to find no duplicates when compared to the face. The larger the range of each of the measurements, the less chance there is of finding a duplicate. With the combination of eight body measurements, it is possible to achieve a probability of finding a duplicate to the order of 10(-20) or 1 in a quintillion. These results are comparable with fingerprint analysis. The body is more variable than the face and should be used in identification. An advantage to using the body is that larger dimensions are easier to locate on images and not affected by facial expression. PMID:25666979

  16. Fluid status in peritoneal dialysis patients: the European Body Composition Monitoring (EuroBCM study cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Van Biesen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Euvolemia is an important adequacy parameter in peritoneal dialysis (PD patients. However, accurate tools to evaluate volume status in clinical practice and data on volume status in PD patients as compared to healthy population, and the associated factors, have not been available so far. METHODS: We used a bio-impedance spectroscopy device, the Body Composition Monitor (BCM to assess volume status in a cross-sectional cohort of prevalent PD patients in different European countries. The results were compared to an age and gender matched healthy population. RESULTS: Only 40% out of 639 patients from 28 centres in 6 countries were normovolemic. Severe fluid overload was present in 25.2%. There was a wide scatter in the relation between blood pressure and volume status. In a multivariate analysis in the subgroup of patients from countries with unrestricted availability of all PD modalities and fluid types, older age, male gender, lower serum albumin, lower BMI, diabetes, higher systolic blood pressure, and use of at least one exchange per day with the highest hypertonic glucose were associated with higher relative tissue hydration. Neither urinary output nor ultrafiltration, PD fluid type or PD modality were retained in the model (total R² of the model = 0.57. CONCLUSIONS: The EuroBCM study demonstrates some interesting issues regarding volume status in PD. As in HD patients, hypervolemia is a frequent condition in PD patients and blood pressure can be a misleading clinical tool to evaluate volume status. To monitor fluid balance, not only fluid output but also dietary input should be considered. Close monitoring of volume status, a correct dialysis prescription adapted to the needs of the patient and dietary measures seem to be warranted to avoid hypervolemia.

  17. FREE-SURFACE WAVES AND FAR WAKES GENERATED BY A FLOATING BODY IN A VISCOUS FLUID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Dong-qiang

    2003-01-01

    The free-surface waves and the flow field due to a body moving on the surface of an incompressible viscous fluid of infinite depth were studied analytically. The floating body was modeled as a normal point pressure on the free surface. Based on the Oseen approximation for governing equations and the linearity assumption for boundary conditions, the exact solutions in integral form for the free-surface elevation, the velocities and the pressure were given. By employing Lighthill's two-stage scheme, the asymptotic representations in far field for large Reynolds numbers were derived explicitly. The effect of viscosity on the wave profiles was expressed by an exponential decay factor, which removes the singular behavior predicted by the potential theory.

  18. Dichotomous Identification Keys: A Ladder to Higher Order Knowledge about the Human Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorgo, Andrej

    2006-01-01

    We tried to enrich teaching human anatomy in high school biology lessons. Students construct dichotomous identification keys to the cells, tissues, organs, or body parts. By doing this, students have achieved higher-order cognitive levels of knowledge because construction of such keys is based on analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. Students found…

  19. Simulated body-fluid tests and electrochemical investigations on biocompatibility of metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the in-vitro and electrochemical investigations of four metallic glasses (MGs) for finding potential MG-based bio-materials. The simulation body-fluid Hanks solution is utilized for testing the corrosion resistance of MGs, and microorganisms of Escherichia coli are used in testing the bio-toxicity. In addition, a simple cyclic voltammetry method is used for rapid verification of the potential electrochemical responses. It is found that the Zr-based MG can sustain in the body-fluid, exhibiting the best corrosion resistance and electrochemical stability. The microbiologic test shows that E. coli can grow on the surface of the Zr-based metallic glass, confirming the low cell toxicity of this Zr-based MG. Highlights: ► Vanadium is added in Cu–Zr–Al alloy to induce B2-CuZr formation. ► The more induced B2-CuZr phase can improve compressive plasticity. ► The plasticity improvement might be caused by B2 phase dynamic coarsening.

  20. Generation of a novel transgenic rat model for tracing extracellular vesicles in body fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Aya; Kawamata, Masaki; Yoshioka, Yusuke; Katsuda, Takeshi; Kikuchi, Hisae; Nagai, Yoshitaka; Adachi, Naoki; Numakawa, Tadahiro; Kunugi, Hiroshi; Ochiya, Takahiro; Tamai, Yoshitaka

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) play an important role in the transfer of biomolecules between cells. To elucidate the intercellular transfer fate of EVs in vivo, we generated a new transgenic (Tg) rat model using green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged human CD63. CD63 protein is highly enriched on EV membranes via trafficking into late endosomes and is often used as an EV marker. The new Tg rat line in which human CD63-GFP is under control of the CAG promoter exhibited high expression of GFP in various body tissues. Exogenous human CD63-GFP was detected on EVs isolated from three body fluids of the Tg rats: blood serum, breast milk and amniotic fluid. In vitro culture allowed transfer of serum-derived CD63-GFP EVs into recipient rat embryonic fibroblasts, where the EVs localized in endocytic organelles. These results suggested that this Tg rat model should provide significant information for understanding the intercellular transfer and/or mother-child transfer of EVs in vivo. PMID:27539050

  1. Internal air flow analysis of a bladeless micro aerial vehicle hemisphere body using computational fluid dynamic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, M. N. K., E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Zuradzman, M. Razlan, E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Hazry, D., E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Khairunizam, Wan, E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Shahriman, A. B., E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Yaacob, S., E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Ahmed, S. Faiz, E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my [Centre of Excellence for Unmanned Aerial Systems, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 01000 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); and others

    2014-12-04

    This paper explain the analysis of internal air flow velocity of a bladeless vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) hemisphere body. In mechanical design, before produce a prototype model, several analyses should be done to ensure the product's effectiveness and efficiency. There are two types of analysis method can be done in mechanical design; mathematical modeling and computational fluid dynamic. In this analysis, I used computational fluid dynamic (CFD) by using SolidWorks Flow Simulation software. The idea came through to overcome the problem of ordinary quadrotor UAV which has larger size due to using four rotors and the propellers are exposed to environment. The bladeless MAV body is designed to protect all electronic parts, which means it can be used in rainy condition. It also has been made to increase the thrust produced by the ducted propeller compare to exposed propeller. From the analysis result, the air flow velocity at the ducted area increased to twice the inlet air. This means that the duct contribute to the increasing of air velocity.

  2. Internal air flow analysis of a bladeless micro aerial vehicle hemisphere body using computational fluid dynamic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper explain the analysis of internal air flow velocity of a bladeless vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) hemisphere body. In mechanical design, before produce a prototype model, several analyses should be done to ensure the product's effectiveness and efficiency. There are two types of analysis method can be done in mechanical design; mathematical modeling and computational fluid dynamic. In this analysis, I used computational fluid dynamic (CFD) by using SolidWorks Flow Simulation software. The idea came through to overcome the problem of ordinary quadrotor UAV which has larger size due to using four rotors and the propellers are exposed to environment. The bladeless MAV body is designed to protect all electronic parts, which means it can be used in rainy condition. It also has been made to increase the thrust produced by the ducted propeller compare to exposed propeller. From the analysis result, the air flow velocity at the ducted area increased to twice the inlet air. This means that the duct contribute to the increasing of air velocity

  3. Modeling the time evolution of the nanoparticle-protein corona in a body fluid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Dell'Orco

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nanoparticles in contact with biological fluids interact with proteins and other biomolecules, thus forming a dynamic corona whose composition varies over time due to continuous protein association and dissociation events. Eventually equilibrium is reached, at which point the continued exchange will not affect the composition of the corona. RESULTS: We developed a simple and effective dynamic model of the nanoparticle protein corona in a body fluid, namely human plasma. The model predicts the time evolution and equilibrium composition of the corona based on affinities, stoichiometries and rate constants. An application to the interaction of human serum albumin, high density lipoprotein (HDL and fibrinogen with 70 nm N-iso-propylacrylamide/N-tert-butylacrylamide copolymer nanoparticles is presented, including novel experimental data for HDL. CONCLUSIONS: The simple model presented here can easily be modified to mimic the interaction of the nanoparticle protein corona with a novel biological fluid or compartment once new data will be available, thus opening novel applications in nanotoxicity and nanomedicine.

  4. Identification of azurocidin as a potential periodontitis biomarker by a proteomic analysis of gingival crevicular fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Lee Jae-Mok; Heo Sun-Hee; Choi Young-Jin; Cho Je-Yoel

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The inflammatory disease periodontitis results in tooth loss and can even lead to diseases of the whole body if not treated. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) reflects the condition of the gingiva and contains proteins transuded from serum or cells at inflamed sites. In this study, we aimed to discover potential protein biomarkers for periodontitis in GCF proteome using LC-MS/MS. Results We identified 305 proteins from GCF of healthy individuals and periodontitis patients co...

  5. Cardiovascular and Body Fluid Adjustments During Bed Rest and Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.; Tomko, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Although a few scientific bed rest (BR) studies were conducted soon after World War II, advent of the space program provided impetus for utilizing prolonged (days-months) BR, which employed the horizontal or 6 degree head-down tilt (HDT) body positions, to simulate responses of healthy people to microgravity. Shorter (hours) HDT protocols were used to study initial mechanisms of the acclimation-deconditioning (reduction of physical fitness) syndromes. Of the major physiological factors modified during BR, reduced force on bones, ligaments, and muscles, and greatly reduced hydrostatic pressure within the cardiovascular system, the latter: which involves shifts of blood from the lower extremities into the upper body, increase in central venous pressure, and diuresis, appears to be the initial stimulus for acclimation. Increase in central venous pressure occurs in subjects during weightless parabolic flight, but not in astronauts early during orbital flight. But significant reduction in total body water (hypohydration) and plasma volume (hypovolemia) occurs in subjects during both BR and microgravity. Response of interstitial fluid volume is not as clear, It has been reported to increase during BR, and it may have increased in Skylab II and IV astronauts. Reduction of total body water, and greater proportional reduction of extracellular volume, indicates increased cellular volume which may contribute to inflight cephalic edema. Cerebral pressure abates after a few days of HDT, but not during flight. accompanied by normal (eugravity) blood constituent concentrations suggesting some degree of acclimation had occurred. But during reentry, with moderately increased +Gz (head-to-foot) acceleration and gravitational force, the microgravity "euhydration" becomes functional progressive dehydration contributing to the general reentry syndrome (GRS) which, upon landing the Shuttle, can and often results in gastrointestinal distress, disorientation, vertigo, fatigue, and

  6. Identification of Water Bodies in a Landsat 8 OLI Image Using a J48 Decision Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Tri Dev; Lee, Dong Ha; Yang, In Tae; Lee, Jae Kang

    2016-01-01

    Water bodies are essential to humans and other forms of life. Identification of water bodies can be useful in various ways, including estimation of water availability, demarcation of flooded regions, change detection, and so on. In past decades, Landsat satellite sensors have been used for land use classification and water body identification. Due to the introduction of a New Operational Land Imager (OLI) sensor on Landsat 8 with a high spectral resolution and improved signal-to-noise ratio, the quality of imagery sensed by Landsat 8 has improved, enabling better characterization of land cover and increased data size. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the most appropriate and practical water identification methods that take advantage of the improved image quality and use the fewest inputs based on the original OLI bands. The objective of the study is to explore the potential of a J48 decision tree (JDT) in identifying water bodies using reflectance bands from Landsat 8 OLI imagery. J48 is an open-source decision tree. The test site for the study is in the Northern Han River Basin, which is located in Gangwon province, Korea. Training data with individual bands were used to develop the JDT model and later applied to the whole study area. The performance of the model was statistically analysed using the kappa statistic and area under the curve (AUC). The results were compared with five other known water identification methods using a confusion matrix and related statistics. Almost all the methods showed high accuracy, and the JDT was successfully applied to the OLI image using only four bands, where the new additional deep blue band of OLI was found to have the third highest information gain. Thus, the JDT can be a good method for water body identification based on images with improved resolution and increased size. PMID:27420067

  7. Identification of Water Bodies in a Landsat 8 OLI Image Using a J48 Decision Tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Tri Dev; Lee, Dong Ha; Yang, In Tae; Lee, Jae Kang

    2016-01-01

    Water bodies are essential to humans and other forms of life. Identification of water bodies can be useful in various ways, including estimation of water availability, demarcation of flooded regions, change detection, and so on. In past decades, Landsat satellite sensors have been used for land use classification and water body identification. Due to the introduction of a New Operational Land Imager (OLI) sensor on Landsat 8 with a high spectral resolution and improved signal-to-noise ratio, the quality of imagery sensed by Landsat 8 has improved, enabling better characterization of land cover and increased data size. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the most appropriate and practical water identification methods that take advantage of the improved image quality and use the fewest inputs based on the original OLI bands. The objective of the study is to explore the potential of a J48 decision tree (JDT) in identifying water bodies using reflectance bands from Landsat 8 OLI imagery. J48 is an open-source decision tree. The test site for the study is in the Northern Han River Basin, which is located in Gangwon province, Korea. Training data with individual bands were used to develop the JDT model and later applied to the whole study area. The performance of the model was statistically analysed using the kappa statistic and area under the curve (AUC). The results were compared with five other known water identification methods using a confusion matrix and related statistics. Almost all the methods showed high accuracy, and the JDT was successfully applied to the OLI image using only four bands, where the new additional deep blue band of OLI was found to have the third highest information gain. Thus, the JDT can be a good method for water body identification based on images with improved resolution and increased size. PMID:27420067

  8. Corrosion resistance of NiTi alloy in simulated body fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kaczmarek

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Corrosion resistance of an implant alloy is a very important determinant of its biocompatibility. The nature of an environment and surface treatments have a significant influence on corrosion. Most of the knowledge on the corrosion behavior of NiTi is from studies of “standard” corrosion tests. In fact, the knowledge of the corrosion behavior of NiTi inside the body is very limited. The main aim of the research was evaluation of corrosion resistance of NiTi alloy in various simulated body fluids.Design/methodology/approach: The evaluation of the electrochemical behavior of NiTi alloy was realized by recording of anodic polarization curves with the use of the potentiodynamic method. The tests were carried out for differently modified surfaces in diverse simulated body fluids.Findings: Surface condition of a metallic biomaterial determines its corrosion resistance. In the course of the work the good corrosion resistance of all the tested samples (with different surface conditions was observed.Research limitations/implications: The obtained results are the basis for the optimization of physicochemical properties of the NiTi alloy. The future research should be focused on selected specific implants specially with respect to their application features.Practical implications: On the basis of the obtained results it can be stated that the suggested surface treatment can be applicable for NiTi alloys due to the increase of the corrosion resistance.Originality/value: The paper presents the influence of various methods of the surface treatment on corrosion resistance of the NiTi alloy. The suggested surface treatment methods can be applied to implants intended for diverse medical applications, especially in cardiology and urology.

  9. Casimir micro-sphere diclusters and three-body effects in fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Varela, Jaime; McCauley, Alexander P; Johnson, Steven G

    2010-01-01

    Our previous article [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 060401 (2010)] predicted that Casimir forces induced by the material-dispersion properties of certain dielectrics can give rise to stable configurations of objects. This phenomenon was illustrated via a dicluster configuration of non-touching objects consisting of two spheres immersed in a fluid and suspended against gravity above a plate. Here, we examine these predictions from the perspective of a practical experiment and consider the influence of non-additive, three-body, and nonzero-temperature effects on the stability of the two spheres. We conclude that the presence of Brownian motion reduces the set of experimentally realizable silicon/teflon spherical diclusters to those consisting of layered micro-spheres, such as the hollow- core (spherical shells) considered here.

  10. Silica enhanced formation of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 deg. C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadjadi, M.S., E-mail: m.s.sadjad@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Sciences and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ebrahimi, H.R. [Department of Chemistry, Sciences and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Meskinfam, M. [Department of Chemistry, Tonekabon Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tonekabon (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zare, K. [Department of Chemistry, University of Shahid Beheshti, Eveen Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-10-17

    Highlights: {yields} We report on fast formation of hexagonal nanocrystals of calcium hydroxyapatite (HA) in silica-containing simulated body fluid solution at 37 deg. C. {yields} Bioactivity and biodegradability of TCP precursor have been confirmed by the dissolution of TCP and formation of a bone like layer of new HA nanoparticles outside of the precursor after 24 h soaking in SBF solution. {yields} Successive nucleation and formation of tiny hexagonal HA nanoplates and nanorods have been confirmed by TEM results after 24 h soaking of TCP in silica-containing BSF solution. - Abstract: The chemical modification of implant (prosthesis) surfaces is being investigated worldwide for improving the fixation of orthopaedic and dental implants. The main goal in this surface modification approach is to achieve a faster bone growth and chemical bonding of the implant to the newly generated and/or remodeled bone. In this work, we report fast formation of hexagonal nanocrystals of calcium hydroxyapatite (HA) in simulated body fluid (SBF, inorganic components of human blood plasma) solutions at 37 deg. C, using calcium phosphate (TCP) and sodium silicate as precursors. Characterization and chemical analysis of the synthesized powders were performed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results indicated enhanced nucleation and formation of bone like layer of HA nanocrystals at the surface of TCP nanoparticles and occurrence of HA nanocrystals during 24 h soaking of TCP in SBF solution containing silica ions. The average size of a nanoparticle, using Scherrer formula, was found to be 18.2 nm.

  11. Effect of anodization on corrosion behaviour and biocompatibility of Cp-titanium in simulated body fluid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Archana Singh; B P Singh; Mohan R Wani; Dinesh Kumar; J K Singh; Vakil Singh

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this investigation is to study the effectiveness of anodized surface of commercial purity titanium (Cp-Ti) on its corrosion behaviour in simulated body fluid (SBF) and proliferation of osteoblast cells on it, to assess its potentiality as a process of surface modification in enhancing corrosion resistance and osseointegration of dental implants. Highly ordered nano-porous oxide layer, with nano-sized pores, is developed on the surface of Cp-Ti through electrochemical anodization in the electrolyte of aqueous solution of 0.5% HF at 15 V for 30 min at 24 °C. The nano-porous feature of the anodized surface is characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). Pores of some anodized samples are sealed by exposing the anodized surface in boiling water. Corrosion behaviour of the anodized specimen is studied in Ringer’s solution at 30 ± 2 °C, using electrochemical impedance and cyclic polarization technique. Biocompatibility of the anodized surface is accessed using MG63 osteoblast cells. Both corrosion as well as pitting resistance of Cp-Ti in simulated body fluid are found to be highest in the anodized and sealed condition and followed in decreasing order by those of anodized and unanodized ones. Significantly higher MG63 osteoblast cell proliferations are found on the anodized surface than that on the unanodized one. Anodized Cp-Ti develops nano-size surface pores, like that of natural bone. It enhances corrosion and pitting resistance and also the process of osteoblast cell proliferation on Cp-Ti.

  12. Corrosion behaviour of AISI 316L steel in artificial body fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Kajzer

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper presents the comparison of corrosion resistance of AISI 316L stainless steel in various corrosive media such as artificial urine, Tyrode’s physiological solution and artificial plasma.Design/methodology/approach: The tests were carried out on samples of the following surfaces: grinded – average roughness Ra = 0.31 μm and electropolished and chemically passivated average roughness Ra = 0.10 μm. The corrosion tests were realized by recording of anodic polarization curves with the use of the potentiodynamic method. The VoltaLab® PGP 201 system for electrochemical tests was applied. The tests were carried out in electrolyte simulating urine (pH = 6-6.4, Tyrode’s physiological solution (pH = 6.8-7.4 and plasma (pH = 7.2-7.6 at the temperature of 37±1°C.Findings: Surface condition of AISI 316L stainless steel determines its corrosion resistance. The highest values of breakdown potentials were recorded for all electropolished and chemically passivated samples in all simulated body fluids. The highest values of anodic current density were recorded for samples tested in artificial urine, the lowest values were recorded for samples tested in Tyrode’s physiological solution.Research limitations/implications: The obtained results are the basis for the optimization of physicochemical properties of the AISI 316L stainless steel.Practical implications: On the basis of the obtained results it can be stated that stainless steel meets the basic biocompatibility criteria and can be applied in reconstruction surgery, operative cardiology and urology.Originality/value: The paper presents the influence of various corrosive media simulating human body fluids on corrosion resistance of AISI 316L stainless steel.

  13. Silica enhanced formation of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 deg. C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → We report on fast formation of hexagonal nanocrystals of calcium hydroxyapatite (HA) in silica-containing simulated body fluid solution at 37 deg. C. → Bioactivity and biodegradability of TCP precursor have been confirmed by the dissolution of TCP and formation of a bone like layer of new HA nanoparticles outside of the precursor after 24 h soaking in SBF solution. → Successive nucleation and formation of tiny hexagonal HA nanoplates and nanorods have been confirmed by TEM results after 24 h soaking of TCP in silica-containing BSF solution. - Abstract: The chemical modification of implant (prosthesis) surfaces is being investigated worldwide for improving the fixation of orthopaedic and dental implants. The main goal in this surface modification approach is to achieve a faster bone growth and chemical bonding of the implant to the newly generated and/or remodeled bone. In this work, we report fast formation of hexagonal nanocrystals of calcium hydroxyapatite (HA) in simulated body fluid (SBF, inorganic components of human blood plasma) solutions at 37 deg. C, using calcium phosphate (TCP) and sodium silicate as precursors. Characterization and chemical analysis of the synthesized powders were performed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results indicated enhanced nucleation and formation of bone like layer of HA nanocrystals at the surface of TCP nanoparticles and occurrence of HA nanocrystals during 24 h soaking of TCP in SBF solution containing silica ions. The average size of a nanoparticle, using Scherrer formula, was found to be 18.2 nm.

  14. Tectonic "short circuit" of sub-horizontal fluid-saturated bodies as a possible mechanism of the earthquake

    CERN Document Server

    Nechayev, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    An alternative earthquake mechanism is proposed. The traditional stress mechanism of fracture formation assigned a support role. As a proximate cause of the earthquake the destruction of the roofs of sub-horizontal fluid-saturated bodies (SHFB) is considered. This collapse may occur due to redistribution of fluid pressure within the system of SHFB connected by cracks (tectonic or other nature). It can cause both shifts of rock blocks contributing to seismic shocks and various effects characteristic of foreshocks and aftershocks.

  15. Determination of reduced sulfur compounds by high-performance liquid chromatography in hydrothermal seawater and body fluids from Riftia pachyptila

    OpenAIRE

    Gru, Cecile; Sarradin, Pierre-Marie; Legoff, Hélène; Narcon, Sandrine; Caprais, Jean-Claude; Lallier, Francois

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes a method for the determination of reduced sulfur compounds in hydrothermal seawater and body fluids from the hydrothermal tube worm Riftia pachyptila. Sulfur is a hey component of the hydrothermal ecosystem based on chemosynthesis, Sulfur compounds were derivatized at pH 8 (4.3 for sulfide in biological fluid) with a fluorescent reagent, monobromobimane, and separated by reverse-phase HPLC. The eluted compounds were detected by spectrofluorimetry. This method allowed: the...

  16. Corrosion resistance of Cr-Ni-Mo steel in simulated body fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Kajzer

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper presents the comparison of corrosion resistance of Cr-Ni-Mo stainless steel in variouscorrosive media simulating human body fluids.Design/methodology/approach: The corrosion tests were realized by recording of anodic polarization curveswith the use of the potentiodynamic method. The VoltaLab® PGP 201 system for electrochemical tests wasapplied. The tests were carried out in electrolyte simulating urine (pH = 6 ÷ 6.4, Tyrode’s physiological solution(pH = 6.8 ÷ 7.4 and plasma (pH = 7.2 ÷ 7.6 at the temperature of 37±1°C.Findings: Surface condition of metallic biomaterial determines its corrosion resistance. The highest values ofbreakdown potentials are recorded for electropolished and chemically passivated samples tested in artificial urine.The lowest values of anodic current density were recorded for samples tested in Tyrode’s physiological solution.Research limitations/implications: The obtained results are the basis for the optimization of physicochemicalproperties of the metallic biomaterial.Practical implications: On the basis of the obtained results it can be stated that stainless steel can be applied inreconstruction surgery, operative cardiology and urology.Originality/value: The paper presents the influence of various corrosive media simulating human body fluidson corrosion resistance of Cr-Ni-Mo stainless steel.

  17. Persistence of Ebola virus in various body fluids during convalescence: evidence and implications for disease transmission and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chughtai, A A; Barnes, M; Macintyre, C R

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to review the current evidence regarding the persistence of Ebola virus (EBOV) in various body fluids during convalescence and discuss its implication on disease transmission and control. We conducted a systematic review and searched articles from Medline and EMBASE using key words. We included studies that examined the persistence of EBOV in various body fluids during the convalescent phase. Twelve studies examined the persistence of EBOV in body fluids, with around 800 specimens tested in total. Available evidence suggests that EBOV can persist in some body fluids after clinical recovery and clearance of virus from the blood. EBOV has been isolated from semen, aqueous humor, urine and breast milk 82, 63, 26 and 15 days after onset of illness, respectively. Viral RNA has been detectable in semen (day 272), aqueous humor (day 63), sweat (day 40), urine (day 30), vaginal secretions (day 33), conjunctival fluid (day 22), faeces (day 19) and breast milk (day 17). Given high case fatality and uncertainties around the transmission characteristics, patients should be considered potentially infectious for a period of time after immediate clinical recovery. Patients and their immediate contacts should be informed about these risks. Convalescent patients may need to abstain from sex for at least 9 months or should use condoms until their semen tests are negative. Breastfeeding should be avoided during the convalescent phase. There is a need for more research on persistence, and a uniform approach to infection control guidelines in convalescence. PMID:26808232

  18. Direct Identification of Enteroviruses in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Suspected Meningitis by Nested PCR Amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasota, Alexandr; Loginovskih, Natalia; Ivanova, Olga; Lipskaya, Galina

    2016-01-01

    Enteroviruses, the most common human viral pathogens worldwide, have been associated with serous meningitis, encephalitis, syndrome of acute flaccid paralysis, myocarditis and the onset of diabetes type 1. In the future, the rapid identification of the etiological agent would allow to adjust the therapy promptly and thereby improve the course of the disease and prognosis. We developed RT-nested PCR amplification of the genomic region coding viral structural protein VP1 for direct identification of enteroviruses in clinical specimens and compared it with the existing analogs. One-hundred-fifty-nine cerebrospinal fluids (CSF) from patients with suspected meningitis were studied. The amplification of VP1 genomic region using the new method was achieved for 86 (54.1%) patients compared with 75 (47.2%), 53 (33.3%) and 31 (19.5%) achieved with previously published methods. We identified 11 serotypes of the Enterovirus species B in 2012, including relatively rare echovirus 14 (E-14), E-15 and E-32, and eight serotypes of species B and 5 enteroviruses A71 (EV-A71) in 2013. The developed method can be useful for direct identification of enteroviruses in clinical material with the low virus loads such as CSF. PMID:26751470

  19. Direct Identification of Enteroviruses in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Suspected Meningitis by Nested PCR Amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandr Krasota

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Enteroviruses, the most common human viral pathogens worldwide, have been associated with serous meningitis, encephalitis, syndrome of acute flaccid paralysis, myocarditis and the onset of diabetes type 1. In the future, the rapid identification of the etiological agent would allow to adjust the therapy promptly and thereby improve the course of the disease and prognosis. We developed RT-nested PCR amplification of the genomic region coding viral structural protein VP1 for direct identification of enteroviruses in clinical specimens and compared it with the existing analogs. One-hundred-fifty-nine cerebrospinal fluids (CSF from patients with suspected meningitis were studied. The amplification of VP1 genomic region using the new method was achieved for 86 (54.1% patients compared with 75 (47.2%, 53 (33.3% and 31 (19.5% achieved with previously published methods. We identified 11 serotypes of the Enterovirus species B in 2012, including relatively rare echovirus 14 (E-14, E-15 and E-32, and eight serotypes of species B and 5 enteroviruses A71 (EV-A71 in 2013. The developed method can be useful for direct identification of enteroviruses in clinical material with the low virus loads such as CSF.

  20. Numerical investigation of incompressible fluid flow and heat transfer across a bluff body in a channel flow

    OpenAIRE

    Taymaz Imdat; Aslan Erman; Benim Ali Cemal

    2015-01-01

    The Lattice Boltzmann Method is applied to computationally investigate the laminar flow and heat transfer of an incompressible fluid with constant material properties in a two-dimensional channel with a built-in bluff body. In this study, a triangular prism is taken as the bluff body. Not only the momentum transport, but also the energy transport is modeled by the Lattice Boltzmann Method. A uniform lattice structure with a single time relaxation rule is us...

  1. An improved method for quantification of extra domain A-containing cellular fibronectin (EDAcFN) in different body fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylätupa, S; Mertaniemi, P; Haglund, C; Partanen, P

    1995-01-31

    A quantitative direct enzyme immunoassay for the extra domain A-containing isoform of cellular fibronectin (EDAcFN) was established for screening of large series of blood samples and various body fluids of different pH and viscosity. The method is based on the monoclonal antibody DH1 recognizing the extra domain A in cellular fibronectin (EDAcFN). Studies on the effect of dilution of plasma and serum samples in this direct assay indicated that the measured concentration of cFN in the samples greatly depend on the ratio of sample dilution. The linearity of the assay was improved with sample dilution and the optimal dilution was 1:5. Stored diluted samples retained their cFN content at +4 degrees C, and -20 degrees C and -70 degrees C for months in contrast to samples stored undiluted. With this direct EIA the detection limit was 0.05 micrograms/ml and the linear portion of the standard curve could be extended above 30 micrograms/ml. Thus, the cFN concentration of blood samples could be measured reliably without inhibition also in samples with very high concentration of cFN. This is particularly important when measuring blood samples from cancer patients, since these samples may contain more than 20 micrograms/ml EDAcFN. The assay was standardized for blood samples but, due to the possibility of sample dilution, it also enabled reliable quantification of EDAcFN in various other body fluids. Undiluted some of the samples with non-neutral pH (urine, bile) or with high viscosity (seminal plasma) interfered with the assay. In addition to blood samples, the EDAcFN concentration was determined in samples of urine, bile, amniotic fluid, cervicovaginal secretions, seminal fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, pleural fluid and saliva. Thereby, this modified method was shown to be applicable to various body fluids. PMID:7758225

  2. Newton's Investigation of the Resistance to Moving Bodies in Continuous Fluids and the Nature of "Frontier Science"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauld, Colin F.

    2010-01-01

    Newton's experiments into the resistance which fluids offer to moving bodies provide some insight into the way he related theory and experiment. His theory demonstrates a way of thought typical of 17th century physics and his experiments are simple enough to be replicated by present day students. Newton's investigations using pendulums were…

  3. Exposure to and precautions for blood and body fluids among workers in the funeral home franchises of Fort Worth, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwanyanwu, O C; Tabasuri, T H; Harris, G R

    1989-08-01

    In 1982 the Centers for Disease Control published a set of recommendations and measures to protect persons working in health care settings or performing mortician services from possible exposure to the human immunodeficiency virus. This study of a number of funeral homes in the Fort Worth area was designed to determine the level of exposure of funeral home workers to blood and other body fluids and also to assess existing protective measures and practices in the industry. Workers in 22 funeral home franchises were surveyed with a predesigned questionnaire. Eighty-five responses from 20 of the 22 establishments were received. All 85 respondents admitted exposure of varying degrees to blood and body fluids. Sixty persons (70%) admitted heavy exposure, that is, frequent splashes. Analysis of the responses showed that 81 of 85 (95.3%) persons consistently wore gloves while performing tasks that might expose them to blood or other body fluids. Of the 60 persons who were heavily exposed, 43 wore long-sleeved gowns, 27 wore waterproof aprons, 17 surgical masks, and 15 goggles. The study further revealed that 52.9% (45/85) of the respondents had sustained accidental cuts or puncture wounds on the job. In light of these findings it is important to target educational efforts to persons in this industry to help them minimize their risks of infection with blood and body fluid borne infections. PMID:2549820

  4. The porosity and roughness of electrodeposited calcium phosphate coatings in simulated body fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đošić Marija S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium phosphate coatings were electrochemically deposited on titanium from the aqueous solution of Ca(NO32 and NH4H2PO4 with the current density of 10 mA cm-2 for deposition time of 15 min. The obtained brushite coatings, (CaHPO4·2H2O, were converted to hydroxyapatite (HA by soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF for 2, 7 and 14 days. The brushite and hydroxyapatite coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM. It was shown that the increase in soaking time increases the porosity, roughness and crystallite domain size of HA coatings and decreases the unit cell parameters and unit cell volume, while does not affect the HA mean pore area. The calcium and phosphorus ions concentrations in SBF were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS and UV-Vis spectroscopy, respectively and the mechanism of HA growth based on dissolution-precipitation was proposed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 45019, br. III 45015 i br. OI 72004

  5. Fabrication of DNA/Hydroxyapatite nanocomposites by simulated body fluid for gene delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hydroxyapatite (HA) formation on the surface of DNA molecules in simulated body fluid (SBF) was examined. The osteoconductivity is estimated using SBF having ion concentrations approximately equal to those of human blood plasma. After immersion for 4 weeks in SBF at 36.5 °C, the HA crystallites possessing 1-14 micrometer in diameter grew on the surface of DNA molecules. The leaf flake-like and spherical shapes morphologies were observed through scanning electron microscopy analysis. Original peaks of both of DNA and HA were characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The Ca/P ratio (1.1-1.5) in HA was estimated by energy dispersive X-ray analysis. After biomineralization, the calculated weight ratio of DNA/HA was 18/82 by thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis. The molecular orbital computer simulation has been used to probe the interaction of DNA with two charge-balancing ions, CaOH+ and CaH2PO4+. The adsorption enthalpy of the two ions on DNA having negative value was the evidence for the interface in mineralization of HA in SBF

  6. Surface characterization of stainless steel AISI 316 L in contact with simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titanium and cobalt alloys, as well as some stainless steels, are often used in orthopedic surgery. In the more developed countries, stainless steel is used only for temporary implants since it does not hold up as well as other alloys to corrosion in a physiological medium. Nevertheless, stainless steel alloys are frequently used for permanent implants in developing countries. Therefore, more knowledge about its reaction to corrosion is needed as well as the characteristics of the surface layer generated in a physiological medium in order to control potential toxicity from the release of metallic ions into the organism. The surface films usually have a different composition and chemical state from the base material. The surface characterization of alloys used in orthopedic surgery should not be underestimated, since it heavily influences the behavior of the implant through the relationship of the surface film-tissue and the possible migration of metallic ions from the base metal to the surrounding tissue. This work presents a study of the surface composition and resistance to the corrosion of stainless steel AISI 316L in simulated body fluid (SBF) aired at pH 7.25 and 37oC. The resistance to the corrosion was studied with an electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and anodic polarization curves (CW)

  7. Study of nanobiomaterial hydroxyapatite in simulated body fluid: Formation and growth of apatite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavan, Pradnya N.; Bahir, Manjushri M.; Mene, Ravindra U.; Mahabole, Megha P. [School of Physical Sciences, SRTM University, Nanded 431606 (India); Khairnar, Rajendra S., E-mail: rk2kin@yahoo.co [School of Physical Sciences, SRTM University, Nanded 431606 (India)

    2010-04-15

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is main mineral component of hard tissues. It is widely used in biomedical applications due to its excellent bioactivity and biocompatibility. Nanosized HAp is synthesized by wet chemical process. The synthesized HAp is characterized by XRD, FTIR, AFM and SEM for structural, morphological and functional groups analysis. The Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) is prepared by using chlorides, carbonates, oxides, and sulphates of alkali metals at 37 deg. C. The ion exchange process is carried out to exchange calcium cation by sodium and potassium. The pure HAp and ion exchanged HAp pellets are used as source of nucleating agent for apatite layer formation, in SBF maintained at 37 deg. C using incubator for different periods of time to study the bioactivity. The dielectric study is carried out on incubated pure and ion exchanged HAp pellets. XRD analysis confirms the hexagonal phase of hydroxyapatite. FTIR shows the presence of functional groups. SEM observations reveal that the growth of highly porous apatite layer on HAp surface increases with time. The dielectric constant is found to be in the range 3-12. It is seen that the synthesized HAp bioceramic nano material not only supports the growth of apatite layer but also accelerates the growth onto itself.

  8. Bioactive hydroxyapatite/graphene composite coating and its corrosion stability in simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Bioactive HAP/Gr coating on Ti was successfully obtained by EPD. • Increased fracture toughness of the HAP/Gr coating compared to pure HAP coating. • HAP/Gr coating exhibited superior biomimetic mineralization vs. pure HAP coating. • Gr improved the mechanical properties and thermal stability of HAP/Gr coating. • HAP/Gr coating was classified as non-cytotoxic against the targeted PBMC. - Abstract: The hydroxyapatite/graphene (HAP/Gr) composite was electrodeposited on Ti using the electrophoretic deposition process to obtain uniform bioactive coating with improved mechanical strength and favorable corrosion stability in simulated body fluid (SBF). Incorporation of Gr was verified by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and X-ray photoelectron analysis. The HAP/Gr composite coating exhibited reduced surface cracks, nearly double the hardness, and elastic modulus increased by almost 50% compared to pure HAP coating, as estimated by a nanoindentation test. The bioactive HAP/Gr composite coating provided a newly formed apatite layer in SBF with enhanced corrosion stability, as evidenced by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The thermal stability of the HAP/Gr coating was improved in comparison to the pure HAP coating, and the Ca/P ratio was closer to the stoichiometric value. No antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli could be verified. The HAP/Gr composite coating was classified as non-cytotoxic when tested against healthy peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)

  9. Bioactive hydroxyapatite/graphene composite coating and its corrosion stability in simulated body fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janković, Ana; Eraković, Sanja [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, 11 000 Belgrade (Serbia); Mitrić, Miodrag [Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, Mike Petrovića Alasa 12-14, 11 000 Belgrade (Serbia); Matić, Ivana Z.; Juranić, Zorica D. [Institute of Oncology and Radiology of Serbia, Pasterova 14, 11 000 Belgrade (Serbia); Tsui, Gary C.P.; Tang, Chak-yin [Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Mišković-Stanković, Vesna [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, 11 000 Belgrade (Serbia); Rhee, Kyong Yop, E-mail: rheeky@khu.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 449-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Soo Jin [Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-05

    Highlights: • Bioactive HAP/Gr coating on Ti was successfully obtained by EPD. • Increased fracture toughness of the HAP/Gr coating compared to pure HAP coating. • HAP/Gr coating exhibited superior biomimetic mineralization vs. pure HAP coating. • Gr improved the mechanical properties and thermal stability of HAP/Gr coating. • HAP/Gr coating was classified as non-cytotoxic against the targeted PBMC. - Abstract: The hydroxyapatite/graphene (HAP/Gr) composite was electrodeposited on Ti using the electrophoretic deposition process to obtain uniform bioactive coating with improved mechanical strength and favorable corrosion stability in simulated body fluid (SBF). Incorporation of Gr was verified by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and X-ray photoelectron analysis. The HAP/Gr composite coating exhibited reduced surface cracks, nearly double the hardness, and elastic modulus increased by almost 50% compared to pure HAP coating, as estimated by a nanoindentation test. The bioactive HAP/Gr composite coating provided a newly formed apatite layer in SBF with enhanced corrosion stability, as evidenced by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The thermal stability of the HAP/Gr coating was improved in comparison to the pure HAP coating, and the Ca/P ratio was closer to the stoichiometric value. No antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli could be verified. The HAP/Gr composite coating was classified as non-cytotoxic when tested against healthy peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)

  10. Modeling Physiological Systems in the Human Body as Networks of Quasi-1D Fluid Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staples, Anne

    2008-11-01

    Extensive research has been done on modeling human physiology. Most of this work has been aimed at developing detailed, three-dimensional models of specific components of physiological systems, such as a cell, a vein, a molecule, or a heart valve. While efforts such as these are invaluable to our understanding of human biology, if we were to construct a global model of human physiology with this level of detail, computing even a nanosecond in this computational being's life would certainly be prohibitively expensive. With this in mind, we derive the Pulsed Flow Equations, a set of coupled one-dimensional partial differential equations, specifically designed to capture two-dimensional viscous, transport, and other effects, and aimed at providing accurate and fast-to-compute global models for physiological systems represented as networks of quasi one-dimensional fluid flows. Our goal is to be able to perform faster-than-real time simulations of global processes in the human body on desktop computers.

  11. Fabrication of Titanium/Fluorapatite Composites and In Vitro Behavior in Simulated Body Fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hezhou Ye; Xing Yang Liu; Hanping Hong

    2013-01-01

    Titanium/fluorapatite (Ti/FA) composites with various FA additions were fabricated by powder metallurgy.The decomposition of FA during sintering was accelerated by the presence of Ti.The main reaction products of FA and Ti were identified as CaO,Ti phosphides,and CaTiO3.The addition of FA significantly inhibited the densification of Ti.The in vitro bioactivity of the composites was evaluated in a simulated body fluid (SBF).After immersion into the SBF,all the Ti/FA composites induced nucleation and growth of bone-like carbonated apatite on the surface.Co-precipitation of CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2 was also detected on the surface of the composite with high FA addition at an early stage of immersion.Furthermore,the release of fluorine ions from the composite was confirmed,which could promote bone regeneration and retard the formation of caries in the biological environment.The in vitro behavior was attributed to multiple factors,including the surface conditions and the constituents of the composite.The results demonstrated that the Ti/FA composites were bioactive in nature even with a low FA addition and they could introduce the benefit of fluorine ions in the service.

  12. Radioenzymatic assay of femtomole concentrations of DOPA in tissues and body fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A single isotope radioenzymatic procedure for the measurement of DOPA has been developed. The assay combines 0-methylation of DOPA by purified COMT using [3H]SAM as the methyl donor and subsequent purification as the DNFB derivative of 3-0-[methyl-3H]DOPA. The present method is about 100 times more sensitive than currently available DOPA methods. This is due to decreased blank values and increased enzymatic conversion giving transmethylation values of 50% with tissue extracts and values of almost 100% with pure solutions. Although COMT methylates a wide variety of catechol compounds, specificity of the assay is achieved by selective extraction and purification of the final product by tlc. The method has good inter-assay reliability, the coefficient of variation being about 3.5%. This ultramicromethod was used to determine the steady-state concentrations of endogenous DOPA in minute samples of brain areas of the rat. In untreated rats brain DOPA levels varied with the mode of death; the highest levels were found in animals killed by microwave irradiation. Unconjugated DOPA was measured in microlite aliquots of human body fluids. (author)

  13. Biomimetic Coating of Modified Titanium Surfaces with Hydroxyapatite Using Simulated Body Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsin Nazir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the viability of coating commercially pure titanium (CPTi surfaces, modified via sandblasting and acid etching, with hydroxyapatite (HA/tricalcium phosphate coatings using a simulated body fluid (SBF solution. The samples were immersed in SBF from 3 to 7 days. The morphology and the chemistry of the HA/tricalcium phosphate coating were then analysed. Prior to immersion in SBF, the samples were sandblasted and acid etched to mimic the morphology and roughness of commercially available dental implants. The SBF aided in the formation of crystalline HA/tricalcium phosphate coatings on all the samples. The coatings were uniform and had roughness values higher than the underlying substrate. The highest roughness values for the coatings on the surfaces were obtained at 7 days of immersion in SBF with average Sa values of 2.9 ± 0.2 µm. The presence of HA/tricalcium phosphate on the surfaces was confirmed by the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM, Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS, the X-Ray Diffraction (XRD, and the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR analysis. This study shows that it is possible to obtain an adequate and uniform hydroxyapatite coating on pure titanium substrates in a shorter period of time with characteristics that favour the ultimate goal of implants therapy, that is, osseointegration.

  14. In vitro bioactivity of 3D Ti-mesh with bioceramic coatings in simulated body fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available 3D Ti-mesh has been coated with bioceramics under different coating conditions, such as material compositions and micro-porosity, using a dip casting method. Hydroxyapatite (HA, micro-HA particles (HAp, a bioglass (BG and their different mixtures together with polymer additives were used to control HA-coating microstructures. Layered composites with the following coating-to-substrate designs, such as BG/Ti, HA + BG/BG/Ti and HAp + BG/BG/Ti, were fabricated. The bioactivity of these coated composites and the uncoated Ti-mesh substrate was then investigated in a simulated body fluid (SBF. The Ti-mesh substrate and BG/Ti composite did not induce biomimetic apatite deposition when they were immersed in SBF for the selected BG, a pressable dental ceramic, used in this study. After seven days in SBF, an apatite layer was formed on both HA + BG/BG/Ti and HAp + BG/BG/Ti composites. The difference is the apatite layer on the HAp + BG/BG/Ti composite was rougher and contained more micro-pores, while the apatite layer on the HA + BG/BG/Ti composite was dense and smooth. The formation of biomimetic apatite, being more bioresorbable, is favored for bone regeneration.

  15. Fabrication of DNA/Hydroxyapatite nanocomposites by simulated body fluid for gene delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeshita, Takayuki; Okamoto, Masami [Advanced Polymeric Nanostructured Materials Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Toyota Technological Institute, 2-12-1 Hisakata, Tempaku, Nagoya 468-8511 (Japan)

    2015-05-22

    The hydroxyapatite (HA) formation on the surface of DNA molecules in simulated body fluid (SBF) was examined. The osteoconductivity is estimated using SBF having ion concentrations approximately equal to those of human blood plasma. After immersion for 4 weeks in SBF at 36.5 °C, the HA crystallites possessing 1-14 micrometer in diameter grew on the surface of DNA molecules. The leaf flake-like and spherical shapes morphologies were observed through scanning electron microscopy analysis. Original peaks of both of DNA and HA were characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The Ca/P ratio (1.1-1.5) in HA was estimated by energy dispersive X-ray analysis. After biomineralization, the calculated weight ratio of DNA/HA was 18/82 by thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis. The molecular orbital computer simulation has been used to probe the interaction of DNA with two charge-balancing ions, CaOH{sup +} and CaH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup +}. The adsorption enthalpy of the two ions on DNA having negative value was the evidence for the interface in mineralization of HA in SBF.

  16. Fabrication of DNA/Hydroxyapatite nanocomposites by simulated body fluid for gene delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Takayuki; Okamoto, Masami

    2015-05-01

    The hydroxyapatite (HA) formation on the surface of DNA molecules in simulated body fluid (SBF) was examined. The osteoconductivity is estimated using SBF having ion concentrations approximately equal to those of human blood plasma. After immersion for 4 weeks in SBF at 36.5 °C, the HA crystallites possessing 1-14 micrometer in diameter grew on the surface of DNA molecules. The leaf flake-like and spherical shapes morphologies were observed through scanning electron microscopy analysis. Original peaks of both of DNA and HA were characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The Ca/P ratio (1.1-1.5) in HA was estimated by energy dispersive X-ray analysis. After biomineralization, the calculated weight ratio of DNA/HA was 18/82 by thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis. The molecular orbital computer simulation has been used to probe the interaction of DNA with two charge-balancing ions, CaOH+ and C a H2P O4+ . The adsorption enthalpy of the two ions on DNA having negative value was the evidence for the interface in mineralization of HA in SBF.

  17. Hydroxyapatite-Coated Magnesium-Based Biodegradable Alloy: Cold Spray Deposition and Simulated Body Fluid Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorakma, Abdullah C. W.; Zuhailawati, Hussain; Aishvarya, V.; Dhindaw, B. K.

    2013-10-01

    A simple modified cold spray process in which the substrate of AZ51 alloys were preheated to 400 °C and sprayed with hydroxyapatite (HAP) using high pressure cold air nozzle spray was designed to get biocompatible coatings of the order of 20-30 μm thickness. The coatings had an average modulus of 9 GPa. The biodegradation behavior of HAP-coated samples was tested by studying with simulated body fluid (SBF). The coating was characterized by FESEM microanalysis. ICPOES analysis was carried out for the SBF solution to know the change in ion concentrations. Control samples showed no aluminum corrosion but heavy Mg corrosion. On the HAP-coated alloy samples, HAP coatings started dissolving after 1 day but showed signs of regeneration after 10 days of holding. All through the testing period while the HAP coating got eroded, the surface of the sample got deposited with different apatite-like compounds and the phase changed with course from DCPD to β-TCP and β-TCMP. The HAP-coated samples clearly improved the biodegradability of Mg alloy, attributed to the dissolution and re-precipitation of apatite showed by the coatings as compared to the control samples.

  18. Fluid Shifts: Otoacoustical Emission Changes in Response to Posture and Lower Body Negative Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgoza, R.; Kemp, D.; Ebert, D.; Danielson, R.; Stenger, M.; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The purpose of the NASA Fluid Shifts Study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight and to correlate these findings with vision changes and other elements of the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. VIIP signs and symptoms, as well as postflight lumbar puncture data, suggest that elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) may be associated with spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. Due to the invasive nature of direct measures of ICP, a noninvasive technique of monitoring ICP is desired for use during spaceflight. The phase angle and amplitude of otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) have been shown to be sensitive to posture change and ICP (1, 2), therefore use of OAEs is an attractive option. OAEs are low-level sounds produced by the sensory cells of the cochlea in response to auditory stimulation. These sounds travel peripherally from the cochlea, through the oval window, to the ear canal where they can be recorded. OAE transmission is sensitive to changes in the stiffness of the oval window, occurring as a result of changes in cochlear pressure. Increased stiffness of the oval window largely affects the transmission of sound from the cochlea at frequencies between 800 Hz and 1600 Hz. OAEs can be self-recorded in the laboratory or on the ISS using a handheld device. Our primary objectives regarding OAE measures in this experiment were to 1) validate this method during preflight testing of each crewmember (while sitting, supine and in head-down tilt position), and 2) determine if OAE measures (and presumably ICP) are responsive to lower body negative pressure and to spaceflight. METHODS: Distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) and transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) were recorded preflight using the Otoport Advance OAE system (Otodynamics Ltd., Hatfield, UK). Data were collected in four conditions (seated

  19. Pharmacokinetics of difloxacin and its concentration in body fluids and endometrial tissues of mares after repeated intragastric administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Pharmacokinetics of difloxacin and its distribution within the body fluids and endometrium of 6 mares were studied after intragastric (IG) administration of 5 individual doses. Difloxacin concentrations were serially measured in serum, urine, peritoneal fluid, synovial fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, and endometrium over 120 h. Bacterial susceptibility to difloxacin was determined for 174 equine pathogens over a 7-month period. Maximum serum concentration (Cmax) was 2.25 ± 0.70 μg/mL at 3.12 ± 2.63 h and Cmax after the 5th dose was 2.41 ± 0.86 μg/mL at 97.86 ± 1.45 h. The mean elimination half-life (t1/2) was 8.75 ± 2.77 h and area under the serum concentration versus time curve (AUC) was 25.13 ± 8.79 μg h/mL. Highest mean synovial fluid concentration was 1.26 ± 0.49 μg/mL at 100 h. Highest mean peritoneal fluid concentration was 1.50 ± 0.56 μg/mL at 98 h. Highest mean endometrial concentration was 0.78 ± 0.48 μg/g at 97.5 h. Mean cerebrospinal fluid concentration was 0.87 ± 0.52 μg/mL at 99 h. Highest mean urine concentration was 92.05 ± 30.35 μg/mL at 104 h. All isolates of Salmonella spp. and Pasteurella spp. were susceptible. In general, gram-negative organisms were more susceptible than gram-positives. Difloxacin appears to be safe, adequately absorbed, and well distributed to body fluids and endometrial tissues of mares and may be useful in the treatment of susceptible bacterial infections in adult horses. PMID:16187554

  20. The usefulness of in vitro proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy for differentiating between abdominal body fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether in vitro proton (1H) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is useful for distinguishing between abdominal types of fluids. Thirty fluid samples that were obtained from patients who were undergoing diagnostic or therapeutic percutaneous drainage of abdominal fluids were examined in this study. According to their gross appearance and smell, each sample was classified as either purulent fluid (n=12) or non-purulent fluid (n=18). The non-purulent fluids were subdivided into hemorrhagic fluid (n=2), serosanguinous fluid with debris (n=2), and serosanguinous fluid without debris (n=14). In addition, according to the cytologic analysis, each sample was classified as either benign fluid (n=23) or malignant fluid (n=7). A set of humoral pathological examinations that included biochemical analysis and culture of the fluid were performed for all the fluid samples. In vitro 1H MRS was performed by using a 1.5T MR system and a bird cage head coil. MR spectra were obtained by using point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) (TR/TE=2000/30 msec) with water suppression. The MR spectra were analyzed on the basis of agreement between a radiologist and a physicist who worked in consensus. The MR spectra obtained from 30 samples could be classified into 8 different patterns, according to the presence of lipid (0.9/1.3 ppm), lactate (1.3 ppm), acetate (1.9 ppm) and succinate (2.4 ppm) peaks. The MR spectral patterns of the purulent fluids (n=12) were classified as follows: pattern-1 (n=7, 58%), pattern-2 (n=2, 17%), pattern-3 (n=1, 8%), pattern-6 (n=1, 8%) and pattern-8 (n=1, 8%). The MR spectral patterns of the non-purulent fluids (n=18) were classified as follows: pattern-4 (n=1, 6%), pattern-5 (n=5, 28%), pattern-6 (n =1, 6%), pattern-7 (n =3, 17%) and pattern-8 (n=8, 44%). The MR spectral patterns of the purulent fluids were significantly different from those of the non-purulent fluids (ρ 1H MRS could be useful for differentiating

  1. Molecular Physiology of an Extra-renal Cl- Uptake Mechanism for Body Fluid Cl- Homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Fang; Yan, Jia-Jiun; Tseng, Yung-Che; Chen, Ruo-Dong; Hwang, Pung-Pung

    2015-01-01

    The development of an ion regulatory mechanism for body fluid homeostasis was an important trait for vertebrates during the evolution from aquatic to terrestrial life. The homeostatic mechanism of Cl- in aquatic fish appears to be similar to that of terrestrial vertebrates; however, the mechanism in non-mammalian vertebrates is poorly understood. Unlike in mammals, in which the kidney plays a central role, in most fish species, the gill is responsible for the maintenance of Cl- homeostasis via Cl- transport uptake mechanisms. Previous studies in zebrafish identified Na+-Cl- cotransporter (NCC) 2b-expressing cells in the gills and skin as the major ionocytes responsible for Cl- uptake, similar to distal convoluted tubular cells in mammalian kidney. However, the mechanism by which basolateral ions exit from NCC cells is still unclear. Of the in situ hybridization signals of twelve members of the clc Cl- channel family, only that of clc-2c exhibited an ionocyte pattern in the gill and embryonic skin. Double in situ hybridization/immunocytochemistry confirmed colocalization of apical NCC2b with basolateral CLC-2c. Acclimation to a low Cl- environment increased mRNA expression of both clc-2c and ncc2b, and also the protein expression of CLC-2c in embryos and adult gills. Loss-of-function of clc-2c resulted in a significant decrease in whole body Cl- content in zebrafish embryos, a phenotype similar to that of ncc2b mutants; this finding suggests a role for CLC-2c in Cl- uptake. Translational knockdown of clc-2c stimulated ncc2b mRNA expression and vice versa, revealing cooperation between these two transporters in the context of zebrafish Cl- homeostasis. Further comparative genomic and phylogenetic analyses revealed that zebrafish CLC-2c is a fish-specific isoform that diverged from a kidney-predominant homologue, in the same manner as NCC2b and its counterparts (NCCs). Several lines of molecular and cellular physiological evidences demonstrated the cofunctional role

  2. Molecular Physiology of an Extra-renal Cl(-) Uptake Mechanism for Body Fluid Cl(-) Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Fang; Yan, Jia-Jiun; Tseng, Yung-Che; Chen, Ruo-Dong; Hwang, Pung-Pung

    2015-01-01

    The development of an ion regulatory mechanism for body fluid homeostasis was an important trait for vertebrates during the evolution from aquatic to terrestrial life. The homeostatic mechanism of Cl(-) in aquatic fish appears to be similar to that of terrestrial vertebrates; however, the mechanism in non-mammalian vertebrates is poorly understood. Unlike in mammals, in which the kidney plays a central role, in most fish species, the gill is responsible for the maintenance of Cl(-) homeostasis via Cl(-) transport uptake mechanisms. Previous studies in zebrafish identified Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC) 2b-expressing cells in the gills and skin as the major ionocytes responsible for Cl(-) uptake, similar to distal convoluted tubular cells in mammalian kidney. However, the mechanism by which basolateral ions exit from NCC cells is still unclear. Of the in situ hybridization signals of twelve members of the clc Cl(-) channel family, only that of clc-2c exhibited an ionocyte pattern in the gill and embryonic skin. Double in situ hybridization/immunocytochemistry confirmed colocalization of apical NCC2b with basolateral CLC-2c. Acclimation to a low Cl(-) environment increased mRNA expression of both clc-2c and ncc2b, and also the protein expression of CLC-2c in embryos and adult gills. Loss-of-function of clc-2c resulted in a significant decrease in whole body Cl(-) content in zebrafish embryos, a phenotype similar to that of ncc2b mutants; this finding suggests a role for CLC-2c in Cl(-) uptake. Translational knockdown of clc-2c stimulated ncc2b mRNA expression and vice versa, revealing cooperation between these two transporters in the context of zebrafish Cl(-) homeostasis. Further comparative genomic and phylogenetic analyses revealed that zebrafish CLC-2c is a fish-specific isoform that diverged from a kidney-predominant homologue, in the same manner as NCC2b and its counterparts (NCCs). Several lines of molecular and cellular physiological evidences demonstrated

  3. Changes of body fluid and hematology in toad and their rehabilitation following intermittent exposure to simulated high altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, H. M.; Boral, M. C.

    1986-06-01

    Three groups of adult male toads were exposed intermittently in a decompression chamber for a daily period of 4 and 8 hours at a time for 6 consecutive days to an “altitude” of 12,000; 18,000 and 24,000 feet (3658; 5486; 7315 m) respectively. Most of the exposed animals were sacrificed immediately after the last exposure, but only a few animals experiencing 8 hours of exposure were sacrificed after a further 16 hours of exposure at normal atmospheric pressure. Eight hours of daily exposure for 6 days causes a decrease of body fluids and an increase of hematological parameters in all the altitude exposed animals compared with to the changes noted in the animals having 4 hours of daily exposure for 6 days at the same altitude levels. The animals that were exposed to pressures equivalent to altitudes of 12,000 and 18,000 feet daily for 8 hours were found to return nearly to their normal body fluids and hematological balance after 16 hours of exposure to normal atmospheric pressure, whereas the animals exposed for a similar period at an equivalent 24,000 feet failed to get back their normal balance of body fluids and hematology after 16 hours of exposure at normal atmospheric pressure. The present experiment shows that the body weight loss and changes of body fluid and hematological parameters in the toad after exposure to simulated high altitude are due not only to dehydration, but suggest that hypoxia may also have a role.

  4. Controlling of dielectric parameters of insulating hydroxyapatite by simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) samples were synthesized under various amounts of citric acid using the sol–gel method. Before and after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 14 and 28 days, the structural properties of HAp samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy and dielectric measurements. The crystallite size (D) was found to be in the range of 25.17–33.06 nm with the crystallinity percent (XC%) of 69.53–86.09. The lattice parameters of a and c were calculated to be in the ranges of 9.373–9.434 Å and 6.828–6.896 Å, respectively. The morphology of the as-synthesized samples was changed with the amount of citric acid and soaking period in SBF. The Ca/P molar ratios indicated a decrease with increasing immersion time, and Ca-deficiency was observed. The relative permittivity (ε′) and dielectric loss (ε″) were significantly affected by citric acid content and soaking period in SBF. It was seen that the alternating current conductivity (σac) increased with increasing frequency and the σac values changed with increasing soaking period and amount of citric acid. - Highlights: • The crystallite size is in the range of 25.17–33.06 nm. • The Ca/P molar ratio showed a decrease with increasing immersion time. • Citric acid content and soaking period in SBF affect the relative permittivity. • The alternating current conductivity increased with increasing frequency

  5. STATE OF THE ART TECHNIQUES USED FOR NOISE SOURCE IDENTIFICATION ON COMPLEX BODIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corneliu STOICA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, many approaches have been undertaken in order to asses detailed noise source identification on complex bodies, i.e. aircrafts, cars, machinery. Noise source identification implies to accurately obtain the position and frequency of the dominant noise sources. There are cases where traditional testing methods can not be applied at all or their use involves some limitations. Optical systems used for near field analysis require a line of sight that may not be available. The state-of-the-art technology for this purpose is the use of a large number of microphones whose signals are acquired simultaneously, i.e. microphone phased array. Due to the excessive cost of the instruments and the data acquisition system required, the implementation of this technology was restricted to governmental agencies (NASA, DLR and big companies such as Boeing and Airbus. During the past years, this technique was developed in wind tunnels and some universities to perform noise source identification on scale airframes, main landing gear models, and aerodynamic profiles (used on airplanes, helicopter rotors and wind mills.

  6. Identification of novel autoantigen in the synovial fluid of rheumatoid arthritis patients using an immunoproteomics approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagarika Biswas

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic, autoimmune and inflammatory joint disease with a poorly understood etiology. Despite widespread diagnostic use of anti-citrullinated protein antibodies and rheumatoid factor proteins there is a strong demand for novel serological biomarkers to improve the diagnosis this disease. The present study was aimed to identify novel autoantigens involved in rheumatoid arthritis (RA pathogenesis through immune-proteomic strategy. Synovial fluid samples from clinically diagnosed RA patients were separated on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE. Samples from patients with non-RA rheumatisms (osteoarthritis and trauma were used as controls. Immunoreactive proteins were spotted by Western blotting followed by identification through Q-TOF mass spectrometer analysis. Forty Western blots were generated using plasma from ten individual RA patients and 33 reactive spots were identified, 20 from the high molecular weight (HMW gel and 13 from the low molecular weight (LMW gel. Among the 33 common immunogenic spots, 18 distinct autoantigens were identified, out of which 14 are novel proteins in this context. Expression analysis of five important proteins, vimentin, gelsolin, alpha 2 HS glycoprotein (AHSG, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, and α1B-glycoprotein (A1BG by Western blot analysis using their specific antibodies revealed their higher expression in RA synovial fluid as compared to non-RA samples. Recombinantly expressed GFAP and A1BG protein were used to develop an in-house ELISA to quantify the amount of autoantibodies in the RA patients. RA patients revealed an increase in the expression of GFAP and A1BG in the plasma as compared to osteoarthritis patients. Therefore, GFAP and A1BG can be proposed as potential new autoantigens of diagnostic importance for RA subjects. Further characterization of these proteins in rheumatoid arthritis will be helpful in understanding the role of these proteins in the disease

  7. The usefulness of in vitro proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy for differentiating between abdominal body fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jeong Won; Shin, Sang Soo; Song, Sang Gook; Seon, Hyun Ju; Kim, Jae Kyu; Jeong, Gwang Woo [Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Yong Yeon; Lim, Hyo Soon; Kang, Heoung Keun [Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Hwasun (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether in vitro proton ({sup 1}H) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is useful for distinguishing between abdominal types of fluids. Thirty fluid samples that were obtained from patients who were undergoing diagnostic or therapeutic percutaneous drainage of abdominal fluids were examined in this study. According to their gross appearance and smell, each sample was classified as either purulent fluid (n=12) or non-purulent fluid (n=18). The non-purulent fluids were subdivided into hemorrhagic fluid (n=2), serosanguinous fluid with debris (n=2), and serosanguinous fluid without debris (n=14). In addition, according to the cytologic analysis, each sample was classified as either benign fluid (n=23) or malignant fluid (n=7). A set of humoral pathological examinations that included biochemical analysis and culture of the fluid were performed for all the fluid samples. In vitro {sup 1}H MRS was performed by using a 1.5T MR system and a bird cage head coil. MR spectra were obtained by using point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) (TR/TE=2000/30 msec) with water suppression. The MR spectra were analyzed on the basis of agreement between a radiologist and a physicist who worked in consensus. The MR spectra obtained from 30 samples could be classified into 8 different patterns, according to the presence of lipid (0.9/1.3 ppm), lactate (1.3 ppm), acetate (1.9 ppm) and succinate (2.4 ppm) peaks. The MR spectral patterns of the purulent fluids (n=12) were classified as follows: pattern-1 (n=7, 58%), pattern-2 (n=2, 17%), pattern-3 (n=1, 8%), pattern-6 (n=1, 8%) and pattern-8 (n=1, 8%). The MR spectral patterns of the non-purulent fluids (n=18) were classified as follows: pattern-4 (n=1, 6%), pattern-5 (n=5, 28%), pattern-6 (n =1, 6%), pattern-7 (n =3, 17%) and pattern-8 (n=8, 44%). The MR spectral patterns of the purulent fluids were significantly different from those of the non-purulent fluids ({rho} < .05). The MR spectral patterns

  8. WAVES GENERATED BY A 3D MOVING BODY IN A TWO-LAYER FLUID OF FINITE DEPTH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Wei; YOU Yun-xiang; MIAO Guo-ping; ZHAO Feng; ZHANG Jun

    2005-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the waves generated by a 3-D body advancing beneath the free surface with constant speed in a two-layer fluid of finite depth. By applying Green's theorem, a layered integral equation system based on the Rankine source for the perturbed velocity potential generated by the moving body was derived with the potential flow theory. A four-node isoparametric element method was used to treat with the solution of the layered integral equation system. The surface and interface waves generated by a moving ball were calculated numerically. The results were compared with the analytical results for a moving source with constant velocity.

  9. Generalized mapping of multi-body dissipative particle dynamics onto fluid compressibility and the Flory-Huggins theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, Safa; Boromand, Arman; Khani, Shaghayegh; Wagner, Jacob; Yamanoi, Mikio; Maia, Joao

    2015-04-01

    In this work, a generalized relation between the fluid compressibility, the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter (χ), and the simulation parameters in multi-body dissipative particle dynamics (MDPD) is established. This required revisiting the MDPD equation of state previously reported in the literature and developing general relationships between the parameters used in the MDPD model. We derive a relationship to the Flory-Huggins χ parameter for incompressible fluids similar to the work previously done in dissipative particle dynamics by Groot and Warren. The accuracy of this relationship is evaluated using phase separation in small molecules and the solubility of polymers in dilute solvent solutions via monitoring the scaling of the radius of gyration (Rg) for different solvent qualities. Finally, the dynamics of the MDPD fluid is studied with respect to the diffusion coefficient and the zero shear viscosity.

  10. Structure and stability of rapidly rotating fluid bodies in general relativity. III. Beyond the angular velocity peak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butterworth, E.M.

    1979-07-01

    A method previously described by Butterworth and Ipser for constructing models of rapidly rotating fluid bodies in general relativity is modified to enable construction of solutions whose sources are very highly flattened. In particular, solutions with increasing oblateness and decreasing angular velocity are exhibited. Also, a discussion is given of the possible association of the terminal of relativistic sequences by equatorial shedding and the first secular axisymmetric instability of the Maclaurin spheroids.

  11. Peptide fingerprinting of Alzheimer's disease in cerebrospinal fluid: identification and prospective evaluation of new synaptic biomarkers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Jahn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Today, dementias are diagnosed late in the course of disease. Future treatments have to start earlier in the disease process to avoid disability requiring new diagnostic tools. The objective of this study is to develop a new method for the differential diagnosis and identification of new biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD using capillary-electrophoresis coupled to mass-spectrometry (CE-MS and to assess the potential of early diagnosis of AD. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of 159 out-patients of a memory-clinic at a University Hospital suffering from neurodegenerative disorders and 17 cognitively-healthy controls was used to create differential peptide pattern for dementias and prospective blinded-comparison of sensitivity and specificity for AD diagnosis against the Criterion standard in a naturalistic prospective sample of patients. Sensitivity and specificity of the new method compared to standard diagnostic procedures and identification of new putative biomarkers for AD was the main outcome measure. CE-MS was used to reliably detect 1104 low-molecular-weight peptides in CSF. Training-sets of patients with clinically secured sporadic Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia, and cognitively healthy controls allowed establishing discriminative biomarker pattern for diagnosis of AD. This pattern was already detectable in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI. The AD-pattern was tested in a prospective sample of patients (n = 100 and AD was diagnosed with a sensitivity of 87% and a specificity of 83%. Using CSF measurements of beta-amyloid1-42, total-tau, and phospho(181-tau, AD-diagnosis had a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 67% in the same sample. Sequence analysis of the discriminating biomarkers identified fragments of synaptic proteins like proSAAS, apolipoprotein J, neurosecretory protein VGF, phospholemman, and chromogranin A. CONCLUSIONS: The method may allow early differential

  12. Electrochemical Investigations of Polycaprolactone-Coated AZ31 Mg Alloy in Earle's Balance Salt Solution and Conventional Simulated Body Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Benjamin M.; Zhang, Lei

    2016-06-01

    Polycaprolactone (PCL) coating has been shown to increase the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys when exposed to a simulated body fluid. A PCL dip coating was applied to AZ31 Mg alloy. Samples were immersed in both Earle's Balance Salt Solution (EBSS) and conventional simulated body fluids (c-SBF) up to 14 days. Microscopic morphology, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and potentiodynamic polarization tests were performed to evaluate the corrosion behavior changes of PCL coatings against immersion times in EBSS and c-SBF as compared to the uncoated AZ31 substrate. PCL-coated samples demonstrated improved corrosion resistance compared to bare AZ31 in both EBSS and c-SBF, indicating that the PCL coating exhibited good corrosion protection of AZ31 in simulated body fluid. Samples immersed in EBSS showed significantly higher electrochemical impedance values and slower corrosion progression as compared to the samples in c-SBF, because of the decreased chloride content and CO2 buffering mechanism of the EBSS.

  13. The Application of SILAC Mouse in Human Body Fluid Proteomics Analysis Reveals Protein Patterns Associated with IgA Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilin Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Body fluid proteome is the most informative proteome from a medical viewpoint. But the lack of accurate quantitation method for complicated body fluid limited its application in disease research and biomarker discovery. To address this problem, we introduced a novel strategy, in which SILAC-labeled mouse serum was used as internal standard for human serum and urine proteome analysis. The SILAC-labeled mouse serum was mixed with human serum and urine, and multidimensional separation coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (IEF-LC-MS/MS analysis was performed. The shared peptides between two species were quantified by their SILAC pairs, and the human-only peptides were quantified by mouse peptides with coelution. The comparison for the results from two replicate experiments indicated the high repeatability of our strategy. Then the urine from Immunoglobulin A nephropathy patients treated and untreated was compared by this quantitation strategy. Fifty-three peptides were found to be significantly changed between two groups, including both known diagnostic markers for IgAN and novel candidates, such as Complement C3, Albumin, VDBP, ApoA,1 and IGFBP7. In conclusion, we have developed a practical and accurate quantitation strategy for comparison of complicated human body fluid proteome. The results from such strategy could provide potential disease-related biomarkers for evaluation of treatment.

  14. Nosocomial Infections: Multicenter surveillance of antimicrobial resistance profile of Staphylococcus aureus and Gram negative rods isolated from blood and other sterile body fluids in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Poorabbas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Antibiotic resistance is increasing, especially in healthcare-associated infections causing significant public health concerns worldwide. National information is required to make appropriate policies, update list of essential drugs for treatment, and evaluate the effects of intervention strategies. A nationwide surveillance of antimicrobial resistant bacteria in nosocomial infections was established in Iran in 2008, so that the data obtained through the surveillance would enable us to construct a database.Materials and Methods: Seven major teaching hospitals in Shiraz, Tabriz, Sari, Mashhad, Sanandaj, Ahwaz and Isfahan participated in this study. A total of 858 strains isolated from blood and other sterile body fluids were tested. Identification at the species level was performed with conventional biochemical methods and the API system. Susceptibility tests were done using disk diffusion method. The methicillin-resistance in S. aureus (MRSA was determined by the oxacillin agar screen plate and respective MIC values were assessed using the E-test strips. The confirmatory disk diffusion methods were applied for phenotypic identification of extended-spectrum β- lactamase (ESBL production for E. coli and K. pneumoniae, according to CLSI guidelines.Results: Cultivation and re-identification of the strains yielded 858 isolates, consisting of 224 S. aureus, 148 Klebsiellaspp., 105 Serratia spp., 146 E. coli, 67 Acinetobacter spp., 38 Enterobacter spp., 95 Pseudomonas spp., 71 P.aeruginosa.35 Stenotrophomonas sp., and 8 other organisms. MRSA was detected in 37.5% of the isolates. No vancomycin-resistant or vancomycin-intermediate resistant S. aureus was detected. With the exception of Acinetobacter and Stenotrophomonas, 85% of the Gram-negative isolates were found to be susceptible in vitro to imipenem. Overall, about 61% of K. pneumoniae and 35% of E. coli isolates were ESBL producing.Conclusion: Multidrug resistant isolates

  15. The interpretation of forensic biochemical expert test made in human body fluids: scientific - legal analysis in the research on sexual offenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contributions of science and technology have covered the whole of human life, and relationships of coexistence are even found in the various disciplines of knowledge through legal forensics. Therefore, it is increasingly imperative that the law enforcement agents are interdisciplinary professionals, with knowledge beyond the legal knowledge to enable them make the most of the scientific knowledge in judicial proceedings. Among the natural sciences applied to right, forensic biochemistry has contributed an extremely relevant test for the investigation of various sexual offenses, much has been so, that the Organismo de Investigacion Judicial of Costa Rica has in its Departamento de Laboratorios de Ciencias Forenses with specialized sections in this discipline. A diversity of skills are performed of presumptive and confirmatory character for the presence of biological fluids, sexually transmitted diseases and identification of DNA by genetic markers. Updated information is given with respect to the correct interpretation of forensic biochemical expertises achievable for identification of semen, blood and human saliva in the investigation of sexual offenses. A scientific and legal language is used allowing the most of this information in the criminal process. The main objective has been to interpret, legal and scientifically, forensic biochemical expert evidence performed in human body fluids during the investigation of sexual offenses. A legal, doctrinal and scientific review is presented with compilation of related jurisprudence and criminology reports analysis of Seccion de Bioquimica of the Departamento de Laboratorios Forenses of the Organismo de Investigacion Juridica issued during the investigation of sexual offenses. Two types of attainable skills have existed for the identification of biological fluids, each with a different binding. In addition, it has been clear, due to the lexicon employed when making a forensic biochemist opinion, that to make a proper

  16. Supercritical fluid extraction of meat lipids: an alternative approach to the identification of irradiated meats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation is currently under study as an alternative method for extending the shelf life of meats and meat products. Accordingly, methods are needed to determine if a meat or meat product has been exposed to ionizing radiation. In this study, a method is described for the isolation and analysis of volatile hydrocarbons formed in meat lipids after exposure to ionizing radiation. The method is based on supercritical fluid extraction of the hydrocarbons from meat lipids and subsequent identification and quantitation of individual hydrocarbons by gas chromatography (GC) with a mass selection detector (MSD). Supercritical carbon dioxide at 175 bar and 40°C extracted the hydrocarbon fraction from total meat lipids within 20 min. The presence of radiolytic hydrocarbons, as determined by GC/MSD, was then correlated to the degree of irradiation of the meat from 0 to 10 kGy. Besides being faster, this method has the advantage of reduced solvent consumption when compared to current methods for determining if a meat or meat product has been irradiated

  17. A stable fluid-structure-interaction solver for low-density rigid bodies using the immersed boundary projection method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lācis, Uǧis; Taira, Kunihiko; Bagheri, Shervin

    2016-01-01

    Dispersion of low-density rigid particles with complex geometries is ubiquitous in both natural and industrial environments. We show that while explicit methods for coupling the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and Newton's equations of motion are often sufficient to solve for the motion of cylindrical particles with low density ratios, for more complex particles - such as a body with a protrusion - they become unstable. We present an implicit formulation of the coupling between rigid body dynamics and fluid dynamics within the framework of the immersed boundary projection method. Similarly to previous work on this method, the resulting matrix equation in the present approach is solved using a block-LU decomposition. Each step of the block-LU decomposition is modified to incorporate the rigid body dynamics. We show that our method achieves second-order accuracy in space and first-order in time (third-order for practical settings), only with a small additional computational cost to the original method. Our implicit coupling yields stable solution for density ratios as low as 10-4. We also consider the influence of fictitious fluid located inside the rigid bodies on the accuracy and stability of our method.

  18. Analysis and Design Tools for Fluid-Structure Interaction with Multi-Body Flexible Structures Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall objective of this proposal (Phases I and II) is to develop a robust and accurate solver for fluid-structure interaction computations capable of...

  19. Analysis of Culture-Dependent versus Culture-Independent Techniques for Identification of Bacteria in Clinically Obtained Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Dickson, Robert P; Erb-Downward, John R.; Prescott, Hallie C.; Martinez, Fernando J; Curtis, Jeffrey L.; Lama, Vibha N.; Huffnagle, Gary B.

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis and management of pneumonia are limited by the use of culture-based techniques of microbial identification, which may fail to identify unculturable, fastidious, and metabolically active viable but unculturable bacteria. Novel high-throughput culture-independent techniques hold promise but have not been systematically compared to conventional culture. We analyzed 46 clinically obtained bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid specimens from symptomatic and asymptomatic lung transplant ...

  20. General-relativistic rotation laws in rotating fluid bodies: constant linear velocity

    CERN Document Server

    Knopik, Jerzy; Malec, Edward

    2015-01-01

    New rotation laws have been recently found for general-relativistic self-gravitating stationary fluids. It was not clear whether they apply to systems rotating with a constant linear velocity. In this paper we fill this gap. The answer is positive. That means, in particular, that these systems should exhibit the recently discovered general-relativistic weak-field effects within rotating tori: the dynamic anti-dragging and the deviation from the Keplerian motion induced by the fluid selfgravity.

  1. Tides in rotating barotropic fluid bodies: the contribution of inertial waves and the role of internal structure

    CERN Document Server

    Ogilvie, Gordon I

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the linear response to low-frequency tidal forcing of fluid bodies that are slowly and uniformly rotating, are neutrally stratified and may contain a solid or fluid core. This problem may be regarded as a simplified model of astrophysical tides in convective regions of stars and giant planets. The response can be separated into non-wavelike and wavelike parts, where the former is related instantaneously to the tidal potential and the latter may involve resonances or other singularities. The imaginary part of the potential Love number of the body, which is directly related to the rates of energy and angular momentum exchange in the tidal interaction and to the rate of dissipation of energy, may have a complicated dependence on the tidal frequency. However, a certain frequency-average of this quantity is independent of the dissipative properties of the fluid and can be determined by means of an impulse calculation. The result is a strongly increasing function of the size of the core when the tidal po...

  2. The Influence of Body Position on Cerebrospinal Fluid Pressure Gradient and Movement in Cats with Normal and Impaired Craniospinal Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radoš, Milan; Erceg, Gorislav; Petošić, Antonio; Jurjević, Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Intracranial hypertension is a severe therapeutic problem, as there is insufficient knowledge about the physiology of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure. In this paper a new CSF pressure regulation hypothesis is proposed. According to this hypothesis, the CSF pressure depends on the laws of fluid mechanics and on the anatomical characteristics inside the cranial and spinal space, and not, as is today generally believed, on CSF secretion, circulation and absorption. The volume and pressure changes in the newly developed CSF model, which by its anatomical dimensions and basic biophysical features imitates the craniospinal system in cats, are compared to those obtained on cats with and without the blockade of craniospinal communication in different body positions. During verticalization, a long-lasting occurrence of negative CSF pressure inside the cranium in animals with normal cranio-spinal communication was observed. CSF pressure gradients change depending on the body position, but those gradients do not enable unidirectional CSF circulation from the hypothetical site of secretion to the site of absorption in any of them. Thus, our results indicate the existence of new physiological/pathophysiological correlations between intracranial fluids, which opens up the possibility of new therapeutic approaches to intracranial hypertension. PMID:24748150

  3. Numerical investigation of incompressible fluid flow and heat transfer across a bluff body in a channel flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taymaz Imdat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lattice Boltzmann Method is applied to computationally investigate the laminar flow and heat transfer of an incompressible fluid with constant material properties in a two-dimensional channel with a built-in bluff body. In this study, a triangular prism is taken as the bluff body. Not only the momentum transport, but also the energy transport is modeled by the Lattice Boltzmann Method. A uniform lattice structure with a single time relaxation rule is used. For obtaining a higher flexibility on the computational grid, interpolation methods are applied, where the information is transferred from the lattice structure to the computational grid by Lagrange interpolation. The flow is investigated for different Reynolds numbers, while keeping the Prandtl number at the constant value of 0.7. The results show how the presence of a triangular prism effects the flow and heat transfer patterns for the steady-state and unsteady-periodic flow regimes. As an assessment of the accuracy of the developed Lattice Boltzmann code, the results are compared with those obtained by a commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics code. It is observed that the present Lattice Boltzmann code delivers results that are of similar accuracy to the well-established Computational Fluid Dynamics code, with much smaller computational time for the prediction of the unsteady phenomena.

  4. Identification of Misfolded Proteins in Body Fluids for the Diagnosis of Prion Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Francesca Properzi; Maurizio Pocchiari

    2013-01-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) or prion diseases are fatal rare neurodegenerative disorders affecting man and animals and caused by a transmissible infectious agent. TSE diseases are characterized by spongiform brain lesions with neuronal loss and the abnormal deposition in the CNS, and to less extent in other tissues, of an insoluble and protease resistant form of the cellular prion protein (PrPC), named PrPTSE. In man, TSE diseases affect usually people over 60 years of age w...

  5. Free convection over a non-isothermal axisymmetric body immersed in a porous medium saturated with an electrically conducting non-Newtonian fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Bagai, Shobha; Nishad, Chandrashekhar

    2013-01-01

    The study investigates the problem of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) free convection over a non-isothermal axisymmetric body under the action of transverse magnetic field. The body is embedded in a porous medium saturated with electrically conducting non-Newtonian power law fluid. In order to obtain similarity solution, it is assumed that the viscosity of the fluid decays exponentially with temperature. The qualitative results are illustrated for a vertical flat plate, horizontal cylinder and sphere.

  6. Fluid and electrolyte control systems in the human body: A study report

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    Research in the area of modeling of the fluid and electrolyte system is briefly reviewed and a model of this system, which is adequate for a basic description of the requisite physiological processes, is presented. The use of this model as an individual subsystem model and as a component of a more complete human model is discussed.

  7. Using of electrodiffusion measurement method for hydrodymanic investigation of bodies moving in fluid under restraint conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Berman, V. P.; Fadeichev, V. V.; Vlasák, Pavel

    Kiev: Nacionalnij techničnij universitet Ukraini Kiivskij politechničnij institut, 1998, s. 236-237. [Measurement 98. Kiev (UA), 07.09.1998-10.09.1998] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK1076602 Keywords : lift off-force * electrodiffusion method * capsule flow Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  8. Silane/TiO 2 coating to control the corrosion rate of magnesium alloys in simulated body fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Córdoba, L.C.; Montemor, M.F.; ,; ,

    2016-01-01

    A silane-based coating modified with titanium IV iso-propoxide was developed to slow down the corrosion rate of AZ31 and ZE41 magnesium alloys intended as biodegradable implants materials. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to monitor the corrosion evolution over 7 weeks in simulated body fluid at 37 °C. A homogeneous crack-free 3 μm-thick coating provided corrosion protection for 2 and 3 weeks to the ZE41 and the AZ31, respectively.The corrosion mechanisms and the nature o...

  9. Asbestos bodies in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids of brake lining and asbestos cement workers.

    OpenAIRE

    Dumortier, P; De Vuyst, P; Strauss, P.; Yernault, J C

    1990-01-01

    Asbestos body (AB) concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage samples of 15 brake lining (BL) workers exposed only to chrysotile have been determined and compared with those from 44 asbestos cement (AC) workers extensively exposed to amphiboles. The mean AB concentrations (263 +/- 802 and 842 +/- 2086 AB/ml respectively) for those groups did not differ significantly but were much higher than those found in control groups. Analytical electron microscopy of asbestos body cores showed that in the ...

  10. Fluid Redistribution and Heart Rate in Humans During Whole-Body Tilting, G(z) Centrifugation, and Lower Body Negative Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watenpaugh, D. E.; Breit, G. A.; Ballard, R. E.; Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    Gravity creates blood pressure gradients which redistribute body fluids towards the feet. Positive G(z) centrifugation and lower body negative pressure (LBNP) have been proposed to simulate these and other effects of gravity during long-term existence in microgravity. We hypothesized that the magnitude of upper-to-lower body fluid redistribution would increase according to the following order: short-arm centrifugation (SAC), long-arm centrifugation (LAC), head-up tilt (HUT), and LBNP. To test this hypothesis, we employed strain gauge plethysmography of the neck, thigh and calf during HUT and supine SAC and LAC up to lG(z) at the feet, and during supine LBNP to 100 mm Hg. Supine 100 mm Hg LBNP generates footward force and produces transmural blood pressures in the foot approximately equal to 1 G(z) (90 deg) HUT. Heart rate was measured via cardiotachometry. Control measurements were made while supine. SAC and LAC elicited similar increases in thigh volume at 1 G(z) (2.3 +/- 0.4 and 2.1 +/- 0.1%, respectively; mean +/- se, n greater than or equal to 7). At 100 mm Hg LBNP, thigh volume increased (3.4 +/- 0.3%) significantly more than during l G(z) centrifugation (p less than 0.05). Surprisingly, due to a paradoxical 0.6% reduction of thigh volume between 0.8 and 1.0 G(z) HUT, thigh volume was increased only 0.6 +/- 0.3% at 1 G(z) HUT. The calf demonstrated similar, although less definitive, responses to the various gravitational stimuli. Neck volume tended to decrease less during HUT than during the other stimuli. Heart rate increased similarly during HUT (18 +/- 2 beats/min) and LAC (12 +/- 2 beats/min), and exhibited still greater elevation during LBNP (29 +/- 4 beats/min), yet did not increase during SAC. These results suggest upright posture activates mechanisms that counteract footward fluid redistribution which are not activated during supine applications of simulated gravity. LAC more closely approximated effects of normal gravity (HUT) than LBNP. Therefore

  11. Bone-like apatite formation on HA/316L stainless steel composite surface in simulated body fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Xin; CHEN Jian; ZOU Jian-peng; WAN Qian; ZHOU Zhong-cheng; RUAN Jian-ming

    2009-01-01

    HA/316L stainless steel(316L SS) biocomposites were prepared by hot-pressing technique. The formation of bone-like apatite on the biocomposite surfaces in simulated body fluid(SBF) was analyzed by digital pH meter, plasma emission spectrometer, scanning electron microscope(SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray energy spectrometer(EDX). The results indicate that the pH value in SBF varies slightly during the immersion. It is a dynamic process of dissolution-precipitation for the formation of apatite on the surface. With prolonging immersion time, Ca and P ion concentrations increase gradually, and then approach equilibrium. The bone-like apatite layer forms on the composites surface, which possesses benign bioactivity and favorable biocompatibility and achieves osseointegration, and can provide firm fixation between HA60/316L SS composite implants and human body bone.

  12. Identification of azurocidin as a potential periodontitis biomarker by a proteomic analysis of gingival crevicular fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jae-Mok

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inflammatory disease periodontitis results in tooth loss and can even lead to diseases of the whole body if not treated. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF reflects the condition of the gingiva and contains proteins transuded from serum or cells at inflamed sites. In this study, we aimed to discover potential protein biomarkers for periodontitis in GCF proteome using LC-MS/MS. Results We identified 305 proteins from GCF of healthy individuals and periodontitis patients collected using a sterile gel loading tip by ESI-MS/MS coupled to nano-LC. Among these proteins, about 45 proteins were differentially expressed in the GCF proteome of moderate periodontitis patients when compared to the healthy individuals. We first identified azurocidin in the GCF, but not the saliva, as an upregulated protein in the periodontitis patients and verified its increased expression during periodontitis by ELISA using the GCF of the classified periodontitis patients compared to the healthy individuals. In addition, we found that azurocidin inhibited the differentiation of bone marrow-derived macrophages to osteoclasts. Conclusions Our results show that GCF collection using a gel loading tip and subsequent LC-MS/MS analysis following 1D-PAGE proteomic separation are effective for the analysis of the GCF proteome. Our current results also suggest that azurocidin could be a potential biomarker candidate for the early detection of inflammatory periodontal destruction by gingivitis and some chronic periodontitis. Our data also suggest that azurocidin may have an inhibitory role in osteoclast differentiation and, thus, a protective role in alveolar bone loss during the early stages of periodontitis.

  13. The ways of amniotic fluid sampling and its influence on lamellar body count

    OpenAIRE

    Višnjevac Jovana; Novakov-Mikić Aleksandra; Nikolić Aleksandra

    2010-01-01

    Even though artificial surfactant is now available, respiratory distress syndrome still remains a serious problem in neonatology. Prenatal analysis of the amniotic fluid can provide data giving insight into the fetal lung maturity, which enables planning of the further outcome of high-risk pregnancies. Surfactant prevents atelectasis by forming a layer rich in phospholipids between the air and liquid phase in alveoli thus leading to increased surface tension in them, which is a precondi...

  14. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy and Corrosion Behavior of Co/CeO2 Nanocomposite Coatings in Simulating Body Fluid Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benea, Lidia

    2013-02-01

    A series of Co/CeO2 (25 nm) nanocomposite coating materials by electrodeposition were successfully prepared containing different cerium oxide composition in the cobalt-plating bath. Stainless steel (304L) was used as support material for nanocomposite coatings. The nano-CeO2 is uniformly incorporated into cobalt matrix, and the effect on surface morphologies was identified by scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. Codeposition of nano-CeO2 particles with cobalt disturbs the regular surface morphology of the cobalt coatings. It should be noted that the as-prepared Co/CeO2 nanocomposite coatings were found to be much superior in corrosion resistance over those of pure cobalt coatings materials based on a series of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements in simulating body fluid solution. With increase in the nano-CeO2 particles concentration in the cobalt electrolyte, it is observed that the corrosion resistance of Co/CeO2 increases. Co/CeO2 nanocomposite coatings have higher polarization resistance as compared with pure cobalt layers in simulating body fluid solution.

  15. Modelling flow and heat transfer around a seated human body by computational fluid dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Dan Nørtoft; Voigt, Lars Peter Kølgaard

    2003-01-01

    A database (http://www.ie.dtu.dk/manikin) containing a detailed representation of the surface geometry of a seated female human body was created from a surface scan of a thermal manikin (minus clothing and hair). The radiative heat transfer coefficient and the natural convection flow around...

  16. Pleural mesothelioma and exposure to asbestos: evaluation from work histories and analysis of asbestos bodies in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or lung tissue in 131 patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Pairon, J C; Orlowski, E; Iwatsubo, Y; Billon-Galland, M A; Dufour, G.; Chamming's, S; Archambault, C; Bignon, J; Brochard, P

    1994-01-01

    Exposure to asbestos was evaluated in 131 patients with pleural malignant mesothelioma in the Paris area between 1986 and 1992 using data from a detailed specific questionnaire and light microscopy analysis of the retention of asbestos bodies in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or lung tissue. Probable or definite exposure to significant levels of asbestos dust was identified in only 48 (36.6%) subjects, and significant asbestos body counts (above 1 asbestos body/ml in bronchoalveolar lavage flui...

  17. Fluids of Pseudo-Hard Bodies: From Simulations to Equations of State

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rouha, M.; Nezbeda, Ivo

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 278, 1-2 (2009), s. 15-19. ISSN 0378-3812 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400720710; GA AV ČR IAA400720802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : pseudo-hard bodies * virial coefficients * perturbed virial expansion Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.857, year: 2009

  18. Paradoxes of body fluid volume regulation in health and disease. A unifying hypothesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Schrier, R W; Niederberger, M

    1994-01-01

    The body's normal homeostasis is maintained by the integrity of the excretory capacity of the kidneys. In advanced cardiac failure, however, the avidity of the renal sodium and water retention contributes to the occurrence of pulmonary congestion and peripheral edema. In patients with advanced cirrhosis, the kidneys again fail to excrete the amounts of sodium and water ingested, thus leading to ascites and peripheral edema. The signals for this renal retention of sodium and water in a patient...

  19. Standard-free method for body fluid samples such as saliva, sweat, snivel and tear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed standard-free methods for PIXE analysis of hair, nail, urine and serum, and they have widely been applied to studies on human exposure to some toxic elements caused by pollution in many countries. Although these samples are known to be quite suited for evaluating human exposure to toxic elements, there is a cause where it is required to quantitatively analyze other samples taken from people. We have examined sweat, saliva, snivel and tear, which are expected to be useful for estimating concentration of various elements in a human body. However, sufficient quantities of them are difficult to be taken from a human body and it is required to establish standard-free methods for these samples. In the present work, standard-free methods for sweat and saliva were established and its accuracy and reproducibility are confirmed. It becomes possible to quantitatively analyze only a drop of sweat and saliva by means of this method. For snivel and tear, potassium concentration is obtained by the internal-standard method for a small-spot sample and the conversion coefficient required for the standard-free method was evaluated. It is found that analyses of these samples give us useful information about some specific elements. As the standard-free methods are free from dryness of samples, which becomes a serious problem in the case where the internal-standard method is applied, it is expected to give more essential information about elemental concentration in a human body. (author)

  20. A stable fluid-structure-interaction solver for low-density rigid bodies using the immersed boundary projection method

    CERN Document Server

    Lācis, Uǧis; Bagheri, Shervin

    2015-01-01

    Dispersion of low-density rigid particles with complex geometries is ubiquitous in both natural and industrial environments. We show that while explicit methods for coupling the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and Newton's equations of motion are often sufficient to solve for the motion of cylindrical particles with low density ratios, for more complex particles - such as a body with a protrusion - they become unstable. We present an implicit formulation of the coupling between rigid body dynamics and fluid dynamics within the framework of the immersed boundary projection method. Similar to previous work on this method, the resulting matrix equation in the present approach is solved using a block-LU decomposition. Each step of the block-LU decomposition is modified to incorporate the rigid body dynamics. We show that our method achieves second-order accuracy in space and first-order in time (third-order for practical settings), only with a small additional computational cost to the original method. Our...

  1. Analysis of culture-dependent versus culture-independent techniques for identification of bacteria in clinically obtained bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Robert P; Erb-Downward, John R; Prescott, Hallie C; Martinez, Fernando J; Curtis, Jeffrey L; Lama, Vibha N; Huffnagle, Gary B

    2014-10-01

    The diagnosis and management of pneumonia are limited by the use of culture-based techniques of microbial identification, which may fail to identify unculturable, fastidious, and metabolically active viable but unculturable bacteria. Novel high-throughput culture-independent techniques hold promise but have not been systematically compared to conventional culture. We analyzed 46 clinically obtained bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid specimens from symptomatic and asymptomatic lung transplant recipients both by culture (using a clinical microbiology laboratory protocol) and by bacterial 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Bacteria were identified in 44 of 46 (95.7%) BAL fluid specimens by culture-independent sequencing, significantly more than the number of specimens in which bacteria were detected (37 of 46, 80.4%, P ≤ 0.05) or "pathogen" species reported (18 of 46, 39.1%, P ≤ 0.0001) via culture. Identification of bacteria by culture was positively associated with culture-independent indices of infection (total bacterial DNA burden and low bacterial community diversity) (P ≤ 0.01). In BAL fluid specimens with no culture growth, the amount of bacterial DNA was greater than that in reagent and rinse controls, and communities were markedly dominated by select Gammaproteobacteria, notably Escherichia species and Pseudomonas fluorescens. Culture growth above the threshold of 10(4) CFU/ml was correlated with increased bacterial DNA burden (P < 0.01), decreased community diversity (P < 0.05), and increased relative abundance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P < 0.001). We present two case studies in which culture-independent techniques identified a respiratory pathogen missed by culture and clarified whether a cultured "oral flora" species represented a state of acute infection. In summary, we found that bacterial culture of BAL fluid is largely effective in discriminating acute infection from its absence and identified some specific limitations of BAL fluid culture in the

  2. Penetration of cefonicid into human breast milk and various body fluids and tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, M A; Wu, Y H; Jacob, L S; Pitkin, D H

    1984-01-01

    A new cephalosporin, cefonicid (1 g), was given intramuscularly to 49 patients 1 hr before they were to undergo surgery and to 10 healthy lactating women. The concentration of cefonicid was assayed by disk agar diffusion with the use of Bacillus subtilis as the test organism. Concentrations of cefonicid in tissue and fluid specimens were obtained. The data demonstrate that within 1 hr of intramuscular injection of cefonicid, effective concentrations of cefonicid in serum and tissue for common microbial pathogens were achieved. This finding suggests that cefonicid would be useful for perioperative prophylaxis in surgical patients. Although the concentration of cefonicid in breast milk was low at 1 hr after injection, more information is needed regarding the subsequent secretion of cefonicid before a conclusive statement can be made concerning the danger of sensitization in infants of nursing mothers. PMID:6522923

  3. Fabrication of nanotube arrays on commercially pure titanium and their apatite-forming ability in a simulated body fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Hsueh-Chuan; Wu, Shih-Ching; Hsu, Shih-Kuang [Department of Dental Technology and Materials Science, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taiwan, ROC (China); Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Materials Science, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chang, Yu-Chen [Department of Mechanical and Automation Engineering, Da-Yeh University, Taiwan, ROC (China); Ho, Wen-Fu, E-mail: fujii@nuk.edu.tw [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National University of Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2015-02-15

    In this study, we investigated self-organized TiO{sub 2} nanotubes that were grown using anodization of commercially pure titanium at 5 V or 10 V in NH{sub 4}F/NaCl electrolyte. The nanotube arrays were annealed at 450 °C for 3 h to convert the amorphous nanotubes to anatase and then they were immersed in simulated body fluid at 37 °C for 0.5, 1, and 14 days. The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the apatite-formation abilities of anodized Ti nanotubes with different tube diameters and lengths. The nanotubes that formed on the surfaces of Ti were examined using a field emission scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope. When the anodizing potential was increased from 5 V to 10 V, the pore diameter of the nanotube increased from approximately 24–30 nm to 35–53 nm, and the tube length increased from approximately 590 nm to 730 nm. In vitro testing of the heat-treated nanotube arrays indicated that Ca-P formation occurred after only 1 day of immersion in simulated body fluid. This result was particularly apparent in the samples that were anodized at 10 V. It was also found that the thickness of the Ca-P layer increases as the applied potential for anodized c.p. Ti increases. The average thickness of the Ca-P layer on Ti that was anodized at 5 V and 10 V was approximately 170 nm and 190 nm, respectively, after immersion in simulated body fluid for 14 days. - Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} nanotube on Ti surface was formed by anodic oxidation in a NaCl/NH{sub 4}F solution. • TiO{sub 2} layers show a tube length of 590 nm and 730 nm at 5 V and 10 V, respectively. • After soaking in SBF, Ca-P layer completely covered the entire nanotubular surfaces. • The Ca-P layer was thicker on the Ti surface anodized at 10 V.

  4. Paralytic shellfish poisoning: post-mortem analysis of tissue and body fluid samples from human victims in the Patagonia fjords.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Carlos; del Carmen Bravo, María; Lagos, Marcelo; Lagos, Néstor

    2004-02-01

    In July 5, 2002 fishermen working in harvesting sea urchin (Loxechinus albus) in the Patagonia Chilean fjords were intoxicated by consumption of filter-feeder bivalve Aulacomya ater. After the ingestion of 7-9 ribbed mussel, two fishermen died 3-4 h after shellfish consumption. The forensic examination in both victims did not show pathological abnormalities with the exception of the lungs conditions, crackling to the touch, pulmonary congestion and edema. The toxic mussel sample showed a toxicity measured by mouse bioassay of 8575 microg of STX (saxitoxin) equivalent by 100 g of shellfish meat. Using post-column derivatization HPLC method with fluorescent on line detection was possible to measure mass amount of each paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxin yielding individual toxin concentrations. These PSP toxins were identified in the gastric content, body fluids (urine, bile and cerebrospinal fluid) and tissue samples (liver, kidney, lung, stomach, spleen, heart, brain, adrenal glands, pancreas and thyroids glands). The toxin profiles of each body fluid and tissue samples and the amount of each PSP toxin detected are reported. The PSP toxins found in the gastric content, were STX and the gonyautoxins (GTX4, GTX1, GTX5, GTX3 and GTX2) which showed to be the major amount of PSP toxins found in the victims biological samples. The PSP toxin composition in urine and bile showed as major PSP toxins neoSaxitoxin (neoSTX) and GTX4/GTX1 epimers, both STX analogues with an hydroxyl group (-OH) in the N(1) of the tetrahydropurine nucleus. The neoSTX was not present in the gastric content sample, indicating that the oxidation of N(1) in the STX tetrahydropurine nucleus resulted neoSTX, in a similar way that GTX3/GTX2 epimers were transformed in GTX4/GTX1 epimers. Beside this metabolic transformation, also the hydrolysis of carbamoyl group from STX to form its decarbomoyl analogue decarbamoylsaxitoxin was detected in liver, kidney and lung. These two findings show that PSP

  5. Squeeze flow of sticking viscoplastic fluids : Direct identification of behaviour parameters by an equivalent flow curve

    OpenAIRE

    ESTELLE, P; Lanos, C; TOUTOU, Z; Servais, C.

    2004-01-01

    A squeeze flow analysis method of sticking viscoplastic fluids is developed. This method allows an equivalent flow curve to be extracted from freeze data. From this equivalent flow curve, rheological properties of viscoplastic fluids can be directly identified. For this, we have calculated an instantaneous average strain rate. This average strain rate is defined by means of a dimensional analysis coupled with energy balance. Furthermore, we consider a Bingham model to describe the squeeze flo...

  6. Identification of kimberlite bodies in Brazil from a 3D audio-magnetotelluric survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lugao, P. P.; Eric, C. D. O.; Loureiro, F. O.; Arantes, P. R.; Pastana, A. F.

    2015-12-01

    We report on a succesfull identification of kimberlite bodies in Brazil through the use of the electromagnetic technique audio-magnetotelluric (AMT). Macnae (1979) writes that "In one large survey in South Africa, electromagnetic (EM) techniques have proven to be remarkably effective in detecting the presence of weathered clays or epiclastic kimberlite contained within the pipes." Full tensor AMT data were acquired at 65 points (stations) in a 3D configuration with frequencies ranging from 10kHz to 1Hz. The survey was located in the NW portion of the Mato Grosso state, Brazil, in na area of thick jungle coverage. During the AMT survey, few outcrops were seen because of the dense forest cover. Usually, the occurrences found were of sand deposits, indicating the occurence of Fazenda Casa Branca and Utiariti Formations and gravel from Salto das Nuvens Formation, widely used in paving trails n this region. In the area of the survey, three main targets were confirmed/identified: Kimberlite Area 1 - a classic kimberlite in the region, with the crater facies with different clasts and distinct size. We noted the occurrence of a red-brown soil and an unusual vegetation in this area. The resistivity model provided confirmed the presence of Kimberlite Area 1 and was used to identify other two areas. Area of Interest 1 - area with atypical vegetation along a trail. There is an excavation that displays soil of white color with several blocks present, there are small quartz crystal agglomerates in these blocks. The resistivity model cleary shows a conductive body here, indicative of the presence of a kimberlite. Area of Interest 2 - the presence of a kimberlite was confirmed, not exactly where the targeted Area 2 was, but the southwest of it. Close to this area, there was a very fine rock and a few blocks of pure silica, probably indicating a kimberlitic intrusion. In summary, the 3D resistivity model in depth obtained from inversion of the AMT data confirmed and identified

  7. Stability of carbon nanotube yarn biofuel cell in human body fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Cheong Hoon; Lee, Jae Ah; Choi, Young-Bong; Kim, Hyug-Han; Spinks, Geoffrey M.; Lima, Márcio D.; Baughman, Ray H.; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2015-07-01

    High performance with stability, easy-handling electrodes, and biofluid-flow controllable system with mechanical strength of the biofuel cell can be considered as the critical issues for future human body implant. These three challenges are sufficiently considered by using the effective platform regarding the high surface area from multi-walled carbon nanotube-conducting polymer with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), and size/shape dependent flexible yarn electrodes for the implantation of biofuel cell. High power biofuel cell of mW cm-2 range in physiological condition (low glucose-containing phosphate buffered saline solution and human blood serum) controlling the stirring degree is also first demonstrated for future implantation in this study. Biofuel cells for future implantation in human body vitally require long-term stability and high power outputs. We have demonstrated that a high-surface area yarn-based biofuel cell retained over 70% of its initial power output after an extended 20 days period of continuous operation in human blood serum, while delivering a power density of ∼1.0 mW cm-2. Subsequently, our enhanced enzymatic biofuel cell system would be potentially used as an innovative power source for the next generation implantable electronics.

  8. Investigations with a simplified method for radiometric determination of vitamin B12 in body fluids and feeding stuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A modified method for radiometrical determination of vitamin B12 is described, which in difference to the known methods is based on measurement of free B12 after absorption to albumin-coated charcoal instead of measurement of intrinsic factor B12-complex. The conditions for extraction from serum, milk, rumen-liquor and urine have been investigated and the effect of pH on IF-B12-binding in presence of these body fluids examined. Parallel microbiological determinations (O.m.- and L.1.-test) were in good correlation (r = 0,93-0,97) to radiometrically determined B12-contents in milk and rumen-liquor, but not to that in serum of dairy cows (r = 0,54-0,82). The analytical procedures are given in detail. (orig.)

  9. Corrosion mechanism and model of pulsed DC microarc oxidation treated AZ31 alloy in simulated body fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu Yanhong, E-mail: ygu2@alaska.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States); Chen Chengfu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States); Bandopadhyay, Sukumar [Department of Mining Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States); Ning Chengyun [College of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhang Yongjun [Department of Mining Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States); Guo Yuanjun [College of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2012-06-01

    This paper addresses the effect of pulse frequency on the corrosion behavior of microarc oxidation (MAO) coatings on AZ31 Mg alloys in simulated body fluid (SBF). The MAO coatings were deposited by a pulsed DC mode at four different pulse frequencies of 300 Hz, 500 Hz, 1000 Hz and 3000 Hz with a constant pulse ratio. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests were used for corrosion rate and electrochemical impedance evaluation. The corroded surfaces were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and optical microscopy. All the results exhibited that the corrosion resistance of MAO coating produced at 3000 Hz is superior among the four frequencies used. The XRD spectra showed that the corrosion products contain hydroxyapatite, brucite and quintinite. A model for corrosion mechanism and corrosion process of the MAO coating on AZ31 Mg alloy in the SBF is proposed.

  10. Dissolution and precipitation behaviors of silicon-containing ceramic coating on Mg-Zn-Ca alloy in simulated body fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yaokun; Chen, Chuanzhong; Wang, Diangang; Huang, Danlan

    2014-10-01

    We prepared Si-containing and Si-free coatings on Mg-1.74Zn-0.55Ca alloy by micro-arc oxidation. The dissolution and precipitation behaviors of Si-containing coating in simulated body fluid (SBF) were discussed. Corrosion products were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS). Electrochemical workstation, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES), flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) and pH meter were employed to detect variations of electrochemical parameter and ions concentration respectively. Results indicate that the fast formation of calcium phosphates is closely related to the SiOx(n-) groups, which induce the heterogeneous nucleation of amorphous hydroxyapatite (HA) by sorption of calcium and phosphate ions. PMID:25174544

  11. Preparation and studies on surface modifications of calcium-silico-phosphate ferrimagnetic glass-ceramics in simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure and magnetic behaviour of 34SiO2-(45 - x) CaO-16P2O5-4.5 MgO-0.5 CaF2 - x Fe2O3 (where x = 5, 10, 15, 20 wt.%) glasses have been investigated. Ferrimagnetic glass-ceramics are prepared by melt quench followed by controlled crystallization. The surface modification and dissolution behaviour of these glass-ceramics in simulated body fluid (SBF) have also been studied. Phase formation and magnetic behaviour have been studied using XRD and SQUID magnetometer. The room temperature Moessbauer study has been done to monitor the local environment around Fe cations and valence state of Fe ions. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to study the surface modification in glass-ceramics when immersed in simulated body fluid. Formation of bioactive layer in SBF has been ascertained using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The SBF solutions were analyzed using an absorption spectrophotometer. The magnetic measurements indicated that all these glasses possess paramagnetic character and the [Fe2+/Fe3+] ions ratio depends on the composition of glass and varied with Fe2O3 concentration in glass matrix. In glass-ceramics saturation magnetization increases with increase in amount of Fe2O3. The nanostructure of hematite and magnetite is formed in the glass-ceramics with 15 and 20 wt.% Fe2O3, which is responsible for the magnetic property of these glass-ceramics. Introduction of Fe2O3 induces several modifications at the glass-ceramics surface when immersed in SBF solution and thereby affecting the surface dissolution and the formation of the bioactive layer.

  12. Influence of hot rolling parameters on microstructure and biodegradability of Mg-1Ca alloy in simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Three different reduction levels and temperatures were taken into account. → Corrosion properties were investigated by electrochemical and immersion tests. → The biodegradability of Mg-1Ca alloy in SBF was improved by rolling process. → Higher reduction combined with lower temperature in rolling was more satisfying. -- Abstract: Binary Mg-1Ca alloy has been considered as a potential material for implant applications due to its non-toxic and biodegradable properties. However, the high corrosion tendency of the alloy, as a serious drawback, limited its practical efficiency. In this study, the effect of hot rolling on biodegradability of Mg-1Ca was investigated as a process to improve the microstructure and corrosion resistance of the alloy in simulated body fluid. The as-cast alloy was rolled to various reduction levels at different temperatures. Optical and scanning electron microscopy together with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis were used characterize the microstructure of the as-cast and rolled samples. Immersion and potentiodynamic polarization tests were performed to examine the electrochemical and corrosion behavior of the samples in simulated body fluid. The results showed that the high corrosion tendency of as-cast Mg-1Ca was remarkably reduced by the hot rolling process due to the microstructure refinement. It was found that the corrosion rate of the samples which experienced higher reduction percentages decreased to some extent. However, the weight loss results indicated that the rolling process at higher temperatures caused more corrosion products to emerge on the surface of the samples. It can be associated with the accumulation and growth of Mg2Ca phase at the grain boundaries.

  13. Adverse incidents resulting in exposure to body fluids at a UK dental teaching hospital over a 6-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hughes A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A Hughes,1 L Davies,1 R Hale,1 JE Gallagher21Kings College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, 2King's College London Dental Institute, London, United KingdomBackground: The safety and protection of patients and health care workers is of paramount importance in dentistry, and this includes students in training who provide clinical care. Given the nature of dental care, adverse incidents can and do occur, exposing health care workers to body fluids and putting them at risk of infection, including contracting a blood-borne virus. The aim of this research was to analyze trends in the volume, rate, nature, management, and outcome of adverse incidents reported at one dental teaching hospital from 2005 to 2010.Methods: Descriptive analysis of trends in the volume, rate, nature, management, and outcome of adverse incidents reported at one dental teaching hospital over a six-year period was undertaken in relation to the level of outpatient and day surgery activity.Results: In total, 287 incidents were reported over a six-year period, which amounted to 0.039% of outpatient or day surgery appointments. Nearly three quarters of all the incidents (n = 208, 72% took place during treatment or whilst clearing away after the appointment. The most frequent incidents were associated with administration of local anesthetic (n = 63, 22%, followed by burs used in dental hand pieces (n = 51, 18%.Conclusion: This research confirms that adverse incidents are a feature of dental hospitals and reports the common sources. The importance of accurate and consistent reporting of data to ensure that these issues are monitored to inform action and reduce risks to staff, students, and patients are highlighted.Keywords: risk management, blood-borne virus, dental hospital, body fluids exposure, adverse event reporting

  14. A fluid Foucault pendulum: the impossibility of achieving solid-body rotation on Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Robert; Zimmerman, Daniel; Triana, Santiago; Lathrop, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    Rotating fluid dynamics is key to our understanding of the Earth's atmosphere, oceans, and core, along with a plethora of astrophysical objects. Laboratory study of these natural systems often involves spinning experimental devices, which are assumed to tend to rigid rotation when unstirred. We present results showing that even at the tabletop scale, there is a measurable oscillatory flow driven by the precession of the experiment's axis as the earth rotates. We measure this flow in a rotating cylinder with an adjustable aspect ratio. The horizontal flow in the rotating frame is measured using particle tracking. The steady state is well-described by an inertial mode whose amplitude is maximum when the height to diameter ratio is 0.995, which matches theoretical predictions. We also quantify the resonant amplitude of the inertial mode in the cylinder and estimate the amplitude in other devices. We compare our results to similar studies done in spherical devices. [Triana et al., JGR, 117 (2012), B04103][Boisson et al., EPL, 98 (2012), 59002].

  15. A Numerical Study on Water Waves Generated by A Submerged Moving Body in A Two-Layer Fluid System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jia-Zhen; NG Chiu-On; ZHANG Dao-Hua

    2009-01-01

    This is a numerical study on the time development of surface waves generated by a submerged body moving steadily in a two-layer fluid system, in which a layer of water is underlain by a layer of viscous mud. The fully nonlinear Navier-Stokes equations are solved on FLUENT with the Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) multiphase scheme in order to simulate the free surface waves as well as the water-mud interface waves as functions of time. The numerical model is validated by mimick-ing a reported experiment in a one-layer system before it is applied to a two-layer system, it is found that the presence of bottom mud in a water layer can lead to large viscous damping of the surface waves. For the investigation of the problem systematically, the effects of the Froude number and the mud layer thickness, density and viscosity relative to those of water are evaluated and discussed in detail.

  16. Removal of zearalenone toxin from synthetics gastric and body fluids using talc and diatomite: a batch kinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprynskyy, Myroslav; Gadzała-Kopciuch, Renata; Nowak, Karolina; Buszewski, Bogusław

    2012-06-01

    Adsorption kinetics of zearalenone (ZEA) toxin from synthetic gastric fluid (SGF) and synthetic body fluid (SBF) by talc and diatomite was studied in the batch experiments. Chemical composition, morphology and structure of the used adsorbents were examined by scanning electron microscopy, FTIR spectroscopy and low-temperature nitrogen adsorption/desorption method. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was used for ZEA determining. The study results showed that ZEA is more effectively adsorbed on the talc (73% and 54% from SGF and SBF respectively). The efficiency on the diatomite was lower (53% and 42% from SGF and SBF respectively). The first order kinetics model was applied to describe the adsorption process. Rate of the ZEA adsorption from SGF is very rapid initially with about 95% of amount of the toxin adsorbed during first 5 min, while ZEA is adsorbed from SBF in two steps. The values of determined Gibbs free energy of adsorption (from -13 to -17 kJ/mol) indicated that adsorption of ZEA toxin by the both adsorbents are spontaneous and exothermic. PMID:22326340

  17. Steady incompressible potential flow around lifting bodies immersed in a fluid. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiuchiolo, E. A.

    1974-01-01

    The refinement was investigated of a method for evaluating the pressure distribution on a body surface of arbitrary shape in incompressible flow. The solution was obtained in terms of the velocity potential, through numerical approximations which require the use of a high speed digital computer. The box method and the modal method are described in detail, and were applied to a very thin, rectangular wing in incompressible, steady flow. The box method is found to be more practical as it is applicable to more general geometries (the modal method requires a new set of functions for each geometry), and requires less computer time (fifty percent of that required by the modal method for the same problem).

  18. Comparative study of acetazolamide and spironolactone on body fluid compartments on induction to high altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M. V.; Jain, S. C.; Rawal, S. B.; Divekar, H. M.; Parshad, Rajinder; Tyagi, A. K.; Sinha, K. C.

    1986-03-01

    Studies were conducted on 29 male healthy subjects having no previous experience of living at high altitude. These subjects were divided into three groups, i.e., subjects treated with placebo, acetazolamide and spironolactone. These subjects were first studied in Delhi. The drug schedule was started 24 hour prior to the airlift of these subjects to an altitude of 3,500 m and was continued for 48 hour after arrival at high altitude. Total body water, extra cellular water, plasma volume, blood electrolytes, pH, pO2, pCO2 and blood viscosity were determined on 3rd and 12th day of their stay at high altitude. Total body water, extra cellular water intracellular water and plasma volume decreased on high altitude exposure. There was a further slight decrease in these compartments with acetazolamide and spironolactone. It was also observed that spironolactone drives out more water from the extracellular compartment. Loss of plasma water was also confirmed by increased plasma osmolality. Increase in arterial blood pH was noticed on hypoxic exposure but the increase was found less in acetazolamide and spironolactone cases. This decrease in pH is expected to result in better oxygen delivery to the tissues at the low oxygen tension. It was also confirmed because blood pO2 increased in both the groups. No significant change in plasma electrolytes was observed in subjects of various groups. Blood viscosity slightly increased on exposure to high altitude. The degree of rise was found less in the group treated with spironolactone. This study suggests that both the drugs are likely to be beneficial in ameliorating/prevention of AMS syndrome.

  19. Non-Darcy Free Convection of Power-Law Fluids Over a Two-Dimensional Body Embedded in a Porous Medium

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed

    2010-11-27

    A boundary layer analysis was presented to study the non-Darcy-free convection of a power-law fluid over a non-isothermal two-dimensional body embedded in a porous medium. The Ostwald-de Waele power-law model was used to characterize the non-Newtonian fluid behavior. Similarity solutions were obtained with variations in surface temperature or surface heat flux. In view of the fact that most of the non-Newtonian fluids have large Prandtl numbers, this study was directed toward such fluids. The effects of the porous medium parameters, k1 and k2, body shape parameter, m, and surface thermal variations parameter, p, as well as the power-law index, n, were examined. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  20. LABILE IRON IN CELLS AND BODY FLUIDS . Physiology, Pathology and Pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvi Ioav Cabantchik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In living systems iron appears predominantly associated with proteins, but can also be detected in forms referred as labile iron, which denotes the combined redox properties of iron and its amenability to exchange between ligands, including chelators. The labile cell iron (LCI composition varies with metal concentration and substances with chelating groups but also with pH and the redox potential. Although physiologically in the lower µM range, LCI plays a key role in cell iron economy as cross-roads of metabolic pathways. LCI levels are continually regulated by an iron-responsive machinery that balances iron uptake versus deposition into ferritin. However, LCI rises aberrantly in some cell types due to faulty cell utilization pathways or infiltration by pathological iron forms that are found in hemosiderotic plasma. As LCI attains pathological levels, it can catalyze reactive O species (ROS formation that, at particular threshold, can surpass cellular anti-oxidant capacities and seriously damage its constituents. While in normal plasma and interstitial fluids, virtually all iron is securely carried by circulating transferrin (that renders iron essentially non-labile, in systemic iron overload (IO, the total plasma iron binding capacity is often surpassed by a massive iron influx from hyperabsorptive gut or from erythrocyte overburdened spleen and/or liver. As plasma transferrin approaches iron saturation, labile plasma iron (LPI emerges in forms that can infiltrate cells by unregulated routes and raise LCI to toxic levels. Despite the limited knowledge available on LPI speciation in different types and degrees of iron overload, LPI measurements can be and are in fact used for identifying systemic IO and for initiating/adjusting chelation regimens to attain full-day LPI protection. A recent application of labile iron assay is the detection of labile components in iv iron formulations per se as well as in plasma (LPI following parenteral iron

  1. Identification of gonadotrophin surge-inhibiting factor (GnSIF)/attenuin in human follicular fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroueh, J M; Arbogast, L K; Fowler, P; Templeton, A A; Friedman, C I; Danforth, D R

    1996-03-01

    Evidence from several laboratories suggests that the ovaries of many species produce a non-steroidal factor called gonadotrophin surge-inhibiting or attenuating factor (GnSIF) which may regulate the response of the pituitary to gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and as such, may modulate the timing and/or amplitude of the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge. We have recently isolated a candidate GnSIF from porcine follicular fluid (PFF). Porcine GnSiF is a 69 kDa protein which has undetectable inhibin and follistatin immunological and biological activity. The present study was designed to purify and identify GnSIF from human follicular fluid. GnSIF activity was measured as suppression of GnRH-stimulated LH secretion from rat pituitary cells in primary culture. Human follicular fluid (approximately 500 ml) was recovered from patients undergoing in-vitro fertilization (IVF). GnSIF was purified by heparin-sepharose, Q-sepharose, S-sepharose, and hydrophobic interaction chromatography followed by isoelectric focusing. Gel electrophoresis and Western blot were used to identify human GnSIF and compare it with porcine GnSIF. Using these steps, we obtained a highly-purified preparation of GnSIF that manifests in-vitro bioactivity and chromatography characteristics similar to those observed for porcine GnSIF and that hybridizes with a porcine GnSIF antibody. Following treatment with human chorionic gonadotrophin/human menopausal gonadotrophin (HMG/HCG), human follicular fluid contained roughly 25% of the GnSIF (per mg protein) present in porcine follicular fluid. We conclude that GnSIF is present in human follicular fluid and may participate in the regulation of gonadotrophin secretion in this species. PMID:8671252

  2. Hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope fractionation in body fluid compartments of dairy cattle according to season, farm, breed, and reproductive stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeni, Fabio; Petrera, Francesca; Capelletti, Maurizio; Dal Prà, Aldo; Bontempo, Luana; Tonon, Agostino; Camin, Federica

    2015-01-01

    Environmental temperature affects water turnover and isotope fractionation by causing water evaporation from the body in mammals. This may lead to rearrangement of the water stable isotope equilibrium in body fluids. We propose an approach to detect possible variations in the isotope ratio in different body fluids on the basis of different homoeothermic adaptations in varying reproductive stages. Three different reproductive stages (pregnant heifer, primiparous lactating cow, and pluriparous lactating cow) of two dairy cattle breeds (Italian Friesian and Modenese) were studied in winter and summer. Blood plasma, urine, faecal water, and milk were sampled and the isotope ratios of H (2H/1H) and O (18O/16O) were determined. Deuterium excess and isotope-fractionation factors were calculated for each passage from plasma to faeces, urine and milk. The effects of the season, reproductive stages and breed on δ2H and δ18O were significant in all the fluids, with few exceptions. Deuterium excess was affected by season in all the analysed fluids. The correlations between water isotope measurements in bovine body fluids ranged between 0.6936 (urine-milk) and 0.7848 (urine-plasma) for δ2H, and between 0.8705 (urine-milk) and 0.9602 (plasma-milk) for δ18O. The increase in both isotopic δ values in all body fluids during summer is representative of a condition in which fractionation took place as a consequence of a different ratio between ingested and excreted water, which leads to an increased presence of the heavy isotopes. The different body water turnover between adult lactating cattle and non-lactating heifers was confirmed by the higher isotopic δ for the latter, with a shift in the isotopic equilibrium towards values more distant from those of drinking water. PMID:25996911

  3. Transient fluid-structure interaction of elongated bodies by finite-element method using elliptical and spheroidal absorbing boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, S. K.; Premkumar, R.

    2003-12-01

    In a domain method of solution of exterior scalar wave equation, the radiation condition needs to be imposed on a truncation boundary of the modeling domain. The Bayliss, Gunzberger, and Turkel (BGT) boundary dampers, which require a circular cylindrical and spherical truncation boundaries in two-(2D) and three-(3D)-dimensional problems, respectively, have been particularly successful in the analysis of scattering and radiation problems. However, for an elongated body, elliptical (2D) or spheroidal (3D) truncation boundaries have potential to reduce the size of modeling domain and hence computational effort. For harmonic problems, such extensions of the first- and second-order BGT dampers are available in the literature. In this paper, BGT dampers in both elliptical and spheroidal coordinate systems have been developed for transient problems involving acoustic radiation as well as fluid-structure interaction and implemented in the context of finite-element method based upon unsymmetric pressure-displacement formulation. Applications to elongated radiators and shells are reported using several numerical examples with excellent comparisons. It is demonstrated that significant computational economy can be achieved for elongated bodies with the use of these dampers.

  4. Nanostructured hydroxyapatite/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) composite coating for controlling magnesium degradation in simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biodegradable magnesium (Mg) and its alloys have many attractive properties (e.g. comparable mechanical properties to cortical bone) for orthopedic implant applications, but they degrade too rapidly in the human body to meet clinical requirements. Nanostructured hydroxyapatite (nHA)/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) composite coatings provide synergistic properties for controlling degradation of Mg-based substrates and improving bone–implant integration. In this study, nHA/PLGA composites were spin coated onto Mg-based substrates and the results showed that the nHA/PLGA coatings retained nano-scale features with nHA dispersed in PLGA matrix. In comparison with non-coated Mg, the nHA/PLGA composite coated Mg increased the corrosion potential and decreased the corrosion current in revised simulated body fluid (rSBF). After 24 h of immersion in rSBF, increased calcium phosphate (CaP) deposition and formation of Mg-substituted CaP rosettes were observed on the surface of the nHA/PLGA coated Mg, indicating greater bioactivity. In contrast, no significant CaP was deposited on the PLGA coated Mg. Since both PLGA coating and nHA/PLGA coating showed some degree of delamination from Mg-based substrates during extended immersion in rSBF, the coating processing and properties should be further optimized in order to take full advantage of biodegradable Mg and nHA/PLGA nanocomposites for orthopedic applications. (paper)

  5. Nanostructured hydroxyapatite/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) composite coating for controlling magnesium degradation in simulated body fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ian; Akari, Khalid; Liu, Huinan

    2013-09-01

    Biodegradable magnesium (Mg) and its alloys have many attractive properties (e.g. comparable mechanical properties to cortical bone) for orthopedic implant applications, but they degrade too rapidly in the human body to meet clinical requirements. Nanostructured hydroxyapatite (nHA)/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) composite coatings provide synergistic properties for controlling degradation of Mg-based substrates and improving bone-implant integration. In this study, nHA/PLGA composites were spin coated onto Mg-based substrates and the results showed that the nHA/PLGA coatings retained nano-scale features with nHA dispersed in PLGA matrix. In comparison with non-coated Mg, the nHA/PLGA composite coated Mg increased the corrosion potential and decreased the corrosion current in revised simulated body fluid (rSBF). After 24 h of immersion in rSBF, increased calcium phosphate (CaP) deposition and formation of Mg-substituted CaP rosettes were observed on the surface of the nHA/PLGA coated Mg, indicating greater bioactivity. In contrast, no significant CaP was deposited on the PLGA coated Mg. Since both PLGA coating and nHA/PLGA coating showed some degree of delamination from Mg-based substrates during extended immersion in rSBF, the coating processing and properties should be further optimized in order to take full advantage of biodegradable Mg and nHA/PLGA nanocomposites for orthopedic applications.

  6. A sensitive and practical RP-HPLC-FLD for determination of the low neuroactive amino acid levels in body fluids and its application in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Juan-Li; Yu, Si-Yang; Wu, Shi-Hua; Bao, Ai-Min

    2016-03-11

    Ion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) generally fails as a method to determine low levels of free amino acids (AAs) in body fluids. Here we present a modified reversed-phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) protocol for the determination of AAs in body fluids and its application in mood disorder patients. We improved a previous research protocol by modifying i) sample preparation, including deproteination, ii) derivitization, including derivating agent and condition, and iii) sample separation, which is mainly determined by the pH value, the components and the additives of the mobile phases. The combination of these modifications, together with fluorescence detection (FLD), allows sensitive and practical determination of free AA levels in body fluids of depressive patients. This protocol was validated by determining the postmortem cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) glutamic acid (Glu) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels of 8 major depressive disorder (MDD) patients, 9 bipolar disorder (BD) patients, and 19 well-matched controls, while also testing the plasma and CSF AA levels of living MDD patients. CSF Glu and GABA levels were both significantly decreased in MDD but not in BD patients. The data indicate that this RP-HPLC-FLD protocol is applicable for detection of low levels of neuroactive AAs in body fluids, as well as for routine clinical applications. PMID:26808642

  7. Smart fast blood counting of trace volumes of body fluids from various mammalian species using a compact custom-built microscope cytometer (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Zachary J.; Gao, Tingjuan; Lin, Tzu-Yin; Carrade-Holt, Danielle; Lane, Stephen M.; Matthews, Dennis L.; Dwyre, Denis M.; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian

    2016-03-01

    Cell counting in human body fluids such as blood, urine, and CSF is a critical step in the diagnostic process for many diseases. Current automated methods for cell counting are based on flow cytometry systems. However, these automated methods are bulky, costly, require significant user expertise, and are not well suited to counting cells in fluids other than blood. Therefore, their use is limited to large central laboratories that process enough volume of blood to recoup the significant capital investment these instruments require. We present in this talk a combination of a (1) low-cost microscope system, (2) simple sample preparation method, and (3) fully automated analysis designed for providing cell counts in blood and body fluids. We show results on both humans and companion and farm animals, showing that accurate red cell, white cell, and platelet counts, as well as hemoglobin concentration, can be accurately obtained in blood, as well as a 3-part white cell differential in human samples. We can also accurately count red and white cells in body fluids with a limit of detection ~3 orders of magnitude smaller than current automated instruments. This method uses less than 1 microliter of blood, and less than 5 microliters of body fluids to make its measurements, making it highly compatible with finger-stick style collections, as well as appropriate for small animals such as laboratory mice where larger volume blood collections are dangerous to the animal's health.

  8. MicroRNAs transported by exosomes in body fluids as mediators of intercellular communication in cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salido-Guadarrama I

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Iván Salido-Guadarrama,1 Sandra Romero-Cordoba,1 Oscar Peralta-Zaragoza,2 Alfredo Hidalgo-Miranda,1 Mauricio Rodríguez-Dorantes1 1Oncogenomics Laboratory, National Institute of Genomics Medicine, Mexico City, Mexico; 2Direction of Chronic Infections and Cancer, Research Center in Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico Abstract: Cancer-cell communication is an important and complex process, achieved through a diversity of mechanisms that allows tumor cells to mold and influence their environment. In recent years, evidence has accumulated indicating that cells communicate via the release and delivery of microRNAs (miRNAs packed into tumor-released (TR exosomes. Understanding the role and mode of action of miRNAs from TR exosomes is of paramount importance in the field of cancer biomarker discovery and for the development of new biomedical applications for cancer therapeutics. In this review, we focus on miRNAs secreted via TR exosomes, which by acting in a paracrine or endocrine manner, facilitate a diversity of signaling mechanisms between cancer cells. We address their contribution as signaling molecules, to the establishment, maintenance, and enhancement of the tumor microenvironment and the metastatic niche in cancer. Finally, we address the potential role of these molecules as biomarkers in cancer diagnosis and prognosis and their impact as a biomedical tool in cancer therapeutics. Keywords: tumor cells, multivesicular bodies, interference RNA, biomarkers and therapeutics

  9. In vitro degradation of ZM21 magnesium alloy in simulated body fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witecka, Agnieszka; Bogucka, Aleksandra; Yamamoto, Akiko; Máthis, Kristián; Krajňák, Tomáš; Jaroszewicz, Jakub; Święszkowski, Wojciech

    2016-08-01

    In vitro degradation behavior of squeeze cast (CAST) and equal channel angular pressed (ECAP) ZM21 magnesium alloy (2.0wt% Zn-0.98wt% Mn) was studied using immersion tests up to 4w in three different biological environments. Hanks' Balanced Salt Solution (Hanks), Earle's Balanced Salt Solution (Earle) and Eagle minimum essential medium supplemented with 10% (v/v) fetal bovine serum (E-MEM+10% FBS) were used to investigate the effect of carbonate buffer system, organic compounds and material processing on the degradation behavior of the ZM21 alloy samples. Corrosion rate of the samples was evaluated by their Mg(2+) ion release, weight loss and volume loss. In the first 24h, the corrosion rate sequence of the CAST samples was as following: Hanks>E-MEM+10% FBS>Earle. However, in longer immersion periods, the corrosion rate sequence was Earle>E-MEM+10% FBS≥Hanks. Strong buffering effect provided by carbonate buffer system helped to maintain the pH avoiding drastic increase of the corrosion rate of ZM21 in the initial stage of immersion. Organic compounds also contributed to maintain the pH of the fluid. Moreover, they adsorbed on the sample surface and formed an additional barrier on the insoluble salt layer, which was effective to retard the corrosion of CAST samples. In case of ECAP, however, this effect was overcome by the occurrence of strong localized corrosion due to the lower pH of the medium. Corrosion of ECAP samples was much greater than that of CAST, especially in Hanks, due to higher sensitivity of ECAP to localized corrosion and the presence of Cl(-). The present work demonstrates the importance of using an appropriate solution for a reliable estimation of the degradation rate of Mg-base degradable implants in biological environments, and concludes that the most appropriate solution for this purpose is E-MEM+10% FBS, which has the closest chemical composition to human blood plasma. PMID:27157728

  10. Peptidomic Analysis of Amniotic Fluid for Identification of Putative Bioactive Peptides in Ventricular Septal Defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ventricular septal defect (VSD is one of the most common congenital heart diseases and to date the role of peptides in human amniotic fluid in the pathogenesis of VSD have been rarely investigated. Methods: To gain insight into the mechanisms of protein and peptides in cardiovascular development, we constructed a comparative peptidomic profiling of human amniotic fluid between normal and VSD fetuses using a stable isobaric labeling strategy involving tandem mass tag reagents, followed by nano liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results: We identified and quantified 692 non-redundant peptides, 183 of which were differentially expressed in the amniotic fluid of healthy and VSD fetuses; 69 peptides were up regulated and 114 peptides were down regulated. These peptides were imported into the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA and identified putative roles in cardiovascular system morphogenesis and cardiogenesis. Conclusion: We concluded that 35 peptides located within the functional domains of their precursor proteins could be candidate bioactive peptides for VSD. The identified peptide changes in amniotic fluid of VSD fetuses may advance our current understanding of congenital heart disease and these peptides may be involved in the etiology of VSD.

  11. Dynamic Parameter Identification of Subject-Specific Body Segment Parameters Using Robotics Formalism: Case Study Head Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Rodríguez, Miguel; Valera, Angel; Page, Alvaro; Besa, Antonio; Mata, Vicente

    2016-05-01

    Accurate knowledge of body segment inertia parameters (BSIP) improves the assessment of dynamic analysis based on biomechanical models, which is of paramount importance in fields such as sport activities or impact crash test. Early approaches for BSIP identification rely on the experiments conducted on cadavers or through imaging techniques conducted on living subjects. Recent approaches for BSIP identification rely on inverse dynamic modeling. However, most of the approaches are focused on the entire body, and verification of BSIP for dynamic analysis for distal segment or chain of segments, which has proven to be of significant importance in impact test studies, is rarely established. Previous studies have suggested that BSIP should be obtained by using subject-specific identification techniques. To this end, our paper develops a novel approach for estimating subject-specific BSIP based on static and dynamics identification models (SIM, DIM). We test the validity of SIM and DIM by comparing the results using parameters obtained from a regression model proposed by De Leva (1996, "Adjustments to Zatsiorsky-Seluyanov's Segment Inertia Parameters," J. Biomech., 29(9), pp. 1223-1230). Both SIM and DIM are developed considering robotics formalism. First, the static model allows the mass and center of gravity (COG) to be estimated. Second, the results from the static model are included in the dynamics equation allowing us to estimate the moment of inertia (MOI). As a case study, we applied the approach to evaluate the dynamics modeling of the head complex. Findings provide some insight into the validity not only of the proposed method but also of the application proposed by De Leva (1996, "Adjustments to Zatsiorsky-Seluyanov's Segment Inertia Parameters," J. Biomech., 29(9), pp. 1223-1230) for dynamic modeling of body segments. PMID:26974715

  12. Effects of Implant Design Parameters on Fluid Convection, Potentiating 3rd Body Debris Ingress into the Bearing Surface during THA Impingement/Subluxation

    OpenAIRE

    Lundberg, Hannah J.; Pedersen, Douglas R.; Baer, Thomas E.; Muste, Marian; Callaghan, John J.; Brown, Thomas D.

    2007-01-01

    Aseptic loosening from polyethylene wear debris is the leading cause of failure for metal-on-polyethylene total hip implants. Third body debris ingress to the bearing space results in femoral head roughening and acceleration of polyethylene wear. How third body particles manage to enter the bearing space between the closely conforming articulating surfaces of the joint is not well understood. We hypothesize that one such mechanism is from convective fluid transport during subluxation of the t...

  13. Identification of repellent odorants to the body louse, Pediculus humanus corporis, in clove essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamatsu, Takuma; Miyamoto, Daisuke; Mitsuno, Hidefumi; Yoshioka, Yoshiaki; Fujii, Takeshi; Sakurai, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Yukio; Kanzaki, Ryohei

    2016-04-01

    The control of body lice is an important issue for human health and welfare because lice act as vectors of disease such as typhus, relapsing fever, and trench fever. Body lice exhibit avoidance behavior to some essential oils, including clove essential oil. Therefore, odorants containing clove essential oil components may potentially be useful in the development of repellents to body lice. However, such odorants that induce avoidance behavior in body lice have not yet been identified from clove essential oil. Here, we established an analysis method to evaluate the avoidance behavior of body lice to specific odorants. The behavioral analysis of the body lice in response to clove essential oil and its constituents revealed that eugenol, a major component of clove essential oil, has strong repellent effect on body lice, whereas the other components failed to induce obvious avoidance behavior. A comparison of the repellent effects of eugenol with those of other structurally related odorants revealed possible moieties that are important for the avoidance effects to body lice. The repellent effect of eugenol to body lice was enhanced by combining it with the other major component of clove essential oil, β-caryophyllene. We conclude that a synthetic blend of eugenol and β-caryophyllene is the most effective repellent to body lice. This finding will be valuable as the potential use of eugenol as body lice repellent. PMID:26864790

  14. Identification of an average temperature and a dynamical pressure in a multitemperature mixture of fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouin, Henri; Ruggeri, Tommaso

    2008-07-01

    We present a classical approach to a mixture of compressible fluids when each constituent has its own temperature. The introduction of an average temperature together with the entropy principle dictates the classical Fick law for diffusion and also novel constitutive equations associated with the difference of temperatures between the components. The constitutive equations fit with results recently obtained through a Maxwellian iteration procedure in extended thermodynamics theory of multitemperature mixtures. The differences of temperatures between the constituents imply the existence of a dynamical pressure even if the fluids have a zero bulk viscosity. The nonequilibrium dynamical pressure can be measured and may be convenient in several physical situations, such as, for example, in cosmological circumstances where--as many authors assert--a dynamical pressure played a major role in the evolution of the early universe. PMID:18764046

  15. Identification of an average temperature and a dynamical pressure in a multitemperature mixture of fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Gouin, Henri

    2008-01-01

    We present a classical approach of a mixture of compressible fluids when each constituent has its own temperature. The introduction of an average temperature together with the entropy principle dictates the classical Fick law for diffusion and also novel constitutive equations associated with the difference of temperatures between the components. The constitutive equations fit with results recently obtained through Maxwellian iteration procedure in extended thermodynamics theory of multitemperature mixtures. The differences of temperatures between the constituents imply the existence of a new dynamical pressure even if the fluids have a zero bulk viscosity. The nonequilibrium dynamical pressure can be measured and may be convenient in several physical situations as for example in cosmological circumstances where - as many authors assert - a dynamical pressure played a major role in the evolution of the early universe.

  16. Identification of microRNAs in the cerebrospinal fluid as biomarker for the diagnosis of glioma

    OpenAIRE

    Baraniskin, Alexander; Kuhnhenn, Jan; Schlegel, Uwe; Maghnouj, Abdelouahid; Zöllner, Hannah; Schmiegel, Wolf; Hahn, Stephan; Schroers, Roland

    2011-01-01

    Malignant gliomas are the most common and lethal primary intracranial tumors. To date, no reliable biomarkers for the detection and risk stratification of gliomas have been identified. Recently, we demonstrated significant levels of microRNAs (miRNAs) to be present in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from patients with primary CNS lymphoma. Because of the involvement of miRNA in carcinogenesis, miRNAs in CSF may serve as unique biomarkers for minimally invasive diagnosis of glioma. The objec...

  17. Peptide Fingerprinting of Alzheimer's Disease in Cerebrospinal Fluid: Identification and Prospective Evaluation of New Synaptic Biomarkers

    OpenAIRE

    Holger Jahn; Stefan Wittke; Petra Zürbig; Raedler, Thomas J; Sönke Arlt; Markus Kellmann; William Mullen; Martin Eichenlaub; Harald Mischak; Klaus Wiedemann

    2011-01-01

    Background: Today, dementias are diagnosed late in the course of disease. Future treatments have to start earlier in the disease process to avoid disability requiring new diagnostic tools. The objective of this study is to develop a new method for the differential diagnosis and identification of new biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) using capillary-electrophoresis coupled to mass-spectrometry (CE-MS) and to assess the potential of early diagnosis of AD. Methods and Findings: Cerebro...

  18. Role of α2-adrenoceptors in the lateral parabrachial nucleus in the control of body fluid homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A.F. Andrade

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Central α2-adrenoceptors and the pontine lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN are involved in the control of sodium and water intake. Bilateral injections of moxonidine (α2-adrenergic/imidazoline receptor agonist or noradrenaline into the LPBN strongly increases 0.3 M NaCl intake induced by a combined treatment of furosemide plus captopril. Injection of moxonidine into the LPBN also increases hypertonic NaCl and water intake and reduces oxytocin secretion, urinary sodium, and water excreted by cell-dehydrated rats, causing a positive sodium and water balance, which suggests that moxonidine injected into the LPBN deactivates mechanisms that restrain body fluid volume expansion. Pretreatment with specific α2-adrenoceptor antagonists injected into the LPBN abolishes the behavioral and renal effects of moxonidine or noradrenaline injected into the same area, suggesting that these effects depend on activation of LPBN α2-adrenoceptors. In fluid-depleted rats, the palatability of sodium is reduced by ingestion of hypertonic NaCl, limiting intake. However, in rats treated with moxonidine injected into the LPBN, the NaCl palatability remains high, even after ingestion of significant amounts of 0.3 M NaCl. The changes in behavioral and renal responses produced by activation of α2-adrenoceptors in the LPBN are probably a consequence of reduction of oxytocin secretion and blockade of inhibitory signals that affect sodium palatability. In this review, a model is proposed to show how activation of α2-adrenoceptors in the LPBN may affect palatability and, consequently, ingestion of sodium as well as renal sodium excretion.

  19. Anti-Taenia solium monoclonal antibodies for the detection of parasite antigens in body fluids from patients with neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Adriana; Sáenz, Patricia; Marzal, Miguel W; Orrego, Miguel A; Castillo, Yesenia; Rivera, Andrea; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; García, Hector H; Nash, Theodore E

    2016-07-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC), an infection of the brain by Taenia solium (Ts) cysts, is the most common cause of adult-onset epilepsy in developing countries. Serological testing consists primarily of varying methods to detect antibodies in body fluids and more recently antigen (Ag) detection assays to identify individuals or animals with viable parasites. Antigen assays currently in use employ monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) raised against T. saginata, which have known cross reactivity to animal cestodes but are highly specific in human samples. We produced, characterized and tested 21 mAbs raised against T. solium whole cyst antigens, vesicular fluid or excretory secretory products. Reactivity of the TsmAbs against specific cyst structures was determined using immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry on histological sections of Ts muscle cysts. Four TsmAbs reacted to vesicular space alone, 9 to the neck and cyst wall, one to the neck and vesicular space and 7 to the neck, cyst wall and vesicular space. An in-house ELISA assay to detect circulating Ts antigen, using the TsmAbs as capture antibodies and a rabbit polyclonal anti-Ts whole cyst antibody as a detector antibody demonstrated that eight of the 21 TsmAbs detected antigens in known NCC-positive human sera and three of these also in urine samples. Reactivity was expressed as normalized ratios of optical densities (OD positive control/OD negative control). Three TsmAbs had ratios >10 and five between 2 and 10. The TsmAbs have potential utility for the diagnosis and post-treatment monitoring of patients with viable NCC infections. PMID:27018063

  20. Role of α{sub 2}-adrenoceptors in the lateral parabrachial nucleus in the control of body fluid homeostasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, C.A.F.; Andrade-Franzé, G.M.F.; De Paula, P.M.; De Luca, L.A. Jr.; Menani, J.V. [Departamento de Fisiologia e Patologia, Faculdade de Odontologia, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2014-01-10

    Central α{sub 2}-adrenoceptors and the pontine lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN) are involved in the control of sodium and water intake. Bilateral injections of moxonidine (α{sub 2}-adrenergic/imidazoline receptor agonist) or noradrenaline into the LPBN strongly increases 0.3 M NaCl intake induced by a combined treatment of furosemide plus captopril. Injection of moxonidine into the LPBN also increases hypertonic NaCl and water intake and reduces oxytocin secretion, urinary sodium, and water excreted by cell-dehydrated rats, causing a positive sodium and water balance, which suggests that moxonidine injected into the LPBN deactivates mechanisms that restrain body fluid volume expansion. Pretreatment with specific α{sub 2}-adrenoceptor antagonists injected into the LPBN abolishes the behavioral and renal effects of moxonidine or noradrenaline injected into the same area, suggesting that these effects depend on activation of LPBN α{sub 2}-adrenoceptors. In fluid-depleted rats, the palatability of sodium is reduced by ingestion of hypertonic NaCl, limiting intake. However, in rats treated with moxonidine injected into the LPBN, the NaCl palatability remains high, even after ingestion of significant amounts of 0.3 M NaCl. The changes in behavioral and renal responses produced by activation of α{sub 2}-adrenoceptors in the LPBN are probably a consequence of reduction of oxytocin secretion and blockade of inhibitory signals that affect sodium palatability. In this review, a model is proposed to show how activation of α{sub 2}-adrenoceptors in the LPBN may affect palatability and, consequently, ingestion of sodium as well as renal sodium excretion.

  1. Multicomponent analysis of radiolytic products in human body fluids using high field proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grootveld, M.C.; Herz, H.; Naughton, D.; Perera, A.; Knappitt, J.; Blake, D.R.; Claxson, A.W.D. [London Hospital Medical College (United Kingdom). The Inflammation Research Group; Haywood, R.; Hawkes, G.E. [Queen Mary and Westfield College, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry

    1994-05-01

    High field proton Hahn spin-echo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been employed to investigate radiolytic damage to biomolecules present in intact human body fluids. {gamma}-Radiolysis of healthy or rheumatoid human serum (5.00 kGy) in the presence of atmospheric O{sub 2} gave rise to reproducible elevations in the concentration of NMR-detectable acetate which are predominantly ascribable to the prior oxidation of lactate to pyruvate by hydroxyl radical ({sup .}OH) followed by oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate by radiolytically-generated hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and/or further {sup .}OH radical. Increases in the serum levels of non-protein-bound, low-molecular-mass components such as citrate and glutamine were also observed subsequent to {gamma}-radiolysis, an observation which may reflect their mobilisation from protein binding-sites by {sup .}OH radical, superoxide anion and/or HO{sub 2}. Moreover, substantial radiolytically-mediated elevations in the concentration of serum formate were also detectable. In addition to the above modifications, {gamma}-radiolysis of inflammatory knee-joint synovial fluid (SF) generated a low-molecular-mass oligosaccharide species derived from the radiolytic fragmentation of hyaluronate. The radiolytically-mediated production of acetate in SF samples was markedly greater than that observed in serum samples, a consequence of the much higher levels of {sup .}OH radical-scavenging lactate present. Indeed, increases in SF acetate concentration were detectable at doses as low as 48 Gy. We conclude that high field proton NMR analysis provides much useful information regarding the relative radioprotectant abilities of endogenous components and the nature, status and levels of radiolytic products generated in intact biofluids. (author).

  2. Role of α2-adrenoceptors in the lateral parabrachial nucleus in the control of body fluid homeostasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Central α2-adrenoceptors and the pontine lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN) are involved in the control of sodium and water intake. Bilateral injections of moxonidine (α2-adrenergic/imidazoline receptor agonist) or noradrenaline into the LPBN strongly increases 0.3 M NaCl intake induced by a combined treatment of furosemide plus captopril. Injection of moxonidine into the LPBN also increases hypertonic NaCl and water intake and reduces oxytocin secretion, urinary sodium, and water excreted by cell-dehydrated rats, causing a positive sodium and water balance, which suggests that moxonidine injected into the LPBN deactivates mechanisms that restrain body fluid volume expansion. Pretreatment with specific α2-adrenoceptor antagonists injected into the LPBN abolishes the behavioral and renal effects of moxonidine or noradrenaline injected into the same area, suggesting that these effects depend on activation of LPBN α2-adrenoceptors. In fluid-depleted rats, the palatability of sodium is reduced by ingestion of hypertonic NaCl, limiting intake. However, in rats treated with moxonidine injected into the LPBN, the NaCl palatability remains high, even after ingestion of significant amounts of 0.3 M NaCl. The changes in behavioral and renal responses produced by activation of α2-adrenoceptors in the LPBN are probably a consequence of reduction of oxytocin secretion and blockade of inhibitory signals that affect sodium palatability. In this review, a model is proposed to show how activation of α2-adrenoceptors in the LPBN may affect palatability and, consequently, ingestion of sodium as well as renal sodium excretion

  3. Biochemical Technology Program progress report for the period January 1--June 30, 1976. [Centrifugal analyzers and advanced analytical systems for blood and body fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mrochek, J.E.; Burtis, C.A.; Scott, C.D. (comps.)

    1976-09-01

    This document, which covers the period January 1-June 30, 1976, describes progress in the following areas: (1) advanced analytical techniques for the clinical laboratory, (2) fast clinical analyzers, (3) development of a miniaturized analytical clinical laboratory system, (4) centrifugal fast analyzers for animal toxicological studies, and (5) chemical profile of body fluids.

  4. Tissue weights and adaptation response of the toad after 96 hours of exposure to simulated high altitude — A body fluid and hematological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, H. M.; Boral, M. C.

    1985-12-01

    Adult male toads were exposed to simulated high altitude of 24,000 feet for 96 hrs of continuous exposure in a decompression chamber. The animals were sacrificed immediately after the exposure period. Significant increase of the weight of the ventricle and spleen is observed in altitude exposed animals. Red blood cell, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit ratio and red cell mass are significantly increased in high altitude exposed animals in comparison to control. MCV (mean corpuscular volume) and MCH (mean corpuscular hemoglobin) are decreased in altitude exposed group. Plasma volume, blood volume, extracellular fluid volume, intracellular fluid volume and total body water are decreased significantly after altitude exposure for 96 hrs. These physiological changes are thought to be due to dehydration of this animal at simulated high altitude and it is highly affected after 96 hrs of exposure as evidenced by the significant reduction of total body water and intracellular fluid volume.

  5. Identification of a cAMP-dependent protein kinase in bovine and human follicular fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L S; Kadam, A L; Koide, S S

    1993-11-01

    A soluble protein kinase (PK) was purified from bovine and human follicular fluids (FF) by ultrafiltration through a PM-10 membrane followed by chromatography on heparin-agarose, DEAE-cellulose and cellulose phosphate columns. The PK phosphorylated calf thymus histones and endogenous FF proteins having estimated Mrs of 40, 62, 128 and 180 KD. cAMP enhanced PK activity; whereas protein kinase A (PKA)-inhibitor peptide blocked the activity. The present findings suggest that the enzyme is a cAMP-dependent PK. PMID:8118427

  6. Carbonated hydroxyapatite starting from calcite and different orthophosphates under moderate hydrothermal conditions: Synthesis and surface reactivity in simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Carbonated apatite (CAP) could be easily obtained from CaCO3 and orthophosphates. • Highest CaCO3 dissolution and apatitic carbonate content were obtained with H3PO4. • A-B-type CAP was formed. • The synthesized CAP was thermally stable up to 1000 °C. • This CAP showed high biomineralization activity before and after thermal treatment. - Abstract: The one-step synthesis of carbonated hydroxyapatite (CAP) using calcite and different orthophosphates was investigated in a closed batch reactor. Only orthophosphoric acid could lead to the complete decomposition of calcite particles, when the reaction temperature was set at 80 °C. On the other hand, the reaction time and the dilution of the initial calcite suspension had no significant influence on the formation of the solid products. CAP was formed as the main crystalline calcium phosphate with the carbonate content in the range of 4.2–4.6 wt.%. The thermal decarbonation of the synthesized CAP started at 750 °C but it was only significant at 1000 °C under air atmosphere. This thermal decarbonation was total at 1200 °C or above. All CAP samples and products following thermal treatments were found bioactive in the test using simulated body fluid (SBF) solution

  7. Carbonated hydroxyapatite starting from calcite and different orthophosphates under moderate hydrothermal conditions: Synthesis and surface reactivity in simulated body fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham Minh, Doan, E-mail: doan.phamminh@mines-albi.fr; Nzihou, Ange; Sharrock, Patrick

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Carbonated apatite (CAP) could be easily obtained from CaCO{sub 3} and orthophosphates. • Highest CaCO{sub 3} dissolution and apatitic carbonate content were obtained with H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. • A-B-type CAP was formed. • The synthesized CAP was thermally stable up to 1000 °C. • This CAP showed high biomineralization activity before and after thermal treatment. - Abstract: The one-step synthesis of carbonated hydroxyapatite (CAP) using calcite and different orthophosphates was investigated in a closed batch reactor. Only orthophosphoric acid could lead to the complete decomposition of calcite particles, when the reaction temperature was set at 80 °C. On the other hand, the reaction time and the dilution of the initial calcite suspension had no significant influence on the formation of the solid products. CAP was formed as the main crystalline calcium phosphate with the carbonate content in the range of 4.2–4.6 wt.%. The thermal decarbonation of the synthesized CAP started at 750 °C but it was only significant at 1000 °C under air atmosphere. This thermal decarbonation was total at 1200 °C or above. All CAP samples and products following thermal treatments were found bioactive in the test using simulated body fluid (SBF) solution.

  8. Cyclic delamination behavior of plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coating on Ti-6Al-4V substrates in simulated body fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Yuichi; Kawaguchi, Hayato; Mutoh, Yoshiharu

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to clarify the effect of a simulated body fluid (SBF) on the cyclic delamination behavior of a plasma-sprayed hydroxapatite (HAp) coating. A HAp coating is deposited on the surfaces of surgical metallic materials in order to enhance the bond between human bone and such surfaces. However, the HAp coating is susceptible to delamination by cyclic loading from the patient's gait. Although hip joints are subjected to both positive and negative moments, only the effects of tensile bending stresses on vertical crack propagation behavior have been investigated. Thus, the cyclic delamination behavior of a HAp coating was observed at the stress ratio R=-1 in order to determine the effects of tensile/compressive loading on the delamination behavior. The delamination growth rate increased with SBF immersion, which decreased the delamination life. Raman spectroscopy analysis revealed that the selective phase dissolution in the HAp coating was promoted at interfaces. Finite element analysis revealed that the energy release rate Gmax showed a positive value even in cases with compressive loading, which is a driving force for the delamination of a HAp coating. A prediction model for the delamination growth life was developed that combines a fracture mechanics parameter with the assumed stress-dependent dissolution rate. The predicted delamination life matched the experimental data well in cases of lower stress amplitudes with SBF. PMID:27287152

  9. In vitro biomineralization of a novel hydroxyapatite/superhydrophilic multiwalled carbon nanotube nanocomposite using simulated body fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neves, Marcele Florencio; Brazil, Tayra Rodrigues; Marciano, Fernanda Roberta; Lobo, Anderson Oliveira, E-mail: aolobo@univap.br [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba(IP and D,/NANOBIO/UniVap), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento. Lab. de Nanotecnologia Biomedica; Soares, Luis Eduardo Silva [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba(IP and D/LEVB/UniVap), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento. Lab. de Espectroscopia Vibracional Biomdica; Corat, Evaldo Jose [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisa Espacial (LAS/INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Lab. Associado de Sensores e Materiais

    2013-11-01

    Nano biomaterials based on superhydrophilic vertically-aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (VAMWCNT-O{sub 2} ) are promising for their properties and bone tissue biocompatibility. VAMWCNT-O{sub 2} films with nanohydroxyapatite (nHAp) aim to improve mechanical properties and biocompatibility of this new nanocomposite due to its resemblance to bone matrix structure. This study aimed to produce in vitro biomineralized nHAp/VAMWCNT-O2 nanocomposites using simulated body fluid (SBF) with two different pHs (6.10 and 7.40) during 7 days to obtain a new surface design with higher crystallinity and better morphology of nHAp/VAMWCANT-O{sub 2} nanocomposites. The objective is to obtain biomineralized nano biomaterials to enable its applicability as 'scaffold' to cellular support and consequent bone tissue formation, accelerating the osseointegration. Layer densification has been achieved due to polycrystalline nano apatites deposition on surface and between the biomineralized nHAp/VAMWCNT-O{sub 2} nanocomposites, without any heat treatment. Therefore, through its characteristics and properties these nanocomposite applications can be considered extremely viable for acceleration of in vivo regenerative processes. (author)

  10. Electrodeposition of HAp coatings on Ti6Al4V alloy and its electrochemical behavior in simulated body fluid solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh Dinh, Thi Mai; Thom Nguyen, Thi; Pham, Thi Nam; Phuong Nguyen, Thu; Thu Trang Nguyen, Thi; Hoang, Thai; Grossin, David; Bertrand, Ghislaine; Drouet, Christophe

    2016-06-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) coatings were prepared on Ti6Al4V substrate by electrodeposition method from electrolyte solution containing Ca(NO3)2, NH4H2PO4 and NaNO3. The results show that the HAp coatings were single phase crystals of HAp. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images present that HAp/Ti6Al4V have flake shapes which arrange to form like-coral agglomerates. In vitro test of the Ti6Al4V and HAp/Ti6Al4V in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution was investigated with different immersion times. pH of SBF solution decreased and the mass of materials increased. SEM images prove the formation of apatite on the surface of Ti6Al4V and HAp/Ti6Al4V. The corrosion current density during immersion time of substrate is always higher than the one of HAp/Ti6Al4V because the deposited HAp can protect well for the substrate.

  11. Corrosion mechanism of micro-arc oxidation treated biocompatible AZ31 magnesium alloy in simulated body fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Lia; Fang Lu; Honglong Li; Wenjun Zhu; Haobo Pan; Guoxin Tand; Yonghua Lao; Chengyun Ning; Guoxin Ni

    2014-01-01

    The rapid degradation of magnesium (Mg) based alloys has prevented their further use in orthopedic trauma fixation and vascular intervention, and therefore it is essential to investigate the corrosion mechanism for improving the corrosion resistance of these alloys. In this work, the effect of applied voltage on the surface morphology and the corrosion behavior of micro-arc oxidation (MAO) with different voltages were carried out to obtain biocompatible ceramic coatings on AZ31 Mg alloy. The effects of applied voltage on the surface morphology and the corrosion behavior of MAO samples in the simulated body fluid (SBF) were studied systematically. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) were employed to characterize the morphologies and phase compositions of coating before and after corrosion. The results showed that corrosion resistance of the MAO coating obtained at 250 V was better than the others in SBF. The dense layer of MAO coating and the corrosion precipitation were the key factors for corrosion behavior. The corrosion of precipitation Mg(OH)2 and the calcium phosphate (Ca–P) minerals on the surface of MAO coatings could enhance their corrosion resistance effectively. In addition, the mechanism of MAO coated Mg alloys was proposed.

  12. Biomineralization behavior of a vinylphosphonic acid-based copolymer added with polymerization accelerator in simulated body fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Hamai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Apatite-polymer composites have been evaluated in terms of its potential application as bone substitutes. Biomimetic processes using simulated body fluid (SBF are well-known methods for preparation of such composites. They are reliant on specific functional groups to induce the heterogeneous apatite nucleation and phosphate groups possess good apatite-forming ability in SBF. Improving the degree of polymerization is important for obtaining phosphate-containing polymers, because the release of significant quantities of monomer or low molecular weight polymers can lead to suppression of the apatite formation. To date, there have been very few studies pertaining to the effect of adding a polymerization accelerator to the polymerization reaction involved in the formation of these composite materials under physiological conditions. In this study, we have prepared a copolymer from triethylene glycol dimethacrylate and vinylphosphonic acid (VPA in the presence of different amounts of sodium p-toluenesulfinate (p-TSS as a polymerization accelerator. The effects of p-TSS on the chemical durability and apatite formation of the copolymers were investigated in SBF. The addition of 0.1–1.0 wt% of p-TSS was effective for suppressing the dissolution of the copolymers in SBF, whereas larger amount had a detrimental effect. A calcium polyvinylphosphate instead of the apatite was precipitated in SBF.

  13. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of silver doped hydroxyapatite coating in simulated body fluid used as corrosive agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mišković-Stanković Vesna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium is a key biomedical material due its good biocompatibility, mechanical properties and corrosion stability, but infections of the implantation site still pose serious threat. One approach to prevent infection is to improve antimicrobial ability of the coating material. Silver doped hydroxyapatite (Ag/HAP nanoparticles were synthesized by new modified precipitation method. The synthesized powder was used for preparation of Ag/HAP coating on titanium by electrophoretic deposition. The coating was characterized in terms of phase composition and structure by Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR and X-ray diffraction (XRD; surface morphology and chemical composition was assessed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS. Research focused on evaluation of the corrosion behaviour of Ag/HAP coating in simulated body fluid (SBF at 37 ºC during prolonged immersion time by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. Silver doped HAP coating provided good corrosion protection in SBF solution. [Acknowledgements. This research was financed by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia, contracts No. III 45019 and by National Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC. Dr Ana Jankovic was financed by the FP7 Nanotech FTM Grant Agreement 245916

  14. In vitro biomineralization of a novel hydroxyapatite/superhydrophilic multiwalled carbon nanotube nanocomposite using simulated body fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nano biomaterials based on superhydrophilic vertically-aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (VAMWCNT-O2 ) are promising for their properties and bone tissue biocompatibility. VAMWCNT-O2 films with nanohydroxyapatite (nHAp) aim to improve mechanical properties and biocompatibility of this new nanocomposite due to its resemblance to bone matrix structure. This study aimed to produce in vitro biomineralized nHAp/VAMWCNT-O2 nanocomposites using simulated body fluid (SBF) with two different pHs (6.10 and 7.40) during 7 days to obtain a new surface design with higher crystallinity and better morphology of nHAp/VAMWCANT-O2 nanocomposites. The objective is to obtain biomineralized nano biomaterials to enable its applicability as 'scaffold' to cellular support and consequent bone tissue formation, accelerating the osseointegration. Layer densification has been achieved due to polycrystalline nano apatites deposition on surface and between the biomineralized nHAp/VAMWCNT-O2 nanocomposites, without any heat treatment. Therefore, through its characteristics and properties these nanocomposite applications can be considered extremely viable for acceleration of in vivo regenerative processes. (author)

  15. Granulocytes of sea anemone Actinia equina (Linnaeus, 1758 body fluid contain and release cytolysins forming plaques of lysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MG Parisi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cnidaria phylum includes organisms that are among the most poisonous animals. The exact composition of cnidarian bioactive molecules is not known in detail, but little is known on the cells that produce the toxins. Here we have shown that the presence of cytolysins is not exclusive of nematocysts. A plaque-forming assay was carried out with cell populations extracted from the percoled body fluid showed for the first time that anthozoan granulocytes are able to form plaque of lysis. We have partitioned the total population of free cells into three distinct discrete bands by discontinuous Percoll gradient, and we have identified six small different types cells: morular granulocytes; cells with large or small peripherical granules, granulocytes with irregular shape containing blue and red granules, cells showing one fine red granule of uniform size and, finally, cells with elongated shape and small dispersed granules. Cell lysate of each cellular band resulted cytolytic toward different erythrocytes types. SDS page analysis of the lysate cell fraction showed a predominant of 20 kDa that corresponds to the weight of the cytolytic equinatoxin. The nature of equinatoxins-related activity was demonstrated by inhibition experiments using bovine sphingomyelin.

  16. Identification of Motive Forces on the Whole Body System during Walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghdan J. AlKhoury

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Motive forces by muscles are applied to different parts of the human body in a periodic fashion when walking at a uniform rate. In this study, the whole human body is modeled as a multidegree of freedom (MDOF system with seven degrees of freedom. In view of the changing contact conditions with the ground due to alternating feet movements, the system under study is considered piecewise time invariant for each half-period when one foot is in contact with the ground. Forces transmitted from the body to the ground while walking at a normal pace are experimentally measured and numerically simulated. Fourth-order Runge-Kutta method is employed to numerically simulate the forces acting on different masses of the body. An optimization problem is formulated with the squared difference between the measured and simulated forces transmitted to the ground as the objective function, and the motive forces on the body masses as the design variables to solve.

  17. Anion emission from water molecules colliding with positive ions: Identification of binary and many-body processes

    CERN Document Server

    Chesnel, J -Y; Lattouf, E; Tanis, J A; Huber, B A; Bene, E; Kovács, S T S; Herczku, P; Méry, A; Poully, J -C; Rangama, J; Sulik, B

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that negative ions are ejected from gas-phase water molecules when bombarded with positive ions at keV energies typical of solar-wind velocities. This finding is relevant for studies of planetary and cometary atmospheres, as well as for radiolysis and radiobiology. Emission of both H- and heavier (O- and OH-) anions, with a larger yield for H-, was observed in 6.6-keV 16O+ + H2O collisions. The ex-perimental setup allowed separate identification of anions formed in collisions with many-body dynamics from those created in hard, binary collisions. Most of the ani-ons are emitted with low kinetic energy due to many-body processes. Model calcu-lations show that both nucleus-nucleus interactions and electronic excitations con-tribute to the observed large anion emission yield.

  18. Fluid contacts and net-pay identification in three phase reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, R.; Cuesta, J.; Altamar, R.; Sanabria, M. [PDVSA Petroleos de Venezuela SA, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). Petrodelta; Gil, J. [Fusion Petroleum Technologies, The Woodlands, TX (United States)

    2009-07-01

    The Uracoa Field is located in the Monagas Sur area, close to the Orinoco belt in eastern Venezuela. Fluid contacts within the heavy oil reservoirs in Block 2 of the oilfield were identified using an integrated interpretation of three-dimensional seismic attributes, spectral decomposition and pseudo-impedances. This paper discussed the theory background on the quest for the oil bearing interval in the reservoir. The two step workflow and data testing were also described. This included well-seismic data; production data match; and de-tuning curve. The study was conducted by Petrodelta, a joint venture between Petroleos de Venezuela SA and Harvest Vinccler. It was concluded that the final product is a breakthrough for Petrodelta's development plan, and is the result of multidisciplinary interpretation and workstation capabilities. Two new drilling locations have been established. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Identification of a novel panel of cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, A.H.; McGuire, J.; Podust, V.N.; Davies, H.; Minthon, L.; Skoog, I.; Andreasen, N.; Wallin, A.; Waldemar, G.; Blennow, K.

    2008-01-01

    healthy control individuals with high sensitivity (97%) and specificity (98%). The panel of five markers was tested on a blinded independent data set of 30 AD samples and 28 controls giving 100% sensitivity and 97% specificity. This novel panel of biomarkers could potentially be used to improve the...... samples from AD patients (n=95) and population-based healthy controls (n=72) were analyzed by SELDI-TOF-MS in order to discover and characterize novel candidate biomarker combinations that differentiate AD patients from normal aging in this explorative study. Thirty candidate biomarkers (ROC AUC>0.7) were...... discovered that could differentiate patients with AD from healthy controls. Protein sequence determination and positive identification of 15 biomarkers revealed potential associations between the identified markers and AD pathogenesis. A multi-marker combination of five peaks could distinguish AD from...

  20. Identification of Symptomatic Fetuses Infected with Cytomegalovirus Using Amniotic Fluid Peptide Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leruez-Ville, Marianne; Ramirez-Torres, Adela; Lacroix, Chrystelle; Breuil, Benjamin; Froment, Carine; Bascands, Jean-Loup; Schanstra, Joost P.; Ville, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common cause of congenital infection, and is a major cause of sensorineural hearing loss and neurological disabilities. Evaluating the risk for a CMV infected fetus to develop severe clinical symptoms after birth is crucial to provide appropriate guidance to pregnant women who might have to consider termination of pregnancy or experimental prenatal medical therapies. However, establishing the prognosis before birth remains a challenge. This evaluation is currently based upon fetal imaging and fetal biological parameters, but the positive and negative predictive values of these parameters are not optimal, leaving room for the development of new prognostic factors. Here, we compared the amniotic fluid peptidome between asymptomatic fetuses who were born as asymptomatic neonates and symptomatic fetuses who were either terminated in view of severe cerebral lesions or born as severely symptomatic neonates. This comparison allowed us to identify a 34-peptide classifier in a discovery cohort of 13 symptomatic and 13 asymptomatic neonates. This classifier further yielded 89% sensitivity, 75% specificity and an area under the curve of 0.90 to segregate 9 severely symptomatic from 12 asymptomatic neonates in a validation cohort, showing an overall better performance than that of classical fetal laboratory parameters. Pathway analysis of the 34 peptides underlined the role of viral entry in fetuses with severe brain disease as well as the potential importance of both beta-2-microglobulin and adiponectin to protect the injured fetal brain infected with CMV. The results also suggested the mechanistic implication of the T calcium channel alpha-1G (CACNA1G) protein in the development of seizures in severely CMV infected children. These results open a new field for potential therapeutic options. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that amniotic fluid peptidome analysis can effectively predict the severity of congenital CMV infection. This

  1. Identification of Symptomatic Fetuses Infected with Cytomegalovirus Using Amniotic Fluid Peptide Biomarkers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyrille Desveaux

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus (CMV is the most common cause of congenital infection, and is a major cause of sensorineural hearing loss and neurological disabilities. Evaluating the risk for a CMV infected fetus to develop severe clinical symptoms after birth is crucial to provide appropriate guidance to pregnant women who might have to consider termination of pregnancy or experimental prenatal medical therapies. However, establishing the prognosis before birth remains a challenge. This evaluation is currently based upon fetal imaging and fetal biological parameters, but the positive and negative predictive values of these parameters are not optimal, leaving room for the development of new prognostic factors. Here, we compared the amniotic fluid peptidome between asymptomatic fetuses who were born as asymptomatic neonates and symptomatic fetuses who were either terminated in view of severe cerebral lesions or born as severely symptomatic neonates. This comparison allowed us to identify a 34-peptide classifier in a discovery cohort of 13 symptomatic and 13 asymptomatic neonates. This classifier further yielded 89% sensitivity, 75% specificity and an area under the curve of 0.90 to segregate 9 severely symptomatic from 12 asymptomatic neonates in a validation cohort, showing an overall better performance than that of classical fetal laboratory parameters. Pathway analysis of the 34 peptides underlined the role of viral entry in fetuses with severe brain disease as well as the potential importance of both beta-2-microglobulin and adiponectin to protect the injured fetal brain infected with CMV. The results also suggested the mechanistic implication of the T calcium channel alpha-1G (CACNA1G protein in the development of seizures in severely CMV infected children. These results open a new field for potential therapeutic options. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that amniotic fluid peptidome analysis can effectively predict the severity of congenital CMV

  2. Research on Modal Parameters Identification of Parallel Manipulator with Flexible Multi-Body System

    OpenAIRE

    Chunxia Zhu; Jiman Luo; Dan Wang; Bing Cai

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a new method based on simulation is proposed. And the analysis method based on flexible multi-body system of parallel manipulator is provided in the same time. Firstly, modal analysis principle of parallel manipulator was analyzed in theory and the parameters of dynamic characteristic were identified by theoretical analysis. Then vibration model of flexible multi-body for parallel manipulator was built in virtual prototype software and formed vibration system of rigid and flexi...

  3. Isolation, Identification, and Characterization of Novel Arenaviruses, the Etiological Agents of Boid Inclusion Body Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hetzel, U; Sironen, T.; Laurinmaki, P.; Liljeroos, L.; Patjas, A.; Henttonen, H.; Vaheri, A; Artelt, A.; Kipar, A.; Butcher, S. J.; Vapalahti, O; Hepojoki, J.

    2013-01-01

    Boid inclusion body disease (BIBD) is a progressive, usually fatal disease of constrictor snakes, characterized by cytoplasmic inclusion bodies (IB) in a wide range of cell types. To identify the causative agent of the disease, we established cell cultures from BIBD-positive and -negative boa constrictors. The IB phenotype was maintained in cultured cells of affected animals, and supernatants from these cultures caused the phenotype in cultures originating from BIBD-negative snakes. Viruses w...

  4. A 3D, fully Eulerian, VOF-based solver to study the interaction between two fluids and moving rigid bodies using the fictitious domain method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Ashish; Raessi, Mehdi

    2016-04-01

    We present a three-dimensional (3D) and fully Eulerian approach to capturing the interaction between two fluids and moving rigid structures by using the fictitious domain and volume-of-fluid (VOF) methods. The solid bodies can have arbitrarily complex geometry and can pierce the fluid-fluid interface, forming contact lines. The three-phase interfaces are resolved and reconstructed by using a VOF-based methodology. Then, a consistent scheme is employed for transporting mass and momentum, allowing for simulations of three-phase flows of large density ratios. The Eulerian approach significantly simplifies numerical resolution of the kinematics of rigid bodies of complex geometry and with six degrees of freedom. The fluid-structure interaction (FSI) is computed using the fictitious domain method. The methodology was developed in a message passing interface (MPI) parallel framework accelerated with graphics processing units (GPUs). The computationally intensive solution of the pressure Poisson equation is ported to GPUs, while the remaining calculations are performed on CPUs. The performance and accuracy of the methodology are assessed using an array of test cases, focusing individually on the flow solver and the FSI in surface-piercing configurations. Finally, an application of the proposed methodology in simulations of the ocean wave energy converters is presented.

  5. A 3D GPU-accelerated MPI-parallel computational tool for simulating interaction of moving rigid bodies with two-fluid flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Ashish; Raessi, Mehdi

    2014-11-01

    We present a 3D MPI-parallel, GPU-accelerated computational tool that captures the interaction between a moving rigid body and two-fluid flows. Although the immediate application is the study of ocean wave energy converters (WECs), the model was developed at a general level and can be used in other applications. Solving the full Navier-Stokes equations, the model is able to capture non-linear effects, including wave-breaking and fluid-structure interaction, that have significant impact on WEC performance. To transport mass and momentum, we use a consistent scheme that can handle large density ratios (e.g. air/water). We present a novel reconstruction scheme for resolving three-phase (solid-liquid-gas) cells in the volume-of-fluid context, where the fluid interface orientation is estimated via a minimization procedure, while imposing a contact angle. The reconstruction allows for accurate mass and momentum transport in the vicinity of three-phase cells. The fast-fictitious-domain method is used for capturing the interaction between a moving rigid body and two-fluid flow. The pressure Poisson solver is accelerated using GPUs in the MPI framework. We present results of an array of test cases devised to assess the performance and accuracy of the computational tool.

  6. Three-scale model of single bone osteon modelled as double-porous fluid saturated body: Study of influence of micro/meso-structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turjanicová J.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the multiscale description of a single osteon of cortical bones. The cortical bone tissue is modeled as a double-porous medium decomposed into the solid matrix and the fluid saturated canals. The resulting homogenized model describes deformation of such medium in response to a static loading by external forces and to an injection of slightly compressible fluid. Three numerical examples are presented, showing the influence of selected lower-scales geometrical features on the macroscopic body behavior.

  7. Corrosion and bioactivity performance of graphene oxide coating on TiNb shape memory alloys in simulated body fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saud, Safaa N; Hosseinian S, Raheleh; Bakhsheshi-Rad, H R; Yaghoubidoust, F; Iqbal, N; Hamzah, E; Ooi, C H Raymond

    2016-11-01

    In the present work, the microstructure, corrosion, and bioactivity of graphene oxide (GO) coating on the laser-modified and -unmodified surfaces of TiNb shape memory alloys (SMAs) were investigated. The surface morphology and chemical composition was examined using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The surface modification was carried out via a femtosecond laser with the aim to increase the surface roughness, and thus increase the adhesion property. FE-SEM analysis of the laser-treated Ti-30at.% Nb revealed the increase in surface roughness and oxygen/nitrogen containing groups on the Ti-30at.% Nb surface after being surface modified via a femtosecond laser. Furthermore, the thickness of GO was increased from 35μm to 45μm after the surface was modified. Potentiodynamic polarisation and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies revealed that both the GO and laser/GO-coated samples exhibited higher corrosion resistance than that of the uncoated TiNb SMA sample. However, the laser/GO-coated sample presented the highest corrosion resistance in SBF at 37°C. In addition, during soaking in the simulated body fluid (SBF), both the GO and laser/GO coating improved the formation of apatite layer. Based on the bioactivity results, the GO coating exhibited a remarkable antibacterial activity against gram-negative bacteria compared with the uncoated. In conclusion, the present results indicate that Ti-30at.% Nb SMAs may be promising alternatives to NiTi for certain biomedical applications. PMID:27524069

  8. Degradation behavior of n-MAO/EPD bio-ceramic composite coatings on magnesium alloy in simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A bio-ceramic n-MAO/EPD coating was prepared by combined MAO and EPD technique. • The precipitates of Ca/P compound are formed on the surface samples during immersion. • The n-MAO/EPD coating with HA dense structure has a favorable anti-corrosion effect. • Two degradation mechanism models for the n-MAO and n-MAO/EPD coating were proposed. - Abstract: The bio-ceramic composite coatings have been fabricated on ZK60 magnesium (Mg) alloy to improve its bio-corrosion resistance in a simulated body fluid (SBF). Firstly, micro-arc oxidation coatings (n-MAO coating) with the addition of zirconium oxide (ZrO2) and cerium oxide (CeO2) nano-particles were prepared by MAO technique on ZK60Mg alloy in alkaline electrolyte. Secondly, nano-hydroxyapatite (HA) was deposited on the surface of n-MAO coatings by using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) technique. The degradation behavior of the coated samples was investigated by means of immersion tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in the SBF at 36.5 ± 0.5 °C. The variation of phase composition, surface and cross-section morphology of coatings at different immersion stages were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The results showed that the precipitation layer with biological activity formed on the surface of coated samples during the SBF immersion, which can inhibit Mg alloys from degrading effectively. The n-MAO/EPD composite coating with HA dense structure has a favorable anti-corrosion effect compared to the n-MAO coating. Degradation mechanism model of the corrosion process at different corrosion stages for two kinds of coatings were proposed. The long-term corrosion protection of the n-MAO/EPD composite coating was governed significantly by the synergistic effect of phase composition stability and micro structural integrity

  9. Simulated body fluid and water absorption effects on poly(methyl methacrylate/hydroxyapatite denture base composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA/hydroxyapatite (HA composite has potential application in denture base materials. The denture base materials should exhibit good mechanical properties and dimensional stability in moist environment. Silane coupling agent [3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxy silane (γ-MPS] was used to treat the HA fillers in order to enhance the interfacial interaction between the PMMA and HA. In this research, the kinetics and effects of Simulated Body Fluid (SBF and water absorption on the flexural properties of PMMA/HA composites were studied for an immersion duration of 2 months. The mathematical treatment used in analyzing the data was the single free phase model of diffusion, which assumed Fickian diffusion and utilized Fick’s second law of diffusion. The kinetics of water absorption of the PMMA/HA composites conformed to Fickian law behavior, whereby the initial moisture absorption follows a linear relationship between the percentage gain at any time t and t1/2, followed by saturation. It was found that the equilibrium moisture content and the diffusion coefficient are depending on the concentration of γ-MPS in PMMA/5HA composites. The reduction of equilibrium moisture content of PMMA/5HA is due to the hydrophobic behavior of γ-MPS and compatibility of PMMA with HA. The retention ability in flexural modulus and strength of PMMA/HA composites upon subjected towater absorption are considerably good. The reduction of flexural strength of the PMMA/HA composites after water absorption and SBF absorption could be attributed to the plasticizing effect of water molecules.

  10. Degradation behavior of n-MAO/EPD bio-ceramic composite coatings on magnesium alloy in simulated body fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Ying, E-mail: yxiong@zjut.edu.cn [College of Mechanical Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Lu, Chao [College of Mechanical Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Wang, Chao; Song, Renguo [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Materials Surface Science and Technology, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • A bio-ceramic n-MAO/EPD coating was prepared by combined MAO and EPD technique. • The precipitates of Ca/P compound are formed on the surface samples during immersion. • The n-MAO/EPD coating with HA dense structure has a favorable anti-corrosion effect. • Two degradation mechanism models for the n-MAO and n-MAO/EPD coating were proposed. - Abstract: The bio-ceramic composite coatings have been fabricated on ZK60 magnesium (Mg) alloy to improve its bio-corrosion resistance in a simulated body fluid (SBF). Firstly, micro-arc oxidation coatings (n-MAO coating) with the addition of zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) and cerium oxide (CeO{sub 2}) nano-particles were prepared by MAO technique on ZK60Mg alloy in alkaline electrolyte. Secondly, nano-hydroxyapatite (HA) was deposited on the surface of n-MAO coatings by using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) technique. The degradation behavior of the coated samples was investigated by means of immersion tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in the SBF at 36.5 ± 0.5 °C. The variation of phase composition, surface and cross-section morphology of coatings at different immersion stages were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The results showed that the precipitation layer with biological activity formed on the surface of coated samples during the SBF immersion, which can inhibit Mg alloys from degrading effectively. The n-MAO/EPD composite coating with HA dense structure has a favorable anti-corrosion effect compared to the n-MAO coating. Degradation mechanism model of the corrosion process at different corrosion stages for two kinds of coatings were proposed. The long-term corrosion protection of the n-MAO/EPD composite coating was governed significantly by the synergistic effect of phase composition stability and micro structural integrity.

  11. Identification and characterization of a novel Chlamydia trachomatis reticulate body protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Allan C; Larsen, Martin Røssel; Roepstorff, Peter;

    2002-01-01

    identified by tandem mass spectrometry. No homology of this protein was observed to proteins from other organisms. The protein was conserved in C. trachomatis but not found in Chlamydia pneumoniae. Using proteomics, we show that the expression of the protein is initiated at the middle of the developmental...... cycle. The protein is rapidly degraded and is only present in reticulate or intermediate bodies, suggesting a possible function in the intracellular stage of C. trachomatis development. We have termed the protein '7-kDa reticulate body protein'....

  12. Cytokines in cerebrospinal fluid of neurosyphilis patients: Identification of Urokinase plasminogen activator using antibody microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ping; Zheng, Dao-Cheng; Fang, Chang; Huang, Jin-Mei; Ke, Wu-Jian; Wang, Liu-Yuan; Zeng, Wei-Ying; Zheng, He-Ping; Yang, Bin

    2016-04-15

    Little is known regarding protein responses to syphilis infection in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients presenting with neurosyphilis. Protein and antibody arrays offer a new opportunity to gain insights into global protein expression profiles in these patients. Here we obtained CSF samples from 46 syphilis patients, 25 of which diagnosed as having central nervous system involvement based on clinical and laboratory findings. The CSF samples were then analyzed using a RayBioH L-Series 507 Antibody Array system designed to simultaneously analyze 507 specific cytokines. The results indicated that 41 molecules showed higher levels in patients with neurosyphilis in comparison with patients without neural involvement. For validation by single target ELISA, we selected five of them (MIP-1a, I-TAC/CXCL11, Urokinase plasminogen activator [uPA], and Oncostatin M) because they have previously been found to be involved in central nervous system (CNS) disorders. The ELISA tests confirmed that uPA levels were significantly higher in the CSF of neurosyphilis patients (109.1±7.88pg/ml) versus patients without CNS involvement (63.86±4.53pg/ml, p<0.0001). There was also a clear correlation between CSF uPA levels and CSF protein levels (p=0.0128) as well as CSF-VDRL titers (p=0.0074) used to diagnose neurosyphilis. No significant difference between the two groups of patients, however, was found in uPA levels in the serum, suggesting specific activation of the inflammatory system in the CNS but not the periphery in neurosyphilis patients. We conclude that measurements of uPA levels in CSF may be an additional parameter for diagnosing neurosyphilis. PMID:27049560

  13. Driven-dissipative Euler close-quote s equations for a rigid body: A chaotic system relevant to fluid dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhering to the lore that vorticity is a critical ingredient of fluid turbulence, a triad of coupled helicity (vorticity) states of the incompressible Navier-Stokes fluid are followed. Effects of the remaining states of the fluid on the triad are then modeled as a simple driving term. Numerical solution of the equations yield attractors that seem strange and chaotic. This suggests that the unpredictability of nonlinear fluid dynamics (i.e., turbulence) may be traced back to the most primordial structure of the Navier-Stokes equation; namely, the driven triadic interaction. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  14. Body Dissatisfaction in College Women: Identification of Risk and Protective Factors To Guide College Counseling Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook-Cottone, Catherine; Phelps, LeAdelle

    2003-01-01

    This study attempted to identify risk factors that are implicated in the body dissatisfaction of college women and the factors that may facilitate effective prevention and treatment efforts. Data collected from 215 female college students indicated that participants with (a) greater physical self-concept, (b) less drive for thinness, and (c)…

  15. Two-Dimensional Self-Propelled Fish Motion in Medium: An Integrated Method for Deforming Body Dynamics and Unsteady Fluid Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present (1) the dynamical equations of deforming body and (2) an integrated method for deforming body dynamics and unsteady fluid dynamics, to investigate a modelled freely self-propelled fish. The theoretical model and practical method is applicable for studies on the general mechanics of animal locomotion such as flying in air and swimming in water, particularly of free self-propulsion. The present results behave more credibly than the previous numerical studies and are close to the experimental results, and the aligned vortices pattern is discovered in cruising swimming

  16. Two-Dimensional Self-Propelled Fish Motion in Medium:An Integrated Method for Deforming Body Dynamics and Unsteady Fluid Dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yan; Wu Guan-Hao; YU Yong-Liang; TONG Bing-Gang

    2008-01-01

    We present(1)the dynamical equations of deforming body and(2)an integrated method for deforming body dynamics and unsteady fluid dynamics,to investigate a modelled freely serf-propelled fish.The theoretical model and practical method is applicable for studies on the general mechanics of animal locomotion such as flying in air and swimming in water,particularly of free self-propulsion.The present results behave more credibly than the previous numerical studies and are close to the experimental results,and the aligned vortices pattern is discovered in cruising swimming.

  17. A collaborative European exercise on mRNA-based body fluid/skin typing and interpretation of DNA and RNA results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Berge, M; Carracedo, A; Gomes, I;

    2014-01-01

    The European Forensic Genetics Network of Excellence (EUROFORGEN-NoE) undertook a collaborative project on mRNA-based body fluid/skin typing and the interpretation of the resulting RNA and DNA data. Although both body fluids and skin are composed of a variety of cell types with different functions...... participating laboratories were asked to integrate the DNA and RNA results and associate donor and cell type where possible. A large variation for the integrated interpretations of the DNA and RNA data was obtained including correct interpretations. We infer that with expertise in analysing RNA profiles, clear...... and gene expression profiles, we refer to the procedure as 'cell type inference'. Nine laboratories participated in the project and used a 20-marker multiplex to analyse samples that were centrally prepared and thoroughly tested prior to shipment. Specimens of increasing complexity were assessed that...

  18. Identification and validation of novel cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for staging early Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Perrin

    Full Text Available Ideally, disease modifying therapies for Alzheimer disease (AD will be applied during the 'preclinical' stage (pathology present with cognition intact before severe neuronal damage occurs, or upon recognizing very mild cognitive impairment. Developing and judiciously administering such therapies will require biomarker panels to identify early AD pathology, classify disease stage, monitor pathological progression, and predict cognitive decline. To discover such biomarkers, we measured AD-associated changes in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF proteome.CSF samples from individuals with mild AD (Clinical Dementia Rating [CDR] 1 (n = 24 and cognitively normal controls (CDR 0 (n = 24 were subjected to two-dimensional difference-in-gel electrophoresis. Within 119 differentially-abundant gel features, mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS identified 47 proteins. For validation, eleven proteins were re-evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA. Six of these assays (NrCAM, YKL-40, chromogranin A, carnosinase I, transthyretin, cystatin C distinguished CDR 1 and CDR 0 groups and were subsequently applied (with tau, p-tau181 and Aβ42 ELISAs to a larger independent cohort (n = 292 that included individuals with very mild dementia (CDR 0.5. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analyses using stepwise logistic regression yielded optimal biomarker combinations to distinguish CDR 0 from CDR>0 (tau, YKL-40, NrCAM and CDR 1 from CDR<1 (tau, chromogranin A, carnosinase I with areas under the curve of 0.90 (0.85-0.94 95% confidence interval [CI] and 0.88 (0.81-0.94 CI, respectively.Four novel CSF biomarkers for AD (NrCAM, YKL-40, chromogranin A, carnosinase I can improve the diagnostic accuracy of Aβ42 and tau. Together, these six markers describe six clinicopathological stages from cognitive normalcy to mild dementia, including stages defined by increased risk of cognitive decline. Such a panel might improve clinical trial efficiency by guiding

  19. Integration of phase separation with ultrasound-assisted salt-induced liquid-liquid microextraction for analyzing the fluoroquinones in human body fluids by liquid chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, H; Gao, M.; Wang, M.; Zhang, R.; W. Wang; Dahlgren, RA; Wang, X.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Herein, we developed a novel integrated device to perform phase separation based on ultrasound-assisted salt-induced liquid-liquid microextraction for determination of five fluoroquinones (FQs) in human body fluids. The integrated device consisted of three simple HDPE components used to separate the extraction solvent from the aqueous phase prior to retrieving the extractant. A series of extraction parameters were optimized using the response surface method based on centr...

  20. Pulsatile flow and heat transfer of a magneto-micropolar fluid through a stenosed artery under the influence of body acceleration

    OpenAIRE

    Shit, G. C.; Roy, M.

    2012-01-01

    With an aim to investigate the effect of externally imposed body acceleration and magnetic field on pulsatile flow of blood through an arterial segment having stenosis is under consideration in this paper. The flow of blood is presented by a unsteady micropolar fluid and the heat transfer characteristics have been taken into account. The non-linear equations that governing the flow are solved numerically using finite difference technique by employing a suitable coordinate transformation. The ...

  1. On the existence of global strong solutions to the equations modeling a motion of a rigid body around a viscous fluid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nečasová, Šárka; Wolf, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 3 (2016), s. 1539-1562. ISSN 1078-0947 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-00522S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : incompressible fluid * motion of rigid body * strong solutions Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.826, year: 2014 http://www.aimsciences.org/journals/displayArticlesnew.jsp?paperID=11589

  2. The effect of sodium silicate concentration on microstructure and corrosion properties of MAO-coated magnesium alloy AZ31 in simulated body fluid

    OpenAIRE

    B. Salami; Afshar, A.; Mazaheri, A.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, magnesium and its alloys are considered as biodegradable implants. However magnesium implants may rapidly corrode before the natural healing process of the tissue is completed. In this investigation, micro arc oxidation process has been studied for avoiding primary corrosion of the magnesium alloy in simulated body fluid. Anodized coating was formed on AZ31 alloy in nontoxic silicate-alkaline solution at constant current. The effects of silicate concentration and conductivity...

  3. Comprehensive investigation of postmortem glucose levels in blood and body fluids with regard to the cause of death in forensic autopsy cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian-Hua; Michiue, Tomomi; Inamori-Kawamoto, Osamu; Ikeda, Sayuko; Ishikawa, Takaki; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2015-11-01

    The serum glucose level is regulated within a narrow range by multiple factors under physiological conditions, but is greatly modified in the death process and after death. The present study comprehensively investigated glucose levels in blood and body fluids, including pericardial fluid (PCF), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and vitreous humor, reviewing forensic autopsy cases (n=672). Right heart blood glucose level was often higher than at other sites, and the CSF glucose level was the lowest, showing greater dissociation in acute/subacute death cases. The glucose level was higher in the diabetic (high HbA1c) than in the non-diabetic (low HbA1c) group at each site (pdeath due to ischemic heart disease. Fatal methamphetamine (MA) abuse, sepsis, malnutrition (starvation) and hypoglycemia due to antidiabetics showed markedly lower blood glucose levels. Ketones in bilateral cardiac blood and PCF were increased in diabetic ketoacidosis and fatal alcohol abuse as well as in most cases of hyperthermia (heatstroke), hypothermia (cold exposure) and malnutrition. These findings suggest that combined analysis of glucose, HbA1c and ketones in blood and body fluids is useful to investigate not only fatal diabetic metabolic disorders but also death processes due to other causes, including alcohol and MA abuse, as well as thermal disorders, sepsis and malnutrition. PMID:26593993

  4. Research on Modal Parameters Identification of Parallel Manipulator with Flexible Multi-Body System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxia Zhu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a new method based on simulation is proposed. And the analysis method based on flexible multi-body system of parallel manipulator is provided in the same time. Firstly, modal analysis principle of parallel manipulator was analyzed in theory and the parameters of dynamic characteristic were identified by theoretical analysis. Then vibration model of flexible multi-body for parallel manipulator was built in virtual prototype software and formed vibration system of rigid and flexible coupling for simulation analysis and from the simulation results got the value of parameters for vibration characteristic of parallel manipulator. And the dynamic characteristic parameters were identified according to the simulation results. The results showed that the simulation method and result dates are validated. So the integration simulation method is feasible, which can provide reference for dynamic optimal design.

  5. Activity identification using body-mounted sensors—a review of classification techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the advent of miniaturized sensing technology, which can be body-worn, it is now possible to collect and store data on different aspects of human movement under the conditions of free living. This technology has the potential to be used in automated activity profiling systems which produce a continuous record of activity patterns over extended periods of time. Such activity profiling systems are dependent on classification algorithms which can effectively interpret body-worn sensor data and identify different activities. This article reviews the different techniques which have been used to classify normal activities and/or identify falls from body-worn sensor data. The review is structured according to the different analytical techniques and illustrates the variety of approaches which have previously been applied in this field. Although significant progress has been made in this important area, there is still significant scope for further work, particularly in the application of advanced classification techniques to problems involving many different activities. (topical review)

  6. Endogenous and exogenous factors influencing the concentrations of adiponectin in body fluids and tissues in the bovine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerwein, Helga; Häußler, Susanne

    2016-07-01

    of the literature about the adiponectin protein in cattle addressing the following aspects: (1) the course of the adiponectin serum concentrations during development in both sexes, during inflammation, nutritional energy deficit and energy surplus, and lactation-induced changes including the response to supplementation with conjugated linoleic acids and with niacin, (2) the concentrations of adiponectin in subcutaneous vs visceral fat depots of dairy cows, (3) the protein expression of adiponectin in tissues other than adipose, and (4) the concentrations in different body fluids including milk. PMID:27345322

  7. Isolation, identification, and characterization of novel arenaviruses, the etiological agents of boid inclusion body disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzel, Udo; Sironen, Tarja; Laurinmäki, Pasi; Liljeroos, Lassi; Patjas, Aino; Henttonen, Heikki; Vaheri, Antti; Artelt, Annette; Kipar, Anja; Butcher, Sarah J; Vapalahti, Olli; Hepojoki, Jussi

    2013-10-01

    Boid inclusion body disease (BIBD) is a progressive, usually fatal disease of constrictor snakes, characterized by cytoplasmic inclusion bodies (IB) in a wide range of cell types. To identify the causative agent of the disease, we established cell cultures from BIBD-positive and -negative boa constrictors. The IB phenotype was maintained in cultured cells of affected animals, and supernatants from these cultures caused the phenotype in cultures originating from BIBD-negative snakes. Viruses were purified from the supernatants by ultracentrifugation and subsequently identified as arenaviruses. Purified virus also induced the IB phenotype in naive cells, which fulfilled Koch's postulates in vitro. One isolate, tentatively designated University of Helsinki virus (UHV), was studied in depth. Sequencing confirmed that UHV is a novel arenavirus species that is distinct from other known arenaviruses including those recently identified in snakes with BIBD. The morphology of UHV was established by cryoelectron tomography and subtomographic averaging, revealing the trimeric arenavirus spike structure at 3.2-nm resolution. Immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, and immunoblotting with a polyclonal rabbit antiserum against UHV and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) revealed the presence of genetically diverse arenaviruses in a large cohort of snakes with BIBD, confirming the causative role of arenaviruses. Some snakes were also found to carry arenavirus antibodies. Furthermore, mammalian cells (Vero E6) were productively infected with UHV, demonstrating the potential of arenaviruses to cross species barriers. In conclusion, we propose the newly identified lineage of arenaviruses associated with BIBD as a novel taxonomic entity, boid inclusion body disease-associated arenaviruses (BIBDAV), in the family Arenaviridae. PMID:23926354

  8. BLIG: A New Approach for Sensor Identification, Grouping,and Authorisation in Body Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jacob; Bardram, Jakob Eyvind

    Using body sensor networks (BSN) in critical clinical settings like emergency units in hospitals or in accidents requires that such a network can be deployed, configured, and started in a fast and easy way, while maintaining trust in the network. In this paper we present a novel approach called...... BLIG (Blinking Led Indicated Grouping) for easy deployment of BSNs on patients in critical situations, including mechanisms for uniquely identifying and grouping sensor nodes belonging to a patient in a secure and trusted way. This approach has been designed in close cooperation with users, and easy...

  9. Identification of Capacitive MEMS Accelerometer Structure Parameters for Human Body Dynamics Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincas Benevicius

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to their small size, low weight, low cost and low energy consumption, MEMS accelerometers have achieved great commercial success in recent decades. The aim of this research work is to identify a MEMS accelerometer structure for human body dynamics measurements. Photogrammetry was used in order to measure possible maximum accelerations of human body parts and the bandwidth of the digital acceleration signal. As the primary structure the capacitive accelerometer configuration is chosen in such a way that sensing part measures on all three axes as it is 3D accelerometer and sensitivity on each axis is equal. Hill climbing optimization was used to find the structure parameters. Proof-mass displacements were simulated for all the acceleration range that was given by the optimization problem constraints. The final model was constructed in Comsol Multiphysics. Eigenfrequencies were calculated and model’s response was found, when vibration stand displacement data was fed into the model as the base excitation law. Model output comparison with experimental data was conducted for all excitation frequencies used during the experiments.

  10. Detection and qualitative identification of mineral fibers and particles in alveolar macrophages of BAL fluid by SEM and EDXA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, F; Iavarone, M; Skrimpas, S; Mazzarella, G; Sanduzzi, A

    2002-01-01

    Inorganic dust inhalation diseases represent one of the most important chapters in respiratory medicine because of their diagnostic, therapeutic, legal, ecological and social implications. While, in fact, toxic substances inhalation may be easily related to particular occupations, it is more difficult to recognize the potential damage represented by occasional and fortuitous exposition due to pollution of one's living environment. The aim of this study was to suggest a useful investigative method for detecting the presence of mineral substances (dusts and fibers) in the lung in pulmonary fibrosis of uncertain origin. We used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and semi-quantitative energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis (EDXA) on broncholaveolar lavage (BAL) and sputum samples of 10 patients, all males, aged 41-66 years, smokers, affected by interstitial lung disease. Two subjects had a negative professional anamnesis while the other 8 declared a potential exposition to inorganic toxic dusts: 2 subjects were involved in the production of asbestos-containing building materials, 2 were miners, 1 a ceramic worker, and 3 insulating materials handlers. Data are reported on the detection of asbestos bodies, vitreous fibers and silica content of alveolar macrophages in BAL fluid. PMID:12619383

  11. Fatty acids and small organic compounds bind to mineralo-organic nanoparticles derived from human body fluids as revealed by metabolomic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Jan; Wu, Cheng-Yeu; Hung, Cheng-Yu; Wong, Tsui-Yin; Cheng, Ann-Joy; Cheng, Mei-Ling; Shiao, Ming-Shi; Young, John D.

    2016-03-01

    Nanoparticles entering the human body instantly become coated with a ``protein corona'' that influences the effects and distribution of the particles in vivo. Yet, whether nanoparticles may bind to other organic compounds remains unclear. Here we use an untargeted metabolomic approach based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography and quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry to identify the organic compounds that bind to mineral nanoparticles formed in human body fluids (serum, plasma, saliva, and urine). A wide range of organic compounds is identified, including fatty acids, glycerophospholipids, amino acids, sugars, and amides. Our results reveal that, in addition to the proteins identified previously, nanoparticles harbor an ``organic corona'' containing several fatty acids which may affect particle-cell interactions in vivo. This study provides a platform to study the organic corona of biological and synthetic nanoparticles found in the human body.Nanoparticles entering the human body instantly become coated with a ``protein corona'' that influences the effects and distribution of the particles in vivo. Yet, whether nanoparticles may bind to other organic compounds remains unclear. Here we use an untargeted metabolomic approach based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography and quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry to identify the organic compounds that bind to mineral nanoparticles formed in human body fluids (serum, plasma, saliva, and urine). A wide range of organic compounds is identified, including fatty acids, glycerophospholipids, amino acids, sugars, and amides. Our results reveal that, in addition to the proteins identified previously, nanoparticles harbor an ``organic corona'' containing several fatty acids which may affect particle-cell interactions in vivo. This study provides a platform to study the organic corona of biological and synthetic nanoparticles found in the human body. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See

  12. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Phenomena Identification and Ranking Tables (PIRTs) Volume 2: Accident and Thermal Fluids Analysis PIRTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, Sydney J [ORNL; Corradini, M. [University of Wisconsin; Fisher, Stephen Eugene [ORNL; Gauntt, R. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Geffraye, G. [CEA, France; Gehin, Jess C [ORNL; Hassan, Y. [Texas A& M University; Moses, David Lewis [ORNL; Renier, John-Paul [ORNL; Schultz, R. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL); Wei, T. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)

    2008-03-01

    An accident, thermal fluids, and reactor physics phenomena identification and ranking process was conducted by a panel of experts on the next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) design (consideration given to both pebble-bed and prismatic gas-cooled reactor configurations). Safety-relevant phenomena, importance, and knowledge base were assessed for the following event classes: (1) normal operation (including some reactor physics aspects), (2) general loss of forced circulation (G-LOFC), (3) pressurized loss-of-forced circulation (P-LOFC), (4) depressurized loss-of-forced circulation (D-LOFC), (5) air ingress (following D-LOFC), (6) reactivity transients - including anticipated transients without scram (ATWS), (7) processes coupled via intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) (IHX failure with molten salt), and (8) steam/water ingress. The panel's judgment of the importance ranking of a given phenomenon (or process) was based on the effect it had on one or more figures of merit or evaluation criteria. These included public and worker dose, fuel failure, and primary (and other safety) system integrity. The major phenomena of concern that were identified and categorized as high importance combined with medium to low knowledge follow: (1) core coolant bypass flows (normal operation), (2) power/flux profiles (normal operation), (3) outlet plenum flows (normal operation), (4) reactivity-temperature feedback coefficients for high-plutonium-content cores (normal operation and accidents), (5) fission product release related to the transport of silver (normal operation), (6)emissivity aspects for the vessel and reactor cavity cooling system (G-LOFC), (7) reactor vessel cavity air circulation and heat transfer (G-LOFC), and (8)convection/radiation heating of upper vessel area (P-LOFC).

  13. Efficacy of nasopharyngeal culture in identification of pathogens in middle ear fluid in chronic otitis media with effusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eser O

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Chronic otitis media with effusion (OME is the leading cause of hearing loss during childhood. In bacterial etiology of OME, the most frequent pathogens responsible are Haemophilus influenzae followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae and Moraxella catarrhalis . This study aimed at evaluating the accuracy of nasopharyngeal (NP specimens in the identification of pathogens in the middle ear fluid (MEF in patients with OME. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional, case-control study, 95 MEFs and 53 NP secretion specimens were obtained from 53 children. As a control group, 102 NP specimens were taken from children having an operation other than an otological disease. Conventional culture methods and multiplex-PCR method have been used to determine the etiology of OME; NP carriage between cases and control groups were compared using conventional culture methods. Pearson Chi-Square and Fisher′s Exact tests were used in statistical analysis. Results : Bacteria were isolated by culture in 37.9% of MEF specimens, 14.7% of which belonged to the group H. influenzae , S. pneumoniae and M. catarrhalis. PCR was positive in 30.5% specimens targeting the same pathogens. There was a two-fold increase in carriage rate of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae in patients than controls for each pathogen. Conclusion: PCR is a more reliable method to detect middle ear pathogens in MEF in comparison with the conventional culture methods. The NP colonization wasn′t found to be an indicator of the pathogen in MEF although middle ear pathogens colonize more in nasopharynx of diseased children.

  14. Hybrid Wing Body Model Identification Using Forced-Oscillation Water Tunnel Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Patrick C.; Vicroy, Dan D.; Kramer, Brian; Kerho, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Static and dynamic testing of the NASA 0.7 percent scale Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) configuration was conducted in the Rolling Hills Research Corporation water tunnel to investigate aerodynamic behavior over a large range of angle-of-attack and to develop models that can predict aircraft response in nonlinear unsteady flight regimes. This paper reports primarily on the longitudinal axis results. Flow visualization tests were also performed. These tests provide additional static data and new dynamic data that complement tests conducted at NASA Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel. HWB was developed to support the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project goals of lower noise, emissions, and fuel burn. This study also supports the NASA Aviation Safety Program efforts to model and control advanced transport configurations in loss-of-control conditions.

  15. Parameter Identification for a New Circuit Model Aimed to Predict Body Water Volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHEORGHE, A.-G.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular and extracellular water volumes in the human body have been computed using a sequence of models starting with a linear first order RC circuit (Cole model and finishing with the De Lorenzo model. This last model employs a fractional order impedance whose parameters are identified using the frequency characteristics of the impedance module and phase, the latter being not unique. While the Cole model has a two octaves frequency validity range, the De Lorenzo model can be used for three decades. A new linear RC model, valid for a three decades frequency range, is proposed. This circuit can be viewed as an extension of the Cole model for a larger frequency interval, unlike similar models proposed by the same authors.

  16. Identification of the RNAs for Transcription Factor Mitf as a Component of the Balbiani Body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingyou Li; Yongming Yuan; Yunhan Hong

    2013-01-01

    Balbiani body (BB) is a large distinctive organelle aggregate uniquely present in developing oocytes of diverse animal species.BB is thought as a stage-specific structure that resembles germ plasm,the cytoplasmic organelle of germ cells.The role and function of BB have remained speculative because of a highly dynamic structure and a lack of genetic and molocular data.BB has been found to contain proteins and RNAs,none of them-except the zebrafish foxH1 RNA,is or encodes a transcription factor.Here we report in the fish medaka (Oryzias latipes) that RNAs encoding microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (Mitf) are prominent components of the BB.By fluorescence in siru hybridization on ovarian section,we revealed that the transcripts of both mitfl and mitf2 genes concentrated in the BB,in which they co-localized with the dazl RNA,a definitive BB marker highly conserved in vertebrates.Therefore,the mitfproduct may play dual roles in germ gene transcription and BB formation and/or function in this organism.Our data provide the second evidence that the RNA of a transcription factor can be a prominent component of the BB in a vertebrate.

  17. Tribological and corrosion behaviors of warm-and hot-rolled Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloys in simulated body fluid conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Taekyung; Mathew, Eshaan; Rajaraman, Santhosh; Manivasagam, Geetha; Singh, Ashok Kumar; Lee, Chong Soo

    2015-01-01

    Development of submicrocrystalline structure in biomedical alloy such as Ti-13Nb-13Zr (in wt%) through warm-rolling process has been found to enhance mechanical properties compared to conventional thermomechanical processing routes including hot-rolling process. The present study investigated the tribological and corrosion behaviors of warm-rolled (WR) and hot-rolled Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloys which have not been studied to date. Both tribological and corrosion experiments were carried out in simulated body fluid conditions (Hank's solution at 37°C) based on the fact that the investigated alloys would be used in a human body as orthopedic implants. The WR Ti-13Nb-13Zr demonstrated a submicrocrystalline structure that provided a significant enhancement in hardness, strength, and corrosion resistance. Meanwhile, there was no notable difference in wear resistance between the WR and hot-rolled samples despite the different microstructure and hardness. The present study confirmed the enormous potential of WR Ti-13Nb-13Zr with not only great mechanical properties but also high corrosion resistance in the simulated body fluid. PMID:26491322

  18. General-relativistic rotation laws in rotating fluid bodies, new weak-field effects and the post-newtonian expansion

    CERN Document Server

    Mach, Patryk; Pirog, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Recent general-relativistic extensions of Newtonian rotation laws for self-gravitating stationary fluids allow one to rederive, in the first post-Newtonian approximation, the well known geometric dragging of frames, and two new weak-field effects within rotating tori. These are the recently discovered anti-dragging and a new effect that measures the deviation from the Keplerian motion and/or the contribution of the fluids selfgravity. They can be applied to the study of the existence of the (post-)Newtonian limits of solutions and in investigations of inequalities relating parameters of rotating black holes.

  19. Point vortex dynamics as zero-radius limit of the motion of a rigid body in an irrotational fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Glass, Olivier; Munnier, Alexandre; Sueur, Franck

    2016-01-01

    The vortex point system is usually considered as an idealized model where thevorticity of an ideal incompressible two-dimensional fluid is concentrated in afinite number of moving points. In the case of a single vortex in an otherwise irrotational ideal fluid occupying a bounded and simply-connected two-dimensional domain the motion is given by the so-called Kirchhoff-Routh velocity which depends only on the domain.The main result of this paper establishes that this dynamics canalso be obtain...

  20. Pulsatile flow and heat transfer of a magneto-micropolar fluid through a stenosed artery under the influence of body acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Shit, G C

    2012-01-01

    With an aim to investigate the effect of externally imposed body acceleration and magnetic field on pulsatile flow of blood through an arterial segment having stenosis is under consideration in this paper. The flow of blood is presented by a unsteady micropolar fluid and the heat transfer characteristics have been taken into account. The non-linear equations that governing the flow are solved numerically using finite difference technique by employing a suitable coordinate transformation. The numerical results have been observed for axial and microrotation component of velocity, fluid acceleration, wall shear stress(WSS), flow resistance, temperature and the volumetric flow rate. It thus turns out that the rate of heat transfer increases with the increase of Hartmann number $H$, while the wall shear stress has a reducing effect on the Hartmann number $H$ and an enhancing effect on microrotation parameter $K$ as well as the constriction height $\\delta$.

  1. Corrosion behavior of Mg-3Zn/bioglass (45S5) composite in simulated body fluid (SBF) and phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ab llah, N.; Jamaludin, S. B.; Daud, Z. C.; Zaludin, M. A. F.; Jamal, Z. A. Z.; Idris, M. S.; Osman, R. A. M.

    2016-07-01

    Magnesium has emerged as promising materials in biomaterials research due to its good mechanical and physical properties closer to human bones. However, magnesium has poor corrosion resistance to chloride ions that exist in human blood plasma thus preventing its application in biomedical. The addition of zinc and bioglass can reduce magnesium corrosion rate. In this work, the effect of different solution media (Simulated Body Fluid and Phosphate Buffered Saline) to the corrosion behavior of Mg-Zn/bioglass (45S5) composites was investigated. The composites of Mg-3Zn added with 5, 10, 15, 20, 15 and 30 wt. % bioglass were fabricated by powder metallurgy. The composites were prepared by mixing at 140 rpm for 1 hour, pressing at 500 MPa and sintering in an argon environment at a temperature of 450°C for 3 hours. Sintered samples were immersed in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) and Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS) in order to investigate the corrosion behavior. Samples mass loss was determined after 3 days of immersion. Samples microstructure and corrosion products were analyzed using optical microscope and x-ray diffraction (XRD) respectively. The results revealed that the samples immersed in the Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS) shows lower mass loss compare to the samples immersed in the Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) for all composition except for Mg-3Zn without bio-glass. The results indicated that the existence of high phosphate ions in PBS has retarded the corrosion rate of composite Mg-3Zn/45S5. The pH value of the PBS solution after immersion showed significant increase between 10.3 and 11.09. Diffraction pattern (XRD) showed the presence of Mg(OH)2 as the major corrosion product for samples immersed in the SBF and PBS solutions. The mass loss of samples decreased with the addition of bio-glass.

  2. The epinet data of four Indian hospitals on incidence of exposure of healthcare workers to blood and body fluid: A multicentric prospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murali Chakravarthy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Sharps injury (SI and blood and body fluid exposure are occupational hazards to healthcare workers (HCWs. Although data from the developed countries have shown the enormity of the problem, data from developing countries, such as India, arelacking. Purpose : The purpose of this study was to cumulate data from fourmajor hospitals in India and analyze the incidence of SI and blood and body fluid exposure in HCWs. Materials and Methods : Four Indian hospitals (hospital A, B, C and D from major cities of India participated in this multicentric study. Data ranging from 6 to 26 months were collected from these hospitals using Exposure Prevention Information network (EPINet which is the database created by International Healthcare Worker Safety Research and Resource Center, University of Virginia. Results : Two hundred and forty-three sharp injuries and 22 incidents of blood or body fluid exposure were encountered in the cumulated 50 months of our study. The incidence of SIswas thehighestamong nurses (55% of allthe HCWs, akin to the global data. An injury rate of nearly 20% among housekeeping staff seems to be specific to the Indian data. Patient′s room followed by operation theater appeared to be common locations of injury in our study. The source of the injury was identified in majority (64% of the injuries. A major part of the group was not the primary users of the sharp (38%. Disposable needles caused nearly half of the injuries. Suture needles contributed to a reasonable number of injuries in one of the hospitals. Conclusions : The incidence of SI is the highest among nurses and the housekeeping staff (>30% each. A substantial number of injuries are avoidable.

  3. Identification of POMC exonic variants associated with substance dependence and body mass index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Risk of substance dependence (SD and obesity has been linked to the function of melanocortin peptides encoded by the proopiomelanocortin gene (POMC. METHODS AND RESULTS: POMC exons were Sanger sequenced in 280 African Americans (AAs and 308 European Americans (EAs. Among them, 311 (167 AAs and 114 EAs were affected with substance (alcohol, cocaine, opioid and/or marijuana dependence and 277 (113 AAs and164 EAs were screened controls. We identified 23 variants, including two common polymorphisms (rs10654394 and rs1042571 and 21 rare variants; 12 of which were novel. We used logistic regression to analyze the association between the two common variants and SD or body mass index (BMI, with sex, age, and ancestry proportion as covariates. The common variant rs1042571 in the 3'UTR was significantly associated with BMI in EAs (Overweight: P(adj = 0.005; Obese: P(adj = 0.018; Overweight+Obese: P(adj = 0.002 but not in AAs. The common variant, rs10654394, was not associated with BMI and neither common variant was associated with SD in either population. To evaluate the association between the rare variants and SD or BMI, we collapsed rare variants and tested their prevalence using Fisher's exact test. In AAs, rare variants were nominally associated with SD overall and with specific SD traits (SD: P(FET,1df = 0.026; alcohol dependence: P(FET,1df = 0.027; cocaine dependence: P(FET,1df = 0.007; marijuana dependence: P(FET,1df = 0.050 (the P-value from cocaine dependence analysis survived Bonferroni correction. There was no such effect in EAs. Although the frequency of the rare variants did not differ significantly between the normal-weight group and the overweight or obese group in either population, certain rare exonic variants occurred only in overweight or obese subjects without SD. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that POMC exonic variants may influence risk for both SD and elevated BMI, in a population-specific manner. However, common

  4. PORE-SCALE SIMULATION OF FLUID FLOW IN PACKED-BED REACTORS VIA RIGID-BODY SIMULATIONS AND CFD

    OpenAIRE

    Icardi, Matteo; Marchisio, Daniele,; Boccardo, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    The problem of fluid flow in porous media is of paramount importance in the process, oil and metallurgical industries, since it is involved in the extraction of minerals and oil, in aquifer dynamics, as well as chemical reactions carried out in fixed bed catalytic reactors. Its CFD simulation is particularly interesting, as it offers the possibility of reducing the extent of costly experimental investigations, but presents a number of technical challenges. One of the main issues is the genera...

  5. Application of nanodiamonds in human body fluid analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianglei Kong

    2008-01-01

    Direct mass spectrometric analysis of complex biological samples is very important and challenging. In this paper, nanodiamonds have been successfully used in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric analysis of human serum and urine. As a practical tool and platform, it can be widely used in the field of humoral proteomics, and it plays a very promising role in clinical diagnosis, including identification of novel disease-associated biomarkers.

  6. Wearable Multi-Frequency and Multi-Segment Bioelectrical Impedance Spectroscopy for Unobtrusively Tracking Body Fluid Shifts during Physical Activity in Real-Field Applications: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Federica; Magnani, Alessandro; Maggioni, Martina A.; Stahn, Alexander; Rampichini, Susanna; Merati, Giampiero; Castiglioni, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Bioelectrical Impedance Spectroscopy (BIS) allows assessing the composition of body districts noninvasively and quickly, potentially providing important physiological/clinical information. However, neither portable commercial instruments nor more advanced wearable prototypes simultaneously satisfy the demanding needs of unobtrusively tracking body fluid shifts in different segments simultaneously, over a broad frequency range, for long periods and with high measurements rate. These needs are often required to evaluate exercise tests in sports or rehabilitation medicine, or to assess gravitational stresses in aerospace medicine. Therefore, the aim of this work is to present a new wearable prototype for monitoring multi-segment and multi-frequency BIS unobtrusively over long periods. Our prototype guarantees low weight, small size and low power consumption. An analog board with current-injecting and voltage-sensing electrodes across three body segments interfaces a digital board that generates square-wave current stimuli and computes impedance at 10 frequencies from 1 to 796 kHz. To evaluate the information derivable from our device, we monitored the BIS of three body segments in a volunteer before, during and after physical exercise and postural shift. We show that it can describe the dynamics of exercise-induced changes and the effect of a sit-to-stand maneuver in active and inactive muscular districts separately and simultaneously. PMID:27187389

  7. Wearable Multi-Frequency and Multi-Segment Bioelectrical Impedance Spectroscopy for Unobtrusively Tracking Body Fluid Shifts during Physical Activity in Real-Field Applications: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Federica; Magnani, Alessandro; Maggioni, Martina A; Stahn, Alexander; Rampichini, Susanna; Merati, Giampiero; Castiglioni, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Bioelectrical Impedance Spectroscopy (BIS) allows assessing the composition of body districts noninvasively and quickly, potentially providing important physiological/clinical information. However, neither portable commercial instruments nor more advanced wearable prototypes simultaneously satisfy the demanding needs of unobtrusively tracking body fluid shifts in different segments simultaneously, over a broad frequency range, for long periods and with high measurements rate. These needs are often required to evaluate exercise tests in sports or rehabilitation medicine, or to assess gravitational stresses in aerospace medicine. Therefore, the aim of this work is to present a new wearable prototype for monitoring multi-segment and multi-frequency BIS unobtrusively over long periods. Our prototype guarantees low weight, small size and low power consumption. An analog board with current-injecting and voltage-sensing electrodes across three body segments interfaces a digital board that generates square-wave current stimuli and computes impedance at 10 frequencies from 1 to 796 kHz. To evaluate the information derivable from our device, we monitored the BIS of three body segments in a volunteer before, during and after physical exercise and postural shift. We show that it can describe the dynamics of exercise-induced changes and the effect of a sit-to-stand maneuver in active and inactive muscular districts separately and simultaneously. PMID:27187389

  8. Wearable Multi-Frequency and Multi-Segment Bioelectrical Impedance Spectroscopy for Unobtrusively Tracking Body Fluid Shifts during Physical Activity in Real-Field Applications: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Villa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Bioelectrical Impedance Spectroscopy (BIS allows assessing the composition of body districts noninvasively and quickly, potentially providing important physiological/clinical information. However, neither portable commercial instruments nor more advanced wearable prototypes simultaneously satisfy the demanding needs of unobtrusively tracking body fluid shifts in different segments simultaneously, over a broad frequency range, for long periods and with high measurements rate. These needs are often required to evaluate exercise tests in sports or rehabilitation medicine, or to assess gravitational stresses in aerospace medicine. Therefore, the aim of this work is to present a new wearable prototype for monitoring multi-segment and multi-frequency BIS unobtrusively over long periods. Our prototype guarantees low weight, small size and low power consumption. An analog board with current-injecting and voltage-sensing electrodes across three body segments interfaces a digital board that generates square-wave current stimuli and computes impedance at 10 frequencies from 1 to 796 kHz. To evaluate the information derivable from our device, we monitored the BIS of three body segments in a volunteer before, during and after physical exercise and postural shift. We show that it can describe the dynamics of exercise-induced changes and the effect of a sit-to-stand maneuver in active and inactive muscular districts separately and simultaneously.

  9. Integration of phase separation with ultrasound-assisted salt-induced liquid-liquid microextraction for analyzing the fluoroquinones in human body fluids by liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huili; Gao, Ming; Wang, Mei; Zhang, Rongbo; Wang, Wenwei; Dahlgren, Randy A; Wang, Xuedong

    2015-03-15

    Herein, we developed a novel integrated device to perform phase separation based on ultrasound-assisted salt-induced liquid-liquid microextraction for determination of five fluoroquinones (FQs) in human body fluids. The integrated device consisted of three simple HDPE components used to separate the extraction solvent from the aqueous phase prior to retrieving the extractant. A series of extraction parameters were optimized using the response surface method based on central composite design. Optimal conditions consisted of 945μL acetone extraction solvent, pH 2.1, 4.1min stir time, 5.9g Na2SO4, and 4.0min centrifugation. Under optimized conditions, the limits of detection (at S/N=3) were 0.12-0.66μgL(-1), the linear range was 0.5-500μgL(-1) and recoveries were 92.6-110.9% for the five FQs extracted from plasma and urine. The proposed method has several advantages, such as easy construction from inexpensive materials, high extraction efficiency, short extraction time, and compatibility with HPLC analysis. Thus, this method shows excellent prospects for sample pretreatment and analysis of FQs in human body fluids. PMID:25660716

  10. Effects of zirconium and nitrogen plasma immersion ion implantation on the electrochemical corrosion behavior of Mg–Y–RE alloy in simulated body fluid and cell culture medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Dual Zr and N plasma ion implantation are conducted on WE43Mg alloy. • Zr and N implanted WE43 (ZrN-WE43) enhanced corrosion resistance in cell culture medium. • ZrN-WE43 enhanced corrosion resistance in simulated body fluid (SBF). • ZrN-WE43 shows near capacitive impedance spectra in cell culture medium. • Calcium phosphate is formed on the corrosion product. - Abstract: The effects of dual Zr and N plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) on the corrosion behavior of WE43Mg alloy are evaluated in simulated body fluid (SBF) and cell culture medium (cDMEM). Zr and N PIII improves the corrosion resistance of WE43 which exhibits smaller icorr, larger R1 and R2, smaller CPE2, and larger phase angle maxima in SBF and cDMEM. The Zr and N PIII WE43 samples exhibit 12-folds decrease in icorr in SBF and 71-folds decrease in icorr with near capacitive EIS in cDMEM. Analysis of the corrosion products reveals calcium phosphate

  11. Effect of equal channel angular extrusion on wear and corrosion behavior of the orthopedic Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy in simulated body fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suresh, K.S. [Department of Materials. Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Geetha, M., E-mail: geethamanivasagam@vit.ac.in [School of Mechanical and Building Sciences, VIT University, Vellore (India); Richard, C. [Laboratoire de Mecanique et de Rheologie EA 2640, Polytech' Tours, 37000 Tours (France); Landoulsi, J. [Laboratoire de Reactivite de Surface, UMR 7197 CNRS, Universite Pierre and Marie Curie - Paris VI, 4 Place Jussieu, Case 178, F-75252 Paris (France); Ramasawmy, H. [University of Mauritius, Faculty of Engineering, Reduit (Mauritius); Suwas, S. [Department of Materials. Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Asokamani, R. [School of Mechanical and Building Sciences, VIT University, Vellore (India)

    2012-05-01

    We report investigations on the texture, corrosion and wear behavior of ultra-fine grained (UFG) Ti-13Nb-Zr alloy, processed by equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) technique, for biomedical applications. The microstructure obtained was characterized by X-ray line profile analysis, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD). We focus on the corrosion resistance and the fretting behavior, the main considerations for such biomaterials, in simulated body fluid. To this end, potentiodynamic polarization tests were carried out to evaluate the corrosion behavior of the UFG alloy in Hanks solution at 37 Degree-Sign C. The fretting wear behavior was carried out against bearing steel in the same conditions. The roughness of the samples was also measured to examine the effect of topography on the wear behavior of the samples. Our results showed that the ECAE process increases noticeably the performance of the alloy as orthopedic implant. Although no significant difference was observed in the fretting wear behavior, the corrosion resistance of the UFG alloy was found to be higher than the non-treated material. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Relevancy of ECAE process applied to titanium alloy for biomedical applications. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Significant improvement of mechanical properties of the surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Noticeable increase of the corrosion resistance in simulated body fluid.

  12. Effect of equal channel angular extrusion on wear and corrosion behavior of the orthopedic Ti–13Nb–13Zr alloy in simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report investigations on the texture, corrosion and wear behavior of ultra-fine grained (UFG) Ti–13Nb–Zr alloy, processed by equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) technique, for biomedical applications. The microstructure obtained was characterized by X-ray line profile analysis, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD). We focus on the corrosion resistance and the fretting behavior, the main considerations for such biomaterials, in simulated body fluid. To this end, potentiodynamic polarization tests were carried out to evaluate the corrosion behavior of the UFG alloy in Hanks solution at 37 °C. The fretting wear behavior was carried out against bearing steel in the same conditions. The roughness of the samples was also measured to examine the effect of topography on the wear behavior of the samples. Our results showed that the ECAE process increases noticeably the performance of the alloy as orthopedic implant. Although no significant difference was observed in the fretting wear behavior, the corrosion resistance of the UFG alloy was found to be higher than the non-treated material. Highlights: ► Relevancy of ECAE process applied to titanium alloy for biomedical applications. ► Significant improvement of mechanical properties of the surface. ► Noticeable increase of the corrosion resistance in simulated body fluid.

  13. Spinning fluids reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jan D; Hupka, Jan; Aranowski, Robert

    2012-11-20

    A spinning fluids reactor, includes a reactor body (24) having a circular cross-section and a fluid contactor screen (26) within the reactor body (24). The fluid contactor screen (26) having a plurality of apertures and a circular cross-section concentric with the reactor body (24) for a length thus forming an inner volume (28) bound by the fluid contactor screen (26) and an outer volume (30) bound by the reactor body (24) and the fluid contactor screen (26). A primary inlet (20) can be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce flow-through first spinning flow of a first fluid within the inner volume (28). A secondary inlet (22) can similarly be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce a second flow of a second fluid within the outer volume (30) which is optionally spinning.

  14. Adsorption of Fluids of Pseudo-Hard Bodies and EPM5 Water on Solid Surface: Density Functional Theory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slovák, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 101, č. 8 (2003), s. 1171-1181. ISSN 0026-8976 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4072908 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : adsorption * primitive models * pseudo-hard body Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.591, year: 2003

  15. On the motion of rigid bodies in a compressible viscous fluid under the action of gravitational forces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ducomet, B.; Nečasová, Šárka

    Prague : Institute of Math ematics AS CR, 2012 - (Brandts, J.; Chleboun, J.; Korotov, S.; Segeth, K.; Šístek, J.; Vejchodský, T.), s. 83-98 ISBN 978-80-85823-60-8. [Applications of Math ematics 2012. Prague (CZ), 02.05.2012-05.05.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP201/11/1304 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : compressible viscous fluid * motion Subject RIV: BA - General Math ematics http://www. math .cas.cz/~am2012/proceedings/contributions/ducomet.pdf

  16. Novel /sup 125/I radioimmunoassay for the analysis of. delta. /sup 9/-tetrahydrocannabinol and its metabolites in human body fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, B.; Mason, P.A.; Moffat, A.C.; King, L.J.

    A cannabinoid radioimmunoassay (RIA) that detects some of the major ..delta../sup 9/-THC metabolites is developed and evaluated for use in forensic science. It incorporates a novel /sup 125/I radiotracer, is sensitive, reliable, relatively quick, and simple to use. The RIA uses a commercially available antiserum and detects a number of cannabinoid metabolites, including ..delta../sup 9/-THC-11-oic acid and its glucuronide conjugate in biological fluids. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of blood and urine samples submitted for forensic analysis.

  17. Tribological and corrosion behaviors of warm- and hot-rolled Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloys in simulated body fluid conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee T

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Taekyung Lee,1 Eshaan Mathew,2 Santhosh Rajaraman,2 Geetha Manivasagam,2 Ashok Kumar Singh,3 Chong Soo Lee4 1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USA; 2Centre for Biomaterials Science and Technology, School for Mechanical and Building Sciences, Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India; 3Defense Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad, India; 4Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology (GIFT, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH, Pohang, Republic of Korea Abstract: Development of submicrocrystalline structure in biomedical alloy such as Ti-13Nb-13Zr (in wt% through warm-rolling process has been found to enhance mechanical properties compared to conventional thermomechanical processing routes including hot-rolling process. The present study investigated the tribological and corrosion behaviors of warm-rolled (WR and hot-rolled Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloys which have not been studied to date. Both tribological and corrosion experiments were carried out in simulated body fluid conditions (Hank’s solution at 37°C based on the fact that the investigated alloys would be used in a human body as orthopedic implants. The WR Ti-13Nb-13Zr demonstrated a submicrocrystalline structure that provided a significant enhancement in hardness, strength, and corrosion resistance. Meanwhile, there was no notable difference in wear resistance between the WR and hot-rolled samples despite the different microstructure and hardness. The present study confirmed the enormous potential of WR Ti-13Nb-13Zr with not only great mechanical properties but also high corrosion resistance in the simulated body fluid. Keywords: titanium alloy, multi-pass caliber-rolling, grain refinement, tribology, corrosion

  18. Internal waves patterns in the wake of a 3D body towed in a two-layer fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacaze, Laurent; Mercier, Matthieu; Thual, Olivier; Paci, Alexandre

    2014-11-01

    Stratified flows over obstacles are important features in meteorology and oceanography. The characterization of these flows is crucial in order to propose models of geophysical processes such as mixing and ocean circulation or orographic drag in the atmosphere. For some specific stratification profiles, the energy of internal waves generated by the obstacle can be trapped at a given depth, at the base of the oceanic mixing layer or at the top of the atmospheric boundary layer for instance. This scenario can be modelled by a two-layer stratified fluid for which gravity waves spread at the interface between the two layers. The work presented here focuses on a two-layer flow over a 3D obstacle, or equivalently, an obstacle towed in a fluid at rest. Experiments performed both in the large-scale flume of CNRM-GAME Toulouse (METEO-FRANCE & CNRS) and in a smaller tank apparatus, are presented with a specific attention on the measurement of the 3D wave patterns. A non-hydrostatic linear analysis is used to describe the observed wave patterns. The experiments highlight the strong influence of the Froude number on the generated waves. More specifically, we investigate the nature of the wake angle obtained from the wave pattern, and discuss a transition from Kelvin to Mach angle.

  19. Metal ion concentrations in body fluids after implantation of hip replacements with metal-on-metal bearing--systematic review of clinical and epidemiological studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albrecht Hartmann

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The use of metal-on-metal (MoM total hip arthroplasty (THA increased in the last decades. A release of metal products (i.e. particles, ions, metallo-organic compounds in these implants may cause local and/or systemic adverse reactions. Metal ion concentrations in body fluids are surrogate measures of metal exposure. OBJECTIVE: To systematically summarize and critically appraise published studies concerning metal ion concentrations after MoM THA. METHODS: Systematic review of clinical trials (RCTs and epidemiological studies with assessment of metal ion levels (cobalt, chromium, titanium, nickel, molybdenum in body fluids after implantation of metalliferous hip replacements. Systematic search in PubMed and Embase in January 2012 supplemented by hand search. Standardized abstraction of pre- and postoperative metal ion concentrations stratified by type of bearing (primary explanatory factor, patient characteristics as well as study quality characteristics (secondary explanatory factors. RESULTS: Overall, 104 studies (11 RCTs, 93 epidemiological studies totaling 9.957 patients with measurement of metal ions in body fluids were identified and analyzed. Consistently, median metal ion concentrations were persistently elevated after implantation of MoM-bearings in all investigated mediums (whole blood, serum, plasma, erythrocytes, urine irrespective of patient characteristics and study characteristics. In several studies very high serum cobalt concentrations above 50 µg/L were measured (detection limit typically 0.3 µg/L. Highest metal ion concentrations were observed after treatment with stemmed large-head MoM-implants and hip resurfacing arthroplasty. DISCUSSION: Due to the risk of local and systemic accumulation of metallic products after treatment with MoM-bearing, risk and benefits should be carefully balanced preoperatively. The authors support a proposed "time out" for stemmed large-head MoM-THA and recommend a restricted

  20. The Influence of Zn Content on the Corrosion and Wear Performance of Mg-Zn-Ca Alloy in Simulated Body Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua; Liu, Debao; Zhao, Yue; Jin, Feng; Chen, Minfang

    2016-07-01

    Mg-Zn-Ca alloy has been attracting increasing attention as a potential biodegradable implant material. In this paper, Mg-3Zn-0.2Ca and Mg-4Zn-0.2Ca alloys were prepared by means of vacuum melting and subsequent hot extrusion process. The influences of Zn content on the microstructure, mechanical properties, and corrosion and wear behavior of Mg-Zn-Ca alloys in simulated body fluid (SBF) were studied. The results show that with increased Zn content, the grain size and corrosion resistance were decreased, while the mechanical strength and wear resistance were increased, under both dry sliding and SBF-lubricated conditions. For the same Mg-Zn-Ca alloy, the wear loss rate under SBF lubrication was higher than dry sliding condition, indicating a strong corrosion-assisted wear effect of SBF to the Mg-Zn-Ca alloy.

  1. Identification and culture of neural stem cells isolated from adult rat subventricular zone following fluid percussion brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Objective To analyze proliferation and differentiation of glial fibrillary acid protein(GFAP)-and nestin-positive(GFAP+/nestin+)cells isolated from the subventricular zone following fluid percussion brain injury to determine whether GFAP+/nestin+ cells exhibit characteristics of neural stem cells.Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats,aged 12 weeks and weighing 200-250 g,were randomly and evenly assigned to normal control group and model group.In the model group,a rat model of fluid percussion brain injury was es...

  2. Effect of titanium ions on the ion release rate and uptake at the interface of silica based xerogels with simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •New insights into corrosion of bioactive glasses in simulated body fluid. •Effect of TiO2 added to bioactive glasses on their behaviour in aqueous media. •Incorporation of TiO2 slows the corrosion rate of bioactive glasses. •TiO2 influences the ion release rate of phosphate, but scarcely affects that of silicate. -- Abstract: The dissolution and surface layer changes of new xTiO2(100 − x)[4SiO2·CaO·0.3P2O5] sol–gel derived xerogels (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 20 mol%) have been investigated in Kokubo’s simulated body fluid (SBF). The ionic leaching rate was analysed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES). ICP-AES results showed a relatively fast dissolution of titanium free sample, with a high release of phosphorous and calcium ions in the first hour of incubation while the release of silicon ions continuously increased up to 6 h of immersion. The titanium dioxide addition up to 20 mol% differently influences the release of phosphorus, calcium and silicon ions, i.e. TiO2 strongly stabilises the phosphorus ions, to a lesser extent the calcium ions, and has almost no effect on the silicon ions release. The structural changes were evaluated using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The XRD results show that all samples remain mainly amorphous after immersion in SBF. The changes occurred in the surrounding of phosphorous and silicon ions are well reflected in FTIR spectra and they were correlated with the samples stability in SBF

  3. Mercury concentrations in human placenta, umbilical cord, cord blood and amniotic fluid and their relations with body parameters of newborns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were conducted on samples taken from giving birth women (n = 40) living in Poland, representing three age groups: 19–25, 26–30 and 31–38 years old. Mercury concentrations were measured with CV-AAS in placenta, umbilical cord, cord blood and amniotic fluid. The placentas weight did not exceed the 750 g value and was heavier than 310 g. Mean values of Hg concentrations in blood, placenta and umbilical cord were similar (c.a. 9 μg/g). High levels of mercury were noted in cord blood which in 75% of all observations exceeded (up to 17 μg/L) the safe dose set by US EPA (5.8 μg/L). No statistically significant differences in medium level of Hg in all the studied tissues among age groups of women were observed. Positive correlations between Hg concentrations in placenta and umbilical cord and cord blood were revealed as well as some negative ones between mercury concentrations and pregnancy parameters. -- Highlights: •Concentrations of mercury in cord blood exceed the safety threshold level. •Maternal age was not an influential factor of Hg concentrations in studied samples. •Positive correlations between Hg levels in different tissues were observed. •Negative correlation between Hg concentrations and pregnancy parameters were noted. -- Maternal age was not an influential factor of mercury concentrations in studied samples. 75% of cord blood samples exceeded the Hg threshold concentration

  4. 核磁共振测井流体识别方法综述%Review on Fluid Identification Methods with NMR Logging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鹏举; 张智鹏; 姜大鹏

    2011-01-01

    This article classifies NMR logging fluid identification methods into three: the first is the conventional methods, including DSM, TDA, SSM, DIFAN, EDM and MRIAN; the second is separation of one-dimension spectrum, including MRF, FET, GIFT, MGTE, SIMET; The DSM and TDA use T1 difference to identify fluids and are suitable for reservoirs with light oil and gas. The SSM and DIFAN use fluid diffusion coefficient difference to recognize fluids and are suitable for the reservoirs having medium viscous oil and gas. The MRF, GIFT and SIMET use multi-fluids relaxation models to inverse echo series/signals with multiple different acquisition parameters (e. G. , number of the echo waves, echo intervals and waiting time, etc. ) to get each fluid's saturation and oil viscosity, and the kike. The EDM may determine movable water volume and detect light oil. The last is two-dimension spectrum method, which is a novel method based on the two dimensions such as (T1 ,D)and (T2,D), etc. , and the inversed two dimensional spectrum from this method may visually and effectively identify the reservoir fluids. The basic principle, advantages and applicable conditions of these methods are described and the trend of NMR fluid identification is pointed out.%核磁共振测井流体识别方法分为3类.常规识别方法包括差谱法(DSM)和时域分析方法(TDA),利用流体的纵向弛豫时间T1的差异识别评价流体,适合于含轻质油和天然气储层的识别;移谱法(SSM)和扩散分析法(DIFAN)利用流体扩散系数的差异识别评价流体,适合于含中等黏度油和天然气储层的识别;MRF、GIFT和SIMET方法通过建立储层多流体弛豫模型对多组不同采集参数的回波串进行反演,求得各流体饱和度、原油黏度等;增强扩散法(EDM)能够确定可动水体积和检测轻质油的存在.一维谱分离流体识别方法包括MRF、FET、GIFT、MGTE、SIMET方法,其关键是建立符合实际的多流体弛

  5. Action of fluid on aqueduct body during strong earthquake%强震下流体对渡槽槽身的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李遇春; 楼梦麟

    2000-01-01

    The boundary element method is applied to simulate nonlinear sloshing of fluid,dynamic horizontal force and overturning moment actingon the aqueduct body during earthquake.The computational results of BEM(nonlinear)are compared with that of linearized theories.The numerical results reveal that a great horizontal force acting on the aqueduct body may occurred during strong earthquake.This action must be considered in seismic resistance design.%本文应用边界元法计算了强震下流体的非线性晃动及其对槽身的水平力及翻转力矩,将所得数值结果与线性解析方法的计算结果作了比较,分析了两类结果的异同点。计算表明:强震时,流体对槽身可能会产生很大的横向水平力,建议在抗震设计时考虑这一作用因素。

  6. Fluid Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, M.; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S.; Lauriie, S.; Garcia, K.; Sargsyan, A.; Martin, D.; Ribeiro, L.; Lui, J.; Macias, B.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R.; Chang, D.; Johnston, S.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Smith, S.

    2016-01-01

    NASA is focusing on long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low-Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but more than 50% of ISS astronauts experienced more profound, chronic changes with objective structural and functional findings such as papilledema and choroidal folds. Globe flattening, optic nerve sheath dilation, and optic nerve tortuosity also are apparent. This pattern is referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. VIIP signs and symptoms, as well as postflight lumbar puncture data, suggest that elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) may be associated with the spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight, and to correlate these findings with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as the VIIP-related effects of those shifts, is predicted by the crewmember's preflight conditions and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations (such as head-down tilt). Lastly, we will evaluate the patterns of fluid distribution in ISS astronauts during acute reversal of fluid shifts through application of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) interventions to characterize and explain general and individual responses. METHODS: We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the Figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, calcaneus tissue thickness (by

  7. Fluid accumulation threshold measured by acute body weight change after admission in general surgical intensive care units: how much should be concerning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chittawatanarat K

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Kaweesak Chittawatanarat,1 Todsaporn Pichaiya,2 Kamtone Chandacham,1 Tidarat Jirapongchareonlap,1 Narain Chotirosniramit11Division of Surgical Critical Care and Trauma, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, 2Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Associated Medical Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, ThailandBackground: The objective of this study (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01351506 was to identify the threshold level of fluid accumulation measured by acute body weight (BW change during the first week in a general surgical intensive care unit (ICU, which is associated with ICU mortality and other adverse outcomes.Methods: Four hundred sixty-five patients were prospectively followed for a 28-day period. The maximum BW change threshold during the first week was evaluated by the maximum percentage change in BW from the ICU admission weight (Max%ΔBW. Daily screening of adverse events in the ICU were recorded. The cutoff point of Max%ΔBW on ICU mortality was defined by considering the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve, intersection of the sensitivity and specificity, and the Youden Index. Univariable and multivariable regression analyses were used to demonstrate the associations. Statistical significance was defined as P<0.05.Results: The appropriate cutoff value of Max%ΔBW threshold was 5%. Regarding the multivariable regression model, in overall patients, the occurrence of the following adverse events (expressed as adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval] were significantly associated with a Max%ΔBW of >5%: ICU mortality (2.38 [1.25–4.54] (P=0.008, ICU mortality in patients without renal replacement therapy (RRT (2.47 [1.21–5.06] (P=0.013, reintubation within 72 hours (2.51 [1.04–6.00] (P=0.039, RRT requirement (2.67 [1.13–6.33] (P=0.026, and delirium (1.97 [1.08–3.57] (P=0.025. Regarding the postoperative subgroup, a Max%ΔBW value of more than 5% was significantly associated with: ICU

  8. Comparison of four techniques for the detection of Clostridium perfringens type D epsilon toxin in intestinal contents and other body fluids of sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzal, F A; Kelly, W R; Thomas, R; Hornitzky, M; Galea, F

    2003-03-01

    Polyclonal capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PC-ELISA), monoclonal capture ELISA (MC-ELISA), mouse neutralization test (MNT), and counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIEP), were compared for their ability to detect epsilon toxin in intestinal contents and body fluids of sheep and goats. When used to evaluate intestinal contents of sheep artificially spiked with epsilon prototoxin, PC-ELISA detected 0.075 mouse lethal dose (MLD)50/ml, whereas the MNT, MC-ELISA, and CIEP detected 6, 25, and 50 MLD50/ml, respectively. Amounts of epsilon toxin detected by PC-ELISA, MC-ELISA, MNT, and CIEP in sheep pericardial fluid artificially spiked with epsilon prototoxin were 0.075, 0.75, 6, and 200 MLD50/ml, respectively. For assaying epsilon toxin in aqueous humor, PC-ELISA and MC-ELISA detected 0.075 MLD50/ml, whereas CIEP detected 200 MLD50/ml (MNT was not evaluated). When 51 samples of intestinal contents of sheep and goats (32 positive and 19 negative to MNT) were analyzed by the other 3 techniques, the relative sensitivity of PC-ELISA, MC-ELISA, and CIEP was 93.75, 84.37, and 37.50%, respectively. The specificity of PC-ELISA, MC-ELISA, and CIEP was 31.57, 57.89, and 84.21%, respectively. The absolute sensitivity of PC-ELISA, MC-ELISA, CIEP, and MNT was 90.90, 69.69, 15.15, and 54.54%. The absolute specificity of the 4 techniques was 100%. These results show that there is a marked inconsistency among techniques routinely used to detect Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin. Until more consistent results are achieved, the diagnosis of enterotoxemia should not only be based solely on epsilon toxin detection, but also on clinical and pathological data. PMID:12661718

  9. Identification and preliminary characterization of a Ca2+-dependent hemagglutinin in the celomic fluid of Sipunculus nudus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Ballarin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A soluble agglutinin was purified by affinity chromatography of the celomic fluid of the marine worm Sipunculus nudus. This agglutinin requires metal cations for its activity and is specific for derivatives of D-galactose. It resulted lightly thermostable, with a pH optimum around 7.5. On SDS-PAGE, it was resolved in two bands, of 33 and 31 kDa in reducing conditions and 29 and 26 kDa in non-reducing conditions. This behavior is probably due to the presence of disulfide bridges between cysteine residues, which are required for the correct functioning of the hemagglutinin, as β-mercaptoethanol completely abolish the agglutinating activity of cell-free celomic fluid. The purified lectin can influence in vitro phagocytosis of yeast by celomic leukocytes: in the presence of the molecule, ingestion of foreign particles results significantly decreased and yeast cells agglutinate and forms rosettes around the celomocytes. This suggests a role of the molecule in immunosurveillance.

  10. Determination of medicinal and illicit drugs in post mortem dental hard tissues and comparison with analytical results for body fluids and hair samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klima, Miriam; Altenburger, Markus J; Kempf, Jürgen; Auwärter, Volker; Neukamm, Merja A

    2016-08-01

    In burnt or skeletonized bodies dental hard tissue sometimes is the only remaining specimen available. Therefore, it could be used as an alternative matrix in post mortem toxicology. Additionally, analysis of dental tissues could provide a unique retrospective window of detection. For forensic interpretation, routes and rates of incorporation of different drugs as well as physicochemical differences between tooth root, tooth crown and carious material have to be taken into account. In a pilot study, one post mortem tooth each from three drug users was analyzed for medicinal and illicit drugs. The pulp was removed in two cases; in one case the tooth was root canal treated. The teeth were separated into root, crown and carious material and drugs were extracted from the powdered material with methanol under ultrasonication. The extracts were screened for drugs by LC-MS(n) (ToxTyper™) and quantitatively analyzed with LC-ESI-MS/MS in MRM mode. The findings were compared to the analytical results for cardiac blood, femoral blood, urine, stomach content and hair. In dental hard tissues, 11 drugs (amphetamine, MDMA, morphine, codeine, norcodeine, methadone, EDDP, fentanyl, tramadol, diazepam, nordazepam, and promethazine) could be detected and concentrations ranged from approximately 0.13pg/mg to 2,400pg/mg. The concentrations declined in the following order: carious material>root>crown. Only the root canal treated tooth showed higher concentrations in the crown than in the root. In post mortem toxicology, dental hard tissue could be a useful alternative matrix facilitating a more differentiated consideration of drug consumption patterns, as the window of detection seems to overlap those for body fluids and hair. PMID:26930453

  11. Nucleation and characterization of hydroxyapatite on thioglycolic acid-capped reduced graphene oxide/silver nanoparticles in simplified simulated body fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Jun; Zhang, Zhaochun, E-mail: zhangzhaochun@shu.edu.cn; Yu, Zhenwei; He, Zhenni; Yang, Shanshan; Jiang, Huiyi

    2014-01-15

    Herein hydroxyapatite (HA) has been synthesized by the nucleation on the surfaces of reduced graphene oxide/silver nanoparticles (rGO/AgNPs) chemisorbed with thioglycolic acid (TGA). The self-assembled monolayer of TGA formed on rGO/AgNPs was immersed in simplified simulated body fluid under gentle growth conditions, forming rGO/AgNPs/TGA/HA biocomposite. The phase structures and functional groups of biocomposite were analyzed by X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Enhanced Raman spectrum of TGA on prepared rGO/AgNPs was obtained with excitation at 633 nm, showing that TGA was chemisorbed on AgNPs through S atom and TGA molecular plane exhibited a tilted orientation with respect to AgNPs. The morphologies of biocomposite were investigated by means of atomic force microscope and transmission electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive spectrum. Analysis shows that the AgNPs uniformly distributed on the rGO nanosheets with the size of about 15–20 nm and HA formation initiated through Ca{sup 2+}-adsorption upon complexation with -COO{sup −} groups of TGA on AgNPs. The results obtained indicated that the rGO/AgNPs/TGA/HA biocomposite may have immense potential application in bone tissue engineering fields for its outstanding and stable activities.

  12. Effect of different processings on mechanical property and corrosion behavior in simulated body fluid of Mg-Zn-Y-Nd alloy for cardiovascular stent application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shi-Jie; Liu, Qian; Qian, Ya-Feng; Sun, Bin; Wang, Li-Guo; Wu, Jing-Min; Guan, Shao-Kang

    2014-09-01

    The biomagnesium alloys have been considered to be one of the most potential biodegradable metal materials due to its good mechanical compatibility, biological compatibility, biological security and biodegradable characteristics. However, the two major problems of high degradation rates in physiological environment and low mechanical properties prevent the development of biomagnesium alloys. In the present work, the samples of Mg-Zn-Y-Nd alloy were prepared by cyclic extrusion compression (CEC) and equal channel angular pressing (ECAP). The microstructures, mechanical properties of alloy and its corrosion behavior in simulated body fluid (SBF) were evaluated. The results reveal that Mg-Zn-Y-Nd alloy consists of equiaxial fine grain structure with the homogeneous distribution of micrometer size and nano-sized second phase, which was caused by the dynamic recrystallization during the ECAP and CEC. The corrosion resistance of alloy was improved. The tensile and corrosion resistance were improved, especially the processed alloy exhibit uniform corrosion performances and decreased corrosion rate. This will provide theoretical ground for Mg-Zn-Y-Nd alloy as vascular stent application.

  13. Alterations in Body Fluid Balance During Fin Swimming in 29 °C Water in a Population of Special Forces Divers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagna, O; Desruelle, A V; Blatteau, J E; Schmid, B; Dumoulin, G; Regnard, J

    2015-12-01

    Highly trained "combat swimmers" encounter physiological difficulties when performing missions in warm water. The aim of this study was to assess the respective roles of immersion and physical activity in perturbing fluid balance of military divers on duty in warm water. 12 trained divers performed 2 dives each (2 h, 3 m depth) in fresh water at 29 °C. Divers either remained Static or swam continuously (Fin) during the dive. In the Fin condition, oxygen consumption and heart rate were 2-fold greater than during the Static dive. Core and skin temperatures were also higher (Fin: 38.5±0.4 °C and 36.2±0.3 °C and Static: 37.2±0.3 °C and 34.3±0.3 °C; respectively p=0.0002 and p=0.0003). During the Fin dive, the average mass loss was 989 g (39% urine loss, 41% sweating and 20% insensible water loss and blood sampling); Static divers lost 720 g (84% urine loss, 2% sweating and 14% insensible water loss and blood sampling) (p=0.003). In the Fin condition, a greater decrease in total body mass and greater sweating occurred, without effects on circulating renin and aldosterone concentrations; diuresis was reduced, and plasma volume decreased more than in the Static condition. PMID:26422054

  14. Nucleation and characterization of hydroxyapatite on thioglycolic acid-capped reduced graphene oxide/silver nanoparticles in simplified simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herein hydroxyapatite (HA) has been synthesized by the nucleation on the surfaces of reduced graphene oxide/silver nanoparticles (rGO/AgNPs) chemisorbed with thioglycolic acid (TGA). The self-assembled monolayer of TGA formed on rGO/AgNPs was immersed in simplified simulated body fluid under gentle growth conditions, forming rGO/AgNPs/TGA/HA biocomposite. The phase structures and functional groups of biocomposite were analyzed by X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Enhanced Raman spectrum of TGA on prepared rGO/AgNPs was obtained with excitation at 633 nm, showing that TGA was chemisorbed on AgNPs through S atom and TGA molecular plane exhibited a tilted orientation with respect to AgNPs. The morphologies of biocomposite were investigated by means of atomic force microscope and transmission electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive spectrum. Analysis shows that the AgNPs uniformly distributed on the rGO nanosheets with the size of about 15–20 nm and HA formation initiated through Ca2+-adsorption upon complexation with -COO− groups of TGA on AgNPs. The results obtained indicated that the rGO/AgNPs/TGA/HA biocomposite may have immense potential application in bone tissue engineering fields for its outstanding and stable activities.

  15. Surface Modification and In Vitro Characterization of Cp-Ti and Ti-5Al-2Nb-1Ta Alloy in Simulated Body Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasikumar, Y.; Rajendran, N.

    2012-10-01

    Ti and its alloys are widely used in manufacturing orthopedic implants as prostheses for joint replacement because of their high corrosion resistance and excellent biocompatibility. However, they lack in bone-bonding ability and leads to higher rate of osteolysis and subsequent loosening of implants. In order to enhance the bone-bonding ability of these alloys, various surface-modification techniques are generally employed. The present investigation is mainly concerned with the surface modification of Cp-Ti and Ti-5Al-2Nb-1Ta alloy using a mixture of alkali and hydrogen peroxide followed by subsequent heat treatment to produce a porous gel layer with anatase structure, which enhances osseointegration. The morphological behavior was examined by x-ray diffractometer (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX). The in vitro characterization of all the specimens was evaluated by immersing the specimens in simulated body fluid solution to assess the apatite formation over the metal surface. The apatite formation was confirmed by XRD, SEM-EDX, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Further, the electrochemical corrosion behaviors of both the untreated and treated specimens were evaluated using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results revealed that the surface-modified and heat-treated specimens exhibited higher corrosion resistance and excellent biocompatibility when compared to the chemical and untreated specimens.

  16. The effect of sodium silicate concentration on microstructure and corrosion properties of MAO-coated magnesium alloy AZ31 in simulated body fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Salami

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, magnesium and its alloys are considered as biodegradable implants. However magnesium implants may rapidly corrode before the natural healing process of the tissue is completed. In this investigation, micro arc oxidation process has been studied for avoiding primary corrosion of the magnesium alloy in simulated body fluid. Anodized coating was formed on AZ31 alloy in nontoxic silicate-alkaline solution at constant current. The effects of silicate concentration and conductivity of electrolyte solution on microstructure and corrosion properties of coating were evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy showed that a thick and condensed coating is formed after enough anodizing period. Energy dispersive spectroscopy showed that Si, O and Mg are the main components of the coating. Corrosion resistance of the coated and uncoated samples was assessed using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests in SBF at 37 °C and pH of 7.4. Maximum corrosion resistance was achieved at 30 g/L concentration of sodium silicate in anodizing solution. It was observed that further increase in silicate concentration decreased the corrosion resistance.

  17. Biomineralization of electrospun poly(L-lactic acid)/gelatin composite fibrous scaffold by using a supersaturated simulated body fluid with continuous CO2 bubbling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To promote the biomineralization, supersaturated simulated body fluids (SBFs), e.g. five times SBF (5 x SBF), were usually applied. In these SBFs, however, homogeneous nucleation of Ca-P mineralites and deposition unavoidably took place owing to the HCO3- decomposition and the pH value increment, which made the prediction of bone bioactivity of substrates controversial. In this study, the classically prepared 5 x SBF was continuously bubbled with CO2 to keep the pH value stable at 6.4 and the solution transparent, and a kind of electrospun poly(L-lactic acid)/gelatin composite fibers was used for the biomineralization study. In such a modified 5 x SBF, heterogenenous nucleation occurred dominantly and thermodynamical unstable brushites (dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, DCPD) were detected shortly on both electrospun PLLA fibers and PLLA/gelatin (1:1 in weight) composite fibers. In comparison with electrospun PLLA fibers, the sheet-like DCPD mineralites transformed into flaky carbonated calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) within 24 h on the PLLA/gelatin composite fibers due to the accelerating effect of gelatin component. The formed apatite coating contained much less Mg2+ ions than that deposited in the classical 5 x SBF. The results of this study showed that supersaturated SBFs buffered with gassy CO2 were expected good choices for the accelerated biomineralization, and for the prediction of the bone bonding bioactivity of substrates.

  18. Fretting wear behaviour of hydroxyapatite–titanium composites in simulated body fluid, supplemented with 5 g l−1 bovine serum albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damaged articulating joints can be repaired or replaced with synthetic biomaterials, which can release wear debris due to articulation, leading to the osteolysis. In a recent work, it has been shown that it is possible to achieve a better combination of flexural strength/fracture toughness as well as in vitro bioactivity and cytocompatibility properties in spark plasma sintered hydroxyapatite–titanium (HA–Ti) composites. Although hydroxyapatite and titanium are well documented for their good biocompatibility, nanosized hydroxyapatite (HA) and titanium (Ti) particles can cause severe toxicity to cells. In order to address this issue, fretting wear study of HA–Ti composites under dry and wet (1× SBF, supplemented with 5 g l−1 bovine serum albumin (BSA)) condition was performed to assess the wear resistance as well as wear debris formation, in vitro. The experimental results reveal one order of magnitude lower wear rate for HA–10 wt% Ti (7.5 × 10−5 mm3 N−1 m−1) composite than monolithic HA (3.9 × 10−4 mm3 N−1 m−1) in simulated body fluid. The difference in the tribological properties has been analyzed in the light of phase assemblages and mechanical properties. Overall, the results suggest the potential use of HA–Ti composites over existing HA-based biocomposites in orthopedic as well as dental applications. (paper)

  19. Quantitative Proteomics Analysis of Tissue Interstitial Fluid for Identification of Novel Serum Candidate Diagnostic Marker for Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Xing, Baocai; Guo, Lihai; Liu, Zhilei; Mu, Jinsong; Sun, Longqin; Wei, Handong; Zhao, Xiaohang; Qian, Xiaohong; Jiang, Ying; He, Fuchu

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common malignant cancer in the world. The sensitivity of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is still inadequate for HCC diagnosis. Tissue interstitial fluid (TIF), as the liquid microenvironment of cancer cells, was used for biomarker discovery in this study. Paired tumor and nontumor TIF samples from 6 HBV-HCC patients were analyzed by a proteomic technique named iTRAQ (isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation). Totally, 241 up-regulated proteins (ratio ≥ 1.3, p AFP) and specificity of 66%. This result demonstrated the potential of S100A9 as a candidate HCC diagnostic biomarker. And TIF was a kind of promising material to identify candidate tumor biomarkers that could be detected in serum. PMID:27216119

  20. Evidence for Impaired Verbal Identification but Intact Nonverbal Recognition of Fearful Body Postures in Asperger's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doody, John P.; Bull, Peter

    2013-01-01

    While most studies of emotion recognition in Asperger's Syndrome (AS) have focused solely on the verbal decoding of affective states, the current research employed the novel technique of using both nonverbal matching and verbal labeling tasks to examine the decoding of emotional body postures and facial expressions. AS participants performed…

  1. Development of a new method for identification and quantification in cerebrospinal fluid of malignant cells from breast carcinoma leptomeningeal metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Rhun Emilie

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diagnosis of leptomeningeal metastasis (LM in patients with solid tumors remains difficult. The usual diagnostic methods of cytomorphological assessment of cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF and gadolinium enhanced MRI of the entire neuraxis lack both specificity and sensitivity. The Veridex CellSearch® technology has been designed for the detection of circulating tumor cells (CTC in blood from cancer patients and validated for the follow-up and prognosis of breast, prostate, colorectal, and lung cancer. Our aim was to adapt this technology for the detection and the enumeration of tumor cells in the CSF of breast cancer patients presenting with LM. Methods On the occasion of a randomized phase III study evaluating the role of the intrathecal treatment in LM from breast cancer (DEPOSEIN, EudraCT N°: 2010-023134-23, the CellSearch® technology was adapted to direct enrichment, enumeration and visualization of tumor cells in 5 mL CSF samples, collected on CellSave® Preservative Tubes and analyzed within 3 days after CSF sampling. Results Sixteen CSF of 8 patients with primary breast cancer presenting with LM were studied. EpCAM+/cytokeratin + cells with typical morphology could be observed and enumerated sequentially with reproducible results in low or elevated numbers in 8 patients. Conclusion This methodology, established on a limited volume of sample and allowing delayed processing, could prove of great interest in the diagnosis and follow-up of cancer patients with LM, especially to appreciate the efficacy of chemotherapy.

  2. Identifications of Opium and Heroin Body Packing by Medical Imaging in the Poisoned and Non-poisoned Drug Smuggler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opium and heroin body packing is a social and health problem in Mashhad since the city is in the vicinity of Afghanistan border. We aimed to compare abdominal X-ray (AXR) and computed tomography (CT) scan for diagnosis. All body packers referred to the center between 2003 and 2006 were hospitalized. Defecation of packets was considered as the gold standard for diagnosis. AXR and CT scan results were classified into 3 groups (highly suggestive, suggestive, and false positive) and compared with each other, using Chi-Square test. A total of 56 body packers (54 M and 2 F) aged 32.1 ± 11.3 years were studied. A mean of 44.4 ± 35.1 opium and 52.0 ± 20.0 heroin packets weighed 8-15 g were retrieved from 46 and 10 patients, respectively. Mean period of hospitalization was 4.7 ± 2.7 and 4.1 ± 0.6 days for opium and heroin packers, respectively. Urine morphine test was positive in 82 percent of the patients. Nine patients underwent surgical operation and death occurred in only 3 opium packers. AXR and CT scan results were significantly different (p less than 0.001) in terms of highly suggestive (16 and 40), suggestive (36 and 1) and false negative (4 and 0), respectively. However, sensitivity of AXR and CT scan in diagnosis of body packing was determined as 92 percent and 100 percent, respectively. Although AXR is a simple and more available technique for the diagnosis of opium and heroin body packing, CT scan revealed more significant sensitive diagnostic tool and should be employed as the confirmatory method.(author)

  3. Intention to comply with post-exposure management among nurses exposed to blood and body fluids in Taiwan: application of the theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, N-Y; Yeh, S-H; Tsay, S-L; Ma, H-J; Chen, C-H; Pan, S-M; Feng, M-C; Chiang, M-C; Lee, Y-W; Chang, L-H; Jang, J-F

    2011-04-01

    Nurses are at significant risk from occupationally acquired bloodborne virus infections following a needlestick and sharps injury. This study aimed to apply the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) to predict nurses' intention to comply with occupational post-exposure management. A cross-sectional survey was applied to select registered nurses who worked in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-designated hospitals. An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire based on the TPB was distributed to 1630 nurses and 1134 (69.5%) questionnaires were returned. From these, a total of 802 nurses (71%) reported blood and body fluid exposure incidents during 2003-2005 and this group was used for analysis. Only 44.6% of the 121 exposed nurses who were prescribed post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) by infectious disease doctors returned to the clinic for interim monitoring, and only 56.6% of exposed nurses confirmed their final serology status. Structural equation modelling was used to test the TPB indicating perceived behavioural control (the perception of the difficulty or ease of PEP management, β=0.58), subjective norm (the perception of social pressure to adhere to PEP, β=0.15), and attitudes (β=0.12) were significant direct effects on nurses' intention to comply with post-exposure management. The hypothesised model test indicated that the model fitted with the expected relationships and directions of theoretical constructs [χ(2) (14, N=802)=23.14, P=0.057, GFI=0.987, RMSEA=0.039]. The TPB model constructs accounted for 54% of the variance in nurses' intention to comply with post-exposure management. The TPB is an appropriate model for predicting nurses' intention to comply with post-exposure management. Healthcare facilities should have policies to decrease the inconvenience of follow-up to encourage nurses to comply with post-exposure management. PMID:21276639

  4. A simple evaluation of numbers of asbestos bodies in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid under light microscopy. Analysis of 35 pulmonary nodular lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 1 asbestos body (AB) per ml of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) under light microscopy was defined as AB positive (ABP) and suggests an occupational asbestos exposure. We microscopically evaluated the AB number per one ml of BALF, which we defined as the AB concentration (ABC), using bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cytocentrifuge slides obtained from 35 patients having pulmonary nodular lesions (20 carcinoma and 15 nonneoplastic disease) and examined the correlation between ABC and clinicopathological data including findings on Helical computed tomography scan (HCTS) and occupational history of asbestos exposure (OHAE). BAL was performed by the standard technique without removing mucous with a gauze filter. AB was microscopically defined as a structure consisting of a core of transparent asbestos surrounded by an iron-protein coat. Twenty of 35 patients were ABP (ABP rate; 57%) and ABC ranged from 0 to 207.98/ml (mean ABC; 11.33/ml). Mean ABC was significantly higher in patients with OHAE (15.04/ml) compared to that in patients without OHAE (3.23/ml). Twenty-two of 35 patients (63%) lacked abnormality on HCTS and among these, 12 patients (55%) were ABP. In 20 pulmonary carcinoma patients, the ABP rate was 85% and ABC ranged from 0 to 31.1/ml (Mean ABC; 2.99/ml). The ABP rate of pulmonary carcinoma patients was 40% (8 patients) and among these, 5 patients (63%) did not show any abnormality on HCTS. In conclusion, our method was simple and useful and should be applied to patients with pulmonary nodular lesions and OHAE, even if there are no abnormalities on HCTS. (author)

  5. Biocompatibility and corrosion behavior of the shape memory NiTi alloy in the physiological environments simulated with body fluids for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to unique properties of NiTi shape memory alloys such as high corrosion resistance, biocompatibility, super elasticity and shape memory behavior, NiTi shape memory alloys are suitable materials for medical applications. Although TiO2 passive layer in these alloys can prevent releasing of nickel to the environment, high nickel content and stability of passive layer in these alloys are very debatable subjects. In this study a NiTi shape memory alloy with nominal composition of 50.7 atom% Ni was investigated by corrosion tests. Electrochemical tests were performed in two physiological environments of Ringer solution and NaCl 0.9% solution. Results indicate that the breakdown potential of the NiTi alloy in NaCl 0.9% solution is higher than that in Ringer solution. The results of Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) reveal that low pitting corrosion occurred in Ringer solution compared with NaCl solution at potentiostatic tests. The pH value of the solutions increases after the electrochemical tests. The existence of hydride products in the X-ray diffraction analysis confirms the decrease of the concentration of hydrogen ion in solutions. Topographical evaluations show that corrosion products are nearly same in all samples. The biocompatibility tests were performed by reaction of mouse fibroblast cells (L929). The growth and development of cells for different times were measured by numbering the cells or statistics investigations. The figures of cells for different times showed natural growth of cells. The different of the cell numbers between the test specimen and control specimen was negligible; therefore it may be concluded that the NiTi shape memory alloy is not toxic in the physiological environments simulated with body fluids.

  6. Development of a new multi-analyte assay for the simultaneous detection of opioids in serum and other body fluids using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckart, K; Röhrich, J; Breitmeier, D; Ferner, M; Laufenberg-Feldmann, R; Urban, R

    2015-09-15

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method using electrospray ionization in positive ionization mode was developed for the simultaneous detection of multiple opioid-type drugs in plasma. The presented assay allows the quantitative determination of alfentanil, buprenorphine, codeine, desomorphine, dextromethorphan, dextrorphan, dihydrocodeine, dihydromorphine, ethylmorphine, fentanyl, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, methadone, morphine, naloxone, naltrexone, oxycodone, oxymorphone, pentazocine, pethidine, pholcodine, piritramide, remifentanil, sufentanil, and tramadol as well as the metabolites 6-monoacetylmorphine, bisnortilidine, morphine-3-glucuronide, morphine-6-glucuronide, naltrexol, norbuprenorphine, norfentanyl, norpethidine, nortilidine, and O-desmethyltramadol. Serum and blood samples were purified by solid-phase extraction. The analytes were separated on a phenyl-hexyl (100mm) column by formic acid/acetonitrile gradient elution using an UPLC 1290 Infinity coupled with a 6490 Triple Quadrupole mass spectrometer. The limits of detection ranged from 0.02 to 0.6ng/mL and the lower limits of quantification ranged from 0.1 to 2.0ng/mL. The calibration curves were linear between Calibration Levels 1-6 for all 35 substances. Recovery rates ranged between 51 and 88% for all compounds except alfentanil, bisnortilidine, pethidine, and morphine-3-glucuronide. The matrix effect ranged from 86% for ethylmorphine to 105% for desomorphine. Using the validation procedure proposed by the German Society of Toxicological and Forensic Chemistry, acceptable precision and accuracy data for almost all analytes were obtained. The method was successfully applied to 206 authentic serum samples provided by the palliative and intensive care units of the University Medical Center and the police authorities. Furthermore, a suspected fatal intoxication is demonstrated by an analysis of the sufentanil in post mortem body fluids and tissues. PMID:26241181

  7. Determination of solvent thinner components in human body fluids by capillary gas chromatography with trapping at low oven temperature for headspace samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, X P; Kumazawa, T; Sato, K; Watanabe, K; Seno, H; Suzuki, O

    1998-01-01

    A simple and sensitive method is presented for determination of solvent thinner components in human body fluids by capillary gas chromatography (GC) with a low oven temperature for trapping headspace vapor components. After heating a blood or urine sample containing ethyl acetate, benzene, butan-1-ol, toluene, butyl acetate, isoamyl acetate and ethylbenzene (internal standard) in a 7.5 ml vial at 90 degrees C for 30 min, 5 ml of headspace vapor were drawn into a glass syringe. All vapor was introduced through an injection port in the splitless mode into a DB-624 medium-bore capillary column at a 5 degrees C oven temperature for trapping the volatile compounds, and the oven temperature was programmed up to 110 degrees C for their detection by GC. These conditions gave sharp peaks, a good separation of each peak and low background noise for both whole blood and urine samples. As much as 3.58-55.1 and 3.52-57.9% of the six compounds, which had been added to vials, could be introduced to the GC instrument for whole blood and urine, respectively. The intra-day RSD values in terms of the introduction rate (net recovery) of the six compounds in whole blood and urine samples were < or = 8.1%. The calibration curves showed linearity in the range 0.78-400 ng per 0.5 ml whole blood or urine. The detection limits were 0.5-5 ng per 0.5 ml. The data on toluene in post mortem blood in an actual case are also presented. PMID:9581030

  8. In vitro investigation of biodegradable polymeric coating for corrosion resistance of Mg-6Zn-Ca alloy in simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A silane-based biodegradable coating was developed and investigated to improve corrosion resistance of an Mg-6Zn-Ca magnesium alloy to delay the biodegradation of the alloy in the physiological environment. Conditions were optimized to develop a stable and uniform hydroxide layer on the alloys surface—known to facilitate silane-substrate adhesion. A composite coating of two silanes, namely, diethylphosphatoethyltriethoxysilane (DEPETES) and bis-[3-(triethoxysilyl) propyl] tetrasulfide (BTESPT), was developed, by the sol-gel route. Corrosion resistance of the coated alloy was characterized in a modified-simulated body fluid (m-SBF), using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The silane coating provided significant and durable corrosion resistance. During the course of this, hydrogen evolution and pH variation, if any, were monitored for both bare and coated alloys. The coating morphology was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) and the cross-linking in the coating was studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). As indicated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) results, an important finding was the presence of hydrated magnesium phosphate on the sample that was subjected to immersion in m-SBF for 216 h. Magnesium phosphate is reported to support osteoblast formation and tissue healing. - Highlights: • A silane-based coating was investigated for improving corrosion resistance. • Coating was developed on Mg-6Zn-Ca alloy to delay its biodegradation in m-SBF. • Corrosion resistance was characterized, using polarization and EIS. • The coating morphology was characterized using SEM, EDAX, XRD and FTIR. • 1:4 volume ratio of DEPETES:BTESPT showed significant corrosion resistance

  9. In vitro investigation of biodegradable polymeric coating for corrosion resistance of Mg-6Zn-Ca alloy in simulated body fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaur, Swati, E-mail: gaurswat@gmail.com [IITB–Monash Research Academy, IIT Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India); Singh Raman, R.K. [Department of Mechanical, Monash University, Clayton, VIC-3800 (Australia); Department of Aerospace Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC-3800 (Australia); Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC-3800 (Australia); Khanna, A.S. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, IIT Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India)

    2014-09-01

    A silane-based biodegradable coating was developed and investigated to improve corrosion resistance of an Mg-6Zn-Ca magnesium alloy to delay the biodegradation of the alloy in the physiological environment. Conditions were optimized to develop a stable and uniform hydroxide layer on the alloys surface—known to facilitate silane-substrate adhesion. A composite coating of two silanes, namely, diethylphosphatoethyltriethoxysilane (DEPETES) and bis-[3-(triethoxysilyl) propyl] tetrasulfide (BTESPT), was developed, by the sol-gel route. Corrosion resistance of the coated alloy was characterized in a modified-simulated body fluid (m-SBF), using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The silane coating provided significant and durable corrosion resistance. During the course of this, hydrogen evolution and pH variation, if any, were monitored for both bare and coated alloys. The coating morphology was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) and the cross-linking in the coating was studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). As indicated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) results, an important finding was the presence of hydrated magnesium phosphate on the sample that was subjected to immersion in m-SBF for 216 h. Magnesium phosphate is reported to support osteoblast formation and tissue healing. - Highlights: • A silane-based coating was investigated for improving corrosion resistance. • Coating was developed on Mg-6Zn-Ca alloy to delay its biodegradation in m-SBF. • Corrosion resistance was characterized, using polarization and EIS. • The coating morphology was characterized using SEM, EDAX, XRD and FTIR. • 1:4 volume ratio of DEPETES:BTESPT showed significant corrosion resistance.

  10. A sensitive and semi-quantitative method for determination of multi-drug residues in animal body fluids using multiplex dipstick immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shuaijuan; Zhou, Tianjiao; Yin, Bingjie; He, Pingli

    2016-07-13

    The objective of this research was to develop a multiplex dipstick immunoassay method for the simultaneous determination of multi-veterinary drug residues, such as β-agonists, sulfonamides, and tetracyclines in milk, urine, and serum. The multiplex dipstick assay format was based on an indirect competitive approach: Three test lines (different antigens) and one control line (goat anti-mouse IgG) were located on the strip membrane. Labeled antibodies were freeze-dried in microwells. Samples did not require pretreatment and could be directly analyzed within 10 min. Threshold levels in different sample matrices were visually estimated at 0.3-0.45 ng mL(-1) for clenbuterol; 3-4 ng mL(-1) for sulfadiazine; and 4.5-6 ng mL(-1) for tetracycline, respectively. The linear relationship between the concentrations of veterinary drug residues and the Au nanoparticles plasmon absorbance allowed quantitative determination of these veterinary drug residues. The recoveries of clenbuterol, sulfadiazine and tetracycline in spiked samples ranged from 78.4% to 112.6%, and the relative standard deviations were below 11.2%. Analysis of animal samples suggested that the proposed multiplex dipstick assay method was consistent with the LC-MS/MS method. The percentage of false results was less than or equal to 5%. Thus, the proposed multiplex dipstick assay is inexpensive, easy-to-use, and suitable for the purposes of rapid and comprehensive screening of 3 families of β-agonists, sulfonamides and tetracyclines including 26 drugs in animal body fluids. PMID:27237838

  11. Mapping and source identification of groundwater pollution by nitrate : theory and application to the Brusselian sand groundwater body

    OpenAIRE

    Mattern, Samuel

    2009-01-01

    This thesis aimed to improve our understanding of groundwater pollution by nitrate at the regional scale of the Brusselian sand groundwater body (Belgium). Despite all the nitrate reduction actions that were undertaken to meet European directives, this study area still presents one of the highest groundwater nitrate concentrations of the Walloon Region. Further assessing the pollution levels of groundwater and identifying the contamination sources are therefore needed for designing sustainabl...

  12. Identification of the nitrate contamination sources of the Brusselian sands groundwater body (Belgium) using a dual-isotope approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattern, Samuel; Vanclooster, Marnik

    2010-05-01

    Knowledge of the groundwater pollution source is of primary importance to define appropriate remediation strategies. Yet, the identification of the contamination sources remains a complicated task. A dual isotope approach has been used to provide information for tracing sources of nitrate in water. In this study, we used the naturally occurring stable isotopic composition of groundwater nitrate (1) to evaluate the origin of nitrate in the Brussels sands aquifer (Belgium) and (2) to study the temporal dynamics of the isotope signature of groundwater nitrate in this region. Potential N sources sampled in the region, including e.g. ammonium and nitrate mineral fertilizers, sewage and rain, had isotopic signatures that fell within the corresponding typical ranges found in literature. Some of them however deviated from the isotopic ranges corresponding to typical N sources, illustrating the impact of processes affecting the isotopic signature of the nitrate sources. During a pluri-annual sampling campaign, groundwater samples were collected at 10 moments between June 2007 and February of 2009 over 9 monitoring stations located in the western part of the study area. The isotopic data time series suggest that, most of the time, N applied on the soil has been cycled in the soil by micro-organisms before leaching to the groundwater, while the isotopic data and the high nitrate concentrations strongly suggests that nitrate of the groundwater sampled in January 2008 principally originates from mineral fertilizers. The isotopic data measured at some of the 114 monitoring stations across the study area strongly suggests that the sources of nitrate are mineral fertilizers used in agriculture and golf courses, manure leaching from unprotected stockpiles in farms, domestic gardening practices, cesspools and probably cemeteries. Isotopic data are particularly helpful when associated with other information like historical data about monitoring stations, land use, chemical parameters

  13. A comparison of ARMS and direct sequencing for EGFR mutation analysis and Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors treatment prediction in body fluid samples of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR mutation is strongly associated with the therapeutic effect of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Nevertheless, tumor tissue that needed for mutation analysis is frequently unavailable. Body fluid was considered to be a feasible substitute for the analysis, but arising problems in clinical practice such as relatively lower mutation rate and poor clinical correlation are not yet fully resolved. Method In this study, 50 patients (32 pleural fluids and 18 plasmas with TKIs therapy experience and with direct sequencing results were selected from 220 patients for further analysis. The EGFR mutation status was re-evaluated by Amplification Refractory Mutation System (ARMS, and the clinical outcomes of TKIs were analyzed retrospectively. Results As compared with direct sequencing, 16 positive and 23 negative patients were confirmed by ARMS, and the other 11 former negative patients (6 pleural fluids and 5 plasmas were redefined as positive, with a fairly well clinical outcome (7 PR, 3 SD, and 1 PD. The objective response rate (ORR of positive patients was significant, 81.3% (direct sequencing and 72.7% (ARMS for pleural fluids, and 80% (ARMS for plasma. Notably, even reclassified by ARMS, the ORR for negative patients was still relatively high, 60% for pleural fluids and 46.2% for plasma. Conclusions When using body fluids for EGFR mutation analysis, positive result is consistently a good indicator for TKIs therapy, and the predictive effect was no less than that of tumor tissue, no matter what method was employed. However, even reclassified by ARMS, the correlation between negative results and clinical outcome of TKIs was still unsatisfied. The results indicated that false negative mutation still existed, which may be settled by using method with sensitivity to single DNA molecule or by optimizing the extraction procedure with RNA or CTC to

  14. Identification of ferruginous bodies in the lungs of children and analyses of the elemental composition of fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañedo-Mondragón, Rebeca; Eguía-Aguilar, Pilar; Pérezpeña-Díazconti, Mario; Arenas-Huertero, Francisco

    2013-08-01

    Ferruginous bodies (FBs) are iron-coated entities that form in the body around inorganic fibers or other particulates that can serve as indicators of exposure to inorganic dust. Studies of FB have been conducted consistently in the lungs of adults but have not been explored in children during the past 20 years. The objective of this work was to quantify the FB, classify them as to morphological type and conduct a mineralogical analysis using the energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDXA) with samples obtained from 72 autopsies performed on children. Three grams of lung tissue were digested in commercial bleach, and all the FB found were quantified. The FB from the positive cases was analyzed by EDXA. Results show that 17% of cases presented FB with a median concentration of 5.7 ferruginous bodies per gram of dry weight (FB/g). Larger quantities of FB were recovered from the lungs of rural residents, at concentrations of 11.33 FB/g. Ten cases of children under 5 years of age also presented 5.7 FB/g, but none of these groups showed significant differences when compared to populations of children residing in Mexico City or to children over 5 years of age (p > 0.05). Type-1 FB was the predominant morphological form present. All FB were aluminosilicates. It can be concluded that Mexican children retain FB at low concentrations. All the cores of the FB analyzed in this study were aluminosilicates. Only one contained kaolinite, while the other 10 consisted of some kind of feldspar or clay-like mineral and may thus reflect intramural exposure in children. PMID:23905968

  15. Identification of G Protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCRs in Primary Cilia and Their Possible Involvement in Body Weight Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Omori

    Full Text Available Primary cilia are sensory organelles that harbor various receptors such as G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs. We analyzed subcellular localization of 138 non-odorant GPCRs. We transfected GPCR expression vectors into NIH3T3 cells, induced ciliogenesis by serum starvation, and observed subcellular localization of GPCRs by immunofluorescent staining. We found that several GPCRs whose ligands are involved in feeding behavior, including prolactin-releasing hormone receptor (PRLHR, neuropeptide FF receptor 1 (NPFFR1, and neuromedin U receptor 1 (NMUR1, localized to the primary cilia. In addition, we found that a short form of dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2S is efficiently transported to the primary cilia, while a long form of dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2L is rarely transported to the primary cilia. Using an anti-Prlhr antibody, we found that Prlhr localized to the cilia on the surface of the third ventricle in the vicinity of the hypothalamic periventricular nucleus. We generated the Npy2r-Cre transgenic mouse line in which Cre-recombinase is expressed under the control of the promoter of Npy2r encoding a ciliary GPCR. By mating Npy2r-Cre mice with Ift80 flox mice, we generated Ift80 conditional knockout (CKO mice in which Npy2r-positive cilia were diminished in number. We found that Ift80 CKO mice exhibited a body weight increase. Our results suggest that Npy2r-positive cilia are important for body weight control.

  16. Identification of G Protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCRs) in Primary Cilia and Their Possible Involvement in Body Weight Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omori, Yoshihiro; Chaya, Taro; Yoshida, Satoyo; Irie, Shoichi; Tsujii, Toshinori; Furukawa, Takahisa

    2015-01-01

    Primary cilia are sensory organelles that harbor various receptors such as G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). We analyzed subcellular localization of 138 non-odorant GPCRs. We transfected GPCR expression vectors into NIH3T3 cells, induced ciliogenesis by serum starvation, and observed subcellular localization of GPCRs by immunofluorescent staining. We found that several GPCRs whose ligands are involved in feeding behavior, including prolactin-releasing hormone receptor (PRLHR), neuropeptide FF receptor 1 (NPFFR1), and neuromedin U receptor 1 (NMUR1), localized to the primary cilia. In addition, we found that a short form of dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2S) is efficiently transported to the primary cilia, while a long form of dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2L) is rarely transported to the primary cilia. Using an anti-Prlhr antibody, we found that Prlhr localized to the cilia on the surface of the third ventricle in the vicinity of the hypothalamic periventricular nucleus. We generated the Npy2r-Cre transgenic mouse line in which Cre-recombinase is expressed under the control of the promoter of Npy2r encoding a ciliary GPCR. By mating Npy2r-Cre mice with Ift80 flox mice, we generated Ift80 conditional knockout (CKO) mice in which Npy2r-positive cilia were diminished in number. We found that Ift80 CKO mice exhibited a body weight increase. Our results suggest that Npy2r-positive cilia are important for body weight control. PMID:26053317

  17. Isolasi dan Identifikasi Bakteri Asam Laktat dari Cairan Rumen Sapi Bali sebagai Kandidat Biopreservatif ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF ACID LACTIC BACTERIA FROM BALI CATTLE’S GASTRIC FLUID AS A POTENTIAL CANDIDATE OF BIOPRESERVATIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Suardana

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to isolate and identify of lactic acid bacteria originated from gastric fluid of bali cattle, and to determine their potential as the candidates of biopreservative. Lactic acid bacteria were isolated by culturing the gastric fluid of bali cattle in de Mann, Rogosa, Sharpe (MRS medium; screening the bacteria, and identification of bacteria species by Analytical Profile Index (API 50 CHL Kit. The results showed that, the new species of lactic acid bacteria were isolated and identified as Lactococcus lactis spp lactis 1 (SR21 isolate and Lactobacillus brevis 1 (SR54 isolate that have broad spectrum antimicrobial activities. It is clear from this study that a potential lactic acid bacteria producing antimicrobial agent can be isolated from the gastric fluid of bali cattle.

  18. Raman Spectrometer for Surface Identification of Minerals and Organic Compounds on Silicate Planets and Small Solar-System Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskin, Larry A.

    2000-01-01

    This summary is the final report of work on two-year grant. Our objectives for this project were (1) to demonstrate that Raman spectroscopy is an excellent method for determining mineralogy on the surface of the Moon, Mars, and other planetary bodies; (2) to construct a prototype of a small Raman spectrometer of the kind we suggest could be used on a lander or rover; and (3) to test the ability of that spectrometer to identify minerals and quantify mineral proportions in lunar materials and complex Martian analog materials, and to identify organic matter in planetary surface materials, all under roughly simulated field conditions. These goals have been met. The principal accomplishments of this PIDDP project have been the following: selection for flight; construction of a breadboard Raman probe; throughput confirmation of the breadboard Raman probe; selection of a laser; a breadboard spectrograph based on our PIDDP design; and overall result.

  19. Structure and functioning of Mediterranean lagoon fish assemblages: A key for the identification of water body types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Anita; Franzoi, Piero; Torricelli, Patrizia

    2008-09-01

    Knowledge on the structure and functioning variability of transitional water fish assemblages may help in finding out the main descriptors for identifying different water body types for which specific biological reference conditions can be reliably derived. Fish assemblages from 19 Mediterranean lagoons were therefore investigated by evaluating the variability of their structure and functioning, and by relating it to the lagoons' environmental features. Fish assemblage structure was measured by its species richness. Functioning was measured by categorizing fish species into functional categories (or guilds) according to their use of lagoon habitat, feeding and reproduction, and by defining the functional structure of fish assemblages as the relative number of species per guild in each lagoon. Mediterranean lagoons' fish assemblages were found to be more similar to each other in their functional structure than in the taxonomical composition, thus confirming a shared functional role of these environments for biological communities. Lagoon local features, such as the lagoon area, its habitat heterogeneity and average salinity, significantly affected the total species richness and the different use that fish make of the lagoon environment, hence playing a primary role in the assessment of these water body types. Latitude also influenced the variability of fish assemblages in the Mediterranean lagoons investigated, with particular regard to their functioning as feeding and reproductive grounds for fish. These results are compared with previous studies and, although this limited the investigation to structural aspects only, were found to confirm in part the previous results and also added new insights about the key factors affecting the functioning of transitional water systems.

  20. Cerebrospinal fluid neopterin analysis in neuropediatric patients: establishment of a new cut off-value for the identification of inflammatory-immune mediated processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Molero-Luis

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: A high level of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF neopterin is a marker of central nervous system inflammatory-immune mediated processes. We aimed to assess data from 606 neuropediatric patients, describing the clinical and biochemical features of those neurological disorders presenting CSF neopterin values above a new cut-off value that was defined in our laboratory. METHODS: To establish the new CSF neopterin cut-off value, we studied two groups of patients: Group 1 comprised 68 patients with meningoencephalitis, and Group 2 comprised 52 children with a confirmed peripheral infection and no central nervous system involvement. We studied 606 CSF samples from neuropediatric patients who were classified into 3 groups: genetic diagnosis (A, acquired/unknown etiologic neurologic diseases (B and inflammatory-immune mediated processes (C. RESULTS: The CSF neopterin cut-off value was 61 nmol/L. Out of 606 cases, 56 presented a CSF neopterin level above this value. Group C had significantly higher CSF neopterin, protein and leukocyte values than the other groups. Sixteen of twenty-three patients in this group had a CSF neopterin level above the cut-off, whereas three and seven patients presented increased leukocyte and protein values, respectively. A significant association was found among CSF neopterin, proteins and leukocytes in the 606 patients. White matter disturbances were associated with high CSF neopterin concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Although children with inflammatory-immune mediated processes presented higher CSF neopterin values, patients with other neurological disorders also showed increased CSF neopterin concentrations. These results stress the importance of CSF neopterin analysis for the identification of inflammatory-immune mediated processes.

  1. Identification of quantitative trait loci associated with bone traits and body weight in an F2 resource population of chickens*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schreiweis Melissa A

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bone fractures at the end of lay are a significant problem in egg-laying strains of hens. The objective of the current study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL associated with bone mineralization and strength in a chicken resource population. Layer (White Leghorn hens and broiler (Cobb-Cobb roosters lines were crossed to generate an F2 population of 508 hens over seven hatches, and 26 traits related to bone integrity, including bone mineral density (BMD and content (BMC, were measured. Genotypes of 120 microsatellite markers on 28 autosomal groups were determined, and interval mapping was conducted to identify QTL regions. Twenty-three tests representing three chromosomal regions (chromosomes 4, 10 and 27 contained significant QTL that surpassed the 5% genome-wise threshold, and 47 tests representing 15 chromosomes identified suggestive QTL that surpassed the 5% chromosome-wise threshold. Although no significant QTL influencing BMD and BMC were detected after adjusting for variation in body weight and egg production, multiple suggestive QTL were found. These results support previous experiments demonstrating an important genetic regulation of bone strength in chickens, but suggest the regulation may be due to the effects of multiple genes that each account for relatively small amounts of variation in bone strength.

  2. Effect of Glycerol-Induced Hyperhydration on Body Fluid and Electrolyte Balance in Endurance Athletes during The Course of Treadmill Exercise Performed at 30 °C for 90 minute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Pense

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of glycerol-induced hyperhydration on body fluid and electrolyte balancein endurance athletes during the course of treadmill exercise performed at 30C for 90min. 9 elit level male long-distance runnerwere participated to this study (age: x = 18,7 ±1,3 years, height: x = 170,7±5,2 cm, body weight: x = 58,8±6,6 kg, VO2max:63,94±3,04 ml.kg-1. First, VO2max of the subjects were determined with an incremental treadmill running protocol. In a randomized,double-blind cross over experimental design subjects were tested three times with 3 days intervals (wash out following ingestion of20 ml.kg-1BW of three different mixture of solutions: 1 diluted sports drink with 1.2 gr.kg-1BW glycerol (GS 2 diluted sports drink(SP and 3 aspartame flavored distilled water (WS. Exercise trials were conducted at an exercise intensity of 65% maximal oxygenconsumption (VO2max for 90 min at 30±1.8C and 25-35% relative humidity. Blood and urin samples were collected pre and postfluid ingestion, at the 30th, 60th and 90th min of exercise trials to determine body fluid and electrolyte balance. Data were analyzedusing two-way (treatmentxtime analyses of variance (ANOVA. Significance level was defined as p0.05. Inconclusion, glycerol-induced hyperhydration has no advantage compared to the other solutions ingested on body fluid andelectrolyte balance in endurance athletes during 90 min of treadmill run.

  3. Transcriptome profiling analysis on whole bodies of microbial challenged Eriocheir sinensis larvae for immune gene identification and SNP development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoxia Cui

    Full Text Available To study crab immunogenetics of individuals, newly hatched Eriocheir sinensis larvae were stimulated with a mixture of three pathogen strains (Gram-positive bacteria Micrococcus luteus, Gram-negative bacteria Vibrio alginolyticus and fungi Pichia pastoris; 10(8 cfu·mL(-1. A total of 44,767,566 Illumina clean reads corresponding to 4.52 Gb nucleotides were generated and assembled into 100,252 unigenes (average length: 1,042 bp; range: 201-19,357 bp. 17,097 (26.09% of 65,535 non-redundant unigenes were annotated in NCBI non-redundant protein (Nr database. Moreover, 23,188 (35.38% unigenes were assigned to three Gene Ontology (GO categories, 15,071 (23.00% to twenty-six Clusters of orthologous Groups (COG and 8,574 (13.08% to six Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathways, respectively. Numerous genes were further identified to be associated with multiple immune pathways, including Toll, immune deficiency (IMD, janus kinase (JAK-signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways. Some of them, such as tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor 6 (TRAF6, fibroblast growth factor (FGF, protein-tyrosine phosphatase (PTP, JNK-interacting protein 1 (JIP1, were first identified in E. sinensis. TRAF6 was even first discovered in crabs. Additionally, 49,555 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were developed from over 13,309 unigenes. This is the first transcriptome report of whole bodies of E. sinensis larvae after immune challenge. Data generated here not only provide detail information to identify novel genes in genome reference-free E. sinensis, but also facilitate our understanding on host immunity and defense mechanism of the crab at whole transcriptome level.

  4. Hydrodynamics of the interaction between bodies in a viscous fluid in the vicinity of their contact at low and high Reynolds numbers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrov, A. G.; Kharlamov, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 2 (2013), s. 179-191. ISSN 0015-4628 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/09/2066 Grant ostatní: Russian Foundation for Basic Research(RU) 11-01-00535; Russian Foundation for Basic Research(RU) 11-01-00857; Target Analytical Program; Development of the Scientific Potential of the Higher School(RU) 2.1.2/3604 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : lubrication layer theory * viscous and inviscid fluids * thin layer * contact vicinity Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.320, year: 2013

  5. Identification of brain-enriched proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid proteome by LC-MS/MS profiling and mining of the Human Protein Atlas

    OpenAIRE

    Begcevic, Ilijana; Brinc, Davor; Drabovich, Andrei P.; Batruch, Ihor; Diamandis, Eleftherios P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a proximal fluid which communicates closely with brain tissue, contains numerous brain-derived proteins and thus represents a promising fluid for discovery of biomarkers of central nervous system (CNS) diseases. The main purpose of this study was to generate an extensive CSF proteome and define brain-related proteins identified in CSF, suitable for development of diagnostic assays. Methods Six non-pathological CSF samples from three female and three mal...

  6. Evaluation of the grand-canonical partition function using expanded Wang-Landau simulations. IV. Performance of many-body force fields and tight-binding schemes for the fluid phases of silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desgranges, Caroline; Delhommelle, Jerome

    2016-03-28

    We extend Expanded Wang-Landau (EWL) simulations beyond classical systems and develop the EWL method for systems modeled with a tight-binding Hamiltonian. We then apply the method to determine the partition function and thus all thermodynamic properties, including the Gibbs free energy and entropy, of the fluid phases of Si. We compare the results from quantum many-body (QMB) tight binding models, which explicitly calculate the overlap between the atomic orbitals of neighboring atoms, to those obtained with classical many-body (CMB) force fields, which allow to recover the tetrahedral organization in condensed phases of Si through, e.g., a repulsive 3-body term that favors the ideal tetrahedral angle. Along the vapor-liquid coexistence, between 3000 K and 6000 K, the densities for the two coexisting phases are found to vary significantly (by 5 orders of magnitude for the vapor and by up to 25% for the liquid) and to provide a stringent test of the models. Transitions from vapor to liquid are predicted to occur for chemical potentials that are 10%-15% higher for CMB models than for QMB models, and a ranking of the force fields is provided by comparing the predictions for the vapor pressure to the experimental data. QMB models also reveal the formation of a gap in the electronic density of states of the coexisting liquid at high temperatures. Subjecting Si to a nanoscopic confinement has a dramatic effect on the phase diagram with, e.g. at 6000 K, a decrease in liquid densities by about 50% for both CMB and QMB models and an increase in vapor densities between 90% (CMB) and 170% (QMB). The results presented here provide a full picture of the impact of the strategy (CMB or QMB) chosen to model many-body effects on the thermodynamic properties of the fluid phases of Si. PMID:27036464

  7. Evaluation of the grand-canonical partition function using expanded Wang-Landau simulations. IV. Performance of many-body force fields and tight-binding schemes for the fluid phases of silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desgranges, Caroline; Delhommelle, Jerome

    2016-03-01

    We extend Expanded Wang-Landau (EWL) simulations beyond classical systems and develop the EWL method for systems modeled with a tight-binding Hamiltonian. We then apply the method to determine the partition function and thus all thermodynamic properties, including the Gibbs free energy and entropy, of the fluid phases of Si. We compare the results from quantum many-body (QMB) tight binding models, which explicitly calculate the overlap between the atomic orbitals of neighboring atoms, to those obtained with classical many-body (CMB) force fields, which allow to recover the tetrahedral organization in condensed phases of Si through, e.g., a repulsive 3-body term that favors the ideal tetrahedral angle. Along the vapor-liquid coexistence, between 3000 K and 6000 K, the densities for the two coexisting phases are found to vary significantly (by 5 orders of magnitude for the vapor and by up to 25% for the liquid) and to provide a stringent test of the models. Transitions from vapor to liquid are predicted to occur for chemical potentials that are 10%-15% higher for CMB models than for QMB models, and a ranking of the force fields is provided by comparing the predictions for the vapor pressure to the experimental data. QMB models also reveal the formation of a gap in the electronic density of states of the coexisting liquid at high temperatures. Subjecting Si to a nanoscopic confinement has a dramatic effect on the phase diagram with, e.g. at 6000 K, a decrease in liquid densities by about 50% for both CMB and QMB models and an increase in vapor densities between 90% (CMB) and 170% (QMB). The results presented here provide a full picture of the impact of the strategy (CMB or QMB) chosen to model many-body effects on the thermodynamic properties of the fluid phases of Si.

  8. Cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin (orexin) levels are elevated by play but are not raised by exercise and its associated heart rate, blood pressure, respiration or body temperature changes

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, M.-F.; Nienhuis, R.; Maidment, N.; Lam, H.A.; Siegel, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Hypocretin (Hcrt) has been implicated in the control of motor activity and in respiration and cardiovascular changes. Loss of Hcrt in narcolepsy is linked to sleepiness and to cataplexy, a sudden loss of muscle tone which is triggered by sudden strong emotions. In the current study, we have compared the effects of treadmill running to yard play on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Hcrt level in normal dogs. We find that treadmill locomotion, at a wide range of speeds, does not increase Hcrt level bey...

  9. Disposable reversed-phase chromatography columns for improved detection of carboxylic acids in body fluids by electron-capture gas-liquid chromatography.

    OpenAIRE

    Daneshvar, M. I.; Brooks, J B; Winstead, R M

    1987-01-01

    Disposable reversed-phase chromatography columns were tested for their effectiveness in removing unreacted trichloroethanol (TCE) from derivatized samples for gas-liquid chromatography analysis. Derivatized acidic chloroform extracts of saponified whole cells of Mycobacterium species, spent culture media, and derivatized acidic chloroform extracts of serum and cerebrospinal fluids from patients with tuberculous meningitis were tested. Samples were added to preconditioned reversed-phase chroma...

  10. 2010年中国CHINET临床分离自无菌体液的细菌分布和耐药性监测%CHINET 2010 surveillance of bacterial distribution and resistance in sterile body fluids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小江; 陈中举; 胡云建; 艾效曼; 张泓; 孔菁; 贾蓓; 黄文祥; 王传清; 王爱敏; 魏莲花; 徐英春; 吴玲; 卓超; 苏丹虹; 张朝霞; 季萍; 徐元宏; 沈继录; 单斌; 杜艳; 俞云松; 杨青; 汪复; 朱德妹; 倪语星; 孙景勇; 孙自镛

    2012-01-01

    临床治疗造成严重威胁.%Objective To investigate the distribution and antimicrobial resistance of the bacteria isolated from cerebrospi-nal fluid and other sterile body fluids from hospitals in several regions of China. Methods Twelve general hospitals and two children's hospitals were involved in this program. Disc diffusion test (Kirby-Bauer method), E-test and MIC determination were employed to study the antimicrobial resistance. The data were analyzed by WHONET 5. 4 software according to CLSI 2010 breakpoints. Results A total of 2 409 nonduplicate clinical isolates were collected from January to December in 2010, of which gram negative organisms and gram positive cocci accounted for 56.2% (1 353/2 409) and 43. 8% (1 056/2 409), respectively. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS), B. baumannii, K, pneumoniae, S. aureus and E. coli were the most common bacterial species in cerebrospinal fluid. E. coli, CNS, E. faecium, K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa were the most frequently isolated species from other sterile body fluids. About 78.6% and 69,7% of the S. aureus and CNS isolates from cerebrospinal fluid were methicillin resistant, respectively, while 60. 3% and 67. 2% of the S. aureus and CNS strains from other sterile body fluids were methicillin resistant, respectively. No staphylococcal strain was found resistant to vancomycin, teicoplanin or linezolid. None of the enterococcal strains from cerebro-spinal fluid was resistant to vancomycin. A total of 17 E. faecium strains from other sterile body fluid were found resistant to vancomycin. ESBLs-producing strains accounted for 62. 5% and 30. 0% in the E. coli and Klebsiella (K. pneumoniae, K. oxytoca) isolates from cerebrospinal fluid , respectively. About 50. 4% and 27. 3% of the E. coli and Klebsiella (K. pneumoniae , K. oxytoca) isolated from other sterile body fluid were ESBLs-producing strains. Pan-resist ant strains were identified in the A. baumannii (n=10, 18. 2%), K. pneumoniae (n = 8, 27. 6%) and P. aeruginosa {n= 1, 7. 7

  11. Implications of an ultramafic body in a basalt-dominated oceanic hydrothermal system on the vent fluid composition and on processes within sediments overlying a hydrothermal discharge zone: results of reactive-transport modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt-Epping, P.; Diamond, L. W.

    2009-04-01

    We use 2D reactive transport simulations to assess the hydraulic, thermal and chemical implications of an ultramafic body of lherzolitic composition within a basalt-dominated oceanic hydrothermal system. The simulations are fully coupled and hence account for the progressive serpentinization and the associated porosity/permeability reduction of the model lherzolite over time. We focus on the chemical fingerprints that reveal the presence of the ultramafic body at depth and that may be detected by direct seafloor exploration. These are the vent fluid composition and the porewater and mineral alteration within the rock column overlying a hydrothermal discharge zone. We compare ocean crust sections with and without sedimentary cover. Simulations suggest that the boundary between the basalt and the lherzolite constitutes a sharp reaction front. The type and distribution of alteration phases that form at the reaction front are a result of fluid flow across the basalt-lherzolite interface and thus are determined by the geometry and rate of hydrothermal fluid flow. Consequently, observations of the occurrence and extent of alteration phases, such as Fe-rich chlorite in the lherzolite or of rodingitization of the basalt, may be interpreted in terms of the reactive-transport model to reconstruct paleo-fluid flow in the permeable oceanic basement. The alteration of the lherzolite produces a fluid that is strongly reducing and depleted in silica. The most important chemical indicator of this rock-water interaction is an elevated H2 concentration. Under reducing (i.e. SO4-2 and CO2 free) conditions the enrichment in H2 is proportional to the extent of reaction between the fluid and the ultramafic rock. Under these conditions H2 behaves conservatively and the fluid remains enriched in H2 even though the concentration of all other major aqueous species is quickly buffered to new values when the fluid subsequently passes through basalt. This produces a vent fluid which is

  12. 基于中医健康状态气血津液辨识法的毒瘾中医病理因素研究%Research on the Traditional Chinese Medicine Pathological Factors of Addiction Based on Differentiation Method of qi-blood and Body Fluids under TCM Health State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨朝阳; 苏志扬; 蔡美美; 李灿东; 黄世庚; 吕京和

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the traditional Chinese medicine ( TCM )pathological factors of addiction. Methods: We applied the research results~qi-blood and body fluid state identification system in beta version—to the research on TCM pathological factors of addiction. The diagnosis standards of drug addicts conformed to the Standards in Chinese Classification and Diagnosis of Mental Disorders, CCMD-3. The Chinese medical pathological factors were collected by means of Syndrome Elements Authentication. Results: The public security group and judicial group have significant differences in Yin deficiency, blood deficiency, Yang deficiency, phlegm and damp ( P 第三版(CCMD-3);中医病理因素采用证素辨证方法采集.结果:公安组与司法组在阴虚、血虚、阳虚、痰、湿有统计学意义(P<0.05),且司法组的程度大于公安组.结论:痰是毒品成瘾的主要病理因素,虚实夹杂是毒品成瘾的证候学特点.

  13. Induction of arthritis with Mycoplasma hyosynoviae in pigs: Clinical response and re-isolation of the organism from body fluids and organs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagedorn-Olsen, T.; Nielsen, N.C.; Friis, N.F.

    1999-01-01

    mycoplasma is cultivable from synovial fluids and other tissues. In this article we report on the clinical response to infection and the results obtained from re-isolation attempts. In three inoculation experiments with M. hyosynoviae, clinical arthritis was produced by intravenous and by intranasal exposure...... half of the cases the onset was acute and the lameness severe, Epically involving the hindlegs and with affected pigs assuming a dog-sitting position. A systemic phase was found in the majority (86 %) of the pigs. However, the infection was in two cases established in the tonsils without detection of a...

  14. The Origin, Function and Diagnostic Potential of Extracellular microRNA in Human Body Fluids%人体体液中细胞外microRNA的起源、功能及潜在诊疗价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张甦洋; 谢佳昀; 梁宏伟; 陈熹; 张辰宇

    2013-01-01

    Recently,numerous studies have documented the importance of microRNAs (miRNAs) as an essential cornerstone of the genetic system.Once thought as unstable RNA molecules,miRNAs are now known to circulate in the bloodstream and other body fluids in a stable,cell-free form.Importantly,extracellular miRNAs are aberrantly present in plasma,serum and other body fluids during the pathogenesis of many diseases and,thus,are promising noninvasive or minimally invasive biomarkers to assess the pathological status of the body.However,the origin and biological function of extracellular miRNAs remains incompletely understood.In this review,we summarize the recent literature on the biogenesis and working models of extracellular miRNAs,and we highlight the impact of extending these ongoing extracellular miRNA studies to clinical applications.%最近大量的研究表明micro RNAs(miRNAs)是一类重要的调控因子.曾经被认为是非常不稳定的RNA分子——miRNA,却可以稳定存在于血液和其他体液中.更加重要的是,细胞外miRNAs被发现和多种疾病密切相关,它们可以作为诸如肿瘤等各种疾病的非侵入性生物标志物.然而,目前关于细胞外miRNA的来源以及生物学功能还不甚清楚.本文将总结最近细胞外miRNA的研究进展,并将重点介绍细胞外miRNA在疾病诊断及治疗中的作用.

  15. Simulation research on fluid field of limited space around the human body%有限空间人体周围流场的仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡志刚; 崔红力; 管小荣; 张庆华

    2011-01-01

    As an important content of the research and development of personal health care robot, the contact area, speed and pressure between human skin and circulating water during the process of bath should be taken into consideration, since these parameters have significant impact on the bathing effect. To enhance the effect of auto-bathing and provide research basis for structural design of bath and control strategy of circulating water, the CFD model of the limited space and human body was established based on the statistically significant human size. According to the cycling approach of water flow, and the geometric boundary conditions of bath and human body, the flow field around human body in the bath was dispersed, refining the grid of the flow field around human body. The numerical simulation and computation of three-dimensional flow field, the velocity distribution near the surface of human body and the intake of trace chart under different cycling modes were achieved. The numerical solution of the changing flow field around human body in time and space quantitatively was given, providing reference for structural optimization design and the bathing mode research.%作为个人卫生护理机器人研发的重要内容,在洗浴过程中必须考虑人体皮肤与循环水流的接触面积、速度和压力,因为这些参数对洗浴效果影响较大.为提高自动洗浴效果,为浴槽结构设计和循环水自动控制策略提供研究依据,基于统计意义上的人体尺寸,建立了有限空间和人体的CFD模型.结合水流的循环方式、浴槽和人体的几何边界条件,对浴槽内人体周围的流场进行离散,细化接近人体周围的流场网格.对三维流场进行数值模拟计算,计算出水流不同循环模式作用下,人体近表面的速度分布及各循环模式下进水口的迹线图,在时间和空间上定量给出浴槽内人体周围流场变化的数值解,为结构优化设计和洗浴模式研究提供参考.

  16. Inclusion bodies in Plesiomonas shigelloides.

    OpenAIRE

    Pastian, M R; Bromel, M C

    1984-01-01

    Inclusion bodies were discovered in seven environmental isolates of Plesiomonas shigelloides and the P. shigelloides control (ATCC 14029). Differential staining indicated that the inclusion bodies may be composed of polyphosphates, and developmental stages of the bodies may occur. The inclusion bodies may be useful for rapid presumptive identification of this organism.

  17. 一株野生大型真菌的分离与鉴定%Isolation and Identification for A Wild Fruiting Body-forming Fungus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许峰; 刘宇; 王守现; 尹永刚; 黄仕海; 赵爽; 耿小丽

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to isolate and identify a wild fruiting bogy-forming fungus which was obtained from Beijing Xiang-Mountain. The mycelium was isolated from wild fruiting body-forming fungus. Genomic DNA was extracted from mycelium and fruiting body then used as template for the ITS gene PCR amplification. ITS gene fragments were purified and sequenced. The sequences were analyzed using phylogenetic method. "PCR" should be revised to "Sequencing" analysis showed that the isolated mycelium came from the wild fungus's fruiting body. ITS sequencing and phylogenetic analysis indicated that the fungi belonged to the genus Agaricus. Genbank accession number of the ITS gene was JN907016. Phylogenetic analysis using MEGA4.1 software showed that the wild fungus had a high genetic distance, which was up to 97.2% , with A. fuscofibrillosus WC913. Identification of the isolated wild fungus using molecular "biology" should be revised to "biological" method could analyze the genetic status and lay the foundation for the exploitation of the wild fungi.%从北京香山采集了一株大型的野生真菌,对其分离并进行鉴定分析.通过组织分离获得该真菌菌丝纯培养物,分别以子实体及菌丝体的基因组DNA为模板进行ITS片段的扩增、测序及系统发育分析.PCR测序结果分析证明从子实体扩增的ITS片段与菌丝体的一致,表明菌丝纯培养物来源于该子实体,将菌株的ITS基因序列提交到GenBank核酸序列数据库并与数据库中已知的相关序列进行比对,比对结果表明,该真菌属于蘑菇属(Agaricus),GenBank登录号为JN907016.在MEGA4.1软件中进行该菌株系统发育树的构建及遗传距离的计算,结果表明该分离菌株与A.fuscofibrillosusWC913菌株的遗传关系最近,遗传距离达到97.2%.采用分子生物学方法对分离的野生真菌进行鉴定,从而对该野生菌株的遗传地位进行解析,为该野生菌的开发利用奠定基础.

  18. Structure and thermodynamics of a mixture of patchy and spherical colloids: a multi-body association theory with complete reference fluid information

    CERN Document Server

    Bansal, Artee; Cox, Kenneth R; Chapman, Walter G

    2016-01-01

    A mixture of solvent particles with short-range, directional interactions and solute particles with short-range, isotropic interactions that can bond multiple times is of fundamental interest in understanding liquids and colloidal mixtures. Because of multi-body correlations predicting the structure and thermodynamics of such systems remains a challenge. Earlier Marshall and Chapman developed a theory wherein association effects due to interactions multiply the partition function for clustering of particles in a reference hard-sphere system. The multi-body effects are incorporated in the clustering process, which in their work was obtained in the absence of the bulk medium. The bulk solvent effects were then modeled approximately within a second order perturbation approach. However, their approach is inadequate at high densities and for large association strengths. Based on the idea that the clustering of solvent in a defined coordination volume around the solute is related to occupancy statistics in that def...

  19. Simple, inexpensive method of determining total body water using a tracer dose of D2O and infrared absorption of biological fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved infrared spectrophotometric method using tracer doses of D2O for determination of total body water (TBW) is described. Evaluation of sample preparation procedures showed that only vacuum sublimation yielded acceptable recoveries of D2O standards in the range of 0.01-0.30 mg/ml in urine and plasma (101 +/- 2.5 and 99.6 +/- 2.6%, mean +/- SD, respectively). Oral administration of a 10 g dose of D2O was shown to equilibrate within 2 hr in the saliva and plasma of 10 healthy men and women, including obese (30% body fat) subjects. Calculated TBW was 39.1 +/- 6.4 L which represented 74 +/- 1.6% of the fat free mass determined by hydrodensitometry. The precision of the described infrared method was 2.5%. Based upon the observed sensitivity of this method, it would be possible to administer smaller oral D2O doses, 5-6 g, and obtain reliable TBW values. The practical advantages of this method are low cost and a simple analysis that permits repeated TBW measurements over brief periods without an undue buildup of background deuterium levels in the body

  20. 基于弛豫-扩散的二维核磁共振流体识别方法%Fluid identification method based on 2D diffusion-relaxation nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡法龙; 周灿灿; 李潮流; 徐红军; 周凤鸣; 司兆伟

    2012-01-01

    Based on current acquisition modes of MRIL-Prime NMR logging tool, 2D NMR signals could be obtained by the combination of logging data from different modes, then the fluid properties in complicated reservoirs could be distinguished by 2D diflusion-relaxation NMR logging data distribution of pore fluids, generated by multi-echotrain joint inversion. In comparison with ID NMR logging, this method could increase fluid information in diffusion regime, separate oil, gas and water signals in 2D space and enhance the identification capacity of fluid properties from NMR logging. The 2D NMR logging in the multi-echowave interval was applied in the oil pays in Well A and the water layers in Well B in the Nanpu Sag by MRIL-Prime tool, and the interpretation matches the well testing result. It indicates that 2D NMR logging has advantages on the identification of light oil, and fluids in macropore reservoirs than ID NMR logging.%基于MRIL-Prime核磁共振测井仪器现有采集模式,将不同采集模式测井信息进行组合后获得二维核磁共振信号,利用多回波串联合反演技术获得孔隙流体弛豫-扩散的二维核磁共振信息分布,用以识别复杂储集层流体性质.相对一维核磁共振测井,该流体性质识别方法增加了扩散域流体信息,可以在二维空间内将油、气、水信号分离,提高核磁共振测井流体性质识别能力.利用MRIL-Prime仪器对南堡凹陷A井油层和B井水层进行多回波间隔的二维核磁共振测井试验,解释结果与试油结果相吻合,说明二维核磁共振测井在轻质油识别和大孔隙储集层流体识别方面相对一维核磁共振测井技术有明显优势.

  1. Use of sodC versus ctrA for real-time polymerase chain reaction-based detection of Neisseria meningitidis in sterile body fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Takenori Higa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the use of a newly described sodC-based real-time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay for detecting Neisseria meningitidis in normally sterile sites, such as cerebrospinal fluid and serum. The sodC-based RT-PCR assay has an advantage over ctrA for detecting nongroupable N. meningitidis isolates, which are commonly present in asymptomatic pharyngeal carriage. However, in our study, sodC-based RT-PCR was 7.5% less sensitive than ctrA. Given the public health impact of possible false-negative results due to the use of the sodC target gene alone, sodC-based RT-PCR for the diagnosis of meningococcal meningitis should be used with caution.

  2. Computational fluid dynamic studies of certain ducted bluff-body flowfields relevant to turbojet combustors. Volume 2: Time-averaged flowfield predictions for a proposed centerbody combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, M. S.; Krishnamurthy, L.

    1986-07-01

    The near-wake region in a ducted bluff-body combustor was investigated by finite-difference computations. The numerical predictions are based upon the time-independent, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations and the k-epsilon turbulence model. The steady-state calculations address both nonreacting and reacting flowfields in a novel configuration to more realistically simulate some of the essential features of the primary zone of a gas turbine combustion chamber. This configuration is characterized by turbulent mixing and combustion in the recirculating near-wake region downstream of an axisymmetric bluff body due to two annular air streams--an outer swirl-free flow and an inner swirling flow--and a central fuel jet. The latter contains propane for reacting flows and carbon dioxide for nonreacting flows. In view of the large number of geometrical and flow parameters involved, the reported results are concerned with only a limited parametric examination with the major emphasis being on nonreacting flows. Questions addressed for a particular set of geometric parameters include the effects of variation of mass flow rates in all three streams and the influence of swirl in the middle stream. Reacting computations investigate the influence of swirl on combustion, as well as that of combustion on the flowfield.

  3. Conditions of Mytilus edulis extracellular body fluids and shell composition in a pH-treatment experiment: Acid-base status, trace elements and δ11B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Agnes; Fietzke, Jan; Melzner, Frank; BöHm, Florian; Thomsen, JöRn; Garbe-SchöNberg, Dieter; Eisenhauer, Anton

    2012-01-01

    Mytilus edulis were cultured for 3 months under six different seawater pCO2 levels ranging from 380 to 4000 μatm. Specimen were taken from Kiel Fjord (Western Baltic Sea, Germany) which is a habitat with high and variable seawater pCO2 and related shifts in carbonate system speciation (e.g., low pH and low CaCO3 saturation state). Hemolymph (HL) and extrapallial fluid (EPF) samples were analyzed for pH and total dissolved inorganic carbon (CT) to calculate pCO2 and [HCO3-]. A second experiment was conducted for 2 months with three different pCO2 levels (380, 1400 and 4000 μatm). Boron isotopes (δ11B) were investigated by LA-MC-ICP-MS (Laser Ablation-Multicollector-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry) in shell portions precipitated during experimental treatment time. Additionally, elemental ratios (B/Ca, Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca) in the EPF of specimen from the second experiment were measured via ICP-OES (Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry). Extracellular pH was not significantly different in HL and EPF but systematically lower than ambient water pH. This is due to high extracellular pCO2 values, a prerequisite for metabolic CO2 excretion. No accumulation of extracellular [HCO3-] was measured. Elemental ratios (B/Ca, Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca) in the EPF increased slightly with pH which is in accordance with increasing growth and calcification rates at higher seawater pH values. Boron isotope ratios were highly variable between different individuals but also within single shells. This corresponds to a high individual variability in fluid B/Ca ratios and may be due to high boron concentrations in the organic parts of the shell. The mean δ11B value shows no trend with pH but appears to represent internal pH (EPF) rather than ambient water pH.

  4. Identification and characterization of a chitin-binding protein purified from coelomic fluid of the lugworm Arenicola marina defining a novel protein sequence family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vitashenkova, Nina; Moeller, Jesper Bonnet; Leth-Larsen, Rikke; Schlosser, Anders; Lund, Kit Peiter; Tornøe, Ida; Vitved, Lars; Hansen, Søren; Willis, Anthony; Kharazova, Alexandra D; Skjødt, Karsten; Sorensen, Grith Lykke; Holmskov, Uffe

    2012-01-01

    We have isolated a novel type of lectin named Arenicola marina lectin-1 (AML-1) from the lugworm Arenicola marina. The lectin was purified from the coelomic fluid by affinity chromatography on a GlcNAc-derivatized column and eluted with GlcNAc. On SDS-PAGE, AML-1 showed an apparent molecular mass...

  5. Identification and characterization of protein interactions in the mammalian mRNA processing body using a novel two-hybrid assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Components of the mRNA processing body (P-body) regulate critical steps in mRNA storage, transport, translation and degradation. At the core of the P-body is the decapping complex, which removes the 5' cap from de-adenylated mRNAs and mediates an irreversible step in mRNA degradation. The assembly of P-bodies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Arabidopsis thaliana and Drosophila melanogaster has been previously described. Less is known about the assembly of mammalian P-bodies. To investigate the interactions that occur between components of mammalian P-bodies, we developed a fluorescence-based, two-hybrid assay system. The assay depends on the ability of one P-body component, fused to an exogenous nuclear localization sequence (NLS), to recruit other P-body components to the nucleus. The assay was used to investigate interactions between P-body components Ge-1, DCP2, DCP1, EDC3, RAP55, and RCK. The results of this study show that the modified two-hybrid assay can be used to identify protein interactions that occur in a macromolecular complex. The assay can also be used to efficiently detect protein interaction domains. The results provide important insights into mammalian P-body assembly and demonstrate similarities, and critical differences, between P-body assembly in mammalian cells compared with that of other species. -- Research highlights: → A two-hybrid assay was developed to study interactions in macromolecular complexes. → The assay was applied to interactions between components of mRNA P-bodies. → The assay effectively and efficiently identified protein interaction domains. → P-body assembly in mammalian cells differs from that in other species.

  6. Messinian Salinity Crisis and basin fluid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoni, Claudia; Cartwight, Joe

    2014-05-01

    Syn- and post-depositional movement of fluids through sediments is one of the least understood aspects in the evolution of a basin. The conventional hydrostratigraphic view on marine sedimentary basins assumes that compactional and meteoric groundwater fluid circulation drives fluid movement and defines its timing. However, in the past few years, several examples of instantaneous and catastrophic release of fluids have been observed even through low-permeability sediments. A particularly complex case-study involves the presence of giant salt bodies in the depocentres of marine basins. Evaporites dramatically change the hydrostratigraphy and fluid-dynamics of the basin, and influence the P/T regimes, e.g. through changes in the geothermal gradient and in the compaction of underlying sediments. Our paper reviews the impact of the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) and evaporites on fluid flow in the Mediterranean sub-basins. The analysis of geological and geophysical sub-surface data provides examples from this basin, and the comparison with analogues in other well-known evaporitic provinces. During the MSC, massive sea-level changes occurred in a relatively limited time interval, and affected the balance of fluid dynamics, e.g. with sudden release or unusual trapping of fluids. Fluid expulsion events are here analysed and classified in relation to the long and short-term effects of the MSC. Our main aim is to build a framework for the correct identification of the fluid flow-related events, and their genetic mechanisms. On basin margins, where evaporites are thin or absent, the sea-level changes associated with the MSC force a rapid basinward shift of the mixing zone of meteoric/gravity flow and saline/compactional flow, 100s-km away from its pre-MSC position. This phenomenon changes the geometry of converging flows, creates hydraulic traps for fluids, and triggers specific diagenetic reactions in pre-MSC deep marine sediments. In basin-centre settings, unloading and

  7. Donnan effect on chloride ion distribution as a determinant of body fluid composition that allows action potentials to spread via fast sodium channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurbel Sven

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Proteins in any solution with a pH value that differs from their isoelectric point exert both an electric Donnan effect (DE and colloid osmotic pressure. While the former alters the distribution of ions, the latter forces water diffusion. In cells with highly Cl--permeable membranes, the resting potential is more dependent on the cytoplasmic pH value, which alters the Donnan effect of cell proteins, than on the current action of Na/K pumps. Any weak (positive or negative electric disturbances of their resting potential are quickly corrected by chloride shifts. In many excitable cells, the spreading of action potentials is mediated through fast, voltage-gated sodium channels. Tissue cells share similar concentrations of cytoplasmic proteins and almost the same exposure to the interstitial fluid (IF chloride concentration. The consequence is that similar intra- and extra-cellular chloride concentrations make these cells share the same Nernst value for Cl-. Further extrapolation indicates that cells with the same chloride Nernst value and high chloride permeability should have similar resting membrane potentials, more negative than -80 mV. Fast sodium channels require potassium levels >20 times higher inside the cell than around it, while the concentration of Cl- ions needs to be >20 times higher outside the cell. When osmotic forces, electroneutrality and other ions are all taken into account, the overall osmolarity needs to be near 280 to 300 mosm/L to reach the required resting potential in excitable cells. High plasma protein concentrations keep the IF chloride concentration stable, which is important in keeping the resting membrane potential similar in all chloride-permeable cells. Probable consequences of this concept for neuron excitability, erythrocyte membrane permeability and several features of circulation design are briefly discussed.

  8. Simultaneous determination of Hg(II) and alkylated Hg, Pb, and Sn species in human body fluids using SPME-GC/MS-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunemann, L.; Hajimiragha, H.; Begerow, J. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Medizinisches Inst. fuer Umwelthygiene, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    1999-03-01

    A GC/MS-MS method for the determination of Hg(II) and alkylated Hg, Pb, and Sn species in human urine is described. Separation and identification of the metal species are performed by capillary gas chromatography coupled with an ion-trap mass spectrometer with electron impact ionization in the tandem-MS mode. For sample preparation a very promising technique was applied that is based on a derivatization with sodium tetraethylborate followed by headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME). Operation of the used ion trap in the tandem-MS mode yields in improved detection limits because of a signal-to-noise ratio that is at least one order of magnitude better than in the MS mode. The detection limits in real matrices like urine are between 7 and 22 ng/L for all species investigated. Urinary levels of inorganic Hg in non-occupationally exposed persons with and without dental amalgam were found to be between 0.1 and 1.4 {mu}g/L. A reference material (``ClinRep, Level I``) was used for quality assurance. Compared to the coupling of GC with ICP-MS (``inorganic`` MS), the advantage of the proposed method using an ``organic`` MS is that (i) the species can be directly identified via their precursor and daughter ions and (ii) analysis can be performed with a commercially available hyphenated technique at moderate costs and needs no lab-made interfacing. Moreover, it offers a real multi-element/multi-species capability with low detection limits and a minimum of sample preparation. (orig.) With 1 fig., 1 tab., 9 refs.

  9. Direct continuous supercritical fluid extraction as a novel method of wine analysis. Comparison with conventional indirect extraction and implications for wine variety identification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karásek, Pavel; Planeta, Josef; Varaďová-Ostrá, Elena; Mikešová, Milena; Goliáš, J.; Roth, Michal; Vejrosta, Jiří

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 1002, 1-2 (2003), s. 13-23. ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA525/99/1570; GA AV ČR IBS4031110 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : supercritical fluid extraction * wine analysis * multivariate statistics Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.922, year: 2003

  10. Contact with hospital syringes containing body fluids: implications for medical waste management regulation Jeringas en contacto con sangre y fluidos corporales utilizadas en el hospital: implicaciones para el manejo de desechos hospitalarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Volkow

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine amount of syringes used in the hospital and extent of contact with blood and body fluids of these syringes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Syringe use was surveyed at a tertiary care center for one week; syringes were classified into the following four categories according to use: a contained blood; b contained other body fluids (urine, gastric secretion, cerebrospinal fluid, wound drainage; c used exclusively for drug dilution and application in plastic intravenous (IV tubes, and d for intramuscular (IM, subcutaneous (SC, or intradermic (ID injections. RESULTS: A total of 7 157 plastic disposable syringes was used; 1 227 (17% contained blood during use, 346 (4.8%, other body fluids, 5 257 (73% were used exclusively for drug dilution and application in plastic IV lines, and 327 (4.5% were utilized for IM, SC, or ID injections. An estimated 369 140 syringes used annually, or eight syringes per patient per in-hospital day. All syringes were disposed of as regulated medical waste, in observance of the law. CONCLUSIONS: There is an urgent need to review recommendations for medical waste management by both international agencies and local governments, based on scientific data and a cost-benefit analysis, to prevent resource waste and further environmental damage.OBJETIVO: Cuantificar el número de jeringas que se utilizan en el hospital y calcular cuántas de éstas entran en contacto con sangre o fluidos corporales. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se hizo una encuesta del uso de jeringas en un hospital de tercer nivel de atención durante toda una semana. Se clasificaron, de acuerdo con el uso que se les dio, en cuatro categorías: a aspiración de sangre, b otros fluidos corporales (orina, secreción gástrica, líquido cefalorraquídeo, drenaje de herida, etcétera, c uso exclusivo para diluir medicamentos y administrarlos a través de tubos de terapia intravenosa, d para aplicación de inyecciones intramusculares (IM, subcutáneas (SC o

  11. Occupational Exposure to Blood and Body Fluids in a Department of Oral Sciences: Results of a Thirteen-Year Surveillance Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. A. Gatto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Aim of this analysis was to identify trends that will aid in the prevention of injury. Methods. Our data were collected from 1999 to 2011 during a surveillance program of occupational exposures to blood or other potentially infectious materials in a Dental School by using a standard coded protocol. Results. 63 exposures were reported. 56/63 (89% percutaneous and 7/63 (11% mucosal, involving a splash to the eye of the dental care workers (DCW. 25/63 (40% involved students, 23/63 (36% DCW attending masters and doctorate, 13/63 (21% DCW attending as tutors and 2/63 (3% staff. 45/63 (71% and 18/63 (29% occurred respectively during and after the use of the device; of last ones, 1/18 (0.05% were related to instrument clean-up and 1/18 (0.05% to laboratory activity, 12/18 (67% occurred when a DCW collided with a sharp object during the setting, and 4/18 (22% during other activities. The instrument and the body part most likely involved were needle and finger respectively. The overall exposure rate was 4.78 per 10,000 patient visits. Conclusions Our results may serve as benchmark that Dental Schools can employ to assess their frequency of injury.

  12. 油基钻井液条件下油层的NMR 判识方法%Oil Layer Identification by NMR with the Use of Oil-Based Drilling Fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志战; 魏杨旭; 秦黎明; 郑奕挺; 赵明; 向蜀平; 惠成峰

    2015-01-01

    油基钻井液具有润滑性好、抑制性强等特点,有利于井壁稳定和油气层保护,在非常规油气水平井及深井、超深井中广泛使用。但是,油基钻井液具有较强的荧光背景和全烃基值,岩屑难以洗出本色,地层油与钻井液的基础油融合,给油层的识别和评价带来了严重影响。为此,创新采用高分辨率低场核磁共振技术随钻监测钻井液含油率及含油性的变化。室内实验结果表明,油基钻井液不同于混油钻井液,后者属于水包油体系,钻遇油层后,在钻井液 T2谱上出现新峰;而前者属于油包水体系,钻遇油层后,在钻井液 T2谱上不出现新峰,但可通过含油性的变化识别重质油层,通过含油率的变化识别轻-中质油层,并在S903H井全油基钻井液及极端的地质条件下取得了较好的应用效果,证明了钻井液核磁共振是油基钻井液条件下一项有效的油层识别技术。%Oil-based drilling fluids show advantages such as high shale inhibition and good lubrication, and are beneficial for borehole stability and protecting the oil layers in unconventional horizontal and deep wells. However, oil-based drilling fluids often have strong fluorescent signals and high total hydrocarbon ratio, such that it is difficult to wash the rock debris clean when these fluids are used, resulting in contamination of oil in the layer and making identification and evaluation of oil layers problematic. In this work, high-resolution low-field NMR while drilling was used to monitor the oil content in drilling fluids.The results showed that oil-based drilling fluids had different NMR characteristics from mixed drilling fluids. The latter is an oil-in-water system, such that the new peaks would arise in theT2 spectrum when drilling into oil layer. The former is a water-in-oil system, and no new peaks would arise in theT2 spectrum when drilling into the oil layer. Under such

  13. Fluid Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazin, Philip

    1987-01-01

    Outlines the contents of Volume II of "Principia" by Sir Isaac Newton. Reviews the contributions of subsequent scientists to the physics of fluid dynamics. Discusses the treatment of fluid mechanics in physics curricula. Highlights a few of the problems of modern research in fluid dynamics. Shows that problems still remain. (CW)

  14. 外形任意的多孔介质轴对称物体中充满非Newton幂律流体时的自然对流%Natural Convection of Non-Newtonian Power-Law Fluid Over Axisymmetric and Two-Dimensional Bodies of Arbitrary Shape in a Fluid-Saturated Porous Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S·M·阿布德尔-盖德; M·R·伊德

    2011-01-01

    在一个轴对称、外形任意的多孔介质二维体中,充满了有屈服应力的非Newton幂律流体时,数值分析其自由对流及其传热/传质问题,利用相似变换,将边界层控制方程及其边界条件变换为无量纲形式,然后用有限差分法求解该方程组.所研究的参数为流变常数、浮力比和Lewis数.给出并讨论了典型的速度、温度及浓度曲线,发现屈服应力参数值和非Newton流体的幂律指数对结果有着显著的影响.%Numerical analysis of free convection coupled heat and mass transfer was presented for non-Newtonian power-law fluids with yield stress flowing over two-dimensional or axisymmetric body of arbitrary shape in a fluid-saturated porous medium.The governing boundary layer equations and boundary conditions were cast into a dimensionless form by similarity transformation and the resulting system of equations was solved by a finite difference method.The parameters studied were the rheologicai constants, the buoyancy ratio, and the Lewis number.Representative velocity as well as temperature and concentration profiles were presented and discussed.It was found that the result depend strongly on the values of the yield stress parameter, and the power-law index of non-Newtonian fluid.

  15. Flow around Ahmed Body

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uruba, Václav; Sedlák, K.

    Praha : Ústav termomechaniky AV ČR, v. v. i., 2009 - (Příhoda, J.; Kozel, K.), s. 107-110 ISBN 978-80-87012-19-2. [Topical Problems of Fluid Mechanics 2009. Praha (CZ), 25.02.2009-26.02.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/08/1112 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : Ahmed body * dynamics * wake Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  16. Characterization of Candida spp. isolated from vaginal fluid: identification, antifungal susceptibility, and virulence profile - doi: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v35i1.13557

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terezinha Inez Estivalet Svidzinski

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 101 (20.0% yeast samples were isolated from vaginal fluids of 504 non-hospitalized patients in Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil and Candida albicans was more frequent specie (93.1% identified by seminested PCR method. All the isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B and nystatin, and 93.1% of them were susceptible to fluconazole. The acid proteinase, hemolytic and phospholipase activities were observed in 99.0, 90.0, and 88.0% of Candida spp., respectively. Around 67.0% of the strains had adherence indexes of 0.5 to 1.5 yeasts by Vero cell, and most of them showed a hydrophilic profile. Correlation studies indicated hydrophilic yeasts presented higher adherence index, proteinase, and phospholipase activities; and a positive correlation between all enzymes was also observed. In addition, the isolates with high hemolytic activity were less susceptible to fluconazole and amphotericin B. These results of Candida prevalence and antifungal susceptibility corroborate with literature’s datas and correlation between virulence factors and MIC values suggest Candida isolates from vaginal fluid less susceptible to antifungal and with higher extracellular enzymes production can be more virulent to cause tissue damage.  

  17. The characteristics of internal waves generated by a revolution body in a stratified fluid with a pycnocline%具有密度跃层分层流体中回转体激发内波特性实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王进; 尤云祥; 胡天群; 王小青; 朱敏慧

    2012-01-01

    Experiments are conducted for the characteristics of both body and wake-generated internal waves due to a revolution body(aspect ratio 7:1) in a stratified fluid with a pycnocline where the revolution body is horizontally towed in forward and backward ways.Results show that the body-generated internal waves are a type of stationary multiple-mode Lee wave structures,and the wake-generated internal waves are a type of non-stationary quasi-Lee structures produced by the large-scale coherent structure in the turbulent wake acting as a moving excitation with respect to the towed revolution body.The transition between Lee and quasi-Lee waves occurs at a critical Froude number Fr_c which is shown to be linearly dependent on the aspect ratios of the revolution bodies where the wave patterns for Fr Fr_c are dominated by Lee waves,whereas the wave patterns for Fr Fr_c are dominated by quasi-Lee waves, Fr is the Froude number for the characteristic diameter of the revolution body.For the quasi-Lee waves,the dimensionless peak-topeak amplitudes linearly increase with Fr and the Froude numbers relative to the correlation velocities remain at a relatively constant value of approximately 0.8 regardless of the aspect ratios.Moreover,the head and the tail shapes of the revolution body have no remarkable influence on the critical Froude number Fr_c,as well as both the Froude numbers relative to the correlation velocities and the dimensionless peak-to-peak amplitudes of the quasi-Lee waves.%在具有连续密度跃层的分层流体中,对长径比为7:1的回转体在迎水和背水运动下激发体积效应与尾迹效应内波特性开展了系列实验.结果表明,体积效应激发内波属于一种相对于回转体定常的多模态Lee波结构,而尾迹效应激发主控内波为相对于回转体非定常的拟Lee波结构,这是一类由湍流尾迹中大尺度相干结构作为移动源激发的内波结构,在Lee波与拟Lee波之间存在

  18. Proteomic Analysis of Human Blastocoel Fluid and Blastocyst Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnert Jensen, Pernille; Beck, Hans Christian; Petersen, Jørgen;

    cells of the blastocyst are exposed. The ICM is the starting point for the development of undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), which posses the potential to develop into any cell type present in the adult human body [1,2]. This ability makes hESCs a potential source of cells for...... blastocoel fluid (1-8 nanoliters per blastocyst), has hampered an in-depth study of the human blastocyst proteome. However, recent developments in mass spectrometry-based proteomic techniques allow the identification and characterization of thousands of proteins from low microgram levels of protein extracted......The human blastocyst consists of 100-200 cells that are organized in an outer layer of differentiated trophectoderm (TE) cells lining the blastocyst cavity into which the undifferentiated inner cell mass (ICM) protrudes. The cavity of the blastocyst is filled with blastocoel fluid to which all the...

  19. DEFINITION AND IDENTIFICATION OF VIRAL DNA VIRUSES OF THE FAMILY HERPESVIRIDAE IN ORAL FLUID OF PATIENTS WITH INFLAMMATORY AND DYSTROPHIC-INFLAMMATORY PERIODONTAL DISEASE, ASSOCIATED WITH PERSISTENT HERPES VIRUS INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volosovets T. N.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Lesions of periodontal herpesvirus is a complex process and is carried out by direct viral infection and replication, or due to virus-induced changes in the immune system. The prevalence of dystrophic and inflammatory lesions parodonta in the population; the complexity in the implementation of prevention and treatment of disease, and the ambiguity in the interpretation of the basic pathogenetic mechanisms (interrelated inflammatory, immune and metabolic makes this issue extremely important in medicine. Our aim was to detect viral DNA viruses of the family Herpesviridae in oral fluid of patients with inflammatory and dystrophic-inflammatory periodontal disease, associated with persistent herpes virus infection. Material and methods. PCR and ELISA was performed detection and identification of viral DNA viruses of the family Herpesviridae in oral fluid of patients with inflammatory and dystrophic-inflammatory periodontal disease, associated with persistent herpes virus infection. I examined 290 patients with inflammatory and dystrophic-inflammatory periodontal disease (catarrhal gingivitis, generalized periodontitis (CP and the initial and degree and, depending on the presence or absence of persistent HVI divided them into groups. Within the study was conducted immunological study of 170 patients with pathology of periodontal tissues infected by viruses of the family Herpesviridae (Experimental (I group. Results. As a result of the survey it was found that 170 (52.79 % patients had relatively persistent HVI of virus and made D (I group. 42.21 % of patients had persistent HVI available and made the comparison group (II. Conclusions 1.\tDuring the polymerase chain reaction (PCR in oral fluid of 170 patients of the main group reproduction HVI was detected only in 38.82 % of subjects: the herpes simplex virus (HSV 1 and 2 – in 26.46 % of patients; on Epstein Barr virus (EBV – 1.76 %; the cytomegalovirus (CMV – in 10.58 % of patients

  20. Isolation by pressurised fluid extraction (PFE) and identification using CPC and HPLC/ESI/MS of phenolic compounds from Brazilian cherry seeds (Eugenia uniflora L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Alessandra L; Destandau, Emilie; Fougère, Laëtitia; Lafosse, Michel

    2014-02-15

    Brazilian cherry seeds are a waste product from juice and frozen pulp production and, the seeds composition was investigated to valorize this by-product. Compounds separation was performed with ethanol by pressurised fluid extraction (PFE). Here we determine the effect of temperature (T), static time (ST), number of cycles (C), and flush volume (VF) on the yield, composition and total phenolic content (TPC) of the seed extracts. T, ST and their interaction positively influenced yield and TPC. Extracts were fractionated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC). The collected fractions characterizations were made by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI/MS) and high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) indicated the presence of ellagic acid pentoside and deoxyhexose, quercitrin and kaempferol pentoside. All of these compounds have antioxidant properties and normally are found in plant extracts. These results confirm that Brazilian cherry seed extract is a potentially valuable source of antioxidants. PMID:24128509

  1. Fluids engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluids engineering has played an important role in many applications, from ancient flood control to the design of high-speed compact turbomachinery. New applications of fluids engineering, such as in high-technology materials processing, biotechnology, and advanced combustion systems, have kept up unwaining interest in the subject. More accurate and sophisticated computational and measurement techniques are also constantly being developed and refined. On a more fundamental level, nonlinear dynamics and chaotic behavior of fluid flow are no longer an intellectual curiosity and fluid engineers are increasingly interested in finding practical applications for these emerging sciences. Applications of fluid technology to new areas, as well as the need to improve the design and to enhance the flexibility and reliability of flow-related machines and devices will continue to spur interest in fluids engineering. The objectives of the present seminar were: to exchange current information on arts, science, and technology of fluids engineering; to promote scientific cooperation between the fluids engineering communities of both nations, and to provide an opportunity for the participants and their colleagues to explore possible joint research programs in topics of high priority and mutual interest to both countries. The Seminar provided an excellent forum for reviewing the current state and future needs of fluids engineering for the two nations. With the Seminar ear-marking the first formal scientific exchange between Korea and the United States in the area of fluids engineering, the scope was deliberately left broad and general

  2. Influence of design on bioactivity of novel CaSiO3-CaMg(SiO3)2 bioceramics: in vitro simulated body fluid test and thermodynamic simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainz, M A; Pena, P; Serena, S; Caballero, A

    2010-07-01

    A new type of bioactive ceramic has been designed and obtained from high-temperature phase information from the wollastonite (CaSiO(3))-diopside (CaMg(SiO(3))(2)) phase equilibrium diagram. The selected composition was that corresponding to the eutectic point of the pseudobinary CaSiO(3)-CaMg(SiO(3))(2) system. The sintering behaviour, phase evolution, microstructural changes and in vitro bioactivity of CaSiO(3)-CaMg(SiO(3))(2) eutectic bioceramics were analysed by differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and image analysis. A simulation of the dissolution properties of the different materials studied, in water as well as in simulated body fluid (SBF), was also carried out by thermodynamic calculations, with the purpose of understanding the in vitro results obtained. The results demonstrate that the CaMg(SiO(3))(2) is significantly less soluble than CaSiO(3), developing an in situ porous structure (biomimetic porous bone material) with adequate biodegradation rate and stability strength when immersed in SBF. The influence of the microstructure (porosity, grain size and phase composition) on the in vitro bioactivity of the obtained bioceramics was also examined. PMID:20060937

  3. Textured fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Guenther, Gerhard K.

    1995-01-01

    The rheology and development morphology of textured fluids have been investigated. The first fluid considered in this work was a liquid crystalline polymer consisting of isotropic and anisotropic solutions of poly-p-phenyleneterephthalamide (PPT) in sulfuric acid. The second textured fluid considered in this work was an immiscible polymer blend consisting of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and nylon 6,6. The role played by liquid crystalline order (LCO) and a polydomain ...

  4. System Identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keesman, K.J.

    2011-01-01

    Summary System Identification Introduction.- Part I: Data-based Identification.- System Response Methods.- Frequency Response Methods.- Correlation Methods.- Part II: Time-invariant Systems Identification.- Static Systems Identification.- Dynamic Systems Identification.- Part III: Time-varying Syste

  5. Fluid mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Kundu, Pijush K; Dowling, David R

    2011-01-01

    Fluid mechanics, the study of how fluids behave and interact under various forces and in various applied situations-whether in the liquid or gaseous state or both-is introduced and comprehensively covered in this widely adopted text. Revised and updated by Dr. David Dowling, Fluid Mechanics, 5e is suitable for both a first or second course in fluid mechanics at the graduate or advanced undergraduate level. Along with more than 100 new figures, the text has been reorganized and consolidated to provide a better flow and more cohesion of topics.Changes made to the

  6. The identification of inflow fluid dynamics parameters that can be used to scale fatigue loading spectra of wind turbine structural components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, N. D.

    1993-11-01

    We have recently shown that the alternating load fatigue distributions measured at several locations on a wind turbine operating in a turbulent flow can be described by a mixture of at least three parametric statistical models. The rainflow cycle counting of the horizontal and vertical inflow components results in a similar mixture describing the cyclic content of the wind. We believe such a description highlights the degree of non-Gaussian characteristics of the flow. We present evidence that the severity of the low-cycle, high-amplitude alternating stress loads seen by wind turbine components are a direct consequence of the degree of departure from normality in the inflow. We have examined the details of the turbulent inflow associated with series large loading events that took place on two adjacent wind turbines installed in a large wind park in San Gorgonio Pass, California. In this paper, we describe what we believe to be the agents in the flow that induced such events. We also discuss the atmospheric mechanisms that influence the low-cycle, high-amplitude range loading seen by a number of critical wind turbine components. We further present results that can be used to scale the specific distribution shape as functions of measured inflow fluid dynamics parameters.

  7. Identification of Common Bacterial Pathogens Causing Meningitis in Culture-Negative Cerebrospinal Fluid Samples Using Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khater, Walaa Shawky; Elabd, Safia Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Background. Meningitis is a serious communicable disease with high morbidity and mortality rates. It is an endemic disease in Egypt caused mainly by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Haemophilus influenzae. In some settings, bacterial meningitis is documented depending mainly on positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture results or CSF positive latex agglutination test, missing the important role of prior antimicrobial intake which can yield negative culture and latex agglutination test results. This study aimed to utilize molecular technology in order to diagnose bacterial meningitis in culture-negative CSF samples. Materials and Methods. Forty culture-negative CSF samples from suspected cases of bacterial meningitis were examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) for the presence of lytA, bexA, and ctrA genes specific for Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria meningitidis, respectively. Results. Positive real-time PCR results for Streptococcus pneumoniae were detected in 36 (90%) of culture-negative CSF samples while no positive results for Haemophilus influenzae or Neisseria meningitidis were detected. Four (10%) samples were negative by real-time PCR for all tested organisms. Conclusion. The use of molecular techniques as real-time PCR can provide a valuable addition to the proportion of diagnosed cases of bacterial meningitis especially in settings with high rates of culture-negative results. PMID:27563310

  8. Collisions of rigid bodies, deformable bodies and fluids

    OpenAIRE

    DIMNET, E; Fremond, M.; GORMAZ, R; San Martin, J.

    2003-01-01

    The system made of two solids is deformable because the relative position of the solids may change. This idea is applied to an old and complex problem of mechanics : the collision theory. The major findings are constitutive laws which are coherent from the thermodynamics point of view. They give robust and productive models and numerical methods, for instance for rocks avalanches and collisions of solids and flluids.

  9. Neuroendocrine control of body fluid homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCann S.M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiotensin II and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP play important and opposite roles in the control of water and salt intake, with angiotensin II promoting the intake of both and ANP inhibiting the intake of both. Following blood volume expansion, baroreceptor input to the brainstem induces the release of ANP within the hypothalamus that releases oxytocin (OT that acts on its receptors in the heart to cause the release of ANP. ANP activates guanylyl cyclase that converts guanosine triphosphate into cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP. cGMP activates protein kinase G that reduces heart rate and force of contraction, decreasing cardiac output. ANP acts similarly to induce vasodilation. The intrinsic OT system in the heart and vascular system augments the effects of circulating OT to cause a rapid reduction in effective circulating blood volume. Furthermore, natriuresis is rapidly induced by the action of ANP on its tubular guanylyl cyclase receptors, resulting in the production of cGMP that closes Na+ channels. The OT released by volume expansion also acts on its tubular receptors to activate nitric oxide synthase. The nitric oxide released activates guanylyl cyclase leading to the production of cGMP that also closes Na+ channels, thereby augmenting the natriuretic effect of ANP. The natriuresis induced by cGMP finally causes blood volume to return to normal. At the same time, the ANP released acts centrally to decrease water and salt intake.

  10. Portable Programmable Multifunction Body Fluids Analyzer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Liquid Logic proposes to develop a very capable analyzer based on its digital microfluidic technology. Such an analyzer would be:  Capable of both...

  11. Fluid Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorsen, Michael

    These lecture notes are intended mainly for the 7th semester course "Fluid Dynamics" offered by the Study Committee on Civil Engineering, Aalborg University.......These lecture notes are intended mainly for the 7th semester course "Fluid Dynamics" offered by the Study Committee on Civil Engineering, Aalborg University....

  12. Stirring by swimming bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider the stirring of an inviscid fluid caused by the locomotion of bodies through it. The swimmers are approximated by non-interacting cylinders or spheres moving steadily along straight lines. We find the displacement of fluid particles caused by the nearby passage of a swimmer as a function of an impact parameter. We use this to compute the effective diffusion coefficient from the random walk of a fluid particle under the influence of a distribution of swimming bodies. We compare with the results of simulations. For typical sizes, densities and swimming velocities of schools of krill, the effective diffusivity in this model is five times the thermal diffusivity. However, we estimate that viscosity increases this value by two orders of magnitude.

  13. On the atmosphere of a moving body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Johan Rønby; Aref, Hassan

    2010-01-01

    We explore whether a rigid body moving freely with no circulation around it in a two-dimensional ideal fluid can carry a fluid "atmosphere" with it in its motion. Somewhat surprisingly, the answer appears to be "yes." When the body is elongated and the motion is dominated by rotation, we demonstr......We explore whether a rigid body moving freely with no circulation around it in a two-dimensional ideal fluid can carry a fluid "atmosphere" with it in its motion. Somewhat surprisingly, the answer appears to be "yes." When the body is elongated and the motion is dominated by rotation, we...... demonstrate numerically that, indeed, regions of fluid follow the body in its motion. We see this as an example of the stability of Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser tori. These observations of an atmosphere around a moving body with no circulation around it appear to be new. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics...

  14. Stochastic interpenetration of fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinkamp, M.J.; Clark, T.T.; Harlow, F.H.

    1995-11-01

    We describe a spectral approach to the investigation of fluid instability, generalized turbulence, and the interpenetration of fluids across an interface. The technique also applies to a single fluid with large variations in density. Departures of fluctuating velocity components from the local mean are far subsonic, but the mean Mach number can be large. Validity of the description is demonstrated by comparisons with experiments on turbulent mixing due to the late stages of Rayleigh-Taylor instability, when the dynamics become approximately self-similar in response to a constant body force. Generic forms for anisotropic spectral structure are described and used as a basis for deriving spectrally integrated moment equations that can be incorporated into computer codes for scientific and engineering analyses.

  15. Identification, Characterization, and In Vitro Culture of Highly Divergent Arenaviruses from Boa Constrictors and Annulated Tree Boas: Candidate Etiological Agents for Snake Inclusion Body Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Stenglein, Mark D.; Sanders, Chris; Kistler, Amy L.; Ruby, J. Graham; Franco, Jessica Y.; Reavill, Drury R.; Dunker, Freeland; DeRisi, Joseph L.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Inclusion body disease (IBD) is an infectious fatal disease of snakes typified by behavioral abnormalities, wasting, and secondary infections. At a histopathological level, the disease is identified by the presence of large eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions in multiple tissues. To date, no virus or other pathogen has been definitively characterized or associated with the disease. Using a metagenomic approach to search for candidate etiologic agents in snakes with confirmed IBD, we ...

  16. Changes in body fluid and energy compartments during prolonged hunger strike Alterações nos compartimentos hídricos e energéticos do organismo durante a greve de fome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Faintuch

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged total food deprivation in non-obese adults is rare, and few studies have documented body composition changes in this setting. In a group of eight hunger strikers who refused alimentation for 43 days, water and energy compartments were estimated, aiming to assess the impact of progressive starvation. Measurements included body mass index (BMI, triceps skinfold (TSF, arm muscle circumference (AMC, and bioimpedance (BIA determinations of water, fat, lean body mass (LBM, and total resistance. Indirect calorimetry was also performed in one occasion. The age of the group was 43.3±6.2 years (seven males, one female. Only water, intermittent vitamins and electrolytes were ingested, and average weight loss reached 17.9%. On the last two days of the fast (43rd-44th day rapid intravenous fluid, electrolyte, and vitamin replenishment were provided before proceeding with realimentation. Body fat decreased approximately 60% (BIA and TSF, whereas BMI reduced only 18%. Initial fat was estimated by BIA as 52.2±5.4% of body weight, and even on the 43rd day it was still measured as 19.7±3.8% of weight. TSF findings were much lower and commensurate with other anthropometric results. Water was comparatively low with high total resistance, and these findings rapidly reversed upon the intravenous rapid hydration. At the end of the starvation period, BMI (21.5±2.6 kg/m² and most anthropometric determinations were still acceptable, suggesting efficient energy and muscle conservation. Conclusions: 1 All compartments diminished during fasting, but body fat was by far the most affected; 2 Total water was low and total body resistance comparatively elevated, but these findings rapidly reversed upon rehydration; 3 Exaggerated fat percentage estimates from BIA tests and simultaneous increase in lean body mass estimates suggested that this method was inappropriate for assessing energy compartments in the studied population; 4 Patients were not morphologically

  17. Fluid biopsy for circulating tumor cell identification in patients with early-and late-stage non-small cell lung cancer: a glimpse into lung cancer biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Marco; Bazhenova, Lyudmila; Boshuizen, Rogier; Kolatkar, Anand; Honnatti, Meghana; Cho, Edward H.; Marrinucci, Dena; Sandhu, Ajay; Perricone, Anthony; Thistlethwaite, Patricia; Bethel, Kelly; Nieva, Jorge; van den Heuvel, Michel; Kuhn, Peter

    2012-02-01

    Circulating tumor cell (CTC) counts are an established prognostic marker in metastatic prostate, breast and colorectal cancer, and recent data suggest a similar role in late stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, due to sensitivity constraints in current enrichment-based CTC detection technologies, there are few published data about CTC prevalence rates and morphologic heterogeneity in early-stage NSCLC, or the correlation of CTCs with disease progression and their usability for clinical staging. We investigated CTC counts, morphology and aggregation in early stage, locally advanced and metastatic NSCLC patients by using a fluid-phase biopsy approach that identifies CTCs without relying on surface-receptor-based enrichment and presents them in sufficiently high definition (HD) to satisfy diagnostic pathology image quality requirements. HD-CTCs were analyzed in blood samples from 78 chemotherapy-naïve NSCLC patients. 73% of the total population had a positive HD-CTC count (>0 CTC in 1 mL of blood) with a median of 4.4 HD-CTCs mL-1 (range 0-515.6) and a mean of 44.7 (±95.2) HD-CTCs mL-1. No significant difference in the medians of HD-CTC counts was detected between stage IV (n = 31, range 0-178.2), stage III (n = 34, range 0-515.6) and stages I/II (n = 13, range 0-442.3). Furthermore, HD-CTCs exhibited a uniformity in terms of molecular and physical characteristics such as fluorescent cytokeratin intensity, nuclear size, frequency of apoptosis and aggregate formation across the spectrum of staging. Our results demonstrate that despite stringent morphologic inclusion criteria for the definition of HD-CTCs, the HD-CTC assay shows high sensitivity in the detection and characterization of both early- and late-stage lung cancer CTCs. Extensive studies are warranted to investigate the prognostic value of CTC profiling in early-stage lung cancer. This finding has implications for the design of extensive studies examining screening, therapy and surveillance in

  18. Fluid biopsy for circulating tumor cell identification in patients with early-and late-stage non-small cell lung cancer: a glimpse into lung cancer biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Circulating tumor cell (CTC) counts are an established prognostic marker in metastatic prostate, breast and colorectal cancer, and recent data suggest a similar role in late stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, due to sensitivity constraints in current enrichment-based CTC detection technologies, there are few published data about CTC prevalence rates and morphologic heterogeneity in early-stage NSCLC, or the correlation of CTCs with disease progression and their usability for clinical staging. We investigated CTC counts, morphology and aggregation in early stage, locally advanced and metastatic NSCLC patients by using a fluid-phase biopsy approach that identifies CTCs without relying on surface-receptor-based enrichment and presents them in sufficiently high definition (HD) to satisfy diagnostic pathology image quality requirements. HD-CTCs were analyzed in blood samples from 78 chemotherapy-naïve NSCLC patients. 73% of the total population had a positive HD-CTC count (>0 CTC in 1 mL of blood) with a median of 4.4 HD-CTCs mL−1 (range 0–515.6) and a mean of 44.7 (±95.2) HD-CTCs mL−1. No significant difference in the medians of HD-CTC counts was detected between stage IV (n = 31, range 0–178.2), stage III (n = 34, range 0–515.6) and stages I/II (n = 13, range 0–442.3). Furthermore, HD-CTCs exhibited a uniformity in terms of molecular and physical characteristics such as fluorescent cytokeratin intensity, nuclear size, frequency of apoptosis and aggregate formation across the spectrum of staging. Our results demonstrate that despite stringent morphologic inclusion criteria for the definition of HD-CTCs, the HD-CTC assay shows high sensitivity in the detection and characterization of both early- and late-stage lung cancer CTCs. Extensive studies are warranted to investigate the prognostic value of CTC profiling in early-stage lung cancer. This finding has implications for the design of extensive studies examining screening, therapy and

  19. 带自由面流体的多体耗散粒子动力学模拟%The study of fluid with free surface by many-body dissipative particle dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周楠; 陈硕

    2014-01-01

    利用多体耗散粒子动力学(MDPD)方法对介观尺度下液滴动力学进行了模拟分析。探讨了MDPD系统中液气共存界面的形成,并对表面张力进行了模拟研究。研究结果表明, MDPD方法形成的液气共存界面满足Laplace定律。通过改变不同的粒子间保守力作用参数,获得了液滴在固体壁面上不同的接触角,并研究了保守力作用参数与接触角之间的变化规律。进一步模拟了液滴在复杂微通道内的流动,研究结果有助于解释带自由面流体在粗糙表面上的运动行为。%The dynamics of a drop on a mesoscopic scale is investigated by using the many-body dissipative particle dynamic (MDPD) method. The formation of liquid-vapor coexistence interface in the MDPD system is explored. The simulations of the pressure inside/outside the drop and the surface tension are carried out, and it is verified that Laplace’s law is satisfied in our simulation. Different contact angles are obtained by changing conservative interaction parameters between particles. The relationship between MDPD paremeters and contact angles is discussed. Based on the results, the flow behaviors of a drop moving in grooved microcannels are simulated. The results in this paper are useful in studying the fluid with free surfaces flow behavior on rough surface.

  20. Fluid dynamics of dilatant fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakanishi, Hiizu; Nagahiro, Shin-ichiro; Mitarai, Namiko

    2012-01-01

    of the state variable, we demonstrate that the model can describe basic features of the dilatant fluid such as the stress-shear rate curve that represents discontinuous severe shear thickening, hysteresis upon changing shear rate, and instantaneous hardening upon external impact. An analysis of the......A dense mixture of granules and liquid often shows a severe shear thickening and is called a dilatant fluid. We construct a fluid dynamics model for the dilatant fluid by introducing a phenomenological state variable for a local state of dispersed particles. With simple assumptions for an equation...... model reveals that the shear thickening fluid shows an instability in a shear flow for some regime and exhibits the shear thickening oscillation (i.e., the oscillatory shear flow alternating between the thickened and the relaxed states). The results of numerical simulations are presented for one- and...

  1. Fluid juggling

    CERN Document Server

    Soto, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    This fluid dynamics video is an entry for the Gallery of Fluid Motion for the 66th Annual Meeting of the Fluid Dynamics Division of the American Physical Society. We show the curious behaviour of a light ball interacting with a liquid jet. For certain conditions, a ball can be suspended into a slightly inclined liquid jet. We studied this phenomenon using a high speed camera. The visualizations show that the object can be `juggled' for a variety of flow conditions. A simple calculation showed that the ball remains at a stable position due to a Bernoulli-like effect. The phenomenon is very stable and easy to reproduce.

  2. Improving fluid balance monitoring on the wards

    OpenAIRE

    Jeyapala, Sobanakumari; Gerth, Alice; Patel, Aarti; Syed, Nazia

    2015-01-01

    Clinical experience and nursing metrics have consistently identified poor documentation of fluid balance monitoring at Milton Keynes University Hospital, compromising patient safety and quality of care. This project aimed to increase the percentage of fluid balance charts correctly completed on the wards. Three areas for improvement were identified: understanding the importance of good fluid balance monitoring, correct identification of patients requiring monitoring, and ease of completion of...

  3. Fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, Peter S

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a focused, readable account of the principal physical and mathematical ideas at the heart of fluid dynamics. Graduate students in engineering, applied math, and physics who are taking their first graduate course in fluids will find this book invaluable in providing the background in physics and mathematics necessary to pursue advanced study. The book includes a detailed derivation of the Navier-Stokes and energy equations, followed by many examples of their use in studying the dynamics of fluid flows. Modern tensor analysis is used to simplify the mathematical derivations, thus allowing a clearer view of the physics. Peter Bernard also covers the motivation behind many fundamental concepts such as Bernoulli's equation and the stream function. Many exercises are designed with a view toward using MATLAB or its equivalent to simplify and extend the analysis of fluid motion including developing flow simulations based on techniques described in the book.

  4. Creativity and Embodied Fluid Movements

    OpenAIRE

    Broadhead, Alastair

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing body of evidence suggesting that the embodiment of certain movements can stimulate creative idea formation. Embodied Creativity suggests that embodying particular movements, often fluid, free movements can improve creative thinking over the embodiment of nonfluid movements. In the first of two experiments participants were required to navigate a character through a bespoke virtual environment while (a) following a fluid, free flowing pathway, (b) a nonfluid pathway, or ...

  5. Fundamental trends in fluid-structure interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Galdi, Giovanni P

    2010-01-01

    The interaction of a fluid with a solid body is a widespread phenomenon in nature, occurring at different scales and different applied disciplines. Interestingly enough, even though the mathematical theory of the motion of bodies in a liquid is one of the oldest and most classical problems in fluid mechanics, mathematicians have, only very recently, become interested in a systematic study of the basic problems related to fluid-structure interaction, from both analytical and numerical viewpoints. ""Fundamental Trends in Fluid-Structure Interaction"" is a unique collection of important papers wr

  6. On the atmosphere of a moving body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Johan Rønby; Aref, Hassan

    2010-01-01

    We have explored whether a rigid body moving freely with no circulation around it in a two-dimensional ideal fluid can carry a fluid ``atmosphere'' with it in its motion. Somewhat surprisingly, the answer appears to be ``yes''. When the body is elongated and the motion is dominated by rotation, we...... demonstrate numerically that, indeed, regions of fluid follow the body in its motion. Since there is a double-island structure for the case of pure rotation, as already found by Morton and Darwin many years ago, we see the existence of an atmosphere for the moving body as an example of the stability...

  7. 硅酸盐水泥在模拟体液中降解和矿化性能%Degradability and biomineralization ability of Portland cement in simulated body fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈耀忠; 吕晓迎; 刘根娣

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the degradability and biomineralization ability of Portland cement (PC ), samples of PC were immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF)for 3,7 and 14 d respectively.X-ray diffraction (XRD),a Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR)and a scanning electron microscope (SEM)were used to investigate the biomineralization ability of PC;meanwhile,the weight loss of the samples and the pH value changes of their immersion media were monitored.The results show that with the soaking time prolonged,the weight of PC increases.The immersion media has a high alkalinity in the first three days,and then,the pH value declines.The XRD and FTIR patterns and the SEM images show that in SBF for 3 days,calcium carbonate is formed on the sur-face of PC and for 7 days carbonated hydroxyapatite is formed.Therefore,PC displays good biomin-eralization ability in SBF.%为了检测硅酸盐水泥(PC)在模拟体液(SBF)中降解和生物矿化性能,将硅酸盐水泥样品分别浸泡于模拟体液3,7及14 d后,采用X射线衍射仪(XRD)、傅里叶红外光谱(FTIR)及扫描电镜(SEM)等方法研究其生物矿化性能;并同时检测其失重率及模拟体液浸泡液的pH值变化情况.研究结果发现:随着浸泡时间的增长,硅酸盐水泥的质量增加;模拟体液在浸泡前3d碱性较强,随后其pH值逐渐降低.X射线衍射、红外光谱图谱及扫描电镜图像表明:硅酸盐水泥浸泡3d后,在其表面有碳酸钙生成;浸泡7d后,其表面有碳酸羟基磷灰石生成.因此,硅酸盐水泥具有良好的生物矿化能力.

  8. Research progress of body fluid neurons in the regulation of innate immunity in Caenorhabditis Elegans%体液调控神经元在调控秀丽线虫固有免疫中的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马安然

    2015-01-01

    秀丽隐杆线虫在受到病原菌感染时,会迅速激活固有免疫。神经免疫间的交流可以通过神经系统释放神经递质、神经肽及激素来调控固有免疫反应,包括已知的多巴胺信号通路、TGF-β信号通路和胰岛素信号通路。近年来的研究表明,NPR-1神经环路也参与固有免疫的调控,并且三个体液调控神经元 AQR、PQR 和 URX 是通过 NPR-1神经环路调节固有免疫的。线虫的神经系统只有302个神经元,结构也相对简单,线虫的 npr-1基因可编码与哺乳动物神经肽 Y(neuropeptideY,NPY)具有受体相似的 GPCR,这些优势为研究高等生物神经免疫间交流的分子机制提供了基础。本文就体液调控神经元在调控秀丽线虫固有免疫方面展开讨论,希望可以为高等生物神经免疫间的调节机制提供重要的思路和方法。%Caenorhabditis elegans would rapidly activate innate immunity once being infected with pathogens. Neuro-immune interactions which are through the nervous system to release such as neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and hormones to regulate the innate immune response. Those pathways include known dopamine signaling pathway, TGF-β signaling pathway and insulin signaling pathways. Recent studies show that NPR-1 neural circuits are also involved in the regulation of innate immunity and three neurons AQR, PQR and URX exposed to body fluid are under the regulation of NPR-1 neural circuits. Elegans nervous system has only 302 neurons and the structure is relatively simple and the npr-1 gene of elegans can encode GPCR which is similar to the mammalian neuropeptide Y (neuropeptideY, NPY) receptor, providing an edge for studying higher organisms on neuro-immune interactions. Research progress in relation to the field has been reviewed in present paper.

  9. Identification of spinel phase in the sintered body from MgO- and NiO-doped Al2O3 powders by spray pyrolysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powders prepared by spray pyrolysis method are expected to have the compositional homogeneity and homogeneous distribution of additives. Pure, MgO doped and NiO doped Al2O3 powders were synthesized by spray pyrolysis method at 1,000 deg C. Sintered specimens were prepared by firing at 1,600, 1,650 and 1,700 deg C for 2 hrs. with their calcined powders of 1,100 deg C for 1 hr. The microstructure of pure Al2O3 sintered specimen showed large grains and grain-boundary pores, and its relative density was about 91% even thought it was fired at 1,700 deg C, 2 hrs. 0.25 wt% MgO or 0.3 wt% NiO doped Al2O3 prevented discontinuous grain growth and eliminated residual pores, and allowed the specimen to densify to near a theoretical density. More MgO or NiO doping into Al2O3 impeded the grain growth and included many pores. According to SAD(selected area diffraction) and EDS analysis of sintered Al2O3 bodies doped with 0.25, 5.0 wt% MgO and 0.3, 5.0 wt% NiO, the second phase Mg-Al spinel particles and Ni-Al spinel particles were observed at grain boundary and inside Al2O3 grains. (Author)

  10. Reliability of body size measurements obtained at autopsy: impact on the pathologic assessment of the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Carmen A; Lo Gullo, Roberto; Kalra, Mannudeep K; Louissaint, Abner; Stone, James R

    2016-06-01

    Purpose Assessment of body size at autopsy is important for interpreting organ weight measurements and in some cases body identification. The reliability of post-mortem body size measurements, the causes for perturbations in these measurements from their corresponding pre-mortem values, and the impact of such perturbations on heart weight interpretation have not been fully explored. Methods Autopsy body length and weight measurements and pre-mortem height and body weight measurements were compared in 132 autopsies. Clinical records were evaluated for peripheral edema and serum albumin levels. Causes of death, body cavity fluid collections, and heart weights were obtained from the autopsy reports. A subset of patients underwent quantitative post-mortem computed tomography assessment of anasarca. Results At autopsy, body weight differed from the pre-mortem value by 11 ± 1 %, compared with -0.2 ± 0.3 % for body length (P edema (14 ± 2 % vs. 7 ± 2 %, P = 0.01), serum albumin edema/anasarca. Alterations in body weight at autopsy can confound the interpretation of organ weight measurements. PMID:27020890

  11. R Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caimmi, R.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A theory of collisionless fluids is developed in a unified picture, where nonrotating $(widetilde{Omega_1}=widetilde{Omega_2}= widetilde{Omega_3}=0$ figures with some given random velocity component distributions, and rotating $(widetilde{Omega_1} ewidetilde{Omega_2} e widetilde{Omega_3} $ figures with a different random velocity component distributions, make adjoint configurations to the same system. R fluids are defined as ideal, self-gravitating fluids satisfying the virial theorem assumptions, in presence of systematic rotation around each of the principal axes of inertia. To this aim, mean and rms angular velocities and mean and rms tangential velocity components are expressed, by weighting on the moment of inertia and the mass, respectively. The figure rotation is defined as the mean angular velocity, weighted on the moment of inertia, with respectto a selected axis. The generalized tensor virial equations (Caimmi and Marmo 2005 are formulated for R fluidsand further attention is devoted to axisymmetric configurations where, for selected coordinateaxes, a variation in figure rotation has to be counterbalanced by a variation in anisotropy excess and viceversa. A microscopical analysis of systematic and random motions is performed under a fewgeneral hypotheses, by reversing the sign of tangential or axial velocity components of anassigned fraction of particles, leaving the distribution function and other parametersunchanged (Meza 2002. The application of the reversion process to tangential velocitycomponents is found to imply the conversion of random motion rotation kinetic energy intosystematic motion rotation kinetic energy. The application ofthe reversion process to axial velocity components is found to imply the conversionof random motion translation kinetic energy into systematic motion translation kinetic energy, and theloss related to a change of reference frame is expressed in terms of systematic motion (imaginary rotation kinetic

  12. Euler's fluid equations: Optimal control vs optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An optimization method used in image-processing (metamorphosis) is found to imply Euler's equations for incompressible flow of an inviscid fluid, without requiring that the Lagrangian particle labels exactly follow the flow lines of the Eulerian velocity vector field. Thus, an optimal control problem and an optimization problem for incompressible ideal fluid flow both yield the same Euler fluid equations, although their Lagrangian parcel dynamics are different. This is a result of the gauge freedom in the definition of the fluid pressure for an incompressible flow, in combination with the symmetry of fluid dynamics under relabeling of their Lagrangian coordinates. Similar ideas are also illustrated for SO(N) rigid body motion.

  13. Avaliação da maturidade pulmonar fetal pela contagem dos corpos lamelares no líquido amniótico Evaluation of fetal lung maturity by lamellar bodies counting in amniotic fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Maykot Kuerten Gil

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: comparar o teste de contagem de corpos lamelares (CCL no líquido amniótico com o teste da polarização fluorescente (PF como parâmetro diagnóstico para avaliação da maturidade pulmonar fetal. MÉTODO: estudo transversal, analítico e controlado realizado com 60 gestantes atendidas no período de março de 2002 a dezembro de 2007. Foram colhidas amostras de líquido amniótico e realizados os testes de CCL e PF (TDxFLM II, considerados de referência, e comparados à presença ou ausência da Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório (SDR. Foram estabelecidos valores de corte para maturidade de 30 mil corpos lamelares/µL para o teste da CCL e 55 mg/g de albumina para o PF. Foram avaliadas as características maternas e perinatais, a evolução neonatal e o desempenho dos testes diagnósticos para predição da maturidade pulmonar fetal. Na análise estatística, foram utilizadas medidas descritivas e calculados os valores referentes à sensibilidade, especificidade, valor preditivo positivo e negativo dos testes, considerando-se significativos valores de pPURPOSE: to compare the lamellar body number density (LBND count in amniotic fluid using the fluorescent polarization (FP test as a diagnostic parameter for the assessment of fetal pulmonary maturity. METHOD: this was an analytical, controlled cross-sectional study conducted on 60 pregnant women from March 2002 to December 2007. Amniotic fluid specimens were obtained by amniocentesis or at the time of caesarean section, and submitted to the LBND and FP tests (TDxFLM®, Abbott Laboratories, the latter considered to be a reference test, and compared in terms of the presence or absence of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS. Cut-off values for maturity were established at 30,000 lamellar bodies/µL for the LBND test and 55 mg/g albumin for the FP test. Maternal and perinatal characteristics and neonatal evolution were evaluated, and the performance of the diagnostic tests regarding

  14. Body Odor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Body Odor Posted under Health Guides . Updated 29 October 2014. + ... guy has to deal with. What causes body odor? During puberty, your sweat glands become much more ...

  15. Body Hygiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Diaper-Changing Steps for Childcare Settings Body Hygiene Dental Hygiene Water Fluoridation Facial Cleanliness Fish Pedicures and ... spread of hygiene-related diseases . Topics for Body Hygiene Facial Cleanliness Dental Hygiene Water Fluoridation Fish Pedicures and Fish Spas ...

  16. Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help your child have a healthy body image Cosmetic surgery Breast surgery Botox Liposuction Varicose or spider veins Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) Eating disorders Anorexia nervosa Binge eating ... nervosa Cosmetics and your health Depression during and after pregnancy ...

  17. Body Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about how the body works, what basic human anatomy is, and what happens when parts of the body don't function properly. Blood Bones, Muscles, and Joints Brain and Nervous System Digestive System Endocrine System Eyes Female Reproductive System ...

  18. Water and electrolytes. [in human bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Harrison, M. H.

    1986-01-01

    It has been found that the performance of the strongest and fittest people will deteriorate rapidly with dehydration. The present paper is concerned with the anatomy of the fluid spaces in the body, taking into account also the fluid shifts and losses during exercise and their effects on performance. Total body water is arbitrarily divided into that contained within cells (cellular) and that located outside the cells (extracellular). The anatomy of body fluid compartments is considered along with the effects of exercise on body water, fluid shifts with exercise, the consequences of sweating, dehydration and exercise, heat acclimatization and endurance training, the adverse effects of dehydration, thirst and drinking during exercise, stimuli for drinking, and water, electrolyte, and carbohydrate replacement during exercise. It is found that the deterioration of physical exercise performance due to dehydration begins when body weight decreases by about 1 percent.

  19. Rotating Polygons on a Fluid Surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Tomas; Jansson, Thomas; Haspang, Martin; Jensen, Kaare; Herson, Pascal

    The free surface of a rotating fluid will, due to the centrifugal force, be pressed radially outward. If the fluid rotates as a rigid body in a cylindrical container the surface will assume a parabolic shape. If, however, the flow is driven by rotating the bottom plate, the axial symmetry can bre...

  20. Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteomics of Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. Stoop (Marcel)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractMultiple sclerosis (MScl) is a highly heterogeneous disease of the central nervous system, and its pathology is characterized by a combination of factors such as inflammation, demyelination and axonal damage [1, 2]. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a relatively interesting body fluid in whic

  1. The proteomic toolbox for studying cerebrospinal fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gool, A.J. van; Hendrickson, R.C.

    2012-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) can be considered the most promising biosample for the discovery and analysis of biomarkers in neuroscience, an area of great medical need. CSF is a body fluid that surrounds the brain and provides a rich pool of biochemical markers, both proteomic and metabolomic, that ref

  2. Body embellishment

    OpenAIRE

    Zellweger, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The exhibition Body Embellishment explores the most innovative artistic expression in the 21st-century international arenas of body extension, augmentation, and modification, focusing on jewelry, tattoos, nail arts, and fashion. The areas of focus are jewelry, tattoos, nail arts, and fashion. Avant-garde jewelry consciously engages the body by intersecting and expanding the planes of the human form. Tattoos are at once on and in the body. Nail art, from manicures to pedicures, has humble ...

  3. Body Clock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪毓

    2000-01-01

    Body clocks” are biological methods of controling body activities.Every living thing has one. In humans, a body clock controls normal periods of sleeping and waking. It controls the time swhen you are most likely to feel pain.Eating, sleeping and exercising at about the same time each day will help keep body activities normal. But changes in your life, a new job, for example, destroy the balance and thus cause health problems.

  4. On the Ahmed Body Wake

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uruba, Václav; Hladík, Ondřej

    Praha : Ústav termomechaniky AV ČR v. v. i., 2009 - (Jonáš, P.; Uruba, V.), s. 51-52 ISBN 978-80-87012-21-5. [Colloquium Fluid Dynamics 2009. Praha (CZ), 21.10.2009-23.10.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/08/1112 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : Ahmed body * wake * dynamics Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  5. Fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ruban, Anatoly I

    This is the first book in a four-part series designed to give a comprehensive and coherent description of Fluid Dynamics, starting with chapters on classical theory suitable for an introductory undergraduate lecture course, and then progressing through more advanced material up to the level of modern research in the field. The present Part 1 consists of four chapters. Chapter 1 begins with a discussion of Continuum Hypothesis, which is followed by an introduction to macroscopic functions, the velocity vector, pressure, density, and enthalpy. We then analyse the forces acting inside a fluid, and deduce the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible and compressible fluids in Cartesian and curvilinear coordinates. In Chapter 2 we study the properties of a number of flows that are presented by the so-called exact solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations, including the Couette flow between two parallel plates, Hagen-Poiseuille flow through a pipe, and Karman flow above an infinite rotating disk. Chapter 3 is d...

  6. Identification of a novel biomarker candidate, a 4.8-kDa peptide fragment from a neurosecretory protein VGF precursor, by proteomic analysis of cerebrospinal fluid from children with acute encephalopathy using SELDI-TOF-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujino Osamu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute encephalopathy includes rapid deterioration and has a poor prognosis. Early intervention is essential to prevent progression of the disease and subsequent neurologic complications. However, in the acute period, true encephalopathy cannot easily be differentiated from febrile seizures, especially febrile seizures of the complex type. Thus, an early diagnostic marker has been sought in order to enable early intervention. The purpose of this study was to identify a novel marker candidate protein differentially expressed in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of children with encephalopathy using proteomic analysis. Methods For detection of biomarkers, CSF samples were obtained from 13 children with acute encephalopathy and 42 children with febrile seizure. Mass spectral data were generated by surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS technology, which is currently applied in many fields of biological and medical sciences. Diagnosis was made by at least two pediatric neurologists based on the clinical findings and routine examinations. All specimens were collected for diagnostic tests and the remaining portion of the specimens were used for the SELDI-TOF MS investigations. Results In experiment 1, CSF from patients with febrile seizures (n = 28, patients with encephalopathy (n = 8 (including influenza encephalopathy (n = 3, encephalopathy due to rotavirus (n = 1, human herpes virus 6 (n = 1 were used for the SELDI analysis. In experiment 2, SELDI analysis was performed on CSF from a second set of febrile seizure patients (n = 14 and encephalopathy patients (n = 5. We found that the peak with an m/z of 4810 contributed the most to the separation of the two groups. After purification and identification of the 4.8-kDa protein, a 4.8-kDa proteolytic peptide fragment from the neurosecretory protein VGF precursor (VGF4.8 was identified as a novel biomarker for encephalopathy. Conclusions

  7. DNA methylation profiling for a confirmatory test for blood, saliva, semen, vaginal fluid and menstrual blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwan Young; Jung, Sang-Eun; Lee, Eun Hee; Yang, Woo Ick; Shin, Kyoung-Jin

    2016-09-01

    The ability to predict the type of tissues or cells from molecular profiles of crime scene samples has important practical implications in forensics. A previously reported multiplex assay using DNA methylation markers could only discriminate between 4 types of body fluids: blood, saliva, semen, and the body fluid which originates from female reproductive organ. In the present study, we selected 15 menstrual blood-specific CpG marker candidates based on analysis of 12 genome-wide DNA methylation profiles of vaginal fluid and menstrual blood. The menstrual blood-specificity of the candidate markers was confirmed by comparison with HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array data obtained for 58 samples including 12 blood, 12 saliva, 12 semen, 3 vaginal fluid, and 19 skin epidermis samples. Among 15CpG marker candidates, 3 were located in the promoter region of the SLC26A10 gene, and 2 of them (cg09696411 and cg18069290) showed high menstrual blood specificity. DNA methylation at the 2CpG markers was further tested by targeted bisulfite sequencing of 461 additional samples including 49 blood, 52 saliva, 34 semen, 125 vaginal fluid, and 201 menstrual blood. Because the 2 markers showed menstrual blood-specific methylation patterns, we modified our previous multiplex methylation SNaPshot reaction to include these 2 markers. In addition, a blood marker cg01543184 with cross reactivity to semen was replaced with cg08792630, and a semen-specific unmethylation marker cg17621389 was removed. The resultant multiplex methylation SNaPshot allowed positive identification of blood, saliva, semen, vaginal fluid and menstrual blood using the 9CpG markers which show a methylation signal only in the target body fluids. Because of the complexity in cell composition, menstrual bloods produced DNA methylation profiles that vary with menstrual cycle and sample collection methods, which are expected to provide more insight into forensic menstrual blood test. Moreover, because the developed

  8. Thirteenth symposium on energy engineering sciences: Proceedings. Fluid/thermal processes, systems analysis and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences, of which Engineering Research is a component program, is responsible for the long-term mission-oriented research in the Department. Consistent with the DOE/BES mission, the Engineering Research Program is charged with the identification, initiation, and management of fundamental research on broad, generic topics addressing energy-related engineering problems. Its stated goals are: (1) to improve and extend the body of knowledge underlying current engineering practice so as to create new options for enhancing energy savings and production, for prolonging useful life of energy-related structures and equipment, and for developing advanced manufacturing technologies and materials processing with emphasis on reducing costs with improved industrial production and performance quality; and (2) to expand the store of fundamental concepts for solving anticipated and unforeseen engineering problems in the energy technologies. The meeting covered the following areas: (1) fluid mechanics 1--fundamental properties; (2) fluid mechanics 2--two phase flow; (3) thermal processes; (4) fluid mechanics 3; (5) process analysis and control; (6) fluid mechanics 4--turbulence; (7) fluid mechanics 5--chaos; (8) materials issues; and (9) plasma processes. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  9. Thirteenth symposium on energy engineering sciences: Proceedings. Fluid/thermal processes, systems analysis and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences, of which Engineering Research is a component program, is responsible for the long-term mission-oriented research in the Department. Consistent with the DOE/BES mission, the Engineering Research Program is charged with the identification, initiation, and management of fundamental research on broad, generic topics addressing energy-related engineering problems. Its stated goals are: (1) to improve and extend the body of knowledge underlying current engineering practice so as to create new options for enhancing energy savings and production, for prolonging useful life of energy-related structures and equipment, and for developing advanced manufacturing technologies and materials processing with emphasis on reducing costs with improved industrial production and performance quality; and (2) to expand the store of fundamental concepts for solving anticipated and unforeseen engineering problems in the energy technologies. The meeting covered the following areas: (1) fluid mechanics 1--fundamental properties; (2) fluid mechanics 2--two phase flow; (3) thermal processes; (4) fluid mechanics 3; (5) process analysis and control; (6) fluid mechanics 4--turbulence; (7) fluid mechanics 5--chaos; (8) materials issues; and (9) plasma processes. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  10. Astrophysical fluid dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, Gordon I.

    2016-06-01

    > These lecture notes and example problems are based on a course given at the University of Cambridge in Part III of the Mathematical Tripos. Fluid dynamics is involved in a very wide range of astrophysical phenomena, such as the formation and internal dynamics of stars and giant planets, the workings of jets and accretion discs around stars and black holes and the dynamics of the expanding Universe. Effects that can be important in astrophysical fluids include compressibility, self-gravitation and the dynamical influence of the magnetic field that is `frozen in' to a highly conducting plasma. The basic models introduced and applied in this course are Newtonian gas dynamics and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) for an ideal compressible fluid. The mathematical structure of the governing equations and the associated conservation laws are explored in some detail because of their importance for both analytical and numerical methods of solution, as well as for physical interpretation. Linear and nonlinear waves, including shocks and other discontinuities, are discussed. The spherical blast wave resulting from a supernova, and involving a strong shock, is a classic problem that can be solved analytically. Steady solutions with spherical or axial symmetry reveal the physics of winds and jets from stars and discs. The linearized equations determine the oscillation modes of astrophysical bodies, as well as their stability and their response to tidal forcing.

  11. Astrophysical fluid dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, Gordon I.

    2016-03-01

    These lecture notes and example problems are based on a course given at the University of Cambridge in Part III of the Mathematical Tripos. Fluid dynamics is involved in a very wide range of astrophysical phenomena, such as the formation and internal dynamics of stars and giant planets, the workings of jets and accretion discs around stars and black holes and the dynamics of the expanding Universe. Effects that can be important in astrophysical fluids include compressibility, self-gravitation and the dynamical influence of the magnetic field that is `frozen in' to a highly conducting plasma. The basic models introduced and applied in this course are Newtonian gas dynamics and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) for an ideal compressible fluid. The mathematical structure of the governing equations and the associated conservation laws are explored in some detail because of their importance for both analytical and numerical methods of solution, as well as for physical interpretation. Linear and nonlinear waves, including shocks and other discontinuities, are discussed. The spherical blast wave resulting from a supernova, and involving a strong shock, is a classic problem that can be solved analytically. Steady solutions with spherical or axial symmetry reveal the physics of winds and jets from stars and discs. The linearized equations determine the oscillation modes of astrophysical bodies, as well as their stability and their response to tidal forcing.

  12. Pericardial Fluid Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Pericardial Fluid Analysis Share this page: Was this page helpful? Formal name: Pericardial Fluid Analysis Related tests: Pleural Fluid Analysis , Peritoneal Fluid Analysis , ...

  13. Peritoneal Fluid Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Peritoneal Fluid Analysis Share this page: Was this page helpful? Formal name: Peritoneal Fluid Analysis Related tests: Pleural Fluid Analysis , Pericardial Fluid Analysis , ...

  14. Optimal composition of fluid-replacement beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lindsay B; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this article is to provide a review of the fundamental aspects of body fluid balance and the physiological consequences of water imbalances, as well as discuss considerations for the optimal composition of a fluid replacement beverage across a broad range of applications. Early pioneering research involving fluid replacement in persons suffering from diarrheal disease and in military, occupational, and athlete populations incurring exercise- and/or heat-induced sweat losses has provided much of the insight regarding basic principles on beverage palatability, voluntary fluid intake, fluid absorption, and fluid retention. We review this work and also discuss more recent advances in the understanding of fluid replacement as it applies to various populations (military, athletes, occupational, men, women, children, and older adults) and situations (pathophysiological factors, spaceflight, bed rest, long plane flights, heat stress, altitude/cold exposure, and recreational exercise). We discuss how beverage carbohydrate and electrolytes impact fluid replacement. We also discuss nutrients and compounds that are often included in fluid-replacement beverages to augment physiological functions unrelated to hydration, such as the provision of energy. The optimal composition of a fluid-replacement beverage depends upon the source of the fluid loss, whether from sweat, urine, respiration, or diarrhea/vomiting. It is also apparent that the optimal fluid-replacement beverage is one that is customized according to specific physiological needs, environmental conditions, desired benefits, and individual characteristics and taste preferences. PMID:24715561

  15. Linear Response and Hydrodynamics for Granular Fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Dufty, James W.; Baskaran, Aparna; Brey, J. Javier

    2006-01-01

    A formal derivation of linear hydrodynamics for a granular fluid is given. The linear response to small spatial perturbations of the homogeneous reference state is studied in detail using methods of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. A transport matrix for macroscopic excitations in the fluid is defined in terms of the response functions. An expansion in the wavevector to second order allows identification of all phenomenological susceptibilities and transport coefficients through Navier-...

  16. Auxillary Fluid Flowmeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    RezaNejad Gatabi, Javad; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Ebrahimi Darkhaneh, Hadi;

    2010-01-01

    The Auxiliary Fluid Flow meter is proposed to measure the fluid flow of any kind in both pipes and open channels. In this kind of flow measurement, the flow of an auxiliary fluid is measured Instead of direct measurement of the main fluid flow. The auxiliary fluid is injected into the main fluid ...

  17. Self-force and fluid resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isoyama, Soichiro; Mendes, Raissa F. P.; Poisson, Eric

    2016-04-01

    The gravitational self-force acting on a particle orbiting a massive central body has thus far been computed for vacuum spacetimes involving a black hole. In this work we continue an ongoing effort to study the self-force in nonvacuum situations. We replace the black hole by a material body consisting of a perfect fluid, and determine the impact of the fluid's dynamics on the self-force and resulting orbital evolution. We show that as the particle inspirals toward the fluid body, its gravitational perturbations trigger a number of quasinormal modes of the fluid-gravity system, which produce resonant features in the conservative and dissipative components of the self-force. As a proof-of-principle, we demonstrate this phenomenon in a simplified framework in which gravity is mediated by a scalar potential satisfying a wave equation in Minkowski spacetime.

  18. Self-force and fluid resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Isoyama, Soichiro; Poisson, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The gravitational self-force acting on a particle orbiting a massive central body has thus far been computed for vacuum spacetimes involving a black hole. In this work we continue an ongoing effort to study the self-force in nonvacuum situations. We replace the black hole by a material body consisting of a perfect fluid, and determine the impact of the fluid's dynamics on the self-force and resulting orbital evolution. We show that as the particle inspirals toward the fluid body, its gravitational perturbations trigger a number of quasinormal modes of the fluid-gravity system, which produce resonant features in the conservative and dissipative components of the self-force. As a proof-of-principle, we demonstrate this phenomenon in a simplified framework in which gravity is mediated by a scalar potential satisfying a wave equation in Minkowski spacetime.

  19. Gyroelastic fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerbel, G.D.

    1981-01-20

    A study is made of a scale model in three dimensions of a guiding center plasma within the purview of gyroelastic (also known as finite gyroradius-near theta pinch) magnetohydrodynamics. The (nonlinear) system sustains a particular symmetry called isorrhopy which permits the decoupling of fluid modes from drift modes. Isorrhopic equilibria are analyzed within the framework of geometrical optics resulting in (local) dispersion relations and ray constants. A general scheme is developed to evolve an arbitrary linear perturbation of a screwpinch equilibrium as an invertible integral transform (over the complete set of generalized eigenfunctions defined naturally by the equilibrium). Details of the structure of the function space and the associated spectra are elucidated. Features of the (global) dispersion relation owing to the presence of gyroelastic stabilization are revealed. An energy principle is developed to study the stability of the tubular screwpinch.

  20. Gyroelastic fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study is made of a scale model in three dimensions of a guiding center plasma within the purview of gyroelastic (also known as finite gyroradius-near theta pinch) magnetohydrodynamics. The (nonlinear) system sustains a particular symmetry called isorrhopy which permits the decoupling of fluid modes from drift modes. Isorrhopic equilibria are analyzed within the framework of geometrical optics resulting in (local) dispersion relations and ray constants. A general scheme is developed to evolve an arbitrary linear perturbation of a screwpinch equilibrium as an invertible integral transform (over the complete set of generalized eigenfunctions defined naturally by the equilibrium). Details of the structure of the function space and the associated spectra are elucidated. Features of the (global) dispersion relation owing to the presence of gyroelastic stabilization are revealed. An energy principle is developed to study the stability of the tubular screwpinch

  1. Bioimpedance can solve problems of fluid overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Samer R; Zhu, Fansan; Levin, Nathan W

    2015-03-01

    Bioimpedance (BI) techniques for measuring normal hydration status (NHS) can be generally classified as (1) by frequency as single frequency at 50 kHz, BI analysis, and multifrequency BI spectroscopy and (2) by method as whole body (wrist to ankle) measurement and calf BI spectroscopy. The aim of this article was to review current BI methods for clinical practice in patients with end-stage of kidney disease. BI vector analysis using whole-body single-frequency BI at 50 kHz may be useful for population studies to indicate a range of degree of fluid loading and of nutritional status. Whole body multifrequency BI spectroscopy is used to estimate extracellular (ECV), intracellular fluid volume, and total body water in dialysis patients. The whole-body BI model is used in the body composition monitor (BCM). The whole-body BI model is established with ECV, intracellular fluid volume, and body weight based on parameters from regression analysis in healthy subjects to calculate fluid overload in dialysis patients. Calf BI methods have been developed to measure NHS by 2 ways: (1) continuous measurement of the intradialytic resistance curve until flattening occurs; (2) calf normalized resistivity in the range of healthy subjects (18.5 × 10(-2) Ω m(3)/kg in male and 19.1 × 10(-2) Ω m(3)/kg in female). In general, for population studies, BI vector analysis or ECV/total body water may be useful; BCM is a commercially available device that can certainly guide volume reduction safely over time. For more exact measure of fluid overload, calf BI methods appear to be most accurate, but these are at present research tools. BI techniques are not only useful in assessing NHS but also in the study of nutrition and body composition. PMID:25556307

  2. Body punk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kevin

    BODYPUNK - A Treatise on male body builders and the meaning of the body in the shadow of an Anti Doping Campaign Based on a qualitative study, the thesis investigates the visual representation of the male bodybuilder found in the national anti doping campaign: ‗ "The hunt has begun" along with an...... analysis of the embodied meaning of men‘s bodybuilding....

  3. Body Weight and Body Image

    OpenAIRE

    McFarlane Traci; Olmsted Marion P

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Health Issue Body weight is of physical and psychological importance to Canadian women; it is associated with health status, physical activity, body image, and self-esteem. Although the problems associated with overweight and obesity are indeed serious, there are also problems connected to being underweight. Weight prejudice and the dieting industry intensify body image concerns for Canadian women and can have a major negative impact on self-esteem. Key Findings Women have lower BMIs...

  4. Shock Re-equilibration of Fluid Inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, M. E. Elwood; Horz, F.; Bodnar, R. J.

    2004-01-01

    Fluid inclusions (microscopic volumes of fluid trapped within minerals as they precipitate) are extremely common in terrestrial minerals formed under a wide range of geological conditions from surface evaporite deposits to kimberlite pipes. While fluid inclusions in terrestrial rocks are nearly ubiquitous, only a few fluid inclusion-bearing meteorites have been documented. The scarcity of fluid inclusions in meteoritic materials may be a result of (a) the absence of fluids when the mineral was formed on the meteorite parent body or (b) the destruction of fluid inclusions originally contained in meteoritic materials by subsequent shock metamorphism. However, the effects of impact events on pre-existing fluid inclusions trapped in target and projectile rocks has received little study. Fluid inclusions trapped prior to the shock event may be altered (re-equilibrated) or destroyed due to the high pressures, temperatures, and strain rates associated with impact events. By examining the effects of shock deformation on fluid inclusion properties and textures we may be able to better constrain the pressure-temperature path experienced by terrestrial and meteoritic shocked materials and also gain a clearer understanding of why fluid inclusions are rarely found in meteorite samples.

  5. The effect of gait on swimming in viscoelastic fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Elfring, Gwynn J

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we give formulas for the swimming of simplified two-dimensional bodies in complex fluids using the reciprocal theorem. By way of these formulas we calculate the swimming velocity due to small-amplitude deformations on the simplest of these bodies, a two-dimensional sheet, to explore general conditions on the swimming gait under which the sheet may move faster, or slower, in a viscoelastic fluid compared to a Newtonian fluid.

  6. Vortex-shear interaction and vortex identification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolář, Václav

    Jalan : Institution of Engineers, 2006, s. 1015-1020. ISBN 983-42965-0-9. [Asian Congress of Fluid Mechanics /11./. Kuala Lumpur (MY), 22.05.2006-25.05.2006] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2060302 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : vortex identification * vortex-shear interaction Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  7. Fluid-solid modeling of lymphatic valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulk, Alexander; Ballard, Matthew; Nepiyushchikh, Zhanna; Dixon, Brandon; Alexeev, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    The lymphatic system performs important physiological functions such as the return of interstitial fluid to the bloodstream to maintain tissue fluid balance, as well as the transport of immune cells in the body. It utilizes contractile lymphatic vessels, which contain valves that open and close to allow flow in only one direction, to directionally pump lymph against a pressure gradient. We develop a fluid-solid model of geometrically representative lymphatic valves. Our model uses a hybrid lattice-Boltzmann lattice spring method to capture fluid-solid interactions with two-way coupling between a viscous fluid and lymphatic valves in a lymphatic vessel. We use this model to investigate the opening and closing of lymphatic valves, and its effect on lymphatic pumping. This helps to broaden our understanding of the fluid dynamics of the lymphatic system.

  8. Thermophysical Properties of Fluids and Fluid Mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengers, Jan V.; Anisimov, Mikhail A.

    2004-05-03

    The major goal of the project was to study the effect of critical fluctuations on the thermophysical properties and phase behavior of fluids and fluid mixtures. Long-range fluctuations appear because of the presence of critical phase transitions. A global theory of critical fluctuations was developed and applied to represent thermodynamic properties and transport properties of molecular fluids and fluid mixtures. In the second phase of the project, the theory was extended to deal with critical fluctuations in complex fluids such as polymer solutions and electrolyte solutions. The theoretical predictions have been confirmed by computer simulations and by light-scattering experiments. Fluctuations in fluids in nonequilibrium states have also been investigated.

  9. Body lice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lice - body; Pediculosis corporis; Vagabond disease ... Diaz JH. Lice (pediculosis). In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases . 8th ...

  10. Bog bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels

    2015-01-01

    the bog bodies have been studied using medical and natural scientific methods, and recently many bog bodies have been re-examined using especially modern, medical imaging techniques. Because of the preservation of soft tissue, especially the skin, it has been possible to determine lesions and trauma......In northern Europe during the Iron Age, many corpses were deposited in bogs. The cold, wet and anaerobic environment leads in many cases to the preservation of soft tissues, so that the bodies, when found and excavated several thousand years later, are remarkably intact. Since the 19th century....... Conversely, the preservation of bones is less good, as the mineral component has been leached out by the acidic bog. Together with water-logging of collagenous tissue, this means that if the bog body is simply left to dry out when found, as was the case pre-19th century, the bones may literally warp...

  11. Joint fluid Gram stain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gram stain of joint fluid ... A sample of joint fluid is needed. The fluid sample is sent to a lab where a small drop is placed in a ... on how to prepare for the removal of joint fluid, see joint fluid aspiration .

  12. Magnetized drive fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosensweig, R.E.; Zahn, M.

    1986-04-01

    A process is described for recovering a first fluid from a porous subterranean formation which comprises injecting a displacement fluid in an effective amount to displace the first fluid, injecting a ferrofluid, applying a magnetic field containing a gradient of field intensity within the formation, driving the displacement fluid through the formation with the ferrofluid and recovering first fluid.

  13. Catenaries in viscous fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Chakrabarti, Brato

    2015-01-01

    This work explores a simple model of a slender, flexible structure in a uniform flow, providing analytical solutions for the translating, axially flowing equilibria of strings subjected to a uniform body force and drag forces linear in the velocities. The classical catenaries are extended to a five-parameter family of curves. A sixth parameter affects the tension in the curves. Generic configurations are planar, represented by a single first order equation for the tangential angle. The effects of varying parameters on representative shapes, orbits in angle-curvature space, and stress distributions are shown. As limiting cases, the solutions include configurations corresponding to "lariat chains" and the towing, reeling, and sedimentation of flexible cables in a highly viscous fluid. Regions of parameter space corresponding to infinitely long, semi-infinite, and finite length curves are delineated. Almost all curves subtend an angle less than $\\pi$ radians, but curious special cases with doubled or infinite ra...

  14. Chaos in body-vortex interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Johan Rønby; Aref, Hassan

    2010-01-01

    The model of body–vortex interactions, where the fluid flow is planar, ideal and unbounded, and the vortex is a point vortex, is studied. The body may have a constant circulation around it. The governing equations for the general case of a freely moving body of arbitrary shape and mass density an...

  15. Microchip-based body temperature measurements in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens; Lohse, Louise

    In the present study, we tested whether an electronic identification and body temperature monitorring technology presently applied in small experimental animals could be transferred for use in pigs.......In the present study, we tested whether an electronic identification and body temperature monitorring technology presently applied in small experimental animals could be transferred for use in pigs....

  16. Synovial fluid analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joint fluid analysis; Joint fluid aspiration ... El-Gabalawy HS. Synovial fluid analysis, synovial biopsy, and synovial pathology. In: Firestein GS, Budd RC, Gabriel SE, McInnes IB, O'Dell JR, eds. Kelly's Textbook of ...

  17. Physics of the Human Body

    CERN Document Server

    Herman, Irving P

    2007-01-01

    Physics of the Human Body comprehensively addresses the physical and engineering aspects of human physiology by using and building on first-year college physics and mathematics. Topics include the mechanics of the static body and the body in motion, the materials properties of the body, muscles in the body, the energetics of body metabolism, fluid flow in the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, the acoustics of sound waves in speaking and hearing, vision and the optics of the eye, the electrical properties of the body, and the basic engineering principles of feedback and control in regulating all aspects of function. The goal of this text is to understand physical issues concerning the human body, in part by developing and then using simple and subsequently more refined models of the macrophysics of the human body. Many chapters include a brief review of the necessary physical principles. There are problems at the end of each chapter; solutions to selected problems are also provided. This text is geared t...

  18. Body composition in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoli, Angela; Garaci, Francesco; Cafarelli, Francesco Pio; Guglielmi, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    Nutritional status is the results of nutrients intake, absorption and utilization, able to influence physiological and pathological conditions. Nutritional status can be measured for individuals with different techniques, such as CT Body Composition, quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Ultrasound, Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry and Bioimpendance. Because obesity is becoming a worldwide epidemic, there is an increasing interest in the study of body composition to monitor conditions and delay in development of obesity-related diseases. The emergence of these evidence demonstrates the need of standard assessment of nutritional status based on body weight changes, playing an important role in several clinical setting, such as in quantitative measurement of tissues and their fluctuations in body composition, in survival rate, in pathologic condition and illnesses. Since body mass index has been shown to be an imprecise measurement of fat-free and fat mass, body cell mass and fluids, providing no information if weight changes, consequently there is the need to find a better way to evaluate body composition, in order to assess fat-free and fat mass with weight gain and loss, and during ageing. Monitoring body composition can be very useful for nutritional and medical interventional. This review is focused on the use of Body Composition in Clinical Practice. PMID:26971404

  19. Self lubricating fluid bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention concerns self lubricating fluid bearings, which are used in a shaft sealed system extending two regions. These regions contain fluids, which have to be isolated. A first seal is fluid tight for the first region between the carter shaft and the shaft. The second seal is fluid tight between the carter and the shaft, it communicates with the second region. The first fluid region is the environment surrounding the shaft carter. The second fluid region is a part of a nuclear reactor which contains the cooling fluid. The shaft is conceived to drive a reactor circulating and cooling fluid

  20. Evaluation of Rapid Stain IDentification (RSID™ Reader System for Analysis and Documentation of RSID™ Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravatchai W. Boonlayangoor

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The ability to detect the presence of body fluids is a crucial first step in documenting and processing forensic evidence. The Rapid Stain IDentification (RSID™ tests for blood, saliva, semen and urine are lateral flow immunochromatographic strip tests specifically designed for forensic use. Like most lateral flow strips, the membrane components of the test are enclosed in a molded plastic cassette with a sample well and an observation window. No specialized equipment is required to use these tests or to score the results seen in the observation window; however, the utility of these tests can be enhanced if an electronic record of the test results can be obtained, preferably by a small hand-held device that could be used in the field under low light conditions. Such a device should also be able to “read” the lateral flow strips and accurately record the results of the test as either positive, i.e., the body fluid was detected, or negative, i.e., the body fluid was not detected. Here we describe the RSID™ Reader System—a ruggedized strip test reader unit that allows analysis and documentation of RSID™ lateral flow strip tests using pre-configured settings, and show that the RSID™ Reader can accurately and reproducibly report and record correct results from RSID™ blood, saliva, semen, and urine tests.