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Sample records for body fluid compartments

  1. Hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope fractionation in body fluid compartments of dairy cattle according to season, farm, breed, and reproductive stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeni, Fabio; Petrera, Francesca; Capelletti, Maurizio; Dal Prà, Aldo; Bontempo, Luana; Tonon, Agostino; Camin, Federica

    2015-01-01

    Environmental temperature affects water turnover and isotope fractionation by causing water evaporation from the body in mammals. This may lead to rearrangement of the water stable isotope equilibrium in body fluids. We propose an approach to detect possible variations in the isotope ratio in different body fluids on the basis of different homoeothermic adaptations in varying reproductive stages. Three different reproductive stages (pregnant heifer, primiparous lactating cow, and pluriparous lactating cow) of two dairy cattle breeds (Italian Friesian and Modenese) were studied in winter and summer. Blood plasma, urine, faecal water, and milk were sampled and the isotope ratios of H (2H/1H) and O (18O/16O) were determined. Deuterium excess and isotope-fractionation factors were calculated for each passage from plasma to faeces, urine and milk. The effects of the season, reproductive stages and breed on δ2H and δ18O were significant in all the fluids, with few exceptions. Deuterium excess was affected by season in all the analysed fluids. The correlations between water isotope measurements in bovine body fluids ranged between 0.6936 (urine-milk) and 0.7848 (urine-plasma) for δ2H, and between 0.8705 (urine-milk) and 0.9602 (plasma-milk) for δ18O. The increase in both isotopic δ values in all body fluids during summer is representative of a condition in which fractionation took place as a consequence of a different ratio between ingested and excreted water, which leads to an increased presence of the heavy isotopes. The different body water turnover between adult lactating cattle and non-lactating heifers was confirmed by the higher isotopic δ for the latter, with a shift in the isotopic equilibrium towards values more distant from those of drinking water. PMID:25996911

  2. Hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope fractionation in body fluid compartments of dairy cattle according to season, farm, breed, and reproductive stage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Abeni

    Full Text Available Environmental temperature affects water turnover and isotope fractionation by causing water evaporation from the body in mammals. This may lead to rearrangement of the water stable isotope equilibrium in body fluids. We propose an approach to detect possible variations in the isotope ratio in different body fluids on the basis of different homoeothermic adaptations in varying reproductive stages. Three different reproductive stages (pregnant heifer, primiparous lactating cow, and pluriparous lactating cow of two dairy cattle breeds (Italian Friesian and Modenese were studied in winter and summer. Blood plasma, urine, faecal water, and milk were sampled and the isotope ratios of H (2H/1H and O (18O/16O were determined. Deuterium excess and isotope-fractionation factors were calculated for each passage from plasma to faeces, urine and milk. The effects of the season, reproductive stages and breed on δ2H and δ18O were significant in all the fluids, with few exceptions. Deuterium excess was affected by season in all the analysed fluids. The correlations between water isotope measurements in bovine body fluids ranged between 0.6936 (urine-milk and 0.7848 (urine-plasma for δ2H, and between 0.8705 (urine-milk and 0.9602 (plasma-milk for δ18O. The increase in both isotopic δ values in all body fluids during summer is representative of a condition in which fractionation took place as a consequence of a different ratio between ingested and excreted water, which leads to an increased presence of the heavy isotopes. The different body water turnover between adult lactating cattle and non-lactating heifers was confirmed by the higher isotopic δ for the latter, with a shift in the isotopic equilibrium towards values more distant from those of drinking water.

  3. Changes in body fluid and energy compartments during prolonged hunger strike Alterações nos compartimentos hídricos e energéticos do organismo durante a greve de fome

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    Joel Faintuch

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged total food deprivation in non-obese adults is rare, and few studies have documented body composition changes in this setting. In a group of eight hunger strikers who refused alimentation for 43 days, water and energy compartments were estimated, aiming to assess the impact of progressive starvation. Measurements included body mass index (BMI, triceps skinfold (TSF, arm muscle circumference (AMC, and bioimpedance (BIA determinations of water, fat, lean body mass (LBM, and total resistance. Indirect calorimetry was also performed in one occasion. The age of the group was 43.3±6.2 years (seven males, one female. Only water, intermittent vitamins and electrolytes were ingested, and average weight loss reached 17.9%. On the last two days of the fast (43rd-44th day rapid intravenous fluid, electrolyte, and vitamin replenishment were provided before proceeding with realimentation. Body fat decreased approximately 60% (BIA and TSF, whereas BMI reduced only 18%. Initial fat was estimated by BIA as 52.2±5.4% of body weight, and even on the 43rd day it was still measured as 19.7±3.8% of weight. TSF findings were much lower and commensurate with other anthropometric results. Water was comparatively low with high total resistance, and these findings rapidly reversed upon the intravenous rapid hydration. At the end of the starvation period, BMI (21.5±2.6 kg/m² and most anthropometric determinations were still acceptable, suggesting efficient energy and muscle conservation. Conclusions: 1 All compartments diminished during fasting, but body fat was by far the most affected; 2 Total water was low and total body resistance comparatively elevated, but these findings rapidly reversed upon rehydration; 3 Exaggerated fat percentage estimates from BIA tests and simultaneous increase in lean body mass estimates suggested that this method was inappropriate for assessing energy compartments in the studied population; 4 Patients were not morphologically

  4. Body fluid identification in forensics

    OpenAIRE

    Ja Hyun An1, Kyoung-Jin Shin1,2, Woo Ick Yang1 & Hwan Young Lee1,2,*

    2012-01-01

    At a crime scene can give important insights into crime scenereconstruction by supporting a link between sample donorsand actual criminal acts. For more than a century, numeroustypes of body fluid identification methods have beendeveloped, such as chemical tests, immunological tests,protein catalytic activity tests, spectroscopic methods andmicroscopy. However, these conventional body fluididentification methods are mostly presumptive, and are carriedout for only one body fluid at a time. The...

  5. Fluid compartments in hemorrhaged rats after hyperosmotic crystalloid and hyperoncotic colloid resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, P F; Hollyfield-Gilbert, M A; Myers, T L; Uchida, T; Kramer, G C

    1996-01-01

    Postresuscitation organ failure may be associated with detrimental changes in body fluid compartments. We measured how shock and resuscitation acutely alters the interstitial, cellular, and plasma compartments in different organs. Nephrectomized, anesthetized rats were bled to 50 mmHg mean arterial pressure for 1 h, followed by 60 min of resuscitation to restore blood pressure using 0.9% normal saline (NS,n = 10), 7.5% hypertonic saline (HS,n = 8), 10% hyperoncotic albumin (HA, n = 8), or 7.5% hypertonic saline and 10% hyperoncotic albumin (HSA, n = 7). A 2-h 51Cr-EDTA distribution space estimated extracellular fluid volume (ECFV), and a 5-min 125I-labeled albumin distribution space measured plasma volume (PV). Total tissue water (TW) was measured from wet and dry weights; interstitial fluid volume (ISFV) and cell water were calculated. NS resuscitation required 7 times more fluid (50.9 +/- 7.7 vs. 8.6 +/- 0.7 for HA, 5.9 +/- 0.4 for HS, and 3.9 +/- 0.5 ml/kg for HSA), but there were no differences between solutions in whole animal PV, ECFV, or ISFV. Fluid shifts within tissues depended on resuscitation solution and type of tissue. TW was significantly reduced by hypertonic saline groups in heart, muscle, and liver (P skin. In all tissues, mean cell water in groups receiving HS was smaller; this was significant for heart, lung, muscle, and skin. In conclusion, 1) HS solutions mobilize fluid from cells while expanding both PV and ISFV, and 2) TW and cellular water increase with both isotonic crystalloids and hyperoncotic colloids in many tissues. PMID:8769817

  6. Body fluid identification in forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ja Hyun An1, Kyoung-Jin Shin1,2, Woo Ick Yang1 & Hwan Young Lee1,2,*

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available At a crime scene can give important insights into crime scenereconstruction by supporting a link between sample donorsand actual criminal acts. For more than a century, numeroustypes of body fluid identification methods have beendeveloped, such as chemical tests, immunological tests,protein catalytic activity tests, spectroscopic methods andmicroscopy. However, these conventional body fluididentification methods are mostly presumptive, and are carriedout for only one body fluid at a time. Therefore, the use of amolecular genetics-based approach using RNA profiling orDNA methylation detection has been recently proposed tosupplant conventional body fluid identification methods.Several RNA markers and tDMRs (tissue-specific differentiallymethylated regions which are specific to forensically relevantbody fluids have been identified, and their specificities andsensitivities have been tested using various samples. In thisreview, we provide an overview of the present knowledge andthe most recent developments in forensic body fluididentification and discuss its possible practical application toforensic casework.

  7. Monitoring Change of Body Fluid during Physical Exercise using Bioimpedance Spectroscopy and Finite Element Simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa Röthlingshöfer; Mark Ulbrich; Sebastian Hahne; Steffen Leonhardt

    2011-01-01

    Athletes need a balanced body composition in order to achieve maximum performance. Especially dehydration reduces power and endurance during physical exercise. Monitoring the body composition, with a focus on body fluid, may help to avoid reduction in performance and other health problems.For this, a potential measurement method is bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS). BIS is a simple, non-invasive measurement method that allows to determine different body compartments (body fluid, fat, fat-free m...

  8. Influence of recombinant human growth hormone on body fluid compartments and water-sodium retention in severe bum patients%重组人生长激素对严重烧伤患者体液分布及水钠潴留的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵华伟; 仇旭光; 陈国贤; 韩春茂

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influence of recombinant human growth hormone(rhGH) on body fluid compartments and water-sodium retention in severe burn patients. Methods Thirty adult patients with severe burn were divided into treatment(T)and control(C)groups by block randomized design.Patients in both groups were subcutaneously injected with same amount of rhGH(12 IU/d)or isotonic saline during 7-21 post burn day(PBD).The total body water(TBW),intracellular water(ICW),extracellular water(ECW)were measured by bioelectrieal impedance analysis(BIA) on 7,14,21 PBD.The 24 h uninary output of Na+ was determined by ion selective electrode method(ISE).esults There were no significant difference in levels of TBW,ICW,ECW and 24 h uninary output of Na+ between two groups on 7,14,21 PBD(P>0.05).No difference in results was found between groups at different time points(P>0.05).After the data were analyzed, the level of TBW(36±6 L),ICW(21±4 L)on 21 PBD were evidently lower than those on 7 PBD(38±6 L.23±7 L.P<0.01). Conclusion The level of ICW and TBW in severe bum patients decreased along with the time.Proper dosage of rhGH has no significant effect on body fluid compartments and water-sodium retention.%目的 了解重组人生长激素(rhGH)对严重烧伤患者体液分布及水钠潴留的影响.方法 成年重度烧伤患者30例,按区组随机法分为治疗组和对照组.伤后第7天开始分别为2组患者皮下注射rhGH(12 U/d)和等量等渗盐水,持续14 d.于伤后第7天(用药前)及伤后第14、21天(用药后第7、14天),应用生物电阻抗法观察2组患者机体总水量(TBW)、细胞内水量(ICW)及细胞外水量(ECW),同时应用离子选择电极法测量24 h尿钠,进行对比分析和综合统计. 结果 治疗组与对照组比较,伤后第7、14、21天的TBW、ICW、ECW及24 h尿钠变化差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).各组内不同时相点比较,差异亦无统计学意义(P>0.05).但将2组患者数据合并

  9. Water Metabolism and Fluid Compartment Volumes in Humans at Altitude. A Compendium of Research (1914 - 1996)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, J. L.; Stad, N. J.; Gay, E.; West, G. I.; Barnes, P. R.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1997-01-01

    This compendium includes abstracts and synopses of clinical observations and of more basic studies involving physiological mechanisms concerning interaction of water metabolism and fluid compartment volumes in humans during altitude exposure. If the author's abstract or summary was appropriate, it was included. In other cases a more detailed synopsis of the paper was prepared under the subheadings Purpose, Methods, Results, and Conclusions. Author and subject indices are provided, plus an additional selected bibliography of related work of those papers received after the volume was being prepared for publication. This volume includes material published from 1914 through 1995.

  10. Pharmacokinetics of antiretroviral drugs in anatomical sanctuary sites: the fetal compartment (placenta and amniotic fluid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Else, Laura J; Taylor, Stephen; Back, David J; Khoo, Saye H

    2011-01-01

    HIV resides within anatomical 'sanctuary sites' where local drug exposure and viral dynamics may differ significantly from the systemic compartment. Widespread implementation of antiretroviral therapy has seen a significant decline in the incidence of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV. In addition to suppression of maternal plasma/genital viral loads, antiretroviral agents that cross the placenta and achieve adequate concentrations in the fetal compartment may exert a greater prophylactic effect. Penetration of antiretrovirals in the fetal compartment is expressed by accumulation ratios derived from the measurement of drug concentrations in paired maternal plasma and umbilical cord samples. The nucleoside analogues and nevirapine accumulate extensively in cord blood and in the surrounding amniotic fluid, whereas the protease inhibitors (PIs) exhibit low-to-moderate placental accumulation. Early data suggest that high placental/neonatal concentrations are achieved with raltegravir, but to a lesser extent with etravirine and maraviroc (rank order of accumulation: raltegravir/nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor [tenofovir > zidovudine/lamivudine/emtricitabine/stavudine/abacavir] > non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor [nevirapine > etravirine] > PI > maraviroc/enfuvirtide). More comprehensive in vivo pharmacokinetic data are required to justify the potential use of these agents as safe and effective options during pregnancy. PMID:22155898

  11. Analysis of body water compartments after a short sauna bath using bioelectric impedance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servidio, M-F; Mohamed, E I; Maiolo, C; Hereba, A T; Perrone, F; Garofano, P; Iacopino, L

    2003-10-01

    Studies have suggested that long-term sauna bathing may lower blood pressure in persons with hypertension by causing a direct loss of extracellular water and plasma minerals. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of short-term sauna bathing on body water compartments as estimated by bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA). We recruited 15 men [mean age (+/-SD) of 23.93+/-5.12 years and mean body mass index (BMI) of 23.25+/-2.84 kg/m(2)] and 10 women matched for age and BMI. Total body resistance, reactance, and impedance were measured for all participants using BIA, at baseline, after a short sauna bath, and after a rest period. Total, extracellular, and intracellular water compartments were calculated using BIA formulae. There were no significant differences for any of the body water compartments when comparing the measurements taken before and after the sauna bath and after the rest period. However, it remains to be determined whether or not BIA is sensitive to rapid changes in water volume.

  12. Molecular tumor-diagnostics in body fluids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Jacques Benno de

    2000-01-01

    Tumor-derived nucleic acids are frequently present in body fluids (e.g. urine, blood, sputum, stool, bile, and cerebrospinal fluid) that had contact with malignant or premalignant tissues. Detection of this mutant DNA or quantification of aberrant gene expression may offer new noninvasive methods fo

  13. Uptake of instilled radiolabeled lamellar bodies from alveolar compartment of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the instillation of lamellar bodies containing dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl-[3H]choline (DPPC) down the trachea of adult rats, we found that the half-life of alveolar [3H]-DPPC was 85 min and the time constant was 120 min. As much as 85% was recycled. When we labeled the DPPC with both [3H]choline and [14C]acetate, the ratio 3H/14C increased in the alveolar compartment and then increased further in the lamellar body fraction of the recipient lungs, suggesting that some deacylation-reacylation was occurring. Further evidence of degradation was an increase in free [3H]choline in the microsomal fraction. Whereas hyperpnea induced by breathing 5% CO2-13% O2-82% N2 increased the reuptake of DPPC, reuptake did not appear to be enhanced in the rest period immediately after hyperpnea induced by swimming, when alveolar DPPC was still markedly elevated. Propranolol did not affect reuptake, suggesting that beta-adrenoreceptors were not essential. We suggest that reuptake is coupled more to release than to the amount of surfactant in the alveolar compartment

  14. Wakes of Maneuvering Bodies in Stratified Fluids

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    Voropayev, S. I.; Fernando, H. J.

    2007-05-01

    We present the results of experimental/theoretical studies on large momentum eddies generated in late wakes of unsteady moving self-propelled bodies in stratified fluids. The experiments were conducted with scaled submarine model at high Reynolds numbers (50,000), corresponding to the fully turbulent flow regime. Dye visualization and PIV were used for flow diagnostics. When a self-propelled body makes a maneuver, e.g. accelerates, it imparts net momentum on the surrounding fluid. We show that in a stratified fluid this leads to impulsive momentum wakes with large, long-lived coherent vortices in the late flows, which may be used as a signature for identification of submarine wakes in oceanic thermocline. First, we consider dynamics and properties of such wakes in a linearly stratified fluid and present a model that permits to predict the main flow characteristics. Second, we consider wakes in a two layer stratified fluid (analog of the upper ocean) and show that such wakes may penetrate to the water surface; we present a model for this phenomenon and propose criteria for the penetration of wake signatures to the water surface in terms of main governing parameters (signature contrast versus confinement number). Finally, we consider the evolution of such momentum wake eddies in the field of decaying background turbulence, which mimics the oceanic thermocline, and show that for the flow configuration studied the contrast number remains sufficiently large and detectable wake imprints survive for a long period of time. Some pertinent estimates for submarines cruising in the upper ocean are also given. For more details see [1-3]. This study was supported by grant from the Office of Naval Research. 1. Voropayev S.I., Fernando H.J.S., Smirnov S.A. & Morrison R.J. 2006. On surface signatures generated by submersed momentum sources. Phys. Fluids, under revision. 2. Voropayev S.I., Fernando H.J.S. & Morrison R.J. 2006. Dipolar eddies in a stratified turbulent flow. J. Fluid

  15. Fluid Flows driven by Oscillating Body Force

    CERN Document Server

    Vladimirov, V A

    2016-01-01

    In this note we consider general formulation of Euler's equations for an inviscid incompressible homogeneous fluid with an oscillating body force. Our aim is to derive the averaged equations for these flows with the help of two-timing method. Our main result is the general and simple form of the equation describing the averaged flows, which are derived without making any additional assumptions. The presented results can have many interesting applications.

  16. Compartments in a marine food web associated with phylogeny, body mass, and habitat structure

    OpenAIRE

    Rezende, Enrico L.; Eva M. Albert; Fortuna, Miguel A.; Bascompte, Jordi

    2009-01-01

    A long-standing question in community ecology is whether food webs are organized in compartments, where species within the same compartment interact frequently among themselves, but show fewer interactions with species from other compartments. Finding evidence for this community organization is important since compartmentalization may strongly affect food web robustness to perturbation. However, few studies have found unequivocal evidence of compartments, and none has quantifie...

  17. Bioimpedance identifies body fluid loss after exercise in the heat: a pilot study with body cooling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Gatterer

    Full Text Available Assessment of post-exercise changes in hydration with bioimpedance (BI is complicated by physiological adaptations that affect resistance (R and reactance (Xc values. This study investigated exercise-induced changes in R and Xc, independently and in bioelectrical impedance vector analysis, when factors such as increased skin temperature and blood flow and surface electrolyte accumulation are eliminated with a cold shower.Healthy males (n = 14, 24.1±1.7 yr; height (H: 182.4±5.6 cm, body mass: 72.3±6.3 kg exercised for 1 hr at a self-rated intensity (15 BORG in an environmental chamber (33°C and 50% relative humidity, then had a cold shower (15 min. Before the run BI, body mass, hematocrit and Posm were measured. After the shower body mass was measured; BI measurements were performed continuously every 20 minutes until R reached a stable level, then hematocrit and Posm were measured again.Compared to pre-trial measurements body mass decreased after the run and Posm, Hct, R/H and Xc/H increased (p<0.05 with a corresponding lengthening of the impedance vector along the major axis of the tolerance ellipse (p<0.001. Changes in Posm were negatively related to changes in body mass (r = -0.564, p = 0.036 and changes in Xc/H (r = -0.577, p = 0.041.Present findings showed that after a bout of exercise-induced dehydration followed by cold shower the impedance vector lengthened that indicates fluid loss. Additionally, BI values might be useful to evaluate fluid shifts between compartments as lower intracellular fluid loss (changed Xc/R indicated greater Posm increase.

  18. Monitoring Change of Body Fluid during Physical Exercise using Bioimpedance Spectroscopy and Finite Element Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Röthlingshöfer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Athletes need a balanced body composition in order to achieve maximum performance. Especially dehydration reduces power and endurance during physical exercise. Monitoring the body composition, with a focus on body fluid, may help to avoid reduction in performance and other health problems.For this, a potential measurement method is bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS. BIS is a simple, non-invasive measurement method that allows to determine different body compartments (body fluid, fat, fat-free mass. However, because many physiological changes occur during physical exercise that can influence impedance measurements and distort results, it cannot be assumed that the BIS data are related to body fluid loss alone.To confirm that BIS can detect body fluid loss due to physical exercise, finite element (FE simulations were done. Besides impedance, also the current density contribution during a BIS measurement was modeled to evaluate the influence of certain tissues on BIS measurements.Simulations were done using CST EM Studio (Computer Simulation Technology, Germany and the Visible Human Data Set (National Library of Medicine, USA. In addition to the simulations, BIS measurements were also made on athletes. Comparison between the measured bioimpedance data and simulation data, as well as body weight loss during sport, indicates that BIS measurements are sensitive enough to monitor body fluid loss during physical exercise.doi:10.5617/jeb.178 J Electr Bioimp, vol. 2, pp. 79-85, 2011

  19. Disorders of body fluids, sodium and potassium in chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitch, W E; Wilcox, C S

    1982-03-01

    A stable volume and composition of extracellular fluid are essential for normal functioning of the body. Since the kidney is primarily responsible for regulating extracellular fluid, loss of kidney function should have catastrophic consequences. Fortunately, even with loss of more than 90 percent of renal function, a remarkable capacity to regulate body fluid volumes and sodium and potassium persists. Nevertheless, this capacity is limited to chronic renal disease and this has important consequences for clinical management of these patients. How can sodium and potassium homeostasis be assessed? Methods for evaluating the steady-state regulation of sodium include measurement of body fluids and their distribution in different compartments and measurement of exchangeable and intracellular sodium. Short-term regulation of body sodium can be assessed from measurement of sodium balance during changes in dietary salt. Potassium is predominantly contained within cells and thus the assessment of its regulation requires special emphasis on measurement of steady-state body stores and potassium distribution across cell membranes. However, the methods used to make all of these measurements require assumptions that may not hold in the altered state of uremia. This raises problems in interpretation requiring critical analysis before conclusions can be made regarding sodium and potassium homeostasis in patients with chronic renal failure. This review focuses on abnormalities of body fluids, sodium and potassium in patients with creatinine clearances of less than 20 ml/min due to chronic renal failure and the impact of conservative therapy, dialysis and renal transplantation on these patients.

  20. Fluid shift from intravascular compartment during fetal red blood cell transfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamping, M.A.; Pasman, S.A.; Bil-van den Brink, C.P.; Oepkes, D.; Adama van Scheltema, P.N.; Vandenbussche, F.P.H.A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Intrauterine transfusion imposes a considerable burden on the fetal circulation by increasing volume and pressure, and a fluid shift from the fetal circulation occurs even during the procedure. The aim of this study was to quantify the intraprocedural fluid shift and to investigate the e

  1. Body Fluid Identification Using mRNA Profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeder, Amy D; Haas, Cordula

    2016-01-01

    RNA analysis is a valuable tool for the identification of the forensically relevant body fluids, saliva, blood, menstrual blood, cervicovaginal fluid, and semen. Multiple human mRNA and bacterial RNA markers have been identified for each of these body fluids. RNA and DNA can be coextracted from the same portion of a sample and RNA markers for different body fluids can be multiplexed in a single PCR, thereby maximizing the number of analyses that can be performed with limited sample material. PMID:27259728

  2. Nerve compression injury and increased endoneurial fluid pressure: a "miniature compartment syndrome".

    OpenAIRE

    Lundborg, G; Myers, R; Powell, H

    1983-01-01

    An inflatable miniature cuff was used to apply local compression of 80 mm Hg or 30 mm Hg to a segment of rat sciatic nerve for time periods varying from two to eight hours. The endoneurial fluid pressure was measured by direct micropipette measurement techniques at one or 24 hours after removal of the cuff, and the nerves were subjected to histological analysis. Endoneurial oedema, associated with a four-fold increase in endoneurial fluid pressure, was observed after compression at 80 mm Hg f...

  3. Body drop into a fluid tank and dynamic loads calculation

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    Komarov Aleksandr Andreevich

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The theory of a body striking a fluid began intensively developing due to the tasks of hydroplanes landing. For the recent years the study of a stroke and submersion of bodies into fluid became even more current. We face them in the process of strength calculation of ship hulls and other structures in modern technology. These tasks solution represents great mathematical difficulty even in case of the mentioned simplifications. These difficulties emerge due to the unsteady character of fluid motion in case of body submersion, and also jet and spray phenomena, which lead to discontinuous motions. On the basis of G.V. Logvinovich’s concept the problem of loads determination with consideration for air gap is solved for both a body and reservoir enclosing structures when a body falls into a fluid. Numerical method is based on the decay of an arbitrary discontinuity.

  4. Inactivation of human interferon by body fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesario, T. C.; Mandell, A.; Tilles, J. G.

    1973-01-01

    Description of the effects of human feces, bile, saliva, serum, and cerebrospinal fluid on interferon activity. It is shown that crude interferon is inactivated by at least 50% more than with the control medium used, when incubated for 4 hr in vitro in the presence of serum, saliva, or cerebrospinal liquid, and by close to 100% when incubated with stool extract or bile.

  5. Forensic body fluid identification: state of the art

    OpenAIRE

    Harbison, SallyAnn

    2016-01-01

    SA Harbison, RI Fleming Forensic Biology, Institute of Environmental Science and Research Ltd, Mt Albert Science Centre, Auckland, New Zealand Abstract: Body fluid identification is a key component in the forensic scientists' tool box and has been carried out both at the crime scene and in the laboratory for many years. Historically, methods relied on (bio) chemical-based tests, many of which lacked specificity. In this review, current technologies for identifying body fluids are des...

  6. Fetal development of regulatory mechanisms for body fluid homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Guan

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The balance of body fluids is critical to health and the development of diseases. Although quite a few review papers have shown that several mechanisms, including hormonal and behavioral regulation, play an important role in body fluid homeostasis in adults, there is limited information on the development of regulatory mechanisms for fetal body fluid balance. Hormonal, renal, and behavioral control of body fluids function to some extent in utero. Hormonal mechanisms including the renin-angiotensin system, aldosterone, and vasopressin are involved in modifying fetal renal excretion, reabsorption of sodium and water, and regulation of vascular volume. In utero behavioral changes, such as fetal swallowing, have been suggested to be early functional development in response to dipsogens. Since diseases, such as hypertension, can be traced to fetal origin, it is important to understand the development of fetal regulatory mechanisms for body fluid homeostasis in this early stage of life. This review focuses on fetal hormonal, behavioral, and renal development related to regulation of body fluids in utero.

  7. Measurement of net whole-body transcapillary fluid transport and effective vascular compliance in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watenpaugh, D. E.; Gaffney, F. A.; Schneider, S. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Net whole-body transcapillary fluid transport (TFT) between the circulation and the interstitial (extravascular) space may be calculated as: IV - deltaPV - UV - IL, where IV=infused or ingested volume (when applicable), deltaPV = change in plasma volume, UV=urine volume, and IL=insensible loss. RESULTS: Infusion of 30 mL/kg isotonic saline over 25 minutes increased supine TFT from a basal capillary reabsorption of -106+/-24 mL/h (mean+/-SE) to a net filtration of 1,229+/-124 mL/h. One hour after infusion, reabsorption of -236+/-102 mL/h was seen, and control reabsorption levels returned by 3 hours. Four hours of 30 mm Hg lower body negative pressure (LBNP) elicited no net TFT, probably because of upper body reabsorptive compensation for lower body capillary filtration. When ingestion of 1 L of isotonic saline accompanied LBNP, filtration of 145+/-10 mL/h occurred. Reabsorption of extravascular fluid into the circulation always followed LBNP. CONCLUSION: Application of this technique could aid understanding of physiologic conditions, experimental interventions, disease states, and therapies that cause or are influenced by fluid shifts between intravascular and interstitial compartments.

  8. Nanoscale and customary non-esterified sitosterols are equally enriched in different body compartments of the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Sylvia; Helbig, Dorit; Härtl, Albert; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2007-12-01

    The impact of sitosterol formulation particle size on the intestinal sterol absorption and the sterol status in various tissues in Dunkin Hartley guinea pigs was investigated. Three groups of animals (six each) were fed a basal diet ("control") or a basal diet containing either customary sitosterol ("customary", particle size: 10 000-90 000 nm) or nanoscale sitosterol ("nanoscale", particle size: 200-300 nm). The average daily sitosterol intake was 21 +/- 7 mg (control), 154 +/- 8 mg (customary), and 127 +/- 18 mg (nanoscale) for 2 weeks. Sitosterol and cholesterol were analyzed in samples of plasma, blood cells, bile, liver, kidney, jejunal mucosa/serosa, cecum, colon and feces. Concentrations of sitosterol in all analyzed matrices increased significantly in the supplemented groups when compared to control group. No differences in the sitosterol concentrations in analyzed matrices occurred between nanoscale and customary group. The cholesterol concentrations in tissues remained unchanged. Fecal fatty acid and sterol distributions were modified during sitosterol intervention. Both particle sizes equally increased sitosterol levels in cholesterol-metabolizing compartments in the guinea pig. No differences in body compartment accumulation and intestinal absorption of the different sitosterol particle sizes were observed.

  9. [Body fluids during 120-day anti-orthostatic hypokinesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobachik, V I; Zhidkov, V V; Abrosimov, S V

    1989-01-01

    Body fluid variations were examined during 120-day antiorthostatic (-5 degrees) hypokinesia in 21 test subjects, 9 of which comprised a control group (Group 1). The remaining 12 subjects formed three groups (four subjects each) who received drugs to normalize mineral and lipid metabolism (Group 2), or performed specially developed exercises (Group 3), or were on the combined treatment (Group 4). Total body water (TBW), intracellular fluid volume (IFV), extracellular fluid volume (EFV), and EFV composition were measured by nuclear physical methods. Measurements were taken prior to exposure, on head-down tilt days 1, 60 and 120, and on recovery day 15. Body composition and K40 content were investigated before and after head-down tilt. The controls showed body dehydration that began on tilt day 1 at the expense of vascular fluid and continued by day 60 at the expense of interstitial fluid and by day 120 at the expense of IFV. Group 2 subjects exhibited variations that were similar to those of controls. Group 3 subjects were in better shape due to the beneficial effect of exercise which diminished as head-down tilt continued. In the recovery period the above changes regressed.

  10. Bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy for the assessment of body fluid volumes of term neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira D.M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of fluid volume in neonates by a noninvasive, inexpensive, and fast method can contribute significantly to increase the quality of neonatal care. The objective of the present study was to calibrate an acquisition system and software to estimate the bioelectrical impedance parameters obtained by a method of bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy based on step response and to develop specific equations for the neonatal population to determine body fluid compartments. Bioelectric impedance measurements were performed by a laboratory homemade instrument. The volumes were estimated in a clinical study on 30 full-term neonates at four different times during the first month of life. During the first 24 hours of life the total body water, extracellular water and intracellular water were 2.09 ± 0.25, 1.20 ± 0.19, and 0.90 ± 0.25 liters, respectively. By the 48th hour they were 1.87 ± 0.27, 1.08 ± 0.17, and 0.79 ± 0.21 liters, respectively. On the 10th day they were 2.02 ± 0.25, 1.29 ± 0.21, and 0.72 ± 0.14 liters, respectively, and after 1 month they were 2.34 ± 0.27, 1.62 ± 0.20, and 0.72 ± 0.13 liters, respectively. The behavior of the estimated volume was correlated with neonatal body weight changes, leading to a better interpretation of such changes. In conclusion, this study indicates the feasibility of bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy as a method to help fluid administration in intensive care neonatal units, and also contribute to the development of new equations to estimate neonatal body fluid contents.

  11. Fluid sign in the treated bodies after percutaneous vertebroplasty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chao-Chun [China Medical University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Taichung (China); China Medical University, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Science, College of Health Care, Taichung (China); Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital and Tzu Chi University, Department of Medical Imaging, Hualien (China); Yen, Pao-Sheng [Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital and Tzu Chi University, Department of Medical Imaging, Hualien (China); Wen, Shu-Hui [Tzu Chi University, Department of Public Health, Hualien (China)

    2008-11-15

    The aims of this study are to describe non-healing in the treated vertebral body after percutaneous vertebroplasty and analyze the influence of vacuum cleft, location, and severity of collapse on the development of nonunion cement. Of 208 patients (266 treated vertebral bodies) who were treated with percutaneous vertebroplasty from September 2002 to May 2006, 23 patients (41 treated levels) with residual or recurrent pain underwent follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study. Retrospective chart review with analysis of preoperative and postoperative MRIs were performed in these 23 patients. In the 41 treated vertebral bodies, 22 of 41 bodies had vacuum cleft found in the preoperative MRI study. Eight of the 22 treated vertebral bodies with preoperative vacuum clefts were found to have fluid between the interface of cement and the residual bone in the collapsed vertebral bodies on follow-up MRI. The adjacent discs of these treated vertebral bodies were upward/downward displaced. The endplate of the adjacent vertebral body exhibited fibrotic change. Treated bodies with vacuum clefts and level A location (T9, T11, T12, and L1) had higher probability of developing nonunion of the cement with statistical significance. The probability of nonunion cement in severe collapsed bodies might be higher than that of union cement in mild collapsed ones, but was not statistically significant. Fluid sign in the treated body represents unhealed bone-cement interface. The location of the treated vertebral body and existence of vacuum cleft in the treated bodies may be important factors influencing the nonunion of cement. (orig.)

  12. Pattern Formation Around Interacting Bodies in Rotating Fluids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karl B(U)HLER

    2006-01-01

    The interaction of bodies like spheres and disks in rotating fluids leads to novel flow structures. The primary swirling flow in circumferential direction is superimposed by a secondary motion in the meridional plane. The flow is visualized by introducing ink through a hole in the center of the axes and distributed radially in the central plane between the interacting bodies. The flow structure depends on the shape of the bodies, their geometrical arrangement and the Reynolds number given by the rotational speed. The observed flow structures gave rise to further investigations with PIV-measurements and numerical simulations.

  13. Compilation of basal metabolic and blood perfusion rates in various multi-compartment, whole-body thermoregulation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shitzer, Avraham; Arens, Edward; Zhang, Hui

    2016-07-01

    The assignments of basal metabolic rates (BMR), basal cardiac output (BCO), and basal blood perfusion rates (BBPR) were compared in nine multi-compartment, whole-body thermoregulation models. The data are presented at three levels of detail: total body, specific body regions, and regional body tissue layers. Differences in the assignment of these quantities among the compared models increased with the level of detail, in the above order. The ranges of variability in the total body BMR was 6.5 % relative to the lowest value, with a mean of 84.3 ± 2 W, and in the BCO, it was 8 % with a mean of 4.70 ± 0.13 l/min. The least variability among the body regions is seen in the combined torso (shoulders, thorax, and abdomen: ±7.8 % BMR and ±5.9 % BBPR) and in the combined head (head, face, and neck ±9.9 % BMR and ±10.9 % BBPR), determined by the ratio of the standard deviation to the mean. Much more variability is apparent in the extremities with the most showing in the BMR of the feet (±117 %), followed by the BBPR in the arms (±61.3 %). In the tissue layers, most of the bone layers were assigned zero BMR and BBPR, except in the shoulders and in the extremities that were assigned non-zero values in a number of models. The next lowest values were assigned to the fat layers, with occasional zero values. Skin basal values were invariably non-zero but involved very low values in certain models, e.g., BBPR in the feet and the hands. Muscle layers were invariably assigned high values with the highest found in the thorax, abdomen, and legs. The brain, lung, and viscera layers were assigned the highest of all values of both basal quantities with those of the brain layers showing rather tight ranges of variability in both basal quantities. Average basal values of the "time-seasoned" models presented in this study could be useful as a first step in future modeling efforts subject to appropriate adjustment of values to conform to most recently available and reliable data.

  14. Percent body fat estimations in college women using field and laboratory methods: a three-compartment model approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalbo Vincent J

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methods used to estimate percent body fat can be classified as a laboratory or field technique. However, the validity of these methods compared to multiple-compartment models has not been fully established. This investigation sought to determine the validity of field and laboratory methods for estimating percent fat (%fat in healthy college-age women compared to the Siri three-compartment model (3C. Methods Thirty Caucasian women (21.1 ± 1.5 yrs; 164.8 ± 4.7 cm; 61.2 ± 6.8 kg had their %fat estimated by BIA using the BodyGram™ computer program (BIA-AK and population-specific equation (BIA-Lohman, NIR (Futrex® 6100/XL, a quadratic (SF3JPW and linear (SF3WB skinfold equation, air-displacement plethysmography (BP, and hydrostatic weighing (HW. Results All methods produced acceptable total error (TE values compared to the 3C model. Both laboratory methods produced similar TE values (HW, TE = 2.4%fat; BP, TE = 2.3%fat when compared to the 3C model, though a significant constant error (CE was detected for HW (1.5%fat, p ≤ 0.006. The field methods produced acceptable TE values ranging from 1.8 – 3.8 %fat. BIA-AK (TE = 1.8%fat yielded the lowest TE among the field methods, while BIA-Lohman (TE = 2.1%fat and NIR (TE = 2.7%fat produced lower TE values than both skinfold equations (TE > 2.7%fat compared to the 3C model. Additionally, the SF3JPW %fat estimation equation resulted in a significant CE (2.6%fat, p ≤ 0.007. Conclusion Data suggest that the BP and HW are valid laboratory methods when compared to the 3C model to estimate %fat in college-age Caucasian women. When the use of a laboratory method is not feasible, NIR, BIA-AK, BIA-Lohman, SF3JPW, and SF3WB are acceptable field methods to estimate %fat in this population.

  15. Post-dialysis urea concentration: comparison between one- compartment model and two-compartment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reduction of the urea concentration in blood can be numerically projected by using one-compartment model and two-compartment model with no variation in body fluid. This study aims to compare the simulated values of post-dialysis urea concentration for both models with the clinical data obtained from the hospital. The clinical assessment of adequacy of a treatment is based on the value of Kt/V. Further, direct calculation using clinical data and one-compartment model are presented in the form of ratio. It is found that the ratios of postdialysis urea concentration simulated using two-compartment model are higher compared to the ratios of post-dialysis urea concentration using one-compartment model. In addition, most values of post-dialysis urea concentration simulated using two-compartment model are much closer to the clinical data compared to values simulated using one-compartment model. Kt/V values calculated directly using clinical data are found to be higher than Kt/V values derived from one-compartment model

  16. [Determination of body fluid based on analysis of nucleic acids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korabečná, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Recent methodological approaches of molecular genetics allow isolation of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) from negligible forensic samples. Analysis of these molecules may be used not only for individual identification based on DNA profiling but also for the detection of origin of the body fluid which (alone or in mixture with other body fluids) forms the examined biological trace. Such an examination can contribute to the evaluation of procedural, technical and tactical value of the trace. Molecular genetic approaches discussed in the review offer new possibilities in comparison with traditional spectrum of chemical, immunological and spectroscopic tests especially with regard to the interpretation of mixtures of biological fluids and to the confirmatory character of the tests. Approaches based on reverse transcription of tissue specific mRNA and their subsequent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and fragmentation analysis are applicable on samples containing minimal amounts of biological material. Methods for body fluid discrimination based on examination of microRNA in samples provided so far confusing results therefore further development in this field is needed. The examination of tissue specific methylation of nucleotides in selected gene sequences seems to represent a promising enrichment of the methodological spectrum. The detection of DNA sequences of tissue related bacteria has been established and it provides satisfactory results mainly in combination with above mentioned methodological approaches. PMID:26419517

  17. Biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease in body fluids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Various innovative diagnostic methods for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) have been developed in view of the increasing preva-lence and consequences of later-life dementia. Biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood for AD are primarily based on the detection of components derived from amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). Published reports on CSF and blood biomarkers in AD indicate that although biomarkers in body fluids may be utilized in the clinical diagnosis of AD, there are no specific markers that permit accurate and reliable diagnosis of early-stage AD or the monitoring of disease pro-gression.

  18. Modeling the time evolution of the nanoparticle-protein corona in a body fluid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Dell'Orco

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nanoparticles in contact with biological fluids interact with proteins and other biomolecules, thus forming a dynamic corona whose composition varies over time due to continuous protein association and dissociation events. Eventually equilibrium is reached, at which point the continued exchange will not affect the composition of the corona. RESULTS: We developed a simple and effective dynamic model of the nanoparticle protein corona in a body fluid, namely human plasma. The model predicts the time evolution and equilibrium composition of the corona based on affinities, stoichiometries and rate constants. An application to the interaction of human serum albumin, high density lipoprotein (HDL and fibrinogen with 70 nm N-iso-propylacrylamide/N-tert-butylacrylamide copolymer nanoparticles is presented, including novel experimental data for HDL. CONCLUSIONS: The simple model presented here can easily be modified to mimic the interaction of the nanoparticle protein corona with a novel biological fluid or compartment once new data will be available, thus opening novel applications in nanotoxicity and nanomedicine.

  19. Study of dose distribution in a human body in international space station compartments with the tissue-equivalent spherical phantom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shurshakov, Vyacheslav A.; Tolochek, Raisa V.; Kartsev, Ivan S.; Petrov, Vladislav M.; Nikolaev, Igor V.; Moskalyova, Svetlana I.; Lyagushin, Vladimir I.

    2014-01-01

    Space radiation is known to be key hazard of manned space mission. To estimate accurately radiation health risk detailed study of dose distribution inside human body by means of human phantom is conducted. In the space experiment MATROSHKA-R, the tissue-equivalent spherical phantom (32 kg mass, 35 cm diameter and 10 cm central spherical cave) made in Russia has been used on board the ISS for more than 8 years. Owing to the specially chosen phantom shape and size, the chord length distributions of the detector locations are attributed to self-shielding properties of the critical organs in a real human body. If compared with the anthropomorphic phantom Rando used inside and outside the ISS, the spherical phantom has lower mass, smaller size and requires less crew time for the detector installation/retrieval; its tissue-equivalent properties are closer to the standard human body tissue than the Rando-phantom material. Originally the spherical phantom was installed in the star board crew cabin of the ISS Service Module, then in the Piers-1, MIM-2 and MIM-1 modules of the ISS Russian segment, and finally in JAXA Kibo module. Total duration of the detector exposure is more than 1700 days in 8 sessions. In the first phase of the experiment with the spherical phantom, the dose measurements were realized with only passive detectors (thermoluminescent and solid-state track detectors). The detectors are placed inside the phantom along the axes of 20 containers and on the phantom outer surface in 32 pockets of the phantom jacket. After each session the passive detectors are returned to the ground. The results obtained show the dose difference on the phantom surface as much as a factor of 2, the highest dose being observed close to the outer wall of the compartment, and the lowest dose being in the opposite location along the phantom diameter. Maximum dose rate measured in the phantom is obviously due to the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) and Earth' radiation belt contribution on

  20. Tidal dissipation in rotating fluid bodies: a simplified model

    CERN Document Server

    Ogilvie, Gordon I

    2009-01-01

    We study the tidal forcing, propagation and dissipation of linear inertial waves in a rotating fluid body. The intentionally simplified model involves a perfectly rigid core surrounded by a deep ocean consisting of a homogeneous incompressible fluid. Centrifugal effects are neglected, but the Coriolis force is considered in full, and dissipation occurs through viscous or frictional forces. The dissipation rate exhibits a complicated dependence on the tidal frequency and generally increases with the size of the core. In certain intervals of frequency, efficient dissipation is found to occur even for very small values of the coefficient of viscosity or friction. We discuss the results with reference to wave attractors, critical latitudes and other features of the propagation of inertial waves within the fluid, and comment on their relevance for tidal dissipation in planets and stars.

  1. Dielectric properties of porcine glands, gonads and body fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyman, A; Gabriel, C

    2012-10-01

    Dielectric properties of porcine glandular tissues and gonads (in vivo) and body fluids (in vitro) have been obtained in the frequency range of 50 MHz to 20 GHz. The experimental data were fitted to a two term Cole-Cole expression. The data presented complement the available dielectric properties of tissues in the literature and can be used in numerical simulations of the exposure of people to electromagnetic fields.

  2. Geometry of the Motion of Ideal Fluids and Rigid Bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Rajeev, S G

    2009-01-01

    Arnold pointed out that the Euler equation of incompressible ideal hydrodynamics describes geodesics on the group of volume-preserving diffeomorphisms. A simple analogue is the Euler equation for a rigid body, which is the geodesic equation on the rotation group with respect to a metric determined by the moment of inertia. The metric on the group is left-invariant but not right-invariant. We will reduce the geometry of such groups (using techniques popularized by Milnor) to algebra on their tangent space. In particular, the curvature can be expressed as a biquadratic form on the Lie algebra. Arnold's result that motion of incompressible fluids has instabilities (due to the sectional curvature being negative) can be recovered more simply. Surprisingly, such an instability arises in rigid body mechanics as well: the metric on SO(3) corresponding to the moment of inertia of a thin cylinder (coin) has negative sectional curvature in one tangent plane. Both ideal fluids and rigid bodies can be thought of as hamilt...

  3. Geometry-Induced Casimir Suspension of Oblate Bodies in Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Alejandro W.; Reid, M. T. Homer; Intravaia, Francesco; Woolf, Alexander; Dalvit, Diego A. R.; Capasso, Federico; Johnson, Steven G.

    2013-11-01

    We predict that a low-permittivity oblate body (disk-shaped object) above a thin metal substrate (plate with a hole) immersed in a fluid of intermediate permittivity will experience a metastable equilibrium (restoring force) near the center of the hole. Stability is the result of a geometry-induced transition in the sign of the force, from repulsive to attractive, that occurs as the disk approaches the hole—in planar or nearly planar geometries, the same material combination yields a repulsive force at all separations, in accordance with the Dzyaloshinskiĭ-Lifshitz-Pitaevskiĭ condition of fluid-induced repulsion between planar bodies. We explore the stability of the system with respect to rotations and lateral translations of the disks and demonstrate interesting transitions (bifurcations) in the rotational stability of the disks as a function of their size. Finally, we consider the reciprocal situation in which the disk-plate materials are interchanged and find that in this case the system also exhibits metastability. The forces in the system are sufficiently large to be observed in experiments and should enable measurements based on the diffusion dynamics of the suspended bodies.

  4. Many-Body Effects on the Thermodynamics of Fluids, Mixtures, and Nanoconfined Fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desgranges, Caroline; Delhommelle, Jerome

    2015-11-10

    Using expanded Wang-Landau simulations, we show that taking into account the many-body interactions results in sharp changes in the grand-canonical partition functions of single-component systems, binary mixtures, and nanoconfined fluids. The many-body contribution, modeled with a 3-body Axilrod-Teller-Muto term, results in shifts toward higher chemical potentials of the phase transitions from low-density phases to high-density phases and accounts for deviations of more than, e.g., 20% of the value of the partition function for a single-component liquid. Using the statistical mechanics formalism, we analyze how this contribution has a strong impact on some properties (e.g., pressure, coexisting densities, and enthalpy) and a moderate impact on others (e.g., Gibbs or Helmholtz free energies). We also characterize the effect of the 3-body terms on adsorption isotherms and adsorption thermodynamic properties, thereby providing a full picture of the effect of the 3-body contribution on the thermodynamics of nanoconfined fluids.

  5. Compartment syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubarak, S. J.; Pedowitz, R. A.; Hargens, A. R.

    1989-01-01

    The compartment syndrome is defined as a condition in which high pressure within a closed fascial space (muscle compartment) reduces capillary blood perfusion below the level necessary for tissue viability'. This condition occurs in acute and chronic (exertional) forms, and may be secondary to a variety of causes. The end-result of an extended period of elevated intramuscular pressure may be the development of irreversible tissue injury and Volkmann's contracture. The goal of treatment of the compartment syndrome is the reduction of intracompartmental pressure thus facilitating reperfusion of ischaemic tissue and this goal may be achieved by decompressive fasciotomy. Controversy exists regarding the critical pressure-time thresholds for surgical decompression and the optimal diagnostic methods of measuring intracompartmental pressures. This paper will update and review some current knowledge regarding the pathophysiology, aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the acute compartment syndrome.

  6. Predicting volumes of metabolically important whole-body adipose tissue compartments in overweight and obese adolescents by different MRI approaches and anthropometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To evaluate 5-slice stack/single-slice MRI approaches and anthropometric measures as predictors for metabolically relevant whole-body adipose tissue (AT) compartments in overweight/obese adolescents. Methods: Forty adolescents (22 males, age 11.4–16.1 years) were included with a BMI above the 90th percentile. Volumes of whole-body AT compartments, i.e. total AT (TAT), subcutaneous AT (SCAT) and visceral AT (VAT), were determined using a breath-hold T1-weighted-FSE-MR-sequence and semi-automated segmentation serving as the gold standard. SCAT, VAT and TAT was estimated by either axially oriented single-slices or 5-slice-stacks centred at specific anatomic landmarks (umbilicus, head of femur and humerus). Furthermore, anthropometric measures were also evaluated as predictors of whole-body AT compartments. Results: Strong correlations were found for both genders between TAT/SCAT and single-slice evaluation (e.g. whole-body SCAT-SCAT at umbilicus level: r = 0.91 (m), r = 0.92 (f)) or anthropometry (SCAT-BMI: r = 0.93 (m, f)). VAT was correlated to VAT at umbilicus (r = 0.71 (m), r = 0.94 (f)) but only weakly to anthropometry. Conclusions: Anthropometric measures and single-slice MRI can accurately predict TAT/SCAT which cannot be improved by evaluation of 5-slice stacks. Prediction of VAT by 5-slice stack/single-slice MRI protocols seems only to be accurate in females. Anthropometry cannot be reliably used for prediction of VAT in both genders. Thus, MRI seems to be necessary for quantification of VAT in overweight/obese adolescents of both genders.

  7. Fluids in human bodies and biomineralization – parallels to global water resources and reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skinner, H. Catherine W.; King, Helen

    2014-01-01

    The amount of surface freshwaters on Earth is remarkably small considering the human population needing drinking water to survive and to ensure water in their bodies is at that very important locale where cells operate, the transcellular fluid. Like the fluid in and on the planet, body fluid is high

  8. Wakes of Self-propelled Bodies in Stratified Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voropayev, S. I.; Fernando, H. J. S.

    2008-11-01

    Using high Reynolds number (Re=10^4-10^5) experiments, the dynamics of stratified momentum wakes of self-propelled underwater and surface bodies were studied in (i) deep linearly stratified (deep ocean pycnocline), (ii) two layer (shallow pycnocline), and (iii) surface stratified (turbocline) fluids, and theoretical models wee advanced to explain the flow behavior. These models: (i) predict conditions under which submerged wakes signatures penetrate to the water surface, as expressed by the Confinement and Contrast numbers, and (ii) describe IR (infra-red) surface wakes signatures, as expressed by the Contrast and modified Froude numbers. If decaying turbulence is present surrounding the wake, the penetration of wake signature to the surface is still possible. Estimates for typical oceanic cases are given. PIV, LIF and high sensitivity Infrared Imaging cameras were employed for flow diagnostics.

  9. Renal renin secretion as regulator of body fluid homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjær, Mads; Isaksson, Gustaf L; Stubbe, Jane;

    2013-01-01

    , (2) macula densa mediated mechanisms play a substantial role as co-mediator although the controlled variables are not well defined so far, and (3) regulation via arterial blood pressure is the exception rather than the rule. Improved quantitative analyses based on in vivo and in silico models......The renin-angiotensin system is essential for body fluid homeostasis and blood pressure regulation. This review focuses on the homeostatic regulation of the secretion of active renin in the kidney, primarily in humans. Under physiological conditions, renin secretion is determined mainly by sodium...... by about 1.5 mL/mmol increase in daily sodium intake. Several lines of evidence indicate that central blood volume may vary substantially without measurable changes in arterial blood pressure. At least five intertwining feedback loops of renin regulation are identifiable based on controlled variables...

  10. Estimation of Body Fluid Volume by Bioimpedance Spectroscopy in Patients with Hyponatremia

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jae Seok; Lee, Jun Young; Park, Hyeoncheol; Han, Byoung Geun; Choi, Seung Ok; Yang, Jae Won

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Estimation of body fluid volume in hyponatremia is useful for diagnosis and therapeutic decision-making. Physical examination has been generally used to estimate body fluid volume, but it depends on the physician's abilities. Bioimpedance spectroscopy has been suggested to be a reliable method for the estimation of body fluid volume. Therefore, this study investigated whether bioimpedance spectroscopy could replace physical examination in hyponatremia. Materials and Methods The study ...

  11. Corrosion and tribocorrosion of hafnium in simulated body fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rituerto Sin, J; Neville, A; Emami, N

    2014-08-01

    Hafnium is a passive metal with good biocompatibility and osteogenesis, however, little is known about its resistance to wear and corrosion in biological environments. The corrosion and tribocorrosion behavior of hafnium and commercially pure (CP) titanium in simulated body fluids were investigated using electrochemical techniques. Cyclic polarization scans and open circuit potential measurements were performed in 0.9% NaCl solution and 25% bovine calf serum solution to assess the effect of organic species on the corrosion behavior of the metal. A pin-on-plate configuration tribometer and a three electrode electrochemical cell were integrated to investigate the tribocorrosion performance of the studied materials. The results showed that hafnium has good corrosion resistance. The corrosion density currents measured in its passive state were lower than those measured in the case of CP titanium; however, it showed a higher tendency to suffer from localized corrosion, which was more acute when imperfections were present on the surface. The electrochemical breakdown of the oxide layer was retarded in the presence of proteins. Tribocorrosion tests showed that hafnium has the ability to quickly repassivate after the oxide layer was damaged; however, it showed higher volumetric loss than CP titanium in equivalent wear-corrosion conditions. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 102B: 1157-1164, 2014.

  12. Corrosion and tribocorrosion of hafnium in simulated body fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rituerto Sin, J; Neville, A; Emami, N

    2014-08-01

    Hafnium is a passive metal with good biocompatibility and osteogenesis, however, little is known about its resistance to wear and corrosion in biological environments. The corrosion and tribocorrosion behavior of hafnium and commercially pure (CP) titanium in simulated body fluids were investigated using electrochemical techniques. Cyclic polarization scans and open circuit potential measurements were performed in 0.9% NaCl solution and 25% bovine calf serum solution to assess the effect of organic species on the corrosion behavior of the metal. A pin-on-plate configuration tribometer and a three electrode electrochemical cell were integrated to investigate the tribocorrosion performance of the studied materials. The results showed that hafnium has good corrosion resistance. The corrosion density currents measured in its passive state were lower than those measured in the case of CP titanium; however, it showed a higher tendency to suffer from localized corrosion, which was more acute when imperfections were present on the surface. The electrochemical breakdown of the oxide layer was retarded in the presence of proteins. Tribocorrosion tests showed that hafnium has the ability to quickly repassivate after the oxide layer was damaged; however, it showed higher volumetric loss than CP titanium in equivalent wear-corrosion conditions. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 102B: 1157-1164, 2014. PMID:24376175

  13. Radioimmunoassay of drugs in body fluids in a forensic context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first article of the volume describes the theory and practice of RIA with particular reference to the analysis of drugs in body fluids in a forensic context. RIA theory is outlined from basic principles but the inherent assumptions are often inapplicable in practice and so the empirical design of an assay is considered in detail. Particular emphasis is given to the development of assays for drugs screening that detect classes of structurally related compounds rather than individual drugs. The preparation of radiolabelled drugs, the synthesis of immunogens for raising anitisera, the production of polyclonal and monoclonal antisera, and methods for separating free and antibody-bound antigens are reviewed. Quality assurance, trouble-shooting and the possible hazards of forensic RIA are discussed, and published RIA methods for drug analysis are tabulated. Many non-isotopic immunoassays have been developed in recent years but are omitted from this account because to date they are less applicable than RIA to samples such as haemolysed blood that are frequently encountered in forensic toxicology. Future progress in forensic drug RIA is likely to be concerned with applying the technique to more compounds, improving the methods for preparing immunogens and radiolabelled drugs, and investigating the use of monoclonal anti-drug antibodies. (orig./MG)

  14. Influence of Brownian Diffusion on Levitation of Bodies in Magnetic Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Bashtovoi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with experimental investigation of the levitation of magnetic and non-magnetic bodies in a magnetic fluid when essentially influenced by Brownian diffusion of magnetic particles in it. It is established that the point of levitation of bodies in a magnetic fluid varies with time.

  15. Influence of Brownian Diffusion on Levitation of Bodies in Magnetic Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    V. Bashtovoi; A. Reks; S. Klimovich; А. Motsar; P. Ryapolov; A. Storozhenko; I. Shabanova

    2013-01-01

    The present work deals with experimental investigation of the levitation of magnetic and non-magnetic bodies in a magnetic fluid when essentially influenced by Brownian diffusion of magnetic particles in it. It is established that the point of levitation of bodies in a magnetic fluid varies with time.

  16. Evaluation of Human Body Fluids for the Diagnosis of Fungal Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Parisa Badiee

    2013-01-01

    Invasive fungal infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Because the etiologic agents of these infections are abundant in nature, their isolation from biopsy material or sterile body fluids is needed to document infection. This review evaluates and discusses different human body fluids used to diagnose fungal infections.

  17. A DLM/FD method for fluid/flexible-body interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Zhaosheng

    2005-01-01

    In this study, we extended the distributed-Lagrange-multiplier/fictitious-domain (DLM/FD) formulation of Glowinski et al. [Int. J. Multiphase Flow 25 (1999) 755] for the fluid/rigid-body interactions to deal with the fluid/flexible-body interactions by replacing Newton’s equations of motion for the

  18. Detection of pathogenic organisms in food, water, and body fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, William H.; Henley, Michael V.; Sayler, Gary S.

    2002-06-01

    The construction of specific bioluminescent bacteriophage for detection of pathogenic organism can be developed to overcome interferences in complex matrices such as food, water and body fluids. Detection and identification of bacteria often require several days and frequently weeks by standard methods of isolation, growth and biochemical test. Immunoassay detection often requires the expression of the bacterial toxin, which can lead to non-detection of cells that may express the toxin under conditions different from testing protocols. Immunoassays require production of a specific antibody to the agent for detection and interference by contaminants frequently affects results. PCR based detection may be inhibited by substances in complex matrices. Modified methods of the PCR technique, such as magnetic capture-hybridization PCR (MCH-PCR), appear to improve the technique by removing the DNA products away from the inhibitors. However, the techniques required for PCR-based detection are slow and the procedures require skilled personnel working with labile reagents. Our approach is based on transferring bioluminescence (lux) genes into a selected bacteriophage. Bacteriophages are bacterial viruses that are widespread in nature and often are genus and species specific. This specificity eliminates or reduces false positives in a bacteriophage assay. The phage recognizes a specific receptor molecule on the surface of a susceptible bacterium, attaches and then injects the viral nucleic acid into the cell. The injected viral genome is expressed and then replicated, generating numerous exact copies of the viral genetic material including the lux genes, often resulting in an increase in bioluminescence by several hundred fold.

  19. Digoxin-like immunoreactivity in human body fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical and chemical characteristics of a solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) for routine digoxin determination has been studied with the aim to confirm our previous observation of the presence of digoxin-like immunoreactive substance (DLIS) in serum (plasma) and urine of normal subjects not under digoxin treatment. The sensitivity of the assay was 2.1±0.6 pg/tube and the reproducibility, tested with two different urine pools in terms of digoxin-equivalents (d.e.), was 12.5% (285.6±35.7 pg/ml d.e., n=19) and 20.6% (123.8±25.5 pg/ml d.e., n=19), respectively. The mean DLIS concentration in the blood of 32 normal subjects was 15.6±8.0 pg/ml d.e. (range 0-60 pg/ml d.e.). The mean DLIS concentration in urine of 37 normal subjects (overnight collection) was 160.0±52.3 pg/ml d.e. (range 70-350 pg/ml d.e.), while the mean 24-hour DLIS excretion of 10 normal subjects was 97.3±39.7 ng d.e. Two urine pools were extracted with organic solvents. Good recoveries (80-100%) were obtained with methanol, while poor recoveries were obtained with methylene chloride, hexane and petroleum ether. The present study indicates that DLIS is not a large charged molecule, neither salt, nor fatty acid, which are considered the most frequent non-specific interferences in RIA systems. Urine samples may be more useful for pathophysiological studies on digoxin-like immunoreactivity in human body fluids, because of their higher DLIS concentrations (4-10 times the concetration in blood)

  20. Chaos and Integrability in Ideal Body-Fluid Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Johan Rønby

    2011-01-01

    We consider interaction of a rigid body with a surrounding ideal uid containing a number of point vortices. The uid is assumed to be planar and unbounded and the body is assumed to be free to move in response to the uid forces. Except that the body should be simply connected and rigid...... to unstable relative equilibria of the perturbed integrable system. By this methodology we demonstrate that, even when there are no vortices in the uid, a freely moving elongated body, whose motion is dominated by rotation, may have an atmosphere of uid particles following it through the uid. This atmosphere......, no assumptions are made on the body shape or on its internal mass distribution. There may also be an arbitrary and constant circulation around the body. The governing equations reduce to an autonomous set of coupled ODEs for the vortex positions and the body position and orientation. The form of these equations...

  1. Modelling of fluid-structure interaction with multiphase viscous flows using an immersed-body method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, P.; Xiang, J.; Fang, F.; Pavlidis, D.; Latham, J.-P.; Pain, C. C.

    2016-09-01

    An immersed-body method is developed here to model fluid-structure interaction for multiphase viscous flows. It does this by coupling a finite element multiphase fluid model and a combined finite-discrete element solid model. A coupling term containing the fluid stresses is introduced within a thin shell mesh surrounding the solid surface. The thin shell mesh acts as a numerical delta function in order to help apply the solid-fluid boundary conditions. When used with an advanced interface capturing method, the immersed-body method has the capability to solve problems with fluid-solid interfaces in the presence of multiphase fluid-fluid interfaces. Importantly, the solid-fluid coupling terms are treated implicitly to enable larger time steps to be used. This two-way coupling method has been validated by three numerical test cases: a free falling cylinder in a fluid at rest, elastic membrane and a collapsing column of water moving an initially stationary solid square. A fourth simulation example is of a water-air interface with a floating solid square being moved around by complex hydrodynamic flows including wave breaking. The results show that the immersed-body method is an effective approach for two-way solid-fluid coupling in multiphase viscous flows.

  2. Nonlinear evolution of tidally forced inertial waves in rotating fluid bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Favier, B.; Barker, A.J.; Baruteau, C.; Ogilvie, G. I.

    2014-01-01

    We perform one of the first studies into the nonlinear evolution of tidally excited inertial waves in a uniformly rotating fluid body, exploring a simplified model of the fluid envelope of a planet (or the convective envelope of a solar-type star) subject to the gravitational tidal perturbations of an orbiting companion. Our model contains a perfectly rigid spherical core, which is surrounded by an envelope of incompressible uniform density fluid. The corresponding linear problem was studied ...

  3. Identification of body fluid-specific DNA methylation markers for use in forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Lyul; Kwon, Oh-Hyung; Kim, Jong Hwan; Yoo, Hyang-Sook; Lee, Han-Chul; Woo, Kwang-Man; Kim, Seon-Young; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Yong Sung

    2014-11-01

    DNA methylation, which occurs at the 5'-position of the cytosine in CpG dinucleotides, has great potential for forensic identification of body fluids, because tissue-specific patterns of DNA methylation have been demonstrated, and DNA is less prone to degradation than proteins or RNA. Previous studies have reported several body fluid-specific DNA methylation markers, but DNA methylation differences are sometimes low in saliva and vaginal secretions. Moreover, specific DNA methylation markers in four types of body fluids (blood, saliva, semen, and vaginal secretions) have not been investigated with genome-wide profiling. Here, we investigated novel DNA methylation markers for identification of body fluids for use in forensic science using the Illumina HumanMethylation 450K bead array, which contains over 450,000 CpG sites. Using methylome data from 16 samples of blood, saliva, semen, and vaginal secretions, we first selected 2986 hypermethylated or hypomethylated regions that were specific for each type of body fluid. We then selected eight CpG sites as novel, forensically relevant DNA methylation markers: cg06379435 and cg08792630 for blood, cg26107890 and cg20691722 for saliva, cg23521140 and cg17610929 for semen, and cg01774894 and cg14991487 for vaginal secretions. These eight selected markers were evaluated in 80 body fluid samples using pyrosequencing, and all showed high sensitivity and specificity for identification of the target body fluid. We suggest that these eight DNA methylation markers may be good candidates for developing an effective molecular assay for identification of body fluids in forensic science.

  4. Steady free fall of one-dimensional bodies in a hyperviscous fluid at low Reynolds number

    CERN Document Server

    Giusteri, Giulio G; Musesti, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the study of the motion of one-dimensional rigid bodies during a free fall in a quasi-Newtonian hyperviscous fluid at low Reynolds number. We show the existence of a steady solution and furnish sufficient conditions on the geometry of the body in order to get purely translational motions. Such conditions are based on a generalized version of the so-called "Reciprocal Theorem" for fluids.

  5. Identification of body fluid-specific DNA methylation markers for use in forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Lyul; Kwon, Oh-Hyung; Kim, Jong Hwan; Yoo, Hyang-Sook; Lee, Han-Chul; Woo, Kwang-Man; Kim, Seon-Young; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Yong Sung

    2014-11-01

    DNA methylation, which occurs at the 5'-position of the cytosine in CpG dinucleotides, has great potential for forensic identification of body fluids, because tissue-specific patterns of DNA methylation have been demonstrated, and DNA is less prone to degradation than proteins or RNA. Previous studies have reported several body fluid-specific DNA methylation markers, but DNA methylation differences are sometimes low in saliva and vaginal secretions. Moreover, specific DNA methylation markers in four types of body fluids (blood, saliva, semen, and vaginal secretions) have not been investigated with genome-wide profiling. Here, we investigated novel DNA methylation markers for identification of body fluids for use in forensic science using the Illumina HumanMethylation 450K bead array, which contains over 450,000 CpG sites. Using methylome data from 16 samples of blood, saliva, semen, and vaginal secretions, we first selected 2986 hypermethylated or hypomethylated regions that were specific for each type of body fluid. We then selected eight CpG sites as novel, forensically relevant DNA methylation markers: cg06379435 and cg08792630 for blood, cg26107890 and cg20691722 for saliva, cg23521140 and cg17610929 for semen, and cg01774894 and cg14991487 for vaginal secretions. These eight selected markers were evaluated in 80 body fluid samples using pyrosequencing, and all showed high sensitivity and specificity for identification of the target body fluid. We suggest that these eight DNA methylation markers may be good candidates for developing an effective molecular assay for identification of body fluids in forensic science. PMID:25128690

  6. Discriminant Analysis of Raman Spectra for Body Fluid Identification for Forensic Purposes

    OpenAIRE

    Vitali Sikirzhytski; Kelly Virkler; Lednev, Igor K.

    2010-01-01

    Detection and identification of blood, semen and saliva stains, the most common body fluids encountered at a crime scene, are very important aspects of forensic science today. This study targets the development of a nondestructive, confirmatory method for body fluid identification based on Raman spectroscopy coupled with advanced statistical analysis. Dry traces of blood, semen and saliva obtained from multiple donors were probed using a confocal Raman microscope with a 785-nm excitation wave...

  7. Long-term effects of growth hormone (GH) on body fluid distribution in GH deficient adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Sidse; Rosenfalck, A M; Frandsen, E;

    1999-01-01

    Short-term growth hormone (GH) treatment normalises body fluid distribution in adult GH deficient patients, but the impact of long-term treatment on body fluid homeostasis has hitherto not been thoroughly examined in placebo controlled trials. To investigate if the water retaining effect of GH...... persists for a longer time we examined the impact of 4 months GH treatment on extracellular volume (ECV) and plasma volume (PV) in GH deficient adults....

  8. Messenger RNA profiling for forensic body fluid identification: research and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Su-hua; Di, Zhou; Zhao, Shu-min; Li, Cheng-tao

    2013-10-01

    Identifying the origin of body fluids left at a crime scene can give a significant insight into crime scene reconstruction by supporting a link between sample donors and actual criminal acts. However, the conventional body fluid identification methods are prone to various limitations, such as time consumption, intensive labor, nonparallel manner, varying degrees of sensitivity and limited specificity. Recently, the analysis of cell-specific messenger RNA expression (mRNA profiling) has been proposed to supplant conventional methods for body fluid identification. Since 2011, the collaborative exercises have been organized by the European DNA Profiling Group (EDNAP) in order to evaluate the robustness and reproducibility of mRNA profiling for body fluid identification. The major advantages of mRNA profiling, compared to the conventional methods, include higher sensitivity, greater specificity, the ability of detecting several body fluids in one multiplex reaction, and compatibility with current DNA extraction and analysis procedure. In the current review, we provided an overview of the present knowledge and detection methodologies of mRNA profiling for forensic body fluid identification and discussed its possible practical application to forensic casework.

  9. Messenger RNA Profiling for Forensic Body Fluid Identifica-tion:Research and Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zheng; ZHANG Su-hua; ZHOU Di; ZHAO Shu-min; LI Cheng-tao

    2013-01-01

    Identifying the origin of body fluids left at a crime scene can give a significant insight into crime scene reconstruction by supporting a link betw een sample donors and actual criminal acts. How ev-er, the conventional body fluid identification methods are prone to various limitations, such as time con-sumption, intensive labor, nonparallel manner, varying degrees of sensitivity and limited specificity. Re-cently, the analysis of cell-specific messenger RNA expression (mRNA profiling) has been proposed to supplant conventional methods for body fluid identification. Since 2011, the collaborative exercises have been organized by the European DNA Profiling Group (EDNAP ) in order to evaluate the robustness and reproducibility of mRNA profiling for body fluid identification. The major advantages of mRNA profil-ing, compared to the conventional methods, include higher sensitivity, greater specificity, the ability of detecting several body fluids in one multiplex reaction, and compatibilitywith current DNA extraction and analysis procedure. In the current review ,we provided an overview of the present know ledge and detection methodologies of mRNA profiling for forensic body fluid identification and discussed its possi-ble practical application to forensic casew ork.

  10. Genome-wide methylation profiling and a multiplex construction for the identification of body fluids using epigenetic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwan Young; An, Ja Hyun; Jung, Sang-Eun; Oh, Yu Na; Lee, Eun Young; Choi, Ajin; Yang, Woo Ick; Shin, Kyoung-Jin

    2015-07-01

    The identification of body fluids found at crime scenes can contribute to solving crimes by providing important insights into crime scene reconstruction. In the present study, body fluid-specific epigenetic marker candidates were identified from genome-wide DNA methylation profiling of 42 body fluid samples including blood, saliva, semen, vaginal fluid and menstrual blood using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array. A total of 64 CpG sites were selected as body fluid-specific marker candidates by having more than 20% discrepancy in DNA methylation status between a certain type of body fluid and other types of body fluids and to have methylation or unmethylation pattern only in a particular type of body fluid. From further locus-specific methylation analysis in additional samples, 1 to 3 CpG sites were selected for each body fluid. Then, a multiplex methylation SNaPshot reaction was constructed to analyze methylation status of 8 body fluid-specific CpG sites. The developed multiplex reaction positively identifies blood, saliva, semen and the body fluid which originates from female reproductive organ in one reaction, and produces successful DNA methylation profiles in aged or mixed samples. Although it remains to be investigated whether this approach is more sensitive, more practical than RNA- or peptide-based assays and whether it can be successfully applied to forensic casework, the results of the present study will be useful for the forensic investigators dealing with body fluid samples. PMID:25796047

  11. On the identifiability of a rigid body moving in a stationary viscous fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is devoted to a geometrical inverse problem associated with a fluid–structure system. More precisely, we consider the interaction between a moving rigid body and a viscous and incompressible fluid. Assuming a low Reynolds regime, the inertial forces can be neglected and, therefore, the fluid motion is modelled by the Stokes system. We first prove the well posedness of the corresponding system. Then we show an identifiability result: with one measure of the Cauchy forces of the fluid on one given part of the boundary and at some positive time, the shape of a convex body and its initial position are identified. (paper)

  12. Nonlinear free fall of one-dimensional rigid bodies in hyperviscous fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Giusteri, Giulio G; Musesti, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    We consider the free fall of slender rigid bodies in a viscous incompressible fluid. We show that the dimensional reduction (DR), performed by substituting the slender bodies with one-dimensional rigid objects, together with a hyperviscous regularization (HR) of the Navier-Stokes equation for the three-dimensional fluid lead to a well-posed fluid-structure interaction problem. In contrast to what can be achieved within a classical framework, the hyperviscous term permits a sound definition of the viscous force acting on the one-dimensional immersed body, and global-in-time existence and uniqueness of a solution can be proved. Those results show that the DR/HR procedure can be effectively employed for the mathematical modeling of the free fall problem in the slender-body limit.

  13. X-ray fluorescence analysis in application for study of human brain tissue and body fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin slices of human brain tissue and body fluids were investigated using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry. Distribution of elements in brain tissue samples was studied using Microbeam X-Ray Fluorescence (MXRF) method. Total Reflection X-Ray fluorescence (TXRF) analysis was applied for determination of elemental contens in cerebrospinal fluid, serum and whole blood. The main goal of the study was to optimize analytical procedures for investigation of biomedical specimens using EDXRF method. MXRF method is useful for investigation of P, S, Cl, K, Ca and Fe. Moreover, it can be also applied for distinguishing between white and gray matter of the human brain. Two sample preparation methods were applied in TXRF spectrometry with respect to detection limit. In the first method the body fluids were analysed without any sample preparation. The other measurements were performed for the body fluids digested with nitric acid. For both methods gallium was used as an internal standard. Accuracy of the TXRF method was assessed using Certified Reference Material, A-13 (freeze-dried animal blood). High sensitivity of TXRF and proper sample preparation allowed to detect wide spectrum of elements between Cl and Sr. Faster and easier first sample preparation method allowed to detect elements including volatile ones like Cl or Br whereas digestion of fluids with nitric acid improved the detection limits significantly. Elemental analysis of thin brain tissue samples and body fluids will be applied for study of role of trace elements in selected neurological diseases. (author)

  14. Control of fluid-containing rotating rigid bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Gurchenkov, Anatoly A

    2013-01-01

    This book is devoted to the study of the dynamics of rotating bodies with cavities containing liquid. Two basic classes of motions are analyzed: rotation and libration. Cases of complete and partial filling of cavities with ideal liquid and complete filling with viscous liquid are treated. The volume presents a method for obtaining relations between angular velocities perpendicular to main rotation and external force momentums, which are treated as control. The developed models and methods of solving dynamical problems as well as numerical methods for solving problems of optimal control can be

  15. Towards instantaneous quantitative fluoroimaging drugs determination in body fluids with no added reagents

    OpenAIRE

    Strashnikova, Natalia V.; Gershanik, Arcady P.; Papiashvili, Nona; Khankin, Daniel; Cohen-Luria, Rivka; Mark, Shlomo; Kalisky, Yehoshua; Parola, Abraham H

    2010-01-01

    Our objective is to develop a simple monitoring technique for rapid, sensitive and quantitative drugs detection in body fluids, with no reagent added and no need for qualified professionals. The user-friendly automatic Fluo-imager will (a) measure the full-range 3D fluorescence map of the inserted fluid sample, (b) determine the chemical nature and concentration of the drugs and (c) transfer the results through internet to the diagnosis center. For these goals the fluorescence measurement dat...

  16. Methylation Markers for the Identification of Body Fluids and Tissues from Forensic Trace Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forat, Sophia; Huettel, Bruno; Reinhardt, Richard; Fimmers, Rolf; Haidl, Gerhard; Denschlag, Dominik; Olek, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    The identification of body fluids is an essential tool for clarifying the course of events at a criminal site. The analytical problem is the fact that the biological material has been very often exposed to detrimental exogenous influences. Thereby, the molecular substrates used for the identification of the traces may become degraded. So far, most protocols utilize cell specific proteins or RNAs. Instead of measuring these more sensitive compounds this paper describes the application of the differential DNA-methylation. As a result of two genome wide screenings with the Illumina HumanMethylation BeadChips 27 and 450k we identified 150 candidate loci revealing differential methylation with regard to the body fluids venous blood, menstrual blood, vaginal fluid, saliva and sperm. Among them we selected 9 loci as the most promising markers. For the final determination of the methylation degree we applied the SNuPE-method. Because the degree of methylation might be modified by various endogenous and exogenous factors, we tested each marker with approximately 100 samples of each target fluid in a validation study. The stability of the detection procedure is proved in various simulated forensic surroundings according to standardized conditions. We studied the potential influence of 12 relatively common tumors on the methylation of the 9 markers. For this purpose the target fluids of 34 patients have been analysed. Only the cervix carcinoma might have an remarkable effect because impairing the signal of both vaginal markers. Using the Illumina MiSeq device we tested the potential influence of cis acting sequence variants on the methylation degree of the 9 markers in the specific body fluid DNA of 50 individuals. For 4 marker loci we observed such an influence either by sole SNPs or haplotypes. The identification of each target fluid is possible in arbitrary mixtures with the remaining four body fluids. The sensitivity of the individual body fluid tests is in the same range

  17. Discriminant Analysis of Raman Spectra for Body Fluid Identification for Forensic Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitali Sikirzhytski

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Detection and identification of blood, semen and saliva stains, the most common body fluids encountered at a crime scene, are very important aspects of forensic science today. This study targets the development of a nondestructive, confirmatory method for body fluid identification based on Raman spectroscopy coupled with advanced statistical analysis. Dry traces of blood, semen and saliva obtained from multiple donors were probed using a confocal Raman microscope with a 785-nm excitation wavelength under controlled laboratory conditions. Results demonstrated the capability of Raman spectroscopy to identify an unknown substance to be semen, blood or saliva with high confidence.

  18. Corrosion behavior of Mg and Mg-Zn alloys in simulated body fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Jia-cheng; WU Sha; QIAO Li-ying; WANG Yong

    2008-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of Mg and Mg-Zn in simulated body fluid was studied.The mass loss of pure Mg,Mg-Zn-Zr and Mg-Zn-Zr-Y in simulated body fluid was measured using photovoltaic scale meter.Corrosion rate was determined through electrochemical tests.Finally,the corrosion mechanism was tbermodynamically studied.The results show that the corrosion rate decreases with the lapse of time for both pure Mg and Mg alloys.The purer the alloy,the borer the corrosion resistance exhibits.The corrosion behavior of Mg alloy is improved by the addition of trace Y.

  19. Effect of lower-body positive pressure on postural fluid shifts in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinghofer-Szalkay, H.; Kravik, S. E.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of the lower-body positive pressure (LBPP) on the orthostatic fluid and protein shifts were investigated in five men during combined tilt-table/antigravity suit inflation and deflation experiments. Changes in the mass densities of venous blood and plasma were measured and the values were used to calculate the densities of erythrocytes, whole-body blood, and shifted fluid. It was found that the application of 60 mm Hg LBPP during 60-deg head-up tilt prevented about half of the postural hemoconcentration occurring during passive head-up tilt.

  20. Corrosion behavior of coated and uncoated bio implants in SBF(simulated body fluid)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surgical implants used in medical applications are basically the specific type of stainless steel materials. Stainless steel has been used widely and successfully for various types of trauma and orthopedic reconstructions. If an uncoated (bare) stainless steel metal piece is implanted in any part of the body, it will get corrode in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) present inside the human body (a mixture of different salts). To overcome this problem a coating of Titanium Nitride (TiN) was developed on stainless steel bio-implants using physical vapor deposition (PVD) method. Both coated and uncoated implants were kept dipped in Simulated Body Fluid for five months. The samples were removed and tested for corrosion life assessment after every fifteen days using weight loss method. (author)

  1. Many-fluid Onsager density functional theories for orientational ordering in mixtures of anisotropic hard-body fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malijevský, Alexandr; Jackson, George; Varga, Szabolcs

    2008-10-14

    The extension of Onsager's second-virial theory [L. Onsager, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 51, 627 (1949)] for the orientational ordering of hard rods to mixtures of nonspherical hard bodies with finite length-to-breadth ratios is examined using the decoupling approximations of Parsons [Phys. Rev. A 19, 1225 (1979)] and Lee [J. Chem. Phys. 86, 6567 (1987); 89, 7036 (1988)]. Invariably the extension of the Parsons-Lee (PL) theory to mixtures has in the past involved a van der Waals one-fluid treatment in which the properties of the mixture are approximated by those of a reference one-component hard-sphere fluid with an effective diameter which depends on the composition of the mixture and the molecular parameters of the various components; commonly this is achieved by equating the molecular volumes of the effective hard sphere and of the components in the mixture and is referred to as the PL theory of mixtures. It is well known that a one-fluid treatment is not the most appropriate for the description of the thermodynamic properties of isotropic fluids, and inadequacies are often rectified with a many-fluid (MF) theory. Here, we examine MF theories which are developed from the virial theorem and the virial expansion of the Helmholtz free energy of anisotropic fluid mixtures. The use of the decoupling approximation of the pair distribution function at the level of a multicomponent hard-sphere reference system leads to our MF Parsons (MFP) theory of anisotropic mixtures. Alternatively the mapping of the virial coefficients of the hard-body mixtures onto those of equivalent hard-sphere systems leads to our MF Lee (MFL) theory. The description of the isotropic-nematic phase behavior of binary mixtures of hard Gaussian overlap particles is used to assess the adequacy of the four different theories, namely, the original second-virial theory of Onsager, the usual PL one-fluid theory, and the MF theories based on the Lee (MFL) and Parsons (MFP) approaches. A comparison with the

  2. Many-fluid Onsager density functional theories for orientational ordering in mixtures of anisotropic hard-body fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malijevský, Alexandr; Jackson, George; Varga, Szabolcs

    2008-10-14

    The extension of Onsager's second-virial theory [L. Onsager, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 51, 627 (1949)] for the orientational ordering of hard rods to mixtures of nonspherical hard bodies with finite length-to-breadth ratios is examined using the decoupling approximations of Parsons [Phys. Rev. A 19, 1225 (1979)] and Lee [J. Chem. Phys. 86, 6567 (1987); 89, 7036 (1988)]. Invariably the extension of the Parsons-Lee (PL) theory to mixtures has in the past involved a van der Waals one-fluid treatment in which the properties of the mixture are approximated by those of a reference one-component hard-sphere fluid with an effective diameter which depends on the composition of the mixture and the molecular parameters of the various components; commonly this is achieved by equating the molecular volumes of the effective hard sphere and of the components in the mixture and is referred to as the PL theory of mixtures. It is well known that a one-fluid treatment is not the most appropriate for the description of the thermodynamic properties of isotropic fluids, and inadequacies are often rectified with a many-fluid (MF) theory. Here, we examine MF theories which are developed from the virial theorem and the virial expansion of the Helmholtz free energy of anisotropic fluid mixtures. The use of the decoupling approximation of the pair distribution function at the level of a multicomponent hard-sphere reference system leads to our MF Parsons (MFP) theory of anisotropic mixtures. Alternatively the mapping of the virial coefficients of the hard-body mixtures onto those of equivalent hard-sphere systems leads to our MF Lee (MFL) theory. The description of the isotropic-nematic phase behavior of binary mixtures of hard Gaussian overlap particles is used to assess the adequacy of the four different theories, namely, the original second-virial theory of Onsager, the usual PL one-fluid theory, and the MF theories based on the Lee (MFL) and Parsons (MFP) approaches. A comparison with the

  3. Lamellar body count in amniotic fluid for assessing fetal lung maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Višnjevac Jovana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS of the newborn infant caused by immaturity of fetal lung is a very serious clinical problem. Surfactant is stored in the form of lamellar bodies. They are secreted into alveolar space and passed into amniotic fluid where they can be found. The similarity of lamellar body size to platelet size permits the use of a standard automated hematologic cell counter to estimate the number of lamellar bodies in amniotic fluid. Material and Methods. We conducted a prospective clinical study from 2005 - 2006 on amniotic fluid samples. Amniotic fluid samples were collected near delivery by transvaginal amniotomy, amniotomy during Cesarean section and 72 hours before delivery by amniocentesis. A hematology analyzer (Nikon - Kohden® was used to determine the lamellar body counts. After birth of newborns we compared their complete clinical examination results particularly emphasizing the prediction of the method of RDS by lamellar body count. Maximally specific lamellar body cutoffs for maturity and immaturity were determined using ROC curves. Results and Discussion. Of 232 amniotic fluid samples which were tested, 112 samples were collected by transvaginal amniotomy, 88 were taken during Cesarean delivery and 32 samples were collected by amniocentesis. The incidence of RDS was 14.6%. ROC curves were used to identify cut points for the test. We found that LBC is a good screening test for predicting fetal lung maturity with the area under the curve of 0.751. LBC cutoff of 42x10³/μl, with sensitivity of 82.4% and specificity of 64.6%, proved best for predicting fetal lung maturity. Conclusion. LBC is a good screening test for predicting fetal lung maturity. The advantages of LBC are speed, objectivity, low price, low sample volume required and universal availability.

  4. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Severity and Overnight Body Fluid Shift before and after Hemodialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forni Ogna, Valentina; Mihalache, Alexandra; Pruijm, Menno; Halabi, Georges; Phan, Olivier; Cornette, Françoise; Bassi, Isabelle; Haba Rubio, José; Burnier, Michel; Heinzer, Raphaël

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with significantly increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Fluid overload may promote obstructive sleep apnea in patients with ESRD through an overnight fluid shift from the legs to the neck soft tissues. Body fluid shift and severity of obstructive sleep apnea before and after hemodialysis were compared in patients with ESRD. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Seventeen patients with hemodialysis and moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea were included. Polysomnographies were performed the night before and after hemodialysis to assess obstructive sleep apnea, and bioimpedance was used to measure fluid overload and leg fluid volume. Results The mean overnight rostral fluid shift was 1.27±0.41 L prehemodialysis; it correlated positively with fluid overload volume (r=0.39; P=0.02) and was significantly lower posthemodialysis (0.78±0.38 L; P<0.001). There was no significant difference in the mean obstructive apnea-hypopnea index before and after hemodialysis (46.8±22.0 versus 42.1±18.6 per hour; P=0.21), but obstructive apnea-hypopnea index was significantly lower posthemodialysis (−10.1±10.8 per hour) in the group of 12 patients, with a concomitant reduction of fluid overload compared with participants without change in fluid overload (obstructive apnea-hypopnea index +8.2±16.1 per hour; P<0.01). A lower fluid overload after hemodialysis was significantly correlated (r=0.49; P=0.04) with a lower obstructive apnea-hypopnea index. Fluid overload—assessed by bioimpedance—was the best predictor of the change in obstructive apnea-hypopnea index observed after hemodialysis (standardized r=−0.68; P=0.01) in multivariate regression analysis. Conclusions Fluid overload influences overnight rostral fluid shift and obstructive sleep apnea severity in patients with ESRD undergoing intermittent hemodialysis. Although no benefit of hemodialysis on obstructive sleep apnea severity

  5. Fluids, rivers, and vessels: metaphors and body concepts in Mesopotamian gynaecological texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinert, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the peculiar disease condition of "locked fluids" found in a number of gynaecological texts from 2(nd) and 1(st) millennium BCE Mesopotamia. To venture an interpretation of the underlying disease concept, the condition of "locked fluids" is first examined in the context of related and contrasting symptoms and female health problems connected to body fluids within the gynaecological corpus. The second part of this article turns to the physiological concepts of the (female) body linked to the disease condition of "locked fluids". The author highlights metaphors and comparisons with objects from daily life and the natural environment, which can be found in medical incantations and therapeutic rituals used to combat gynaecological disorders, as a key to indigenous concepts of physiology. The use of the same metaphors in connection with intestinal disorders points to an intuitive understanding of different processes within the body on the basis of comparisons and equations stemming from daily-life experiences. The last section presents similar notions to the Mesopotamian disease concept of "locked fluids", which are contained in gynaecological treatises of other cultures and times. PMID:24109494

  6. Lecture notes on: Electrical theory behind the measurement of body fluids with bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jødal, Lars

    The lecture notes describe how body fluid volumes can be measured/estimated using the technique bio-impedance spectroscopy (BIS). The opening chapters assume little or none technical/mathematical knowledge and can hopefully be read by anyone interested in the techneque. Later chapters become more...

  7. COMMENTS ON TREATMENT OF OBESITY BASED ON SYNDROME DIFFERENTIATION OF BODY FLUID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彩荣; 郭丽霞; 李季; 符佳; 胡玲香

    2004-01-01

    Because of no exact name about obesity in traditional Chinese medicine, clinically there have no unified syndrome types about obesity. The present paper uses the original syndrome differentiation of body fluid and selects classical acupuncture and moxibustion prescriptions to treat obesity, which is conducive to further systematizing classical acupuncture and moxibustion prescriptions and providing sufficient basis for clinical popularization.

  8. Guidelines for uniform reporting of body fluid biomarker studies in neurologic disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnanapavan, Sharmilee; Hegen, Harald; Khalil, Michael;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of these guidelines is to make the process of reporting body fluid biomarker studies in neurologic disorders more uniform and transparent, in line with existing standards for reporting research in other biomedical areas. Although biomarkers have been around for decades, there a......OBJECTIVE: The aim of these guidelines is to make the process of reporting body fluid biomarker studies in neurologic disorders more uniform and transparent, in line with existing standards for reporting research in other biomedical areas. Although biomarkers have been around for decades......, there are concerns over the high attrition rate of promising candidate biomarkers at later phases of development. METHODS: BioMS-eu consortium, a collaborative network working toward improving the quality of biomarker research in neurologic disorders, discussed the merits of standardizing the reporting of body fluid...... of studies. This guideline by the BioMS-eu consortium is aimed at setting a standard for the reporting of future body fluid biomarker research studies in neurologic disorders. We anticipate that following these guidelines will help to accelerate the selection of biomarkers for clinical development....

  9. Researchers move closer to understanding chaotic motion of a solid body in a fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Nystrom, Lynn A.

    2010-01-01

    In a paper appearing in the Feb. 24 issue of the "Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A," Virginia Tech Engineering Science and Mechanics Professor Hassan Aref, and his colleague Johan Roenby at the Technical University of Denmark shed new light on the chaotic motion of a solid body moving through a fluid.

  10. Effect of irrigation fluid temperature on body temperature during arthroscopic elbow surgery in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.R. Thompson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This prospective randomised clinical trial evaluated the effect of warmed irrigation fluid on body temperature in anaesthetised dogs undergoing arthroscopic elbow surgery. Nineteen dogs undergoing elbow arthroscopy were included in the study and were randomly allocated to one of two groups. Group RT received irrigation fluid at room temperature (RT while dogs in group W received warmed (W irrigation fluid (36oC. A standardised patient management and anaesthetic protocol was used and body temperature was measured at four time points; (T1 pre-anaesthetic examination, (T2 arrival into theatre, (T3 end of surgery and (T4 arrival into recovery. There was no significant difference in body temperature at any time point between the groups. The mean overall decrease in body temperature between pre-anaesthetic examination (T1 and return to the recovery suite (T4 was significant in both groups, with a fall of 1.06±0.58oC (p<0.001 in group RT and 1.53±0.76oC (p<0.001 group W. There was no significant difference between the groups. At the end of surgery (T3 4/19 (21.1% of dogs were hypothermic (<37oC. The addition of warmed irrigation fluids to a temperature management protocol in dogs undergoing elbow arthroscopy during general anaesthesia did not lead to decreased temperature losses.

  11. Body fluid identification of blood, saliva and semen using second generation sequencing of micro-RNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christel H.; Hjort, Benjamin Benn; Tvedebrink, Torben;

    2013-01-01

    We report a new second generation sequencing method for identification micro-RNA (miRNA) that can be used to identify body fluids and tissues. Principal component analysis of 10 miRNAs with high expression in 16 samples of blood, saliva and semen showed clear differences in the expression of mi...

  12. Biogalvanic aluminum--oxygen cells. [Al anode and O from body fluids; 240. mu. W output

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidlich, E.; Wenzel, M.; Richter, G.; Von Strum, F.

    1973-01-01

    The cell consists of an Al anode between two activated carbon electrodes coated with tissue-compatible membranes that permit only the entrance of oxygen from body fluids. In vitro output is 240 ..mu..W and in vivo output is 200 ..mu..W. The cell can be used to power a cardiac pacemaker.

  13. Fluid and salt supplementation effect on body hydration and electrolyte homeostasis during bed rest and ambulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorbas, Yan G.; Kakurin, Vassily J.; Kuznetsov, Nikolai A.; Yarullin, Vladimir L.

    2002-06-01

    Bed rest (BR) induces significant urinary and blood electrolyte changes, but little is known about the effect of fluid and salt supplements (FSS) on catabolism, hydration and electrolytes. The aim was to measure the effect of FSS on catabolism, body hydration and electrolytes during BR. Studies were done during 7 days of a pre-bed rest period and during 30 days of a rigorous bed rest period. Thirty male athletes aged, 24.6±7.6 years were chosen as subjects. They were divided into three groups: unsupplemented ambulatory control subjects (UACS), unsupplemented bed rested subjects (UBRS) and supplemented bed rested subjects (SBRS). The UBRS and SBRS groups were kept under a rigorous bed rest regime for 30 days. The SBRS daily took 30 ml water per kg body weight and 0.1 sodium chloride per kg body weight. Plasma sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) levels, urinary Na, K, Ca and Mg excretion, plasma osmolality, plasma protein level, whole blood hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct) level increased significantly ( p≤0.05), while plasma volume (PV), body weight, body fat, peak oxygen uptake, food and fluid intake decreased significantly ( p≤0.05) in the UBRS group when compared with the SBRS and UACS groups. In contrast, plasma and urinary electrolytes, osmolality, protein level, whole blood Hct and Hb level decreased significantly ( p≤0.05), while PV, fluid intake, body weight and peak oxygen uptake increased significantly ( p≤0.05) in the SBRS group when compared with the UBRS group. The measured parameters did not change significantly in the UACS group when compared with their baseline control values. The data indicate that FSS stabilizes electrolytes and body hydration during BR, while BR alone induces significant changes in electrolytes and body hydration. We conclude that FSS may be used to prevent catabolism and normalize body hydration status and electrolyte values during BR.

  14. Flow Visualization of Internal Waves and Wakes of a Streamlined Body in a Stratified Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Amin A. Bidokhti; Aliakbar Bidokhti

    2016-01-01

    The wake and internal waves of a moving three dimensional (3D) airfoil body in a stratified fluid has been investigated in a large stratified tank with a finite depth using movies of shadowgraphs of the flow fields. Typical Reynolds and Froude numbers of the flow varied between 103 and 104, and 0.3 and 2 respectively. The flows are generated often by towing the body in a uniformly stratified flow, while limited cases are carried out with body stationary and the channel was in recirculating mo...

  15. INVESTIGATING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ACUTE FLUID LOSS AND BODY FAT PERCENTAGE BY USING BIA METHOD TO DETERMİNE BODY COMPOSİTİON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA is so popular technique to analysis body fat mass (BFM, free fat mass (FFM, lean body mass (LBM and total body fluid (TBF in both healthy and patient subjects. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the acute weight(fluid loss on body fat mass and percentage by using BIA method. In this study 43 soccer players (age: 21.90; length: 179.62and weight: 73.90 who playing in college league in Afyonkarahisar province has been participated. Body weight, total body fluid, body fat percentage and fat mass of soccer players were measured by using BIA(Tanita method before and after the matches. Paired t test has been used to compare pretest and posttest values. Pearson's correlation analysis has been used to determine relationship between tests values. Statistically differences has been determined between pre-post body weight and body fat TBF (p<0,01. Also, highly negative correlation has been determined between pre-post body fluide loss percentage differences and pre-post body fat mass percentage differences (r=-,766; p<0,001. Theoretically, body fat loss is expected following weight loss after computation, anything but rising rate of body fat was observed. So it is speculated that bio-electric facing more resistance in the body due to fluid loss. Therefore more body fat calculated. Dehydration should be taken into account for the measurements made by the BIA method, because of changes in body fat percentages. It is suggested that fluid intake of the subjects should be under control before the measurementin the studies.

  16. Effects of Intense Physical Activity with Free Water Replacement on Bioimpedance Parameters and Body Fluid Estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Authors have emphasized the need for previous care in order to perform reliable bioimpedance acquisition. Despite of this need some authors have reported that intense physical training has little effect on Bioimpedance Analysis (BIA), while other ones have observed significant effects on bioimpedance parameters in the same condition, leading to body composition estimates considered incompatible with human physiology. The aim of this work was to quantify the changes in bioimpedance parameters, as well as in body fluids estimates by BIA, after four hours of intense physical activity with free water replacement in young males. Xitron Hydra 4200 equipment was used to acquire bioimpedance data before and immediately after the physical training. After data acquisition body fluids were estimates from bioimpedance parameters. Height and weight of all subjects were also acquired to the nearest 0.1 cm and 0.1 kg, respectively. Results point that among the bioimpedance parameter, extracellular resistance presented the most coherent behavior, leading to reliable estimates of the extracellular fluid and part of the total body water. Results also show decreases in height and weight of the participants, which were associated to the decrease in body hydration and in intervertebral discs.

  17. Effects of Intense Physical Activity with Free Water Replacement on Bioimpedance Parameters and Body Fluid Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, E. B.; Ulbricht, L.; Krueger, E.; Romaneli, E. F. R.; Souza, M. N.

    2012-12-01

    Authors have emphasized the need for previous care in order to perform reliable bioimpedance acquisition. Despite of this need some authors have reported that intense physical training has little effect on Bioimpedance Analysis (BIA), while other ones have observed significant effects on bioimpedance parameters in the same condition, leading to body composition estimates considered incompatible with human physiology. The aim of this work was to quantify the changes in bioimpedance parameters, as well as in body fluids estimates by BIA, after four hours of intense physical activity with free water replacement in young males. Xitron Hydra 4200 equipment was used to acquire bioimpedance data before and immediately after the physical training. After data acquisition body fluids were estimates from bioimpedance parameters. Height and weight of all subjects were also acquired to the nearest 0.1 cm and 0.1 kg, respectively. Results point that among the bioimpedance parameter, extracellular resistance presented the most coherent behavior, leading to reliable estimates of the extracellular fluid and part of the total body water. Results also show decreases in height and weight of the participants, which were associated to the decrease in body hydration and in intervertebral discs.

  18. Quantitative analysis of lamellar bodies in amniotic fluid as fetal pulmonary maturity indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubić Vesna

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Although lamellar bodies have been the center of interest over the last years, the published results of fetal pulmonary maturity determination according to their concentration in amniotic fluid are controversial. The aim of this study was to determine the significance of lamellar bodies, as well as the ratio lecithin/sphingomyelin (L/S in amniotic fluid for the assessment of fetal pulmonary maturity. Methods. This prospective 2-year study included 102 female examinees, ranging from 17 to 44 years of age, in whom lamellar bodies concentrations in amniotic fluid were determined to check the efficacy of the applied therapy for obtaining arteficial fetal pulmonary maturity. The shake test was applied as a comparative test for determining a quantitative L/S ratio. To determine a fetus maturity and development stage we followed up biparietal diameter, abdominal circumference, femure length, ponderal index at birth and body mass. Results. Out of a total of 102 amniocenteses within a period from 26th to 40th gestation week only 70 results were considered due to 32 unknown neonatal outcomes. Biparietal diameter was 224-362 mm, femur length 56 - 78 mm, ponderal index 1.22-2.84, fetus body mass 1300- 4 350 g. There was found a significant relation between gestation age and lamellar bodies concentration (R = 0.396398, p < 0.01, as well as between gestation age and the ratio L/S (R = 0.691297, p < 0.01. Also, there was a significant correlation of lamellar bodies concentration to the ratio L/S determined (R = 0.493609, p < 0.01. Conclusion. Determination of lamellar bodies concentration values is a reliable method to confirm fetal pulmonary maturity.

  19. Locomotion and control of a self-propelled shape-changing body in a perfect fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Chambrion, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we are interested in studying some issues relating to the general problem of locomotion by shape- changes in a two dimensional perfect fluis. Our results are two folds: first we introduce a rigorous model for a weighted self-propelled swimming body - one specificity of this model being that the number of the body's deformations degrees of freedom is infinite. The dynamic of the coupled system fluid-body is driven by the so-called Euler-Lagrange equations: a system of ODEs allowing to compute the rigid motion of the body with respect to its prescribed shape-changes. Second, we prove controllability results for this model using powerful tools of geometric control theory. For instance, we show that the body can follow (approximately) any prescribed trajectory while undergoing (approximately) any prescribed shape-changes (this surprising phenomenon will be called Moonwalking). Most of our theoretical results are illustrated by numerical simulations.

  20. Strongly coupled dynamics of fluids and rigid-body systems with the immersed boundary projection method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengjie; Eldredge, Jeff D.

    2015-08-01

    A strong coupling algorithm is presented for simulating the dynamic interactions between incompressible viscous flows and rigid-body systems in both two- and three-dimensional problems. In this work, the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible flow are solved on a uniform Cartesian grid by the vorticity-based immersed boundary projection method of Colonius and Taira. Dynamical equations for arbitrary rigid-body systems are also developed. The proposed coupling method attempts to unify the treatment of constraints in the fluid and structure-the incompressibility of the fluid, the linkages in the rigid-body system, and the conditions at the interface-through the use of Lagrange multipliers. The resulting partitioned system of equations is solved with a simple relaxation scheme, based on an identification of virtual inertia from the fluid. The scheme achieves convergence in only 2 to 5 iterations per time step for a wide variety of mass ratios. The formulation requires that only a subset of the discrete fluid equations be solved in each iteration. Several two- and three-dimensional numerical tests are conducted to validate and demonstrate the method, including a falling cylinder, flapping of flexible wings, self-excited oscillations of a system of many linked plates in a free stream, and passive pivoting of a finite aspect ratio plate under the influence of gravity in a free stream. The results from the current method are compared with previous experimental and numerical results and good agreement is achieved.

  1. Thermal responses and body fluid balance of competitive male swimmers during a training session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Reynaldo; Echegaray, Marcos; Rivera, Miguel A

    2003-05-01

    Thermoregulatory and body fluid balance (BFB) responses of competitive swimmers were studied during a typical interval training session under natural field conditions. Subjects were 9 males (18.0 +/- 1.7 years; VO(2)max = 3.8 +/- 0.9 L x min(-1)) who covered 9,000 m in 180 minutes in an outdoor pool (mean water temperature = 26.8 +/- 0.3 degrees C; mean wet bulb globe temperature = 29.8 +/- 2.8 degrees C). Mean body weight (BWt) decreased by 1.8 +/- 0.5 kg (P WI) (0.1 +/- 0.2 kg) did not maintain BFB (-0.5 kg per hour) and plasma volume decreased 10.7 +/- 5.4%. During a typical training session, swimmers experienced significant body fluid losses, and WI was not enough to prevent involuntary dehydration. The magnitude of the fluid losses (2.5% of BWt) was sufficient to compromise convective thermoregulation because of the decreased plasma volume. Hence, to prevent involuntary dehydration, swimmers should be encouraged to consume an amount of fluids that equals losses throughout the training sessions.

  2. THE WAVE-MAKING CHARACTERISTICS OF A MOVING BODY IN A TWO-LAYER FLUID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Wei

    2005-01-01

    The Wave-making characteristics of a moving body in a two-layer fluid with free surface is investigated numerically and experimentally. The numerical analysis is based on the modified layered boundary integral equation system. The wave characteristics on the free surface and interface generated by a moving sphere and an ellipsoid is numerically simulated in both finite depth and infinite depth of lower layer model. The numerical results of the sphere are compared with the analytical results for a dipole with the same velocity in a two-layer fluid of finite depth. The dependence of the wave systems and structures on the characteristic quantities is discussed. Three kinds of measurement techniques are used in model experiments on the internal waves generated by a sphere advancing in a two-layer fluid. The effects of the varying velocity and stratification on the wavelength, wave amplitudes and the maximum half angles of internal waves are analyzed qualitatively.

  3. Reflections on the Mechanism of Calcium Phosphate Nucleation on Titanium in Simulated Body Fluids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F. T. Cheng

    2005-01-01

    The results and main findings of studies reported in the literature in relation to the deposition of calcium phosphate on Ti in simulated body fluids are summarized. The effects of the surface hydroxyl groups and the sign of surface charge on the nucleation of calcium phosphate are reviewed. One major controversy among the conclusions of different studies is the order of adsorption of the calcium ions and the phosphate ions in the initial stage of immersion. A simple model based on the amphoteric nature of the hydroxyl groups on Ti is proposed in an attempt to delineate the nucleation process for calcium phosphate on Ti in simulated body fluids. HPO42- ions interact with the hydroxyl groups via ion exchange and/or electrostatic attraction, and Ca2+ ions, via electrostatic attraction only. There is no preferential order of adsorption. Seemingly inconsistent results in different studies possibly arise from different prior treatments of the samples, which affect the adsorption properties.

  4. Enrichment methodology to increase the positivity of cultures from body fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Valle Daur

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Isolation and identification of etiological agents found in body fluids can be of critical importance for the recovery of patients suffering from potentially-severe infections, which are often followed by serious sequels. Eighty-two samples of different body fluids were analyzed using two different methods: (1 the conventional culture method (agar plating and (2 the enrichment culture technique, using the Bact/Alert® blood culture bottle. The number of positive cultures increased on average from 9.7% to 23.1% with the enrichment culture technique. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were the most frequently isolated bacteria. The enrichment method could provide a more accurate means the identifying etiological agents.

  5. MAPU: Max-Planck Unified database of organellar, cellular, tissue and body fluid proteomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yanling; Zhang, Yong; Adachi, Jun;

    2007-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics has become a powerful technology to map the protein composition of organelles, cell types and tissues. In our department, a large-scale effort to map these proteomes is complemented by the Max-Planck Unified (MAPU) proteome database. MAPU contains several...... body fluid proteomes; including plasma, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid. Cell lines have been mapped to a depth of several thousand proteins and the red blood cell proteome has also been analyzed in depth. The liver proteome is represented with 3200 proteins. By employing high resolution MS......://www.mapuproteome.com using a clickable interface of cell or body parts. Proteome data can be queried across proteomes by protein name, accession number, sequence similarity, peptide sequence and annotation information. More than 4500 mouse and 2500 human proteins have already been identified in at least one proteome. Basic...

  6. Diagnostic Relevance of microRNAs in Other Body Fluids Including Urine, Feces, and Saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igaz, Ivan; Igaz, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Beside blood-borne circulating miRNAs, miRNAs have been identified in other body fluid and excrements including stool, bile, saliva, and urine. Given the direct link of these body fluids to certain organs, their analysis for potential diagnostic miRNA markers is plausible. Several independent findings underline the potential utility of stool-derived miRNAs in the diagnosis of colorectal and pancreatic cancer. Given the difficulties in the diagnosis of cholangiocellular cancer, biliary miRNAs might be envisaged as useful markers. Several miRNAs have been identified in the saliva that could be associated with diseases, including tumors of the oral cavity. The urinary pool of miRNAs could be exploited for the diagnosis of urinary tract diseases and some appear to enable early diagnosis. In this chapter, we present findings supporting the potential diagnostic utility of fecal, biliary, salivary, and urinary miRNAs focusing mostly on tumors.

  7. Wall effect on fluid-structure interactions of a tethered bluff body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sumant; Raghav, Vrishank; Komerath, Narayanan; Smith, Marilyn

    2013-11-01

    Wind tunnel experiments have shown an unexplained amplification of the free motion of a tethered bluff body in a small wind tunnel relative to that in a large wind tunnel. The influence of wall proximity on fluid-structure interaction is explored using a compound pendulum motion in the plane orthogonal to a steady freestream with a doublet model for aerodynamic forces. Wall proximity amplifies a purely symmetric single degree of freedom oscillation with the addition of an out-of-phase force. The success of this simple level of simulation enables progress to develop metrics for unsteady wall interference in dynamic testing of tethered bluff bodies.

  8. Flat Solitary Waves due to a Submerged Body Moving in a Stratified Fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Gang; SU Xiao-Bing; LU Dong-Qiang; YOU Yun-Xiang; DAI Shi-Qiang

    2008-01-01

    A theoretical model for interaction of a submerged moving body with the conjugate flow in a three-layer fluid is proposed to depict the internal flat solitary wave, which is observed in experiments conducted by the present authors. A set of coupled nonlinear algebraic equations is derived for the interracial displacements. The numerical results indicate that (a) the conjugate flow due to a two-dimensional body moving at the bottom possesses an apparent behaviour with two convex interfaces; (b) the solution satisfying the existence criterion is always unique near the relatively stable state of system. Theoretical analysis is qualitatively consistent with the experimental results obtained.

  9. Molecular Physiology of an Extra-renal Cl- Uptake Mechanism for Body Fluid Cl- Homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yi-Fang; Yan, Jia-Jiun; Tseng, Yung-Che; Chen, Ruo-Dong; Hwang, Pung-Pung

    2015-01-01

    The development of an ion regulatory mechanism for body fluid homeostasis was an important trait for vertebrates during the evolution from aquatic to terrestrial life. The homeostatic mechanism of Cl- in aquatic fish appears to be similar to that of terrestrial vertebrates; however, the mechanism in non-mammalian vertebrates is poorly understood. Unlike in mammals, in which the kidney plays a central role, in most fish species, the gill is responsible for the maintenance of Cl- homeostasis vi...

  10. WAVES GENERATED BY A SUBMERGED BODY MOVING IN STRATIFIED FLUIDS AND VERTICAL STRUCTURES OF INTERNAL WAVES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Gang

    2004-01-01

    This dissertation deals with the internal waves generated by a submerged moving body in stratified fluids by combining theoretical and experimental methods. Our purpose is to provide some scientific evidences for non-acoustic detection of underwater moving bodies based on the principles of dynamics of the internal waves. An approach to velocity potentials obtained by superposing Green's functions of sources and sinks was proposed for Kelvin waves at the free surface or interface in a two-layer fluid. The effects of interacting surface- and internal-wave modes induced by a dipole on the surface divergence field were investigated. A new theoretical model formulating the interaction of a two-dimensional submerged moving body with the conjugate flow in a three-layer fluid was established. An exact solution satisfying the two-dimensional Benjamin-Ono equation was obtained and the vertically propagating properties of the weakly nonlinear long waves were studied by means of the ray theory and WKB method. The above theoretical results are qualitatively consistent with those obtained in the experiments conducted by the author.

  11. INVESTIGATING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ACUTE FLUID LOSS AND BODY FAT PERCENTAGE BY USING BIA METHOD TO DETERMİNE BODY COMPOSİTİON

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet; VAN, Ali; Yücel

    2015-01-01

    Bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) is so popular technique to analysis body fat mass (BFM), free fat mass (FFM), lean body mass (LBM) and total body fluid (TBF) in both healthy and patient subjects. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the acute weight(fluid) loss on body fat mass and percentage by using BIA method. In this study 43 soccer players (age: 21.90; length: 179.62and weight: 73.90) who playing in college league in Afyonkarahisar province has been participated....

  12. Apatite-forming ability of vinylphosphonic acid-based copolymer in simulated body fluid: effects of phosphate group content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamai, Ryo; Shirosaki, Yuki; Miyazaki, Toshiki

    2016-10-01

    Phosphate groups on materials surfaces are known to contribute to apatite formation upon exposure of the materials in simulated body fluid and improved affinity of the materials for osteoblast-like cells. Typically, polymers containing phosphate groups are organic matrices consisting of apatite-polymer composites prepared by biomimetic process using simulated body fluid. Ca(2+) incorporation into the polymer accelerates apatite formation in simulated body fluid owing because of increase in the supersaturation degree, with respect to apatite in simulated body fluid, owing to Ca(2+) release from the polymer. However, the effects of phosphate content on the Ca(2+) release and apatite-forming abilities of copolymers in simulated body fluid are rather elusive. In this study, a phosphate-containing copolymer prepared from vinylphosphonic acid, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate was examined. The release of Ca(2+) in Tris-NaCl buffer and simulated body fluid increased as the additive amount of vinylphosphonic acid increased. However, apatite formation was suppressed as the phosphate groups content increased despite the enhanced release of Ca(2+) from the polymer. This phenomenon was reflected by changes in the surface zeta potential. Thus, it was concluded that the apatite-forming ability of vinylphosphonic acid-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-triethylene glycol dimethacrylate copolymer treated with CaCl2 solution was governed by surface state rather than Ca(2+) release in simulated body fluid. PMID:27585911

  13. Body height, estimated cerebrospinal fluid pressure and open-angle glaucoma. The Beijing Eye Study 2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jost B Jonas

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To examine potential associations between body height, cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP, trans-lamina cribrosa pressure difference (TLCPD and prevalence of open-angle glaucoma (OAG in a population-based setting. METHODS: The population-based Beijing Eye Study 2011 included 3468 individuals with a mean age of 64.6 ± 9.8 years (range:50-93 years. A detailed ophthalmic examination was performed. Based on a previous study with lumbar cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP measurements, CSFP was calculated as CSFP[mmHg] = 0.44 × Body Mass Index[kg/m(2] + 0.16 × Diastolic Blood Pressure[mmHg]-0.18 × Age[Years]-1.91. RESULTS: Data of IOP and CSFP were available for 3353 (96.7% subjects. Taller body height was associated with higher CSFP (P<0.001; standardized correlation coefficient beta:0.13; regression coefficient B:0.29; 95% confidence interval (CI:0.25,0.33 after adjusting for male gender, urban region of habitation, higher educational level, and pulse rate. If TLCPD instead of CSFP was added, taller body height was associated with lower TLCPD (P<0.001;beta:-0.10;B:-0.20;95%CI:-0.25,-0.15. Correspondingly, higher CSFP was associated with taller body height (P = 0.003;beta:0.02;B:0.01;95%CI:0.00,0.02, after adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, pulse, systolic blood pressure, and blood concentration of cholesterol. If IOP was added to the model, higher CSFP was associated with higher IOP (P<0.001;beta:0.02;B:0.02;95%CI:0.01,0.03. TLCPD was associated with lower body height (P = 0.003;beta:-0.04;B -0.02,95%CI:-0.04,-0.01 after adjusting for age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, pulse, blood concentrations of triglycerides, axial length, central corneal thickness, corneal curvature radius, and anterior chamber depth. Adding the prevalence of OAG to the multivariate analysis revealed, that taller body height was associated with a lower OAG prevalence (P = 0.03;beta:-0.03;B:-1.20;95%CI:-2.28,-0.12 after adjusting for

  14. Many-body dipole-induced dipole model for electrorheological fluids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Ji-Ping; Yu Kin-Wah

    2004-01-01

    Theoretical investigations on electrorheological (ER) fluids usually rely on computer simulations. An initial approach for these studies would be the point-dipole (PD) approximation, which is known to err considerably when the particles approach and finally touch each other due to many-body and multipolar interactions. Thus various works have attempted to go beyond the PD model. Being beyond the PD model, previous attempts have been restricted to either local-field effects only or multipolar effects only, but not both. For instance, we recently proposed a dipoleinduced-dipole (DID) model which is shown to be both more accurate than the PD model and easy to use. This work is necessary because the many-body (local-field) effect is included to put forth the many-body DID model. The results show that the multipolar interactions can indeed be dominant over the dipole interaction, while the local-field effect may yield a correction.

  15. GANDALF: Graphical Astrophysics code for N-body Dynamics And Lagrangian Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubber, David; Rosotti, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    GANDALF, a successor to SEREN (ascl:1102.010), is a hybrid self-gravitating fluid dynamics and collisional N-body code primarily designed for investigating star formation and planet formation problems. GANDALF uses various implementations of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) to perform hydrodynamical simulations of gas clouds undergoing gravitational collapse to form new stars (or other objects), and can perform simulations of pure N-body dynamics using high accuracy N-body integrators, model the intermediate phase of cluster evolution, and provide visualizations via its python interface as well as interactive simulations. Although based on many of the SEREN routines, GANDALF has been largely re-written from scratch in C++ using more optimal algorithms and data structures.

  16. Flow Visualization of Internal Waves and Wakes of a Streamlined Body in a Stratified Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin A. Bidokhti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The wake and internal waves of a moving three dimensional (3D airfoil body in a stratified fluid has been investigated in a large stratified tank with a finite depth using movies of shadowgraphs of the flow fields. Typical Reynolds and Froude numbers of the flow varied between 103 and 104, and 0.3 and 2 respectively. The flows are generated often by towing the body in a uniformly stratified flow, while limited cases are carried out with body stationary and the channel was in recirculating mode. For some experiments the density profile had a stepped like shape. The wake flow is often consisted of internal waves including random and coherent ones. Distortion of density fields was also observed ahead and above the body in cases where the Froude number was subcritical. Results show that as the Froude number (Fr=U/Nh, where U is the body relative velocity, N is buoyancy frequency and h is the thickness of the body is increased, the flow undergoes from a subcritical narrow wake (for Fr1. Typical wavelength of the exited internal waves is increased with Fr, as the theory predicts. The wake of the flow for Fr>1.4 appeared to collapse and some internal waves emission from it could be observed. Usually two types of internal waves, namely random small scale and large scale, more regular waves are observed.

  17. The ways of amniotic fluid sampling and its influence on lamellar body count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visnjevac, Jovana; Novakov-Mikić, Aleksandra; Nikolić, Aleksandra

    2010-01-01

    Even though artificial surfactant is now available, respiratory distress syndrome still remains a serious problem in neonatology. Prenatal analysis of the amniotic fluid can provide data giving insight into the fetal lung maturity, which enables planning of the further outcome of high-risk pregnancies. Surfactant prevents atelectasis by forming a layer rich in phospholipids between the air and liquid phase in alveoli thus leading to increased surface tension in them, which is a precondition for a good lung function after birth. Lamellar bodies are a form of stored surfactant, and their count in the amniotic fluid can be determined simply by a standard hematology analyzer. The method of determining lamellar body count has found an important place in prenatal diagnostics and is recommended as an initial method of a "cascade" procedure of testing fetal lung maturity. However, considering the importance of procedure of sample collection, storage and centrifugation, which can significantly affect the results obtained for the lung maturity, the amniotic fluid samples must be absolutely free of contamination with blood, meconium, mucus, bacteria and leucocytes. PMID:21443154

  18. The ways of amniotic fluid sampling and its influence on lamellar body count

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Višnjevac Jovana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Even though artificial surfactant is now available, respiratory distress syndrome still remains a serious problem in neonatology. Prenatal analysis of the amniotic fluid can provide data giving insight into the fetal lung maturity, which enables planning of the further outcome of high-risk pregnancies. Surfactant prevents atelectasis by forming a layer rich in phospholipids between the air and liquid phase in alveoli thus leading to increased surface tension in them, which is a precondition for a good lung function after birth. Lamellar bodies are a form of stored surfactant, and their count in the amniotic fluid can be determined simply by a standard hematology analyzer. The method of determining lamellar body count has found an important place in prenatal diagnostics and is recommended as an initial method of a ”cascade” procedure of testing fetal lung maturity. However, considering the importance of procedure of sample collection, storage and centrifugation, which can significantly affect the results obtained for the lung maturity, the amniotic fluid samples must be absolutely free of contamination with blood, meconium, mucus, bacteria and leucocytes.

  19. NUMERICAL METHOD FOR MULTI-BODY FLUID INTERACTION BASED ON IMMERSED BOUNDARY METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MING Ping-jian; ZHANG Wen-ping

    2011-01-01

    A Cartesian grid based on Immersed Boundary Method(IBM),proposed by the present authors,is extended to unstructured grids.The advantages of IBM and Body Fitted Grid(BFG)are taken to enhance the computation efficiency of the fluid structure interaction in a complex domain.There are many methods to generate the BFG,among which the unstructured grid method is the most popular.The concept of Volume Of Solid(VOS)is used to deal with the multi rigid body and fluid interaction.Each body surface is represented by a set of points which can be traced in an anti-clockwise order with the solid area on the left side of surface.An efficient Lagrange point tracking algorithm on the fixed grid is applied to search the moving boundary grid points.This method is verified by low Reynolds number flows in the range from Re =100 to 1 000 in the cavity with a moving lid.The results are in a good agreement with experimental data in literature.Finally,the flow past two moving cylinders is simulated to test the capability of the method.

  20. Circulating MicroRNAs as Promising Biomarkers in Forensic Body Fluids Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumache, Raluca; Ciocan, Veronica; Muresan, Camelia; Rogobete, Alexandru Florin; Enache, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    In the last 20 years, DNA molecular analysis has become an important tool in forensic investigations. Currently, it is possible to genotype all types of biological traces or micro-traces containing nucleated cells if they are not entirely destroyed, chemically or bacterial. The DNA profiling is based on the short tandem repeats (STR) and aids in human identification from biological samples, but due to the recent advances in molecular genetics, other biomarkers have been proposed to be used in forensic identifications, such as: messenger RNA(mRNA), microRNA (miRNA), and DNA methylation. MicroRNAs are part of a class of small, non-coding RNAs that contain 19 - 23 nucleotides. MicroRNAs play an important role in the regulation of biochemical mechanisms, cell proliferation and other cellular mechanisms in the human body. The level of microRNAs in blood and other body fluids (urine, saliva, sweat) increases as a consequence of altered pathophysiological mechanisms and tissue insult. Moreover, the stability and specificity of microRNAs make them ideal candidates for circulating biomarkers in forensic bioanalytical procedures. In this review, we want to present a brief overview of biogenesis, functions, and applications of miRNAs in the identification of forensic body fluids. PMID:26554231

  1. The role of body flexibility in stroke enhancements for finite-length undulatory swimmers in viscoelastic fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Thomases, Becca

    2016-01-01

    The role of passive body dynamics on the kinematics of swimming micro-organisms in complex fluids is investigated. Asymptotic analysis of small amplitude motions of a finite-length undulatory swimmer in a Stokes-Oldroyd-B fluid is used to predict shape changes that result as body elasticity and fluid elasticity are varied. Results from the analysis are compared with numerical simulations, and the small amplitude analysis of shape changes is quantitatively accurate at both small and large amplitudes, even for strongly elastic flows. We compute a stroke-induced swimming speed that accounts for the shape changes, but not additional effects of fluid elasticity. Elastic induced shape changes lead to larger amplitude strokes for sufficiently soft swimmers in a viscoelastic fluid, and these stroke boosts can lead to swimming speed-ups, but we find that additional effects of fluid elasticity generically slow down swimmers. High amplitude strokes in strongly elastic flows lead to a qualitatively different regime in wh...

  2. Curvilinear Immersed Boundary Method for Simulating Fluid Structure Interaction with Complex 3D Rigid Bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borazjani, Iman; Ge, Liang; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2008-08-10

    The sharp-interface CURVIB approach of Ge and Sotiropoulos [L. Ge, F. Sotiropoulos, A Numerical Method for Solving the 3D Unsteady Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations in Curvilinear Domains with Complex Immersed Boundaries, Journal of Computational Physics 225 (2007) 1782-1809] is extended to simulate fluid structure interaction (FSI) problems involving complex 3D rigid bodies undergoing large structural displacements. The FSI solver adopts the partitioned FSI solution approach and both loose and strong coupling strategies are implemented. The interfaces between immersed bodies and the fluid are discretized with a Lagrangian grid and tracked with an explicit front-tracking approach. An efficient ray-tracing algorithm is developed to quickly identify the relationship between the background grid and the moving bodies. Numerical experiments are carried out for two FSI problems: vortex induced vibration of elastically mounted cylinders and flow through a bileaflet mechanical heart valve at physiologic conditions. For both cases the computed results are in excellent agreement with benchmark simulations and experimental measurements. The numerical experiments suggest that both the properties of the structure (mass, geometry) and the local flow conditions can play an important role in determining the stability of the FSI algorithm. Under certain conditions unconditionally unstable iteration schemes result even when strong coupling FSI is employed. For such cases, however, combining the strong-coupling iteration with under-relaxation in conjunction with the Aitken's acceleration technique is shown to effectively resolve the stability problems. A theoretical analysis is presented to explain the findings of the numerical experiments. It is shown that the ratio of the added mass to the mass of the structure as well as the sign of the local time rate of change of the force or moment imparted on the structure by the fluid determine the stability and convergence of the FSI

  3. Direct Y-STR amplification of body fluids deposited on commonly found crime scene substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargay, Amanda; Roy, Reena

    2016-04-01

    Body fluids detected on commonly found crime scene substrates require extraction, purification and quantitation of DNA prior to amplification and generation of short tandem repeat (STR) DNA profiles. In this research Y-STR profiles were generated via direct amplification of blood and saliva deposited on 12 different substrates. These included cigarette butts, straws, grass, leaves, woodchips and seven different types of fabric. After depositing either 0.1 μL of blood or 0.5 μL of saliva, each substrate containing the dry body fluid stain was punched using a Harris 1.2 mm micro-punch. Each of these punched substrates, a total of 720 samples, containing minute amount of blood or saliva was either amplified directly without any pre-treatment, or was treated with one of the four washing reagents or buffer. In each of these five experimental groups the substrates containing the body fluid remained in the amplification reagent during the thermal cycling process. Each sample was amplified with the three direct Y-STR amplification kits; AmpFℓSTR(®) Yfiler(®) Direct, Yfiler(®) Plus Amplification Kits and the PowerPlex(®) Y23 System. Complete and concordant Y-STR profiles were successfully obtained from most of these 12 challenging crime scene objects when the stains were analyzed by at least one of the five experimental groups. The reagents and buffer were interchangeable among the three amplification kits, however, pre-treatment with these solutions did not appear to enhance the quality or the number of the full profiles generated with direct amplification. This study demonstrates that blood and saliva deposited on these simulated crime scene objects can be amplified directly.

  4. Curvilinear Immersed Boundary Method for Simulating Fluid Structure Interaction with Complex 3D Rigid Bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borazjani, Iman; Ge, Liang; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2008-08-10

    The sharp-interface CURVIB approach of Ge and Sotiropoulos [L. Ge, F. Sotiropoulos, A Numerical Method for Solving the 3D Unsteady Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations in Curvilinear Domains with Complex Immersed Boundaries, Journal of Computational Physics 225 (2007) 1782-1809] is extended to simulate fluid structure interaction (FSI) problems involving complex 3D rigid bodies undergoing large structural displacements. The FSI solver adopts the partitioned FSI solution approach and both loose and strong coupling strategies are implemented. The interfaces between immersed bodies and the fluid are discretized with a Lagrangian grid and tracked with an explicit front-tracking approach. An efficient ray-tracing algorithm is developed to quickly identify the relationship between the background grid and the moving bodies. Numerical experiments are carried out for two FSI problems: vortex induced vibration of elastically mounted cylinders and flow through a bileaflet mechanical heart valve at physiologic conditions. For both cases the computed results are in excellent agreement with benchmark simulations and experimental measurements. The numerical experiments suggest that both the properties of the structure (mass, geometry) and the local flow conditions can play an important role in determining the stability of the FSI algorithm. Under certain conditions unconditionally unstable iteration schemes result even when strong coupling FSI is employed. For such cases, however, combining the strong-coupling iteration with under-relaxation in conjunction with the Aitken's acceleration technique is shown to effectively resolve the stability problems. A theoretical analysis is presented to explain the findings of the numerical experiments. It is shown that the ratio of the added mass to the mass of the structure as well as the sign of the local time rate of change of the force or moment imparted on the structure by the fluid determine the stability and convergence of the FSI

  5. Characterisation of body fluid specific microRNA markers by capillary electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Graham; Uchimoto, Mari L.; Coult, Natalie; World, Damien; Beasley, Emma; Avenell, Philip

    2013-01-01

    The characterisation of RNA molecules for the purpose of body fluid identification is currently a major field in forensic genetics; with a great deal of effort going towards the analysis of messenger RNA (mRNA). There is also some effort with targeting microRNA (miRNA) which is a more stable RNA molecule than mRNA; due to its short size and role in RNA interference. Most research into forensic miRNA analysis is based around quantitative PCR (qPCR). No substantial research has yet been carried...

  6. Fluid status in peritoneal dialysis patients: the European Body Composition Monitoring (EuroBCM study cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Van Biesen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Euvolemia is an important adequacy parameter in peritoneal dialysis (PD patients. However, accurate tools to evaluate volume status in clinical practice and data on volume status in PD patients as compared to healthy population, and the associated factors, have not been available so far. METHODS: We used a bio-impedance spectroscopy device, the Body Composition Monitor (BCM to assess volume status in a cross-sectional cohort of prevalent PD patients in different European countries. The results were compared to an age and gender matched healthy population. RESULTS: Only 40% out of 639 patients from 28 centres in 6 countries were normovolemic. Severe fluid overload was present in 25.2%. There was a wide scatter in the relation between blood pressure and volume status. In a multivariate analysis in the subgroup of patients from countries with unrestricted availability of all PD modalities and fluid types, older age, male gender, lower serum albumin, lower BMI, diabetes, higher systolic blood pressure, and use of at least one exchange per day with the highest hypertonic glucose were associated with higher relative tissue hydration. Neither urinary output nor ultrafiltration, PD fluid type or PD modality were retained in the model (total R² of the model = 0.57. CONCLUSIONS: The EuroBCM study demonstrates some interesting issues regarding volume status in PD. As in HD patients, hypervolemia is a frequent condition in PD patients and blood pressure can be a misleading clinical tool to evaluate volume status. To monitor fluid balance, not only fluid output but also dietary input should be considered. Close monitoring of volume status, a correct dialysis prescription adapted to the needs of the patient and dietary measures seem to be warranted to avoid hypervolemia.

  7. Absorption of bacampicillin and ampicillin and penetration into body fluids (skin blister fluid, saliva, tears) in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, C; Malerczyk, V; Klaus, M

    1978-01-01

    Equimolar doses of bacampicillin, which is rapidly converted to ampicillin in the body by hydrolysis, and ampicillin were administered orally, in the case of ampicillin also by intravenous injection, to 10 healthy subjects (cross-over study). Comparison of the areas under the serum concentrations curves after intravenous and oral administration showed that bacampillin was absorbed to 95% and orally given ampicillin to 35%. The mean peak serum levels (Cmax) after 0.8 g of oral bacampicillin were higher (15.9 microgram/ml) and appeared earlier (tmax 60 min) than after 0.556 g of oral ampicillin (3.2 microgram/ml, tmax 150 min). One and three hours after oral administration skin blister fluid contained four times more ampicillin after doses of bacampicillin than after oral ampicillin. One hour after intravenous injection of ampicillin the skin blister concentrations were 20 times higher than after oral administration of this antibiotic and three to four times higher than after oral administration of bacampicillin. The levels in saliva and tears were also determined and showed similar relationships. Since higher peaks serum levels resulted in higher and longer lasting concentrations in the extravascular space, bacampicillin is to be preferred for oral therapy.

  8. FREE-SURFACE WAVES AND FAR WAKES GENERATED BY A FLOATING BODY IN A VISCOUS FLUID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Dong-qiang

    2003-01-01

    The free-surface waves and the flow field due to a body moving on the surface of an incompressible viscous fluid of infinite depth were studied analytically. The floating body was modeled as a normal point pressure on the free surface. Based on the Oseen approximation for governing equations and the linearity assumption for boundary conditions, the exact solutions in integral form for the free-surface elevation, the velocities and the pressure were given. By employing Lighthill's two-stage scheme, the asymptotic representations in far field for large Reynolds numbers were derived explicitly. The effect of viscosity on the wave profiles was expressed by an exponential decay factor, which removes the singular behavior predicted by the potential theory.

  9. Comprehensive proteomic analysis of mineral nanoparticles derived from human body fluids and analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Jan; Young, David; Young, Andrew; Wu, Cheng-Yeu; Chen, Chi-De; Yu, Jau-Song; Young, John D

    2011-11-01

    Mineralo-protein nanoparticles (NPs) formed spontaneously in the body have been associated with ectopic calcifications seen in atherosclerosis, chronic degenerative diseases, and kidney stone formation. Synthetic NPs are also known to become coated with proteins when they come in contact with body fluids. Identifying the proteins found in NPs should help unravel how NPs are formed in the body and how NPs in general, be they synthetic or naturally formed, interact within the body. Here, we developed a proteomic approach based on liquid chromatography (LC) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) to determine the protein composition of carbonate-apatite NPs derived from human body fluids (serum, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, ascites, pleural effusion, and synovial fluid). LC-MS/MS provided not only an efficient and comprehensive determination of the protein constituents, but also a semiquantitative ranking of the identified proteins. Notably, the identified NP proteins mirrored the protein composition of the contacting body fluids, with albumin, fetuin-A, complement C3, α-1-antitrypsin, prothrombin, and apolipoproteins A1 and B-100 being consistently associated with the particles. Since several coagulation factors, calcification inhibitors, complement proteins, immune regulators, protease inhibitors, and lipid/molecule carriers can all become NP constituents, our results suggest that mineralo-protein complexes may interface with distinct biochemical pathways in the body depending on their protein composition. We propose that LC-MS/MS be used to characterize proteins found in both synthetic and natural NPs.

  10. Glial fibrillary acidic protein is a body fluid biomarker for glial pathology in human disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Axel

    2015-03-10

    This review on the role of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) as a biomarker for astroglial pathology in neurological diseases provides background to protein synthesis, assembly, function and degeneration. Qualitative and quantitative analytical techniques for the investigation of human tissue and biological fluid samples are discussed including partial lack of parallelism and multiplexing capabilities. Pathological implications are reviewed in view of immunocytochemical, cell-culture and genetic findings. Particular emphasis is given to neurodegeneration related to autoimmune astrocytopathies and to genetic gain of function mutations. The current literature on body fluid levels of GFAP in human disease is summarised and illustrated by disease specific meta-analyses. In addition to the role of GFAP as a diagnostic biomarker for chronic disease, there are important data on the prognostic value for acute conditions. The published evidence permits to classify the dominant GFAP signatures in biological fluids. This classification may serve as a template for supporting diagnostic criteria of autoimmune astrocytopathies, monitoring disease progression in toxic gain of function mutations, clinical treatment trials (secondary outcome and toxicity biomarker) and provide prognostic information in neurocritical care if used within well defined time-frames.

  11. Simulated body-fluid tests and electrochemical investigations on biocompatibility of metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the in-vitro and electrochemical investigations of four metallic glasses (MGs) for finding potential MG-based bio-materials. The simulation body-fluid Hanks solution is utilized for testing the corrosion resistance of MGs, and microorganisms of Escherichia coli are used in testing the bio-toxicity. In addition, a simple cyclic voltammetry method is used for rapid verification of the potential electrochemical responses. It is found that the Zr-based MG can sustain in the body-fluid, exhibiting the best corrosion resistance and electrochemical stability. The microbiologic test shows that E. coli can grow on the surface of the Zr-based metallic glass, confirming the low cell toxicity of this Zr-based MG. Highlights: ► Vanadium is added in Cu–Zr–Al alloy to induce B2-CuZr formation. ► The more induced B2-CuZr phase can improve compressive plasticity. ► The plasticity improvement might be caused by B2 phase dynamic coarsening.

  12. Internal air flow analysis of a bladeless micro aerial vehicle hemisphere body using computational fluid dynamic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, M. N. K., E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Zuradzman, M. Razlan, E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Hazry, D., E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Khairunizam, Wan, E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Shahriman, A. B., E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Yaacob, S., E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Ahmed, S. Faiz, E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my [Centre of Excellence for Unmanned Aerial Systems, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 01000 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); and others

    2014-12-04

    This paper explain the analysis of internal air flow velocity of a bladeless vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) hemisphere body. In mechanical design, before produce a prototype model, several analyses should be done to ensure the product's effectiveness and efficiency. There are two types of analysis method can be done in mechanical design; mathematical modeling and computational fluid dynamic. In this analysis, I used computational fluid dynamic (CFD) by using SolidWorks Flow Simulation software. The idea came through to overcome the problem of ordinary quadrotor UAV which has larger size due to using four rotors and the propellers are exposed to environment. The bladeless MAV body is designed to protect all electronic parts, which means it can be used in rainy condition. It also has been made to increase the thrust produced by the ducted propeller compare to exposed propeller. From the analysis result, the air flow velocity at the ducted area increased to twice the inlet air. This means that the duct contribute to the increasing of air velocity.

  13. Generation of a novel transgenic rat model for tracing extracellular vesicles in body fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Aya; Kawamata, Masaki; Yoshioka, Yusuke; Katsuda, Takeshi; Kikuchi, Hisae; Nagai, Yoshitaka; Adachi, Naoki; Numakawa, Tadahiro; Kunugi, Hiroshi; Ochiya, Takahiro; Tamai, Yoshitaka

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) play an important role in the transfer of biomolecules between cells. To elucidate the intercellular transfer fate of EVs in vivo, we generated a new transgenic (Tg) rat model using green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged human CD63. CD63 protein is highly enriched on EV membranes via trafficking into late endosomes and is often used as an EV marker. The new Tg rat line in which human CD63-GFP is under control of the CAG promoter exhibited high expression of GFP in various body tissues. Exogenous human CD63-GFP was detected on EVs isolated from three body fluids of the Tg rats: blood serum, breast milk and amniotic fluid. In vitro culture allowed transfer of serum-derived CD63-GFP EVs into recipient rat embryonic fibroblasts, where the EVs localized in endocytic organelles. These results suggested that this Tg rat model should provide significant information for understanding the intercellular transfer and/or mother-child transfer of EVs in vivo. PMID:27539050

  14. Internal air flow analysis of a bladeless micro aerial vehicle hemisphere body using computational fluid dynamic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper explain the analysis of internal air flow velocity of a bladeless vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) hemisphere body. In mechanical design, before produce a prototype model, several analyses should be done to ensure the product's effectiveness and efficiency. There are two types of analysis method can be done in mechanical design; mathematical modeling and computational fluid dynamic. In this analysis, I used computational fluid dynamic (CFD) by using SolidWorks Flow Simulation software. The idea came through to overcome the problem of ordinary quadrotor UAV which has larger size due to using four rotors and the propellers are exposed to environment. The bladeless MAV body is designed to protect all electronic parts, which means it can be used in rainy condition. It also has been made to increase the thrust produced by the ducted propeller compare to exposed propeller. From the analysis result, the air flow velocity at the ducted area increased to twice the inlet air. This means that the duct contribute to the increasing of air velocity

  15. Biomineralization of hydroxyapatite in silver ion-exchanged nanocrystalline ZSM-5 zeolite using simulated body fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Balwinder; Srivastava, Rajendra; Satpati, Biswarup; Kondepudi, Kanthi Kiran; Bishnoi, Mahendra

    2015-11-01

    Silver ion-exchanged nanocrystalline zeolite (Ag-Nano-ZSM-5) and silver ion-exchanged conventional zeolite (Ag-ZSM-5) were synthesized. Zeolites were incubated in simulated body fluid at 310K for different time periods to grow hydroxyapatite in their matrixes. Significant large amount of hydroxyapatite was grown in Ag-Nano-ZSM-5 matrix after incubation in simulated body fluid when compared to Ag-ZSM-5. The resultant material was characterized using X-ray diffraction, N2-adsorption, scanning/transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, and inductively coupled plasma analysis. Mechanical properties such as compressive modulus, compressive strength, and strain at failure of the parent materials were evaluated. Biocompatibility assays suggested that Ag-Nano-ZSM-5 and hydroxyapatite grown in Ag-Nano-ZSM-5 were compatible and did not impose any toxicity to RAW 264.7 cells macrophase and Caco2 cells suggesting considerable potential for biomedical applications such as bone implants.

  16. Cardiovascular and Body Fluid Adjustments During Bed Rest and Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.; Tomko, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Although a few scientific bed rest (BR) studies were conducted soon after World War II, advent of the space program provided impetus for utilizing prolonged (days-months) BR, which employed the horizontal or 6 degree head-down tilt (HDT) body positions, to simulate responses of healthy people to microgravity. Shorter (hours) HDT protocols were used to study initial mechanisms of the acclimation-deconditioning (reduction of physical fitness) syndromes. Of the major physiological factors modified during BR, reduced force on bones, ligaments, and muscles, and greatly reduced hydrostatic pressure within the cardiovascular system, the latter: which involves shifts of blood from the lower extremities into the upper body, increase in central venous pressure, and diuresis, appears to be the initial stimulus for acclimation. Increase in central venous pressure occurs in subjects during weightless parabolic flight, but not in astronauts early during orbital flight. But significant reduction in total body water (hypohydration) and plasma volume (hypovolemia) occurs in subjects during both BR and microgravity. Response of interstitial fluid volume is not as clear, It has been reported to increase during BR, and it may have increased in Skylab II and IV astronauts. Reduction of total body water, and greater proportional reduction of extracellular volume, indicates increased cellular volume which may contribute to inflight cephalic edema. Cerebral pressure abates after a few days of HDT, but not during flight. accompanied by normal (eugravity) blood constituent concentrations suggesting some degree of acclimation had occurred. But during reentry, with moderately increased +Gz (head-to-foot) acceleration and gravitational force, the microgravity "euhydration" becomes functional progressive dehydration contributing to the general reentry syndrome (GRS) which, upon landing the Shuttle, can and often results in gastrointestinal distress, disorientation, vertigo, fatigue, and

  17. Distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Japanese autopsy tissue and body fluid samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Tetsuya; Fujimine, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Shaw; Nakano, Takeshi

    2012-09-01

    Brominated flame retardants are components of many plastics and are used in products such as cars, textiles, televisions, and personal computers. Human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants has increased exponentially during the last three decades. Our objective was to measure the body burden and distribution of PBDEs and to determine the concentrations of the predominant PBDE congeners in samples of liver, bile, adipose tissue, and blood obtained from Japanese autopsy cases. Tissues and body fluids obtained from 20 autopsy cases were analyzed. The levels of 25 PBDE congeners, ranging from tri- to hexa-BDEs, were assessed. The geometric means of the sum of the concentrations of PBDE congeners having detection frequencies >50 % (ΣPBDE) in the blood, liver, bile, and adipose tissue were 2.4, 2.6, 1.4, and 4.3 ng/g lipid, respectively. The most abundant congeners were BDE-47 and BDE-153, followed by BDE-100, BDE-99, and BDE-28+33. These concentrations of PBDE congeners were similar to other reports of human exposure in Japan but were notably lower than concentrations than those reported in the USA. Significant positive correlations were observed between the concentrations of predominant congeners and ΣPBDE among the samples analyzed. The ΣPBDE concentration was highest in the adipose tissue, but PBDEs were distributed widely among the tissues and body fluids analyzed. The PBDE levels observed in the present study are similar to those reported in previous studies in Japan and significantly lower than those reported in the USA. PMID:22544599

  18. On stability of uniformly-accelerated motions of an axially-symmetric heavy rigid body in an ideal fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deriabine, Mikhail

    2003-01-01

    We consider the problem of heavy rigid body dynamics in an infinite volume of an ideal incompressible fluid performing a potential motion. If the body is axially-symmetric, then the system admits partial solutions, when the axis of symmetry is vertical, and the body sinks and rotates around its...... axis, direction. The method of constructing the Lyapunov function may be generalized for deriving stability conditions for mechanical systems with nonstationary force-fields....

  19. Casimir micro-sphere diclusters and three-body effects in fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Varela, Jaime; McCauley, Alexander P; Johnson, Steven G

    2010-01-01

    Our previous article [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 060401 (2010)] predicted that Casimir forces induced by the material-dispersion properties of certain dielectrics can give rise to stable configurations of objects. This phenomenon was illustrated via a dicluster configuration of non-touching objects consisting of two spheres immersed in a fluid and suspended against gravity above a plate. Here, we examine these predictions from the perspective of a practical experiment and consider the influence of non-additive, three-body, and nonzero-temperature effects on the stability of the two spheres. We conclude that the presence of Brownian motion reduces the set of experimentally realizable silicon/teflon spherical diclusters to those consisting of layered micro-spheres, such as the hollow- core (spherical shells) considered here.

  20. Silica enhanced formation of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 deg. C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadjadi, M.S., E-mail: m.s.sadjad@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Sciences and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ebrahimi, H.R. [Department of Chemistry, Sciences and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Meskinfam, M. [Department of Chemistry, Tonekabon Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tonekabon (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zare, K. [Department of Chemistry, University of Shahid Beheshti, Eveen Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-10-17

    Highlights: {yields} We report on fast formation of hexagonal nanocrystals of calcium hydroxyapatite (HA) in silica-containing simulated body fluid solution at 37 deg. C. {yields} Bioactivity and biodegradability of TCP precursor have been confirmed by the dissolution of TCP and formation of a bone like layer of new HA nanoparticles outside of the precursor after 24 h soaking in SBF solution. {yields} Successive nucleation and formation of tiny hexagonal HA nanoplates and nanorods have been confirmed by TEM results after 24 h soaking of TCP in silica-containing BSF solution. - Abstract: The chemical modification of implant (prosthesis) surfaces is being investigated worldwide for improving the fixation of orthopaedic and dental implants. The main goal in this surface modification approach is to achieve a faster bone growth and chemical bonding of the implant to the newly generated and/or remodeled bone. In this work, we report fast formation of hexagonal nanocrystals of calcium hydroxyapatite (HA) in simulated body fluid (SBF, inorganic components of human blood plasma) solutions at 37 deg. C, using calcium phosphate (TCP) and sodium silicate as precursors. Characterization and chemical analysis of the synthesized powders were performed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results indicated enhanced nucleation and formation of bone like layer of HA nanocrystals at the surface of TCP nanoparticles and occurrence of HA nanocrystals during 24 h soaking of TCP in SBF solution containing silica ions. The average size of a nanoparticle, using Scherrer formula, was found to be 18.2 nm.

  1. Silica enhanced formation of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 deg. C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → We report on fast formation of hexagonal nanocrystals of calcium hydroxyapatite (HA) in silica-containing simulated body fluid solution at 37 deg. C. → Bioactivity and biodegradability of TCP precursor have been confirmed by the dissolution of TCP and formation of a bone like layer of new HA nanoparticles outside of the precursor after 24 h soaking in SBF solution. → Successive nucleation and formation of tiny hexagonal HA nanoplates and nanorods have been confirmed by TEM results after 24 h soaking of TCP in silica-containing BSF solution. - Abstract: The chemical modification of implant (prosthesis) surfaces is being investigated worldwide for improving the fixation of orthopaedic and dental implants. The main goal in this surface modification approach is to achieve a faster bone growth and chemical bonding of the implant to the newly generated and/or remodeled bone. In this work, we report fast formation of hexagonal nanocrystals of calcium hydroxyapatite (HA) in simulated body fluid (SBF, inorganic components of human blood plasma) solutions at 37 deg. C, using calcium phosphate (TCP) and sodium silicate as precursors. Characterization and chemical analysis of the synthesized powders were performed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results indicated enhanced nucleation and formation of bone like layer of HA nanocrystals at the surface of TCP nanoparticles and occurrence of HA nanocrystals during 24 h soaking of TCP in SBF solution containing silica ions. The average size of a nanoparticle, using Scherrer formula, was found to be 18.2 nm.

  2. Effect of anodization on corrosion behaviour and biocompatibility of Cp-titanium in simulated body fluid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Archana Singh; B P Singh; Mohan R Wani; Dinesh Kumar; J K Singh; Vakil Singh

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this investigation is to study the effectiveness of anodized surface of commercial purity titanium (Cp-Ti) on its corrosion behaviour in simulated body fluid (SBF) and proliferation of osteoblast cells on it, to assess its potentiality as a process of surface modification in enhancing corrosion resistance and osseointegration of dental implants. Highly ordered nano-porous oxide layer, with nano-sized pores, is developed on the surface of Cp-Ti through electrochemical anodization in the electrolyte of aqueous solution of 0.5% HF at 15 V for 30 min at 24 °C. The nano-porous feature of the anodized surface is characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). Pores of some anodized samples are sealed by exposing the anodized surface in boiling water. Corrosion behaviour of the anodized specimen is studied in Ringer’s solution at 30 ± 2 °C, using electrochemical impedance and cyclic polarization technique. Biocompatibility of the anodized surface is accessed using MG63 osteoblast cells. Both corrosion as well as pitting resistance of Cp-Ti in simulated body fluid are found to be highest in the anodized and sealed condition and followed in decreasing order by those of anodized and unanodized ones. Significantly higher MG63 osteoblast cell proliferations are found on the anodized surface than that on the unanodized one. Anodized Cp-Ti develops nano-size surface pores, like that of natural bone. It enhances corrosion and pitting resistance and also the process of osteoblast cell proliferation on Cp-Ti.

  3. Tectonic "short circuit" of sub-horizontal fluid-saturated bodies as a possible mechanism of the earthquake

    CERN Document Server

    Nechayev, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    An alternative earthquake mechanism is proposed. The traditional stress mechanism of fracture formation assigned a support role. As a proximate cause of the earthquake the destruction of the roofs of sub-horizontal fluid-saturated bodies (SHFB) is considered. This collapse may occur due to redistribution of fluid pressure within the system of SHFB connected by cracks (tectonic or other nature). It can cause both shifts of rock blocks contributing to seismic shocks and various effects characteristic of foreshocks and aftershocks.

  4. Anthropometric and Three-Compartment Body Composition Differences between Super League and Championship Rugby League Players: Considerations for the 2015 Season and Beyond.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Jones

    Full Text Available Super League (SL and Championship (RLC rugby league players will compete against each other in 2015 and beyond. To identify possible discrepancies, this study compared the anthropometric profile and body composition of current SL (full-time professional and RLC (part-time semi-professional players using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. A cross-sectional design involved DXA scans on 67 SL (n=29 backs, n=38 forwards and 46 RLC (n=20 backs, n=26 forwards players during preseason. A one-way ANOVA was used to compare age, stature, body mass, soft tissue fat percentage, bone mineral content (BMC, total and regional (i.e., arms, legs and trunk fat and lean mass between SL forwards, SL backs, RLC forwards and RLC backs. No significant differences in age, stature or body mass were observed. SL forwards and backs had relatively less soft tissue fat (17.5 ± 3.7 and 14.8 ± 3.6 vs. 21.4 ± 4.3 and 20.8 ± 3.8%, greater BMC (4,528 ± 443 and 4,230 ± 447 vs. 4,302 ± 393 and 3,971 ± 280 g, greater trunk lean mass (37.3 ± 3.0 and 35.3 ± 3.8 vs. 34.9 ± 32.3 and 32.3 ± 2.6 kg and less trunk fat mass (8.5 ± 2.7 and 6.2 ± 2.1 vs. 10.7 ± 2.8 and 9.5 ± 2.9 kg than RLC forwards and backs. Observed differences may reflect selection based on favourable physical attributes, or training adaptations. To reduce this discrepancy, some RLC players should reduce fat mass and increase lean mass, which may be of benefit for the 2015 season and beyond.

  5. Developed and evaluated a multiplex mRNA profiling system for body fluid identification in Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Feng; Luo, Haibo; Hou, Yiping

    2015-10-01

    In forensic casework, identification the cellular origin from a biological sample is crucial to the case investigation and reconstruction in crime scene. DNA/RNA co-extraction for STR typing and human body fluids identification has been proposed as an efficient and comprehensive assay for forensic analysis. Several cell-specific messenger RNA (mRNA) markers for identification of the body fluids have been proposed by previous studies. In this study, a novel multiplex mRNA profiling system included 19 markers was developed and performed by reverse transcription endpoint polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The multiplex combined 3 housekeeping gene markers and 16 cell-specific markers that have been used to identify five types of human body fluids: peripheral blood, semen, saliva, vaginal secretions and menstrual blood. The specificity, sensitivity, stability and detectability of the mixture were explored in our study. Majority of the cell-specific mRNA markers showed high specificity, although cross-reactivity was observed sporadically. Specific profiling for per body fluid was obtained. Moreover, the interpretation guidelines for inference of body fluid types were performed according to the A. Lindenbergh et al. The scoring guidelines can be applied to any RNA multiplex, which was based on six different scoring categories (observed, observed and fits, sporadically observed and fits, not observed, sporadically observed, not reliable, and non-specific due to high input). The simultaneous extraction of DNA showed positive full or partial profiling results of all samples. It demonstrated that the approach of combined STR-profiling and RNA profiling was suitable and reliable to detect the donor and origin of human body fluids in Chinese Han population. PMID:26311108

  6. MicroRNA markers for forensic body fluid identification obtained from microarray screening and quantitative RT-PCR confirmation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubakov, Dmitry; Boersma, Anton W M; Choi, Ying; van Kuijk, Patricia F; Wiemer, Erik A C; Kayser, Manfred

    2010-05-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-protein coding molecules with important regulatory functions; many have tissue-specific expression patterns. Their very small size in principle makes them less prone to degradation processes, unlike messenger RNAs (mRNAs), which were previously proposed as molecular tools for forensic body fluid identification. To identify suitable miRNA markers for forensic body fluid identification, we first screened total RNA samples derived from saliva, semen, vaginal secretion, and venous and menstrual blood for the expression of 718 human miRNAs using a microarray platform. All body fluids could be easily distinguished from each other on the basis of complete array-based miRNA expression profiles. Results from quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR; TaqMan) assays for microarray candidate markers confirmed strong over-expression in the targeting body fluid of several miRNAs for venous blood and several others for semen. However, no candidate markers from array experiments for other body fluids such as saliva, vaginal secretion, or menstrual blood could be confirmed by RT-PCR. Time-wise degradation of venous blood and semen stains for at least 1 year under lab conditions did not significantly affect the detection sensitivity of the identified miRNA markers. The detection limit of the TaqMan assays tested for selected venous blood and semen miRNA markers required only subpicogram amounts of total RNA per single RT-PCR test, which is considerably less than usually needed for reliable mRNA RT-PCR detection. We therefore propose the application of several stable miRNA markers for the forensic identification of blood stains and several others for semen stain identification, using commercially available TaqMan assays. Additional work remains necessary in search for suitable miRNA markers for other forensically relevant body fluids.

  7. Relationship between mean body temperature calculated by two- or three-compartment models and active cutaneous vasodilation in humans: a comparison between cool and warm environments during leg exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demachi, Koichi; Yoshida, Tetsuya; Tsuneoka, Hideyuki

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether the three-compartment model of mean body temperature (Tb3) calculated from the esophageal temperature (Tes), temperature in deep tissue of exercising muscle (Tdt), and mean skin temperature (Tsk) has the potential to provide a better match with the thermoregulatory responses than the two-component model of mean body temperature (Tb2) calculated from Tes and Tsk. Seven male subjects performed 40 min of a prolonged cycling exercise at 30% maximal oxygen uptake at 21°C or 31°C (50% relative humidity). Throughout the experiment, Tsk, Tb2, Tb3, and Tdt were significantly (P temperature conditions, while Tes was similar under both conditions. During exercise, an increase in cutaneous vascular conductance (skin blood flow / mean arterial pressure) over the chest (%CVCc) was observed at both 21°C and 31°C, while no increase was observed at the forearm at 21°C. Furthermore, the Tb3 and Tdt threshold for the onset of the increase in %CVCc was similar, but the Tes and Tb2 threshold differed significantly (P < 0.05) between the conditions tested. These results suggest that active cutaneous vasodilation at the chest is related more closely to Tb3 or Tdt than that measured by Tes or Tb2 calculated by Tes and Tsk during exercise at both 21°C and 31°C.

  8. An improved method for quantification of extra domain A-containing cellular fibronectin (EDAcFN) in different body fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylätupa, S; Mertaniemi, P; Haglund, C; Partanen, P

    1995-01-31

    A quantitative direct enzyme immunoassay for the extra domain A-containing isoform of cellular fibronectin (EDAcFN) was established for screening of large series of blood samples and various body fluids of different pH and viscosity. The method is based on the monoclonal antibody DH1 recognizing the extra domain A in cellular fibronectin (EDAcFN). Studies on the effect of dilution of plasma and serum samples in this direct assay indicated that the measured concentration of cFN in the samples greatly depend on the ratio of sample dilution. The linearity of the assay was improved with sample dilution and the optimal dilution was 1:5. Stored diluted samples retained their cFN content at +4 degrees C, and -20 degrees C and -70 degrees C for months in contrast to samples stored undiluted. With this direct EIA the detection limit was 0.05 micrograms/ml and the linear portion of the standard curve could be extended above 30 micrograms/ml. Thus, the cFN concentration of blood samples could be measured reliably without inhibition also in samples with very high concentration of cFN. This is particularly important when measuring blood samples from cancer patients, since these samples may contain more than 20 micrograms/ml EDAcFN. The assay was standardized for blood samples but, due to the possibility of sample dilution, it also enabled reliable quantification of EDAcFN in various other body fluids. Undiluted some of the samples with non-neutral pH (urine, bile) or with high viscosity (seminal plasma) interfered with the assay. In addition to blood samples, the EDAcFN concentration was determined in samples of urine, bile, amniotic fluid, cervicovaginal secretions, seminal fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, pleural fluid and saliva. Thereby, this modified method was shown to be applicable to various body fluids. PMID:7758225

  9. Numerical investigation of incompressible fluid flow and heat transfer across a bluff body in a channel flow

    OpenAIRE

    Taymaz Imdat; Aslan Erman; Benim Ali Cemal

    2015-01-01

    The Lattice Boltzmann Method is applied to computationally investigate the laminar flow and heat transfer of an incompressible fluid with constant material properties in a two-dimensional channel with a built-in bluff body. In this study, a triangular prism is taken as the bluff body. Not only the momentum transport, but also the energy transport is modeled by the Lattice Boltzmann Method. A uniform lattice structure with a single time relaxation rule is us...

  10. Application of Rms amplitude anomaly mapping in inferring controls on fluid saturation and fault-bound reservoir compartments in the C4 member (lower Misoa formation), phase III area, bloque I area, lake Maracaibo, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrose, William A.; Hamilton, Douglas S.; Zeng, Hongliu; Holtz, Mark H.; Light, Malcolm; Yeh, Joseph S. [University of Texas at Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology; Carvajal, Gladys de; Pinto, Jonny; Garibaldi, Luis; Azpiritxaga, Izaskun [Petroleos de Venezuela S.A., Caracas (Venezuela). Exploracion y Produccion

    1999-07-01

    Three-dimensional seismic data are increasingly being used in reservoir characterization studies as an aid in detecting and delineating structural and lithologic features as well as changes in fluid distribution that may not be resolvable with log data at wide well spacings. Amplitude maps, in addition to displaying distribution of lithology, can also be effective in inferring subtle faults associated with changes in reservoir fluid content. In a 12-month reservoir characterization study of tide-dominated deltaic and shelf reservoirs of the Lower Eocene Misoa Formation in a 4-m{sup 2} (10.4-km{sup 2}) rectangular are (Phase III Area) in the Bloque I Area, 3-D seismic data were used in conjunction with logs from approximately 50 wells to detect delineate faults and to infer interwell sand-body distribution. The goal of this reservoir analysis analysis was construct an improved geological model of oil-and gas-productive reservoirs in the Lower Eocene to better understand controls on reservoir compartmentalization and to identify areas of unswept hydrocarbons. This paper provides examples from the C4 Member and demonstrates how 3-D seismic data were used to infer the presence of faults not previously detected in earlier studies of these reservoirs with conventional log data and to illustrate their control on fluid distribution. (author)

  11. The comparison of bacterial resistance surveillance between sterile body fluid and non-sterile body fluid%无菌体液与非无菌体液细菌耐药监测对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温伟洪; 徐令清; 李介华; 钟国权

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨该院2014年无菌体液与非无菌体液来源细菌的菌种分布及耐药性的差异。方法采用回顾性分析方法,应用BD PhoenixTM 100全自动细菌鉴定药敏系统进行细菌鉴定与药敏检测,应用Whonet5.6软件和SPSS19.0统计软件对细菌耐药率进行统计分析。结果无菌体液分离率最高的细菌为大肠埃希菌(43%),非无菌体液分离率最高的细菌为铜绿假单胞菌(21%)。无菌体液来源的大肠埃希菌对氨苄西林、氨曲南、环丙沙星、氯霉素等11种抗菌药物耐药率低于非无菌体液来源的菌株,无菌体液来源的金黄色葡萄球菌对阿米卡星、阿莫西林/克拉维酸、环丙沙星等6种抗菌药物耐药率低于非无菌体液来源的菌株,无菌体液来源的铜绿假单胞菌对氨曲南耐药率低于非无菌体液来源的菌株,无菌体液来源的肺炎克雷伯菌对氨苄西林/舒巴坦、复方新诺明、氯霉素等6种抗菌药物耐药率低于非无菌体液来源的菌株,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论无菌体液与非无菌体液来源细菌的菌种分布及耐药性存在差异,加强无菌体液细菌耐药性监测尤为重要。%Objective To compare the distribution and drug resistance of isolates between sterile body fluid and non‐sterile body fluid in the hospital in 2014 .Methods By adopting the retrospective analysis method ,we used BD phoenixTM 100 to conduct bacteria identification and drug susceptibility testing ,the Whonet5 .6 software and SPSS19 .0 software to statistically analysize the drug re‐sistance of the bacteria .Results E .coli ranked the top in sterile body fluid isolates(43% ) while the highest rate in non‐sterile body fluid was P .aeruginosa .E .coli(21% ) .Isolates from sterile body fluid had lower drug resistance rate to 11 kinds of antibacterials such as ampicillin ,chloramphenicol ,ciprofloxacin and aztreonam than the strains

  12. Newton's Investigation of the Resistance to Moving Bodies in Continuous Fluids and the Nature of "Frontier Science"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauld, Colin F.

    2010-01-01

    Newton's experiments into the resistance which fluids offer to moving bodies provide some insight into the way he related theory and experiment. His theory demonstrates a way of thought typical of 17th century physics and his experiments are simple enough to be replicated by present day students. Newton's investigations using pendulums were…

  13. Quantitative analysis of DNA methylation after whole bisulfitome amplification of a minute amount of DNA from body fluids.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaissiere, T.; Cuenin, C.; Paliwal, A.; Vineis, P.; Hoek, G.; Krzyzanowski, M.; Airoldi, L.; Dunning, A.; Garte, S.; Malaveille, C.; Overvad, K.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Linseisen, J.; Boeing, H.; Trichopoulou, A.; Trichopoulous, D.; Kaladidi, A.; Palli, D.; Krogh, V.; Tumino, R.; Panico, S.; Bueno de Mesquita, H.B.; Peeters, P.H.M.; Kumle, M.; Gonzalez, C.A.; Martinez, C.; Dorronsoro, M.; Barricarte, A.; Navarro, C.; Quiros, J.R.; Berglund, B.; Janzon, L.; Jarvholm, B.; Day, N.E.; Key, T.J.; Saracci, R.; Kaaks, R.; Riboli, E.; Hainaut, P.; Herceg, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Cell-free circulating DNA isolated from the plasma of individuals with cancer has been shown to harbor cancer-associated changes in DNA methylation, and thus it represents an attractive target for biomarker discovery. However, the reliable detection of DNA methylation changes in body fluids has prov

  14. Water and electrolytes. [in human bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Harrison, M. H.

    1986-01-01

    It has been found that the performance of the strongest and fittest people will deteriorate rapidly with dehydration. The present paper is concerned with the anatomy of the fluid spaces in the body, taking into account also the fluid shifts and losses during exercise and their effects on performance. Total body water is arbitrarily divided into that contained within cells (cellular) and that located outside the cells (extracellular). The anatomy of body fluid compartments is considered along with the effects of exercise on body water, fluid shifts with exercise, the consequences of sweating, dehydration and exercise, heat acclimatization and endurance training, the adverse effects of dehydration, thirst and drinking during exercise, stimuli for drinking, and water, electrolyte, and carbohydrate replacement during exercise. It is found that the deterioration of physical exercise performance due to dehydration begins when body weight decreases by about 1 percent.

  15. Fabrication of Titanium/Fluorapatite Composites and In Vitro Behavior in Simulated Body Fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hezhou Ye; Xing Yang Liu; Hanping Hong

    2013-01-01

    Titanium/fluorapatite (Ti/FA) composites with various FA additions were fabricated by powder metallurgy.The decomposition of FA during sintering was accelerated by the presence of Ti.The main reaction products of FA and Ti were identified as CaO,Ti phosphides,and CaTiO3.The addition of FA significantly inhibited the densification of Ti.The in vitro bioactivity of the composites was evaluated in a simulated body fluid (SBF).After immersion into the SBF,all the Ti/FA composites induced nucleation and growth of bone-like carbonated apatite on the surface.Co-precipitation of CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2 was also detected on the surface of the composite with high FA addition at an early stage of immersion.Furthermore,the release of fluorine ions from the composite was confirmed,which could promote bone regeneration and retard the formation of caries in the biological environment.The in vitro behavior was attributed to multiple factors,including the surface conditions and the constituents of the composite.The results demonstrated that the Ti/FA composites were bioactive in nature even with a low FA addition and they could introduce the benefit of fluorine ions in the service.

  16. Earth rotation prevents exact solid body rotation of fluids in the laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Boisson, J; Moisy, F; Cortet, P -P

    2012-01-01

    We report direct evidence of a secondary flow excited by the Earth rotation in a water-filled spherical container spinning at constant rotation rate. This so-called {\\it tilt-over flow} essentially consists in a rotation around an axis which is slightly tilted with respect to the rotation axis of the sphere. In the astrophysical context, it corresponds to the flow in the liquid cores of planets forced by precession of the planet rotation axis, and it has been proposed to contribute to the generation of planetary magnetic fields. We detect this weak secondary flow using a particle image velocimetry system mounted in the rotating frame. This secondary flow consists in a weak rotation, thousand times smaller than the sphere rotation, around a horizontal axis which is stationary in the laboratory frame. Its amplitude and orientation are in quantitative agreement with the theory of the tilt-over flow excited by precession. These results show that setting a fluid in a perfect solid body rotation in a laboratory exp...

  17. In vitro bioactivity of 3D Ti-mesh with bioceramic coatings in simulated body fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available 3D Ti-mesh has been coated with bioceramics under different coating conditions, such as material compositions and micro-porosity, using a dip casting method. Hydroxyapatite (HA, micro-HA particles (HAp, a bioglass (BG and their different mixtures together with polymer additives were used to control HA-coating microstructures. Layered composites with the following coating-to-substrate designs, such as BG/Ti, HA + BG/BG/Ti and HAp + BG/BG/Ti, were fabricated. The bioactivity of these coated composites and the uncoated Ti-mesh substrate was then investigated in a simulated body fluid (SBF. The Ti-mesh substrate and BG/Ti composite did not induce biomimetic apatite deposition when they were immersed in SBF for the selected BG, a pressable dental ceramic, used in this study. After seven days in SBF, an apatite layer was formed on both HA + BG/BG/Ti and HAp + BG/BG/Ti composites. The difference is the apatite layer on the HAp + BG/BG/Ti composite was rougher and contained more micro-pores, while the apatite layer on the HA + BG/BG/Ti composite was dense and smooth. The formation of biomimetic apatite, being more bioresorbable, is favored for bone regeneration.

  18. Study of Nickel Ion Release in Simulated Body Fluid from C+-IMPLANTED Nickel Titanium Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafique, Muhammad Ahsan; Murtaza, G.; Saadat, Shahzad; Zaheer, Zeeshan; Shahnawaz, Muhammad; Uddin, Muhammad K. H.; Ahmad, Riaz

    2016-05-01

    Nickel ion release from NiTi shape memory alloy is an issue for biomedical applications. This study was planned to study the effect of C+ implantation on nickel ion release and affinity of calcium phosphate precipitation on NiTi alloy. Four annealed samples are chosen for the present study; three samples with oxidation layer and the fourth without oxidation layer. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra reveal amorphization with ion implantation. Proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) result shows insignificant increase in Ni release in simulated body fluid (SBF) and calcium phosphate precipitation up to 8×1013ions/cm2. Then Nickel contents show a sharp increase for greater ion doses. Corrosion potential decreases by increasing the dose but all the samples passivate after the same interval of time and at the same level of VSCE in ringer lactate solution. Hardness of samples initially increases at greater rate (up to 8×1013ions/cm2) and then increases with lesser rate. It is found that 8×1013ions/cm2 (≈1014) is a safer limit of implantation on NiTi alloy, this limit gives us lesser ion release, better hardness and reasonable hydroxyapatite incubation affinity.

  19. Fabrication of DNA/Hydroxyapatite nanocomposites by simulated body fluid for gene delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hydroxyapatite (HA) formation on the surface of DNA molecules in simulated body fluid (SBF) was examined. The osteoconductivity is estimated using SBF having ion concentrations approximately equal to those of human blood plasma. After immersion for 4 weeks in SBF at 36.5 °C, the HA crystallites possessing 1-14 micrometer in diameter grew on the surface of DNA molecules. The leaf flake-like and spherical shapes morphologies were observed through scanning electron microscopy analysis. Original peaks of both of DNA and HA were characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The Ca/P ratio (1.1-1.5) in HA was estimated by energy dispersive X-ray analysis. After biomineralization, the calculated weight ratio of DNA/HA was 18/82 by thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis. The molecular orbital computer simulation has been used to probe the interaction of DNA with two charge-balancing ions, CaOH+ and CaH2PO4+. The adsorption enthalpy of the two ions on DNA having negative value was the evidence for the interface in mineralization of HA in SBF

  20. Study of nanobiomaterial hydroxyapatite in simulated body fluid: Formation and growth of apatite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavan, Pradnya N.; Bahir, Manjushri M.; Mene, Ravindra U.; Mahabole, Megha P. [School of Physical Sciences, SRTM University, Nanded 431606 (India); Khairnar, Rajendra S., E-mail: rk2kin@yahoo.co [School of Physical Sciences, SRTM University, Nanded 431606 (India)

    2010-04-15

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is main mineral component of hard tissues. It is widely used in biomedical applications due to its excellent bioactivity and biocompatibility. Nanosized HAp is synthesized by wet chemical process. The synthesized HAp is characterized by XRD, FTIR, AFM and SEM for structural, morphological and functional groups analysis. The Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) is prepared by using chlorides, carbonates, oxides, and sulphates of alkali metals at 37 deg. C. The ion exchange process is carried out to exchange calcium cation by sodium and potassium. The pure HAp and ion exchanged HAp pellets are used as source of nucleating agent for apatite layer formation, in SBF maintained at 37 deg. C using incubator for different periods of time to study the bioactivity. The dielectric study is carried out on incubated pure and ion exchanged HAp pellets. XRD analysis confirms the hexagonal phase of hydroxyapatite. FTIR shows the presence of functional groups. SEM observations reveal that the growth of highly porous apatite layer on HAp surface increases with time. The dielectric constant is found to be in the range 3-12. It is seen that the synthesized HAp bioceramic nano material not only supports the growth of apatite layer but also accelerates the growth onto itself.

  1. 1H NMR metabolite fingerprinting as a new tool for body fluid identification in forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scano, Paola; Locci, Emanuela; Noto, Antonio; Navarra, Gabriele; Murgia, Federica; Lussu, Milena; Barberini, Luigi; Atzori, Luigi; De Giorgio, Fabio; Rosa, Maria Francesca; d'Aloja, Ernesto

    2013-08-01

    In this feasibility study, we propose, for the first time, (1)H NMR spectroscopy coupled with mathematical strategies as a valid tool for body fluid (BF) trace identification in forensic science. In order to assess the ability of this approach to identify traces composed either by a single or by two different BFs, samples of blood, urine, saliva, and semen were collected from different donors, and binary mixtures were prepared. (1)H NMR analyses were carried out for all samples. Spectral data of the whole set were firstly submitted to unsupervised principal component analysis (PCA); it showed that samples of the same BF cluster well on the basis of their characterizing molecular components and that mixtures exhibit intermediate characteristics among BF typologies. Furthermore, samples were divided into a training set and a test set. An average NMR spectral profile for each typology of BF was obtained from the training set and validated as representative of each BF class. Finally, a fitting procedure, based on a system of linear equations with the four obtained average spectral profiles, was applied to the test set and the mixture samples; it showed that BFs can be unambiguously identified, even as components of a mixture. The successful use of this mathematical procedure has the advantage, in forensics, of overcoming bias due to the analyst's personal judgment. We therefore propose this combined approach as a valid, fast, and non-destructive tool for addressing the challenges in the identification of composite traces in forensics.

  2. Evaluation of commercial kits for dual extraction of DNA and RNA from human body fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweighardt, Andrew J; Tate, Courtney M; Scott, Kristina A; Harper, Kathryn A; Robertson, James M

    2015-01-01

    STR typing of DNA evidence can identify the donor with a high power of discrimination but cannot identify the tissue origin of a body-fluid stain. Using RNA to attribute a crime scene stain to a particular tissue may aid in reconstruction efforts. With blood from 10 donors, four DNA and RNA coextraction kits were evaluated by measuring yields and STR and mRNA profiles. T tests indicated some significant differences in kit performance. The Zymo Research ZR-Duet(™) kit performed best based on average DNA (41.4 ng) and mRNA (4.07 ng) yields and was the only kit to provide complete DNA/RNA profiles for all samples. The consistency of this kit was challenged by data from additional blood and saliva donors. Further testing is advised before a superior kit is unequivocally chosen. Stand-alone DNA or RNA purification generally offers higher yield, but coextraction may still allow successful STR profiling and tissue source identification. PMID:25284026

  3. Bioactive hydroxyapatite/graphene composite coating and its corrosion stability in simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Bioactive HAP/Gr coating on Ti was successfully obtained by EPD. • Increased fracture toughness of the HAP/Gr coating compared to pure HAP coating. • HAP/Gr coating exhibited superior biomimetic mineralization vs. pure HAP coating. • Gr improved the mechanical properties and thermal stability of HAP/Gr coating. • HAP/Gr coating was classified as non-cytotoxic against the targeted PBMC. - Abstract: The hydroxyapatite/graphene (HAP/Gr) composite was electrodeposited on Ti using the electrophoretic deposition process to obtain uniform bioactive coating with improved mechanical strength and favorable corrosion stability in simulated body fluid (SBF). Incorporation of Gr was verified by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and X-ray photoelectron analysis. The HAP/Gr composite coating exhibited reduced surface cracks, nearly double the hardness, and elastic modulus increased by almost 50% compared to pure HAP coating, as estimated by a nanoindentation test. The bioactive HAP/Gr composite coating provided a newly formed apatite layer in SBF with enhanced corrosion stability, as evidenced by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The thermal stability of the HAP/Gr coating was improved in comparison to the pure HAP coating, and the Ca/P ratio was closer to the stoichiometric value. No antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli could be verified. The HAP/Gr composite coating was classified as non-cytotoxic when tested against healthy peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)

  4. Bioactive hydroxyapatite/graphene composite coating and its corrosion stability in simulated body fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janković, Ana; Eraković, Sanja [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, 11 000 Belgrade (Serbia); Mitrić, Miodrag [Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, Mike Petrovića Alasa 12-14, 11 000 Belgrade (Serbia); Matić, Ivana Z.; Juranić, Zorica D. [Institute of Oncology and Radiology of Serbia, Pasterova 14, 11 000 Belgrade (Serbia); Tsui, Gary C.P.; Tang, Chak-yin [Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Mišković-Stanković, Vesna [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, 11 000 Belgrade (Serbia); Rhee, Kyong Yop, E-mail: rheeky@khu.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 449-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Soo Jin [Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-05

    Highlights: • Bioactive HAP/Gr coating on Ti was successfully obtained by EPD. • Increased fracture toughness of the HAP/Gr coating compared to pure HAP coating. • HAP/Gr coating exhibited superior biomimetic mineralization vs. pure HAP coating. • Gr improved the mechanical properties and thermal stability of HAP/Gr coating. • HAP/Gr coating was classified as non-cytotoxic against the targeted PBMC. - Abstract: The hydroxyapatite/graphene (HAP/Gr) composite was electrodeposited on Ti using the electrophoretic deposition process to obtain uniform bioactive coating with improved mechanical strength and favorable corrosion stability in simulated body fluid (SBF). Incorporation of Gr was verified by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and X-ray photoelectron analysis. The HAP/Gr composite coating exhibited reduced surface cracks, nearly double the hardness, and elastic modulus increased by almost 50% compared to pure HAP coating, as estimated by a nanoindentation test. The bioactive HAP/Gr composite coating provided a newly formed apatite layer in SBF with enhanced corrosion stability, as evidenced by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The thermal stability of the HAP/Gr coating was improved in comparison to the pure HAP coating, and the Ca/P ratio was closer to the stoichiometric value. No antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli could be verified. The HAP/Gr composite coating was classified as non-cytotoxic when tested against healthy peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)

  5. Shaping of Metal-Organic Frameworks: From Fluid to Shaped Bodies and Robust Foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yifa; Huang, Xianqiang; Zhang, Shenghan; Li, Siqing; Cao, Sijia; Pei, Xiaokun; Zhou, Junwen; Feng, Xiao; Wang, Bo

    2016-08-31

    The applications of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) toward industrial separation, catalysis, sensing, and some sophisticated devices are drastically affected by their intrinsic fragility and poor processability. Unlike organic polymers, MOF crystals are insoluble in any solvents and are usually not thermoplastic, which means traditional solvent- or melting-based processing techniques are not applicable for MOFs. Herein, a continuous phase transformation processing strategy is proposed for fabricating and shaping MOFs into processable fluids, shaped bodies, and even MOF foams that are capable of reversible transformation among these states. Based on this strategy, a cup-shaped Cu-MOF composite and hierarchically porous MOF foam were developed for highly efficient catalytic C-H oxidation (conv. 76% and sele. 93% for cup-shaped Cu-MOF composite and conv. 92% and sele. 97% for porous foam) with ease of recycling and dramatically improved kinetics. Furthermore, various MOF-based foams with low densities (energy penalty (pressure drop <20 Pa, at 500 mL min(-1)) and showed potential applications as efficient membrane reactors. PMID:27511140

  6. Biomimetic Coating of Modified Titanium Surfaces with Hydroxyapatite Using Simulated Body Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsin Nazir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the viability of coating commercially pure titanium (CPTi surfaces, modified via sandblasting and acid etching, with hydroxyapatite (HA/tricalcium phosphate coatings using a simulated body fluid (SBF solution. The samples were immersed in SBF from 3 to 7 days. The morphology and the chemistry of the HA/tricalcium phosphate coating were then analysed. Prior to immersion in SBF, the samples were sandblasted and acid etched to mimic the morphology and roughness of commercially available dental implants. The SBF aided in the formation of crystalline HA/tricalcium phosphate coatings on all the samples. The coatings were uniform and had roughness values higher than the underlying substrate. The highest roughness values for the coatings on the surfaces were obtained at 7 days of immersion in SBF with average Sa values of 2.9 ± 0.2 µm. The presence of HA/tricalcium phosphate on the surfaces was confirmed by the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM, Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS, the X-Ray Diffraction (XRD, and the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR analysis. This study shows that it is possible to obtain an adequate and uniform hydroxyapatite coating on pure titanium substrates in a shorter period of time with characteristics that favour the ultimate goal of implants therapy, that is, osseointegration.

  7. Surface characterization of stainless steel AISI 316 L in contact with simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titanium and cobalt alloys, as well as some stainless steels, are often used in orthopedic surgery. In the more developed countries, stainless steel is used only for temporary implants since it does not hold up as well as other alloys to corrosion in a physiological medium. Nevertheless, stainless steel alloys are frequently used for permanent implants in developing countries. Therefore, more knowledge about its reaction to corrosion is needed as well as the characteristics of the surface layer generated in a physiological medium in order to control potential toxicity from the release of metallic ions into the organism. The surface films usually have a different composition and chemical state from the base material. The surface characterization of alloys used in orthopedic surgery should not be underestimated, since it heavily influences the behavior of the implant through the relationship of the surface film-tissue and the possible migration of metallic ions from the base metal to the surrounding tissue. This work presents a study of the surface composition and resistance to the corrosion of stainless steel AISI 316L in simulated body fluid (SBF) aired at pH 7.25 and 37oC. The resistance to the corrosion was studied with an electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and anodic polarization curves (CW)

  8. A study of apatite formation on natural nano-hydroxyapatite/ chitosan composite in simulated body fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-bin FAN; Xiao-ying L(U)

    2008-01-01

    This study is focused on the ability of apatite formation on the surface of nano-hydroxyapatite (HA)/chitosan (CH) composite in simulated body fluid (SBF) in vitro. At first, natural nano-HA was prepared according to a wet-bailing method and the composite was prepared by combining the natural nano-hydroxyapatite and chit-osan, and then in vitro biomineralization test of natural nano-HA/CH composite was carried out in standard SBF. Subsequently, the quantity of the weight of the particles formed on the composite surface in SBF was measured by analytical balance, and the morphology change on the surface of the composite was observed by a scanning elec-tron microscope (SEM). Lastly, a Fourier transform infrared spectroscope (FTIR) was used to investigate the chemical components of the particles formed on the nat-ural nano-HA/CH composite surface in SBF. The result of quantity assessment shows that the weight of the com-posite increased with the increase of soaking time. The SEM image shows that the particles were gradually formed on natural nano-HA/CH composite surface, and the FTIR spectrum of the particles on composite surface confirms that these particles were carbonate apatite. This study indicates that the nano-HA/CH composite has a good ability for apatite formation in SBF, which predicts the bone-inducing ability of natural nano-HA/CH com-posite in vivo.

  9. Fabrication of DNA/Hydroxyapatite nanocomposites by simulated body fluid for gene delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeshita, Takayuki; Okamoto, Masami [Advanced Polymeric Nanostructured Materials Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Toyota Technological Institute, 2-12-1 Hisakata, Tempaku, Nagoya 468-8511 (Japan)

    2015-05-22

    The hydroxyapatite (HA) formation on the surface of DNA molecules in simulated body fluid (SBF) was examined. The osteoconductivity is estimated using SBF having ion concentrations approximately equal to those of human blood plasma. After immersion for 4 weeks in SBF at 36.5 °C, the HA crystallites possessing 1-14 micrometer in diameter grew on the surface of DNA molecules. The leaf flake-like and spherical shapes morphologies were observed through scanning electron microscopy analysis. Original peaks of both of DNA and HA were characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The Ca/P ratio (1.1-1.5) in HA was estimated by energy dispersive X-ray analysis. After biomineralization, the calculated weight ratio of DNA/HA was 18/82 by thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis. The molecular orbital computer simulation has been used to probe the interaction of DNA with two charge-balancing ions, CaOH{sup +} and CaH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup +}. The adsorption enthalpy of the two ions on DNA having negative value was the evidence for the interface in mineralization of HA in SBF.

  10. Fluid Shifts: Otoacoustical Emission Changes in Response to Posture and Lower Body Negative Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgoza, R.; Kemp, D.; Ebert, D.; Danielson, R.; Stenger, M.; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The purpose of the NASA Fluid Shifts Study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight and to correlate these findings with vision changes and other elements of the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. VIIP signs and symptoms, as well as postflight lumbar puncture data, suggest that elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) may be associated with spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. Due to the invasive nature of direct measures of ICP, a noninvasive technique of monitoring ICP is desired for use during spaceflight. The phase angle and amplitude of otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) have been shown to be sensitive to posture change and ICP (1, 2), therefore use of OAEs is an attractive option. OAEs are low-level sounds produced by the sensory cells of the cochlea in response to auditory stimulation. These sounds travel peripherally from the cochlea, through the oval window, to the ear canal where they can be recorded. OAE transmission is sensitive to changes in the stiffness of the oval window, occurring as a result of changes in cochlear pressure. Increased stiffness of the oval window largely affects the transmission of sound from the cochlea at frequencies between 800 Hz and 1600 Hz. OAEs can be self-recorded in the laboratory or on the ISS using a handheld device. Our primary objectives regarding OAE measures in this experiment were to 1) validate this method during preflight testing of each crewmember (while sitting, supine and in head-down tilt position), and 2) determine if OAE measures (and presumably ICP) are responsive to lower body negative pressure and to spaceflight. METHODS: Distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) and transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) were recorded preflight using the Otoport Advance OAE system (Otodynamics Ltd., Hatfield, UK). Data were collected in four conditions (seated

  11. Path instabilities of heavy bodies in free fall in a viscous fluid: wake dynamics vs. aerodynamic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, David; Selvam, Kamal; Tchoufag, Joël; Assemat, Pauline; Magnaudet, Jacques

    2013-11-01

    Solid bodies in free fall in a viscous fluid generally fall along a non-straight path, and a variety of periodic (fluttering, tumbling) and non-periodic regimes can be observed. We analyze the structure of the couplings between the fluid and the body, restricting to a linear stability framework. Introducing a simple toy model consisting of a infinitely long plate sliding along a vertical wall, we show that in the limit of large solid-to-fluid masses a decoupling takes place, allowing us to distinguish two kinds of modes: ``wake'' modes in which the body motion has virtually no influence, and ``body'' modes for which the intrinsic wake dynamics can be neglected. Turning to more realistic objects, we show that the ``body'' modes can be described through a rationally derived aerodynamic model (based on quasi-static assumptions), yielding either a static instability, or a dynamic, low-frequency, instability. Considering 2D rectangular rods and 3D disks, we explore the competition between the three kinds of instabilities. For objects elongated in the spanwise direction, it is found that wake instability dominates in case of 2D rectangles and low-frequency instability dominates in case of disks. For objects elongated in the streamwise direction, static instability always dominate.

  12. ON THE PRESENCE OF CERTAIN BODIES IN THE SKIN AND BLISTER FLUID FROM SCARLET-FEVER AND MEASLES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, C W

    1905-07-15

    In sections of control and normal skin, the nuclei of the epithelial cells were often indented by the cell protoplasm, giving them an appearance similar to those indented by Mallory's bodies. It would seem that if these bodies of Mallory's were protozoa they would have been found in the sections from both the living and the dead skin of scarlet-fever and measles, as they were present in the blister fluid. Their absence is certainly more suggestive of a degeneration than of a protozoon. This view is also borne out by the fact that they were not found immediately after death, but were present in another specimen from the same case removed twenty-four hours later. It would seem probable also that the bodies found in the blister fluid were the products of degeneration and cytolytic activity, because they were found in the antitoxin rashes as well as in the cases of scarlet-fever and measles. The histological changes in the skin of these two diseases leads us to expect the presence of cytolytic products both in the blister fluid and in the sections. It certainly cannot be stated that none of these bodies is a protozoön, but it can be positively stated that a great majority of them arise from degenerating cells; and in many cases, I think, it is not possible to differentiate a degeneration from a protozoön by the study of its morphology and staining reactions. The bodies present in blister fluid resemble very closely those granular bodies found in blood under certain conditions, and seen in vaccine lymph and in emulsions of tissues and in exudates. I think, therefore, that they are for the most part, if not wholly, products of degenerating tissue cells and of leucocytes, and within certain limits specific to scarlet-fever and measles.

  13. Iliopsoas compartment lesions: a radiologic evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leao, Alberto Ribeiro de Souza; Amaral, Raquel Portugal Guimaraes; Abud, Thiago Giansante; Demarchi, Guilherme Tadeu Sauaia; Freire Filho, Edison de Oliveira; Novack, Paulo Rogerio; Campos, Flavio do Amaral; Shigueoka, David Carlos; Fernandes, Artur da Rocha Correa; Szejnfeld, Jacob; D' Ippolito, Giuseppe [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail: ar.leao@uol.com.br; Santos, Jose Eduardo Mourao [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2007-07-15

    The iliopsoas compartment, a posterior boundary of the retroperitoneum, is comprised of the psoas major, psoas minor and iliac muscles. The symptoms picture in patients presenting with pathological involvement of this compartment may show a wide range of nonspecific clinical presentations that may lead to delayed diagnosis. However, in the search of an etiological diagnosis, it is already known that inflammation, tumors, and hemorrhages account for almost all the lesions affecting the iliopsoas compartment. By means of a retrospective analysis of radiological studies in patients with iliopsoas compartment lesions whose diagnosis was confirmed by anatomopathological evaluation or clinical follow-up, we have reviewed its anatomy as well as the main forms of involvement, with the purpose of identifying radiological signs that may help to narrow down the potential differential diagnoses. As each lesion is approached we will discuss the main radiological findings such as presence of gas in pyogenic abscesses, bone destruction and other bone changes of vertebral bodies in lesions secondary to tuberculosis, involvement of fascial planes in cases of neoplasms, and differences in signal density and intensity of hematomas secondary to hemoglobin degradation, among others. So, we have tried to present cases depicting the most frequent lesions involving the iliopsoas compartment, with emphasis on those signs that can lead us to a more specific etiological diagnosis. (author)

  14. Ultrastructure of the intercalated body, a novel organelle associated with fluid forming cells in the organ of Corti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobkowicz, H M; Holy, J; Scott, G L

    1990-07-01

    The intercalated body is a newly discovered organelle in the inner and outer spiral sulcus cells of the mouse organ of Corti. The organelle was found in the cochleas of 14-day and older intact mice and in organs in culture of corresponding ages. The organelle consists of a stack of interconnected cisternae of endoplasmic reticulum and of membrane bound rodlets that are intercalated between, and run parallel to, the cisternae. The cisternal membranes are predominantly smooth, but some may display ribosomes. Most rodlets are from 1 to 2 microns long, about 0.1 micron wide, and contain electron dense material. Mitochondria are commonly associated with or incorporated into the organelle. Some electron micrographs suggest that the rodlets may originate from modified mitochondria. It is our impression that the formation of the organelle begins with the apposition of cisternae and mitochondria. Cisternal-associated mitochondria appear to constrict, elongate, and lose their inner membranes. In both the intact animal and in culture, the cells of the inner and outer spiral sulci display microvilli, apical junctional complexes, lateral intercellular spaces containing interdigitating cell processes, and appear to be involved in fluid formation. Moreover, in culture, the cells of inner and outer spiral sulci as well as some cells proliferating in the outgrowth zone participate in fluid formation, producing large fluid pockets. All these cells commonly contain intercalated bodies. It is possible that in the intact animal, as in culture, intercalated bodies may play a role in fluid regulation in the immediate vicinity of the hair cells.

  15. DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTIC ANALYSIS OF A 3-D SEMI-SUBMERGED BODY AS A FLUID-STRUCTURE INTERACTION SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐刚; 任文敏

    2004-01-01

    An Arnoldi's method with new iteration pattern, which was designed for solving a large unsymmetric eigenvalue problem introduced by displacement-pressure FE (Finite Element) pattern of a fluid-structure interaction system, was adopted here to get the dynamic characteristics of the semi-submerged body. The new iteration pattern could be used efficiently to obtain the Arnoldi's vectors in the shift-frequency technique, which was used for the zero-frequency problem. Numerical example showed that the fluid-structure interaction is one of the important factors to the dynamic characteristics of large semi-submerged thin-walled structures.

  16. Changes of body fluid and hematology in toad and their rehabilitation following intermittent exposure to simulated high altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, H. M.; Boral, M. C.

    1986-06-01

    Three groups of adult male toads were exposed intermittently in a decompression chamber for a daily period of 4 and 8 hours at a time for 6 consecutive days to an “altitude” of 12,000; 18,000 and 24,000 feet (3658; 5486; 7315 m) respectively. Most of the exposed animals were sacrificed immediately after the last exposure, but only a few animals experiencing 8 hours of exposure were sacrificed after a further 16 hours of exposure at normal atmospheric pressure. Eight hours of daily exposure for 6 days causes a decrease of body fluids and an increase of hematological parameters in all the altitude exposed animals compared with to the changes noted in the animals having 4 hours of daily exposure for 6 days at the same altitude levels. The animals that were exposed to pressures equivalent to altitudes of 12,000 and 18,000 feet daily for 8 hours were found to return nearly to their normal body fluids and hematological balance after 16 hours of exposure to normal atmospheric pressure, whereas the animals exposed for a similar period at an equivalent 24,000 feet failed to get back their normal balance of body fluids and hematology after 16 hours of exposure at normal atmospheric pressure. The present experiment shows that the body weight loss and changes of body fluid and hematological parameters in the toad after exposure to simulated high altitude are due not only to dehydration, but suggest that hypoxia may also have a role.

  17. Molecular Physiology of an Extra-renal Cl- Uptake Mechanism for Body Fluid Cl- Homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Fang; Yan, Jia-Jiun; Tseng, Yung-Che; Chen, Ruo-Dong; Hwang, Pung-Pung

    2015-01-01

    The development of an ion regulatory mechanism for body fluid homeostasis was an important trait for vertebrates during the evolution from aquatic to terrestrial life. The homeostatic mechanism of Cl- in aquatic fish appears to be similar to that of terrestrial vertebrates; however, the mechanism in non-mammalian vertebrates is poorly understood. Unlike in mammals, in which the kidney plays a central role, in most fish species, the gill is responsible for the maintenance of Cl- homeostasis via Cl- transport uptake mechanisms. Previous studies in zebrafish identified Na+-Cl- cotransporter (NCC) 2b-expressing cells in the gills and skin as the major ionocytes responsible for Cl- uptake, similar to distal convoluted tubular cells in mammalian kidney. However, the mechanism by which basolateral ions exit from NCC cells is still unclear. Of the in situ hybridization signals of twelve members of the clc Cl- channel family, only that of clc-2c exhibited an ionocyte pattern in the gill and embryonic skin. Double in situ hybridization/immunocytochemistry confirmed colocalization of apical NCC2b with basolateral CLC-2c. Acclimation to a low Cl- environment increased mRNA expression of both clc-2c and ncc2b, and also the protein expression of CLC-2c in embryos and adult gills. Loss-of-function of clc-2c resulted in a significant decrease in whole body Cl- content in zebrafish embryos, a phenotype similar to that of ncc2b mutants; this finding suggests a role for CLC-2c in Cl- uptake. Translational knockdown of clc-2c stimulated ncc2b mRNA expression and vice versa, revealing cooperation between these two transporters in the context of zebrafish Cl- homeostasis. Further comparative genomic and phylogenetic analyses revealed that zebrafish CLC-2c is a fish-specific isoform that diverged from a kidney-predominant homologue, in the same manner as NCC2b and its counterparts (NCCs). Several lines of molecular and cellular physiological evidences demonstrated the cofunctional role

  18. Molecular Physiology of an Extra-renal Cl(-) Uptake Mechanism for Body Fluid Cl(-) Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Fang; Yan, Jia-Jiun; Tseng, Yung-Che; Chen, Ruo-Dong; Hwang, Pung-Pung

    2015-01-01

    The development of an ion regulatory mechanism for body fluid homeostasis was an important trait for vertebrates during the evolution from aquatic to terrestrial life. The homeostatic mechanism of Cl(-) in aquatic fish appears to be similar to that of terrestrial vertebrates; however, the mechanism in non-mammalian vertebrates is poorly understood. Unlike in mammals, in which the kidney plays a central role, in most fish species, the gill is responsible for the maintenance of Cl(-) homeostasis via Cl(-) transport uptake mechanisms. Previous studies in zebrafish identified Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC) 2b-expressing cells in the gills and skin as the major ionocytes responsible for Cl(-) uptake, similar to distal convoluted tubular cells in mammalian kidney. However, the mechanism by which basolateral ions exit from NCC cells is still unclear. Of the in situ hybridization signals of twelve members of the clc Cl(-) channel family, only that of clc-2c exhibited an ionocyte pattern in the gill and embryonic skin. Double in situ hybridization/immunocytochemistry confirmed colocalization of apical NCC2b with basolateral CLC-2c. Acclimation to a low Cl(-) environment increased mRNA expression of both clc-2c and ncc2b, and also the protein expression of CLC-2c in embryos and adult gills. Loss-of-function of clc-2c resulted in a significant decrease in whole body Cl(-) content in zebrafish embryos, a phenotype similar to that of ncc2b mutants; this finding suggests a role for CLC-2c in Cl(-) uptake. Translational knockdown of clc-2c stimulated ncc2b mRNA expression and vice versa, revealing cooperation between these two transporters in the context of zebrafish Cl(-) homeostasis. Further comparative genomic and phylogenetic analyses revealed that zebrafish CLC-2c is a fish-specific isoform that diverged from a kidney-predominant homologue, in the same manner as NCC2b and its counterparts (NCCs). Several lines of molecular and cellular physiological evidences demonstrated

  19. Developments in FTICR-MS and Its Potential for Body Fluid Signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Nicolardi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FTMS is the method of choice for measurements that require ultra-high resolution. The establishment of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR MS, the availability of biomolecular ionization techniques and the introduction of the Orbitrap™ mass spectrometer have widened the number of FTMS-applications enormously. One recent example involves clinical proteomics using FTICR-MS to discover and validate protein biomarker signatures in body fluids such as serum or plasma. These biological samples are highly complex in terms of the type and number of components, their concentration range, and the structural identity of each species, and thus require extensive sample cleanup and chromatographic separation procedures. Clearly, such an elaborate and multi-step sample preparation process hampers high-throughput analysis of large clinical cohorts. A final MS read-out at ultra-high resolution enables the analysis of a more complex sample and can thus simplify upfront fractionations. To this end, FTICR-MS offers superior ultra-high resolving power with accurate and precise mass-to-charge ratio (m/z measurement of a high number of peptides and small proteins (up to 20 kDa at isotopic resolution over a wide mass range, and furthermore includes a wide variety of fragmentation strategies to characterize protein sequence and structure, including post-translational modifications (PTMs. In our laboratory, we have successfully applied FTICR “next-generation” peptide profiles with the purpose of cancer disease classifications. Here we will review a number of developments and innovations in FTICR-MS that have resulted in robust and routine procedures aiming for ultra-high resolution signatures of clinical samples, exemplified with state-of-the-art examples for serum and saliva.

  20. Developments in FTICR-MS and Its Potential for Body Fluid Signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolardi, Simone; Bogdanov, Bogdan; Deelder, André M; Palmblad, Magnus; van der Burgt, Yuri E M

    2015-11-13

    Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FTMS) is the method of choice for measurements that require ultra-high resolution. The establishment of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) MS, the availability of biomolecular ionization techniques and the introduction of the Orbitrap™ mass spectrometer have widened the number of FTMS-applications enormously. One recent example involves clinical proteomics using FTICR-MS to discover and validate protein biomarker signatures in body fluids such as serum or plasma. These biological samples are highly complex in terms of the type and number of components, their concentration range, and the structural identity of each species, and thus require extensive sample cleanup and chromatographic separation procedures. Clearly, such an elaborate and multi-step sample preparation process hampers high-throughput analysis of large clinical cohorts. A final MS read-out at ultra-high resolution enables the analysis of a more complex sample and can thus simplify upfront fractionations. To this end, FTICR-MS offers superior ultra-high resolving power with accurate and precise mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) measurement of a high number of peptides and small proteins (up to 20 kDa) at isotopic resolution over a wide mass range, and furthermore includes a wide variety of fragmentation strategies to characterize protein sequence and structure, including post-translational modifications (PTMs). In our laboratory, we have successfully applied FTICR "next-generation" peptide profiles with the purpose of cancer disease classifications. Here we will review a number of developments and innovations in FTICR-MS that have resulted in robust and routine procedures aiming for ultra-high resolution signatures of clinical samples, exemplified with state-of-the-art examples for serum and saliva.

  1. Compartment syndrome without pain!

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, M J

    2012-02-03

    We report the case of a young male patient who underwent intra-medullary nailing for a closed, displaced mid-shaft fracture of tibia and fibula. He was commenced on patient controlled analgesia post-operatively. A diagnosis of compartment syndrome in the patient\\'s leg was delayed because he did not exhibit a pain response. This ultimately resulted in a below-knee amputation of the patient\\'s leg. We caution against the use of patient controlled analgesia in any traumatised limb distal to the hip or the shoulder.

  2. Comparative analysis of amniotic fluid lamellar body count and foam stability test as indices of fetal lung maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Višnjevac Nemanja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Respiratory distress syndrome of the newborn caused by the fetal lung immaturity is a very serious clinical problem. Different tests of prenatal analysis of amniotic fluid, such as lamellar body count and Clements’ test, are available for predicting the fetal lung maturity. Material and methods. A prospective clinical study was conducted on amniotic fluid samples from 2005 to 2006. The amniotic fluid samples were obtained at the gestational age of 30 to 42 weeks and collected by vaginal amniotomy, amniotomy during Caesarean section and 72 hours before the delivery by amniocentesis. A haematology analyzer (Nikon-Kohden® was used to determine the lamellar body counts. Clements’ test involved adding an equal volume of 96% ethanol to the multiple amniotic fluid volume (1:2, 1:4, 1:16, 1:32, followed by shaking and noting the presence of ring of bubbles. After the delivery, we compared the lamellar body count results and Clements’ test and the outcome of pregnancies, primarily the development of respiratory distress syndrome. The most specific lamellar body cutoffs for maturity and immaturity were determined according to receiver operating characteristic curves. Results and Discussion. Out of 232 amniotic fluid samples which were tested, 112 samples were collected after vaginal amniotomy, 88 during the Caesarean delivery and 32 samples by amniocentesis. The overall incidence of respiratory distress syndrome was 14.6%. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to identify cutoff points for the test. We found that both tests are good screening tests for predicting the fetal lung maturity with the area under the curve of 0.782 in Clements’ test and 0.751 in the lamellar body count. Clements’ cutoff 2 with sensitivity of 67.6% and specificity of 72.2%, proved best in the prediction of the fetal lung maturity. The lamellar body count cutoff of 42x10³/μl had the sensitivity of 82.4% and specificity of 64.6% in predicting

  3. What's new in acute compartment syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Edward J; Sanders, David W; Shuler, Michael S; Lawendy, Abdel-Rahman; Cole, Ashley L; Alqahtani, Saad M; Schmidt, Andrew H

    2012-12-01

    Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) after trauma is often the result of increased size of the damaged tissues after acute crush injury or from reperfusion of ischemic areas. It usually is not solely caused by accumulation of free blood or fluid in the compartment, although that can contribute in some cases. There is no reliable and reproducible test that confirms the diagnosis of ACS. A missed diagnosis or failure to cut the fascia to release pressure within a few hours can result in severe intractable pain, paralysis, and sensory deficits. Reduced blood circulation leads to oxygen and nutrient deprivation, muscle necrosis, and permanent disability. Currently, the diagnosis of ACS is made on the basis of physical examination and repeated needle sticks over a short time frame to measure intracompartmental pressures. Missed compartment syndromes continue to be one of most common causes of malpractice lawsuits. Existing technology for continuous pressure measurements are insensitive, particularly in the deep tissues and compartments, and their use is restricted to highly trained personnel. Newer concepts of the pathophysiology accompanied by new diagnostic and therapeutic modalities have recently been advanced. Among these are the concept of inflammatory mediators as markers and anti-inflammatories as medical adjunct therapy. New diagnostic modalities include near-infrared spectroscopy, ultrafiltration catheters, and radio-frequency identification implants. These all address current shortcomings in the diagnostic armamentarium that trauma surgeons can use. The strengths and weaknesses of these new concepts are discussed to allow the trauma surgeon to follow current evolution of the field. PMID:22913965

  4. Generalized mapping of multi-body dissipative particle dynamics onto fluid compressibility and the Flory-Huggins theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, Safa; Boromand, Arman; Khani, Shaghayegh; Wagner, Jacob; Yamanoi, Mikio; Maia, Joao

    2015-04-01

    In this work, a generalized relation between the fluid compressibility, the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter (χ), and the simulation parameters in multi-body dissipative particle dynamics (MDPD) is established. This required revisiting the MDPD equation of state previously reported in the literature and developing general relationships between the parameters used in the MDPD model. We derive a relationship to the Flory-Huggins χ parameter for incompressible fluids similar to the work previously done in dissipative particle dynamics by Groot and Warren. The accuracy of this relationship is evaluated using phase separation in small molecules and the solubility of polymers in dilute solvent solutions via monitoring the scaling of the radius of gyration (Rg) for different solvent qualities. Finally, the dynamics of the MDPD fluid is studied with respect to the diffusion coefficient and the zero shear viscosity.

  5. Solid-Phase Extraction Strategies to Surmount Body Fluid Sample Complexity in High-Throughput Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco R. Bladergroen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For large-scale and standardized applications in mass spectrometry- (MS- based proteomics automation of each step is essential. Here we present high-throughput sample preparation solutions for balancing the speed of current MS-acquisitions and the time needed for analytical workup of body fluids. The discussed workflows reduce body fluid sample complexity and apply for both bottom-up proteomics experiments and top-down protein characterization approaches. Various sample preparation methods that involve solid-phase extraction (SPE including affinity enrichment strategies have been automated. Obtained peptide and protein fractions can be mass analyzed by direct infusion into an electrospray ionization (ESI source or by means of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI without further need of time-consuming liquid chromatography (LC separations.

  6. WAVES GENERATED BY A 3D MOVING BODY IN A TWO-LAYER FLUID OF FINITE DEPTH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Wei; YOU Yun-xiang; MIAO Guo-ping; ZHAO Feng; ZHANG Jun

    2005-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the waves generated by a 3-D body advancing beneath the free surface with constant speed in a two-layer fluid of finite depth. By applying Green's theorem, a layered integral equation system based on the Rankine source for the perturbed velocity potential generated by the moving body was derived with the potential flow theory. A four-node isoparametric element method was used to treat with the solution of the layered integral equation system. The surface and interface waves generated by a moving ball were calculated numerically. The results were compared with the analytical results for a moving source with constant velocity.

  7. Modeling of compartment fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fire accident in a containment is a serious threat to nuclear reactors. Fire can cause substantial loss to life and property. The risk posed by fire can also exceed the risk from internal events within a nuclear reactor. Numerous research efforts have been performed to understand and analyze the phenomenon of fire in nuclear reactor and its consequences. Modeling of fire is an important subject in the field of fire safety engineering. Two approaches which are commonly used in fire modeling are zonal modeling and field modeling. The objective of this work is to compare zonal and field modeling approach against a pool fired experiment performed in a well-confined compartment. Numerical simulations were performed against experiments, which were conducted within PRISME program under the framework of OECD. In these experiments, effects of ventilation flow rate on heat release rate in a confined and mechanically ventilated compartment is investigated. Time dependent changes in gas temperature and oxygen mass fraction were measured. The trends obtained by numerical simulation performed using zonal model and field model compares well with experiments. Further validation is needed before this code can be used for fire safety analyses. (author)

  8. Analysis of body fluids for forensic purposes: from laboratory testing to non-destructive rapid confirmatory identification at a crime scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virkler, Kelly; Lednev, Igor K

    2009-07-01

    Body fluid traces recovered at crime scenes are among the most important types of evidence to forensic investigators. They contain valuable DNA evidence which can identify a suspect or victim as well as exonerate an innocent individual. The first step of identifying a particular body fluid is highly important since the nature of the fluid is itself very informative to the investigation, and the destructive nature of a screening test must be considered when only a small amount of material is available. The ability to characterize an unknown stain at the scene of the crime without having to wait for results from a laboratory is another very critical step in the development of forensic body fluid analysis. Driven by the importance for forensic applications, body fluid identification methods have been extensively developed in recent years. The systematic analysis of these new developments is vital for forensic investigators to be continuously educated on possible superior techniques. Significant advances in laser technology and the development of novel light detectors have dramatically improved spectroscopic methods for molecular characterization over the last decade. The application of this novel biospectroscopy for forensic purposes opens new and exciting opportunities for the development of on-field, non-destructive, confirmatory methods for body fluid identification at a crime scene. In addition, the biospectroscopy methods are universally applicable to all body fluids unlike the majority of current techniques which are valid for individual fluids only. This article analyzes the current methods being used to identify body fluid stains including blood, semen, saliva, vaginal fluid, urine, and sweat, and also focuses on new techniques that have been developed in the last 5-6 years. In addition, the potential of new biospectroscopic techniques based on Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy is evaluated for rapid, confirmatory, non-destructive identification of a body

  9. Adverse incidents resulting in exposure to body fluids at a UK dental teaching hospital over a 6-year period

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes A; Davies L; Hale R; Gallagher JE

    2012-01-01

    A Hughes,1 L Davies,1 R Hale,1 JE Gallagher21Kings College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, 2King's College London Dental Institute, London, United KingdomBackground: The safety and protection of patients and health care workers is of paramount importance in dentistry, and this includes students in training who provide clinical care. Given the nature of dental care, adverse incidents can and do occur, exposing health care workers to body fluids and putting them at risk of infection, inc...

  10. Structure and stability of rapidly rotating fluid bodies in general relativity. III. Beyond the angular velocity peak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butterworth, E.M.

    1979-07-01

    A method previously described by Butterworth and Ipser for constructing models of rapidly rotating fluid bodies in general relativity is modified to enable construction of solutions whose sources are very highly flattened. In particular, solutions with increasing oblateness and decreasing angular velocity are exhibited. Also, a discussion is given of the possible association of the terminal of relativistic sequences by equatorial shedding and the first secular axisymmetric instability of the Maclaurin spheroids.

  11. The Application of SILAC Mouse in Human Body Fluid Proteomics Analysis Reveals Protein Patterns Associated with IgA Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilin Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Body fluid proteome is the most informative proteome from a medical viewpoint. But the lack of accurate quantitation method for complicated body fluid limited its application in disease research and biomarker discovery. To address this problem, we introduced a novel strategy, in which SILAC-labeled mouse serum was used as internal standard for human serum and urine proteome analysis. The SILAC-labeled mouse serum was mixed with human serum and urine, and multidimensional separation coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (IEF-LC-MS/MS analysis was performed. The shared peptides between two species were quantified by their SILAC pairs, and the human-only peptides were quantified by mouse peptides with coelution. The comparison for the results from two replicate experiments indicated the high repeatability of our strategy. Then the urine from Immunoglobulin A nephropathy patients treated and untreated was compared by this quantitation strategy. Fifty-three peptides were found to be significantly changed between two groups, including both known diagnostic markers for IgAN and novel candidates, such as Complement C3, Albumin, VDBP, ApoA,1 and IGFBP7. In conclusion, we have developed a practical and accurate quantitation strategy for comparison of complicated human body fluid proteome. The results from such strategy could provide potential disease-related biomarkers for evaluation of treatment.

  12. Electrochemical Investigations of Polycaprolactone-Coated AZ31 Mg Alloy in Earle's Balance Salt Solution and Conventional Simulated Body Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Benjamin M.; Zhang, Lei

    2016-06-01

    Polycaprolactone (PCL) coating has been shown to increase the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys when exposed to a simulated body fluid. A PCL dip coating was applied to AZ31 Mg alloy. Samples were immersed in both Earle's Balance Salt Solution (EBSS) and conventional simulated body fluids (c-SBF) up to 14 days. Microscopic morphology, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and potentiodynamic polarization tests were performed to evaluate the corrosion behavior changes of PCL coatings against immersion times in EBSS and c-SBF as compared to the uncoated AZ31 substrate. PCL-coated samples demonstrated improved corrosion resistance compared to bare AZ31 in both EBSS and c-SBF, indicating that the PCL coating exhibited good corrosion protection of AZ31 in simulated body fluid. Samples immersed in EBSS showed significantly higher electrochemical impedance values and slower corrosion progression as compared to the samples in c-SBF, because of the decreased chloride content and CO2 buffering mechanism of the EBSS.

  13. Degradation behavior of hydroxyapatite/poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid nanocomposite in simulated body fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liuyun, Jiang, E-mail: jlytxg@163.com [Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041 (China); Chengdong, Xiong [Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041 (China); Lixin, Jiang; Lijuan, Xu [Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041 (China); Graduated School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China)

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: In this manuscript, we initiated a systematic study to investigate the effect of HA on thermal properties, inner structure, reduction of mechanical strength, surface morphology and the surface deposit of n-HA/PLGA composite with respect to the soaking time. The results showed that n-HA played an important role in improving the degradation behavior of n-HA/PLGA composite, which can accelerate the degradation of n-HA/PLGA composite and endow it with bioactivity, after n-HA was detached from PLGA during the degradation, so that n-HA/PLGA composite may have a more promising prospect of the clinical application than pure PLGA as bone fracture internal fixation materials, and the results would be of reference significance to predict the in vivo degradation and biological properties. - Highlights: • Effect of n-HA on degradation behavior of n-HA/PLGA composite was investigated. • Degradation behaviors of n-HA/PLGA and PLGA were carried out in SBF for 6 months. • Viscosity, thermal properties, inner structure and bending strength were tested. • n-HA can accelerate the degradation and endows it with bioactivity. - Abstract: To investigate the effect of hydroxyapatite(HA) on the degradation behavior of hydroxyapatite/poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (HA/PLGA) nanocomposite, the degradation experiment of n-HA/PLGA composite and pure PLGA were carried out by soaking in simulated body fluid(SBF) at 37 °C for 1, 2, 4 and 6 months. The change of intrinsic viscosity, thermal properties, inner structure, bending strength reduction, surface morphology and the surface deposit of n-HA/PLGA composite and pure PLGA with respect to the soaking time were investigated by means of UbbeloHde Viscometer, differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), scanning electron microscope(SEM), electromechanical universal tester, a conventional camera and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that n-HA played an important role in improving the degradation behavior of n

  14. Ergonomic Evaluation on Taxi Drivers Compartment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jimmy; SF; Chan; YW; Chui; Reggie; Kwan; K; K; Chau

    2002-01-01

    Driving involves long hours of physical work within c onfined compartment. Taxi drivers usually work with prolonged working hours, add itional stress may likely be induced on particular body limbs. Occupational heal th may occur and working efficiency may potentially be affected resulting fr om fatigues, pains or diseases. These problems, however, could be remedied if mo re attention is paid on seating design, the workplace and driving postures adopt ed. Ergonomics design can provide better understanding...

  15. Analysis and Design Tools for Fluid-Structure Interaction with Multi-Body Flexible Structures Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall objective of this proposal (Phases I and II) is to develop a robust and accurate solver for fluid-structure interaction computations capable of...

  16. General-relativistic rotation laws in rotating fluid bodies: constant linear velocity

    CERN Document Server

    Knopik, Jerzy; Malec, Edward

    2015-01-01

    New rotation laws have been recently found for general-relativistic self-gravitating stationary fluids. It was not clear whether they apply to systems rotating with a constant linear velocity. In this paper we fill this gap. The answer is positive. That means, in particular, that these systems should exhibit the recently discovered general-relativistic weak-field effects within rotating tori: the dynamic anti-dragging and the deviation from the Keplerian motion induced by the fluid selfgravity.

  17. Partitions, Compartments and Portals: Cave Development in internally impounded karst masses.

    OpenAIRE

    Osborne R. Armstrong L.

    2005-01-01

    Dykes and other vertical bodies can act as aquicludes within bodies of karst rock. These partitions separate isolated bodies of solublerock called compartments. Speleogenetically each compartment will behave as a small impounded-karst until the partition becomesbreached. Breaches through partitions, portals, allow water, air and biota including humans to pass between sections of caves thatwere originally isolated.

  18. Ultrastructure of the intercalated body, a novel organelle associated with fluid forming cells in the organ of Corti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobkowicz, H M; Holy, J; Scott, G L

    1990-07-01

    The intercalated body is a newly discovered organelle in the inner and outer spiral sulcus cells of the mouse organ of Corti. The organelle was found in the cochleas of 14-day and older intact mice and in organs in culture of corresponding ages. The organelle consists of a stack of interconnected cisternae of endoplasmic reticulum and of membrane bound rodlets that are intercalated between, and run parallel to, the cisternae. The cisternal membranes are predominantly smooth, but some may display ribosomes. Most rodlets are from 1 to 2 microns long, about 0.1 micron wide, and contain electron dense material. Mitochondria are commonly associated with or incorporated into the organelle. Some electron micrographs suggest that the rodlets may originate from modified mitochondria. It is our impression that the formation of the organelle begins with the apposition of cisternae and mitochondria. Cisternal-associated mitochondria appear to constrict, elongate, and lose their inner membranes. In both the intact animal and in culture, the cells of the inner and outer spiral sulci display microvilli, apical junctional complexes, lateral intercellular spaces containing interdigitating cell processes, and appear to be involved in fluid formation. Moreover, in culture, the cells of inner and outer spiral sulci as well as some cells proliferating in the outgrowth zone participate in fluid formation, producing large fluid pockets. All these cells commonly contain intercalated bodies. It is possible that in the intact animal, as in culture, intercalated bodies may play a role in fluid regulation in the immediate vicinity of the hair cells. PMID:2374037

  19. Tides in rotating barotropic fluid bodies: the contribution of inertial waves and the role of internal structure

    CERN Document Server

    Ogilvie, Gordon I

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the linear response to low-frequency tidal forcing of fluid bodies that are slowly and uniformly rotating, are neutrally stratified and may contain a solid or fluid core. This problem may be regarded as a simplified model of astrophysical tides in convective regions of stars and giant planets. The response can be separated into non-wavelike and wavelike parts, where the former is related instantaneously to the tidal potential and the latter may involve resonances or other singularities. The imaginary part of the potential Love number of the body, which is directly related to the rates of energy and angular momentum exchange in the tidal interaction and to the rate of dissipation of energy, may have a complicated dependence on the tidal frequency. However, a certain frequency-average of this quantity is independent of the dissipative properties of the fluid and can be determined by means of an impulse calculation. The result is a strongly increasing function of the size of the core when the tidal po...

  20. Numerical investigation of incompressible fluid flow and heat transfer across a bluff body in a channel flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taymaz Imdat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lattice Boltzmann Method is applied to computationally investigate the laminar flow and heat transfer of an incompressible fluid with constant material properties in a two-dimensional channel with a built-in bluff body. In this study, a triangular prism is taken as the bluff body. Not only the momentum transport, but also the energy transport is modeled by the Lattice Boltzmann Method. A uniform lattice structure with a single time relaxation rule is used. For obtaining a higher flexibility on the computational grid, interpolation methods are applied, where the information is transferred from the lattice structure to the computational grid by Lagrange interpolation. The flow is investigated for different Reynolds numbers, while keeping the Prandtl number at the constant value of 0.7. The results show how the presence of a triangular prism effects the flow and heat transfer patterns for the steady-state and unsteady-periodic flow regimes. As an assessment of the accuracy of the developed Lattice Boltzmann code, the results are compared with those obtained by a commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics code. It is observed that the present Lattice Boltzmann code delivers results that are of similar accuracy to the well-established Computational Fluid Dynamics code, with much smaller computational time for the prediction of the unsteady phenomena.

  1. [Abdominal compartment syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottecher, T; Segura, P; Launoy, A

    2001-04-01

    French physicians dealing with abdominal emergencies are not very familiar with the abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). Increased abdominal pressure has deleterious consequences on local (intestine, liver, kidney) circulation, leading to death in the absence of correct treatment. Abdominal trauma and ruptured aortic aneurism are the main causes of ACS. Clinical presentation may be misleading: respiratory failure, oliguria or circulatory symptoms are often predominant. Abdominal palpation is inefficient for evaluating intra-abdominal pressure (IAP); only measurement of cystic pressure allows precise evaluation of IAP. Abdominal decompression is the treatment of choice. It must be performed as soon as IAP exceeds 25 mmHg. The procedure may be risky with a high incidence of severe complications when ischaemic territories are reperfused. Recent data underline the importance of compensation of hypovolemia before decompression. Abdominal closure may necessitate various techniques (aponevrotomy, Bogota bags, etc.). At any rate, IAP must remain low at the end of the procedure. In case of suspicion of ACS, early measurement of IAP is mandatory. If pressure is over 25 mmHg, a decompressive procedure must be initiated. PMID:11340703

  2. Compartment-Specific Phosphorylation of Squid Neurofilaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Philip; Pant, Harish C

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the giant axon and synapse of third-order neurons in the squid stellate ganglion have provided a vast literature on neuronal physiology and axon transport. Large neuronal size also lends itself to comparative biochemical studies of cell body versus axon. These have focused on the regulation of synthesis, assembly, posttranslational modification and function of neuronal cytoskeletal proteins (microtubules (MTs) and neurofilaments (NFs)), the predominant proteins in axoplasm. These contribute to axonal organization, stability, transport, and impulse transmission responsible for rapid contractions of mantle muscles underlying jet propulsion. Studies of vertebrate NFs have established an extensive literature on NF structure, organization, and function; studies of squid NFs, however, have made it possible to compare compartment-specific regulation of NF synthesis, assembly, and function in soma versus axoplasm. Since NFs contain over 100 eligible sites for phosphorylation by protein kinases, the compartment-specific patterns of phosphorylation have been a primary focus of biochemical studies. We have learned that NF phosphorylation is tightly compartmentalized; extensive phosphorylation occurs only in the axonal compartment in squid and in vertebrate neurons. This extensive phosphorylation plays a key role in organizing NFs, in association with microtubules (MTs), into a stable, dynamic functional lattice that supports axon growth, diameter, impulse transmission, and synaptic activity. To understand how cytoskeletal phosphorylation is topographically regulated, the kinases and phosphatases, bound to NFs isolated from cell bodies and axoplasm, have also been studied.

  3. Modelling flow and heat transfer around a seated human body by computational fluid dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Dan Nørtoft; Voigt, Lars Peter Kølgaard

    2003-01-01

    the manikin were calculated using computational fluid dynamics. Results were compared to published data and to measurements by particle image velocimetry. The agreement was generally good and variations across the manikin well predicted. The uniqueness of the present work is twofold: (1) the geometry...

  4. DETERMINATION OF ROCURONIUM AND ITS PUTATIVE METABOLITES IN BODY-FLUIDS AND TISSUE-HOMOGENATES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KLEEF, UW; PROOST, JH; ROGGEVELD, J

    1993-01-01

    A sensitive and selective HPLC method was developed for the quantification of the neuromuscular blocking agent rocuronium and its putative metabolites (the 17-desacetyl derivative and the N-desallyl derivative of rocuronium) in plasma, urine, bile, tissue homogenates and stoma fluid. Samples were pr

  5. Fluid and electrolyte control systems in the human body: A study report

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    Research in the area of modeling of the fluid and electrolyte system is briefly reviewed and a model of this system, which is adequate for a basic description of the requisite physiological processes, is presented. The use of this model as an individual subsystem model and as a component of a more complete human model is discussed.

  6. Free convection over a non-isothermal axisymmetric body immersed in a porous medium saturated with an electrically conducting non-Newtonian fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Bagai, Shobha; Nishad, Chandrashekhar

    2013-01-01

    The study investigates the problem of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) free convection over a non-isothermal axisymmetric body under the action of transverse magnetic field. The body is embedded in a porous medium saturated with electrically conducting non-Newtonian power law fluid. In order to obtain similarity solution, it is assumed that the viscosity of the fluid decays exponentially with temperature. The qualitative results are illustrated for a vertical flat plate, horizontal cylinder and sphere.

  7. In Vitro Corrosion Study of Friction Stir Processed WE43 Magnesium Alloy in a Simulated Body Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genghua Cao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion behavior of friction stir processing (FSP WE43 alloy in a simulated body fluid (SBF was investigated. Micro-galvanic corrosion was the dominated corrosion behavior, and the corrosion resistance of FSP WE43 alloy was improved compared to the cast counterpart. Furthermore, due to the fine-grained and homogeneous microstructure, uniform corrosion morphology was observed on FSP WE43 alloy. According to the tensile properties of specimens with different immersion time intervals, FSP WE43 alloy shows better performance to maintain the mechanical integrity in SBF as compared to the as-cast alloy.

  8. Asbestos bodies in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids of brake lining and asbestos cement workers.

    OpenAIRE

    Dumortier, P; De Vuyst, P; Strauss, P.; Yernault, J C

    1990-01-01

    Asbestos body (AB) concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage samples of 15 brake lining (BL) workers exposed only to chrysotile have been determined and compared with those from 44 asbestos cement (AC) workers extensively exposed to amphiboles. The mean AB concentrations (263 +/- 802 and 842 +/- 2086 AB/ml respectively) for those groups did not differ significantly but were much higher than those found in control groups. Analytical electron microscopy of asbestos body cores showed that in the ...

  9. Bone-like apatite formation on HA/316L stainless steel composite surface in simulated body fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Xin; CHEN Jian; ZOU Jian-peng; WAN Qian; ZHOU Zhong-cheng; RUAN Jian-ming

    2009-01-01

    HA/316L stainless steel(316L SS) biocomposites were prepared by hot-pressing technique. The formation of bone-like apatite on the biocomposite surfaces in simulated body fluid(SBF) was analyzed by digital pH meter, plasma emission spectrometer, scanning electron microscope(SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray energy spectrometer(EDX). The results indicate that the pH value in SBF varies slightly during the immersion. It is a dynamic process of dissolution-precipitation for the formation of apatite on the surface. With prolonging immersion time, Ca and P ion concentrations increase gradually, and then approach equilibrium. The bone-like apatite layer forms on the composites surface, which possesses benign bioactivity and favorable biocompatibility and achieves osseointegration, and can provide firm fixation between HA60/316L SS composite implants and human body bone.

  10. The ways of amniotic fluid sampling and its influence on lamellar body count

    OpenAIRE

    Višnjevac Jovana; Novakov-Mikić Aleksandra; Nikolić Aleksandra

    2010-01-01

    Even though artificial surfactant is now available, respiratory distress syndrome still remains a serious problem in neonatology. Prenatal analysis of the amniotic fluid can provide data giving insight into the fetal lung maturity, which enables planning of the further outcome of high-risk pregnancies. Surfactant prevents atelectasis by forming a layer rich in phospholipids between the air and liquid phase in alveoli thus leading to increased surface tension in them, which is a precondi...

  11. Treatment model of dengue hemorrhagic fever infection in human body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayani, D.; Nuraini, N.; Primasari, N.; Wijaya, K. P.

    2014-03-01

    The treatment model of DHF presented in this paper involves the dynamic of five time-dependent compartments, i.e. susceptible, infected, free virus particle, immune cell, and haematocrit level. The treatment model is investigated based on normalization of haematocrit level, which is expressed as intravenous fluid infusion control. We analyze the stability of the disease free equilibrium and the endemic equilibrium. The numerical simulations will explain the dynamic of each compartment in human body. These results show particularly that infected compartment and free virus particle compartment are tend to be vanished in two weeks after the onset of dengue virus. However, these simulation results also show that without the treatment, the haematocrit level will decrease even though not up to the normal level. Therefore the effective haematocrit normalization should be done with the treatment control.

  12. A heterogeneous system based on GPU and multi-core CPU for real-time fluid and rigid body simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Junior, José Ricardo; Gonzalez Clua, Esteban W.; Montenegro, Anselmo; Lage, Marcos; Dreux, Marcelo de Andrade; Joselli, Mark; Pagliosa, Paulo A.; Kuryla, Christine Lucille

    2012-03-01

    Computational fluid dynamics in simulation has become an important field not only for physics and engineering areas but also for simulation, computer graphics, virtual reality and even video game development. Many efficient models have been developed over the years, but when many contact interactions must be processed, most models present difficulties or cannot achieve real-time results when executed. The advent of parallel computing has enabled the development of many strategies for accelerating the simulations. Our work proposes a new system which uses some successful algorithms already proposed, as well as a data structure organisation based on a heterogeneous architecture using CPUs and GPUs, in order to process the simulation of the interaction of fluids and rigid bodies. This successfully results in a two-way interaction between them and their surrounding objects. As far as we know, this is the first work that presents a computational collaborative environment which makes use of two different paradigms of hardware architecture for this specific kind of problem. Since our method achieves real-time results, it is suitable for virtual reality, simulation and video game fluid simulation problems.

  13. Emotion-on-a-chip (EOC): evolution of biochip technology to measure human emotion using body fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Hyun; Hwang, Yoosun; Cheon, Keun-Ah; Jung, Hyo-Il

    2012-12-01

    Recent developments in nano/micro technology have made it possible to construct small-scale sensing chips for the analysis of biological markers such as nucleic acids, proteins, small molecules, and cells. Although biochip technology for the diagnosis of severe physiological diseases (e.g., cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease) has been extensively studied, biochips for the monitoring of human emotions such as stress, fear, depression, and sorrow have not yet been introduced, and the development of such a biochip is in its infancy. Emotion science (or affective engineering) is a rapidly expanding engineering/scientific discipline that has a major impact on human society. The growing interest in the integration of emotion science and engineering is a result of the recent trend of merging various academic fields. In this paper we discuss the potential importance of biochip technology in which human emotion can be precisely measured in real time using body fluids such as blood, saliva, urine, or sweat. We call these biochips emotion-on-a-chip (EOC). The EOC system consists of four parts: (1) collection of body fluids, (2) separation of emotional markers, (3) detection of optical or electrical signals, and (4) display of results. These techniques provide new opportunities to precisely investigate human emotion. Future developments in EOC techniques will combine social and natural sciences to expand their scope of study.

  14. Reducing occupational risk for blood and body fluid exposure among home care aides: an intervention effectiveness study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amuwo, Shakirudeen; Lipscomb, Jane; McPhaul, Kathleen; Sokas, Rosemary K

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this quasi-experimental pretest/posttest research study was to examine the effectiveness of an intervention designed through a participatory process to reduce blood and body fluid exposure among home care aides. Employer A, the intervention site, was a large agency with approximately 1,200 unionized home care aides. Employer B, the comparison group, was a medium-sized agency with approximately 200 home care aides. The intervention was developed in partnership with labor and management and included a 1-day educational session utilizing peer educators and active learning methods to increase awareness about the risks for occupational exposure to blood and body fluids among home care aides and a follow-up session introducing materials to facilitate communication with clients about safe sharps disposal. Self-administered preintervention and postintervention questionnaires identifying knowledge about and self-reported practices to reduce bloodborne pathogen exposure were completed in person during mandatory training sessions 18 months apart. Home care aides in the intervention group for whom the preintervention and postintervention questionnaires could be directly matched reported an increase in their clients' use of proper sharps containers (31.9% pre to 52.2% post; p = .033). At follow-up, the intervention group as a whole also reported increased use of sharps containers among their clients when compared to controls (p = .041).

  15. Compartments of the foot: topographic anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faymonville, C; Andermahr, J; Seidel, U; Müller, L P; Skouras, E; Eysel, P; Stein, G

    2012-12-01

    Recent publications have renewed the debate regarding the number of foot compartments. There is also no consensus regarding allocation of individual muscles and communication between compartments. The current study examines the anatomic topography of the foot compartments anew using 32 injections of epoxy-resin and subsequent sheet plastination in 12 cadaveric foot specimens. Six compartments were identified: dorsal, medial, lateral, superficial central, deep forefoot, and deep hindfoot compartments. Communication was evident between the deep hindfoot compartment and the superficial central and deep central forefoot compartments. In the hindfoot, the neurovascular bundles were located in separate tissue sheaths between the central hindfoot compartment and the medial compartment. In the forefoot, the medial and lateral bundles entered the deep central forefoot compartment. The deep central hindfoot compartment housed the quadratus plantae muscle, and after calcaneus fracture could develop an isolated compartment syndrome. PMID:22638720

  16. Quantification of the cerebrospinal fluid from a new whole body MRI sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebret, Alain; Petit, Eric; Durning, Bruno; Hodel, Jérôme; Rahmouni, Alain; Decq, Philippe

    2012-03-01

    Our work aims to develop a biomechanical model of hydrocephalus both intended to perform clinical research and to assist the neurosurgeon in diagnosis decisions. Recently, we have defined a new MR imaging sequence based on SPACE (Sampling Perfection with Application optimized Contrast using different flip-angle Evolution). On these images, the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) appears as a homogeneous hypersignal. Therefore such images are suitable for segmentation and for volume assessment of the CSF. In this paper we present a fully automatic 3D segmentation of such SPACE MRI sequences. We choose a topological approach considering that CSF can be modeled as a simply connected object (i.e. a filled sphere). First an initial object which must be strictly included in the CSF and homotopic to a filled sphere, is determined by using a moment-preserving thresholding. Then a priority function based on an Euclidean distance map is computed in order to control the thickening process that adds "simple points" to the initial thresholded object. A point is called simple if its addition or its suppression does not result in change of topology neither for the object, nor for the background. The method is validated by measuring fluid volume of brain phantoms and by comparing our volume assessments on clinical data to those derived from a segmentation controlled by expert physicians. Then we show that a distinction between pathological cases and healthy adult people can be achieved by a linear discriminant analysis on volumes of the ventricular and intracranial subarachnoid spaces.

  17. Influence of successive badminton matches on muscle strength, power, and body-fluid balance in elite players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abian-Vicen, Javier; Castanedo, Adrián; Abian, Pablo; Gonzalez-Millan, Cristina; Salinero, Juan José; Del Coso, Juan

    2014-07-01

    The aim was to analyze the influence of competitive round on muscle strength, body-fluid balance, and renal function in elite badminton players during a real competition. Body mass, jump height during a countermovement jump, handgrip force, and urine samples were obtained from 13 elite badminton players (6 men and 7 women) before and after the 2nd-round and quarterfinal matches of the national Spanish badminton championship. Sweat rate was determined by using prematch-to-postmatch body-mass change and by weighing individually labeled fluid bottles. Sweat rates were 1.04 ± 0.62 and 0.98 ± 0.43 L/h, while rehydration rate was 0.69 ± 0.26 and 0.91 ± 0.52 L/h for the 2nd round and quarterfinals, respectively. Thus, dehydration was 0.47% ± 1.03% after the 2nd round and 0.23% ± 0.43% after the quarterfinals. There were no differences in prematch-to-postmatch jump height, but jump height was reduced from 37.51 ± 8.83 cm after the 2nd-round game to 34.82 ± 7.37 cm after the quarterfinals (P badminton competition were effective to prevent dehydration. A badminton match did not affect jump height or handgrip force, but jump height was progressively reduced by the competitive round. Badminton players' renal responses reflected diminished renal flux due to the high-intensity nature of this racket sport.

  18. Alpha-synuclein in peripheral tissues and body fluids as a biomarker for Parkinson's disease - a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, N; Swallow, D; Grosset, K A; Anichtchik, O; Spillantini, M; Grosset, D G

    2014-08-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is neuropathologically characterized as an alpha-synucleinopathy. Alpha-synuclein-containing inclusions are stained as Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites in the brain, which are the pathological hallmark of PD. However, alpha-synuclein-containing inclusions in PD are not restricted to the central nervous system, but are also found in peripheral tissues. Alpha-synuclein levels can also be measured in body fluids. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of available evidence to determine the utility of alpha-synuclein as a peripheral biomarker of PD. We searched PubMed (1948 to 26 May 2013), Embase (1974 to 26 May 2013), the Cochrane Library (up to 26 May 2013), LILACS (up to 26 May 2013) and CINAHL (up to 26 May 2013) for the studies of alpha-synuclein in peripheral tissues or body fluids in PD. A total of 49 studies fulfilled the search criteria. Peripheral tissues such as colonic mucosa showed a sensitivity of 42-90% and a specificity of 100%; submandibular salivary glands showed sensitivity and specificity of 100%; skin biopsy showed 19% sensitivity and 80% specificity in detecting alpha-synuclein pathology. CSF alpha-synuclein had 71-94% sensitivity and 25-53% specificity for distinguishing PD from controls. Plasma alpha-synuclein had 48-53% sensitivity and 69-85% specificity. Neither plasma nor CSF alpha-synuclein is presently a reliable marker of PD. This differs from alpha-synuclein in solid tissue samples of the enteric and autonomic nervous system, which offer some potential as a surrogate marker of brain synucleinopathy.

  19. Pleural mesothelioma and exposure to asbestos: evaluation from work histories and analysis of asbestos bodies in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or lung tissue in 131 patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Pairon, J C; Orlowski, E; Iwatsubo, Y; Billon-Galland, M A; Dufour, G.; Chamming's, S; Archambault, C; Bignon, J; Brochard, P

    1994-01-01

    Exposure to asbestos was evaluated in 131 patients with pleural malignant mesothelioma in the Paris area between 1986 and 1992 using data from a detailed specific questionnaire and light microscopy analysis of the retention of asbestos bodies in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or lung tissue. Probable or definite exposure to significant levels of asbestos dust was identified in only 48 (36.6%) subjects, and significant asbestos body counts (above 1 asbestos body/ml in bronchoalveolar lavage flui...

  20. Paradoxes of body fluid volume regulation in health and disease. A unifying hypothesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Schrier, R W; Niederberger, M

    1994-01-01

    The body's normal homeostasis is maintained by the integrity of the excretory capacity of the kidneys. In advanced cardiac failure, however, the avidity of the renal sodium and water retention contributes to the occurrence of pulmonary congestion and peripheral edema. In patients with advanced cirrhosis, the kidneys again fail to excrete the amounts of sodium and water ingested, thus leading to ascites and peripheral edema. The signals for this renal retention of sodium and water in a patient...

  1. A stable fluid-structure-interaction solver for low-density rigid bodies using the immersed boundary projection method

    CERN Document Server

    Lācis, Uǧis; Bagheri, Shervin

    2015-01-01

    Dispersion of low-density rigid particles with complex geometries is ubiquitous in both natural and industrial environments. We show that while explicit methods for coupling the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and Newton's equations of motion are often sufficient to solve for the motion of cylindrical particles with low density ratios, for more complex particles - such as a body with a protrusion - they become unstable. We present an implicit formulation of the coupling between rigid body dynamics and fluid dynamics within the framework of the immersed boundary projection method. Similar to previous work on this method, the resulting matrix equation in the present approach is solved using a block-LU decomposition. Each step of the block-LU decomposition is modified to incorporate the rigid body dynamics. We show that our method achieves second-order accuracy in space and first-order in time (third-order for practical settings), only with a small additional computational cost to the original method. Our...

  2. Fabrication of nanotube arrays on commercially pure titanium and their apatite-forming ability in a simulated body fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Hsueh-Chuan; Wu, Shih-Ching; Hsu, Shih-Kuang [Department of Dental Technology and Materials Science, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taiwan, ROC (China); Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Materials Science, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chang, Yu-Chen [Department of Mechanical and Automation Engineering, Da-Yeh University, Taiwan, ROC (China); Ho, Wen-Fu, E-mail: fujii@nuk.edu.tw [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National University of Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2015-02-15

    In this study, we investigated self-organized TiO{sub 2} nanotubes that were grown using anodization of commercially pure titanium at 5 V or 10 V in NH{sub 4}F/NaCl electrolyte. The nanotube arrays were annealed at 450 °C for 3 h to convert the amorphous nanotubes to anatase and then they were immersed in simulated body fluid at 37 °C for 0.5, 1, and 14 days. The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the apatite-formation abilities of anodized Ti nanotubes with different tube diameters and lengths. The nanotubes that formed on the surfaces of Ti were examined using a field emission scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope. When the anodizing potential was increased from 5 V to 10 V, the pore diameter of the nanotube increased from approximately 24–30 nm to 35–53 nm, and the tube length increased from approximately 590 nm to 730 nm. In vitro testing of the heat-treated nanotube arrays indicated that Ca-P formation occurred after only 1 day of immersion in simulated body fluid. This result was particularly apparent in the samples that were anodized at 10 V. It was also found that the thickness of the Ca-P layer increases as the applied potential for anodized c.p. Ti increases. The average thickness of the Ca-P layer on Ti that was anodized at 5 V and 10 V was approximately 170 nm and 190 nm, respectively, after immersion in simulated body fluid for 14 days. - Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} nanotube on Ti surface was formed by anodic oxidation in a NaCl/NH{sub 4}F solution. • TiO{sub 2} layers show a tube length of 590 nm and 730 nm at 5 V and 10 V, respectively. • After soaking in SBF, Ca-P layer completely covered the entire nanotubular surfaces. • The Ca-P layer was thicker on the Ti surface anodized at 10 V.

  3. Paralytic shellfish poisoning: post-mortem analysis of tissue and body fluid samples from human victims in the Patagonia fjords.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Carlos; del Carmen Bravo, María; Lagos, Marcelo; Lagos, Néstor

    2004-02-01

    In July 5, 2002 fishermen working in harvesting sea urchin (Loxechinus albus) in the Patagonia Chilean fjords were intoxicated by consumption of filter-feeder bivalve Aulacomya ater. After the ingestion of 7-9 ribbed mussel, two fishermen died 3-4 h after shellfish consumption. The forensic examination in both victims did not show pathological abnormalities with the exception of the lungs conditions, crackling to the touch, pulmonary congestion and edema. The toxic mussel sample showed a toxicity measured by mouse bioassay of 8575 microg of STX (saxitoxin) equivalent by 100 g of shellfish meat. Using post-column derivatization HPLC method with fluorescent on line detection was possible to measure mass amount of each paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxin yielding individual toxin concentrations. These PSP toxins were identified in the gastric content, body fluids (urine, bile and cerebrospinal fluid) and tissue samples (liver, kidney, lung, stomach, spleen, heart, brain, adrenal glands, pancreas and thyroids glands). The toxin profiles of each body fluid and tissue samples and the amount of each PSP toxin detected are reported. The PSP toxins found in the gastric content, were STX and the gonyautoxins (GTX4, GTX1, GTX5, GTX3 and GTX2) which showed to be the major amount of PSP toxins found in the victims biological samples. The PSP toxin composition in urine and bile showed as major PSP toxins neoSaxitoxin (neoSTX) and GTX4/GTX1 epimers, both STX analogues with an hydroxyl group (-OH) in the N(1) of the tetrahydropurine nucleus. The neoSTX was not present in the gastric content sample, indicating that the oxidation of N(1) in the STX tetrahydropurine nucleus resulted neoSTX, in a similar way that GTX3/GTX2 epimers were transformed in GTX4/GTX1 epimers. Beside this metabolic transformation, also the hydrolysis of carbamoyl group from STX to form its decarbomoyl analogue decarbamoylsaxitoxin was detected in liver, kidney and lung. These two findings show that PSP

  4. A fluid Foucault pendulum: the impossibility of achieving solid-body rotation on Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Robert; Zimmerman, Daniel; Triana, Santiago; Lathrop, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    Rotating fluid dynamics is key to our understanding of the Earth's atmosphere, oceans, and core, along with a plethora of astrophysical objects. Laboratory study of these natural systems often involves spinning experimental devices, which are assumed to tend to rigid rotation when unstirred. We present results showing that even at the tabletop scale, there is a measurable oscillatory flow driven by the precession of the experiment's axis as the earth rotates. We measure this flow in a rotating cylinder with an adjustable aspect ratio. The horizontal flow in the rotating frame is measured using particle tracking. The steady state is well-described by an inertial mode whose amplitude is maximum when the height to diameter ratio is 0.995, which matches theoretical predictions. We also quantify the resonant amplitude of the inertial mode in the cylinder and estimate the amplitude in other devices. We compare our results to similar studies done in spherical devices. [Triana et al., JGR, 117 (2012), B04103][Boisson et al., EPL, 98 (2012), 59002].

  5. COMPARTMENT SYNDROME IN TRAUMA PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Beck

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Acute limb compartment syndrome (LCS is a limb-threatening and occasionally life-threatening condition caused by bleeding or edema in a closed muscle compartment surrounded by fascia and bone, which leads to muscle and nerve ischemia. Well-known causative factors are acute trauma and reperfusion after treatment for acute arterial obstruction. Untreated compartment syndrome usually leads to muscle necrosis, limb amputation, and, if severe, in large compartments, renal failure and death. Alertness, clinical suspicion of the possibility of LCS, and occasionally intracompartmental pressure (ICP measurement are required to avoid a delay in diagnosis or missed diagnosis. Open fasciotomy, by incising both skin and fascia, is the most reliable method for adequate compartment decompression. The techniques of measuring ICP have advantages and disadvantages, whereas the pressure level that mandates fasciotomy is controversial. Increased awareness of the syndrome and the advent of measurements of ICP pressure have raised the possibility of early diagnosis and treatment. This presentation reports LCS, including etiology, diagnosis, ICP measurement, management, and outcome.

  6. Preparation and studies on surface modifications of calcium-silico-phosphate ferrimagnetic glass-ceramics in simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure and magnetic behaviour of 34SiO2-(45 - x) CaO-16P2O5-4.5 MgO-0.5 CaF2 - x Fe2O3 (where x = 5, 10, 15, 20 wt.%) glasses have been investigated. Ferrimagnetic glass-ceramics are prepared by melt quench followed by controlled crystallization. The surface modification and dissolution behaviour of these glass-ceramics in simulated body fluid (SBF) have also been studied. Phase formation and magnetic behaviour have been studied using XRD and SQUID magnetometer. The room temperature Moessbauer study has been done to monitor the local environment around Fe cations and valence state of Fe ions. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to study the surface modification in glass-ceramics when immersed in simulated body fluid. Formation of bioactive layer in SBF has been ascertained using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The SBF solutions were analyzed using an absorption spectrophotometer. The magnetic measurements indicated that all these glasses possess paramagnetic character and the [Fe2+/Fe3+] ions ratio depends on the composition of glass and varied with Fe2O3 concentration in glass matrix. In glass-ceramics saturation magnetization increases with increase in amount of Fe2O3. The nanostructure of hematite and magnetite is formed in the glass-ceramics with 15 and 20 wt.% Fe2O3, which is responsible for the magnetic property of these glass-ceramics. Introduction of Fe2O3 induces several modifications at the glass-ceramics surface when immersed in SBF solution and thereby affecting the surface dissolution and the formation of the bioactive layer.

  7. Adverse incidents resulting in exposure to body fluids at a UK dental teaching hospital over a 6-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hughes A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A Hughes,1 L Davies,1 R Hale,1 JE Gallagher21Kings College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, 2King's College London Dental Institute, London, United KingdomBackground: The safety and protection of patients and health care workers is of paramount importance in dentistry, and this includes students in training who provide clinical care. Given the nature of dental care, adverse incidents can and do occur, exposing health care workers to body fluids and putting them at risk of infection, including contracting a blood-borne virus. The aim of this research was to analyze trends in the volume, rate, nature, management, and outcome of adverse incidents reported at one dental teaching hospital from 2005 to 2010.Methods: Descriptive analysis of trends in the volume, rate, nature, management, and outcome of adverse incidents reported at one dental teaching hospital over a six-year period was undertaken in relation to the level of outpatient and day surgery activity.Results: In total, 287 incidents were reported over a six-year period, which amounted to 0.039% of outpatient or day surgery appointments. Nearly three quarters of all the incidents (n = 208, 72% took place during treatment or whilst clearing away after the appointment. The most frequent incidents were associated with administration of local anesthetic (n = 63, 22%, followed by burs used in dental hand pieces (n = 51, 18%.Conclusion: This research confirms that adverse incidents are a feature of dental hospitals and reports the common sources. The importance of accurate and consistent reporting of data to ensure that these issues are monitored to inform action and reduce risks to staff, students, and patients are highlighted.Keywords: risk management, blood-borne virus, dental hospital, body fluids exposure, adverse event reporting

  8. A Numerical Study on Water Waves Generated by A Submerged Moving Body in A Two-Layer Fluid System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jia-Zhen; NG Chiu-On; ZHANG Dao-Hua

    2009-01-01

    This is a numerical study on the time development of surface waves generated by a submerged body moving steadily in a two-layer fluid system, in which a layer of water is underlain by a layer of viscous mud. The fully nonlinear Navier-Stokes equations are solved on FLUENT with the Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) multiphase scheme in order to simulate the free surface waves as well as the water-mud interface waves as functions of time. The numerical model is validated by mimick-ing a reported experiment in a one-layer system before it is applied to a two-layer system, it is found that the presence of bottom mud in a water layer can lead to large viscous damping of the surface waves. For the investigation of the problem systematically, the effects of the Froude number and the mud layer thickness, density and viscosity relative to those of water are evaluated and discussed in detail.

  9. Electroanalytical and surface plasmon resonance sensors for detection of breast cancer and Alzheimer's disease biomarkers in cells and body fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Minghui; Yi, Xinyao; Wang, Jianxiu; Zhou, Feimeng

    2014-04-21

    Cancer and neurological disorders are two leading causes of human death. Their early diagnoses will either greatly improve the survival rate or facilitate effective treatments or modalities. Detection of biomarkers in body fluids and some tissues (e.g., blood, urine and cerebrospinal fluids) is relatively non-invasive and provides useful chemical and biological information that is complementary to tomographic imaging (e.g., magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography and X-ray computed tomography). Recent years have witnessed the contributions from and potential applications of bioanalytical methods for early detection of major diseases. In this review, we survey some recent developments of electroanalytical (as a representative label-based technique) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) (as a representative label-free technique) biosensors for detection of biomarkers relevant to etiologies of breast cancer and Alzheimer's disease (AD). While breast cancer is representative of cancers of complexity (multiple biomarkers, false positives from tomographic scans, and a need for more effective early diagnostic methods), AD is the most prevalent neurological disorder that is also linked to multiple biomarkers. Both electroanalytical and SPR-based sensors have attractive features of sensitivity, portability, obviation of large sample volumes, and capability of multiplexed detection. Various sensing protocols developed in the past five years are reviewed, demonstrating the feasibility of both techniques for diagnostic purposes. Problems inherent in these two techniques that must be overcome before being clinically viable are also discussed.

  10. Non-Darcy Free Convection of Power-Law Fluids Over a Two-Dimensional Body Embedded in a Porous Medium

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed

    2010-11-27

    A boundary layer analysis was presented to study the non-Darcy-free convection of a power-law fluid over a non-isothermal two-dimensional body embedded in a porous medium. The Ostwald-de Waele power-law model was used to characterize the non-Newtonian fluid behavior. Similarity solutions were obtained with variations in surface temperature or surface heat flux. In view of the fact that most of the non-Newtonian fluids have large Prandtl numbers, this study was directed toward such fluids. The effects of the porous medium parameters, k1 and k2, body shape parameter, m, and surface thermal variations parameter, p, as well as the power-law index, n, were examined. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  11. Steady incompressible potential flow around lifting bodies immersed in a fluid. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiuchiolo, E. A.

    1974-01-01

    The refinement was investigated of a method for evaluating the pressure distribution on a body surface of arbitrary shape in incompressible flow. The solution was obtained in terms of the velocity potential, through numerical approximations which require the use of a high speed digital computer. The box method and the modal method are described in detail, and were applied to a very thin, rectangular wing in incompressible, steady flow. The box method is found to be more practical as it is applicable to more general geometries (the modal method requires a new set of functions for each geometry), and requires less computer time (fifty percent of that required by the modal method for the same problem).

  12. LABILE IRON IN CELLS AND BODY FLUIDS . Physiology, Pathology and Pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvi Ioav Cabantchik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In living systems iron appears predominantly associated with proteins, but can also be detected in forms referred as labile iron, which denotes the combined redox properties of iron and its amenability to exchange between ligands, including chelators. The labile cell iron (LCI composition varies with metal concentration and substances with chelating groups but also with pH and the redox potential. Although physiologically in the lower µM range, LCI plays a key role in cell iron economy as cross-roads of metabolic pathways. LCI levels are continually regulated by an iron-responsive machinery that balances iron uptake versus deposition into ferritin. However, LCI rises aberrantly in some cell types due to faulty cell utilization pathways or infiltration by pathological iron forms that are found in hemosiderotic plasma. As LCI attains pathological levels, it can catalyze reactive O species (ROS formation that, at particular threshold, can surpass cellular anti-oxidant capacities and seriously damage its constituents. While in normal plasma and interstitial fluids, virtually all iron is securely carried by circulating transferrin (that renders iron essentially non-labile, in systemic iron overload (IO, the total plasma iron binding capacity is often surpassed by a massive iron influx from hyperabsorptive gut or from erythrocyte overburdened spleen and/or liver. As plasma transferrin approaches iron saturation, labile plasma iron (LPI emerges in forms that can infiltrate cells by unregulated routes and raise LCI to toxic levels. Despite the limited knowledge available on LPI speciation in different types and degrees of iron overload, LPI measurements can be and are in fact used for identifying systemic IO and for initiating/adjusting chelation regimens to attain full-day LPI protection. A recent application of labile iron assay is the detection of labile components in iv iron formulations per se as well as in plasma (LPI following parenteral iron

  13. Smart fast blood counting of trace volumes of body fluids from various mammalian species using a compact custom-built microscope cytometer (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Zachary J.; Gao, Tingjuan; Lin, Tzu-Yin; Carrade-Holt, Danielle; Lane, Stephen M.; Matthews, Dennis L.; Dwyre, Denis M.; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian

    2016-03-01

    Cell counting in human body fluids such as blood, urine, and CSF is a critical step in the diagnostic process for many diseases. Current automated methods for cell counting are based on flow cytometry systems. However, these automated methods are bulky, costly, require significant user expertise, and are not well suited to counting cells in fluids other than blood. Therefore, their use is limited to large central laboratories that process enough volume of blood to recoup the significant capital investment these instruments require. We present in this talk a combination of a (1) low-cost microscope system, (2) simple sample preparation method, and (3) fully automated analysis designed for providing cell counts in blood and body fluids. We show results on both humans and companion and farm animals, showing that accurate red cell, white cell, and platelet counts, as well as hemoglobin concentration, can be accurately obtained in blood, as well as a 3-part white cell differential in human samples. We can also accurately count red and white cells in body fluids with a limit of detection ~3 orders of magnitude smaller than current automated instruments. This method uses less than 1 microliter of blood, and less than 5 microliters of body fluids to make its measurements, making it highly compatible with finger-stick style collections, as well as appropriate for small animals such as laboratory mice where larger volume blood collections are dangerous to the animal's health.

  14. Transient fluid-structure interaction of elongated bodies by finite-element method using elliptical and spheroidal absorbing boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, S. K.; Premkumar, R.

    2003-12-01

    In a domain method of solution of exterior scalar wave equation, the radiation condition needs to be imposed on a truncation boundary of the modeling domain. The Bayliss, Gunzberger, and Turkel (BGT) boundary dampers, which require a circular cylindrical and spherical truncation boundaries in two-(2D) and three-(3D)-dimensional problems, respectively, have been particularly successful in the analysis of scattering and radiation problems. However, for an elongated body, elliptical (2D) or spheroidal (3D) truncation boundaries have potential to reduce the size of modeling domain and hence computational effort. For harmonic problems, such extensions of the first- and second-order BGT dampers are available in the literature. In this paper, BGT dampers in both elliptical and spheroidal coordinate systems have been developed for transient problems involving acoustic radiation as well as fluid-structure interaction and implemented in the context of finite-element method based upon unsymmetric pressure-displacement formulation. Applications to elongated radiators and shells are reported using several numerical examples with excellent comparisons. It is demonstrated that significant computational economy can be achieved for elongated bodies with the use of these dampers.

  15. MicroRNAs transported by exosomes in body fluids as mediators of intercellular communication in cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salido-Guadarrama I

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Iván Salido-Guadarrama,1 Sandra Romero-Cordoba,1 Oscar Peralta-Zaragoza,2 Alfredo Hidalgo-Miranda,1 Mauricio Rodríguez-Dorantes1 1Oncogenomics Laboratory, National Institute of Genomics Medicine, Mexico City, Mexico; 2Direction of Chronic Infections and Cancer, Research Center in Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico Abstract: Cancer-cell communication is an important and complex process, achieved through a diversity of mechanisms that allows tumor cells to mold and influence their environment. In recent years, evidence has accumulated indicating that cells communicate via the release and delivery of microRNAs (miRNAs packed into tumor-released (TR exosomes. Understanding the role and mode of action of miRNAs from TR exosomes is of paramount importance in the field of cancer biomarker discovery and for the development of new biomedical applications for cancer therapeutics. In this review, we focus on miRNAs secreted via TR exosomes, which by acting in a paracrine or endocrine manner, facilitate a diversity of signaling mechanisms between cancer cells. We address their contribution as signaling molecules, to the establishment, maintenance, and enhancement of the tumor microenvironment and the metastatic niche in cancer. Finally, we address the potential role of these molecules as biomarkers in cancer diagnosis and prognosis and their impact as a biomedical tool in cancer therapeutics. Keywords: tumor cells, multivesicular bodies, interference RNA, biomarkers and therapeutics

  16. Idiopathic Acute Isolated Lateral Compartment Syndrome of a Lower Leg: A Magnetic Resonance Imaging Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeom, Dong Heon; Lee, Ji Hae; Cho, Woo Ho; Kim, Jae Hyung; Jeong, Myeong Ja; Kim, Soung Hee; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Soo Hyun; Kang, Mi Jin; Lee, Han Bee [Dept. of Radiology, Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Kyung Eun [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul Asan Hospital, Ulsan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Acute compartment syndrome of the lower leg is usually associated with major trauma such as fracture, and most commonly occurs in the anterior or deep posterior compartments. Isolated lateral compartment syndrome is less typical and usually associated with minor trauma or exertion. There are a few reports of the acute compartment syndrome which develops without an obvious cause. However, there are few reports of idiopathic acute isolated lateral compartment syndrome, and there are no reports of the radiologic findings. This study presents a radiologic finding of idiopathic acute isolated lateral compartment of lower leg, which shows localized enlargement of the peroneal muscles with peripheral convex bowing and change of their signal intensity with fluid signal along the adjacent fascial planes on magnetic resonance imaging.

  17. Facile semi-automated forensic body fluid identification by multiplex solution hybridization of NanoString® barcode probes to specific mRNA targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danaher, Patrick; White, Robin Lynn; Hanson, Erin K; Ballantyne, Jack

    2015-01-01

    A DNA profile from the perpetrator does not reveal, per se, the circumstances by which it was transferred. Body fluid identification by mRNA profiling may allow extraction of contextual 'activity level' information from forensic samples. Here we describe the development of a prototype multiplex digital gene expression (DGE) method for forensic body fluid/tissue identification based upon solution hybridization of color-coded NanoString(®) probes to 23 mRNA targets. The method identifies peripheral blood, semen, saliva, vaginal secretions, menstrual blood and skin. We showed that a simple 5 min room temperature cellular lysis protocol gave equivalent results to standard RNA isolation from the same source material, greatly enhancing the ease-of-use of this method in forensic sample processing. We first describe a model for gene expression in a sample from a single body fluid and then extend that model to mixtures of body fluids. We then describe calculation of maximum likelihood estimates (MLEs) of body fluid quantities in a sample, and we describe the use of likelihood ratios to test for the presence of each body fluid in a sample. Known single source samples of blood, semen, vaginal secretions, menstrual blood and skin all demonstrated the expected tissue-specific gene expression for at least two of the chosen biomarkers. Saliva samples were more problematic, with their previously identified characteristic genes exhibiting poor specificity. Nonetheless the most specific saliva biomarker, HTN3, was expressed at a higher level in saliva than in any of the other tissues. Crucially, our algorithm produced zero false positives across this study's 89 unique samples. As a preliminary indication of the ability of the method to discern admixtures of body fluids, five mixtures were prepared. The identities of the component fluids were evident from the gene expression profiles of four of the five mixtures. Further optimization of the biomarker 'CodeSet' will be required

  18. Facile semi-automated forensic body fluid identification by multiplex solution hybridization of NanoString® barcode probes to specific mRNA targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danaher, Patrick; White, Robin Lynn; Hanson, Erin K; Ballantyne, Jack

    2015-01-01

    A DNA profile from the perpetrator does not reveal, per se, the circumstances by which it was transferred. Body fluid identification by mRNA profiling may allow extraction of contextual 'activity level' information from forensic samples. Here we describe the development of a prototype multiplex digital gene expression (DGE) method for forensic body fluid/tissue identification based upon solution hybridization of color-coded NanoString(®) probes to 23 mRNA targets. The method identifies peripheral blood, semen, saliva, vaginal secretions, menstrual blood and skin. We showed that a simple 5 min room temperature cellular lysis protocol gave equivalent results to standard RNA isolation from the same source material, greatly enhancing the ease-of-use of this method in forensic sample processing. We first describe a model for gene expression in a sample from a single body fluid and then extend that model to mixtures of body fluids. We then describe calculation of maximum likelihood estimates (MLEs) of body fluid quantities in a sample, and we describe the use of likelihood ratios to test for the presence of each body fluid in a sample. Known single source samples of blood, semen, vaginal secretions, menstrual blood and skin all demonstrated the expected tissue-specific gene expression for at least two of the chosen biomarkers. Saliva samples were more problematic, with their previously identified characteristic genes exhibiting poor specificity. Nonetheless the most specific saliva biomarker, HTN3, was expressed at a higher level in saliva than in any of the other tissues. Crucially, our algorithm produced zero false positives across this study's 89 unique samples. As a preliminary indication of the ability of the method to discern admixtures of body fluids, five mixtures were prepared. The identities of the component fluids were evident from the gene expression profiles of four of the five mixtures. Further optimization of the biomarker 'CodeSet' will be required

  19. Anti-Taenia solium monoclonal antibodies for the detection of parasite antigens in body fluids from patients with neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Adriana; Sáenz, Patricia; Marzal, Miguel W; Orrego, Miguel A; Castillo, Yesenia; Rivera, Andrea; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; García, Hector H; Nash, Theodore E

    2016-07-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC), an infection of the brain by Taenia solium (Ts) cysts, is the most common cause of adult-onset epilepsy in developing countries. Serological testing consists primarily of varying methods to detect antibodies in body fluids and more recently antigen (Ag) detection assays to identify individuals or animals with viable parasites. Antigen assays currently in use employ monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) raised against T. saginata, which have known cross reactivity to animal cestodes but are highly specific in human samples. We produced, characterized and tested 21 mAbs raised against T. solium whole cyst antigens, vesicular fluid or excretory secretory products. Reactivity of the TsmAbs against specific cyst structures was determined using immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry on histological sections of Ts muscle cysts. Four TsmAbs reacted to vesicular space alone, 9 to the neck and cyst wall, one to the neck and vesicular space and 7 to the neck, cyst wall and vesicular space. An in-house ELISA assay to detect circulating Ts antigen, using the TsmAbs as capture antibodies and a rabbit polyclonal anti-Ts whole cyst antibody as a detector antibody demonstrated that eight of the 21 TsmAbs detected antigens in known NCC-positive human sera and three of these also in urine samples. Reactivity was expressed as normalized ratios of optical densities (OD positive control/OD negative control). Three TsmAbs had ratios >10 and five between 2 and 10. The TsmAbs have potential utility for the diagnosis and post-treatment monitoring of patients with viable NCC infections. PMID:27018063

  20. Role of α{sub 2}-adrenoceptors in the lateral parabrachial nucleus in the control of body fluid homeostasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, C.A.F.; Andrade-Franzé, G.M.F.; De Paula, P.M.; De Luca, L.A. Jr.; Menani, J.V. [Departamento de Fisiologia e Patologia, Faculdade de Odontologia, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2014-01-10

    Central α{sub 2}-adrenoceptors and the pontine lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN) are involved in the control of sodium and water intake. Bilateral injections of moxonidine (α{sub 2}-adrenergic/imidazoline receptor agonist) or noradrenaline into the LPBN strongly increases 0.3 M NaCl intake induced by a combined treatment of furosemide plus captopril. Injection of moxonidine into the LPBN also increases hypertonic NaCl and water intake and reduces oxytocin secretion, urinary sodium, and water excreted by cell-dehydrated rats, causing a positive sodium and water balance, which suggests that moxonidine injected into the LPBN deactivates mechanisms that restrain body fluid volume expansion. Pretreatment with specific α{sub 2}-adrenoceptor antagonists injected into the LPBN abolishes the behavioral and renal effects of moxonidine or noradrenaline injected into the same area, suggesting that these effects depend on activation of LPBN α{sub 2}-adrenoceptors. In fluid-depleted rats, the palatability of sodium is reduced by ingestion of hypertonic NaCl, limiting intake. However, in rats treated with moxonidine injected into the LPBN, the NaCl palatability remains high, even after ingestion of significant amounts of 0.3 M NaCl. The changes in behavioral and renal responses produced by activation of α{sub 2}-adrenoceptors in the LPBN are probably a consequence of reduction of oxytocin secretion and blockade of inhibitory signals that affect sodium palatability. In this review, a model is proposed to show how activation of α{sub 2}-adrenoceptors in the LPBN may affect palatability and, consequently, ingestion of sodium as well as renal sodium excretion.

  1. Role of α2-adrenoceptors in the lateral parabrachial nucleus in the control of body fluid homeostasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Central α2-adrenoceptors and the pontine lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN) are involved in the control of sodium and water intake. Bilateral injections of moxonidine (α2-adrenergic/imidazoline receptor agonist) or noradrenaline into the LPBN strongly increases 0.3 M NaCl intake induced by a combined treatment of furosemide plus captopril. Injection of moxonidine into the LPBN also increases hypertonic NaCl and water intake and reduces oxytocin secretion, urinary sodium, and water excreted by cell-dehydrated rats, causing a positive sodium and water balance, which suggests that moxonidine injected into the LPBN deactivates mechanisms that restrain body fluid volume expansion. Pretreatment with specific α2-adrenoceptor antagonists injected into the LPBN abolishes the behavioral and renal effects of moxonidine or noradrenaline injected into the same area, suggesting that these effects depend on activation of LPBN α2-adrenoceptors. In fluid-depleted rats, the palatability of sodium is reduced by ingestion of hypertonic NaCl, limiting intake. However, in rats treated with moxonidine injected into the LPBN, the NaCl palatability remains high, even after ingestion of significant amounts of 0.3 M NaCl. The changes in behavioral and renal responses produced by activation of α2-adrenoceptors in the LPBN are probably a consequence of reduction of oxytocin secretion and blockade of inhibitory signals that affect sodium palatability. In this review, a model is proposed to show how activation of α2-adrenoceptors in the LPBN may affect palatability and, consequently, ingestion of sodium as well as renal sodium excretion

  2. Biochemical Technology Program progress report for the period January 1--June 30, 1976. [Centrifugal analyzers and advanced analytical systems for blood and body fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mrochek, J.E.; Burtis, C.A.; Scott, C.D. (comps.)

    1976-09-01

    This document, which covers the period January 1-June 30, 1976, describes progress in the following areas: (1) advanced analytical techniques for the clinical laboratory, (2) fast clinical analyzers, (3) development of a miniaturized analytical clinical laboratory system, (4) centrifugal fast analyzers for animal toxicological studies, and (5) chemical profile of body fluids.

  3. Evidence for Oxygen-Isotope Exchange in Chondrules and Refractory Inclusions During Fluid-Rock Interaction on the CV Chondrite Parent Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krot, A. N.; Nagashima, K.

    2016-08-01

    Plagioclase in chondrules, CAIs and AOAs from the carbonaceous chondrite Kaba (CV3.1) experienced oxygen-isotope exchange with a metasomatic fluid responsible for the formation of magnetite, fayalite and Ca,Fe-rich silicates on the CV parent body.

  4. Resource Manual for Handling Body Fluids in the School Setting To Prevent Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis B Virus. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryland State Dept. of Health and Mental Hygiene, Baltimore.

    This Maryland resource manual provides local education agencies with guidelines on how to handle body fluids to prevent the transmission of diseases, especially Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), in the school setting. The first section summarizes the reasons for development of the manual. The second section summarizes…

  5. COMPARTMENTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binder, Janos X; Pletscher-Frankild, Sune; Tsafou, Kalliopi;

    2014-01-01

    Information on protein subcellular localization is important to understand the cellular functions of proteins. Currently, such information is manually curated from the literature, obtained from high-throughput microscopy-based screens and predicted from primary sequence. To get a comprehensive view...

  6. Measuring expression levels of small regulatory RNA molecules from body fluids and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyongyosi, Adrienn; Docs, Otto; Czimmerer, Zsolt; Orosz, Laszlo; Horvath, Attila; Török, Olga; Mehes, Gabor; Nagy, Laszlo; Balint, Balint L

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs are involved in the regulation of various pathophysiological processes such as immune regulation and cancer. Next-generation sequencing methods enable us to monitor their presence in various types of samples but we need flexible methods for validating datasets generated by high-throughput methods. Here we describe the detailed protocols to be used with our MiRNA Primer Design Tool assay design system. The presented methods allow the flexible design of the oligonucleotides needed for the RT-qPCR detection of any variant of small regulatory RNA molecules from virtually any species. This method can be used to measure miRNA levels from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples and various body fluids. As an example, we show the results of the hsa-miR-515-3p, hsa-miR-325, and hsa-miR-155 quantification using a specific UPL probe (Universal Probe Library) and a stem-loop RT-qPCR assay. The small nucleolar RNA RNU43 is used as endogenous control for normalization of the results. Urine from healthy pregnant women and FFPE samples from patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer and treated with antibody-based anti-EGFR monotherapy were used as samples.

  7. Granulocytes of sea anemone Actinia equina (Linnaeus, 1758 body fluid contain and release cytolysins forming plaques of lysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MG Parisi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cnidaria phylum includes organisms that are among the most poisonous animals. The exact composition of cnidarian bioactive molecules is not known in detail, but little is known on the cells that produce the toxins. Here we have shown that the presence of cytolysins is not exclusive of nematocysts. A plaque-forming assay was carried out with cell populations extracted from the percoled body fluid showed for the first time that anthozoan granulocytes are able to form plaque of lysis. We have partitioned the total population of free cells into three distinct discrete bands by discontinuous Percoll gradient, and we have identified six small different types cells: morular granulocytes; cells with large or small peripherical granules, granulocytes with irregular shape containing blue and red granules, cells showing one fine red granule of uniform size and, finally, cells with elongated shape and small dispersed granules. Cell lysate of each cellular band resulted cytolytic toward different erythrocytes types. SDS page analysis of the lysate cell fraction showed a predominant of 20 kDa that corresponds to the weight of the cytolytic equinatoxin. The nature of equinatoxins-related activity was demonstrated by inhibition experiments using bovine sphingomyelin.

  8. In vitro biomineralization of a novel hydroxyapatite/superhydrophilic multiwalled carbon nanotube nanocomposite using simulated body fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neves, Marcele Florencio; Brazil, Tayra Rodrigues; Marciano, Fernanda Roberta; Lobo, Anderson Oliveira, E-mail: aolobo@univap.br [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba(IP and D,/NANOBIO/UniVap), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento. Lab. de Nanotecnologia Biomedica; Soares, Luis Eduardo Silva [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba(IP and D/LEVB/UniVap), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento. Lab. de Espectroscopia Vibracional Biomdica; Corat, Evaldo Jose [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisa Espacial (LAS/INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Lab. Associado de Sensores e Materiais

    2013-11-01

    Nano biomaterials based on superhydrophilic vertically-aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (VAMWCNT-O{sub 2} ) are promising for their properties and bone tissue biocompatibility. VAMWCNT-O{sub 2} films with nanohydroxyapatite (nHAp) aim to improve mechanical properties and biocompatibility of this new nanocomposite due to its resemblance to bone matrix structure. This study aimed to produce in vitro biomineralized nHAp/VAMWCNT-O2 nanocomposites using simulated body fluid (SBF) with two different pHs (6.10 and 7.40) during 7 days to obtain a new surface design with higher crystallinity and better morphology of nHAp/VAMWCANT-O{sub 2} nanocomposites. The objective is to obtain biomineralized nano biomaterials to enable its applicability as 'scaffold' to cellular support and consequent bone tissue formation, accelerating the osseointegration. Layer densification has been achieved due to polycrystalline nano apatites deposition on surface and between the biomineralized nHAp/VAMWCNT-O{sub 2} nanocomposites, without any heat treatment. Therefore, through its characteristics and properties these nanocomposite applications can be considered extremely viable for acceleration of in vivo regenerative processes. (author)

  9. Corrosion mechanism of micro-arc oxidation treated biocompatible AZ31 magnesium alloy in simulated body fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Lia; Fang Lu; Honglong Li; Wenjun Zhu; Haobo Pan; Guoxin Tand; Yonghua Lao; Chengyun Ning; Guoxin Ni

    2014-01-01

    The rapid degradation of magnesium (Mg) based alloys has prevented their further use in orthopedic trauma fixation and vascular intervention, and therefore it is essential to investigate the corrosion mechanism for improving the corrosion resistance of these alloys. In this work, the effect of applied voltage on the surface morphology and the corrosion behavior of micro-arc oxidation (MAO) with different voltages were carried out to obtain biocompatible ceramic coatings on AZ31 Mg alloy. The effects of applied voltage on the surface morphology and the corrosion behavior of MAO samples in the simulated body fluid (SBF) were studied systematically. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) were employed to characterize the morphologies and phase compositions of coating before and after corrosion. The results showed that corrosion resistance of the MAO coating obtained at 250 V was better than the others in SBF. The dense layer of MAO coating and the corrosion precipitation were the key factors for corrosion behavior. The corrosion of precipitation Mg(OH)2 and the calcium phosphate (Ca–P) minerals on the surface of MAO coatings could enhance their corrosion resistance effectively. In addition, the mechanism of MAO coated Mg alloys was proposed.

  10. Carbonated hydroxyapatite starting from calcite and different orthophosphates under moderate hydrothermal conditions: Synthesis and surface reactivity in simulated body fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham Minh, Doan, E-mail: doan.phamminh@mines-albi.fr; Nzihou, Ange; Sharrock, Patrick

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Carbonated apatite (CAP) could be easily obtained from CaCO{sub 3} and orthophosphates. • Highest CaCO{sub 3} dissolution and apatitic carbonate content were obtained with H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. • A-B-type CAP was formed. • The synthesized CAP was thermally stable up to 1000 °C. • This CAP showed high biomineralization activity before and after thermal treatment. - Abstract: The one-step synthesis of carbonated hydroxyapatite (CAP) using calcite and different orthophosphates was investigated in a closed batch reactor. Only orthophosphoric acid could lead to the complete decomposition of calcite particles, when the reaction temperature was set at 80 °C. On the other hand, the reaction time and the dilution of the initial calcite suspension had no significant influence on the formation of the solid products. CAP was formed as the main crystalline calcium phosphate with the carbonate content in the range of 4.2–4.6 wt.%. The thermal decarbonation of the synthesized CAP started at 750 °C but it was only significant at 1000 °C under air atmosphere. This thermal decarbonation was total at 1200 °C or above. All CAP samples and products following thermal treatments were found bioactive in the test using simulated body fluid (SBF) solution.

  11. Cyclic delamination behavior of plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coating on Ti-6Al-4V substrates in simulated body fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Yuichi; Kawaguchi, Hayato; Mutoh, Yoshiharu

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to clarify the effect of a simulated body fluid (SBF) on the cyclic delamination behavior of a plasma-sprayed hydroxapatite (HAp) coating. A HAp coating is deposited on the surfaces of surgical metallic materials in order to enhance the bond between human bone and such surfaces. However, the HAp coating is susceptible to delamination by cyclic loading from the patient's gait. Although hip joints are subjected to both positive and negative moments, only the effects of tensile bending stresses on vertical crack propagation behavior have been investigated. Thus, the cyclic delamination behavior of a HAp coating was observed at the stress ratio R=-1 in order to determine the effects of tensile/compressive loading on the delamination behavior. The delamination growth rate increased with SBF immersion, which decreased the delamination life. Raman spectroscopy analysis revealed that the selective phase dissolution in the HAp coating was promoted at interfaces. Finite element analysis revealed that the energy release rate Gmax showed a positive value even in cases with compressive loading, which is a driving force for the delamination of a HAp coating. A prediction model for the delamination growth life was developed that combines a fracture mechanics parameter with the assumed stress-dependent dissolution rate. The predicted delamination life matched the experimental data well in cases of lower stress amplitudes with SBF. PMID:27287152

  12. Electrodeposition of HAp coatings on Ti6Al4V alloy and its electrochemical behavior in simulated body fluid solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh Dinh, Thi Mai; Thom Nguyen, Thi; Pham, Thi Nam; Phuong Nguyen, Thu; Thu Trang Nguyen, Thi; Hoang, Thai; Grossin, David; Bertrand, Ghislaine; Drouet, Christophe

    2016-06-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) coatings were prepared on Ti6Al4V substrate by electrodeposition method from electrolyte solution containing Ca(NO3)2, NH4H2PO4 and NaNO3. The results show that the HAp coatings were single phase crystals of HAp. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images present that HAp/Ti6Al4V have flake shapes which arrange to form like-coral agglomerates. In vitro test of the Ti6Al4V and HAp/Ti6Al4V in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution was investigated with different immersion times. pH of SBF solution decreased and the mass of materials increased. SEM images prove the formation of apatite on the surface of Ti6Al4V and HAp/Ti6Al4V. The corrosion current density during immersion time of substrate is always higher than the one of HAp/Ti6Al4V because the deposited HAp can protect well for the substrate.

  13. Ascaris lumbricoides pseudocoelomic body fluid induces a partially activated dendritic cell phenotype with Th2 promoting ability in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, David J; Noone, Cariosa M; Adams, Paul N; Vukman, Krisztina V; Molloy, Sile F; Forde, Jessica; Asaolu, Samuel; O'Neill, Sandra M

    2011-02-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) matured with helminth-derived molecules that promote Th2 immune responses do not follow conventional definitions of DC maturation processes. While a number of models of DC maturation by Th2 stimuli are postulated, further studies are required if we are to clearly define DC maturation processes that lead to Th2 immune responses. In this study, we examine the interaction of Th2-inducing molecules from the parasitic helminth Ascaris lumbricoides with the maturation processes and function of DCs. Here we show that murine bone marrow-derived DCs are partially matured by A. lumbricoides pseudocoelomic body fluid (ABF) as characterised by the production of IL-6, IL-12p40 and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) but no enhanced expression of cluster of differentiation (CD)-14, T-cell co-stimulatory markers CD80, CD86, CD40, OX40L and major histocompatibility complex class II was observed. Despite these phenotypic characteristics, ABF-stimulated DCs displayed the functional hallmarks of fully matured cells, enhancing DC phagocytosis and promoting Th2-type responses in skin-draining lymph node cells in vivo. ABF activated Th2-associated extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 and nuclear factor-kB intracellular signalling pathways independently of toll-like receptor 4. Taken together, we believe this is the first paper to demonstrate A. lumbricoides murine DC-Th cell-driven responses shedding further light on DC maturation processes by helminth antigens.

  14. Biomineralization behavior of a vinylphosphonic acid-based copolymer added with polymerization accelerator in simulated body fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Hamai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Apatite-polymer composites have been evaluated in terms of its potential application as bone substitutes. Biomimetic processes using simulated body fluid (SBF are well-known methods for preparation of such composites. They are reliant on specific functional groups to induce the heterogeneous apatite nucleation and phosphate groups possess good apatite-forming ability in SBF. Improving the degree of polymerization is important for obtaining phosphate-containing polymers, because the release of significant quantities of monomer or low molecular weight polymers can lead to suppression of the apatite formation. To date, there have been very few studies pertaining to the effect of adding a polymerization accelerator to the polymerization reaction involved in the formation of these composite materials under physiological conditions. In this study, we have prepared a copolymer from triethylene glycol dimethacrylate and vinylphosphonic acid (VPA in the presence of different amounts of sodium p-toluenesulfinate (p-TSS as a polymerization accelerator. The effects of p-TSS on the chemical durability and apatite formation of the copolymers were investigated in SBF. The addition of 0.1–1.0 wt% of p-TSS was effective for suppressing the dissolution of the copolymers in SBF, whereas larger amount had a detrimental effect. A calcium polyvinylphosphate instead of the apatite was precipitated in SBF.

  15. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of silver doped hydroxyapatite coating in simulated body fluid used as corrosive agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mišković-Stanković Vesna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium is a key biomedical material due its good biocompatibility, mechanical properties and corrosion stability, but infections of the implantation site still pose serious threat. One approach to prevent infection is to improve antimicrobial ability of the coating material. Silver doped hydroxyapatite (Ag/HAP nanoparticles were synthesized by new modified precipitation method. The synthesized powder was used for preparation of Ag/HAP coating on titanium by electrophoretic deposition. The coating was characterized in terms of phase composition and structure by Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR and X-ray diffraction (XRD; surface morphology and chemical composition was assessed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS. Research focused on evaluation of the corrosion behaviour of Ag/HAP coating in simulated body fluid (SBF at 37 ºC during prolonged immersion time by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. Silver doped HAP coating provided good corrosion protection in SBF solution. [Acknowledgements. This research was financed by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia, contracts No. III 45019 and by National Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC. Dr Ana Jankovic was financed by the FP7 Nanotech FTM Grant Agreement 245916

  16. 液体复苏对重症急性胰腺炎早期体液代谢的影响%The effects of fluid resuscitation on body fluid metabolism in severe acute pancreatitis at early Stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐新建; 林筱琦; 王喜艳; 晏冬; 王金宝; 温浩

    2009-01-01

    目的 观察不同剂量和张力液体复苏对重症急性胰腺炎早期体液代谢的影响.方法 取杂种犬60条随机分为4组,每组5条犬,研究设计为2×2析因实验设计,给予不同补液剂量,分别按50ml/kg和100ml/kg,每种补液又分两种补液张力(等张和高张)进行液体复苏,采用自身胆汁逆行主胰管注射法制模.制模后第1~3天每日补液,测定血浆钠离子浓度、血浆醛固酮激素(ALD)水平,记录出量和体液隔离量.结果 低剂量补液血浆钠离子浓度下降程度轻、出量减少和血浆醛固酮激素水平升高,在第3天差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);高剂量补液可使出量增加,血浆钠离子浓度和血浆醛固酮激素水平也明显下降,但并未减少体液隔离量,反而导致体液在体内储留.高张力补液在补液剂量相同的前提下增加出量,能减少体液隔离量,并能提高晶体渗透压和降低醛固酮的水平,在第3天差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 补液剂量和补液张力均对SAP体液代谢产生影响,补液量大,能使机体丢失的体液得到及时补充,但易发生血浆晶体渗透压下降和体液隔离量增大;高张力补液不仅增加出量,同时能提高血浆Na离子浓度,避免血浆晶体渗透压降低.%Objective To study the effects of the fluid resuscitation with different fluid volume and fluid tension on the body fluid metabolism in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) at early stage. Methods Sixty dogs were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=15 per group). Twenty-two factorial experiment designs were done with the fluid volume of 50 and 100 ml/kg,and isotonic contraction and high-tension fluid. SAP model was created by retrograde injection of its own bile into its main pancreatic duct. All the dogs were subjected to infusion therapy at the 1st to 3rd day,and the plasma concentrations of Na~+ ,and the plasma level of aldosterone (ALD) were determined,and the total output fluid and the total

  17. Estimation of adipose compartment volumes in CT images of a mastectomy specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Abdullah-Al-Zubaer; Pokrajac, David D.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.; Bakic, Predrag R.

    2016-03-01

    Anthropomorphic software breast phantoms have been utilized for preclinical quantitative validation of breast imaging systems. Efficacy of the simulation-based validation depends on the realism of phantom images. Anatomical measurements of the breast tissue, such as the size and distribution of adipose compartments or the thickness of Cooper's ligaments, are essential for the realistic simulation of breast anatomy. Such measurements are, however, not readily available in the literature. In this study, we assessed the statistics of adipose compartments as visualized in CT images of a total mastectomy specimen. The specimen was preserved in formalin, and imaged using a standard body CT protocol and high X-ray dose. A human operator manually segmented adipose compartments in reconstructed CT images using ITK-SNAP software, and calculated the volume of each compartment. In addition, the time needed for the manual segmentation and the operator's confidence were recorded. The average volume, standard deviation, and the probability distribution of compartment volumes were estimated from 205 segmented adipose compartments. We also estimated the potential correlation between the segmentation time, operator's confidence, and compartment volume. The statistical tests indicated that the estimated compartment volumes do not follow the normal distribution. The compartment volumes are found to be correlated with the segmentation time; no significant correlation between the volume and the operator confidence. The performed study is limited by the mastectomy specimen position. The analysis of compartment volumes will better inform development of more realistic breast anatomy simulation.

  18. A 3D, fully Eulerian, VOF-based solver to study the interaction between two fluids and moving rigid bodies using the fictitious domain method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Ashish; Raessi, Mehdi

    2016-04-01

    We present a three-dimensional (3D) and fully Eulerian approach to capturing the interaction between two fluids and moving rigid structures by using the fictitious domain and volume-of-fluid (VOF) methods. The solid bodies can have arbitrarily complex geometry and can pierce the fluid-fluid interface, forming contact lines. The three-phase interfaces are resolved and reconstructed by using a VOF-based methodology. Then, a consistent scheme is employed for transporting mass and momentum, allowing for simulations of three-phase flows of large density ratios. The Eulerian approach significantly simplifies numerical resolution of the kinematics of rigid bodies of complex geometry and with six degrees of freedom. The fluid-structure interaction (FSI) is computed using the fictitious domain method. The methodology was developed in a message passing interface (MPI) parallel framework accelerated with graphics processing units (GPUs). The computationally intensive solution of the pressure Poisson equation is ported to GPUs, while the remaining calculations are performed on CPUs. The performance and accuracy of the methodology are assessed using an array of test cases, focusing individually on the flow solver and the FSI in surface-piercing configurations. Finally, an application of the proposed methodology in simulations of the ocean wave energy converters is presented.

  19. 36 CFR 1192.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sleeping compartments. 1192.127 Section 1192.127 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS... Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.127 Sleeping compartments. (a) Sleeping compartments required to...

  20. 49 CFR 38.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sleeping compartments. 38.127 Section 38.127... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 38.127 Sleeping compartments. (a) Sleeping compartments required to be accessible shall be designed so as to allow a person using...

  1. Three-scale model of single bone osteon modelled as double-porous fluid saturated body: Study of influence of micro/meso-structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turjanicová J.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the multiscale description of a single osteon of cortical bones. The cortical bone tissue is modeled as a double-porous medium decomposed into the solid matrix and the fluid saturated canals. The resulting homogenized model describes deformation of such medium in response to a static loading by external forces and to an injection of slightly compressible fluid. Three numerical examples are presented, showing the influence of selected lower-scales geometrical features on the macroscopic body behavior.

  2. [Intestinal occlusion and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagnitti, Franco

    2009-01-01

    Intestinal occlusion is defined as an independent predictive factor of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) which represents an independent predictor of mortality. Baggot in 1951 classified patients operated with intestinal occlusion as being at risk for IAH ("abdominal blow-out"), recommending them for open abdomen surgery proposed by Ogilvie. Abdominal surgery provokes IAH in 44.7% of cases with mortality which, in emergency, triples with respect to elective surgery (21.9% vs 6.8%). In particular, IAH is present in 61.2% of ileus and bowel distension and is responsible for 52% of mortality (54.8% in cases with intra-abdominal infection). These patients present with an increasing intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) which, over 20-25 mmHg, triggers an Abdominal Compartment Syndrome (ACS) with altered functions in some organs arriving at Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome (MODS). The intestine normally covers 58% of abdominal volume but when there is ileus distension, intestinal pneumatosis develops (third space) which can occupy up to 90% of the entire cavity. At this moment, Gastro Intestinal Failure (GIF) can appear, which is a specific independent risk factor of mortality, motor of "Organ Failure". The pathophysiological evolution has many factors in 45% of cases: intestinal pneumatosis is associated with mucosal and serous edema, capillary leakage with an increase in extra-cellular volume and peritoneal fluid collections (fourth space). The successive loss of the mucous barrier permits a bacterial translocation which includes bacteria, toxins, pro-inflammatory factors and oxygen free radicals facilitating the passage from an intra-abdominal to inter-systemic vicious cyrcle. IAH provokes the raising of the diaphragm, and vascular and visceral compressions which induce hypertension in the various spaces with compartmental characteristics. These trigger hypertension in the renal, hepatic, pelvic, thoracic, cardiac, intracranial, orbital and lower extremity areas, giving

  3. Optimization of a Biomimetic Apatite Nanoparticle Delivery System for Non-viral Gene Transfection---a Simulated Body Fluid Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Debobrato

    Current methods for gene delivery utilize nanocarriers such as liposomes and viral vectors that may produce in vivo toxicity, immunogenicity, or mutagenesis. Moreover, these common high-cost systems have a low efficacy of gene-vehicle transport across the cell plasma membrane followed by inadequate release and weak intracellular stability of the genetic sequence. Thus, this study aims to maximize gene transfection while minimizing cytotoxicity by utilizing supersaturated blood-plasma ions derived from simulated body fluids (SBF). With favorable electrostatic interactions to create biocompatible calcium-phosphate nanoparticles (NPs) derived from biomimetic apatite (BA), results suggest that the SBF system, though naturally sensitive to reaction conditions, after optimization can serve as a tunable and versatile platform for the delivery of various types of nucleic acids. From a systematic exploration of the effects of nucleation pH, incubation temperature, and time on transfection efficiency, the study proposes distinct characteristic trends in SBF BA-NP morphology, cellular uptake, cell viability, and gene modulation. Specifically, with aggressive nucleation and growth of BA-NPs in solution (observed via scanning electron microscopy), the ensuing microenvironment imposes a more toxic cellular interaction (indicated by alamarBlue and BCA assays), limiting particle uptake (fluorescence experiments) and subsequent gene knockdown (quantitative loss of function assays). Controlled precipitation of BA-NPs function to increase particle accessibility by surrounding cells, and subsequently enhance uptake and transfection efficiency. By closely examining such trends, an optimal fabrication condition of pH 6.5-37C can be observed where particle growth is more tamed and less chaotic, providing improved, favorable cellular interactions that increase cell uptake and consequently maximize gene transfection, without compromising cellular viability.

  4. Degradation behavior of n-MAO/EPD bio-ceramic composite coatings on magnesium alloy in simulated body fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Ying, E-mail: yxiong@zjut.edu.cn [College of Mechanical Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Lu, Chao [College of Mechanical Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Wang, Chao; Song, Renguo [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Materials Surface Science and Technology, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • A bio-ceramic n-MAO/EPD coating was prepared by combined MAO and EPD technique. • The precipitates of Ca/P compound are formed on the surface samples during immersion. • The n-MAO/EPD coating with HA dense structure has a favorable anti-corrosion effect. • Two degradation mechanism models for the n-MAO and n-MAO/EPD coating were proposed. - Abstract: The bio-ceramic composite coatings have been fabricated on ZK60 magnesium (Mg) alloy to improve its bio-corrosion resistance in a simulated body fluid (SBF). Firstly, micro-arc oxidation coatings (n-MAO coating) with the addition of zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) and cerium oxide (CeO{sub 2}) nano-particles were prepared by MAO technique on ZK60Mg alloy in alkaline electrolyte. Secondly, nano-hydroxyapatite (HA) was deposited on the surface of n-MAO coatings by using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) technique. The degradation behavior of the coated samples was investigated by means of immersion tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in the SBF at 36.5 ± 0.5 °C. The variation of phase composition, surface and cross-section morphology of coatings at different immersion stages were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The results showed that the precipitation layer with biological activity formed on the surface of coated samples during the SBF immersion, which can inhibit Mg alloys from degrading effectively. The n-MAO/EPD composite coating with HA dense structure has a favorable anti-corrosion effect compared to the n-MAO coating. Degradation mechanism model of the corrosion process at different corrosion stages for two kinds of coatings were proposed. The long-term corrosion protection of the n-MAO/EPD composite coating was governed significantly by the synergistic effect of phase composition stability and micro structural integrity.

  5. Simulated body fluid and water absorption effects on poly(methyl methacrylate/hydroxyapatite denture base composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA/hydroxyapatite (HA composite has potential application in denture base materials. The denture base materials should exhibit good mechanical properties and dimensional stability in moist environment. Silane coupling agent [3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxy silane (γ-MPS] was used to treat the HA fillers in order to enhance the interfacial interaction between the PMMA and HA. In this research, the kinetics and effects of Simulated Body Fluid (SBF and water absorption on the flexural properties of PMMA/HA composites were studied for an immersion duration of 2 months. The mathematical treatment used in analyzing the data was the single free phase model of diffusion, which assumed Fickian diffusion and utilized Fick’s second law of diffusion. The kinetics of water absorption of the PMMA/HA composites conformed to Fickian law behavior, whereby the initial moisture absorption follows a linear relationship between the percentage gain at any time t and t1/2, followed by saturation. It was found that the equilibrium moisture content and the diffusion coefficient are depending on the concentration of γ-MPS in PMMA/5HA composites. The reduction of equilibrium moisture content of PMMA/5HA is due to the hydrophobic behavior of γ-MPS and compatibility of PMMA with HA. The retention ability in flexural modulus and strength of PMMA/HA composites upon subjected towater absorption are considerably good. The reduction of flexural strength of the PMMA/HA composites after water absorption and SBF absorption could be attributed to the plasticizing effect of water molecules.

  6. Corrosion and bioactivity performance of graphene oxide coating on TiNb shape memory alloys in simulated body fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saud, Safaa N; Hosseinian S, Raheleh; Bakhsheshi-Rad, H R; Yaghoubidoust, F; Iqbal, N; Hamzah, E; Ooi, C H Raymond

    2016-11-01

    In the present work, the microstructure, corrosion, and bioactivity of graphene oxide (GO) coating on the laser-modified and -unmodified surfaces of TiNb shape memory alloys (SMAs) were investigated. The surface morphology and chemical composition was examined using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The surface modification was carried out via a femtosecond laser with the aim to increase the surface roughness, and thus increase the adhesion property. FE-SEM analysis of the laser-treated Ti-30at.% Nb revealed the increase in surface roughness and oxygen/nitrogen containing groups on the Ti-30at.% Nb surface after being surface modified via a femtosecond laser. Furthermore, the thickness of GO was increased from 35μm to 45μm after the surface was modified. Potentiodynamic polarisation and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies revealed that both the GO and laser/GO-coated samples exhibited higher corrosion resistance than that of the uncoated TiNb SMA sample. However, the laser/GO-coated sample presented the highest corrosion resistance in SBF at 37°C. In addition, during soaking in the simulated body fluid (SBF), both the GO and laser/GO coating improved the formation of apatite layer. Based on the bioactivity results, the GO coating exhibited a remarkable antibacterial activity against gram-negative bacteria compared with the uncoated. In conclusion, the present results indicate that Ti-30at.% Nb SMAs may be promising alternatives to NiTi for certain biomedical applications. PMID:27524069

  7. Driven-dissipative Euler close-quote s equations for a rigid body: A chaotic system relevant to fluid dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhering to the lore that vorticity is a critical ingredient of fluid turbulence, a triad of coupled helicity (vorticity) states of the incompressible Navier-Stokes fluid are followed. Effects of the remaining states of the fluid on the triad are then modeled as a simple driving term. Numerical solution of the equations yield attractors that seem strange and chaotic. This suggests that the unpredictability of nonlinear fluid dynamics (i.e., turbulence) may be traced back to the most primordial structure of the Navier-Stokes equation; namely, the driven triadic interaction. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  8. Stochastic Calculus of Wrapped Compartments

    CERN Document Server

    Coppo, Mario; Drocco, Maurizio; Grassi, Elena; Troina, Angelo; 10.4204/EPTCS.28.6

    2010-01-01

    The Calculus of Wrapped Compartments (CWC) is a variant of the Calculus of Looping Sequences (CLS). While keeping the same expressiveness, CWC strongly simplifies the development of automatic tools for the analysis of biological systems. The main simplification consists in the removal of the sequencing operator, thus lightening the formal treatment of the patterns to be matched in a term (whose complexity in CLS is strongly affected by the variables matching in the sequences). We define a stochastic semantics for this new calculus. As an application we model the interaction between macrophages and apoptotic neutrophils and a mechanism of gene regulation in E.Coli.

  9. Gluteal Compartment Syndrome following an Iliac Bone Marrow Aspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Berumen-Nafarrate

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The compartment syndrome is a condition characterized by a raised hydraulic pressure within a closed and non expandable anatomical space. It leads to a vascular insufficiency that becomes critical once the vascular flow cannot return the fluids back to the venous system. This causes a potential irreversible damage of the contents of the compartment, especially within the muscle tissues. Gluteal compartment syndrome (GCS secondary to hematomas is seldom reported. Here we present a case of a 51-year-old patient with history of a non-Hodgkin lymphoma who underwent a bone marrow aspiration from the posterior iliac crest that had excessive bleeding at the puncture zone. The patient complained of increasing pain, tenderness, and buttock swelling. Intraoperative pressure validation of the gluteal compartment was performed, and a GCS was diagnosed. The patient was treated with a gluteal region fasciotomy. The patient recovered from pain and swelling and was discharged shortly after from the hospital. We believe clotting and hematologic disorders are a primary risk factor in patients who require bone marrow aspirations or biopsies. It is important to improve awareness of GCS in order to achieve early diagnosis, avoid complications, and have a better prognosis.

  10. A collaborative European exercise on mRNA-based body fluid/skin typing and interpretation of DNA and RNA results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Berge, M; Carracedo, A; Gomes, I;

    2014-01-01

    that ranged from reference PCR products, cDNAs of indicated or unnamed cell type source(s), to challenging mock casework stains. From this specimen set, information on the overall sensitivity and specificity of the various markers was obtained. In addition, the reliability of a scoring system for inference...... of cell types was assessed. This scoring system builds on replicate RNA analyses and the ratio observed/possible peaks for each cell type [1]. The results of the exercise support the usefulness of this scoring system. When interpreting the data obtained from the analysis of the mock casework stains......The European Forensic Genetics Network of Excellence (EUROFORGEN-NoE) undertook a collaborative project on mRNA-based body fluid/skin typing and the interpretation of the resulting RNA and DNA data. Although both body fluids and skin are composed of a variety of cell types with different functions...

  11. Two-Dimensional Self-Propelled Fish Motion in Medium: An Integrated Method for Deforming Body Dynamics and Unsteady Fluid Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present (1) the dynamical equations of deforming body and (2) an integrated method for deforming body dynamics and unsteady fluid dynamics, to investigate a modelled freely self-propelled fish. The theoretical model and practical method is applicable for studies on the general mechanics of animal locomotion such as flying in air and swimming in water, particularly of free self-propulsion. The present results behave more credibly than the previous numerical studies and are close to the experimental results, and the aligned vortices pattern is discovered in cruising swimming

  12. Two-Dimensional Self-Propelled Fish Motion in Medium:An Integrated Method for Deforming Body Dynamics and Unsteady Fluid Dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yan; Wu Guan-Hao; YU Yong-Liang; TONG Bing-Gang

    2008-01-01

    We present(1)the dynamical equations of deforming body and(2)an integrated method for deforming body dynamics and unsteady fluid dynamics,to investigate a modelled freely serf-propelled fish.The theoretical model and practical method is applicable for studies on the general mechanics of animal locomotion such as flying in air and swimming in water,particularly of free self-propulsion.The present results behave more credibly than the previous numerical studies and are close to the experimental results,and the aligned vortices pattern is discovered in cruising swimming.

  13. Design and demonstration of a pumpless 14 compartment microphysiological system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Paula G; Shuler, Michael L

    2016-10-01

    We describe a human "Body-on-a-chip" device (or microphysiological system) that could be used to emulate drug distribution, metabolism, and action in the body. It is based upon a physiologically based pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PBPK-PD) model, where multiple chambers representing different organs are connected with fluidic channels to mimic multi-organ interactions within the body. Here we describe a pumpless 14 chamber (13 organs) microfluidic cell culture device that provides a separation between barrier and nonbarrier types of cell cultures. Our barrier chamber layer (skin, GI tract, and lung) allows for direct access and/or exposures to chemical or biological reagents forcing these reagents to pass through a barrier of cells established on a microfabricated membrane before exposing the nonbarrier tissue chambers (fat, kidney, heart, adrenal glands, liver, spleen, pancreas, bone marrow, brain, muscle) or entering the microfluidic circulation within the device. Our nonbarrier tissue chambers were created as three-dimensional configurations by resuspending cells in hydrogel (PGMatrix). We used cell lines to represent five of these organs (barrier lines-A549 [lung] and Caco2 [GI]) (nonbarrier lines-HepG2 C3A [liver], Meg01 [bone marrow], and HK2 [kidney]). The dimensions of our straight duct-like channels to each organ chamber were designed to provide the appropriate flow of a culture medium. The organ volumes and organ flow rates that have been reported for an average human male were used to estimate the desired fluid retention times in each organ chamber. The flow through the channels was induced by gravity on a custom programmed rocker platform which enabled pumpless operation and minimized bubble entrapment. The purpose of this paper is to describe the design and operation of a 14 chamber multi-organ system representing 13 tissues/organs with both barrier and nonbarrier tissue chambers and to study the interactive responses among the various cell lines

  14. Integration of phase separation with ultrasound-assisted salt-induced liquid-liquid microextraction for analyzing the fluoroquinones in human body fluids by liquid chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, H; Gao, M.; Wang, M.; Zhang, R.; W. Wang; Dahlgren, RA; Wang, X.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Herein, we developed a novel integrated device to perform phase separation based on ultrasound-assisted salt-induced liquid-liquid microextraction for determination of five fluoroquinones (FQs) in human body fluids. The integrated device consisted of three simple HDPE components used to separate the extraction solvent from the aqueous phase prior to retrieving the extractant. A series of extraction parameters were optimized using the response surface method based on centr...

  15. Pulsatile flow and heat transfer of a magneto-micropolar fluid through a stenosed artery under the influence of body acceleration

    OpenAIRE

    Shit, G. C.; Roy, M.

    2012-01-01

    With an aim to investigate the effect of externally imposed body acceleration and magnetic field on pulsatile flow of blood through an arterial segment having stenosis is under consideration in this paper. The flow of blood is presented by a unsteady micropolar fluid and the heat transfer characteristics have been taken into account. The non-linear equations that governing the flow are solved numerically using finite difference technique by employing a suitable coordinate transformation. The ...

  16. Development of highly sensitive and specific mRNA multiplex system (XCYR1 for forensic human body fluids and tissues identification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xu

    Full Text Available The identification of human body fluids or tissues through mRNA-based profiling is very useful for forensic investigations. Previous studies have shown mRNA biomarkers are effective to identify the origin of biological samples. In this study, we selected 16 tissue specific biomarkers to evaluate their specificities and sensitivities for human body fluids and tissues identification, including porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD, hemoglobin beta (HBB and Glycophorin A (GLY for circulatory blood, protamine 2 (PRM2 and transglutaminase 4 (TGM4 for semen, mucin 4 (MUC4 and human beta defensin 1(HBD1 for vaginal secretion, matrix metalloproteinases 7 and 11 (MMP7 and MMP11 for menstrual blood, keratin 4(KRT4 for oral mucosa, loricrin (LOR and cystatin 6 (CST6 for skin, histatin 3(HTN3 for saliva, statherin (STATH for nasal secretion, dermcidin (DCD for sweat and uromodulin (UMOD for urine. The above mentioned ten common forensic body fluids or tissues were used in the evaluation. Based on the evaluation, a reverse transcription (RT PCR multiplex assay, XCYR1, which includes 12 biomarkers (i.e., HBB, GLY, HTN3, PRM2, KRT4, MMP11, MUC4, DCD, UMOD, MMP7, TGM4, and STATH and 2 housekeeping genes [i.e., glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH and 18SrRNA], was developed. This assay was further validated with real casework samples and mock samples (with both single source and mixture and it was approved that XCYR1 is effective to identify common body fluids or tissues (i.e., circulatory blood, saliva, semen, vaginal secretion, menstrual blood, oral mucosa, nasal secretion, sweat and urine in forensic casework samples.

  17. Comprehensive investigation of postmortem glucose levels in blood and body fluids with regard to the cause of death in forensic autopsy cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian-Hua; Michiue, Tomomi; Inamori-Kawamoto, Osamu; Ikeda, Sayuko; Ishikawa, Takaki; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2015-11-01

    The serum glucose level is regulated within a narrow range by multiple factors under physiological conditions, but is greatly modified in the death process and after death. The present study comprehensively investigated glucose levels in blood and body fluids, including pericardial fluid (PCF), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and vitreous humor, reviewing forensic autopsy cases (n=672). Right heart blood glucose level was often higher than at other sites, and the CSF glucose level was the lowest, showing greater dissociation in acute/subacute death cases. The glucose level was higher in the diabetic (high HbA1c) than in the non-diabetic (low HbA1c) group at each site (pdeath due to ischemic heart disease. Fatal methamphetamine (MA) abuse, sepsis, malnutrition (starvation) and hypoglycemia due to antidiabetics showed markedly lower blood glucose levels. Ketones in bilateral cardiac blood and PCF were increased in diabetic ketoacidosis and fatal alcohol abuse as well as in most cases of hyperthermia (heatstroke), hypothermia (cold exposure) and malnutrition. These findings suggest that combined analysis of glucose, HbA1c and ketones in blood and body fluids is useful to investigate not only fatal diabetic metabolic disorders but also death processes due to other causes, including alcohol and MA abuse, as well as thermal disorders, sepsis and malnutrition. PMID:26593993

  18. Micro-topography and reactivity of implant surfaces: an in vitro study in simulated body fluid (SBF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfi, M G; Taddei, P; Siboni, F; Perrotti, V; Iezzi, G; Piattelli, A; Prati, C

    2015-02-01

    The creation of micro-textured dental implant surfaces possessing a stimulating activity represents a challenge in implant dentistry; particularly, the formation of a thin, biologically active, calcium-phosphate layer on their surface could help to strengthen the bond to the surrounding bone. The aim of the present study was to characterize in terms of macrostructure, micro-topography and reactivity in simulated body fluid (SBF), the surface of titanium (Ti) implants blasted with TiO2 particles, acid etched with hydrofluoric acid, and activated with Ca and Mg-containing nanoparticles. Sandblasted and acid-etched implants were analyzed by ESEM-EDX (environmental scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray system) to study the micromorphology of the surface and to perform elemental X-ray microanalysis (microchemical analyses) and element mapping. ESEM-EDX analyses were performed at time 0 and after a 28-day soaking period in SBF Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS) following ISO 23317 (implants for surgery—in vitro evaluation for apatite-forming ability of implant materials). Microchemical analyses (weight % and atomic %) and element mapping were carried out to evaluate the relative element content, element distribution, and calcium/phosphorus (Ca/P) atomic ratio. Raman spectroscopy was used to assess the possible presence of impurities due to manufacturing and to investigate the phases formed upon HBSS soaking. Micro-morphological analyses showed a micro-textured, highly rough surface with microgrooves. Microchemical analyses showed compositional differences among the apical, middle, and distal thirds. The micro-Raman analyses of the as-received implant showed the presence of amorphous Ti oxide and traces of anatase, calcite, and a carbonaceous material derived from the decomposition of an organic component of lipidic nature (presumably used as lubricant). A uniform layer of Ca-poor calcium phosphates (CaPs) (Ca/P ratio <1.47) was observed after

  19. Endogenous and exogenous factors influencing the concentrations of adiponectin in body fluids and tissues in the bovine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerwein, Helga; Häußler, Susanne

    2016-07-01

    of the literature about the adiponectin protein in cattle addressing the following aspects: (1) the course of the adiponectin serum concentrations during development in both sexes, during inflammation, nutritional energy deficit and energy surplus, and lactation-induced changes including the response to supplementation with conjugated linoleic acids and with niacin, (2) the concentrations of adiponectin in subcutaneous vs visceral fat depots of dairy cows, (3) the protein expression of adiponectin in tissues other than adipose, and (4) the concentrations in different body fluids including milk. PMID:27345322

  20. Considering the effect of stem-loop reverse transcription and real-time PCR analysis of blood and saliva specific microRNA markers upon mixed body fluid stains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchimoto, Mari L; Beasley, Emma; Coult, Natalie; Omelia, Emma J; World, Damian; Williams, Graham

    2013-07-01

    Forensic RNA analysis is gathering pace with reports of messenger RNA analysis being used in case work, and with microRNA being increasingly researched. Such techniques address a fundamental issue in body fluid identification, namely increased specificity over existing chemical tests, and the incorporation of additional body fluids such as vaginal material. The use of RNA analysis will be of particular value to sex offences, where there can be a mixture of multiple body fluids from different people. The aim of this study was to determine whether microRNA based body fluid identification tests can be applied to mixed body fluid samples. Blood and saliva were acquired from volunteers and underwent total RNA extraction. Mixed samples were prepared using a range of ratios from 1:1 to 10:1. Each mixed sample then underwent a blood-saliva differentiation test developed in-house, which includes stem-loop reverse transcription and real-time PCR analysis. Aliquots following mixture preparation also underwent standard STR analysis, utilising Quantiplex and Next Generation Multiplex kits. Data relating to the development of an in-house blood-saliva differentiation test is presented, in which it has been demonstrated that such a test has a lower limit of detection than the enzymatic equivalent. It has been shown that not only is it possible to determine the presence of more than one body fluid, it is also possible to determine the major body fluid contributor as well as the minor contributor.

  1. Hybrid Calculus of Wrapped Compartments

    CERN Document Server

    Coppo, Mario; Drocco, Maurizio; Grassi, Elena; Sciacca, Eva; Spinella, Salvatore; Troina, Angelo; 10.4204/EPTCS.40.8

    2010-01-01

    The modelling and analysis of biological systems has deep roots in Mathematics, specifically in the field of ordinary differential equations (ODEs). Alternative approaches based on formal calculi, often derived from process algebras or term rewriting systems, provide a quite complementary way to analyze the behaviour of biological systems. These calculi allow to cope in a natural way with notions like compartments and membranes, which are not easy (sometimes impossible) to handle with purely numerical approaches, and are often based on stochastic simulation methods. Recently, it has also become evident that stochastic effects in regulatory networks play a crucial role in the analysis of such systems. Actually, in many situations it is necessary to use stochastic models. For example when the system to be described is based on the interaction of few molecules, when we are at the presence of a chemical instability, or when we want to simulate the functioning of a pool of entities whose compartmentalised structur...

  2. Effect of hydrogen combustion in the primary pump compartment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen combustion in a nuclear power plant may threaten the integrity of some important systems and components. In this paper, the effect of hydrogen combustion in the primary pump compartment is analyzed by different initial hydrogen concentration and igniter locations using Computational Fluid Dynamics method. The results show that the combustion is confined to a limited area without pump damage at about 6.6% hydrogen volume fraction. Once igniting the hydrogen, the combustion affects the whole compartment at the 12% hydrogen volume fraction. The stress caused by the great temperature gradient or high temperature may damage the primary pump. Igniters at the lower location accelerate the combustion process and cause a threat to the pump integrity. (authors)

  3. Describing the motion of a body with an elliptical cross section in a viscous uncompressible fluid by model equations reconstructed from data processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisov, A. V.; Kuznetsov, S. P.; Mamaev, I. S.; Tenenev, V. A.

    2016-09-01

    From analysis of time series obtained on the numerical solution of a plane problem on the motion of a body with an elliptic cross section under the action of gravity force in an incompressible viscous fluid, a system of ordinary differential equations approximately describing the dynamics of the body is reconstructed. To this end, coefficients responsible for the added mass, the force caused by the circulation of the velocity field, and the resisting force are found by the least square adjustment. The agreement between the finitedimensional description and the simulation on the basis of the Navier-Stokes equations is illustrated by images of attractors in regular and chaotic modes. The coefficients found make it possible to estimate the actual contribution of different effects to the dynamics of the body.

  4. Fatty acids and small organic compounds bind to mineralo-organic nanoparticles derived from human body fluids as revealed by metabolomic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Jan; Wu, Cheng-Yeu; Hung, Cheng-Yu; Wong, Tsui-Yin; Cheng, Ann-Joy; Cheng, Mei-Ling; Shiao, Ming-Shi; Young, John D.

    2016-03-01

    Nanoparticles entering the human body instantly become coated with a ``protein corona'' that influences the effects and distribution of the particles in vivo. Yet, whether nanoparticles may bind to other organic compounds remains unclear. Here we use an untargeted metabolomic approach based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography and quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry to identify the organic compounds that bind to mineral nanoparticles formed in human body fluids (serum, plasma, saliva, and urine). A wide range of organic compounds is identified, including fatty acids, glycerophospholipids, amino acids, sugars, and amides. Our results reveal that, in addition to the proteins identified previously, nanoparticles harbor an ``organic corona'' containing several fatty acids which may affect particle-cell interactions in vivo. This study provides a platform to study the organic corona of biological and synthetic nanoparticles found in the human body.Nanoparticles entering the human body instantly become coated with a ``protein corona'' that influences the effects and distribution of the particles in vivo. Yet, whether nanoparticles may bind to other organic compounds remains unclear. Here we use an untargeted metabolomic approach based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography and quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry to identify the organic compounds that bind to mineral nanoparticles formed in human body fluids (serum, plasma, saliva, and urine). A wide range of organic compounds is identified, including fatty acids, glycerophospholipids, amino acids, sugars, and amides. Our results reveal that, in addition to the proteins identified previously, nanoparticles harbor an ``organic corona'' containing several fatty acids which may affect particle-cell interactions in vivo. This study provides a platform to study the organic corona of biological and synthetic nanoparticles found in the human body. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See

  5. Effect of successive irrigation of subarachnoid cavity on body temperature and cerebrospinal fluid-related index in suppurative meningitis model dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Liu; Guohou He; Yuanyuan Wang; Xueqiang Chen; Qibin Wang

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: At present, suppurative meningitis is mainly treated through anti-infection with antibiotics, depressing encephalic pressure with mannitol , lowering body temperature with drugs, supporting treatment,etc. However, it takes a long course of treatment and has poor therapeutic effect. Successive irrigation of subarachnoid cavity maybe have better effect on suppurative meningitis.OBJECTIVE: We compared the successive irrigation of subbarachnoid cavity with routine therapeutic methods to observe the effect of successive irrigation of subarachnoid cavity on the body temperature, cerebrospinal fluid pressure, the number of white blood cell and the level of protein of suppurative meningitis dogs.DESIGN: A randomized and controlled animal experiment.SETTING: Institute of Neuroscience, Taihe Hospital Affiliated to Yunyang Medical College.MATERIALS: Totally 17 healthy adult male Beagle dogs, of common grade, weighing 9 to 10 kg, were involved in the experiment, and raised in the 20 ℃ temperature with relative humidity of 50% for 1 week.They were randomized into 3 groups: normal group (n=5), control group (n=5) and irrigation group (n=6).Artificial cerebrospinal fluid was prepared according to the level of glucose and chloride of cerebrospinal fluid of normal dogs, and then it was sterilized with high pressure.METHODS: This experiment was carried out in the experimental animal center of Yunyang Medical College from April to August 2001.① After the dogs were anesthetized,1 mL fresh staphylococcus aureus liquid [(1.5-1.6) ×109 L-1] was injected into medullary cistern to establish suppurative meningitis models.② After models were successfully established, intravenous drip infusion of 1.2 ×106 U/(kg.d), muscular injection of sulday were performed in the control group. The irrigation of subarachnoid meningitis was conducted in the irrigation group besides the routine treatments in the control group: Artificial cerebrospinal fluid was successively injected into

  6. General-relativistic rotation laws in rotating fluid bodies, new weak-field effects and the post-newtonian expansion

    CERN Document Server

    Mach, Patryk; Pirog, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Recent general-relativistic extensions of Newtonian rotation laws for self-gravitating stationary fluids allow one to rederive, in the first post-Newtonian approximation, the well known geometric dragging of frames, and two new weak-field effects within rotating tori. These are the recently discovered anti-dragging and a new effect that measures the deviation from the Keplerian motion and/or the contribution of the fluids selfgravity. They can be applied to the study of the existence of the (post-)Newtonian limits of solutions and in investigations of inequalities relating parameters of rotating black holes.

  7. Point vortex dynamics as zero-radius limit of the motion of a rigid body in an irrotational fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Glass, Olivier; Munnier, Alexandre; Sueur, Franck

    2016-01-01

    The vortex point system is usually considered as an idealized model where thevorticity of an ideal incompressible two-dimensional fluid is concentrated in afinite number of moving points. In the case of a single vortex in an otherwise irrotational ideal fluid occupying a bounded and simply-connected two-dimensional domain the motion is given by the so-called Kirchhoff-Routh velocity which depends only on the domain.The main result of this paper establishes that this dynamics canalso be obtain...

  8. Pulsatile flow and heat transfer of a magneto-micropolar fluid through a stenosed artery under the influence of body acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Shit, G C

    2012-01-01

    With an aim to investigate the effect of externally imposed body acceleration and magnetic field on pulsatile flow of blood through an arterial segment having stenosis is under consideration in this paper. The flow of blood is presented by a unsteady micropolar fluid and the heat transfer characteristics have been taken into account. The non-linear equations that governing the flow are solved numerically using finite difference technique by employing a suitable coordinate transformation. The numerical results have been observed for axial and microrotation component of velocity, fluid acceleration, wall shear stress(WSS), flow resistance, temperature and the volumetric flow rate. It thus turns out that the rate of heat transfer increases with the increase of Hartmann number $H$, while the wall shear stress has a reducing effect on the Hartmann number $H$ and an enhancing effect on microrotation parameter $K$ as well as the constriction height $\\delta$.

  9. Cell communication compartments in molluscan embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serras, F; Kühtreiber, W M; Krul, M R; van den Biggelaar, J A

    1985-08-01

    Early embryos of Patella vulgata have been injected with Lucifer Yellow. No restriction of dye spread was found. We show that later in the development, the larval trochophore stage present evidence of compartments of cell communication. These dye compartments coincide with different presumptive regions. PMID:4028198

  10. 14 CFR 29.853 - Compartment interiors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... electrical wire and cable insulation, and for small parts (such as knobs, handles, rollers, fasteners, clips... Compartment interiors. For each compartment to be used by the crew or passengers— (a) The materials (including finishes or decorative surfaces applied to the materials) must meet the following test criteria...

  11. Compartmented mode workstation (CMW) comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolliver, J.S.

    1995-12-31

    As the Compartmented Mode Workstation (CMW) market has matured, several vendors have released new versions of their CMW operating systems. These include a new version from SecureWare (CMW + Version 2.4), and Sun`s CMW 1.1 (also known as Trusted Solaris 1.1). EC is now shipping MLS+ 3.0 for DEC Alpha platforms. Relatively new entries in the market include Loral B1/CMW for IBM RS/6000 platforms and a SecureWare-based CMW for HP platforms (HP-UX 10.09). With all these choices it is time for a comparative analysis of the features offered by the various vendors. The authors have three of the above five CMW systems plus HP-UX BLS 9.09, which is a multilevel secure operating system (OS) targeted at the B1 level but not a CMW. Each is unique in sometimes obvious, sometimes subtle ways, a situation that requires knowing and keeping straight a variety of commands to do the same thing on each system. Some vendors offer extensive GUI tools for system administration; some require entering command-line commands for certain system administration tasks. They examine the differences in system installation, system administration, and system operating among the systems. They look at trusted networking among the various systems and differences in the network databases and label encodings files. They examine the user interface on the various systems from logging in to logging out.

  12. Corrosion behavior of Mg-3Zn/bioglass (45S5) composite in simulated body fluid (SBF) and phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ab llah, N.; Jamaludin, S. B.; Daud, Z. C.; Zaludin, M. A. F.; Jamal, Z. A. Z.; Idris, M. S.; Osman, R. A. M.

    2016-07-01

    Magnesium has emerged as promising materials in biomaterials research due to its good mechanical and physical properties closer to human bones. However, magnesium has poor corrosion resistance to chloride ions that exist in human blood plasma thus preventing its application in biomedical. The addition of zinc and bioglass can reduce magnesium corrosion rate. In this work, the effect of different solution media (Simulated Body Fluid and Phosphate Buffered Saline) to the corrosion behavior of Mg-Zn/bioglass (45S5) composites was investigated. The composites of Mg-3Zn added with 5, 10, 15, 20, 15 and 30 wt. % bioglass were fabricated by powder metallurgy. The composites were prepared by mixing at 140 rpm for 1 hour, pressing at 500 MPa and sintering in an argon environment at a temperature of 450°C for 3 hours. Sintered samples were immersed in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) and Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS) in order to investigate the corrosion behavior. Samples mass loss was determined after 3 days of immersion. Samples microstructure and corrosion products were analyzed using optical microscope and x-ray diffraction (XRD) respectively. The results revealed that the samples immersed in the Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS) shows lower mass loss compare to the samples immersed in the Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) for all composition except for Mg-3Zn without bio-glass. The results indicated that the existence of high phosphate ions in PBS has retarded the corrosion rate of composite Mg-3Zn/45S5. The pH value of the PBS solution after immersion showed significant increase between 10.3 and 11.09. Diffraction pattern (XRD) showed the presence of Mg(OH)2 as the major corrosion product for samples immersed in the SBF and PBS solutions. The mass loss of samples decreased with the addition of bio-glass.

  13. The epinet data of four Indian hospitals on incidence of exposure of healthcare workers to blood and body fluid: A multicentric prospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murali Chakravarthy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Sharps injury (SI and blood and body fluid exposure are occupational hazards to healthcare workers (HCWs. Although data from the developed countries have shown the enormity of the problem, data from developing countries, such as India, arelacking. Purpose : The purpose of this study was to cumulate data from fourmajor hospitals in India and analyze the incidence of SI and blood and body fluid exposure in HCWs. Materials and Methods : Four Indian hospitals (hospital A, B, C and D from major cities of India participated in this multicentric study. Data ranging from 6 to 26 months were collected from these hospitals using Exposure Prevention Information network (EPINet which is the database created by International Healthcare Worker Safety Research and Resource Center, University of Virginia. Results : Two hundred and forty-three sharp injuries and 22 incidents of blood or body fluid exposure were encountered in the cumulated 50 months of our study. The incidence of SIswas thehighestamong nurses (55% of allthe HCWs, akin to the global data. An injury rate of nearly 20% among housekeeping staff seems to be specific to the Indian data. Patient′s room followed by operation theater appeared to be common locations of injury in our study. The source of the injury was identified in majority (64% of the injuries. A major part of the group was not the primary users of the sharp (38%. Disposable needles caused nearly half of the injuries. Suture needles contributed to a reasonable number of injuries in one of the hospitals. Conclusions : The incidence of SI is the highest among nurses and the housekeeping staff (>30% each. A substantial number of injuries are avoidable.

  14. Sub compartment pressurization analysis for auxiliary building of APR1400DC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Moon Oh; Lee, Hee Do [Atomic Creative Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Generally, the sub compartment of PWR means a fully or partially enclosed volume that could house high-energy piping systems or restrict the flow of fluid in the event of a postulated pipe rupture. To meet the requirements of General Design Criteria (GDC) 4 and 50, Standard Review Plan (SRP) 6.2.1.2 states that the sub compartments shall be designed with sufficient margin to prevent the fracture of structure due to pressure differential across the walls of the sub- compartment and specifies the criteria related to the design and functional sub compartment nodalization schemes, vent flow path and vent flow behavior. Therefore the sub compartments structures within the containment and auxiliary building are designed to withstand the transient differential pressures loads, jet impingement forces, and pipe whip forces occurring due to a postulated pipe break. In this paper, the analyses of pressure transients after a postulated pipe rupture in sub compartments of APR1400DC auxiliary building is performed and the calculated peak differential pressures during the piping break transients for each sub compartment are less than structural design differential pressures.

  15. Numerical simulation of spatial-temporal evolution characteristics of subsurface fluid based on strong body seismogenic model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Using finite element technique of the plane-strain problem in solid-liquid two-phase medium, we studied the characteristics of "field precursors" and "focus precursors" of subsurface fluid and their spatial-temporal evolution in case of dip-slip earthquake. The results show that: ① the change of ground fluid is slow and the anomaly is not prominent in the early period which is of elastic accumulation and non-linear; ②dilatancy emerges and anomaly focus mainly in the source region in the moderate period which is hardening and of local dilatancy. In the period the focus precursors emerge earlier than the field precursors; ③anomalies spread continuously in the source area and new regions with big anomaly emerge out of the source region in the middle-short period which is of large-scale dilatancy.

  16. Spinning fluids reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jan D; Hupka, Jan; Aranowski, Robert

    2012-11-20

    A spinning fluids reactor, includes a reactor body (24) having a circular cross-section and a fluid contactor screen (26) within the reactor body (24). The fluid contactor screen (26) having a plurality of apertures and a circular cross-section concentric with the reactor body (24) for a length thus forming an inner volume (28) bound by the fluid contactor screen (26) and an outer volume (30) bound by the reactor body (24) and the fluid contactor screen (26). A primary inlet (20) can be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce flow-through first spinning flow of a first fluid within the inner volume (28). A secondary inlet (22) can similarly be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce a second flow of a second fluid within the outer volume (30) which is optionally spinning.

  17. PORE-SCALE SIMULATION OF FLUID FLOW IN PACKED-BED REACTORS VIA RIGID-BODY SIMULATIONS AND CFD

    OpenAIRE

    Icardi, Matteo; Marchisio, Daniele,; Boccardo, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    The problem of fluid flow in porous media is of paramount importance in the process, oil and metallurgical industries, since it is involved in the extraction of minerals and oil, in aquifer dynamics, as well as chemical reactions carried out in fixed bed catalytic reactors. Its CFD simulation is particularly interesting, as it offers the possibility of reducing the extent of costly experimental investigations, but presents a number of technical challenges. One of the main issues is the genera...

  18. Wearable Multi-Frequency and Multi-Segment Bioelectrical Impedance Spectroscopy for Unobtrusively Tracking Body Fluid Shifts during Physical Activity in Real-Field Applications: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Villa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Bioelectrical Impedance Spectroscopy (BIS allows assessing the composition of body districts noninvasively and quickly, potentially providing important physiological/clinical information. However, neither portable commercial instruments nor more advanced wearable prototypes simultaneously satisfy the demanding needs of unobtrusively tracking body fluid shifts in different segments simultaneously, over a broad frequency range, for long periods and with high measurements rate. These needs are often required to evaluate exercise tests in sports or rehabilitation medicine, or to assess gravitational stresses in aerospace medicine. Therefore, the aim of this work is to present a new wearable prototype for monitoring multi-segment and multi-frequency BIS unobtrusively over long periods. Our prototype guarantees low weight, small size and low power consumption. An analog board with current-injecting and voltage-sensing electrodes across three body segments interfaces a digital board that generates square-wave current stimuli and computes impedance at 10 frequencies from 1 to 796 kHz. To evaluate the information derivable from our device, we monitored the BIS of three body segments in a volunteer before, during and after physical exercise and postural shift. We show that it can describe the dynamics of exercise-induced changes and the effect of a sit-to-stand maneuver in active and inactive muscular districts separately and simultaneously.

  19. Compartment models of radioiodine in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The differential equations governing the flow of iodine through a three-compartment model of iodine metabolism in man have been solved and the solutions compared to those obtained from two-compartment models. The boundary conditions used were those appropriate for a single acute exposure to radioiodine. The urinary excretion equation derived from the solutions to the three-compartment model exhibits a minimum at four days after the exposure time. This minimum can be used to calculate a maximum value for thyroid burden using a single urinary excretion rate measurement, and in conjunction with this value, an optimum urinary sampling frequency for the different radioiodines can be calculated. (author)

  20. Integration of phase separation with ultrasound-assisted salt-induced liquid-liquid microextraction for analyzing the fluoroquinones in human body fluids by liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huili; Gao, Ming; Wang, Mei; Zhang, Rongbo; Wang, Wenwei; Dahlgren, Randy A; Wang, Xuedong

    2015-03-15

    Herein, we developed a novel integrated device to perform phase separation based on ultrasound-assisted salt-induced liquid-liquid microextraction for determination of five fluoroquinones (FQs) in human body fluids. The integrated device consisted of three simple HDPE components used to separate the extraction solvent from the aqueous phase prior to retrieving the extractant. A series of extraction parameters were optimized using the response surface method based on central composite design. Optimal conditions consisted of 945μL acetone extraction solvent, pH 2.1, 4.1min stir time, 5.9g Na2SO4, and 4.0min centrifugation. Under optimized conditions, the limits of detection (at S/N=3) were 0.12-0.66μgL(-1), the linear range was 0.5-500μgL(-1) and recoveries were 92.6-110.9% for the five FQs extracted from plasma and urine. The proposed method has several advantages, such as easy construction from inexpensive materials, high extraction efficiency, short extraction time, and compatibility with HPLC analysis. Thus, this method shows excellent prospects for sample pretreatment and analysis of FQs in human body fluids. PMID:25660716

  1. Surface functionalization of tissue culture polystyrene plates with hydroxyapatite under body fluid conditions and its effect on differentiation behaviors of mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Kazutoshi; Suzuki, Ryo; Iizuka, Ayako; Ueno-Yokohata, Hitomi; Kiyokawa, Nobutaka; Hashizume, Mineo

    2016-11-01

    The surfaces of polystyrene (PS) cell culture plates were functionalized with hydroxyapatite (HAp) under body fluid conditions utilizing protein adsorption layers and a pretreatment with an alternate soaking process (ASP) using solutions containing calcium and phosphate ions. Adsorption layers of human serum albumin (HSA) formed on the surface of each well of commercial 24-well PS plates by solution processes. CaCl2 and K2HPO4 solutions were alternately added to the wells, the plates were incubated to form the precursors, and this was followed by the addition of simulated body fluid (SBF) and a further incubation for 24h. These treatments resulted in the surfaces of the PS cell culture plates being completely covered with bone-like HAp. The coating of PS plates with HAp promoted the adhesion of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and maintained cell growth that was as fast as that on tissue culture-treated PS (TCPS) plates. Osteogenic differentiation was greater, whereas adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation was less in the culture on HAp-coated PS plates than in that on TCPS plates. The present method is useful for preparing HAp-coated PS plates at clean benches without the need for any expensive apparatus. HAp coated on PS plates by this method was a bone-like apatite with high bioactivity; therefore, the present HAp-coated PS plates are promising materials for assays of bone-related cells in the bone remodeling process.

  2. Evaluation of a blood-specific DNA methylated region and trial for allele-specific blood identification from mixed body fluid DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Ken; Akutsu, Tomoko; Takamura, Ayari; Sakurada, Koichi

    2016-09-01

    The identification of blood samples obtained from crime scenes has been an important step in forensic investigation. Recently, a novel approach using the blood-specific methylated CpG site cg06379435 has been reported. In this study, we developed a real-time polymerase-chain-reaction-based method that can simply and rapidly quantitate the methylation ratio of cg06379435 and its neighboring CpGs and set the threshold ratios for blood identification by analyzing various body fluid samples. Blood identification using the thresholds was successfully performed in the analysis of a small amount (1ng) of DNA from blood and various aged blood samples, including 29-year-old stains. We also demonstrated a test for allele-specific blood identification from a mixed DNA sample by bisulfite sequencing analysis of these CpG sites and their neighboring single nucleotide polymorphism, rs7359943 (A/G), which is of relevance in cases where mixed samples are obtained from crime scenes. The stability of DNA methylation in aged samples and the usefulness of neighboring genetic information shown in this study suggest that DNA-methylation-based body fluid identification will play a major role in future forensic investigations. PMID:27591539

  3. Effect of equal channel angular extrusion on wear and corrosion behavior of the orthopedic Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy in simulated body fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suresh, K.S. [Department of Materials. Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Geetha, M., E-mail: geethamanivasagam@vit.ac.in [School of Mechanical and Building Sciences, VIT University, Vellore (India); Richard, C. [Laboratoire de Mecanique et de Rheologie EA 2640, Polytech' Tours, 37000 Tours (France); Landoulsi, J. [Laboratoire de Reactivite de Surface, UMR 7197 CNRS, Universite Pierre and Marie Curie - Paris VI, 4 Place Jussieu, Case 178, F-75252 Paris (France); Ramasawmy, H. [University of Mauritius, Faculty of Engineering, Reduit (Mauritius); Suwas, S. [Department of Materials. Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Asokamani, R. [School of Mechanical and Building Sciences, VIT University, Vellore (India)

    2012-05-01

    We report investigations on the texture, corrosion and wear behavior of ultra-fine grained (UFG) Ti-13Nb-Zr alloy, processed by equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) technique, for biomedical applications. The microstructure obtained was characterized by X-ray line profile analysis, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD). We focus on the corrosion resistance and the fretting behavior, the main considerations for such biomaterials, in simulated body fluid. To this end, potentiodynamic polarization tests were carried out to evaluate the corrosion behavior of the UFG alloy in Hanks solution at 37 Degree-Sign C. The fretting wear behavior was carried out against bearing steel in the same conditions. The roughness of the samples was also measured to examine the effect of topography on the wear behavior of the samples. Our results showed that the ECAE process increases noticeably the performance of the alloy as orthopedic implant. Although no significant difference was observed in the fretting wear behavior, the corrosion resistance of the UFG alloy was found to be higher than the non-treated material. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Relevancy of ECAE process applied to titanium alloy for biomedical applications. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Significant improvement of mechanical properties of the surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Noticeable increase of the corrosion resistance in simulated body fluid.

  4. Bioimpedance Measurement of Segmental Fluid Volumes and Hemodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Leslie D.; Wu, Yi-Chang; Ku, Yu-Tsuan E.; Gerth, Wayne A.; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Bioimpedance has become a useful tool to measure changes in body fluid compartment volumes. An Electrical Impedance Spectroscopic (EIS) system is described that extends the capabilities of conventional fixed frequency impedance plethysmographic (IPG) methods to allow examination of the redistribution of fluids between the intracellular and extracellular compartments of body segments. The combination of EIS and IPG techniques was evaluated in the human calf, thigh, and torso segments of eight healthy men during 90 minutes of six degree head-down tilt (HDT). After 90 minutes HDT the calf and thigh segments significantly (P < 0.05) lost conductive volume (eight and four percent, respectively) while the torso significantly (P < 0.05) gained volume (approximately three percent). Hemodynamic responses calculated from pulsatile IPG data also showed a segmental pattern consistent with vascular fluid loss from the lower extremities and vascular engorgement in the torso. Lumped-parameter equivalent circuit analyses of EIS data for the calf and thigh indicated that the overall volume decreases in these segments arose from reduced extracellular volume that was not completely balanced by increased intracellular volume. The combined use of IPG and EIS techniques enables noninvasive tracking of multi-segment volumetric and hemodynamic responses to environmental and physiological stresses.

  5. Novel /sup 125/I radioimmunoassay for the analysis of. delta. /sup 9/-tetrahydrocannabinol and its metabolites in human body fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, B.; Mason, P.A.; Moffat, A.C.; King, L.J.

    A cannabinoid radioimmunoassay (RIA) that detects some of the major ..delta../sup 9/-THC metabolites is developed and evaluated for use in forensic science. It incorporates a novel /sup 125/I radiotracer, is sensitive, reliable, relatively quick, and simple to use. The RIA uses a commercially available antiserum and detects a number of cannabinoid metabolites, including ..delta../sup 9/-THC-11-oic acid and its glucuronide conjugate in biological fluids. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of blood and urine samples submitted for forensic analysis.

  6. Internal waves patterns in the wake of a 3D body towed in a two-layer fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacaze, Laurent; Mercier, Matthieu; Thual, Olivier; Paci, Alexandre

    2014-11-01

    Stratified flows over obstacles are important features in meteorology and oceanography. The characterization of these flows is crucial in order to propose models of geophysical processes such as mixing and ocean circulation or orographic drag in the atmosphere. For some specific stratification profiles, the energy of internal waves generated by the obstacle can be trapped at a given depth, at the base of the oceanic mixing layer or at the top of the atmospheric boundary layer for instance. This scenario can be modelled by a two-layer stratified fluid for which gravity waves spread at the interface between the two layers. The work presented here focuses on a two-layer flow over a 3D obstacle, or equivalently, an obstacle towed in a fluid at rest. Experiments performed both in the large-scale flume of CNRM-GAME Toulouse (METEO-FRANCE & CNRS) and in a smaller tank apparatus, are presented with a specific attention on the measurement of the 3D wave patterns. A non-hydrostatic linear analysis is used to describe the observed wave patterns. The experiments highlight the strong influence of the Froude number on the generated waves. More specifically, we investigate the nature of the wake angle obtained from the wave pattern, and discuss a transition from Kelvin to Mach angle.

  7. Tribological and corrosion behaviors of warm- and hot-rolled Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloys in simulated body fluid conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee T

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Taekyung Lee,1 Eshaan Mathew,2 Santhosh Rajaraman,2 Geetha Manivasagam,2 Ashok Kumar Singh,3 Chong Soo Lee4 1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USA; 2Centre for Biomaterials Science and Technology, School for Mechanical and Building Sciences, Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India; 3Defense Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad, India; 4Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology (GIFT, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH, Pohang, Republic of Korea Abstract: Development of submicrocrystalline structure in biomedical alloy such as Ti-13Nb-13Zr (in wt% through warm-rolling process has been found to enhance mechanical properties compared to conventional thermomechanical processing routes including hot-rolling process. The present study investigated the tribological and corrosion behaviors of warm-rolled (WR and hot-rolled Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloys which have not been studied to date. Both tribological and corrosion experiments were carried out in simulated body fluid conditions (Hank’s solution at 37°C based on the fact that the investigated alloys would be used in a human body as orthopedic implants. The WR Ti-13Nb-13Zr demonstrated a submicrocrystalline structure that provided a significant enhancement in hardness, strength, and corrosion resistance. Meanwhile, there was no notable difference in wear resistance between the WR and hot-rolled samples despite the different microstructure and hardness. The present study confirmed the enormous potential of WR Ti-13Nb-13Zr with not only great mechanical properties but also high corrosion resistance in the simulated body fluid. Keywords: titanium alloy, multi-pass caliber-rolling, grain refinement, tribology, corrosion

  8. Cutaneous anthrax cases leading compartment syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Emine Parlak; Ali Aydın; Mehmet Parlak

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax. Anthrax is a zoonotic disease with three clinical forms. Clinical forms are skin, gastrointestinal and inhalational anthrax. Cutaneous anthrax is 95% of the cases. Cutaneous anthrax frequently defines itself. Clinical presentation of anthrax may be severe and complicated in some cases. There may seem complications like meningitis, septic shock and compartment syndrome. Compartment Syndrome is a rare complication of cutaneous anthrax ...

  9. A theoretical model of a wake of a body towed in a stratified fluid at large Reynolds and Froude numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. I. Troitskaya

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present paper is to develop a theoretical model describing the evolution of a turbulent wake behind a towed sphere in a stably stratified fluid at large Froude and Reynolds numbers. The wake flow is considered as a quasi two-dimensional (2-D turbulent jet flow whose dynamics is governed by the momentum transfer from the mean flow to a quasi-2-D sinuous mode growing due to hydrodynamic instability. The model employs a quasi-linear approximation to describe this momentum transfer. The model scaling coefficients are defined with the use of available experimental data, and the performance of the model is verified by comparison with the results of a direct numerical simulation of a 2-D turbulent jet flow. The model prediction for the temporal development of the wake axis mean velocity is found to be in good agreement with the experimental data obtained by Spedding (1997.

  10. Metal ion concentrations in body fluids after implantation of hip replacements with metal-on-metal bearing--systematic review of clinical and epidemiological studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albrecht Hartmann

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The use of metal-on-metal (MoM total hip arthroplasty (THA increased in the last decades. A release of metal products (i.e. particles, ions, metallo-organic compounds in these implants may cause local and/or systemic adverse reactions. Metal ion concentrations in body fluids are surrogate measures of metal exposure. OBJECTIVE: To systematically summarize and critically appraise published studies concerning metal ion concentrations after MoM THA. METHODS: Systematic review of clinical trials (RCTs and epidemiological studies with assessment of metal ion levels (cobalt, chromium, titanium, nickel, molybdenum in body fluids after implantation of metalliferous hip replacements. Systematic search in PubMed and Embase in January 2012 supplemented by hand search. Standardized abstraction of pre- and postoperative metal ion concentrations stratified by type of bearing (primary explanatory factor, patient characteristics as well as study quality characteristics (secondary explanatory factors. RESULTS: Overall, 104 studies (11 RCTs, 93 epidemiological studies totaling 9.957 patients with measurement of metal ions in body fluids were identified and analyzed. Consistently, median metal ion concentrations were persistently elevated after implantation of MoM-bearings in all investigated mediums (whole blood, serum, plasma, erythrocytes, urine irrespective of patient characteristics and study characteristics. In several studies very high serum cobalt concentrations above 50 µg/L were measured (detection limit typically 0.3 µg/L. Highest metal ion concentrations were observed after treatment with stemmed large-head MoM-implants and hip resurfacing arthroplasty. DISCUSSION: Due to the risk of local and systemic accumulation of metallic products after treatment with MoM-bearing, risk and benefits should be carefully balanced preoperatively. The authors support a proposed "time out" for stemmed large-head MoM-THA and recommend a restricted

  11. The Influence of Zn Content on the Corrosion and Wear Performance of Mg-Zn-Ca Alloy in Simulated Body Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua; Liu, Debao; Zhao, Yue; Jin, Feng; Chen, Minfang

    2016-09-01

    Mg-Zn-Ca alloy has been attracting increasing attention as a potential biodegradable implant material. In this paper, Mg-3Zn-0.2Ca and Mg-4Zn-0.2Ca alloys were prepared by means of vacuum melting and subsequent hot extrusion process. The influences of Zn content on the microstructure, mechanical properties, and corrosion and wear behavior of Mg-Zn-Ca alloys in simulated body fluid (SBF) were studied. The results show that with increased Zn content, the grain size and corrosion resistance were decreased, while the mechanical strength and wear resistance were increased, under both dry sliding and SBF-lubricated conditions. For the same Mg-Zn-Ca alloy, the wear loss rate under SBF lubrication was higher than dry sliding condition, indicating a strong corrosion-assisted wear effect of SBF to the Mg-Zn-Ca alloy.

  12. The Influence of Zn Content on the Corrosion and Wear Performance of Mg-Zn-Ca Alloy in Simulated Body Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua; Liu, Debao; Zhao, Yue; Jin, Feng; Chen, Minfang

    2016-07-01

    Mg-Zn-Ca alloy has been attracting increasing attention as a potential biodegradable implant material. In this paper, Mg-3Zn-0.2Ca and Mg-4Zn-0.2Ca alloys were prepared by means of vacuum melting and subsequent hot extrusion process. The influences of Zn content on the microstructure, mechanical properties, and corrosion and wear behavior of Mg-Zn-Ca alloys in simulated body fluid (SBF) were studied. The results show that with increased Zn content, the grain size and corrosion resistance were decreased, while the mechanical strength and wear resistance were increased, under both dry sliding and SBF-lubricated conditions. For the same Mg-Zn-Ca alloy, the wear loss rate under SBF lubrication was higher than dry sliding condition, indicating a strong corrosion-assisted wear effect of SBF to the Mg-Zn-Ca alloy.

  13. Mercury concentrations in human placenta, umbilical cord, cord blood and amniotic fluid and their relations with body parameters of newborns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were conducted on samples taken from giving birth women (n = 40) living in Poland, representing three age groups: 19–25, 26–30 and 31–38 years old. Mercury concentrations were measured with CV-AAS in placenta, umbilical cord, cord blood and amniotic fluid. The placentas weight did not exceed the 750 g value and was heavier than 310 g. Mean values of Hg concentrations in blood, placenta and umbilical cord were similar (c.a. 9 μg/g). High levels of mercury were noted in cord blood which in 75% of all observations exceeded (up to 17 μg/L) the safe dose set by US EPA (5.8 μg/L). No statistically significant differences in medium level of Hg in all the studied tissues among age groups of women were observed. Positive correlations between Hg concentrations in placenta and umbilical cord and cord blood were revealed as well as some negative ones between mercury concentrations and pregnancy parameters. -- Highlights: •Concentrations of mercury in cord blood exceed the safety threshold level. •Maternal age was not an influential factor of Hg concentrations in studied samples. •Positive correlations between Hg levels in different tissues were observed. •Negative correlation between Hg concentrations and pregnancy parameters were noted. -- Maternal age was not an influential factor of mercury concentrations in studied samples. 75% of cord blood samples exceeded the Hg threshold concentration

  14. Effect of titanium ions on the ion release rate and uptake at the interface of silica based xerogels with simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •New insights into corrosion of bioactive glasses in simulated body fluid. •Effect of TiO2 added to bioactive glasses on their behaviour in aqueous media. •Incorporation of TiO2 slows the corrosion rate of bioactive glasses. •TiO2 influences the ion release rate of phosphate, but scarcely affects that of silicate. -- Abstract: The dissolution and surface layer changes of new xTiO2(100 − x)[4SiO2·CaO·0.3P2O5] sol–gel derived xerogels (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 20 mol%) have been investigated in Kokubo’s simulated body fluid (SBF). The ionic leaching rate was analysed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES). ICP-AES results showed a relatively fast dissolution of titanium free sample, with a high release of phosphorous and calcium ions in the first hour of incubation while the release of silicon ions continuously increased up to 6 h of immersion. The titanium dioxide addition up to 20 mol% differently influences the release of phosphorus, calcium and silicon ions, i.e. TiO2 strongly stabilises the phosphorus ions, to a lesser extent the calcium ions, and has almost no effect on the silicon ions release. The structural changes were evaluated using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The XRD results show that all samples remain mainly amorphous after immersion in SBF. The changes occurred in the surrounding of phosphorous and silicon ions are well reflected in FTIR spectra and they were correlated with the samples stability in SBF

  15. Cutaneous anthrax cases leading compartment syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Parlak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax. Anthrax is a zoonotic disease with three clinical forms. Clinical forms are skin, gastrointestinal and inhalational anthrax. Cutaneous anthrax is 95% of the cases. Cutaneous anthrax frequently defines itself. Clinical presentation of anthrax may be severe and complicated in some cases. There may seem complications like meningitis, septic shock and compartment syndrome. Compartment Syndrome is a rare complication of cutaneous anthrax and it is life threatening. Physicians working in the endemic area should be aware of this form. In this study, three cases were shown which developed compartment syndrome following cutaneous anthrax. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2013;3(4: 214-217

  16. Tribological, electrochemical and tribo-electrochemical characterization of bare and nitrided Ti6Al4V in simulated body fluid solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manhabosco, T.M., E-mail: tmanhabosco@yahoo.com.b [Physics Departament, Federal University of Ouro Preto, Campus Universitario Morro do Cruzeiro/ICEBS/DEFIS/35400-000, Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Tamborim, S.M. [Metallurgy Department, Laboratory of Corrosion Research, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves 9500/75/232, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Santos, C.B. dos [Fraunhofer-Institut/IPA Institut fuer Produktionstechnik und Automatisierung, Nobelstrasse 12, Sttutgart 70569 (Germany); Mueller, I.L., E-mail: ilmuller@ufrgs.b [Metallurgy Department, Laboratory of Corrosion Research, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves 9500/75/232, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Tribocorrosion of bare and nitrided Ti6Al4V in simulated body fluid is studied. {yields} The alloy presents great tendency to repassivate when its oxide is damaged by wear. {yields} Nitriding increases Ti6Al4V resistance to wear-corrosion at open circuit potential. {yields} EIS results confirm the improved anticorrosion properties of the nitride layer. {yields} Anodic potentials (+0.4V{sub SCE}) impair tribocorrosion resistance of the alloy. - Abstract: Tribological, electrochemical and tribo-electrochemical behaviour of bare and nitrided Ti6Al4V alloy was studied. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction and microhardness profile were used to characterize the nitrided Ti6Al4V. The anticorrosive properties of nitrided Ti6Al4V in phosphate buffer saline solution (PBS), simulating the body environment, were evaluated by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). Nitriding increased the alloy resistance to corrosion and to dry wear. Resistance to tribocorrosion in PBS at the open circuit potential (OCP) for the nitrided alloy was also significantly increased compared to the bare alloy; nevertheless at an anodic potential this influence became less important.

  17. Action of fluid on aqueduct body during strong earthquake%强震下流体对渡槽槽身的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李遇春; 楼梦麟

    2000-01-01

    The boundary element method is applied to simulate nonlinear sloshing of fluid,dynamic horizontal force and overturning moment actingon the aqueduct body during earthquake.The computational results of BEM(nonlinear)are compared with that of linearized theories.The numerical results reveal that a great horizontal force acting on the aqueduct body may occurred during strong earthquake.This action must be considered in seismic resistance design.%本文应用边界元法计算了强震下流体的非线性晃动及其对槽身的水平力及翻转力矩,将所得数值结果与线性解析方法的计算结果作了比较,分析了两类结果的异同点。计算表明:强震时,流体对槽身可能会产生很大的横向水平力,建议在抗震设计时考虑这一作用因素。

  18. Effects of combustible stacking in large compartments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentili, Filippo; Giuliani, Luisa; Bontempi, Franco

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the modelling of fire in case of various distributions of combustible materials in a large compartment. Large compartments often represent a challenge for structural fire safety, because of lack of prescriptive rules to follow and difficulties of taking into account the effect...... of non uniform distribution of the combustible materials and fire propagation. These aspects are discussed in this paper with reference to an industrial steel building, taken as case study. Fires triggered by the burning of wooden pallets stored in the premises have been investigated with respect...

  19. Cellular vacuoles induced by Helicobacter pylori originate from late endosomal compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papini, E; de Bernard, M; Milia, E; Bugnoli, M; Zerial, M; Rappuoli, R; Montecucco, C

    1994-01-01

    Pathogenic strains of Helicobacter pylori cause progressive vacuolation and death of epithelial cells. To identify the nature of vacuoles, the distribution of markers of various membrane traffic compartments was studied. Vacuoles derive from the endocytic pathway since they include the fluid-phase marker Lucifer yellow. Early endosome markers such as rab5, transferrin, and transferrin receptor, as well as the lysosomal hydrolase cathepsin D, are excluded from these structures. In contrast, the vacuolar membrane is specifically stained by affinity-purified antibodies against rab7, a small GTPase, localized to late endosomal compartments. The labeling of rab7 on vacuolar membranes increases as vacuolation progresses, without a concomitant increase of cellular rab7. Cell vacuolation is inhibited by the microtubule-depolymerizing agents nocodazole and colchicine. Taken together, these findings indicate that the vacuoles specifically originate from late endosomal compartments. Images PMID:7937879

  20. The Inflammatory Marker YKL-40 Is Elevated in Cerebrospinal Fluid from Patients with Alzheimer's but Not Parkinson's Disease or Dementia with Lewy Bodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin Wennström

    Full Text Available A major difference in the revised diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer's disease (AD is the incorporation of biomarkers to support a clinical diagnosis and allow the identification of preclinical AD due to AD neuropathological processes. However, AD-specific fluid biomarkers which specifically distinguish clinical AD dementia from other dementia disorders are still missing. Here we aimed to evaluate the disease-specificity of increased YKL-40 levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF from AD patients with mild to moderate dementia (n = 49 versus Parkinson's disease (PD (n = 61 and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB patients (n = 36, and non-demented controls (n = 44. Second we aimed to investigate whether altered YKL-40 levels are associated with CSF levels of other inflammation-associated molecules. When correcting for age, AD patients exhibited 21.3%, 27.7% and 38.8% higher YKL-40 levels compared to non-demented controls (p = 0.0283, DLB (p = 0.0027 and PD patients (p<0.0001. The AD-associated increase in YKL-40 was not associated with CSF P-tau, T-tau or Aβ42. No relationship between increased YKL-40 and levels of the astrocytic marker glial-fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, interleukin-8 (IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10 could be identified. Our results confirm previous reports of an age-associated increased in CSF YKL-40 levels and further demonstrate increased CSF YKL-40 in AD patients versus non-demented controls and patients with DLB or PD. The increase in YKL-40 levels in the AD patients was unrelated to the established CSF AD biomarkers and the inflammatory markers GFAP, MCP-1, IP-10 and IL-8, proposing YKL-40 as a marker of yet to be identified AD-related pathological processes.

  1. Microbial investigations of deep geological compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Deep sedimentary rocks are now considered to contain a significant part of the total bacterial population, but are microbiologically unexplored. The drilling down to the base of the Triassic (1980 meters deep) in the geological formations of the eastern Paris Basin performed by ANDRA (EST433) in 2008 provides us a good opportunity to explore the deep biosphere. We conditioned and sub-sampled on the coring site, in as aseptic conditions as possible, the nine cores: two in the Callovo-Oxfordian clay, two in the Dogger, five in the Triassic compartments. In addition to storage at atmospheric pressure, a portion of the five Triassic samples was placed in a 190 bars pressurized bars chamber to investigate the influence of the conservation pressure factor on the found microflora. In parallel, in order to evaluate a potential bacterial contamination of the core by the drilling fluids, samples of mud just before each sample drilling were taken and analysed. The microbial exploration we started can be divided in two parts: - A cultural approach in different culture media for six metabolic groups to try to find microbial cells still viable. This type of experiment is difficult because of the small proportion of cultivable species, especially in these extreme environmental samples. - A molecular approach by direct extraction of genomic DNA from the geological samples to explore a larger biodiversity. Here, the limits are the difficulties to extract DNA from these low biomass containing rocks. The five Triassic samples were partly crushed in powder and inoculated in the six culture media with four NaCl concentrations, because this type of rock is known as saline or hyper-saline, and incubated at three temperatures: 30 deg. C, 55 deg. C under agitation and 70 deg. C. First results will be presented. The direct extraction of DNA needs a complete method optimisation to adapt existent procedures (using commercial kit and classical

  2. The interpretation of forensic biochemical expert test made in human body fluids: scientific - legal analysis in the research on sexual offenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contributions of science and technology have covered the whole of human life, and relationships of coexistence are even found in the various disciplines of knowledge through legal forensics. Therefore, it is increasingly imperative that the law enforcement agents are interdisciplinary professionals, with knowledge beyond the legal knowledge to enable them make the most of the scientific knowledge in judicial proceedings. Among the natural sciences applied to right, forensic biochemistry has contributed an extremely relevant test for the investigation of various sexual offenses, much has been so, that the Organismo de Investigacion Judicial of Costa Rica has in its Departamento de Laboratorios de Ciencias Forenses with specialized sections in this discipline. A diversity of skills are performed of presumptive and confirmatory character for the presence of biological fluids, sexually transmitted diseases and identification of DNA by genetic markers. Updated information is given with respect to the correct interpretation of forensic biochemical expertises achievable for identification of semen, blood and human saliva in the investigation of sexual offenses. A scientific and legal language is used allowing the most of this information in the criminal process. The main objective has been to interpret, legal and scientifically, forensic biochemical expert evidence performed in human body fluids during the investigation of sexual offenses. A legal, doctrinal and scientific review is presented with compilation of related jurisprudence and criminology reports analysis of Seccion de Bioquimica of the Departamento de Laboratorios Forenses of the Organismo de Investigacion Juridica issued during the investigation of sexual offenses. Two types of attainable skills have existed for the identification of biological fluids, each with a different binding. In addition, it has been clear, due to the lexicon employed when making a forensic biochemist opinion, that to make a proper

  3. Nosocomial Infections: Multicenter surveillance of antimicrobial resistance profile of Staphylococcus aureus and Gram negative rods isolated from blood and other sterile body fluids in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Poorabbas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Antibiotic resistance is increasing, especially in healthcare-associated infections causing significant public health concerns worldwide. National information is required to make appropriate policies, update list of essential drugs for treatment, and evaluate the effects of intervention strategies. A nationwide surveillance of antimicrobial resistant bacteria in nosocomial infections was established in Iran in 2008, so that the data obtained through the surveillance would enable us to construct a database.Materials and Methods: Seven major teaching hospitals in Shiraz, Tabriz, Sari, Mashhad, Sanandaj, Ahwaz and Isfahan participated in this study. A total of 858 strains isolated from blood and other sterile body fluids were tested. Identification at the species level was performed with conventional biochemical methods and the API system. Susceptibility tests were done using disk diffusion method. The methicillin-resistance in S. aureus (MRSA was determined by the oxacillin agar screen plate and respective MIC values were assessed using the E-test strips. The confirmatory disk diffusion methods were applied for phenotypic identification of extended-spectrum β- lactamase (ESBL production for E. coli and K. pneumoniae, according to CLSI guidelines.Results: Cultivation and re-identification of the strains yielded 858 isolates, consisting of 224 S. aureus, 148 Klebsiellaspp., 105 Serratia spp., 146 E. coli, 67 Acinetobacter spp., 38 Enterobacter spp., 95 Pseudomonas spp., 71 P.aeruginosa.35 Stenotrophomonas sp., and 8 other organisms. MRSA was detected in 37.5% of the isolates. No vancomycin-resistant or vancomycin-intermediate resistant S. aureus was detected. With the exception of Acinetobacter and Stenotrophomonas, 85% of the Gram-negative isolates were found to be susceptible in vitro to imipenem. Overall, about 61% of K. pneumoniae and 35% of E. coli isolates were ESBL producing.Conclusion: Multidrug resistant isolates

  4. Postmortem distribution of flunitrazepam and its metabolite 7-aminoflunitrazepam in body fluids and solid tissues in an autopsy case: Usefulness of bile for their detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Koutaro; Wurita, Amin; Minakata, Kayoko; Gonmori, Kunio; Nozawa, Hideki; Yamagishi, Itaru; Watanabe, Kanako; Suzuki, Osamu

    2015-09-01

    We experienced an autopsy case of a woman in her 70s, in which the direct cause of her death was judged as asphyxia due to the occlusion of food in the trachea. The postmortem interval was estimated at about 2days. The specimens dealt with were femoral vein blood, right heart blood, left heart blood, bile, brain, lung, heart muscle, liver, spleen, kidney, pancreas, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue. By tentative drug screening, we found a high concentration of 7-aminoflunitrazepam in the femoral vein blood, which lead us to examine the postmortem distribution of flunitrazepam and its metabolite 7-aminoflunitrazepam in her body fluids and solid tissues. The extraction of flunitrazepam, 7-aminoflunitrazepam and internal standard nimetazepam was performed by a modified QuEChERS method, followed by the analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Because this study included various kinds of human matrices with quite different properties, we used the standard additional method to overcome the matrix effects. The concentration of 7-aminoflunitrazepam were generally much higher than those of the parent drug flunitrazepam for most specimens except for the adipose tissue, showing that flunitrazepam is readily metabolized to its 7-amino metabolite after absorption into the body both antemortem and postmortem. The outstandingly highest concentration of 7-animoflunitrazepam was found in the bile, followed by the kidney, pancreas, left heart blood, spleen and liver. Although a majority of flunitrazepam was converted to 7-aminoflunitrazepam, the flunitrazepam concentration was highest in the pancreas, followed by the spleen, bile, left heart blood, and brain. In contrast to the results on synthetic cannabinoids, the levels of flunitrazepam and 7-animoflunitrazepam in the adipose tissue were relatively low. The present study showed that the bile may be a useful specimen for detection of unchanged benzodiazepines/their metabolites to be collected at autopsy. PMID

  5. Determination of medicinal and illicit drugs in post mortem dental hard tissues and comparison with analytical results for body fluids and hair samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klima, Miriam; Altenburger, Markus J; Kempf, Jürgen; Auwärter, Volker; Neukamm, Merja A

    2016-08-01

    In burnt or skeletonized bodies dental hard tissue sometimes is the only remaining specimen available. Therefore, it could be used as an alternative matrix in post mortem toxicology. Additionally, analysis of dental tissues could provide a unique retrospective window of detection. For forensic interpretation, routes and rates of incorporation of different drugs as well as physicochemical differences between tooth root, tooth crown and carious material have to be taken into account. In a pilot study, one post mortem tooth each from three drug users was analyzed for medicinal and illicit drugs. The pulp was removed in two cases; in one case the tooth was root canal treated. The teeth were separated into root, crown and carious material and drugs were extracted from the powdered material with methanol under ultrasonication. The extracts were screened for drugs by LC-MS(n) (ToxTyper™) and quantitatively analyzed with LC-ESI-MS/MS in MRM mode. The findings were compared to the analytical results for cardiac blood, femoral blood, urine, stomach content and hair. In dental hard tissues, 11 drugs (amphetamine, MDMA, morphine, codeine, norcodeine, methadone, EDDP, fentanyl, tramadol, diazepam, nordazepam, and promethazine) could be detected and concentrations ranged from approximately 0.13pg/mg to 2,400pg/mg. The concentrations declined in the following order: carious material>root>crown. Only the root canal treated tooth showed higher concentrations in the crown than in the root. In post mortem toxicology, dental hard tissue could be a useful alternative matrix facilitating a more differentiated consideration of drug consumption patterns, as the window of detection seems to overlap those for body fluids and hair. PMID:26930453

  6. The effect of sodium silicate concentration on microstructure and corrosion properties of MAO-coated magnesium alloy AZ31 in simulated body fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Salami

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, magnesium and its alloys are considered as biodegradable implants. However magnesium implants may rapidly corrode before the natural healing process of the tissue is completed. In this investigation, micro arc oxidation process has been studied for avoiding primary corrosion of the magnesium alloy in simulated body fluid. Anodized coating was formed on AZ31 alloy in nontoxic silicate-alkaline solution at constant current. The effects of silicate concentration and conductivity of electrolyte solution on microstructure and corrosion properties of coating were evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy showed that a thick and condensed coating is formed after enough anodizing period. Energy dispersive spectroscopy showed that Si, O and Mg are the main components of the coating. Corrosion resistance of the coated and uncoated samples was assessed using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests in SBF at 37 °C and pH of 7.4. Maximum corrosion resistance was achieved at 30 g/L concentration of sodium silicate in anodizing solution. It was observed that further increase in silicate concentration decreased the corrosion resistance.

  7. Effect of different processings on mechanical property and corrosion behavior in simulated body fluid of Mg-Zn-Y-Nd alloy for cardiovascular stent application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shi-Jie; Liu, Qian; Qian, Ya-Feng; Sun, Bin; Wang, Li-Guo; Wu, Jing-Min; Guan, Shao-Kang

    2014-09-01

    The biomagnesium alloys have been considered to be one of the most potential biodegradable metal materials due to its good mechanical compatibility, biological compatibility, biological security and biodegradable characteristics. However, the two major problems of high degradation rates in physiological environment and low mechanical properties prevent the development of biomagnesium alloys. In the present work, the samples of Mg-Zn-Y-Nd alloy were prepared by cyclic extrusion compression (CEC) and equal channel angular pressing (ECAP). The microstructures, mechanical properties of alloy and its corrosion behavior in simulated body fluid (SBF) were evaluated. The results reveal that Mg-Zn-Y-Nd alloy consists of equiaxial fine grain structure with the homogeneous distribution of micrometer size and nano-sized second phase, which was caused by the dynamic recrystallization during the ECAP and CEC. The corrosion resistance of alloy was improved. The tensile and corrosion resistance were improved, especially the processed alloy exhibit uniform corrosion performances and decreased corrosion rate. This will provide theoretical ground for Mg-Zn-Y-Nd alloy as vascular stent application.

  8. Improvement of bio-corrosion resistance for Ti42Zr40Si15Ta3 metallic glasses in simulated body fluid by annealing within supercooled liquid region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C H; Lai, J J; Wei, T Y; Chen, Y H; Wang, X; Kuan, S Y; Huang, J C

    2015-01-01

    The effects of the nanocrystalline phases on the bio-corrosion behavior of highly bio-friendly Ti42Zr40Si15Ta3 metallic glasses in simulated body fluid were investigated, and the findings are compared with our previous observations from the Zr53Cu30Ni9Al8 metallic glasses. The Ti42Zr40Si15Ta3 metallic glasses were annealed at temperatures above the glass transition temperature, Tg, with different time periods to result in different degrees of α-Ti nano-phases in the amorphous matrix. The nanocrystallized Ti42Zr40Si15Ta3 metallic glasses containing corrosion resistant α-Ti phases exhibited more promising bio-corrosion resistance, due to the superior pitting resistance. This is distinctly different from the previous case of the Zr53Cu30Ni9Al8 metallic glasses with the reactive Zr2Cu phases inducing serious galvanic corrosion and lower bio-corrosion resistance. Thus, whether the fully amorphous or partially crystallized metallic glass would exhibit better bio-corrosion resistance, the answer would depend on the crystallized phase nature.

  9. Corrosion stability and bioactivity in simulated body fluid of silver/hydroxyapatite and silver/hydroxyapatite/lignin coatings on titanium obtained by electrophoretic deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eraković, Sanja; Janković, Ana; Veljović, Djordje; Palcevskis, Eriks; Mitrić, Miodrag; Stevanović, Tatjana; Janaćković, Djordje; Mišković-Stanković, Vesna

    2013-02-14

    Hydroxyapatite is the most suitable biocompatible material for bone implant coatings. However, its brittleness is a major obstacle, and that is why, recently, research focused on creating composites with various biopolymers. In this study, hydroxyapatite coatings were modified with lignin in order to attain corrosion stability and surface porosity that enables osteogenesis. Incorporating silver, well known for its antimicrobial properties, seemed the best strategy for avoiding possible infections. The silver/hydroxyapatite (Ag/HAP) and silver/hydroxyapatite/lignin (Ag/HAP/Lig) coatings were cathaphoretically deposited on titanium from ethanol suspensions, sintered at 900 °C in Ar, and characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The corrosion stability of electrodeposited coatings was evaluated in vitro in Kokubo's simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 °C using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Bioactivity was estimated by immersion in SBF to evaluate the formation of hydroxyapatite on the coating surface. A microcrystalline structure of newly formed plate-shaped carbonate-hydroxyapatite was detected after only 7 days, indicating enhanced bioactive behavior. Both coatings had good corrosion stability during a prolonged immersion time. Among the two, the Ag/HAP/Lig coating had a homogeneous surface, less roughness, and low values of contact angle.

  10. Fretting wear behaviour of hydroxyapatite–titanium composites in simulated body fluid, supplemented with 5 g l−1 bovine serum albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damaged articulating joints can be repaired or replaced with synthetic biomaterials, which can release wear debris due to articulation, leading to the osteolysis. In a recent work, it has been shown that it is possible to achieve a better combination of flexural strength/fracture toughness as well as in vitro bioactivity and cytocompatibility properties in spark plasma sintered hydroxyapatite–titanium (HA–Ti) composites. Although hydroxyapatite and titanium are well documented for their good biocompatibility, nanosized hydroxyapatite (HA) and titanium (Ti) particles can cause severe toxicity to cells. In order to address this issue, fretting wear study of HA–Ti composites under dry and wet (1× SBF, supplemented with 5 g l−1 bovine serum albumin (BSA)) condition was performed to assess the wear resistance as well as wear debris formation, in vitro. The experimental results reveal one order of magnitude lower wear rate for HA–10 wt% Ti (7.5 × 10−5 mm3 N−1 m−1) composite than monolithic HA (3.9 × 10−4 mm3 N−1 m−1) in simulated body fluid. The difference in the tribological properties has been analyzed in the light of phase assemblages and mechanical properties. Overall, the results suggest the potential use of HA–Ti composites over existing HA-based biocomposites in orthopedic as well as dental applications. (paper)

  11. Patterning and compartment formation in the diencephalon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mallika echatterjee

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The diencephalon gives rise to structures that play an important role in connecting the anterior forebrain with the rest of the central nervous system. The thalamus is the major diencephalic derivative that functions as a relay station between the cortex and other lower order sensory systems. Almost two decades ago, neuromeric/prosomeric models were proposed describing the subdivision and potential segmentation of the diencephalon. Unlike the laminar structure of the cortex, the diencephalon is progressively divided into distinct functional compartments consisting principally of thalamus, epithalamus and pretectum. Neurons generated within these domains further aggregate to form clusters called nuclei, which form specific structural and functional units. We review the recent advances in understanding the genetic mechanisms that are involved in the patterning and compartment formation of the diencephalon.

  12. Actin: its cumbersome pilgrimage through cellular compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleicher, Michael; Jockusch, Brigitte M

    2008-06-01

    In this article, we follow the history of one of the most abundant, most intensely studied proteins of the eukaryotic cells: actin. We report on hallmarks of its discovery, its structural and functional characterization and localization over time, and point to present days' knowledge on its position as a member of a large family. We focus on the rather puzzling number of diverse functions as proposed for actin as a dual compartment protein. Finally, we venture on some speculations as to its origin.

  13. Bacterial translocation - impact on the adipocyte compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruis, Tassilo; Batra, Arvind; Siegmund, Britta

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade it became broadly recognized that adipokines and thus the fat tissue compartment exert a regulatory function on the immune system. Our own group described the pro-inflammatory function of the adipokine leptin within intestinal inflammation in a variety of animal models. Following-up on this initial work, the aim was to reveal stimuli and mechanisms involved in the activation of the fat tissue compartment and the subsequent release of adipokines and other mediators paralleled by the infiltration of immune cells. This review will summarize the current literature on the possible role of the mesenteric fat tissue in intestinal inflammation with a focus on Crohn's disease (CD). CD is of particular interest in this context since the transmural intestinal inflammation has been associated with a characteristic hypertrophy of the mesenteric fat, a phenomenon called "creeping fat." The review will address three consecutive questions: (i) What is inducing adipocyte activation, (ii) which factors are released after activation and what are the consequences for the local fat tissue compartment and infiltrating cells; (iii) do the answers generated before allow for an explanation of the role of the mesenteric fat tissue within intestinal inflammation? With this review we will provide a working model indicating a close interaction in between bacterial translocation, activation of the adipocytes, and subsequent direction of the infiltrating immune cells. In summary, the models system mesenteric fat indicates a unique way how adipocytes can directly interact with the immune system.

  14. Random walks of cytoskeletal motors in open and closed compartments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Lipowsky; S. Klumpp

    2001-01-01

    Random walks of molecular motors, which bind to and unbind from cytoskeletal filaments, are studied theoretically. The bound and unbound motors undergo directed and nondirected motion, respectively. Motors in open compartments exhibit anomalous drift velocities. Motors in closed compartments generat

  15. Forest Management Prescription : Compartment 9 : Mingo National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the Forest Management Prescription for Compartment 9 of Mingo NWR. It provides a description of the compartment, management objectives, proposed management...

  16. Intention to comply with post-exposure management among nurses exposed to blood and body fluids in Taiwan: application of the theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, N-Y; Yeh, S-H; Tsay, S-L; Ma, H-J; Chen, C-H; Pan, S-M; Feng, M-C; Chiang, M-C; Lee, Y-W; Chang, L-H; Jang, J-F

    2011-04-01

    Nurses are at significant risk from occupationally acquired bloodborne virus infections following a needlestick and sharps injury. This study aimed to apply the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) to predict nurses' intention to comply with occupational post-exposure management. A cross-sectional survey was applied to select registered nurses who worked in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-designated hospitals. An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire based on the TPB was distributed to 1630 nurses and 1134 (69.5%) questionnaires were returned. From these, a total of 802 nurses (71%) reported blood and body fluid exposure incidents during 2003-2005 and this group was used for analysis. Only 44.6% of the 121 exposed nurses who were prescribed post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) by infectious disease doctors returned to the clinic for interim monitoring, and only 56.6% of exposed nurses confirmed their final serology status. Structural equation modelling was used to test the TPB indicating perceived behavioural control (the perception of the difficulty or ease of PEP management, β=0.58), subjective norm (the perception of social pressure to adhere to PEP, β=0.15), and attitudes (β=0.12) were significant direct effects on nurses' intention to comply with post-exposure management. The hypothesised model test indicated that the model fitted with the expected relationships and directions of theoretical constructs [χ(2) (14, N=802)=23.14, P=0.057, GFI=0.987, RMSEA=0.039]. The TPB model constructs accounted for 54% of the variance in nurses' intention to comply with post-exposure management. The TPB is an appropriate model for predicting nurses' intention to comply with post-exposure management. Healthcare facilities should have policies to decrease the inconvenience of follow-up to encourage nurses to comply with post-exposure management. PMID:21276639

  17. Biocompatibility and corrosion behavior of the shape memory NiTi alloy in the physiological environments simulated with body fluids for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to unique properties of NiTi shape memory alloys such as high corrosion resistance, biocompatibility, super elasticity and shape memory behavior, NiTi shape memory alloys are suitable materials for medical applications. Although TiO2 passive layer in these alloys can prevent releasing of nickel to the environment, high nickel content and stability of passive layer in these alloys are very debatable subjects. In this study a NiTi shape memory alloy with nominal composition of 50.7 atom% Ni was investigated by corrosion tests. Electrochemical tests were performed in two physiological environments of Ringer solution and NaCl 0.9% solution. Results indicate that the breakdown potential of the NiTi alloy in NaCl 0.9% solution is higher than that in Ringer solution. The results of Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) reveal that low pitting corrosion occurred in Ringer solution compared with NaCl solution at potentiostatic tests. The pH value of the solutions increases after the electrochemical tests. The existence of hydride products in the X-ray diffraction analysis confirms the decrease of the concentration of hydrogen ion in solutions. Topographical evaluations show that corrosion products are nearly same in all samples. The biocompatibility tests were performed by reaction of mouse fibroblast cells (L929). The growth and development of cells for different times were measured by numbering the cells or statistics investigations. The figures of cells for different times showed natural growth of cells. The different of the cell numbers between the test specimen and control specimen was negligible; therefore it may be concluded that the NiTi shape memory alloy is not toxic in the physiological environments simulated with body fluids.

  18. A sensitive and semi-quantitative method for determination of multi-drug residues in animal body fluids using multiplex dipstick immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shuaijuan; Zhou, Tianjiao; Yin, Bingjie; He, Pingli

    2016-07-13

    The objective of this research was to develop a multiplex dipstick immunoassay method for the simultaneous determination of multi-veterinary drug residues, such as β-agonists, sulfonamides, and tetracyclines in milk, urine, and serum. The multiplex dipstick assay format was based on an indirect competitive approach: Three test lines (different antigens) and one control line (goat anti-mouse IgG) were located on the strip membrane. Labeled antibodies were freeze-dried in microwells. Samples did not require pretreatment and could be directly analyzed within 10 min. Threshold levels in different sample matrices were visually estimated at 0.3-0.45 ng mL(-1) for clenbuterol; 3-4 ng mL(-1) for sulfadiazine; and 4.5-6 ng mL(-1) for tetracycline, respectively. The linear relationship between the concentrations of veterinary drug residues and the Au nanoparticles plasmon absorbance allowed quantitative determination of these veterinary drug residues. The recoveries of clenbuterol, sulfadiazine and tetracycline in spiked samples ranged from 78.4% to 112.6%, and the relative standard deviations were below 11.2%. Analysis of animal samples suggested that the proposed multiplex dipstick assay method was consistent with the LC-MS/MS method. The percentage of false results was less than or equal to 5%. Thus, the proposed multiplex dipstick assay is inexpensive, easy-to-use, and suitable for the purposes of rapid and comprehensive screening of 3 families of β-agonists, sulfonamides and tetracyclines including 26 drugs in animal body fluids. PMID:27237838

  19. Microspectroscopy of the photosynthetic compartment of algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Valtere; Frassanito, Anna Maria; Passarelli, Vincenzo; Barsanti, Laura; Gualtieri, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    We performed microspectroscopic evaluation of the pigment composition of the photosynthetic compartments of algae belonging to different taxonomic divisions and higher plants. The feasibility of microspectroscopy for discriminating among species and/or phylogenetic groups was tested on laboratory cultures. Gaussian bands decompositions and a fitting algorithm, together with fourth-derivative transformation of absorbance spectra, provided a reliable discrimination among chlorophylls a, b and c, phycobiliproteins and carotenoids. Comparative analysis of absorption spectra highlighted the evolutionary grouping of the algae into three main lineages in accordance with the most recent endosymbiotic theories.

  20. A comparison of ARMS and direct sequencing for EGFR mutation analysis and Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors treatment prediction in body fluid samples of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR mutation is strongly associated with the therapeutic effect of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Nevertheless, tumor tissue that needed for mutation analysis is frequently unavailable. Body fluid was considered to be a feasible substitute for the analysis, but arising problems in clinical practice such as relatively lower mutation rate and poor clinical correlation are not yet fully resolved. Method In this study, 50 patients (32 pleural fluids and 18 plasmas with TKIs therapy experience and with direct sequencing results were selected from 220 patients for further analysis. The EGFR mutation status was re-evaluated by Amplification Refractory Mutation System (ARMS, and the clinical outcomes of TKIs were analyzed retrospectively. Results As compared with direct sequencing, 16 positive and 23 negative patients were confirmed by ARMS, and the other 11 former negative patients (6 pleural fluids and 5 plasmas were redefined as positive, with a fairly well clinical outcome (7 PR, 3 SD, and 1 PD. The objective response rate (ORR of positive patients was significant, 81.3% (direct sequencing and 72.7% (ARMS for pleural fluids, and 80% (ARMS for plasma. Notably, even reclassified by ARMS, the ORR for negative patients was still relatively high, 60% for pleural fluids and 46.2% for plasma. Conclusions When using body fluids for EGFR mutation analysis, positive result is consistently a good indicator for TKIs therapy, and the predictive effect was no less than that of tumor tissue, no matter what method was employed. However, even reclassified by ARMS, the correlation between negative results and clinical outcome of TKIs was still unsatisfied. The results indicated that false negative mutation still existed, which may be settled by using method with sensitivity to single DNA molecule or by optimizing the extraction procedure with RNA or CTC to

  1. Discussion About Disease Syndrome of Qi and Blood and Body Fluid from the Viewpoint of Activities of Qi%从气化论气血津液病证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯双双; 张瑜; 张美玉; 靳冬慧; 阚振棣; 鞠静; 庄园; 蒋璐; 杜武勋

    2016-01-01

    中医学从生理、病因、病理,到辨证、施治,无一不是以气化论为理论根据的,因此,气化论是中医理论体系的真正核心,中医理论本质是气化论.气化作用激发和协调着气、血、津液有形与无形之间的相互变化,维持着各个脏腑官窍的正常活动和机体的整个生命全过程.人体内气、血、津、液的产生、输布、发挥作用等,亦无不有赖于气化.气化有常,则津液流行,气血充盛,五脏安和,疾病不生;气化失常则津液不行,气血衰少,五脏动摇,变生百病;气体终止,则精气竭绝,阴阳离散.在临床上无论治疗气血病证,亦或是津液病证,调理气机、推动气化都是治疗的关键.%All the aspects from physiology,etiology and pathology to therapy based on syndrome differentiation regard theory of activities of qi as theoretical basis,so theory of activities of qi the real core of TCM theory system,and the essence of traditional Chinese medicine theory is theory of activities of qi.Activities of qi stimulate and coordinate the mutual changes between qi and blood and body fluid,maintain the normal activities of viscera and each office and the the body's whole life process.Production,distribution and function of qi and blood and body fluid all depend on activities of qi.The normal activities of qi can make body fluid move smoothly,qi and blood sufficient,the five zang-organs harmonize each other and healthy;Disorder of activities of qi lead to body fluid move unsmoothly,qi and blood insufficient,the five zang-organs in disharmony,and all kinds of diseases;The no movement of qi leads to exhausted essence,yin and yang to separate from each other.In clinical practice,whether treating syndrome of qi-blood disease or syndrome of body fluid,regulating and promoting qi activities are vital.

  2. Speciation of uranium in environmental relevant compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past, the chemistry of uranium was focused on its mining and milling for production of high pure uranium compounds as initial matter of reactor fuel elements for energy production and breeding of plutonium for weapons production. In this sense, the recovery of uranium and plutonium from the used reactor fuel elements was also technical realized. The increasing input of uranium into bio-sphere by mining and milling and industrial processes like production of cement, fossil fuels, and fertilizers has led to the realization of the importance of uranium environmental chemistry. For a better assessment of radiotoxicity and transport along the food chain knowledge about the chemistry of uranium is needed in all involved compartments. Starting from uranium content in geo- and bio-systems, about the determination of chemical behavior - the speciation of uranium - is reported in selected environmental compartments like seepage waters coming from mine tailings, different kinds of bacteria living in uranium contaminated soils, and relevant forage plants growing on these soils. For uranium speciation determination direct non-invasive methods are used like various laser spectroscopic methods, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation source, The results obtained by spectroscopic methods showed that the speciation of uranium is dominated in surface waters by uranyl-carbonate complexes in opposite to the speciation in bacteria and plants. In these compartments the speciation is dominated by binding of uranium on carboxylic and phosphorous containing functional groups. It was shown, that in the investigated systems the speciation strongly depends on different physical chemical parameters like ionic strength, kind and amount of ligands, pH, Eh e.g. In experiments with living organisms it is necessary to characterize the state of the bio-system in dependence of the used parameters to compare the obtained results (ratio of dead or living cells of bacteria

  3. cAMP signalling meets mitochondrial compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefkimmiatis, Konstantinos

    2014-04-01

    Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles comprising at least three distinct areas, the OMM (outer mitochondrial membrane), the IMS (intermembrane space) and the mitochondrial matrix. Physical compartmentalization allows these organelles to host different functional domains and therefore participate in a variety of important cellular actions such as ATP synthesis and programmed cell death. In a surprising homology, it is now widely accepted that the ubiquitous second messenger cAMP uses the same stratagem, compartmentalization, in order to achieve the characteristic functional pleiotropy of its pathway. Accumulating evidence suggests that all the main mitochondrial compartments contain segregated cAMP cascades; however, the regulatory properties and functional significance of such domains are not fully understood and often remain controversial issues. The present mini-review discusses our current knowledge of how the marriage between mitochondrial and cAMP compartmentalization is achieved and its effects on the biology of the cell. PMID:24646228

  4. The Orbital Workshop Waste Management Compartment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    This image is a wide-angle view of the Orbital Workshop waste management compartment. The waste management facilities presented a unique challenge to spacecraft designers. In addition to collection of liquid and solid human wastes, there was a medical requirement to dry all solid human waste products and to return the residue to Earth for examination. Liquid human waste (urine) was frozen for return to Earth. Total quantities of each astronaut's liquid and solid wastes were precisely measured. Cabin air was drawn into the toilet, shown on the wall at right in this photograph, and over the waste products to generate a flow of the waste in the desired direction. The air was then filtered for odor control and antiseptic purposes prior to being discharged back into the cabin.

  5. The upper hand on compartment syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dolan, Roisin T

    2012-11-01

    Metacarpal fractures are common injuries, accounting for approximately 30% to 40% of all hand fractures and with a lifetime incidence of 2.5%. Traditionally regarded as an innocuous injury, metacarpal fractures tend to be associated with successful outcomes after closed reduction and immobilization. Hand compartment syndrome (HCS) is a rare clinical entity with potential devastating consequences in terms of loss of function and quality-of-life outcomes. We discuss the case of a 44-year-old woman presenting with multiple closed metacarpal fractures as a result of low-energy trauma, complicated by acute HCS. We review the presentation, clinical assessment, and optimal surgical management of acute HCS with reference to international literature.

  6. Posterior compartment syndrome associated with clopidogrel therapy following trivial trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Byrne, A‐M; Kearns, S. R.; Kelly, E P

    2006-01-01

    Haematomata caused by blunt trauma may potentially induce a compartment syndrome by raising intra‐compartmental pressure. We report a case of acute posterior compartment syndrome following minimal trauma to the leg of an elderly patient on the antiplatelet agent clopidogrel. This case highlights the high index of clinical suspicion required to detect compartment syndrome in those on long term antiplatelet therapy and prompt surgical decompression is recommended.

  7. 再论腹腔间隙综合征%Reiteration on abdominal compartment syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖光夏

    2008-01-01

    Since we called for the attention of the occurrence of abdominal compartment syndrome in 2002,forty cases of this complication have been recognized and reported by six burn units in this journal,including three cases accompanied with massive pleural effusion(1601~3240 mL).Most cases emerged after"aggressive"fluid resuscitation,especially after massive infusion of crystalloid fluid.The idea"more fluid no harm"should be corrected.The goal of early fluid resuscitation in burn is to correct the hypovolemia and cell hypoxia,and circulating fluid just serves as a carrier in bringing O2 to the cells and carrying out CO2 and other metabolites from tissues.In face of"leaking while infusing",heavy accumulation of fluid in the third spaces may worsen the cell hypoxia.Some of the parameters we get from invasive monitoring systems can be misleading.Now,the trend of overloading should be prevented,and it behaves us to study the regime of lower fluid volume with proper contents in burn shock resuscitation.

  8. Molecular Characterization of Plant Prevacuolar and Endosomal Compartments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Prevacuolar compartments (PVCs) and endosomal compartments are membrane-bound organelles mediating protein traffic to vacuoles in the secretory and endocytic pathways of plant cells. Over the years, great progress has been made towards our understanding in these two compartments in plant cells. In this review, we will summarize our contributions toward the identification and characterization of plant prevacuolar and endosomal compartments. Our studies will serve as important steps in future molecular characterization of PVC biogenesis and PVC-mediated protein trafficking in plant cells.

  9. Effect of Glycerol-Induced Hyperhydration on Body Fluid and Electrolyte Balance in Endurance Athletes during The Course of Treadmill Exercise Performed at 30 °C for 90 minute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Pense

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of glycerol-induced hyperhydration on body fluid and electrolyte balancein endurance athletes during the course of treadmill exercise performed at 30C for 90min. 9 elit level male long-distance runnerwere participated to this study (age: x = 18,7 ±1,3 years, height: x = 170,7±5,2 cm, body weight: x = 58,8±6,6 kg, VO2max:63,94±3,04 ml.kg-1. First, VO2max of the subjects were determined with an incremental treadmill running protocol. In a randomized,double-blind cross over experimental design subjects were tested three times with 3 days intervals (wash out following ingestion of20 ml.kg-1BW of three different mixture of solutions: 1 diluted sports drink with 1.2 gr.kg-1BW glycerol (GS 2 diluted sports drink(SP and 3 aspartame flavored distilled water (WS. Exercise trials were conducted at an exercise intensity of 65% maximal oxygenconsumption (VO2max for 90 min at 30±1.8C and 25-35% relative humidity. Blood and urin samples were collected pre and postfluid ingestion, at the 30th, 60th and 90th min of exercise trials to determine body fluid and electrolyte balance. Data were analyzedusing two-way (treatmentxtime analyses of variance (ANOVA. Significance level was defined as p0.05. Inconclusion, glycerol-induced hyperhydration has no advantage compared to the other solutions ingested on body fluid andelectrolyte balance in endurance athletes during 90 min of treadmill run.

  10. Engrailed: a gene controlling compartment and segment formation in Drosophila.

    OpenAIRE

    Kornberg, T

    1981-01-01

    A total of 58 mutations at the engrailed locus were isolated. Analysis suggests that this genetic locus is necessary for survival but required only in the cells of the posterior compartments. Inactivation of the engrailed locus renders the animal incapable of maintaining the separation between the groups of cells that constitute either the compartments that subdivide each segment or the individual segments themselves.

  11. 14 CFR 91.613 - Materials for compartment interiors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Materials for compartment interiors. 91.613 Section 91.613 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... compartment interiors. (a) No person may operate an airplane that conforms to an amended or supplemental...

  12. Mannitol extravasation during partial nephrectomy leading to forearm compartment syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley A. Erickson

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available We present the first known complication of forearm compartment syndrome after mannitol infusion during partial nephrectomy. We stress the importance of excellent intravenous catheter access and constant visual monitoring of the intravenous catheter site during and after mannitol infusion as ways to prevent this complication. Prompt recognition of compartment syndrome with appropriate intervention can prevent long-term sequelae.

  13. 46 CFR 169.625 - Compartments containing diesel machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel machinery. 169.625... SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.625 Compartments containing diesel machinery. (a) Spaces containing machinery must be fitted with adequate dripproof ventilators, trunks,...

  14. 49 CFR 179.200-9 - Compartment tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartment tanks. 179.200-9 Section 179.200-9... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.200-9 Compartment tanks....

  15. 49 CFR 179.220-9 - Compartment tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartment tanks. 179.220-9 Section 179.220-9... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.220-9 Compartment tanks....

  16. Acute leg compartment syndrome after exertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mišović Sidor

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of a 22-year old soldier, with a history of pain in the leg during heavy exercise, which desisted at rest, was presented. One day before admission, the patient had felt an extreme exertion-induced pain in his right leg which had not lessened at rest. At the same time, the patient noticed persistent severe leg edema. On physical examination, the intracompartmental pressure was 62 mmHg (>30 mmHg. The patient was urgently operated on, and fasciotomy according to Mubarak was used. At second surgery, the debridement of the muscles of the posterior group of the leg, and the evacuation of hemathoma from the anterior and lateral group of the right leg muscles were perfomed. Postoperative recovery was uneventful. Fasciotomy wounds were closed within 14 days of the surgery. The complete physical treatment was done. Follow-up examinations 1, 3, and 6 months afterwards were satisfactory. The soldier completed his compulsory military service without any sequelae. Laboratory results were normal. Overlooked, unrecognized or surgically untreated compartment syndrome can cause severe damage, including even the loss of the extremity.

  17. A Branch-and-Price Algorithm for Two Multi-Compartment Vehicle Routing Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirzaei, Samira; Wøhlk, Sanne

    2016-01-01

    Despite the vast body of literature on vehicle routing problems, little attention has been paid to multi-compartment vehicle routing problems that investigate transportation of different commodities on the same vehicle, but in different compartments. In this project, we present two strategically...... different versions of the MCVRP in general settings. In the first version, different commodities may be delivered to the customer by different vehicles, but the full amount of each product must be delivered by a single vehicle. In the second version, each customer may only be serviced by a single vehicle......, which must deliver the full amount of all commodities demanded by that customer. We present a Branch-and-Price algorithm for solving the two versions of the problem to optimality and we analyze the effect of the strategic decision of whether or not to allow multiple visits to the same customer...

  18. Evaluation of the grand-canonical partition function using expanded Wang-Landau simulations. IV. Performance of many-body force fields and tight-binding schemes for the fluid phases of silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desgranges, Caroline; Delhommelle, Jerome

    2016-03-28

    We extend Expanded Wang-Landau (EWL) simulations beyond classical systems and develop the EWL method for systems modeled with a tight-binding Hamiltonian. We then apply the method to determine the partition function and thus all thermodynamic properties, including the Gibbs free energy and entropy, of the fluid phases of Si. We compare the results from quantum many-body (QMB) tight binding models, which explicitly calculate the overlap between the atomic orbitals of neighboring atoms, to those obtained with classical many-body (CMB) force fields, which allow to recover the tetrahedral organization in condensed phases of Si through, e.g., a repulsive 3-body term that favors the ideal tetrahedral angle. Along the vapor-liquid coexistence, between 3000 K and 6000 K, the densities for the two coexisting phases are found to vary significantly (by 5 orders of magnitude for the vapor and by up to 25% for the liquid) and to provide a stringent test of the models. Transitions from vapor to liquid are predicted to occur for chemical potentials that are 10%-15% higher for CMB models than for QMB models, and a ranking of the force fields is provided by comparing the predictions for the vapor pressure to the experimental data. QMB models also reveal the formation of a gap in the electronic density of states of the coexisting liquid at high temperatures. Subjecting Si to a nanoscopic confinement has a dramatic effect on the phase diagram with, e.g. at 6000 K, a decrease in liquid densities by about 50% for both CMB and QMB models and an increase in vapor densities between 90% (CMB) and 170% (QMB). The results presented here provide a full picture of the impact of the strategy (CMB or QMB) chosen to model many-body effects on the thermodynamic properties of the fluid phases of Si.

  19. Disposable reversed-phase chromatography columns for improved detection of carboxylic acids in body fluids by electron-capture gas-liquid chromatography.

    OpenAIRE

    Daneshvar, M. I.; Brooks, J B; Winstead, R M

    1987-01-01

    Disposable reversed-phase chromatography columns were tested for their effectiveness in removing unreacted trichloroethanol (TCE) from derivatized samples for gas-liquid chromatography analysis. Derivatized acidic chloroform extracts of saponified whole cells of Mycobacterium species, spent culture media, and derivatized acidic chloroform extracts of serum and cerebrospinal fluids from patients with tuberculous meningitis were tested. Samples were added to preconditioned reversed-phase chroma...

  20. 2010年中国CHINET临床分离自无菌体液的细菌分布和耐药性监测%CHINET 2010 surveillance of bacterial distribution and resistance in sterile body fluids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小江; 陈中举; 胡云建; 艾效曼; 张泓; 孔菁; 贾蓓; 黄文祥; 王传清; 王爱敏; 魏莲花; 徐英春; 吴玲; 卓超; 苏丹虹; 张朝霞; 季萍; 徐元宏; 沈继录; 单斌; 杜艳; 俞云松; 杨青; 汪复; 朱德妹; 倪语星; 孙景勇; 孙自镛

    2012-01-01

    临床治疗造成严重威胁.%Objective To investigate the distribution and antimicrobial resistance of the bacteria isolated from cerebrospi-nal fluid and other sterile body fluids from hospitals in several regions of China. Methods Twelve general hospitals and two children's hospitals were involved in this program. Disc diffusion test (Kirby-Bauer method), E-test and MIC determination were employed to study the antimicrobial resistance. The data were analyzed by WHONET 5. 4 software according to CLSI 2010 breakpoints. Results A total of 2 409 nonduplicate clinical isolates were collected from January to December in 2010, of which gram negative organisms and gram positive cocci accounted for 56.2% (1 353/2 409) and 43. 8% (1 056/2 409), respectively. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS), B. baumannii, K, pneumoniae, S. aureus and E. coli were the most common bacterial species in cerebrospinal fluid. E. coli, CNS, E. faecium, K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa were the most frequently isolated species from other sterile body fluids. About 78.6% and 69,7% of the S. aureus and CNS isolates from cerebrospinal fluid were methicillin resistant, respectively, while 60. 3% and 67. 2% of the S. aureus and CNS strains from other sterile body fluids were methicillin resistant, respectively. No staphylococcal strain was found resistant to vancomycin, teicoplanin or linezolid. None of the enterococcal strains from cerebro-spinal fluid was resistant to vancomycin. A total of 17 E. faecium strains from other sterile body fluid were found resistant to vancomycin. ESBLs-producing strains accounted for 62. 5% and 30. 0% in the E. coli and Klebsiella (K. pneumoniae, K. oxytoca) isolates from cerebrospinal fluid , respectively. About 50. 4% and 27. 3% of the E. coli and Klebsiella (K. pneumoniae , K. oxytoca) isolated from other sterile body fluid were ESBLs-producing strains. Pan-resist ant strains were identified in the A. baumannii (n=10, 18. 2%), K. pneumoniae (n = 8, 27. 6%) and P. aeruginosa {n= 1, 7. 7

  1. Antepartum to postpartum changes in transcapillary fluid balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bungum, L; Tollan, A; Oian, P

    1990-09-01

    During the puerperium significant changes occur in the body volume homeostasis. In the present study the transcapillary fluid balance was examined antepartum in nine healthy women. The interstitial colloid osmotic pressure was measured by the 'wick' method, and interstitial hydrostatic pressure by the 'wick-in-needle' method in subcutaneous tissue on the thorax and at the ankle. From antepartum (gestational week 37-40) to postpartum (5th day), the following changes were observed: A significant increase in the colloid osmotic pressure both in plasma (mean 1.8 mmHg, P = 0.027) and in the interstitial fluid at the ankle (mean 2.9 mmHg, P = 0.008). Neither colloid osmotic pressure gradient (plasma-interstitium), interstitial hydrostatic pressure, nor haemoglobin and haematocrit changed. The observed rise in the interstitial colloid osmotic pressure must be caused by mobilization of fluid from the interstitium, probably due to a reduced capillary hydrostatic pressure. The increase in plasma colloid osmotic pressure is most likely caused by an increased albumin synthesis and/or transport of interstitial proteins back to the vascular compartment.

  2. Stochastic Turing Patterns: Analysis of Compartment-Based Approaches

    KAUST Repository

    Cao, Yang

    2014-11-25

    © 2014, Society for Mathematical Biology. Turing patterns can be observed in reaction-diffusion systems where chemical species have different diffusion constants. In recent years, several studies investigated the effects of noise on Turing patterns and showed that the parameter regimes, for which stochastic Turing patterns are observed, can be larger than the parameter regimes predicted by deterministic models, which are written in terms of partial differential equations (PDEs) for species concentrations. A common stochastic reaction-diffusion approach is written in terms of compartment-based (lattice-based) models, where the domain of interest is divided into artificial compartments and the number of molecules in each compartment is simulated. In this paper, the dependence of stochastic Turing patterns on the compartment size is investigated. It has previously been shown (for relatively simpler systems) that a modeler should not choose compartment sizes which are too small or too large, and that the optimal compartment size depends on the diffusion constant. Taking these results into account, we propose and study a compartment-based model of Turing patterns where each chemical species is described using a different set of compartments. It is shown that the parameter regions where spatial patterns form are different from the regions obtained by classical deterministic PDE-based models, but they are also different from the results obtained for the stochastic reaction-diffusion models which use a single set of compartments for all chemical species. In particular, it is argued that some previously reported results on the effect of noise on Turing patterns in biological systems need to be reinterpreted.

  3. Studies on the fluid balance of the calf. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volumes, biological half-life values, and transfer rates of the fluid compartments of whole-body water and extracellular space were recorded from 37 clinically intact calves, aged between two days and six weeks, as well as from 50 animals with diarrhea, aged between four days and six weeks. The effect of infusion on fluid spaces of calves with diarrhea was also investigated. Transfer rates of whole-body water and extracellular space were 4.6 ml or 1.5 mlkg-1hr-1 for calves aged two weeks and were 6.2 ml or 1.8 mlkg-1hr-1 for animals between five and six weeks of age. Diarrhea in young calves was found to increase the transfer rate of whole-body water to 6.3 mlkg-1hr-1 (137 per cent) in surviving individuals or to 12.1 mlkg-1hr-1 (263 per cent) in those individuals which died within two days. The transfer rates for extracellular space increased even more clearly to 2.4 mlkg-1hr-1 (160 per cent) in survivors and to 7.4 mlkg-1hr-1 (493 per cent) in dying calves. The reduced volumes of fluid spaces were largely normalized at least by the end of infusion in calves with moderate to severe diarrhea which received intravenous applications of 1.0 l or 1.5 l of an electrolyte-glucose solution. The calves thus treated still exhibited, however, clearly increased transfer rates for???

  4. Bromide space, total body water, and sick cell syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schober, O.; Hundeshagen, H.; Lehr, L.

    1982-01-01

    Displacements of the bromide space (Br-82-C, as a marker for the extracellular fluid compartment) are caused by an enhanced anatomical space and/or increased permeability of cells to bromide. The ratio Br-82-C: total body water (TBW) was evaluated to be 0.83 +- 0.17 in critically ill patients (n = 38) compared with the normal value of 0.46 +- 0.04 (n = 10). Because of normal TBW in critically ill patients (TBW = 505 +- 68 ml/kg), an increased bromide penetration into cells seems to be responsible for the enlarged ratio Br-82-C: TBW. Taking into consideration measurements in patients with malabsorption (Br-82-C: TBW = 0.56 +- 0.13; n = 13) and carcinoma of the rectum and colon (Br-82-C: TBW = 0.66 +- 0.24; n = 18) we think that the bromide space is a good measurement of the effective extracellular water.

  5. Condensation within small compartments during design basis accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grgic, D.; Cavlina, N. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, University of Zagreb, Unska 3, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); ANTOLOVIc, A. [NPP Krsko, Engineering Department, Vrbina 12, 8270 Krsko (Slovenia)

    2010-07-01

    During design basis events (LOCA, MSLB) in containment exists possibility for additional condensation within compartments and enclosures with different electrical equipment that can result in submergence of its parts and possible malfunction. The condensation within limit switch compartments (valve actuators) and attached electrical conduits during limiting LOCA and MSLB accidents in containment was analyzed using Gothic computer code with the assumptions corresponding to the ones used to generate containment EQ profiles for thermalhydraulic EQ parameters. The outcome of the analysis is volume of the liquid within the compartment and corresponding liquid level before and after additions of bottom openings (T-drains) required to drain condensed liquid. Different compartment sizes were analyzed during different LOCA and MSLB scenarios. After addition of bottom openings maximum possible condensed liquid level can not cause actuator malfunction. (authors)

  6. Forests and Forest Cover - Ozark National Forest Service Compartments (polygon)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Ozark - St. Francis National Forests stand inventory data for vegetation, maintained in polygon format. Compartment is defined as a division of forest for purposes...

  7. Abdominal compartment syndrome successfully treated with neuromuscular blockade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris T Chiles

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 48 year old male admitted to the intensive care unit after a cardiac arrest complicated by a stroke intra-operatively during automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator placement. He post-operatively developed a rigid abdomen, elevated peak and plateau pressures, hypoxia and renal insufficiency. He was diagnosed with abdominal compartment syndrome with an intra-abdominal compartment pressure of 40mmHg. The patient was administered 10 mg of intravenous cisatracuriumbesylate in preparation for bedside surgical abdominal decompression. Cisatracurium eliminated the patients need for surgical intervention by reducing his abdominal compartment pressures to normal and improving his hypoxia and renal function. This case illustrates that neuromuscular blockade should be attempted in patients with abdominal compartment syndrome prior to surgical intervention.

  8. The Origin, Function and Diagnostic Potential of Extracellular microRNA in Human Body Fluids%人体体液中细胞外microRNA的起源、功能及潜在诊疗价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张甦洋; 谢佳昀; 梁宏伟; 陈熹; 张辰宇

    2013-01-01

    Recently,numerous studies have documented the importance of microRNAs (miRNAs) as an essential cornerstone of the genetic system.Once thought as unstable RNA molecules,miRNAs are now known to circulate in the bloodstream and other body fluids in a stable,cell-free form.Importantly,extracellular miRNAs are aberrantly present in plasma,serum and other body fluids during the pathogenesis of many diseases and,thus,are promising noninvasive or minimally invasive biomarkers to assess the pathological status of the body.However,the origin and biological function of extracellular miRNAs remains incompletely understood.In this review,we summarize the recent literature on the biogenesis and working models of extracellular miRNAs,and we highlight the impact of extending these ongoing extracellular miRNA studies to clinical applications.%最近大量的研究表明micro RNAs(miRNAs)是一类重要的调控因子.曾经被认为是非常不稳定的RNA分子——miRNA,却可以稳定存在于血液和其他体液中.更加重要的是,细胞外miRNAs被发现和多种疾病密切相关,它们可以作为诸如肿瘤等各种疾病的非侵入性生物标志物.然而,目前关于细胞外miRNA的来源以及生物学功能还不甚清楚.本文将总结最近细胞外miRNA的研究进展,并将重点介绍细胞外miRNA在疾病诊断及治疗中的作用.

  9. Simulation research on fluid field of limited space around the human body%有限空间人体周围流场的仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡志刚; 崔红力; 管小荣; 张庆华

    2011-01-01

    As an important content of the research and development of personal health care robot, the contact area, speed and pressure between human skin and circulating water during the process of bath should be taken into consideration, since these parameters have significant impact on the bathing effect. To enhance the effect of auto-bathing and provide research basis for structural design of bath and control strategy of circulating water, the CFD model of the limited space and human body was established based on the statistically significant human size. According to the cycling approach of water flow, and the geometric boundary conditions of bath and human body, the flow field around human body in the bath was dispersed, refining the grid of the flow field around human body. The numerical simulation and computation of three-dimensional flow field, the velocity distribution near the surface of human body and the intake of trace chart under different cycling modes were achieved. The numerical solution of the changing flow field around human body in time and space quantitatively was given, providing reference for structural optimization design and the bathing mode research.%作为个人卫生护理机器人研发的重要内容,在洗浴过程中必须考虑人体皮肤与循环水流的接触面积、速度和压力,因为这些参数对洗浴效果影响较大.为提高自动洗浴效果,为浴槽结构设计和循环水自动控制策略提供研究依据,基于统计意义上的人体尺寸,建立了有限空间和人体的CFD模型.结合水流的循环方式、浴槽和人体的几何边界条件,对浴槽内人体周围的流场进行离散,细化接近人体周围的流场网格.对三维流场进行数值模拟计算,计算出水流不同循环模式作用下,人体近表面的速度分布及各循环模式下进水口的迹线图,在时间和空间上定量给出浴槽内人体周围流场变化的数值解,为结构优化设计和洗浴模式研究提供参考.

  10. 3D architecture modeling of reservoir compartments in a Shingled Turbidite Reservoir using high-resolution seismic data and sparse well control, example from Mars {open_quotes}Pink{close_quotes} reservoir, Mississippi Canyon Area, Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapin, M.A.; Mahaffie, M.J.; Tiller, G.M. [Shell Exploration and Production Technology Co., Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Economics of most deep-water development projects require large reservoir volumes to be drained with relatively few wells. The presence of reservoir compartments must therefore be detected and planned for in a pre-development stage. We have used 3-D seismic data to constrain large-scale, deterministic reservoir bodies in a 3-D architecture model of Pliocene-turbidite sands of the {open_quotes}E{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}Pink{close_quotes} reservoir, Prospect Mars, Mississippi Canyon Areas 763 and 807, Gulf of Mexico. Reservoir compartmentalization is influenced by stratigraphic shingling, which in turn is caused by low accommodation space predentin the upper portion of a ponded seismic sequence within a salt withdrawal mini-basin. The accumulation is limited by updip onlap onto a condensed section marl, and by lateral truncation by a large scale submarine erosion surface. Compartments were suggested by RFT pressure variations and by geochemical analysis of RFT fluid samples. A geological interpretation derived from high-resolution 3-D seismic and three wells was linked to 3-D architecture models through seismic inversion, resulting in a reservoir all available data. Distinguishing subtle stratigraphical shingles from faults was accomplished by detailed, loop-level mapping, and was important to characterize the different types of reservoir compartments. Seismic inversion was used to detune the seismic amplitude, adjust sandbody thickness, and update the rock properties. Recent development wells confirm the architectural style identified. This modeling project illustrates how high-quality seismic data and architecture models can be combined in a pre-development phase of a prospect, in order to optimize well placement.

  11. 3D architecture modeling of reservoir compartments in a Shingled Turbidite Reservoir using high-resolution seismic data and sparse well control, example from Mars [open quotes]Pink[close quotes] reservoir, Mississippi Canyon Area, Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapin, M.A.; Mahaffie, M.J.; Tiller, G.M. (Shell Exploration and Production Technology Co., Houston, TX (United States))

    1996-01-01

    Economics of most deep-water development projects require large reservoir volumes to be drained with relatively few wells. The presence of reservoir compartments must therefore be detected and planned for in a pre-development stage. We have used 3-D seismic data to constrain large-scale, deterministic reservoir bodies in a 3-D architecture model of Pliocene-turbidite sands of the [open quotes]E[close quotes] or [open quotes]Pink[close quotes] reservoir, Prospect Mars, Mississippi Canyon Areas 763 and 807, Gulf of Mexico. Reservoir compartmentalization is influenced by stratigraphic shingling, which in turn is caused by low accommodation space predentin the upper portion of a ponded seismic sequence within a salt withdrawal mini-basin. The accumulation is limited by updip onlap onto a condensed section marl, and by lateral truncation by a large scale submarine erosion surface. Compartments were suggested by RFT pressure variations and by geochemical analysis of RFT fluid samples. A geological interpretation derived from high-resolution 3-D seismic and three wells was linked to 3-D architecture models through seismic inversion, resulting in a reservoir all available data. Distinguishing subtle stratigraphical shingles from faults was accomplished by detailed, loop-level mapping, and was important to characterize the different types of reservoir compartments. Seismic inversion was used to detune the seismic amplitude, adjust sandbody thickness, and update the rock properties. Recent development wells confirm the architectural style identified. This modeling project illustrates how high-quality seismic data and architecture models can be combined in a pre-development phase of a prospect, in order to optimize well placement.

  12. Compartment syndrome and popliteal vascular injury complicating unicompartmental knee arthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Kort, Nanne Pieter; Van Raay, Jos J. J. A. M.; van Horn, Jim R.

    2007-01-01

    Popliteal vascular injury and the compartment syndrome of the leg are rare but important complications of knee arthroplasties. Early diagnosis and treatment are of paramount importance in preventing the devastating complications of these conditions. To our knowledge, these complications have not been reported previously after unicompartmental knee arthroplasty in the literature. Low level of suspicion may delay the diagnosis, as popliteal vascular injury and compartment syndrome are not well ...

  13. Medial compartment disease in a young Large Munsterlander

    OpenAIRE

    Coppieters, Eva; Samoy, Yves; Pey, Pascaline; Waelbers, Tim; Van Ryssen, Bernadette

    2012-01-01

    Medial compartment disease (MCD) is a recently recognized elbow disorder in dogs and refers to extensive cartilage erosions of the medial compartment of the elbow joint. This report describes a case of MCD in a 10-month-old Large Munsterlander that was presented with right frontleg lameness. Based on signalement, history and radiographic examination, there was a strong suspicion of a fragmented coronoid process (FCP) of the right elbow. However, arthroscopic examination revealed extensive car...

  14. Contralateral compartment syndrome inoculated by invasive group A streptococcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiwen Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Compartment syndrome is a rare but a well-documented complication in patients with trauma-induced group A streptococcus infection. Here, we present a case of a male who developed compartment syndrome on the left lower extremity after an injury inoculated by group A streptococcus on the right lower extremity. The patient was resuscitated with antibiotics, urgent fasciotomy, and immunoglobulin. The patient was eventually transferred to a burn center for further care.

  15. The ultrasound guided psoas-compartment-block fundamentals and technique for a new regional anaesthetic procedure

    CERN Document Server

    Kirchmair, L P M

    2001-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) has proven to be an useful adjunct during the performance of peripheral nerve blocks. This study is the first dealing with the application of US guidance for the psoas-compartment-block which is used to achieve lumbar plexus blockades. A pilot study was carried out to establish the US anatomy of the lumbar paravertebral region and its blood vessels. Moreover, suitable transducers and US frequencies were assessed. The feasibility of US imaging of the psoas-compartment was studied on healthy volunteers (N=21) of varying body types (normal weight: N= 13; overweight: N=5; obese: N=3) in a first volunteer study. Additionally, the skin-plexus distances were measured. A second volunteer study (N=21) was carried out to investigate the US anatomy of the paravertebral blood vessels by means of power Doppler sonography. The technique of an US guided approach to the psoas-compartment was tested on embalmed cadavers (N=10) at the levels L2/L3, L3/L4 and L4/L5. Accuracy and safety of this technique were ver...

  16. Compartment model DETRA for Windows; Kompartmenttimalli DETRA Windows-kaeyttoeympaeristoeae varten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suolanen, V.; Ilvonen, M. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-03-01

    The computer code DETRA is a generic tool for environmental transfer analyses of radioactive or stable substances. The code has been applied for various purposes, mainly problems related to the biospheric transfer of radionuclides both in safety analyses of disposal of nuclear wastes and in consideration of foodchain exposure pathways in the analyses of off-site consequences of reactor accidents. The first computer code version for Windows interface environment of the modernized DETRA compartment model is developed in the study. As the model needs quite a large number of input data for specifying a calculation case, different segments of the input file (nuclide chains, compartments, time grid, source term, initial values, applications for multi-sequence calculations, printout specifications) are presented in their own window displays. The basic character of the code allows the user to specify the compartment model structure suitable for each considered environmental transport problem individually. The transport of radionuclides can be considered in several cases: water courses and related food chains, soil surface layers, food chains and general food stuffs, body burden analyses, etc. The pre-fined and saved input files for different areas of environmental, transport problems are also available for the user. The starting point for the analysis can be deposition on ground, or source term of radionuclides from e.g. surface soil into a recipient can be considered by the code as well.

  17. Structure and thermodynamics of a mixture of patchy and spherical colloids: a multi-body association theory with complete reference fluid information

    CERN Document Server

    Bansal, Artee; Cox, Kenneth R; Chapman, Walter G

    2016-01-01

    A mixture of solvent particles with short-range, directional interactions and solute particles with short-range, isotropic interactions that can bond multiple times is of fundamental interest in understanding liquids and colloidal mixtures. Because of multi-body correlations predicting the structure and thermodynamics of such systems remains a challenge. Earlier Marshall and Chapman developed a theory wherein association effects due to interactions multiply the partition function for clustering of particles in a reference hard-sphere system. The multi-body effects are incorporated in the clustering process, which in their work was obtained in the absence of the bulk medium. The bulk solvent effects were then modeled approximately within a second order perturbation approach. However, their approach is inadequate at high densities and for large association strengths. Based on the idea that the clustering of solvent in a defined coordination volume around the solute is related to occupancy statistics in that def...

  18. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE OXIGEN MAXIMUM INTAKE ADAPTATION LEVEL FOR THE TWO COMPARTMENTS IN THE RUGBY TEAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oprean A.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE – this study approaches the level of the adaptive variations of the VO2 max level, by the body mass and the thoracic elasticity in the rugby-specific effort. Through this study, we aim to underline the particularities of the different lung capacity depending on game compartments and posts. We also aim to emphasize on the need to particularize physical training. HYPOTHESIS – We assume that the forwards present a better lung capacity compared to those in the three-quarter line, directly related to the field spaces covered by the two compartments during the game.METHODS – The study took place during the 2009–2010 championship season, and it included 32 players, members of the “Stejarii Bucureşti” team. The players of this team are aged between 19 and 28 and they all have at least 5 years of experience in rugby. The morpho-functional measurements have consisted of the following:thoracic elasticity, oxygen maximum intake , oxygen maximum intake by body mass. CONCLUSIONS – Among the conclusions, we underline that, though the thoracic elasticity is in the optimal adjustment range for both player compartments, the VO2 max of the players tested is satisfying for the players in the ¾ line, while regarding the forward compartment, the values are below those obtained in similar studies within elitist rugby.

  19. Use of sodC versus ctrA for real-time polymerase chain reaction-based detection of Neisseria meningitidis in sterile body fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Takenori Higa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the use of a newly described sodC-based real-time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay for detecting Neisseria meningitidis in normally sterile sites, such as cerebrospinal fluid and serum. The sodC-based RT-PCR assay has an advantage over ctrA for detecting nongroupable N. meningitidis isolates, which are commonly present in asymptomatic pharyngeal carriage. However, in our study, sodC-based RT-PCR was 7.5% less sensitive than ctrA. Given the public health impact of possible false-negative results due to the use of the sodC target gene alone, sodC-based RT-PCR for the diagnosis of meningococcal meningitis should be used with caution.

  20. Validation of Anthropometric Indices of Adiposity against Whole-Body Magnetic Resonance Imaging – A Study within the German European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Cohorts

    OpenAIRE

    Neamat-Allah, Jasmine; Wald, Diana; Hüsing, Anika; Teucher, Birgit; Wendt, Andrea; Delorme, Stefan; Dinkel, Julien; Vigl, Matthaeus; Manuela M Bergmann; Feller, Silke; Hierholzer, Johannes; Boeing, Heiner; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    Background In epidemiological studies, measures of body fat generally are obtained through anthropometric indices such as the body mass index (BMI), waist (WC), and hip circumferences (HC). Such indices, however, can only provide estimates of a person’s true body fat content, overall or by adipose compartment, and may have limited accuracy, especially for the visceral adipose compartment (VAT). Objective To determine the extent to which different body adipose tissue compartments are adequatel...

  1. Water renewal in Montevideo's bay: a two compartments model for tritium kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez-Antola, Roberto, E-mail: rsuarez@ucu.edu.uy [Universidad Catolica del Uruguay (UCU), Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2013-07-01

    During field work about dynamics and renewal of water in Montevideo's Bay, 100 Ci of tritiated water were evenly distributed in the north-east region of the bay, by a continuous injection of a solution, during 5 hours, from a 200 litres tank, using a peristaltic pump. The whole bay was divided in 20 concentration cells, taking into account available bathymetric charts and corrections from field data obtained in situ. Tritium concentrations (activities per unit volume) and other relevant parameters (temperature, electrical conductivity, etc.) were measured in vertical profiles during three weeks, in the mid-point of each cell, first twice a day and the on a daily basis. Remnant total tritium activity was estimated from cells volumes and midpoint cells activity concentrations. Consistency checks were done. A one compartment model was used to estimate a global renewal time of circa 29 hours. However, the details of the measured tritium kinetics, a careful consideration of bathymetric data, water movements in a tidal environment (measured with drogues, fluorescent tracers and current meters), as well as the results of computer fluid dynamics modelling (in depth averaged) suggests that the bay can be meaningfully divided in two main compartments: a North-East and a South-West compartment. The purpose of this paper is threefold: (1) to describe the construction of a two compartments model for water renewal in Montevideo's Bay, (2) to apply experimental data of tritium kinetics to estimate the parameters of the model, and (3) to discuss the validity of the model and its practical applicability. The meaning of the renewal time of each compartment and its relation with the measured tritium kinetics in each cell is discussed. The perturbations in water circulation and renewal produced by civil works already done or the perturbations that could be expected due to civil works to be done, in relation with Montevideo's harbour, is discussed. The tracer model

  2. Structure and thermodynamics of a mixture of patchy and spherical colloids: A multi-body association theory with complete reference fluid information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Artee; Asthagiri, D; Cox, Kenneth R; Chapman, Walter G

    2016-08-21

    A mixture of solvent particles with short-range, directional interactions and solute particles with short-range, isotropic interactions that can bond multiple times is of fundamental interest in understanding liquids and colloidal mixtures. Because of multi-body correlations, predicting the structure and thermodynamics of such systems remains a challenge. Earlier Marshall and Chapman [J. Chem. Phys. 139, 104904 (2013)] developed a theory wherein association effects due to interactions multiply the partition function for clustering of particles in a reference hard-sphere system. The multi-body effects are incorporated in the clustering process, which in their work was obtained in the absence of the bulk medium. The bulk solvent effects were then modeled approximately within a second order perturbation approach. However, their approach is inadequate at high densities and for large association strengths. Based on the idea that the clustering of solvent in a defined coordination volume around the solute is related to occupancy statistics in that defined coordination volume, we develop an approach to incorporate the complete information about hard-sphere clustering in a bulk solvent at the density of interest. The occupancy probabilities are obtained from enhanced sampling simulations but we also develop a concise parametric form to model these probabilities using the quasichemical theory of solutions. We show that incorporating the complete reference information results in an approach that can predict the bonding state and thermodynamics of the colloidal solute for a wide range of system conditions.

  3. Computational fluid dynamic studies of certain ducted bluff-body flowfields relevant to turbojet combustors. Volume 2: Time-averaged flowfield predictions for a proposed centerbody combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, M. S.; Krishnamurthy, L.

    1986-07-01

    The near-wake region in a ducted bluff-body combustor was investigated by finite-difference computations. The numerical predictions are based upon the time-independent, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations and the k-epsilon turbulence model. The steady-state calculations address both nonreacting and reacting flowfields in a novel configuration to more realistically simulate some of the essential features of the primary zone of a gas turbine combustion chamber. This configuration is characterized by turbulent mixing and combustion in the recirculating near-wake region downstream of an axisymmetric bluff body due to two annular air streams--an outer swirl-free flow and an inner swirling flow--and a central fuel jet. The latter contains propane for reacting flows and carbon dioxide for nonreacting flows. In view of the large number of geometrical and flow parameters involved, the reported results are concerned with only a limited parametric examination with the major emphasis being on nonreacting flows. Questions addressed for a particular set of geometric parameters include the effects of variation of mass flow rates in all three streams and the influence of swirl in the middle stream. Reacting computations investigate the influence of swirl on combustion, as well as that of combustion on the flowfield.

  4. Structure and thermodynamics of a mixture of patchy and spherical colloids: A multi-body association theory with complete reference fluid information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Artee; Asthagiri, D.; Cox, Kenneth R.; Chapman, Walter G.

    2016-08-01

    A mixture of solvent particles with short-range, directional interactions and solute particles with short-range, isotropic interactions that can bond multiple times is of fundamental interest in understanding liquids and colloidal mixtures. Because of multi-body correlations, predicting the structure and thermodynamics of such systems remains a challenge. Earlier Marshall and Chapman [J. Chem. Phys. 139, 104904 (2013)] developed a theory wherein association effects due to interactions multiply the partition function for clustering of particles in a reference hard-sphere system. The multi-body effects are incorporated in the clustering process, which in their work was obtained in the absence of the bulk medium. The bulk solvent effects were then modeled approximately within a second order perturbation approach. However, their approach is inadequate at high densities and for large association strengths. Based on the idea that the clustering of solvent in a defined coordination volume around the solute is related to occupancy statistics in that defined coordination volume, we develop an approach to incorporate the complete information about hard-sphere clustering in a bulk solvent at the density of interest. The occupancy probabilities are obtained from enhanced sampling simulations but we also develop a concise parametric form to model these probabilities using the quasichemical theory of solutions. We show that incorporating the complete reference information results in an approach that can predict the bonding state and thermodynamics of the colloidal solute for a wide range of system conditions.

  5. 不同体液中微小RNA在肿瘤诊断中的应用%The diagnostic applications of different body-fluid microRNAs in tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢子钧; 李子俊

    2012-01-01

    微小RNA(miRNA)与肿瘤的发生、发展及疾病的临床进程密切相关.检测人体各种体液中的miRNA如血液、胰液、痰液、唾液、尿液等的水平变化,对于肿瘤的分级、分期、早期诊断、预后预测和药物疗效评估均有一定作用.%MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are closely associated with cancer initiation,development and clinical progression.Detecting miRNA levels in different body fluids,such as sputum,pancreatic juice,saliva,urine,blood and so on,may play some roles in cancer classification,staging,early diagnosis,prognostic prediction and drug efficacy evaluation.

  6. Numerical modelling of crural fascia mechanical interaction with muscular compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavan, Piero G; Pachera, Paola; Natali, Arturo N

    2015-05-01

    The interaction of the crural fascia with muscular compartments and surrounding tissues can be at the origin of different pathologies, such as compartment syndrome. This pathology consists in the onset of excessive intracompartmental pressure, which can have serious consequences for the patient, compromising blood circulation. The investigation of compartment syndrome etiology also takes into account the alteration of crural fascia mechanical properties as a cause of the syndrome, where the fascial stiffening would result in the rise of intracompartmental pressure. This work presents a computational approach toward evaluating some biomechanical aspects of the problem, within the context of a more global viewpoint. Finite element analyses of the interaction phenomena of the crural fascia with adjacent regions are reported here. This study includes the effects of a fascial stiffness increase along the proximal-distal direction and their possible clinical implications. Furthermore, the relationship between different pre-strain levels of the crural fascia in the proximal-distal direction and the rise of internal pressure in muscular compartments are considered. The numerical analyses can clarify which aspects could be directly implied in the rise of compartment syndrome, leading to greater insight into muscle-fascia mechanical phenomena, as well as promoting experimental investigation and clinical analysis of the syndrome.

  7. Nutritional assessment by isotope dilution analysis of body composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The three components of body mass, body cell mass (BCM), extracellular fluid (ECF), and fat + extracellular solids (ECS: bone, tendon, etc) can be quantified using established isotope dilution techniques. With these techniques, total body water (TBW) and ECF are measured using 3H2O and 82Bromine, respectively, as tracers. BCM is calculated from intracellular fluid (ICF) where ICF . TBW - ECF. Fat + ECS is estimated as: body weight - (BCM + ECF). TBW and ECF can be determined by either of two calculation methods, one requiring several timed plasma samples (extrapolation method) and one requiring a single plasma sample and a 4-h urine collection (urine-corrected method). The comparability of the two calculation methods was evaluated in 20 studies in 12 bone marrow transplant recipients. We found that for determination of TBW and ECF there was a very strong linear relationship (r2 greater than 0.98) between the calculation methods. Further comparisons (by t test, 2-sided) indicated that for the determination of ECF, the methods were not significantly (p greater than 0.90) different; however, TBW determined by the urine-corrected method was slightly (0.1 to 6%), but significantly (p less than 0.01) greater than that determined by the extrapolation method. Therefore, relative to the extrapolation method, the urine-corrected method ''over-estimates'' BCM and ''under-estimates'' fat + ECS since determination of these compartment sizes depends on measurement of TBW. We currently use serial isotope dilution studies to monitor the body composition changes of patients receiving therapeutic nutritional support

  8. Microbiological characterization of deep geological compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Microbial life in deep sediments and Earth's crust is now acknowledged by the scientific world. The deep subsurface biosphere contributes significantly to fundamental biogeochemical processes. However, despite great advances in geo-microbiological studies, deep terrestrial ecosystems are microbiologically poorly understood, mainly due to their inaccessibility. The drilling down to the base of the Triassic (1980 meters deep) in the geological formations of the eastern Paris Basin performed by ANDRA (EST433) in 2008 provides us a good opportunity to explore the deep biosphere. We conditioned the samples on the coring site, in as aseptic conditions as possible. In addition to storage at atmospheric pressure, a portion of the four Triassic samples was placed in a 190 bars pressurized chamber to investigate the influence of the conservation pressure factor on the found microflora. In parallel, in order to evaluate a potential bacterial contamination of the cores by the drilling fluids, samples of mud just before each sample drilling were taken and analyzed. The microbial exploration can be divided in two parts: - A cultural approach in different culture media for metabolic groups as methanogens, fermenters and sulphate reducing bacteria to stimulate their growth and to isolate microbial cells still viable. - A molecular approach by direct extraction of genomic DNA from the geological samples to explore a larger biodiversity. The limits are here the difficulties to extract DNA from these low biomass containing rocks. After comparison and optimization of several DNA extraction methods, the bacterial diversity present in rock cores was analyzed using DGGE (Denaturating Gel Gradient Electrophoresis) and cloning. The detailed results of all these investigations will be presented: - Despite all 400 cultural conditions experimented (with various media, salinities, temperatures, conservation pressure, agitation), no viable and

  9. Donnan effect on chloride ion distribution as a determinant of body fluid composition that allows action potentials to spread via fast sodium channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurbel Sven

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Proteins in any solution with a pH value that differs from their isoelectric point exert both an electric Donnan effect (DE and colloid osmotic pressure. While the former alters the distribution of ions, the latter forces water diffusion. In cells with highly Cl--permeable membranes, the resting potential is more dependent on the cytoplasmic pH value, which alters the Donnan effect of cell proteins, than on the current action of Na/K pumps. Any weak (positive or negative electric disturbances of their resting potential are quickly corrected by chloride shifts. In many excitable cells, the spreading of action potentials is mediated through fast, voltage-gated sodium channels. Tissue cells share similar concentrations of cytoplasmic proteins and almost the same exposure to the interstitial fluid (IF chloride concentration. The consequence is that similar intra- and extra-cellular chloride concentrations make these cells share the same Nernst value for Cl-. Further extrapolation indicates that cells with the same chloride Nernst value and high chloride permeability should have similar resting membrane potentials, more negative than -80 mV. Fast sodium channels require potassium levels >20 times higher inside the cell than around it, while the concentration of Cl- ions needs to be >20 times higher outside the cell. When osmotic forces, electroneutrality and other ions are all taken into account, the overall osmolarity needs to be near 280 to 300 mosm/L to reach the required resting potential in excitable cells. High plasma protein concentrations keep the IF chloride concentration stable, which is important in keeping the resting membrane potential similar in all chloride-permeable cells. Probable consequences of this concept for neuron excitability, erythrocyte membrane permeability and several features of circulation design are briefly discussed.

  10. Fluid Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazin, Philip

    1987-01-01

    Outlines the contents of Volume II of "Principia" by Sir Isaac Newton. Reviews the contributions of subsequent scientists to the physics of fluid dynamics. Discusses the treatment of fluid mechanics in physics curricula. Highlights a few of the problems of modern research in fluid dynamics. Shows that problems still remain. (CW)

  11. Simulating Non-Specific Influences of Body Posture and Temperature on Thigh-Bioimpedance Spectroscopy during Continuous Monitoring Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) for continuous monitoring of body fluid volumes is gaining considerable importance in personal health care. Unless laboratory conditions are applied, both whole-body or segmental BIS configurations are subject to nonspecific influences (e.g. temperature and change in body position) reducing the method's accuracy and reproducibility. In this work, a two-compartment mathematical model, which describes the thigh segment, has been adapted to simulate fluid and solute kinetics during change in body position or variation in skin temperature. The model is an improved version of our previous one offering a good tradeoff between accuracy and simplicity. It represents the kinetics of fluid redistribution, sodium-, potassium-, and protein-concentrations based on simple equations to predict the time course of BIS variations. Validity of the model was verified in five subjects (following a sequence of 7 min supine, 20 min standing, and 40 min supine). The output of the model may reduce possible influences on BIS by up to 80%.

  12. Simulating Non-Specific Influences of Body Posture and Temperature on Thigh-Bioimpedance Spectroscopy during Continuous Monitoring Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, A. H.; Leonhardt, S.

    2013-04-01

    Application of bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) for continuous monitoring of body fluid volumes is gaining considerable importance in personal health care. Unless laboratory conditions are applied, both whole-body or segmental BIS configurations are subject to nonspecific influences (e.g. temperature and change in body position) reducing the method's accuracy and reproducibility. In this work, a two-compartment mathematical model, which describes the thigh segment, has been adapted to simulate fluid and solute kinetics during change in body position or variation in skin temperature. The model is an improved version of our previous one offering a good tradeoff between accuracy and simplicity. It represents the kinetics of fluid redistribution, sodium-, potassium-, and protein-concentrations based on simple equations to predict the time course of BIS variations. Validity of the model was verified in five subjects (following a sequence of 7 min supine, 20 min standing, and 40 min supine). The output of the model may reduce possible influences on BIS by up to 80%.

  13. Chronic excitotoxin-induced axon degeneration in a compartmented neuronal culture model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A Hosie

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Glutamate excitotoxicity is a major pathogenic process implicated in many neurodegenerative conditions, including AD (Alzheimer's disease and following traumatic brain injury. Occurring predominantly from over-stimulation of ionotropic glutamate receptors located along dendrites, excitotoxic axonal degeneration may also occur in white matter tracts. Recent identification of axonal glutamate receptor subunits within axonal nanocomplexes raises the possibility of direct excitotoxic effects on axons. Individual neuronal responses to excitotoxicity are highly dependent on the complement of glutamate receptors expressed by the cell, and the localization of the functional receptors. To enable isolation of distal axons and targeted excitotoxicity, murine cortical neuron cultures were prepared in compartmented microfluidic devices, such that distal axons were isolated from neuronal cell bodies. Within the compartmented culture system, cortical neurons developed to relative maturity at 11 DIV (days in vitro as demonstrated by the formation of dendritic spines and clustering of the presynaptic protein synaptophysin. The isolated distal axons retained growth cone structures in the absence of synaptic targets, and expressed glutamate receptor subunits. Glutamate treatment (100 μM to the cell body chamber resulted in widespread degeneration within this chamber and degeneration of distal axons in the other chamber. Glutamate application to the distal axon chamber triggered a lesser degree of axonal degeneration without degenerative changes in the untreated somal chamber. These data indicate that in addition to current mechanisms of indirect axonal excitotoxicity, the distal axon may be a primary target for excitotoxicity in neurodegenerative conditions.

  14. A metered intake of milk following exercise and thermal dehydration restores whole-body net fluid balance better than a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution or water in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seery, Suzanne; Jakeman, Philip

    2016-09-01

    Appropriate rehydration and nutrient intake in recovery is a key component of exercise performance. This study investigated whether the recovery of body net fluid balance (NFB) following exercise and thermal dehydration to -2 % of body mass (BM) was enhanced by a metered rate of ingestion of milk (M) compared with a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CE) or water (W). In randomised order, seven active men (aged 26·2 (sd 6·1) years) undertook exercise and thermal dehydration to -2 % of BM on three occasions. A metered replacement volume of M, CE or W equivalent to 150 % of the BM loss was then consumed within 2-3 h. NFB was subsequently measured for 5 h from commencement of rehydration. A higher overall NFB in M than CE (P=0·001) and W (P=0·006) was observed, with no difference between CE and W (P=0·69). After 5 h, NFB in M remained positive (+117 (sd 122) ml) compared with basal, and it was greater than W (-539 (sd 390) ml, P=0·011) but not CE (-381 (sd 460) ml, P=0·077, d=1·6). Plasma osmolality (Posm) and K remained elevated above basal in M compared with CE and W. The change in Posm was associated with circulating pre-provasopressin (r s 0·348, Pdehydration.

  15. Contact with hospital syringes containing body fluids: implications for medical waste management regulation Jeringas en contacto con sangre y fluidos corporales utilizadas en el hospital: implicaciones para el manejo de desechos hospitalarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Volkow

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine amount of syringes used in the hospital and extent of contact with blood and body fluids of these syringes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Syringe use was surveyed at a tertiary care center for one week; syringes were classified into the following four categories according to use: a contained blood; b contained other body fluids (urine, gastric secretion, cerebrospinal fluid, wound drainage; c used exclusively for drug dilution and application in plastic intravenous (IV tubes, and d for intramuscular (IM, subcutaneous (SC, or intradermic (ID injections. RESULTS: A total of 7 157 plastic disposable syringes was used; 1 227 (17% contained blood during use, 346 (4.8%, other body fluids, 5 257 (73% were used exclusively for drug dilution and application in plastic IV lines, and 327 (4.5% were utilized for IM, SC, or ID injections. An estimated 369 140 syringes used annually, or eight syringes per patient per in-hospital day. All syringes were disposed of as regulated medical waste, in observance of the law. CONCLUSIONS: There is an urgent need to review recommendations for medical waste management by both international agencies and local governments, based on scientific data and a cost-benefit analysis, to prevent resource waste and further environmental damage.OBJETIVO: Cuantificar el número de jeringas que se utilizan en el hospital y calcular cuántas de éstas entran en contacto con sangre o fluidos corporales. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se hizo una encuesta del uso de jeringas en un hospital de tercer nivel de atención durante toda una semana. Se clasificaron, de acuerdo con el uso que se les dio, en cuatro categorías: a aspiración de sangre, b otros fluidos corporales (orina, secreción gástrica, líquido cefalorraquídeo, drenaje de herida, etcétera, c uso exclusivo para diluir medicamentos y administrarlos a través de tubos de terapia intravenosa, d para aplicación de inyecciones intramusculares (IM, subcutáneas (SC o

  16. Count of Amnionic Fluid Lamellar Body to Predict the Maturity of Fetal Lung%羊水板层体计数预测胎肺成熟度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周容; 熊庆; 游永; 周淑; 徐蜀渝; 张静丽; 杜泽丽

    2002-01-01

    目的探讨羊水板层体计数(Lamellar body count, LBC)预测胎肺成熟度的价值. 方法采用库尔特Micro Diff II全自动血细胞分析仪对41例正常足月妊娠剖宫产时的羊水标本进行LBC的测定,并对同一标本采用薄板层析法测定了卵磷脂/鞘磷脂比值(Lecithin-sphingomyelin, L/S比值). 结果(1)正常足月妊娠时羊水LBC为(86±43)×103(范围72.5×103~99.4×103).(2)羊水LBC与L/S比值之间存在正相关,r=0.66,P=0.001. 结论羊水LBC是一种快速、准确地判断肺成熟度的方法.

  17. Automatic Compartment Modelling and Segmentation for Dynamical Renal Scintigraphies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ståhl, Daniel; Åström, Kalle; Overgaard, Niels Christian;

    2011-01-01

    for segmentation of pixels into physical compartments, extract their corresponding time-activity curves and then compute the parameters that are relevant for medical assessment. In this paper we present a fully automatic system that incorporates spatial smoothing constraints, compartment modelling and positivity......Time-resolved medical data has important applications in a large variety of medical applications. In this paper we study automatic analysis of dynamical renal scintigraphies. The traditional analysis pipeline for dynamical renal scintigraphies is to use manual or semiautomatic methods...

  18. Imperfect pitchfork bifurcation in asymmetric two-compartment granular gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yin; Li Yin-Chang; Liu Rui; Cui Fei-Fei; Pierre Evesque; Hou Mei-Ying

    2013-01-01

    The clustering behavior of a mono-disperse granular gas is experimentally studied in an asymmetric two-compartment setup.Unlike the random clustering in either compartment in the case of symmetric configuration when lowering the shaking strength to below a critical value,the directed clustering is observed,which corresponds to an imperfect pitchfork bifurcation.Numerical solutions of the flux equation using a modified simple flux function show qualitative agreements with the experimental results.The potential application of this asymmetric structure is discussed.

  19. Transcapillary fluid dynamics during ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollan, A; Holst, N; Forsdahl, F; Fadnes, H O; Oian, P; Maltau, J M

    1990-02-01

    Transcapillary fluid dynamics were studied in 10 women during ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization. The examinations were done on the first day of stimulation (day 3 of the menstrual cycle, mean serum estradiol concentration 0.2 nmol/L), and the day before oocyte aspiration (day 10 to 12, mean serum estradiol concentration 6.8 nmol/L). Interstitial colloid osmotic pressure was measured on the thorax at heart level by the "wick" method, and interstitial hydrostatic pressure by the "wick-in-needle" method. Plasma colloid osmotic pressure decreased (mean, 2.0 mm Hg; p less than 0.002) and interstitial colloid osmotic pressure increased (mean, 1.0 mm Hg; p less than 0.02) during hormonal stimulation. This implies a reduced transcapillary colloid osmotic gradient (plasma colloid osmotic pressure--interstitial colloid osmotic pressure), probably because of increased capillary permeability to plasma proteins. Hemoglobin and hematocrit were significantly reduced, and body weight and foot volume significantly increased. These results demonstrate that during ovarian stimulation there are both water retention and augmented filtration of fluid from the vascular to the interstitial compartment. This may be of significance for the pathophysiologic condition in the ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.

  20. CFD simulations and reduced order modeling of a refrigerator compartment including radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Free convection in a refrigerator is simulated including radiation effects. ► Heat rates are affected drastically when radiation effects are considered. ► 95% of the flow energy can be represented by using one spatial POD mode. - Abstract: Considering the engineering problem of natural convection in domestic refrigerator applications, this study aims to simulate the fluid flow and temperature distribution in a single commercial refrigerator compartment by using the experimentally determined temperature values as the specified constant wall temperature boundary conditions. The free convection in refrigerator applications is evaluated as a three-dimensional (3D), turbulent, transient and coupled non-linear flow problem. Radiation heat transfer mode is also included in the analysis. According to the results, taking radiation effects into consideration does not change the temperature distribution inside the refrigerator significantly; however the heat rates are affected drastically. The flow inside the compartment is further analyzed with a reduced order modeling method called Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) and the energy contents of several spatial and temporal modes that exist in the flow are examined. The results show that approximately 95% of all the flow energy can be represented by only using one spatial mode

  1. Modern trends in fluid therapy for burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricklebank, Stephen

    2009-09-01

    The majority of burn centres use the crystalloid-based Parkland formula to guide fluid therapy, but patients actually receive far more fluid than the formula predicts. Resuscitation with large volumes of crystalloid has numerous adverse consequences, including worsening of burn oedema, conversion of superficial into deep burns, and compartment syndromes. Resuscitation fluids influence the inflammatory response to burns in different ways and it may be possible, therefore to affect this response using the appropriate fluid, at the appropriate time. Starches are effective volume expanders and early use of newer formulations may limit resuscitation requirements and burn oedema by reducing inflammation and capillary leak. Advanced endpoint monitoring may guide clinicians in when to 'turn off' aggressive fluid therapy and therefore avoid the problems of over-resuscitation.

  2. Interventional Treatment of Abdominal Compartment Syndrome during Severe Acute Pancreatitis: Current Status and Historical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan V. Radenkovic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP is a marker of severe disease. It occurs as combination of inflammation of retroperitoneum, visceral edema, ascites, acute peripancreatic fluid collections, paralytic ileus, and aggressive fluid resuscitation. The frequency of ACS in SAP may be rising due to more aggressive fluid resuscitation, a trend towards conservative treatment, and attempts to use a minimally invasive approach. There remains uncertainty about the most appropriate surgical technique for the treatment of ACS in SAP. Some unresolved questions remain including medical treatment, indications, timing, and interventional techniques. This review will focus on interventional treatment of this serious condition. First line therapy is conservative treatment aiming to decrease IAP and to restore organ dysfunction. If nonoperative measures are not effective, early abdominal decompression is mandatory. Midline laparostomy seems to be method of choice. Since it carries significant morbidity we need randomized studies to establish firm advantages over other described techniques. After ACS resolves efforts should be made to achieve early primary fascia closure. Additional data are necessary to resolve uncertainties regarding ideal timing and indication for operative treatment.

  3. Arthrography and the medical compartment of the patello-femoral joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thijn, C.J.P.; Hillen, B.

    1984-03-01

    In four groups of patients with normal patellar cartilage, synovitis, patellar chondropathy, and degenerative changes of the patellar surface of the femur, the anatomical relationships within the medial compartment of the patello-femoral joint were examined. Clear differences were observed between these groups in the incidence of visualization of the medial alar plica and the mediopatellar synovial plica. As a consequence, an explanation has been sought for the occurrence of patellar chondropathy and degenerative changes of the patellar surface of the femur. It seems probable that a long-standing traumatic synovitis with effusion, attenuation of the synovial membrane, and the composition of the synovial fluid can lead to patellar chondropathy. The degenerative changes of the patellar surface of the femur are usually secondary to those of the load-bearing patellar facet. Insufficient covering of the cartilage by soft tissue may play a role in chondropathy of the nonload-bearing portion of the patella and the femoral condyle.

  4. Abdominal compartment syndrome in severe acute pancreatitis treated with percutaneous catheter drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soonyoung; Lee, Seungho; Lee, Hyo Deok; Kim, Min; Kim, Kyeongmin; Jeong, Yusook; Park, Seon Mee

    2014-09-01

    Acute pancreatitis is one of the main causes of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH). IAH contributes to multiple physiologic alterations and leads to the development of abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) that induces multiorgan failure. We report a case of ACS in a patient with severe acute pancreatitis. A 44-year-old man who was admitted in a drunk state was found to have severe acute pancreatitis. During management with fluid resuscitation in an intensive care unit, drowsy mentality, respiratory acidosis, shock requiring inotropes, and oliguria developed in the patient, with his abdomen tensely distended. With a presumptive diagnosis of ACS, abdominal decompression through percutaneous catheter drainage was performed immediately. The intraperitoneal pressure measured with a drainage catheter was 31 mm Hg. After abdominal decompression, the multiorgan failure was reversed. We present a case of ACS managed with percutaneous catheter decompression. PMID:25325011

  5. 外形任意的多孔介质轴对称物体中充满非Newton幂律流体时的自然对流%Natural Convection of Non-Newtonian Power-Law Fluid Over Axisymmetric and Two-Dimensional Bodies of Arbitrary Shape in a Fluid-Saturated Porous Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S·M·阿布德尔-盖德; M·R·伊德

    2011-01-01

    在一个轴对称、外形任意的多孔介质二维体中,充满了有屈服应力的非Newton幂律流体时,数值分析其自由对流及其传热/传质问题,利用相似变换,将边界层控制方程及其边界条件变换为无量纲形式,然后用有限差分法求解该方程组.所研究的参数为流变常数、浮力比和Lewis数.给出并讨论了典型的速度、温度及浓度曲线,发现屈服应力参数值和非Newton流体的幂律指数对结果有着显著的影响.%Numerical analysis of free convection coupled heat and mass transfer was presented for non-Newtonian power-law fluids with yield stress flowing over two-dimensional or axisymmetric body of arbitrary shape in a fluid-saturated porous medium.The governing boundary layer equations and boundary conditions were cast into a dimensionless form by similarity transformation and the resulting system of equations was solved by a finite difference method.The parameters studied were the rheologicai constants, the buoyancy ratio, and the Lewis number.Representative velocity as well as temperature and concentration profiles were presented and discussed.It was found that the result depend strongly on the values of the yield stress parameter, and the power-law index of non-Newtonian fluid.

  6. Gluteal compartment syndrome after prostatectomy caused by incorrect positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyn, Jens; Ladurner, R; Ozimek, A; Vogel, T; Hallfeldt, K K; Mussack, T

    2006-04-28

    Gluteal compartment syndrome is an uncommon and rare disease. Most reasonable causes for the development of this disease are trauma, drug induced coma, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, sickle cell associated muscle infarction, incorrect positioning during surgical procedures and prolonged pressure in patients with altered consciousness levels. The diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion, especially in postoperative patient where sedation or peridural anaesthesia can confound the neurological examination. Early signs include gluteal tenderness, decrease in vibratory sensation during clinical examination and increasing CK in laboratory findings. We present a case of a 52 year-old patient, who developed gluteal compartment syndrome after radical prostatectomy in lithotomic position. After operation, diuresis decreased [pain in the gluteal region and both thighs. His thighs and the gluteal region were swollen. Passive stretch of the thighs caused enormous pain. The compartment pressure was 92 mmHg. Therefore, emergency fasciotomy was performed successfully. The gluteal compartment syndrome was most likely caused by elevated pressure on the gluteal muscle during operation. We suggest heightened awareness of positioning the patient on the operating table is important especially in obese patients with lengthy operating procedures. PMID:16720283

  7. The abdominal compartment syndrome : A complication with many faces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berger, P.; Nijsten, MWN; Paling, JC; Zwaveling, JH

    2001-01-01

    Background: Lately renewed attention has been given to the abdominal compartment syndrome. Despite of this there still remain a lot of controversies with regard to the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this syndrome and the therapeutic options. Methods: Two cases of patients with this syndrom

  8. Compartment specific importance of glutathione during abiotic and biotic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd eZechmann

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The tripeptide thiol glutathione (γ-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine is the most important sulfur containing antioxidant in plants and essential for plant defense against abiotic and biotic stress conditions. It is involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species, redox signaling, the modulation of defense gene expression and important for the regulation of enzymatic activities. Even though changes in glutathione contents are well documented in plants and its roles in plant defense are well established, still too little is known about its compartment specific importance during abiotic and biotic stress conditions. Due to technical advances in the visualization of glutathione and the redox state of plants through microscopical methods some progress was made in the last few years in studying the importance of subcellular glutathione contents during stress conditions in plants. This review summarizes the data available on compartment specific importance of glutathione in the protection against abiotic and biotic stress conditions such as high light stress, exposure to cadmium, drought, and pathogen attack (Pseudomonas, Botrytis, Tobacco Mosaic Virus. The data will be discussed in connection with the subcellular accumulation of ROS during these conditions and glutathione synthesis which are both highly compartment specific (e.g. glutathione synthesis takes place in chloroplasts and the cytosol. Thus this review will reveal the compartment specific importance of glutathione during abiotic and biotic stress conditions.

  9. Engaging the lysosomal compartment to combat B cell malignancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gronbaek, K.; Jaattela, M.

    2009-01-01

    generation of therapeutic anti-CD20 mAbs. In this issue of the JCI, Ivanov and colleagues identify the lysosomal compartment as a target for type II mAbs (see the related article beginning on page 2143). These data encourage the further clinical development of type II mAbs as well as other lysosome...

  10. Well-leg compartment syndrome after gynecological laparoscopic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesgaard-Kjer, Diana H; Boesgaard-Kjer, Daniel; Kjer, Jens Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    Well-leg compartment syndrome in the lower extremities after surgery in the lithotomy position is a rare but severe complication requiring early diagnosis and intervention. Several circumstances predispose to this condition as a consequence of increased intra-compartmental pressure, such as posit......Well-leg compartment syndrome in the lower extremities after surgery in the lithotomy position is a rare but severe complication requiring early diagnosis and intervention. Several circumstances predispose to this condition as a consequence of increased intra-compartmental pressure......, such as positioning of the legs during operation (lithotomy and Lloyd-Davies positions), a prolonged operation, external compression and vascular insults, both pre- and intra-operatively. To prevent well-leg compartment syndrome it is important to improve knowledge of the condition among surgeons and nursing staff....... Potential risk factors and preventive initiatives are listed to reduce the risk in future patients. We describe two patients who underwent gynecologic laparoscopic surgery and postoperatively developed well-leg compartment syndrome....

  11. "Compartment"-syndrom på underben, atypisk traumemekanisme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael H; Nielsen, Henrik Toft; Wester, Jens Ulrik

    2003-01-01

    Acute compartment syndrome (CS) is a limb threatening condition which warrants emergency treatment. We describe a case of a 37-year-old man with acute CS developed without major trauma. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment by decompressive fasciotomy is of vital importance in order to preserve li...

  12. Organic nano-compartments as biomimetic reactors, and protocells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monnard, Pierre-Alain; Ziock, Hans-Joachim; DeClue, Michael S.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, nanoscale self-assembled structures have attracted ever increasing attention because of their potential to act as molecular templates for the synthesis of novel materials, delivery vehicles for therapeutic agents, and compartments defined at the molecular level that provide...

  13. Talofibular compartment of the ankle joint after recent ankle sprain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The validity of predicting the condition of the anterior talofibular ligament from the shape of the lateral compartment of the ankle joint was investigated in patients with recent ankle sprain. The diagnostic value of the method was found to be restricted. (Auth.)

  14. Compartment syndrome and popliteal vascular injury complicating unicompartmental knee arthroplasty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kort, Nanne Pieter; Van Raay, Jos J. J. A. M.; van Horn, Jim R.

    2007-01-01

    Popliteal vascular injury and the compartment syndrome of the leg are rare but important complications of knee arthroplasties. Early diagnosis and treatment are of paramount importance in preventing the devastating complications of these conditions. To our knowledge, these complications have not bee

  15. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome in Acute Pancreatitis : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Brunschot, Sandra; Schut, Anne Julia; Bouwense, Stefan A.; Besselink, Marc G.; Bakker, Olaf J.; van Goor, Harry; Hofker, Hendrik; Gooszen, Hein G.; Boermeester, Marja A.; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C.

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is a lethal complication of acute pancreatitis. We performed a systematic review to assess the treatment and outcome of these patients. A systematic literature search for cohorts of patients with acute pancreatitis and ACS was performed. The main outcomes were nu

  16. Abdominal compartment syndrome in acute pancreatitis: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunschot, S. van; Schut, A.J.; Bouwense, S.A.W.; Besselink, M.G.; Bakker, O.J.; Goor, H. van; Hofker, S.; Gooszen, H.G.; Boermeester, M.A.; Santvoort, H.C. van

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is a lethal complication of acute pancreatitis. We performed a systematic review to assess the treatment and outcome of these patients.A systematic literature search for cohorts of patients with acute pancreatitis and ACS was performed. The main outcomes were num

  17. 19 CFR 123.24 - Sealing of conveyances or compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sealing of conveyances or compartments. 123.24 Section 123.24 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Shipments in Transit Through Canada or Mexico § 123.24 Sealing of conveyances...

  18. Is a mosaic embryo also a mosaic of communication compartments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serras, F; van den Biggelaar, J A

    1987-03-01

    We have studied the pathways of cell communication in embryos of the mollusc Lymnaea stagnalis in which the developmental fate of a cell or a group of cells is known from cell lineage studies. We iontophoretically injected Lucifer Yellow CH and followed the spread of fluorescence between cells interconnected via gap junctions. In early stages all blastomeres appear to be dye-coupled, but later on communication is restricted within compartments. The pattern of cell communication corresponds with the development of compartments with specific cell fates. Dye-spread is limited by communication boundaries which completely or mostly prevent the passage of dye to adjacent compartments with different developmental fates. These boundaries appear progressively during development. Our results suggest that, during the development of Lymnaea, the progressive changes in the pattern of dye spread correspond with the progressive restrictions of the developmental fates of individual cells or groups of cells. We conclude that changes in the pattern of cell communication and in the appearance of communication compartments are not exclusive features of regulative embryos. PMID:3817285

  19. Two-Compartment Pharmacokinetic Models for Chemical Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanneganti, Kumud; Simon, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    The transport of potassium permanganate between two continuous-stirred vessels was investigated to help chemical and biomedical engineering students understand two-compartment pharmacokinetic models. Concepts of modeling, mass balance, parameter estimation and Laplace transform were applied to the two-unit process. A good agreement was achieved…

  20. Epidemic Spreading in a Multi-compartment System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Zong-Mao; GU Jiao; LI Wei

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the variant rate and white noise into the susceptible-infected-removed (SIR) model for epidemics, discuss the epidemic dynamics of a multiple-compartment system, and describe this system by using master equations. For both the local epidemic spreading system and the whole multiple-compartment system, we find that a threshold could be useful in forecasting when the epidemic vanishes. Furthermore, numerical simulations show that a model with the variant infection rate and white noise can improve fitting with real SARS data.%We introduce the variant rate and white noise into the susceptible-infected-removed (SIR) model for epidemics,discuss the epidemic dynamics of a multiple-compartment system,and describe this system by using master equations.For both the local epidemic spreading system and the whole multiple-compartment system,we find that a threshold could be useful in forecasting when the epidemic vanishes.Furthermore,numerical simulations show that a model with the variant infection rate and white noise can improve fitting with real SARS data.

  1. Volume of the effect compartment in simulations of neuromuscular block

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nigrovic, Vladimir; Proost, Johannes H.; Amann, Anton; Bhatt, Shashi B.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The study examines the role of the volume of the effect compartment in simulations of neuromuscular block (NMB) produced by nondepolarizing muscle relaxants. Methods: The molar amount of the postsynaptic receptors at the motor end plates in muscle was assumed constant; the apparent recep

  2. The Dutch approach to the escape from large compartments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, E.W.; Leur, P.H.E. van de

    1999-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the building regulations have no design mies for large fire compartments (over 1000 m2). With respect to the ability of people to escape from a fire in such large spaces, the Centre for Fire Research of TNO Building and Construction Research has developed a guideline that integra

  3. 14 CFR 23.853 - Passenger and crew compartment interiors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... cable insulation, and for small parts (such as knobs, handles, rollers, fasteners, clips, grommets, rub... and cable insulation and small parts that the Administrator finds would not contribute significantly... compartment to be used by the crew or passengers: (a) The materials must be at least flame-resistant; (b)...

  4. 14 CFR 125.167 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... temperature. 125.167 Section 125.167 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements § 125.167 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to ensure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures...

  5. 14 CFR 121.269 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... temperature. 121.269 Section 121.269 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....269 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to insure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures can...

  6. Regulating mechanical tension at compartment boundaries in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Marcus; Dahmann, Christian

    2016-10-01

    During animal development, cells with similar function and fate often stay together and sort out from cells with different fates. In Drosophila wing imaginal discs, cells of anterior and posterior fates are separated by a straight compartment boundary. Separation of anterior and posterior cells requires the homeodomain-containing protein Engrailed, which is expressed in posterior cells. Engrailed induces the expression of the short-range signaling molecule Hedgehog in posterior cells and confines Hedgehog signal transduction to anterior cells. Transduction of the Hedgehog signal in anterior cells is required for the separation of anterior and posterior cells. Previous work showed that this separation of cells involves a local increase in mechanical tension at cell junctions along the compartment boundary. However, how mechanical tension was locally increased along the compartment boundary remained unknown. A recent paper now shows that the difference in Hedgehog signal transduction between anterior and posterior cells is necessary and sufficient to increase mechanical tension. The local increase in mechanical tension biases junctional rearrangements during cell intercalations to maintain the straight shape of the compartment boundary. These data highlight how developmental signals can generate patterns of mechanical tension important for tissue organization.

  7. Validity of anthropometric measurements to assess body composition, including muscle mass, in 3-year-old children from the SKOT cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Signe Marie; Mølgaard, Christian; Ejlerskov, Katrine Tschentscher;

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional status of children is commonly assessed by anthropometry both in under and overnutrition. The link between anthropometry and body fat, the body compartment most affected by overnutrition, is well known, but the link with muscle mass, the body compartment most depleted in undernutrition...

  8. Textured fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Guenther, Gerhard K.

    1995-01-01

    The rheology and development morphology of textured fluids have been investigated. The first fluid considered in this work was a liquid crystalline polymer consisting of isotropic and anisotropic solutions of poly-p-phenyleneterephthalamide (PPT) in sulfuric acid. The second textured fluid considered in this work was an immiscible polymer blend consisting of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and nylon 6,6. The role played by liquid crystalline order (LCO) and a polydomain ...

  9. Experimental study on the characteristic and mechanism of body fluid metabolism in acute reaction phase of severe acute pancreatitis%重症急性胰腺炎早期体液代谢特点及机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐新建; 朱涛; 王喜艳; 付靓; 杨乐; 魏德海

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study the characteristic and mechanism of fluid metabolism in acute re-action phase of the severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Methods Twenty-three dogs were randomly divided into two groups:mild acute pancreatitis (MAP) group (n=8) and SAP group (n= 15).The model of a-cute pancreatitis was made by injecting bile into main pancreatic duct. All the dogs were subjected to infu-sion therapy 1-5 days after model establishment. The plasma concentrations of Na+ and K+ ,red cell bema-tocrit,the plasma levels of aldosterone hormone and angiotensin Ⅱ were measured. The total incoming and excreting fluid and the total amount of isolation fluid were recorded. Results K+ concentration in SAP group had no significant change,and Na+ concentration was increased to (152.8±5.2) mmol/L at the first day ,decreased on the second day. The fluid output of 15 dogs was leas than the fluid input during the experiment period,and fluid sequestration at 48 h and 72 h was (1341±373) ml and (1998±510) ml respectively. There was significant difference between MAP and SAP groups (P < 0.05). The levels of plasma ALD and Ang Ⅱ were increased significantly in SAP group at the first day after the operation as compared with MAP group (P < 0.05). Both of them were declined at the second and third day, but higher than those preoperation. Conclusion The early body fluids metabolic disorder of the SAP mainly concen-trates in the capacity and concentration. The amount of the output is remarkably less than that of the input and fluid sequestration is increased continuously. The decline of the renal excretion function, which cannot play a fully role in regulating fluid metabolism,may be the key in metabolic disorder.%目的 探讨重症急性胰腺炎早期体液代谢的特点和机制.方法 取杂种犬23条分两组:轻症急性胰腺炎组(MAP组)8条和重症急性胰腺炎组(SAP组)5条,采用自身胆汁逆行主胰管注射法制模.制模后第1~5天每日补液,测定血浆Na+

  10. [Endocrine obesity: bioelectric profiles (biotypes) detected in the body composition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miggiano, G A D; Petitti, T

    2004-09-01

    136 patients were selected (16 men and 120 women with non-specific menstrual disturbances) with a BMI (Body Mass Index) between 25 and 45 kg/m2, which were diagnosed with "disendocrinia" (GH deficit, hyperadrenocorticism, hypothyroidsm, hyperandrogenism, menstrual cycle disorders). The proposed approach, based on the visualization of the value distribution of the electric measures in different graphics, is able to immediately explain the bioelectric state of the individual's lean-mass. Subjects with hypothyroidism present, along with their overweight, less bio-conducting mass, with an altered fluid intra/extra-cellular distribution. Patients with hyperadrenocorticism show instead an hyperhydratation of the body mass, especially in the extracellular level. Patients with menstrual disorders (amenorrea, polycystic ovary syndrome, anovulatory cycle etc...) present a lean mass reduction (elevated Rs) and an increase of the intra-cellular compartment (elevated-Xc). Patients with hyper-androgenism (and hirsutism) show a characteristic bioelectric "pattern", with low Rs levels and high Xc levels. Subjects with GH deficit (men and women), has a trend of documenting bioelectric measures with lower lean mass and higher fat-mass. Different electric biotypes seem to characterize the body composition in the several endocrine disorders. PMID:15700636

  11. The characteristics of internal waves generated by a revolution body in a stratified fluid with a pycnocline%具有密度跃层分层流体中回转体激发内波特性实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王进; 尤云祥; 胡天群; 王小青; 朱敏慧

    2012-01-01

    Experiments are conducted for the characteristics of both body and wake-generated internal waves due to a revolution body(aspect ratio 7:1) in a stratified fluid with a pycnocline where the revolution body is horizontally towed in forward and backward ways.Results show that the body-generated internal waves are a type of stationary multiple-mode Lee wave structures,and the wake-generated internal waves are a type of non-stationary quasi-Lee structures produced by the large-scale coherent structure in the turbulent wake acting as a moving excitation with respect to the towed revolution body.The transition between Lee and quasi-Lee waves occurs at a critical Froude number Fr_c which is shown to be linearly dependent on the aspect ratios of the revolution bodies where the wave patterns for Fr Fr_c are dominated by Lee waves,whereas the wave patterns for Fr Fr_c are dominated by quasi-Lee waves, Fr is the Froude number for the characteristic diameter of the revolution body.For the quasi-Lee waves,the dimensionless peak-topeak amplitudes linearly increase with Fr and the Froude numbers relative to the correlation velocities remain at a relatively constant value of approximately 0.8 regardless of the aspect ratios.Moreover,the head and the tail shapes of the revolution body have no remarkable influence on the critical Froude number Fr_c,as well as both the Froude numbers relative to the correlation velocities and the dimensionless peak-to-peak amplitudes of the quasi-Lee waves.%在具有连续密度跃层的分层流体中,对长径比为7:1的回转体在迎水和背水运动下激发体积效应与尾迹效应内波特性开展了系列实验.结果表明,体积效应激发内波属于一种相对于回转体定常的多模态Lee波结构,而尾迹效应激发主控内波为相对于回转体非定常的拟Lee波结构,这是一类由湍流尾迹中大尺度相干结构作为移动源激发的内波结构,在Lee波与拟Lee波之间存在

  12. Fluid mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Kundu, Pijush K; Dowling, David R

    2011-01-01

    Fluid mechanics, the study of how fluids behave and interact under various forces and in various applied situations-whether in the liquid or gaseous state or both-is introduced and comprehensively covered in this widely adopted text. Revised and updated by Dr. David Dowling, Fluid Mechanics, 5e is suitable for both a first or second course in fluid mechanics at the graduate or advanced undergraduate level. Along with more than 100 new figures, the text has been reorganized and consolidated to provide a better flow and more cohesion of topics.Changes made to the

  13. 河豚毒素在死后豚鼠组织和体液中的分布%Postmortem Distribution of Tetrodotoxin in Tissues and Body Fluids of Guinea Pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟; 达情; 沈敏

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究河豚毒素在死后豚鼠组织和体液中的分布规律,为河豚毒素中毒的法医学鉴定和临床诊治提供方法和评价依据. 方法 建立河豚毒素的豚鼠灌胃染毒致死模型,豚鼠分别以100、50、15 μg/kg3种剂量河豚毒素灌胃后,观察其中毒症状,待豚鼠死亡后立即解剖,分别取心、肝、脾、肺、肾、脑、胃、肠、胆汁、心血和尿液,用LC-MS/MS检测其中河豚毒素含量. 结果 豚鼠河豚毒素灌胃染毒后,均出现呼吸急促、精神萎靡等中毒症状继而死亡.肺、胃、肠、尿液中河豚毒素含量较高,其次为血液、心、脑,胆汁中含量最低. 结论 河豚毒素在豚鼠体内死后分布不均匀,肺、胃、肠、尿液和血液中含量较高,可作为疑似河豚中毒检测河豚毒素的较佳检材.%Objective To investigate the postmortem distribution of tetrodotoxin in tissues and body fluids of guinea pig, and to provide method and evidence for forensic identification and clinical diagnosis and treatment. Methods Guinea pigs were intragastric administrated with 100, 50, 15 μg/kg tetrodotoxin, respectively. The poisoning symptoms were observed. The samples of heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, brain, stomach, intestines, bile, heart blood and urine were collected. The concentrations of tetrodotoxin in tissues and body fluids were measured with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Results After administrated with tetrodotoxin, all guinea pigs came out poisoning signs including tachypnea, weary and dead finally. Tetrodotoxin concentrations in lung, stomach, intestines and urine were higher, followed by blood, heart and brain. The concentration in bile was the lowest. Conclusion Postmortem distribution of tetrodotoxin in guinea pig is uneven. The concentration in the lung, stomach, intestines, urine and heart blood are higher, those tissues could be used for diagnosis of tetrodotoxin poisoning.

  14. Compartment-dependent mitochondrial alterations in experimental ALS, the effects of mitophagy and mitochondriogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Gianfranco; Lenzi, Paola; Lazzeri, Gloria; Falleni, Alessandra; Biagioni, Francesca; Ryskalin, Larisa; Fornai, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by massive loss of motor neurons. Data from ALS patients and experimental models indicate that mitochondria are severely damaged within dying or spared motor neurons. Nonetheless, recent data indicate that mitochondrial preservation, although preventing motor neuron loss, fails to prolong lifespan. On the other hand, the damage to motor axons plays a pivotal role in determining both lethality and disease course. Thus, in the present article each motor neuron compartment (cell body, central, and peripheral axons) of G93A SOD-1 mice was studied concerning mitochondrial alterations as well as other intracellular structures. We could confirm the occurrence of ALS-related mitochondrial damage encompassing total swelling, matrix dilution and cristae derangement along with non-pathological variations of mitochondrial size and number. However, these alterations occur to a different extent depending on motor neuron compartment. Lithium, a well-known autophagy inducer, prevents most pathological changes. However, the efficacy of lithium varies depending on which motor neuron compartment is considered. Remarkably, some effects of lithium are also evident in wild type mice. Lithium is effective also in vitro, both in cell lines and primary cell cultures from the ventral spinal cord. In these latter cells autophagy inhibition within motor neurons in vitro reproduced ALS pathology which was reversed by lithium. Muscle and glial cells were analyzed as well. Cell pathology was mostly severe within peripheral axons and muscles of ALS mice. Remarkably, when analyzing motor axons of ALS mice a subtotal clogging of axoplasm was described for the first time, which was modified under the effects of lithium. The effects induced by lithium depend on several mechanisms such as direct mitochondrial protection, induction of mitophagy and mitochondriogenesis. In this study, mitochondriogenesis induced by lithium was confirmed in situ by a

  15. Fluid Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorsen, Michael

    These lecture notes are intended mainly for the 7th semester course "Fluid Dynamics" offered by the Study Committee on Civil Engineering, Aalborg University.......These lecture notes are intended mainly for the 7th semester course "Fluid Dynamics" offered by the Study Committee on Civil Engineering, Aalborg University....

  16. Stochastic interpenetration of fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinkamp, M.J.; Clark, T.T.; Harlow, F.H.

    1995-11-01

    We describe a spectral approach to the investigation of fluid instability, generalized turbulence, and the interpenetration of fluids across an interface. The technique also applies to a single fluid with large variations in density. Departures of fluctuating velocity components from the local mean are far subsonic, but the mean Mach number can be large. Validity of the description is demonstrated by comparisons with experiments on turbulent mixing due to the late stages of Rayleigh-Taylor instability, when the dynamics become approximately self-similar in response to a constant body force. Generic forms for anisotropic spectral structure are described and used as a basis for deriving spectrally integrated moment equations that can be incorporated into computer codes for scientific and engineering analyses.

  17. Role of cutaneous surface fluid in frog osmoregulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Ramløv, Hans

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated whether evaporative water loss (EWL) in frogs stems from water diffusing through the skin or fluid secreted by mucous glands. Osmolality of cutaneous surface fluid (CSF) of Rana esculenta (Pelophylax kl. esculentus) subjected to isoproterenol or 30 °C–34 °C was 191 ± 9.3 an....... As a regulated external physiological compartment, CSF would be of importance for the immune defenses that amphibians employ in protecting their skin....

  18. A New Etiology for the Abdominal Compartment Syndrome: Pseudomyxoma Peritonei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Sabbagh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP is a rare diagnosis with an incidence of 1-2 per million. Most cases originate from an appendix which ruptures and releases mucin into the peritoneal cavity. The progression of the disease results in obstruction and cutaneous leak. Abdominal compartment syndrome is an uncommon complication of peritoneal pseudomyxoma. In the present article, we report the case of a patient with PMP and abdominal compartment syndrome. A laparotomy to decrease the abdominal pressure was performed. Three months later, a peritonectomy with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy was performed. The patient was still alive 1 year after the procedure without any recurrence. In conclusion, acute abdominal pain and respiratory failure in patients with peritoneal PMP should lead to the measurement of the abdominal pressure but are not a contra indication for curative treatment of PMP.

  19. Compartment syndrome with mononeuropathies after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindle, Brett J; Murthy, Naveen; Stolp, Kathryn

    2015-05-01

    Compartment syndrome rarely follows anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. However, when it does, it may result in mononeuropathies that are amenable to neurolysis. The authors of this study present an 18-yr-old woman who sustained a right anterior cruciate ligament tear and underwent uneventful anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using femoral and popliteal nerve blocks. Postoperatively, she developed compartment syndrome requiring emergent fasciotomies. At 11 wks after fasciotomy, results of electrophysiologic tests showed evidence of severe fibular and tibial neuropathies. Magnetic resonance images showed extensive tricompartmental myonecrosis. Fibular and tibial neurolysis as well as decompression were performed, followed by intensive outpatient rehabilitation. At the 6-mo follow-up, she reported resolution of pain as well as significant improvement in sensation, strength, and function. Early recognition and intervention are crucial to prevent serious neurologic damage. Excessive tourniquet pressure and anesthetic nerve blocks may have been responsible.

  20. Tracer Dispersion in a Multi-compartment Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Skvortsov, A; Gamble, G; Roberts, M; Ilaya, O; Pitaliadda, D

    2012-01-01

    An experimental study of the tracer dispersion in a complex structure is presented. A point source of tracer (dyed salt) was placed inside a multi-compartment structure embedded in water tank. This experimental setting corresponds to a hazardous tracer release inside the engineering structure (building, ship, aircarft etc). A system of conductivity sensors was deployed to monitor the propagation of a tracer plume in the structure, including tracer trapping inside some compartments and its release to the outside environment through the external openings. The experimental data is processed by employing the ideas of scaling and self-similarity of underlying transport processes. The established and validated scaling laws provide a rigorous way to up-scale the results of laboratory modeling to real operational scenarios and can be used as an important step in the development of risk-assessment models for the first responders to hazardous releases. Keywords: hazardous plume, tracer dispersion, diffusion and advecti...

  1. Head and neck fascia and compartments: no space for spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidera, Alice K; Dawes, Patrick J D; Fong, Amy; Stringer, Mark D

    2014-07-01

    An accurate understanding of the arrangement of cervical fascia and its associated compartments is essential for differential diagnosis, predicting the spread of disease, and surgical management. The purpose of this detailed review is to summarize the anatomic, clinical, and radiological literature to determine what is known about the arrangement of cervical fascia and to highlight controversies and consensus. The current terminology used to describe cervical fascia and compartments is replete with confusing synonyms and inconsistencies, creating important interdisciplinary differences in understanding. The term "spaces" is inappropriate. A modified nomenclature underpinned by evidence-based anatomic and radiologic findings is proposed. This should not only enhance our understanding of cervical anatomy but also facilitate clearer interdisciplinary communication.

  2. Elimination behavior of shelter dogs housed in double compartment kennels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denae Wagner

    Full Text Available For animals in confinement housing the housing structure has tremendous potential to impact well being. Dogs in animal shelters are often housed in one of two types of confinement housing - single kennels and rooms or double compartment kennels and rooms most often separated by a guillotine door. This study examines the effect of housing on the location of elimination behavior in dogs housed in double compartment kennels were the majority of the dogs were walked daily. One side of the kennel contained the food, water and bed and the other side was empty and available except during cleaning time. Location of urination and defecation was observed daily for 579 dogs housed in indoor double compartment kennels for a total of 4440 days of observation. There were 1856 days (41.9% when no elimination was noted in the kennel. Feces, urine or both were observed in the kennel on 2584 days (58.1%. When elimination occurred in the kennel the probability of fecal elimination on the opposite side of the bed/food/water was 72.5% (95% CI 69.05% to 75.69%. The probability of urination on the opposite side of the bed/food/water was 77.4% (95% CI 74.33% to 80.07%. This study demonstrates the strong preference of dogs to eliminate away from the area where they eat, drink and sleep. Double compartment housing not only allows this - it allows staff the ability to provide safe, efficient, humane daily care and confers the added benefits of reducing risks for disease transmission for the individual dog as well as the population.

  3. Bacterial assemblages differ between compartments within the coral holobiont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, M. J.; Croquer, A.; Bythell, J. C.

    2011-03-01

    It is widely accepted that corals are associated with a diverse and host species-specific microbiota, but how they are organized within their hosts remains poorly understood. Previous sampling techniques (blasted coral tissues, coral swabs and milked mucus) may preferentially sample from different compartments such as mucus, tissue and skeleton, or amalgamate them, making comparisons and generalizations between studies difficult. This study characterized bacterial communities of corals with minimal mechanical disruption and contamination from water, air and sediments from three compartments: surface mucus layer (SML), coral tissue and coral skeleton. A novel apparatus (the `snot sucker') was used to separate the SML from tissues and skeleton, and these three compartments were compared to swab samples and milked mucus along with adjacent environmental samples (water column and sediments). Bacterial 16S rRNA gene diversity was significantly different between the various coral compartments and environmental samples (PERMANOVA, F = 6.9, df = 8, P = 0.001), the only exceptions being the complete crushed coral samples and the coral skeleton, which were similar, because the skeleton represents a proportionally large volume and supports a relatively rich microflora. Milked mucus differed significantly from the SML collected with the `snot sucker' and was contaminated with zooxanthellae, suggesting that it may originate at least partially from the gastrovascular cavity rather than the tissue surface. A common method of sampling the SML, surface swabs, produced a bacterial community profile distinct from the SML sampled using our novel apparatus and also showed contamination from coral tissues. Our results indicate that microbial communities are spatially structured within the coral holobiont, and methods used to describe these need to be standardized to allow comparisons between studies.

  4. Congenital absence of superficial posterior compartment calf muscles

    OpenAIRE

    Tibrewal, Saket; Alyas, Faisal; Vemulapalli, Krishna

    2013-01-01

    Although various congenital abnormalities have been described, congenital absence of calf musculature is extremely rare, with only one report on its complete absence. We are the first to describe a case of congenital absence of muscles of the superficial posterior compartment of the calf presenting in a toddler. The child presented with a history of a painless limp, however no significant difference was found in functional gait analysis. We suggest that such cases should be monitored and pare...

  5. Ecological Modelling with the Calculus of Wrapped Compartments

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo, de, P.J.; Angelo

    2015-01-01

    The Calculus of Wrapped Compartments is a framework based on stochastic multiset rewriting in a compartmentalised setting originally developed for the modelling and analysis of biological interactions. In this paper, we propose to use this calculus for the description of ecological systems and we provide the modelling guidelines to encode within the calculus some of the main interactions leading ecosystems evolution. As a case study, we model the distribution of height of Croton wagneri, a sh...

  6. Dynamic Characterization of Materials from a Refrigerator Compartment

    OpenAIRE

    Ilka, Bringhenti; Martinez, Jesus Alberto Ortiz; Lenzi, Arcanjo; Pellegrini, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    The dynamic properties of materials are important parameters for numerical vibro-acoustics analysis of a household refrigerator. The compartment of a household refrigerator is typically composed by three types of materials: hot rolled steel, polyurethane rigid foam (PUR) and high impact polystyrene (HIPS). In this work, the mechanical properties (dynamical Young‟s modulus and loss factor) of these materials were determinate in order to comprehend its frequency-dependent behavior to use them p...

  7. Cortical alveoli of Paramecium: a vast submembranous calcium storage compartment

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    The plasma membrane of Paramecium is underlain by a continuous layer of membrane vesicles known as cortical alveoli, whose function was unknown but whose organization had suggested some resemblance with muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum. The occurrence of antimonate precipitates within the alveoli first indicated to us that they may indeed correspond to a vast calcium storage site. To analyze the possible involvement of this compartment in calcium sequestration more directly, we have developed a ...

  8. Behaviour of a concrete structure in a real compartment fire

    OpenAIRE

    Gillie, M.; Stratford, T.; Chen, J.-F.

    2012-01-01

    In July 2006, a full-scale compartment fire was set in an existing block of flats in Dalmarnock, Glasgow, Scotland. Prior to ignition, the structure was instrumented with deflection gauges, thermocouples and strain gauges. The growth of the fire was also carefully monitored. The resulting data provided a unique record of the behaviour of a concrete structure in fire through a heating-cooling cycle. The results show significant variation in structural temperatures within a relatively small com...

  9. Opioid overdose with gluteal compartment syndrome and acute peripheral neuropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Adrish, Muhammad; Duncalf, Richard; Diaz-Fuentes, Gilda; Venkatram, Sindhaghatta

    2014-01-01

    Patient: Male, 42 Final Diagnosis: Gluteal compartment syndrome • acute peripheral nauropathy Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Critical Care Medicine Objective: Management of emergency care Background: Heroin addiction is common, with an estimated 3.7 million Americans reporting to have used it at some point in their lives. Complications of opiate overdose include infection, rhabdomyolysis, respiratory depression and central or peripheral nervous system neurological ...

  10. Bacterial Translocation – Impact on the Adipocyte Compartment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruis, Tassilo; Batra, Arvind; Siegmund, Britta

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade it became broadly recognized that adipokines and thus the fat tissue compartment exert a regulatory function on the immune system. Our own group described the pro-inflammatory function of the adipokine leptin within intestinal inflammation in a variety of animal models. Following-up on this initial work, the aim was to reveal stimuli and mechanisms involved in the activation of the fat tissue compartment and the subsequent release of adipokines and other mediators paralleled by the infiltration of immune cells. This review will summarize the current literature on the possible role of the mesenteric fat tissue in intestinal inflammation with a focus on Crohn’s disease (CD). CD is of particular interest in this context since the transmural intestinal inflammation has been associated with a characteristic hypertrophy of the mesenteric fat, a phenomenon called “creeping fat.” The review will address three consecutive questions: (i) What is inducing adipocyte activation, (ii) which factors are released after activation and what are the consequences for the local fat tissue compartment and infiltrating cells; (iii) do the answers generated before allow for an explanation of the role of the mesenteric fat tissue within intestinal inflammation? With this review we will provide a working model indicating a close interaction in between bacterial translocation, activation of the adipocytes, and subsequent direction of the infiltrating immune cells. In summary, the models system mesenteric fat indicates a unique way how adipocytes can directly interact with the immune system. PMID:24432024

  11. Lemniscal and extralemniscal compartments in the VPM of the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Haidarliu

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The ventral posteromedial thalamic nucleus (VPM of the rat contains at least two major vibrissa-representing compartments: the dorsomedial (VPMdm, which belongs to the lemniscal afferent pathway, and the ventrolateral (VPMvl, which belongs to the extralemniscal afferent pathway. Although input-output projections and functional characteristics that distinguish these two compartments were recently clarified, a comprehensive structural analysis of these compartments and the border between them was lacking. This paper addresses structural and functional relationships between the VPMdm and VPMvl. We found that the size of the VPM is almost constant across individual rats. Next, we computed a canonical map of the VPM in the oblique plane, where structural borders are best visualized. Using the canonical map, and sequential slices cut in oblique and coronal planes, we determined the border between the VPMdm and VPMvl in the standard coronal plane, and verified it with in-vivo extracellular recordings. The position of the border between these two vibrissal sub-nuclei changes along the rostrocaudal extent within the VPM due to the relative sizes of these sub-nuclei at any point. The border between the VPMdm and VPMvl, which was revealed by this technique, can now be included in atlases of the rat brain and should facilitate experimental correlation of tactile functions with thalamic regions.

  12. Bioavailability of cyanide in the different environmental compartments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Vascular plants possess an enzyme system that detoxifies cyanide by converting it to the amino acid asparagine. Hybrid willows (Salix matsudana Koidz×Salix alba L.) were exposed to cyanide to determine whether willows can transport and metabolize this compound. Pre-rooted trees were grown in different environmental compartmentsspiked or irrigated with potassium cyanide at24.0 ±0.5℃. Cyanide in compartments, in air and in tissues of plants was analyzed spectrophotometrically. Results from this study indicated that large amounts of applied cyanide was removed from the systems during the presence of willows. Growing compartments of plants have a strong influence on the removal rates of cyanide. Little or no initial cyanide was detected in plant materials. Volatilization of cyanide was not occurring. Mass balance studies showed that applied cyanide was significantly metabolized during transport through willows cuttings. However, there was a clear difference between the metabolism rates of cyanide by willows exposed to different environmental compartments. The highest cyanide metabolism rate was found at the treatment with transport and metabolism of cyanide in plants is likely and phytoremediation of cyanide is a feasible option for cleaning soils and water contaminated with cyanide.

  13. Engineered protein nano-compartments for targeted enzyme localization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Choudhary

    Full Text Available Compartmentalized co-localization of enzymes and their substrates represents an attractive approach for multi-enzymatic synthesis in engineered cells and biocatalysis. Sequestration of enzymes and substrates would greatly increase reaction efficiency while also protecting engineered host cells from potentially toxic reaction intermediates. Several bacteria form protein-based polyhedral microcompartments which sequester functionally related enzymes and regulate their access to substrates and other small metabolites. Such bacterial microcompartments may be engineered into protein-based nano-bioreactors, provided that they can be assembled in a non-native host cell, and that heterologous enzymes and substrates can be targeted into the engineered compartments. Here, we report that recombinant expression of Salmonella enterica ethanolamine utilization (eut bacterial microcompartment shell proteins in E. coli results in the formation of polyhedral protein shells. Purified recombinant shells are morphologically similar to the native Eut microcompartments purified from S. enterica. Surprisingly, recombinant expression of only one of the shell proteins (EutS is sufficient and necessary for creating properly delimited compartments. Co-expression with EutS also facilitates the encapsulation of EGFP fused with a putative Eut shell-targeting signal sequence. We also demonstrate the functional localization of a heterologous enzyme (β-galactosidase targeted to the recombinant shells. Together our results provide proof-of-concept for the engineering of protein nano-compartments for biosynthesis and biocatalysis.

  14. Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome in a High School Soccer Player

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J. Bresnahan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS is a relatively rare condition that affects young adult athletes and often causes them to present to the emergency department. If left untreated, those who continue to compete at high levels may experience debilitating leg pain. Physicians may have difficulty differentiating CECS from other syndromes of the lower leg such as medial tibial stress syndrome, stress fractures, and popliteal artery entrapment. The gold standard for diagnosing CECS is intramuscular compartment pressure monitoring before and/or after 10 minutes of exercise. Some patients may choose to stop participation in sports in order to relieve their pain, which otherwise does not respond well to nonoperative treatments. In patients who wish to continue to participate in sports and live an active life, fasciotomy provides relief in 80% or more. The typical athlete can return to training in about 8 weeks. This is a case of a high school soccer player who stopped competing due to chronic exertional compartment syndrome. She had a fascial hernia, resting intramuscular pressure of 30 mmHg, and postexercise intramuscular pressure of 99 mmHg. Following fasciotomy she experienced considerable life improvement and is once again training and playing soccer without symptoms.

  15. Digital Microscopy Assessment of Angiogenesis in Different Breast Cancer Compartments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Haisan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Tumour angiogenesis defined by microvessel density (MVD is generally accepted as a prognostic factor in breast cancer. However, due to variability of measurement systems and cutoffs, it is questionable to date whether it contributes to predictive outline. Our study aims to grade vascular heterogeneity by comparing clear-cut compartments: tumour associated stroma (TAS, tumour parenchyma, and tumour invasive front. Material and Methods. Computerized vessel area measurement was performed using a tissue cytometry system (TissueFAXS on slides originated from 50 patients with breast cancer. Vessels were marked using immunohistochemistry with CD34. Regions of interest were manually defined for each tumour compartment. Results. Tumour invasive front vascular endothelia area was 2.15 times higher than that in tumour parenchyma and 4.61 times higher than that in TAS (P<0.002. Worth to mention that the lymph node negative subgroup of patients show a slight but constant increase of vessel index in all examined compartments of breast tumour. Conclusion. Whole slide digital examination and region of interest (ROI analysis are a valuable tool in scoring angiogenesis markers and disclosing their prognostic capacity. Our study reveals compartments’ variability of vessel density inside the tumour and highlights the propensity of invasive front to associate an active process of angiogenesis with potential implications in adjuvant therapy.

  16. Portable Programmable Multifunction Body Fluids Analyzer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Liquid Logic proposes to develop a very capable analyzer based on its digital microfluidic technology. Such an analyzer would be:  Capable of both...

  17. Fluid juggling

    CERN Document Server

    Soto, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    This fluid dynamics video is an entry for the Gallery of Fluid Motion for the 66th Annual Meeting of the Fluid Dynamics Division of the American Physical Society. We show the curious behaviour of a light ball interacting with a liquid jet. For certain conditions, a ball can be suspended into a slightly inclined liquid jet. We studied this phenomenon using a high speed camera. The visualizations show that the object can be `juggled' for a variety of flow conditions. A simple calculation showed that the ball remains at a stable position due to a Bernoulli-like effect. The phenomenon is very stable and easy to reproduce.

  18. Endocytosis of desmosomal plaques depends on intact actin filaments and leads to a nondegradative compartment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Pernille K.; Hansen, Steen H.; Sandvig, Kirsten;

    1993-01-01

    Cellebiologi, human epithelial cell line, growth inhibition, desmosomes, clathrin-independent endocytosis, cytoskeleton, nondegradative compartment......Cellebiologi, human epithelial cell line, growth inhibition, desmosomes, clathrin-independent endocytosis, cytoskeleton, nondegradative compartment...

  19. Cilioplasm is a cellular compartment for calcium signaling in response to mechanical and chemical stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xingjian; Mohieldin, Ashraf M; Muntean, Brian S; Green, Jill A; Shah, Jagesh V; Mykytyn, Kirk; Nauli, Surya M

    2014-06-01

    Primary cilia with a diameter of ~200 nm have been implicated in development and disease. Calcium signaling within a primary cilium has never been directly visualized and has therefore remained a speculation. Fluid-shear stress and dopamine receptor type-5 (DR5) agonist are among the few stimuli that require cilia for intracellular calcium signal transduction. However, it is not known if these stimuli initiate calcium signaling within the cilium or if the calcium signal originates in the cytoplasm. Using an integrated single-cell imaging technique, we demonstrate for the first time that calcium signaling triggered by fluid-shear stress initiates in the primary cilium and can be distinguished from the subsequent cytosolic calcium response through the ryanodine receptor. Importantly, this flow-induced calcium signaling depends on the ciliary polycystin-2 calcium channel. While DR5-specific agonist induces calcium signaling mainly in the cilioplasm via ciliary CaV1.2, thrombin specifically induces cytosolic calcium signaling through the IP3 receptor. Furthermore, a non-specific calcium ionophore triggers both ciliary and cytosolic calcium responses. We suggest that cilia not only act as sensory organelles but also function as calcium signaling compartments. Cilium-dependent signaling can spread to the cytoplasm or be contained within the cilioplasm. Our study thus provides the first model to understand signaling within the cilioplasm of a living cell.

  20. New Parametric Imaging Algorithm for Quantification of Binding Parameter in non-reversible compartment model: MLAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Su Jin; Lee, Jae Sung; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Lee, Dong Soo [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Parametric imaging allows us analysis of the entire brain or body image. Graphical approaches are commonly employed to generate parametric imaging through linear or multilinear regression. However, this linear regression method has limited accuracy due to bias in high level of noise data. Several methods have been proposed to reduce bias for linear regression estimation especially in reversible model. In this study, we focus on generating a net accumulation rate (K{sub i}), which is related to binding parameter in brain receptor study, parametric imaging in an irreversible compartment model using multiple linear analysis. The reliability of a newly developed multiple linear analysis method (MLAIR) was assessed through the Monte Carlo simulation, and we applied it to a [{sup 11}C]MeNTI PET for opioid receptor.

  1. Fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, Peter S

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a focused, readable account of the principal physical and mathematical ideas at the heart of fluid dynamics. Graduate students in engineering, applied math, and physics who are taking their first graduate course in fluids will find this book invaluable in providing the background in physics and mathematics necessary to pursue advanced study. The book includes a detailed derivation of the Navier-Stokes and energy equations, followed by many examples of their use in studying the dynamics of fluid flows. Modern tensor analysis is used to simplify the mathematical derivations, thus allowing a clearer view of the physics. Peter Bernard also covers the motivation behind many fundamental concepts such as Bernoulli's equation and the stream function. Many exercises are designed with a view toward using MATLAB or its equivalent to simplify and extend the analysis of fluid motion including developing flow simulations based on techniques described in the book.

  2. 46 CFR 171.017 - One and two compartment standards of flooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false One and two compartment standards of flooding. 171.017... standards of flooding. (a) One compartment standard of flooding. A vessel is designed to a one compartment standard of flooding if the margin line is not submerged when the total buoyancy between each set of...

  3. 46 CFR 105.25-7 - Ventilation systems for cargo tank or pumping system compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation systems for cargo tank or pumping system compartment. 105.25-7 Section 105.25-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO... pumping system compartment. (a) Each compartment shall be provided with a mechanical exhaust...

  4. Detection of fires in the toilet compartment and driver sleeping compartment of buses and coaches—Installation considerations based on full scale tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Willstrand

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Effective fire detection systems properly installed in bus and coach toilet compartments and driver sleeping compartments may save human lives and property loss. Rapid detection allows for early evacuation and extinguishment of a small fire, while late or no detection may allow the fire to spread. The purpose of the work presented in this paper is to provide recommendations on how to install fire detection systems in toilet compartments and driver sleeping compartments. The recommendations also cover what type of detection system is most suited. As a basis for the recommendations, full scale fire tests were performed with different detection systems. The fire tests were conducted in realistic mockups of a toilet compartment and a sleeping compartment. Different heat and smoke detection systems were analyzed at different positions for different fire scenarios to provide information on how to best install detection systems in these compartments. Five different scenarios were run and the most interesting finding was that two realistic fire scenarios in the toilet compartment did not activate fire detectors in the ceiling at realistic air flow rates. It is very rare that fire detectors are placed anywhere else than on the ceiling in toilet compartments on buses and the fire would then be very large upon detection.

  5. Body composition: Where and when.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi

    2016-08-01

    The in vivo evaluation of body composition is essential in many clinical investigations, in order to accurately describe and monitor the nutritional status of a range of medical conditions and physiological processes, including sick and malnourished patients, pregnant women, breastfeeding women and the elderly, as well as in patients with cancer, osteoporosis and many other diseases. This research area is also important to the field of human nutrition and exercise physiology. Several research investigations have indicated the importance of measuring fat deposition in different body compartments, in order to gain a fuller understanding of the genetic factors that contribute to obesity, obesity-related disorders, such as dyslipidemia, and thereby to a fuller understanding of obesity associated cardio-metabolic disorders, with relevance to the relationship between body composition and energy expenditure. The spatial and temporal dimension, where and when, may influence the physiological relevance and the pathological implications of the fat composition of different body compartments, and, as such, is a new element to be considered when assessing body composition. PMID:26564096

  6. Following the Motion of Polycomb Bodies in Living Drosophila Embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheutin, Thierry; Cavalli, Giacomo

    2016-01-01

    During the last two decades, observation of cell nuclei in live microscopy evidences motion of nuclear compartments. Drosophila embryos constitute a good model to study nuclear dynamic during cell differentiation because they can easily be observed in live microscopy. Inside the cell nucleus, Polycomb group proteins accumulate in foci named Pc bodies. Here, we describe a method to visualize and analyze the motion of these nuclear compartments inside cell nuclei of Drosophila embryos. PMID:27659993

  7. 挤压—拉拔的纯镁丝材在人工模拟体液中的腐蚀行为%Corrosion behavior of extrusion-drawn pure Mg wire immersed in simulated body fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙宏飞; 李成杰; 房文斌

    2011-01-01

    The corrosion behaviors of extrusion-drawn pure magnesium wire soaked in simulated body fluid (SBF) and 0.9% NaCl solution were studied.The corrosion law of the pure magnesium wire immersed in SBF was investigated by measuring the average corrosion rate and the pH values of the solution after corrosion.It is found that the corrosion mechanism of the pure magnesium wire was pitting after the observation of corrupted surface morphology by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).Moreover,the corrosion law of extrusion-drawing pure magnesium wire in 0.9% NaCl solution implied that the smaller the gram size of the wire is,the better the corrosion resistance exhibits.%研究了挤压—拉拔的纯镁丝材在人工模拟体液和0.9%NaCl溶液中的腐蚀行为.通过测量纯镁丝材在人工模拟体液中的平均腐蚀速率和腐蚀后溶液的pH值来研究其腐蚀规律.通过扫描电子显微镜观察纯镁丝材腐蚀后人表面形貌,发现纯镁丝材的腐蚀机理为点腐蚀.而且,纯挤压—拉拔的纯镁丝材在0.9%NaCl溶液中的腐蚀行为表明,丝材的晶粒越细小丝材所表现出来的耐腐蚀性能越好.

  8. Fatal poisoning with Taxus baccata: quantification of paclitaxel (taxol A), 10-deacetyltaxol, baccatin III, 10-deacetylbaccatin III, cephalomannine (taxol B), and 3,5-dimethoxyphenol in body fluids by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobosch, T; Schwarze, B; Stoecklein, D; Binscheck, T

    2012-01-01

    This method development was to confirm the fatal ingestion of toxic yew plant material in postmortem samples (stomach content, urine, femoral blood, cardiac blood, bile, and brain tissue) collected from a 22-year-old man who committed suicide by ingesting yew leaves. The analytical method was based on a liquid-liquid extraction under alkaline conditions followed by LC-MS-MS analysis. Chromatographic separation was achieved by HPLC on a Kinetex C18 2.6u (100 × 3 mm) coupled to a QTRAP 5500 system. The method allows the simultaneous identification and quantification of the yew alkaloids taxoids paclitaxel (taxol A), 10-deacetyltaxol, baccatin III, 10-deacetylbaccatin III, cephalomannine (taxol B), and 3,5-dimethoxyphenol; the alkaloidal diterpenoids monoacetyltaxine, taxine B, monohydroxydiacetyltaxine, triacetyltaxine, and monohydroxytriacetyltaxine were also identified. The initial hypothesis of yew tree (Taxus baccata) poisoning was confirmed. The quantitative evaluation revealed taxoid concentrations ranging from 4.5 to 132 µg/L (stomach content), 1 to 200 µg/L (urine), <0.5 to 12 µg/L (cardiac blood), <0.5 to 7.3 µg/L (femoral blood), and 4.9 to 290 µg/L (bile). In brain tissue, none of these taxoids could be detected (<0.5 µg/L). In urine, after enzymatic hydrolysis, the concentration of 3,5-dimethoxyphenol (3,5-DMP) was 23,000 µg/L. The alkaloidal diterpenoids were found in all postmortem samples. The newly developed LC-MS-MS method enables the identification of alkaloidal and non-alkaloidal diterpenoids and 3,5-dimethoxyphenol in human body fluids and tissues for the confirmation of accidental or intentional poisonings with yew plant material.

  9. Human second trimester amniotic fluid cells are able to create embryoid body-like structures in vitro and to show typical expression profiles of embryonic and primordial germ cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonucci, Ivana; Di Pietro, Roberta; Alfonsi, Melissa; Centurione, Maria Antonietta; Centurione, Lucia; Sancilio, Silvia; Pelagatti, Francesca; D'Amico, Maria Angela; Di Baldassarre, Angela; Piattelli, Adriano; Tetè, Stefano; Palka, Giandomenico; Borlongan, Cesar V; Stuppia, Liborio

    2014-01-01

    Human amniotic fluid-derived stem cells (AFSCs) represent a novel class of broadly multipotent stem cells sharing characteristics of both embryonic and adult stem cells. However, both the origin of these cells and their actual properties in terms of pluripotent differentiation potential are still debated. In order to verify the presence of features of pluripotency in human second trimester AFSCs, we have investigated the ability of these cells to form in vitro three-dimensional aggregates, known as embryoid bodies (EBs), and to express specific genes of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and primordial germ cells (PGCs). EBs were obtained after 5 days of AFSC culture in suspension and showed positivity for alkaline phosphatase (AP) staining and for specific markers of pluripotency (OCT4 and SOX2). Moreover, EB-derived cells showed the expression of specific transcripts of the three germ layers. RT-PCR analysis, carried out at different culture times (second, third, fourth, fifth, and eighth passages), revealed the presence of specific markers of ESCs (such as FGF4 and DAPPA4), as well as of markers typical of PGCs and, in particular, genes involved in early stages of germ cell development (Fragilis, Stella, Vasa, c-Kit, Rnf17). Finally, the expression of genes related to the control of DNA methylation (DNMT3A, DNMT3b1, DNMT1, DNMT3L, MBD1, MBD2, MBD3, MDB4, MeCP2), as well as the lack of inactivation of the X-chromosome in female samples, was also demonstrated. Taken together, these data provide further evidence for the presence of common features among human AFSCs, PGCs, and ESCs.

  10. 带自由面流体的多体耗散粒子动力学模拟%The study of fluid with free surface by many-body dissipative particle dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周楠; 陈硕

    2014-01-01

    利用多体耗散粒子动力学(MDPD)方法对介观尺度下液滴动力学进行了模拟分析。探讨了MDPD系统中液气共存界面的形成,并对表面张力进行了模拟研究。研究结果表明, MDPD方法形成的液气共存界面满足Laplace定律。通过改变不同的粒子间保守力作用参数,获得了液滴在固体壁面上不同的接触角,并研究了保守力作用参数与接触角之间的变化规律。进一步模拟了液滴在复杂微通道内的流动,研究结果有助于解释带自由面流体在粗糙表面上的运动行为。%The dynamics of a drop on a mesoscopic scale is investigated by using the many-body dissipative particle dynamic (MDPD) method. The formation of liquid-vapor coexistence interface in the MDPD system is explored. The simulations of the pressure inside/outside the drop and the surface tension are carried out, and it is verified that Laplace’s law is satisfied in our simulation. Different contact angles are obtained by changing conservative interaction parameters between particles. The relationship between MDPD paremeters and contact angles is discussed. Based on the results, the flow behaviors of a drop moving in grooved microcannels are simulated. The results in this paper are useful in studying the fluid with free surfaces flow behavior on rough surface.

  11. Stirring by swimming bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider the stirring of an inviscid fluid caused by the locomotion of bodies through it. The swimmers are approximated by non-interacting cylinders or spheres moving steadily along straight lines. We find the displacement of fluid particles caused by the nearby passage of a swimmer as a function of an impact parameter. We use this to compute the effective diffusion coefficient from the random walk of a fluid particle under the influence of a distribution of swimming bodies. We compare with the results of simulations. For typical sizes, densities and swimming velocities of schools of krill, the effective diffusivity in this model is five times the thermal diffusivity. However, we estimate that viscosity increases this value by two orders of magnitude.

  12. Fundamental trends in fluid-structure interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Galdi, Giovanni P

    2010-01-01

    The interaction of a fluid with a solid body is a widespread phenomenon in nature, occurring at different scales and different applied disciplines. Interestingly enough, even though the mathematical theory of the motion of bodies in a liquid is one of the oldest and most classical problems in fluid mechanics, mathematicians have, only very recently, become interested in a systematic study of the basic problems related to fluid-structure interaction, from both analytical and numerical viewpoints. ""Fundamental Trends in Fluid-Structure Interaction"" is a unique collection of important papers wr

  13. Pumping fluids in microfluidic systems using the elastic deformation of poly(dimethylsiloxane).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weibel, Douglas B; Siegel, Adam C; Lee, Andrew; George, Alexander H; Whitesides, George M

    2007-12-01

    This paper demonstrates a methodology for storing and pumping fluids that provide a useful capability for microfluidic devices. It uses microfluidic screw valves to isolate fluids in poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microcompartments, in which the pressure of the liquid is stored in the elastic deformation of the walls and ceiling of the compartments. Fluids can be stored under pressure in these structures for months. When the valves are opened, the walls and ceiling push the fluid out of the compartments into microfluidic channels. The system has five useful characteristics: (i) it is made using soft lithographic techniques; (ii) it allows multiple reagents to be preloaded in devices and stored under pressure without any additional user intervention; (iii) it makes it possible to meter out fluids in devices, and to control rates of flow of fluids; (iv) it prevents the user from exposure to potentially toxic reagents; and (v) it is hand-operated and does not require additional equipment or resources. PMID:18030408

  14. Selective activation of neuromuscular compartments within the human trapezius muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, A; Roeleveld, K; Mork, P J;

    2009-01-01

    Task-dependent differences in relative activity between "functional" subdivisions within human muscles are well documented. Contrary, independent voluntary control of anatomical subdivisions, termed neuromuscular compartments is not observed in human muscles. Therefore, the main aim of this study...... was to investigate whether subdivisions within the human trapezius can be independently activated by voluntary command using biofeedback guidance. Bipolar electromyographical electrodes were situated on four subdivisions of the trapezius muscle. The threshold for "active" and "rest" for each subdivision was set...... to >12% and subdivisions, 11 of 15 subjects learned selective activation of at least one of the four anatomical subdivisions of the trapezius...

  15. Simulation of a compartment fire using a zone model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Lizhong; GUO Zaifu; JI Jingwei; FAN Weicheng

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the zone modeling analysis of a single compartment flashover fire. Two criteria are applied in the model to judge the onset of ignition for different combustibles. By calculating the total received energy through radiation or the surface temperature of the combustible, the fire growth can be quantitatively determined. The improved zone fire model shows the influence of different combustibles upon the fire growth. This model is better than the traditional zone model because the common criteria of flashover, i.e. an upper layer temperature of 600℃ and the heat radiation intensity received by the floor of 20 kW/m2, have not been applied in it.

  16. Taurine inhibits ischemia/reperfusion-induced compartment syndrome in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-xian WANG; Yan LI; Li-ke ZHANG; Jing ZHAO; Yong-zheng PANG; Chao-shu TANG; Jing ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To investigate effects of taurine on ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced compartment syndrome in rabbit hind limbs.Methods: Rabbits underwent femoral artery occ lusion after ligation of branches from terminal aorta to femoral artery.After a 7-h ischemia, reperfusion was established with the use of heparinized by iv infusion 10 min before shunt placement.During reperfusion, anterior compartment pressure (ACP) was monitored continuously in the left lower extremity.Gastrocnemius muscle triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) level, taurine content and myeloperoxidase activity were assayed.Oxidative stress was induced in the in vitro gastrocnemius muscle slices by free radical generating systems (FRGS),and the malondialdehyde content was measured in presence or absence of taurine.Results: After 7 h of ischemia, none of the parameters that we measured were different from those before ischemia, except that TTC reduction decreased by 80%.In the control group, after 2 h of reperfusion, ACP increased 4.5-fold, and gastrocnemius muscle taurine content was reduced by 33%.In taurine-treated animals, at 2 h reperfusion, the mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate were increased, by 6% and 10%.ACP decreased by 39%, muscle edema decreased by 16%, TTC reduction increased by 150%, and lactate dehydrogenase decreased by 36% compared to control group.Plasma and muscle taurine content increased by 70% and 88%, respectively.In the taurine-treated group, at 2 h reperfusion, plasma malondialdehyde and conjugated diene content were decreased by 38% and 23%,respectively, and muscle malondialdehyde and conjugated diene content decreased by 22% and 30%, respectively compared to the control group.At 2 h reperfusion,myeloperoxidase activity was increased 3.5-fold in control animals.In the in vitro study, taurine decreased malondialdehyde content in muscle slices incubated with hypochlorous acid in a dose-dependent manner, but there was no change when incubated with hydrogen peroxide and

  17. Foot posture in people with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feller Julian A

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foot posture has long been considered to contribute to the development of lower limb musculoskeletal conditions as it may alter the mechanical alignment and dynamic function of the lower limb. This study compared foot posture in people with and without medial compartment knee osteoarthritis (OA using a range of clinical foot measures. The reliability of the foot measures was also assessed. Methods The foot posture of 32 patients with clinically and radiographically-confirmed OA predominantly in the medial compartment of the knee and 28 asymptomatic age-matched healthy controls was investigated using the foot posture index (FPI, vertical navicular height and drop, and the arch index. Independent t tests and effect size (Cohen's d were used to investigate the differences between the groups in the foot posture measurements. Results Significant differences were found between the control and the knee OA groups in relation to the FPI (1.35 ± 1.43 vs. 2.46 ± 2.18, p = 0.02; d = 0.61, medium effect size, navicular drop (0.02 ± 0.01 vs. 0.03 ± 0.01, p = 0.01; d = 1.02, large effect size and the arch index (0.22 ± 0.04 vs. 0.26 ± 0.04, p = 0.04; d = 1.02, large effect size. No significant difference was found for vertical navicular height (0.24 ± 0.03 vs. 0.23 ± 0.03, p = 0.54; d = 0.04, negligible effect size. Conclusion People with medial compartment knee OA exhibit a more pronated foot type compared to controls. It is therefore recommended that the assessment of patients with knee OA in clinical practice should include simple foot measures, and that the potential influence of foot structure and function on the efficacy of foot orthoses in the management of medial compartment knee OA be further investigated.

  18. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Changes in Abdominal Compartments in Obese Diabetics during a Low-Calorie Weight-Loss Program

    OpenAIRE

    Lena J Vogt; Steveling, Antje; Meffert, Peter J.; Kromrey, Marie-Luise; Kessler, Rebecca; Hosten, Norbert; Krüger, Janine; Gärtner, Simone; Aghdassi, Ali A.; Mayerle, Julia; Lerch, Markus M.; Kühn, Jens-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate changes in the fat content of abdominal compartments and muscle area during weight loss using confounder-adjusted chemical-shift-encoded magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in overweight diabetics. Methods Twenty-nine obese diabetics (10/19 men/women, median age: 59.0 years, median body mass index (BMI): 34.0 kg/m2) prospectively joined a standardized 15-week weight-loss program (six weeks of formula diet exclusively, followed by reintroduction of regular food with grad...

  19. Fluid therapy for severe acute pancreatitis in acute response stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO En-qiang; TANG Yao-qing; FEI Jian; QIN Shuai; WU Jun; LI Lei; MIN Dong; ZHANG Sheng-dao

    2009-01-01

    Background Fluid therapy for severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) should not only resolve deficiency of blood volume, but also prevent fluid sequestration in acute response stage. Up to date, there has not a strategy for fluid therapy dedicated to SAP. So, this study was aimed to investigate the effects of fluid therapy treatment on prognosis of SAP. Methods Seventy-six patients were admitted prospectively according to the criteria within 72 hours of SAP onset. They were randomly assigned to a rapid fluid expansion group (Group I, n=36) and a controlled fluid expansion group (Group Ⅱ, n=40). Hemodynamic disorders were either quickly (fluid infusion rate was 10-15 ml·kg-1·h-1, Group Ⅰ) or gradually improved (fluid infusion rate was 5-10 ml·kg-1·h-1, Group Ⅱ) through controlling the rate of fluid infusion. Parameters of fluid expansion, blood lactate concentration were obtained when meeting the criteria for fluid expansion. And APACHE Ⅱ scores were obtained serially for 72 hours. Rate of mechanical ventilation, incidence of abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS), sepsis, and survival rate were obtained. Results The two groups had statistically different (P 0.05). Total amount of fluid sequestration within 4 days was higher in Group Ⅰ ((5378±2751)ml) than in Group Ⅱ ((4215±1998)ml, P<0.05). APACHE Ⅱ scores were higher in Group Ⅰ on days 1,2, and 3 (P<0.05). Rate of mechanical ventilation was higher in group Ⅰ (94.4%) than in group Ⅱ (65%, P<0.05). The incidences of abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) and sepsis were significantly lower in Group Ⅱ (P <0.05). Survival rate was remarkably lower in Group Ⅰ (69.4%) than in Group Ⅱ (90%, P <0.05). Conclusions Controlled fluid resuscitation offers better prognosis in patients with severe volume deficit within 72 hours of SAP onset.

  20. R Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caimmi, R.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A theory of collisionless fluids is developed in a unified picture, where nonrotating $(widetilde{Omega_1}=widetilde{Omega_2}= widetilde{Omega_3}=0$ figures with some given random velocity component distributions, and rotating $(widetilde{Omega_1} ewidetilde{Omega_2} e widetilde{Omega_3} $ figures with a different random velocity component distributions, make adjoint configurations to the same system. R fluids are defined as ideal, self-gravitating fluids satisfying the virial theorem assumptions, in presence of systematic rotation around each of the principal axes of inertia. To this aim, mean and rms angular velocities and mean and rms tangential velocity components are expressed, by weighting on the moment of inertia and the mass, respectively. The figure rotation is defined as the mean angular velocity, weighted on the moment of inertia, with respectto a selected axis. The generalized tensor virial equations (Caimmi and Marmo 2005 are formulated for R fluidsand further attention is devoted to axisymmetric configurations where, for selected coordinateaxes, a variation in figure rotation has to be counterbalanced by a variation in anisotropy excess and viceversa. A microscopical analysis of systematic and random motions is performed under a fewgeneral hypotheses, by reversing the sign of tangential or axial velocity components of anassigned fraction of particles, leaving the distribution function and other parametersunchanged (Meza 2002. The application of the reversion process to tangential velocitycomponents is found to imply the conversion of random motion rotation kinetic energy intosystematic motion rotation kinetic energy. The application ofthe reversion process to axial velocity components is found to imply the conversionof random motion translation kinetic energy into systematic motion translation kinetic energy, and theloss related to a change of reference frame is expressed in terms of systematic motion (imaginary rotation kinetic

  1. Involvement of the mitochondrial compartment in human NCL fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pezzini, Francesco; Gismondi, Floriana [Department of Neurological, Psychological, Morphological and Motor Sciences, Divisions of Neurology (Child Neurology) and Neuropathology, University of Verona Medical School, Verona (Italy); Tessa, Alessandra [IRCCS Fondazione Stella Maris-Molecular Medicine Unit, Pisa (Italy); Tonin, Paola [Department of Neurological, Psychological, Morphological and Motor Sciences, Divisions of Neurology (Child Neurology) and Neuropathology, University of Verona Medical School, Verona (Italy); Carrozzo, Rosalba [IRCCS Bambino Gesu Hospital-Molecular Medicine Unit, Roma (Italy); Mole, Sara E. [MRC Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology, Molecular Medicines Unit, UCL Institute of Child Health and Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment, University College London (United Kingdom); Santorelli, Filippo M. [IRCCS Fondazione Stella Maris-Molecular Medicine Unit, Pisa (Italy); Simonati, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.simonati@univr.it [Department of Neurological, Psychological, Morphological and Motor Sciences, Divisions of Neurology (Child Neurology) and Neuropathology, University of Verona Medical School, Verona (Italy)

    2011-12-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mitochondrial reticulum fragmentation occurs in human CLN1 and CLN6 fibroblasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Likewise mitochondrial shift-to periphery and decreased mitochondrial density are seen. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enhanced caspase-mediated apoptosis occurs following STS treatment in CLN1 fibroblasts. -- Abstract: Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) are a group of progressive neurodegenerative disorders of childhood, characterized by the endo-lysosomal storage of autofluorescent material. Impaired mitochondrial function is often associated with neurodegeneration, possibly related to the apoptotic cascade. In this study we investigated the possible effects of lysosomal accumulation on the mitochondrial compartment in the fibroblasts of two NCL forms, CLN1 and CLN6. Fragmented mitochondrial reticulum was observed in all cells by using the intravital fluorescent marker Mitotracker, mainly in the perinuclear region. This was also associated with intense signal from the lysosomal markers Lysotracker and LAMP2. Likewise, mitochondria appeared to be reduced in number and shifted to the cell periphery by electron microscopy; moreover the mitochondrial markers VDCA and COX IV were reduced following quantitative Western blot analysis. Whilst there was no evidence of increased cell death under basal condition, we observed a significant increase in apoptotic nuclei following Staurosporine treatment in CLN1 cells only. In conclusion, the mitochondrial compartment is affected in NCL fibroblasts invitro, and CLN1 cells seem to be more vulnerable to the negative effects of stressed mitochondrial membrane than CLN6 cells.

  2. Delayed Presentation of Gluteal Compartment Syndrome: The Argument for Fasciotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A male patient in his fifties presented to his local hospital with numbness and weakness of the right leg which left him unable to mobilise. He reported injecting heroin the previous morning. Following an initial diagnosis of acute limb ischaemia the patient was transferred to a tertiary centre where Computed Tomography Angiography was reported as normal. Detailed neurological examination revealed weakness in hip flexion and extension (1/5 on the Medical Research Council scale with complete paralysis of muscle groups distal to this. Sensation to pinprick and light touch was globally reduced. Blood tests revealed acute kidney injury with raised creatinine kinase and the patient was treated for rhabdomyolysis. Orthopaedic referral was made the following day and a diagnosis of gluteal compartment syndrome (GCS was made. Emergency fasciotomy was performed 56 hours after the onset of symptoms. There was immediate neurological improvement following decompression and the patient was rehabilitated with complete nerve recovery and function at eight-week follow-up. This is the first documented case of full functional recovery following a delayed presentation of GCS with sciatic nerve palsy. We discuss the arguments for and against fasciotomy in cases of compartment syndrome with significant delay in presentation or diagnosis.

  3. Activated G Protein Gαs Samples Multiple Endomembrane Compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Brent R; Lambert, Nevin A

    2016-09-23

    Heterotrimeric G proteins are localized to the plasma membrane where they transduce extracellular signals to intracellular effectors. G proteins also act at intracellular locations, and can translocate between cellular compartments. For example, Gαs can leave the plasma membrane and move to the cell interior after activation. However, the mechanism of Gαs translocation and its intracellular destination are not known. Here we use bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) to show that after activation, Gαs rapidly associates with the endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, and endosomes, consistent with indiscriminate sampling of intracellular membranes from the cytosol rather than transport via a specific vesicular pathway. The primary source of Gαs for endosomal compartments is constitutive endocytosis rather than activity-dependent internalization. Recycling of Gαs to the plasma membrane is complete 25 min after stimulation is discontinued. We also show that an acylation-deacylation cycle is important for the steady-state localization of Gαs at the plasma membrane, but our results do not support a role for deacylation in activity-dependent Gαs internalization. PMID:27528603

  4. Iron repletion relocalizes hephaestin to a proximal basolateral compartment in polarized MDCK and Caco2 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung-Min [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Columbia, NY (United States); Department of Nutritional Science and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Attieh, Zouhair K. [Department of Laboratory Science and Technology, American University of Science and Technology, Ashrafieh (Lebanon); Department of Nutritional Science and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Son, Hee Sook [Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, College of Human Ecology, Chonbuk National University (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nutritional Science and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Chen, Huijun [Medical School, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210008, Jiangsu Province (China); Department of Nutritional Science and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Bacouri-Haidar, Mhenia [Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences (I), Lebanese University, Hadath (Lebanon); Department of Nutritional Science and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Vulpe, Chris D., E-mail: vulpe@berkeley.edu [Department of Nutritional Science and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-05-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hephaestin localizes in the perinuclear space in non-polarized cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hephaestin localizes in the perinuclear space in iron deficient and polarized cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hephaestin with apical iron moves near to basolateral membrane of polarized cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Peri-basolateral location of hephaestin is accessible to the extracellular space. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hephaestin is involved in iron mobilization from the intestine to circulation. -- Abstract: While intestinal cellular iron entry in vertebrates employs multiple routes including heme and non-heme routes, iron egress from these cells is exclusively channeled through the only known transporter, ferroportin. Reduced intestinal iron export in sex-linked anemia mice implicates hephaestin, a ferroxidase, in this process. Polarized cells are exposed to two distinct environments. Enterocytes contact the gut lumen via the apical surface of the cell, and through the basolateral surface, to the body. Previous studies indicate both local and systemic control of iron uptake. We hypothesized that differences in iron availability at the apical and/or basolateral surface may modulate iron uptake via cellular localization of hephaestin. We therefore characterized the localization of hephaestin in two models of polarized epithelial cell lines, MDCK and Caco2, with varying iron availability at the apical and basolateral surfaces. Our results indicate that hephaestin is expressed in a supra-nuclear compartment in non-polarized cells regardless of the iron status of the cells and in iron deficient and polarized cells. In polarized cells, we found that both apical (as FeSO{sub 4}) and basolateral iron (as the ratio of apo-transferrin to holo-transferrin) affect mobilization of hephaestin from the supra-nuclear compartment. We find that the presence of apical iron is essential for relocalization of hephaestin to a

  5. A Multi-Compartment Hybrid Computational Model Predicts Key Roles for Dendritic Cells in Tuberculosis Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeone Marino

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is a world-wide health problem with approximately 2 billion people infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb, the causative bacterium of TB. The pathologic hallmark of Mtb infection in humans and Non-Human Primates (NHPs is the formation of spherical structures, primarily in lungs, called granulomas. Infection occurs after inhalation of bacteria into lungs, where resident antigen-presenting cells (APCs, take up bacteria and initiate the immune response to Mtb infection. APCs traffic from the site of infection (lung to lung-draining lymph nodes (LNs where they prime T cells to recognize Mtb. These T cells, circulating back through blood, migrate back to lungs to perform their immune effector functions. We have previously developed a hybrid agent-based model (ABM, labeled GranSim describing in silico immune cell, bacterial (Mtb and molecular behaviors during tuberculosis infection and recently linked that model to operate across three physiological compartments: lung (infection site where granulomas form, lung draining lymph node (LN, site of generation of adaptive immunity and blood (a measurable compartment. Granuloma formation and function is captured by a spatio-temporal model (i.e., ABM, while LN and blood compartments represent temporal dynamics of the whole body in response to infection and are captured with ordinary differential equations (ODEs. In order to have a more mechanistic representation of APC trafficking from the lung to the lymph node, and to better capture antigen presentation in a draining LN, this current study incorporates the role of dendritic cells (DCs in a computational fashion into GranSim. Results: The model was calibrated using experimental data from the lungs and blood of NHPs. The addition of DCs allowed us to investigate in greater detail mechanisms of recruitment, trafficking and antigen presentation and their role in tuberculosis infection. Conclusion: The main conclusion of this study is

  6. Study on Noise Reduction Mechanism of Flow Induced Noise for Flexible Body Based on Fluid-structure Interaction%基于流固耦合作用的柔性体流噪声降噪机理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘占生; 马瑞贤; 杨帆; 张广辉

    2016-01-01

    The flow induced noise by the interaction between structure and fluid for rudder is one of dominant sources of hydrodynamic noise, featured by broadband noise, which is difficult to be controlled by ordinary noise reduction measures, but a solution is provided by flexible rudder. The unsteady flow field and flow induced noise of a flexible NACA0018 airfoil are simulated using large eddy simulation method, along with the FW-H equation which considers the arbitrary boundary movement. The interaction between flexible body and fluid is taken into account by weak coupling method. Then the influence of airfoil’s flexible deformation on flow field, noise source, and sound radiation characters under different attack angles are analyzed systematically. The simulation results show that flow separation is postponed by the deformation, turbulence region is contracted, and wall pressure fluctuation is suppressed. The sound source intensity of transitional boundary-layer and turbulent flow are decreased, and it is reduced for laminar flow under large angle of attack, but increased under small attack angle. With attack angle increasing the radiated far-field overall sound pressure level varies in different ways in chord-length and normal directions, and their sound frequency properties are also affected by the flexible deformation unlikely.%舵体与流体相互作用产生的流噪声是水动力噪声的主要来源之一,这种噪声以宽频噪声为主,一般的降噪措施难以对其进行有效控制,而柔性舵体提供了解决的技术方案。以柔性 NACA0018翼型为对象,基于流场大涡模拟、考虑任意运动固体边界的声学FW-H方程、并进一步利用弱耦合流固耦合算法考虑流体与柔性体的相互作用,对柔性翼型绕流非定常流场及流致噪声进行仿真,系统地分析不同攻角下柔性体的变形对流动、声源特性及流噪声辐射特性的影响。仿真结果表明:柔性体的变形延缓

  7. Fluid management in surgical patients Manejo de líquidos en el paciente quirúrgico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkín Ferdinand Cardona Duque

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Fluid administration and resuscitation are an integral part in the management of surgical patients and the choice of fluids in any given situation is a topic of much debate. Understanding body fluid distribution by compartments enables the clinician to assess an individual´s deficits during critical illness or surgery, and to replace losses with the appropriate resuscitative fluid. Normal physiology is well understood, but patterns of fluid deficits and distributions remain controversial in some critically ill patients. This has resulted in some controversy concerning appropriate use of crystalloids and colloids in critical illness. We present a review and guide to perioperative fluid management of adult and pediatric surgical patients, including preoperative, intra and postoperative replacement. La administración de líquidos y la resucitación hacen parte integral del manejo del paciente quirúrgico y la escogencia del líquido en cualquier situación es motivo de debate. El entender la distribución corporal de los líquidos por compartimentos permite al clínico evaluar los déficits individuales en el paciente críticamente enfermo o en el quirúrgico y reemplazar las pérdidas con el fluido adecuado. La fisiología está bien entendida, pero los patrones de déficits y la distribución de líquidos son aún motivo de controversia en algunos pacientes críticos, lo que ha generado algún debate en cuanto al uso apropiado de cristaloides o coloides en dichos pacientes. Se presenta seguidamente una revisión y guía sobre el manejo perioperatorio del paciente quirúrgico adulto y pediátrico, incluyendo el reemplazo de líquidos antes, durante y después de la cirugía.

  8. MALDI Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Lipids and Gene Expression Reveals Differences in Fatty Acid Metabolism between Follicular Compartments in Porcine Ovaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Uzbekova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, oocytes develop inside the ovarian follicles; this process is strongly supported by the surrounding follicular environment consisting of cumulus, granulosa and theca cells, and follicular fluid. In the antral follicle, the final stages of oogenesis require large amounts of energy that is produced by follicular cells from substrates including glucose, amino acids and fatty acids (FAs. Since lipid metabolism plays an important role in acquiring oocyte developmental competence, the aim of this study was to investigate site-specificity of lipid metabolism in ovaries by comparing lipid profiles and expression of FA metabolism-related genes in different ovarian compartments. Using MALDI Mass Spectrometry Imaging, images of porcine ovary sections were reconstructed from lipid ion signals for the first time. Cluster analysis of ion spectra revealed differences in spatial distribution of lipid species among ovarian compartments, notably between the follicles and interstitial tissue. Inside the follicles analysis differentiated follicular fluid, granulosa, theca and the oocyte-cumulus complex. Moreover, by transcript quantification using real time PCR, we showed that expression of five key genes in FA metabolism significantly varied between somatic follicular cells (theca, granulosa and cumulus and the oocyte. In conclusion, lipid metabolism differs between ovarian and follicular compartments.

  9. 硅酸盐水泥在模拟体液中降解和矿化性能%Degradability and biomineralization ability of Portland cement in simulated body fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈耀忠; 吕晓迎; 刘根娣

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the degradability and biomineralization ability of Portland cement (PC ), samples of PC were immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF)for 3,7 and 14 d respectively.X-ray diffraction (XRD),a Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR)and a scanning electron microscope (SEM)were used to investigate the biomineralization ability of PC;meanwhile,the weight loss of the samples and the pH value changes of their immersion media were monitored.The results show that with the soaking time prolonged,the weight of PC increases.The immersion media has a high alkalinity in the first three days,and then,the pH value declines.The XRD and FTIR patterns and the SEM images show that in SBF for 3 days,calcium carbonate is formed on the sur-face of PC and for 7 days carbonated hydroxyapatite is formed.Therefore,PC displays good biomin-eralization ability in SBF.%为了检测硅酸盐水泥(PC)在模拟体液(SBF)中降解和生物矿化性能,将硅酸盐水泥样品分别浸泡于模拟体液3,7及14 d后,采用X射线衍射仪(XRD)、傅里叶红外光谱(FTIR)及扫描电镜(SEM)等方法研究其生物矿化性能;并同时检测其失重率及模拟体液浸泡液的pH值变化情况.研究结果发现:随着浸泡时间的增长,硅酸盐水泥的质量增加;模拟体液在浸泡前3d碱性较强,随后其pH值逐渐降低.X射线衍射、红外光谱图谱及扫描电镜图像表明:硅酸盐水泥浸泡3d后,在其表面有碳酸钙生成;浸泡7d后,其表面有碳酸羟基磷灰石生成.因此,硅酸盐水泥具有良好的生物矿化能力.

  10. Research progress of body fluid neurons in the regulation of innate immunity in Caenorhabditis Elegans%体液调控神经元在调控秀丽线虫固有免疫中的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马安然

    2015-01-01

    秀丽隐杆线虫在受到病原菌感染时,会迅速激活固有免疫。神经免疫间的交流可以通过神经系统释放神经递质、神经肽及激素来调控固有免疫反应,包括已知的多巴胺信号通路、TGF-β信号通路和胰岛素信号通路。近年来的研究表明,NPR-1神经环路也参与固有免疫的调控,并且三个体液调控神经元 AQR、PQR 和 URX 是通过 NPR-1神经环路调节固有免疫的。线虫的神经系统只有302个神经元,结构也相对简单,线虫的 npr-1基因可编码与哺乳动物神经肽 Y(neuropeptideY,NPY)具有受体相似的 GPCR,这些优势为研究高等生物神经免疫间交流的分子机制提供了基础。本文就体液调控神经元在调控秀丽线虫固有免疫方面展开讨论,希望可以为高等生物神经免疫间的调节机制提供重要的思路和方法。%Caenorhabditis elegans would rapidly activate innate immunity once being infected with pathogens. Neuro-immune interactions which are through the nervous system to release such as neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and hormones to regulate the innate immune response. Those pathways include known dopamine signaling pathway, TGF-β signaling pathway and insulin signaling pathways. Recent studies show that NPR-1 neural circuits are also involved in the regulation of innate immunity and three neurons AQR, PQR and URX exposed to body fluid are under the regulation of NPR-1 neural circuits. Elegans nervous system has only 302 neurons and the structure is relatively simple and the npr-1 gene of elegans can encode GPCR which is similar to the mammalian neuropeptide Y (neuropeptideY, NPY) receptor, providing an edge for studying higher organisms on neuro-immune interactions. Research progress in relation to the field has been reviewed in present paper.

  11. Preterm labor and preterm premature rupture of membranes have a different pattern in the involved compartments of acute histologoic chorioamnionitis and/or funisitis: Patho-physiologic implication related to different clinical manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan-Wook; Park, Joong Shin; Moon, Kyung Chul; Jun, Jong Kwan; Yoon, Bo Hyun

    2016-06-01

    It is unknown whether histo-topographic findings about the involved compartments (i.e., choriodecidua, amnion, chorionic-plate) of acute-histologic chorioamnionitis (acute-HCA) and/or funisitis according to the presence or absence of intra-amniotic inflammation (IAI) and/or fetal inflammatory response syndrome (FIRS) are different between preterm labor and intact membranes (PTL) and preterm premature rupture of membranes (preterm-PROM). The involved compartments of acute-HCA and/or funisitis were examined in 161 singleton preterm-births (preterm-PROM (n = 73). The study-population was divided into IAI(-)/FIRS(-), IAI(+)/FIRS(-), and IAI(+)/FIRS(+) groups according to the presence or absence of IAI (amniotic-fluid MMP-8 ≥ 23 ng/ml) and/or FIRS (umbilical-cord plasma CRP ≥ 200 ng/ml). Histological inflammation was not detected in any-compartment except choriodecidua in IAI(-)/FIRS(-) group with PTL while inflammation appeared in all-compartment0s (choriodeciduitis-46.2 %; amnionitis-23.1 %; funisitis-30.8 %; chorionic-plate inflammation-7.7 %) in IAI(-)/FIRS(-) group with preterm-PROM. IAI(+)/FIRS(-) group had a significantly higher frequency of inflammation in each-compartment than IAI(-)/FIRS(-) group in PTL (each-for P preterm-PROM (each-for P > 0.1). However, IAI(+)/FIRS(+) group had a significantly higher rate of inflammation in each compartment than IAI(+)/FIRS(-) group in both PTL and preterm-PROM (each-for P preterm-PROM had a different pattern in the involved compartments of acute-HCA and/or funisitis in the IAI(-)/FIRS(--) group and in the change of involved compartments from IAI(-)/FIRS(-) to IAI(+)/FIRS(-).

  12. Body composition and diet of Chinese, Malays and Indians in Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Deurenberg-Yap, M.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis describes the studies on body composition and dietary intakes of the three major ethnic groups residing in Singapore, and how these are related to cardiovascular risk factors in these groups.Body composition : Body fat percentage was measured using a four-compartment model described by Baumgartner. When the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage was studied, it was discovered that Singaporeans have higher percentage of body fat compared to Caucasians wi...

  13. The Rice RMR1 Associates with a Distinct Prevacuolar Compartment for the Protein Storage Vacuole Pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Shen; Junqi Wang; Yu Ding; SzeWan Lo; Guillaume Gouzerh; Jean-Marc Neuhaus; Liwen Jiang

    2011-01-01

    Transport of vacuolar proteins from Golgi apparatus or trans-Golgi network (TGN) to vacuoles is a receptormediated process via an intermediate membrane-bound prevacuolar compartment (PVC) in plant cells.Both vacuolar sorting receptor (VSR) and receptor homology region-transmembrane domain-RING-H2 (RMR) proteins have been shown to function in transporting storage proteins to protein storage vacuole (PSV),but little is known about the nature of the PVC for the PSV pathway.Here,we use the rice RMR1 (OsRMR1) as a probe to study the PSV pathway in plants.Immunogold electron microscopy (EM) with specific OsRMR1 antibodies showed that OsRMR1 proteins were found in the Golgi apparatus,TGN,and a distinct organelle with characteristics of PVC in both rice culture cells and developing rice seeds,as well as the protein body type Ⅱ (PBII) or PSV in developing rice seeds.This organelle,also found in both tobacco BY-2 and Arabidopsis suspension cultured cells,is morphologically distinct from the VSR-positive multivesicular lytic PVC or multivesicular body (MVB) and thus represent a PVC for the PSV pathway that we name storage PVC (sPVC).Further in vivo and in vitro interaction studies using truncated OsRMR1 proteins secreted into the culture media of transgenic BY-2 suspension cells demonstrated that OsRMR1 functions as a sorting receptor in transporting vicilin-like storage proteins.

  14. On the atmosphere of a moving body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Johan Rønby; Aref, Hassan

    2010-01-01

    We explore whether a rigid body moving freely with no circulation around it in a two-dimensional ideal fluid can carry a fluid "atmosphere" with it in its motion. Somewhat surprisingly, the answer appears to be "yes." When the body is elongated and the motion is dominated by rotation, we...... demonstrate numerically that, indeed, regions of fluid follow the body in its motion. We see this as an example of the stability of Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser tori. These observations of an atmosphere around a moving body with no circulation around it appear to be new. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics...

  15. On the atmosphere of a moving body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Johan Rønby; Aref, Hassan

    2010-01-01

    We have explored whether a rigid body moving freely with no circulation around it in a two-dimensional ideal fluid can carry a fluid ``atmosphere'' with it in its motion. Somewhat surprisingly, the answer appears to be ``yes''. When the body is elongated and the motion is dominated by rotation, we...... demonstrate numerically that, indeed, regions of fluid follow the body in its motion. Since there is a double-island structure for the case of pure rotation, as already found by Morton and Darwin many years ago, we see the existence of an atmosphere for the moving body as an example of the stability...

  16. Role of Psoas Compartment Block in Lower Back Pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To compare the clinical and cost effectiveness of Psoas compartment block (PCB) and lumbar epidural over a period of one month in patients suffering from low back pain and radiclupathy. Methods: This study was conducted at Railway Hospital Rawalpindi over a period of one year from September 2011 to September 2012. Patients of either sex between 30 to 80 years of age, full filling the study diagnostic criteria were selected by non probability purposive sampling. Patients were divided into two treatment groups. One received epidural analgesia and other received psoas compartment block. Relevant history was recorded on proforma. Pre and post treatment pain scores were recorded using VAS and Pakistan Coin Scale (PCS) at day 1, week 1, and at the end of 1 month. In group 1 PCB was administered and in group 2 lumbar epidural was given under strict aseptic measures. In each group dose of depomedrol with lignocaine was injected according to patient's weight. Data Analysis and Result: At baseline, average VAS for group-I was 7.209 (SD=0.640) while in group-II it was 7.310 (SD=0.680). Both the groups had similar VAS at baseline with insignificant difference (p=0.438). At day 1, average VAS was significantly lower (p<0.001) in group-I as compared to group-II i.e. 2.030+-0.491 vs. 3.357+-1.008. After one week, average VAS for group-I was 2.851(SD=0.609) while in group-II it was 3.810 (SD=1.087). Group-II had significantly higher VAS as compared to group-I (p<0.001). After one month, average VAS for group-I was 3.060 (SD=0.625) while in group-II it was 4.333 (SD=1.004). VAS of group-II was significantly higher as compared to group-I(p<0.001). Conclusion: Patients who were given Psoas compartment block were more satisfied as compared to epidural. Their VAS was significantly lower, at day one, but after one week and at the end of one month VAS/PCS was still lower in group I and it was significant. So PCB is easy to apply and it is cost effective as compare to lumbar

  17. Tumor interstitial fluid formation, characterization and clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek eWagner

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The interstitium, situated between the blood and lymph vessels and the cells, consists of a solid or matrix phase and a fluid phase, together constituting the tissue microenvironment. In the present review we focus on the interstitial fluid phase of solid tumors (TIF, i.e. the fluid bathing the tumor and stroma cells, also including immune cells. This is a component of the internal milieu of a solid tumor that has attracted regained attention. Access to this compartment may provide important insight into how tumors develop and how they respond to therapy. TIF is formed by transcapillary filtration, and since fluid is not readily available we discuss available techniques for TIF isolation, results from subsequent characterization and implications of recent findings with respect to transcapillary fluid balance and uptake of macromolecular therapeutic agents. It has recently been shown that local gradients exist in signaling substances from neoplastic tissue to plasma that may provide new insight into the biology of tumors. The emergence of sensitive proteomic technologies has made the interstitial fluid compartment in general, but that of tumors in particular, a highly valuable source for tissue specific proteins that may serve as biomarker candidates. Potential biomarkers will appear locally at high concentrations in the tissue of interest and will eventually appear in the plasma where they are diluted. Access to fluid that reliably reflects the local microenvironment enables us to identify substances that can be used in early detection and monitoring of disease.

  18. Interstitial fluid: the overlooked component of the tumor microenvironment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiig Helge

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interstitium, situated between the blood and lymph vessels and the cells, consists of a solid or matrix phase and a fluid phase, together constituting the tissue microenvironment. Here we focus on the interstitial fluid phase of tumors, i.e., the fluid bathing the tumor and stromal cells. Novel knowledge on this compartment may provide important insight into how tumors develop and how they respond to therapy. Results We discuss available techniques for interstitial fluid isolation and implications of recent findings with respect to transcapillary fluid balance and uptake of macromolecular therapeutic agents. By the development of new methods it is emerging that local gradients exist in signaling substances from neoplastic tissue to plasma. Such gradients may provide new insight into the biology of tumors and mechanistic aspects linked to therapy. The emergence of sensitive proteomic technologies has made the interstitial fluid compartment in general and that of tumors in particular a highly valuable source for tissue-specific proteins that may serve as biomarker candidates. Potential biomarkers will appear locally at high concentrations in the tissue of interest and will eventually appear in the plasma, where they are diluted. Conclusions Access to fluid that reliably reflects the local microenvironment enables us to identify substances that can be used in early detection and monitoring of disease.

  19. Fluid Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pnueli, David; Gutfinger, Chaim

    1997-01-01

    This text is intended for the study of fluid mechanics at an intermediate level. The presentation starts with basic concepts, in order to form a sound conceptual structure that can support engineering applications and encourage further learning. The presentation is exact, incorporating both the mathematics involved and the physics needed to understand the various phenomena in fluid mechanics. Where a didactical choice must be made between the two, the physics prevails. Throughout the book the authors have tried to reach a balance between exact presentation, intuitive grasp of new ideas, and creative applications of concepts. This approach is reflected in the examples presented in the text and in the exercises given at the end of each chapter. Subjects treated are hydrostatics, viscous flow, similitude and order of magnitude, creeping flow, potential flow, boundary layer flow, turbulent flow, compressible flow, and non-Newtonian flows. This book is ideal for advanced undergraduate students in mechanical, chemical, aerospace, and civil engineering. Solutions manual available.

  20. Oil Body Biogenesis during Brassica napus Embryogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Qing He; Yan Wu

    2009-01-01

    Although the oil body is known to be an important membrane enclosed compartment for oil storage in seeds, we have little understanding about its biogenesis during embryogenesis. In the present study we investigated the oil body emergence and variations in Brassica napus cv. Topas. The results demonstrate that the oil bodies could be detected already at the heart stage, at the same time as the embryos began to tum green, and the starch grains accumulated in the chloroplast stroma. In comparison, we have studied the development of oil bodies between Arabidopsis thaliana wild type (Col) and the low-seed-oil mutant wrinkled1-3. We observed that the oil body development in the embryos of Col is similar to that of B. napus cv. Topas, and that the size of the oil bodies was obviously smaller in the embryos of wrinkled1-3. Our results suggest that the oil body biogenesis might be coupled with the embryo chloroplast.