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Sample records for body fat accumulation

  1. Whole body, regional fat accumulation, and appetite-related hormonal response after hypoxic training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishima, Takuma; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Goto, Kazushige

    2014-03-01

    The present study was conducted to determine change in regional fat accumulation and appetite-related hormonal response following hypoxic training. Twenty sedentary subjects underwent hypoxic (n = 9, HYPO, FiO(2) = 15%) or normoxic training (n = 11, NOR, FiO(2) = 20·9%) during a 4-week period (3 days per week). They performed a 4-week training at 55% of maximal oxygen uptake (V·O(2max)) for each condition. Before and after the training period, V·O(2max), whole body fat mass, abdominal fat area, intramyocellular lipid content (IMCL), fasting and postprandial appetite-related hormonal responses were determined. Both groups showed a significant increase in V·O(2max) following training (Pdecreased in both groups (Pappetite-related hormones.

  2. Several statins increase body and liver fat accumulation in a model of metabolic syndrome.

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    Aguirre, L; Hijona, E; Macarulla, M T; Gracia, A; Larrechi, I; Bujanda, L; Hijona, L; Portillo, M P

    2013-06-01

    Statins are a family of drugs used in hypercholesterolemia. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of statins on body and liver fat accumulation in obese Zucker rats. Seventy Zucker (fa/fa) rats were divided into seven groups. Rats from six statin groups were treated with pravastatin, simvastatin, atorvastatin, rosuvastatin, fluvastatin and lovastatin respectively, at a dose of 0.6 mg/kg body weight/day. After 6 weeks, liver and white adipose tissue from intra-abdominal and subcutaneous locations were dissected and weighed. Subcutaneous adipose tissue from rosuvastatin, atorvastatin, fluvastatin and lovastatin treated rats was significantly increased. Fatty acid synthase (FAS) activity was increased by the administration of fluvastatin and lovastatin, as was glucose-6-P dehydrogenase (G6PDH) by the administration of atorvastatin and lovastatin. No changes were observed in malic enzyme (ME) activity. Furthermore, heparin-releasable lipoprotein lipase (HR-LPL) was increased in all groups where the subcutaneous depot was increased, and total LPL increased only in rosuvastatin and fluvastatin-treated groups. With regard to liver, there were no changes in weight but the amount of triacylglycerols was increased in rosuvastatin group, as well as its liver damage was higher. In this group FAS and G6PDH activities were increased and no changes were observed in ME, acyl CoA oxidase (ACO) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1a (CPT-1a) activities. All statins, with the exception of simvastatin, worsen insulin resistance. These results show that statins have different effects on body fat accumulation. Moreover, rosuvastatin also shows a prosteatotic effect. These results should be taken into account for statin choice in prescription.

  3. Quercetin decreases high-fat diet induced body weight gain and accumulation of hepatic and circulating lipids in mice.

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    Hoek-van den Hil, E F; van Schothorst, E M; van der Stelt, I; Swarts, H J M; Venema, D; Sailer, M; Vervoort, J J M; Hollman, P C H; Rietjens, I M C M; Keijer, J

    2014-09-01

    Dietary flavonoids may protect against cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Increased circulating lipid levels and hepatic lipid accumulation are known risk factors for CVD. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and underlying molecular mechanisms of the flavonoid quercetin on hepatic lipid metabolism in mice with high-fat diet induced body weight gain and hepatic lipid accumulation. Adult male mice received a 40 energy% high-fat diet without or with supplementation of 0.33 % (w/w) quercetin for 12 weeks. Body weight gain was 29 % lower in quercetin fed mice (p lipid accumulation to 29 % of the amount present in the control mice (p lipid profiling revealed that the supplementation significantly lowered serum lipid levels. Global gene expression profiling of liver showed that cytochrome P450 2b (Cyp2b) genes, key target genes of the transcription factor constitutive androstane receptor (Car; official symbol Nr1i3), were downregulated. Quercetin decreased high-fat diet induced body weight gain, hepatic lipid accumulation and serum lipid levels. This was accompanied by regulation of cytochrome P450 2b genes in liver, which are possibly under transcriptional control of CAR. The quercetin effects are likely dependent on the fat content of the diet.

  4. Low physical activity accentuates the effect of the FTO rs9939609 polymorphism on body fat accumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Camilla H; Stender-Petersen, Kirstine L; Mogensen, Mette S

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Three independent studies have shown that variation in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene associates with BMI and obesity. In the present study, the effect of FTO variation on metabolic traits including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and related quantitative phenotypes...... homozygous risk A-allele carriers had a 1.95 +/- 0.3 kg/m(2) increase in BMI compared with homozygous T-allele carriers. CONCLUSIONS: We validate that variation in FTO is associated with type 2 diabetes when not adjusted for BMI and with an overall increase in body fat mass. Furthermore, low physical...... was examined. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The FTO rs9939609 polymorphism was genotyped in a total of 17,508 Danes from five different study groups. RESULTS: In studies of 3,856 type 2 diabetic case subjects and 4,861 normal glucose-tolerant control subjects, the minor A-allele of rs9939609 associated...

  5. Weak effect of trans-10, cis-12-conjugated linoleic acid on body fat accumulation in adult hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Jonatan; Churruca, Itziar; Fernández-Quintela, Alfredo; Rodríguez, Victor Manuel; Macarulla, María Teresa; Simón, Edurne; Portillo, María Puy

    2009-12-01

    It has been proposed that young animals and subjects are more responsive to conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) than the adults. Nevertheless, there is very little information concerning the effectiveness of CLA in adult animals. In the present study we aimed to explore the effects of trans-10, cis-12-CLA on body fat accumulation in adult hamsters, as well as on some of the molecular mechanisms described in young animals as responsible for the CLA body fat-lowering effect, such as lipogenesis, lipoprotein lipase (LPL)-mediated fat uptake and thermogenesis. The experiment was conducted with sixteen adult male Syrian Golden hamsters (aged 8 months) fed a high-fat diet supplemented or not with 0.5 % trans-10, cis-12-CLA for 6 weeks. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACX), fatty acid synthase (FAS), LPL, PPARgamma, sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1a and SREBP-1c expressions were assessed in subcutaneous and perirenal adipose tissues by real-time RT-PCR. Total and heparin-releasable LPL activities were determined in subcutaneous adipose tissue by fluorimetry and FAS activity by spectrophotometry. Uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) expression in interscapular brown adipose tissue was assessed by Western blot. Hamsters fed the trans-10, cis-12-CLA diet showed a significant reduction in subcutaneous adipose tissue. No changes were observed in the expression of ACX, FAS, LPL, SREBP-1a, SREBP-1c and PPARgamma, nor in total and heparin-releasable LPL and FAS activities. Trans-10, cis-12-CLA induced a significant increase in the amount of UCP1. These results suggest a low responsiveness to trans-10, cis-12-CLA in adults, lower than that in young hamsters. One of the reasons explaining this difference is the lack of effect on LPL.

  6. Milk fat globule membrane coating of large lipid droplets in the diet of young mice prevents body fat accumulation in adulthood.

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    Baars, Annemarie; Oosting, Annemarie; Engels, Eefje; Kegler, Diane; Kodde, Andrea; Schipper, Lidewij; Verkade, Henkjan J; van der Beek, Eline M

    2016-06-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated protective effects of breast-feeding on childhood obesity. Differences between human milk and infant milk formula (IMF) in dietary lipid structure may contribute to this effect. In our mouse model, feeding a diet containing large lipid droplets coated with phospholipids (PL) (Nuturis®; PL of milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) fraction origin) in early life protected against excessive body fat accumulation following a diet challenge in adult life. We now set out to determine the relevance of increased droplet size and/or MFGM lipid droplet coating to the observed anti-obesogenic effects in adult life. From day 16 to 42, male mouse pups were exposed to diets with small (S) or large (L) lipid droplets (0·3 v. 2·9 µm average mode diameter, respectively), either without MFGM or with MFGM coating around the lipid droplet, resulting in four groups: S (control diet), L, Scoating and Lcoating (Nuturis® IMF diet). Mice were subsequently challenged with a Western-style diet until dissection at postnatal day 98. A non-challenged group served as reference (REF). We repeatedly determined body composition between postnatal day 42 and 98. At day 98 plasma and gene expression measurements were performed. Only the Nuturis® IMF diet (Lcoating) in early life containing MFGM-coated large lipid droplets reduced body fat mass to a level comparable with the REF group. These data support the notion that the structural aspects of lipids in human milk, for example, both lipid droplet size as well as the MFGM coating, may contribute to its reported protective effect against obesity in later life.

  7. Body fat accumulation is greater in rats fed a beef tallow diet than in rats fed a safflower or soybean oil diet.

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    Matsuo, Tatsuhiro; Takeuchi, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Hiroo; Suzuki, Masashige

    2002-01-01

    The effects of dietary fats , consisting of different fatty acids, on body fat accumulation and uncoupling protein (UCP) in interscapular brown adipose tissue were studied in rats. Metabolisable energy in experimental diets based on safflower oil, soybean oil or beef tallow was measured strictly (experiment 1). Male Wistar rats were then meal-fed an isoenergetic diet for 8 weeks (experiment 2). Each group of rats showed the same weight gain during the 8-week experimental period. Carcass fat content was greater in rats fed the beef tallow diet than in those fed the with the safflower or soybean oil diets, whereas the weight of abdominal adipose tissue was the same for all three dietary groups. Gene expression of UCP1 and the UCP content of the interscapular brown adipose tissue was lower in the beef tallow diet group than in the other dietary groups. A negative correlation was observed between carcass fat content and n-6 unsaturated fatty acid content in dietary fats. These results suggest that the greater body fat accumulation in rats fed the beef tallow diet results from lower expression of UCP1 mRNA and lower UCP content in brown adipose tissue. n-6 Polyunsaturated fatty acids may be the most effective fatty acids in limiting body fat.

  8. Coffee polyphenols suppress diet-induced body fat accumulation by downregulating SREBP-1c and related molecules in C57BL/6J mice.

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    Murase, Takatoshi; Misawa, Koichi; Minegishi, Yoshihiko; Aoki, Masafumi; Ominami, Hideo; Suzuki, Yasuto; Shibuya, Yusuke; Hase, Tadashi

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing globally, and obesity is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We investigated the effects of coffee polyphenols (CPP), which are abundant in coffee and consumed worldwide, on diet-induced body fat accumulation. C57BL/6J mice were fed either a control diet, a high-fat diet, or a high-fat diet supplemented with 0.5 to 1.0% CPP for 2-15 wk. Supplementation with CPP significantly reduced body weight gain, abdominal and liver fat accumulation, and infiltration of macrophages into adipose tissues. Energy expenditure evaluated by indirect calorimetry was significantly increased in CPP-fed mice. The mRNA levels of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c, acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 and -2, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-4 in the liver were significantly lower in CPP-fed mice than in high-fat control mice. Similarly, CPP suppressed the expression of these molecules in Hepa 1-6 cells, concomitant with an increase in microRNA-122. Structure-activity relationship studies of nine quinic acid derivatives isolated from CPP in Hepa 1-6 cells suggested that mono- or di-caffeoyl quinic acids (CQA) are active substances in the beneficial effects of CPP. Furthermore, CPP and 5-CQA decreased the nuclear active form of SREBP-1, acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity, and cellular malonyl-CoA levels. These findings indicate that CPP enhances energy metabolism and reduces lipogenesis by downregulating SREBP-1c and related molecules, which leads to the suppression of body fat accumulation.

  9. Higher lipid accumulation in broilers fed on saturated fats than in those fed on unsaturated fats.

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    Sanz, M; Flores, A; De Ayala, P P; Lopez-Bote, C J

    1999-03-01

    1. Two experiments were conducted to assess the effect of fat sources differing in degree of saturation on the performance of and fat deposition in broiler chickens fed on isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets. 2. There were no differences in initial body weight between sexes but female broilers had lower daily gains (Psaturation. Broilers fed on diets containing an animal fat blend or tallow had higher abdominal fat pad weight (Psaturation affects fat accumulation in broiler chickens.

  10. A high oleic sunflower oil fatty acid esters of plant sterols mixed with dietary diacylglycerol reduces plasma insulin and body fat accumulation in Psammomys obesus

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    Pelled Dori

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic syndrome is associated with subsequent development of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. It is characterized by reduced response to insulin, central obesity, and dyslipidemia. Intake of plant sterols (PS has been shown to confer a healthier lipid profile and ameliorate cardiovascular disease risk factors in experimental animals and humans. In this study we used an animal model of type 2 diabetes to assess the effects of a preparation of PS esterified to high oleic sunflower oil fatty acids mixed with dietary diacylglycerol (PS-HOSO on diabetic related metabolic parameters. Psammomys obesus (P. obesus were fed high energy (HE diet supplemented by either PS-HOSO or control oil. Following 4.5 weeks of intervention, animals were divided into fasting and non-fasting modes prior to outcome measurements. Glucose and insulin levels as well as blood lipid profile, body weight, and fat accumulation were evaluated in fasting and non-fasting modes. Results P. obesus fed with a HE diet displayed a characteristic heterogeneity in their blood glucose and insulin levels with a subset group displaying type 2 diabetes symptoms. PS-HOSO treatment significantly reduced total cholesterol (24%, P P P P Conclusion PS-HOSO supplementation to diabetes-prone gerbils counteracts the increase in body weight and epididymal fat accumulation, and also results in a drop in circulating insulin levels. These effects are pointing out that PS-HOSO may serve as a functional ingredient for metabolic syndrome or diabetic sufferers, which not only influences body weight, but also prevents or reverses insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia.

  11. Ribonuclease-mediated control of body fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habacher, Cornelia; Guo, Yanwu; Venz, Richard;

    2016-01-01

    to mammals. However, there is a growing awareness that lipid metabolism can also be controlled by post-transcriptional mechanisms. Here, we show that the Caenorhabditis elegans RNase, REGE-1, related to MCPIP1/Zc3h12a/Regnase-1, a key regulator of mammalian innate immunity, promotes accumulation of body fat...

  12. Ferulic acid lowers body weight and visceral fat accumulation via modulation of enzymatic, hormonal and inflammatory changes in a mouse model of high-fat diet-induced obesity

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    T.S. de Melo

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported on the glucose and lipid-lowering effects of ferulic acid (FA but its anti-obesity potential has not yet been firmly established. This study investigated the possible anti-obesitogenic effects of FA in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD for 15 weeks. To assess the antiobesity potential of FA, 32 male Swiss mice, weighing 20–25 g (n=6–8 per group were fed a normal diet (ND or HFD, treated orally or not with either FA (10 mg/kg or sibutramine (10 mg/kg for 15 weeks and at the end of this period, the body weights of animals, visceral fat accumulation, plasma levels of glucose and insulin hormone, amylase and lipase activities, the satiety hormones ghrelin and leptin, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCH-1 were analyzed. Results revealed that FA could effectively suppress the HFD-associated increase in visceral fat accumulation, adipocyte size and body weight gain, similar to sibutramine, the positive control. FA also significantly (P<0.05 decreased the HFD-induced elevations in serum lipid profiles, amylase and lipase activities, and the levels of blood glucose and insulin hormone. The markedly elevated leptin and decreased ghrelin levels seen in HFD-fed control mice were significantly (P<0.05 reversed by FA treatment, almost reaching the values seen in ND-fed mice. Furthermore, FA demonstrated significant (P<0.05 inhibition of serum levels of inflammatory mediators TNF-α, and MCH-1. These results suggest that FA could be beneficial in lowering the risk of HFD-induced obesity via modulation of enzymatic, hormonal and inflammatory responses.

  13. Ferulic acid lowers body weight and visceral fat accumulation via modulation of enzymatic, hormonal and inflammatory changes in a mouse model of high-fat diet-induced obesity

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    de Melo, T.S.; Lima, P.R.; Carvalho, K.M.M.B.; Fontenele, T.M.; Solon, F.R.N.; Tomé, A.R.; de Lemos, T.L.G.; da Cruz Fonseca, S.G.; Santos, F.A.; Rao, V.S.; de Queiroz, M.G.R.

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have reported on the glucose and lipid-lowering effects of ferulic acid (FA) but its anti-obesity potential has not yet been firmly established. This study investigated the possible anti-obesitogenic effects of FA in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 15 weeks. To assess the antiobesity potential of FA, 32 male Swiss mice, weighing 20–25 g (n=6–8 per group) were fed a normal diet (ND) or HFD, treated orally or not with either FA (10 mg/kg) or sibutramine (10 mg/kg) for 15 weeks and at the end of this period, the body weights of animals, visceral fat accumulation, plasma levels of glucose and insulin hormone, amylase and lipase activities, the satiety hormones ghrelin and leptin, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCH-1) were analyzed. Results revealed that FA could effectively suppress the HFD-associated increase in visceral fat accumulation, adipocyte size and body weight gain, similar to sibutramine, the positive control. FA also significantly (P<0.05) decreased the HFD-induced elevations in serum lipid profiles, amylase and lipase activities, and the levels of blood glucose and insulin hormone. The markedly elevated leptin and decreased ghrelin levels seen in HFD-fed control mice were significantly (P<0.05) reversed by FA treatment, almost reaching the values seen in ND-fed mice. Furthermore, FA demonstrated significant (P<0.05) inhibition of serum levels of inflammatory mediators TNF-α, and MCH-1. These results suggest that FA could be beneficial in lowering the risk of HFD-induced obesity via modulation of enzymatic, hormonal and inflammatory responses. PMID:28076453

  14. Rice koji reduced body weight gain, fat accumulation, and blood glucose level in high-fat diet-induced obese mice

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    Yumiko Yoshizaki

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Rice koji is considered a readily accessible functional food that may have health-promoting effects. We investigated whether white, yellow, and red koji have the anti-obesity effect in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD, which is a model for obesity. Mice were fed HFD containing 10% (w/w of rice koji powder or steamed rice for 4 weeks. Weight gain, epididymal white adipose tissue, and total adipose tissue weight were significantly lower in all rice koji groups than in the HFD-rice group after 4 weeks. Feed efficiency was significantly reduced in the yellow koji group. Blood glucose levels were significantly lower in the white and red koji groups with HOMA-R and leptin levels being reduced in the white koji group. White and red koji increased glucose uptake and GLUT4 protein expression in L6 myotube cells. These results showed that all rice koji have the anti-obesity or anti-diabetes effects although the mechanisms may differ depending on the type of rice koji consumed.

  15. Body fat, abdominal fat and body fat distribution related to VO(2PEAK) in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Wollmer, Per; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2011-01-01

    as a percentage of body mass (BF%) and body fat distribution as AFM/TBF. VO(2PEAK) was assessed by indirect calorimetry during maximal exercise test. Results. Significant relationships existed between body fat measurements and VO(2PEAK) in both boys and girls, with Pearson correlation coefficients for absolute...

  16. Assessing Body Condition from Fat on Carcass

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    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — SOP guiding assessment of body condition based on carcass fat. Provides stepwise instructions and photos on how to assess body condition from carcass fat

  17. Body fat, abdominal fat and body fat distribution related to cardiovascular risk factors in prepubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Wollmer, Per; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2012-01-01

    Aim:  We analysed whether total body fat (TBF), abdominal fat and body fat distribution are associated with higher composite risk factor scores for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in young children. Methods:  Cross-sectional study of 238 children aged 8-11 years. TBF and abdominal fat mass (AFM) wer......, separately, and used as composite risk factor score. Results:  Pearson correlations between ln BF%, ln AFM and AFM/TBF versus composite risk factor score for boys were r = 0.56, r = 0.59 and r = 0.48, all p ...

  18. Ectopic fat accumulation in patients with COPD: an ECLIPSE substudy

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    Martin, Mickaël; Almeras, Natalie; Després, Jean-Pierre; Coxson, Harvey O; Washko, George R; Vivodtzev, Isabelle; Wouters, Emiel FM; Rutten, Erica; Williams, Michelle C; Murchison, John T; MacNee, William; Sin, Don D; Maltais, François

    2017-01-01

    Background Obesity is increasingly associated with COPD, but little is known about the prevalence of ectopic fat accumulation in COPD and whether this can possibly be associated with poor clinical outcomes and comorbidities. The Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints (ECLIPSE) substudy tested the hypothesis that COPD is associated with increased ectopic fat accumulation and that this would be associated with COPD-related outcomes and comorbidities. Methods Computed tomography (CT) images of the thorax obtained in ECLIPSE were used to quantify ectopic fat accumulation at L2–L3 (eg, cross-sectional area [CSA] of visceral adipose tissue [VAT] and muscle tissue [MT] attenuation, a reflection of muscle fat infiltration) and CSA of MT. A dose–response relationship between CSA of VAT, MT attenuation and CSA of MT and COPD-related outcomes (6-minute walking distance [6MWD], exacerbation rate, quality of life, and forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1] decline) was addressed with the Cochran–Armitage trend test. Regression models were used to investigate possible relationships between CT body composition indices and comorbidities. Results From the entire ECLIPSE cohort, we identified 585 subjects with valid CT images at L2–L3 to assess body composition. CSA of VAT was increased (P<0.0001) and MT attenuation was reduced (indicating more muscle fat accumulation) in patients with COPD (P<0.002). Progressively increasing CSA of VAT was not associated with adverse clinical outcomes. The probability of exhibiting low 6MWD and accelerated FEV1 decline increased with progressively decreasing MT attenuation and CSA of MT. In COPD, the probability of having diabetes (P=0.024) and gastroesophageal reflux (P=0.0048) at baseline increased in parallel with VAT accumulation, while the predicted MT attenuation increased the probability of cardiovascular comorbidities (P=0.042). Body composition parameters did not correlate with coronary

  19. Effects of microalgal polyunsaturated fatty acid oil on body weight and lipid accumulation in the liver of C57BL/6 mice fed a high fat diet.

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    Go, Ryeo-Eun; Hwang, Kyung-A; Park, Geon-Tae; Lee, Hae-Miru; Lee, Geum-A; Kim, Cho-Won; Jeon, So-Ye; Seo, Jeong-Woo; Hong, Won-Kyung; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2016-05-01

    Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are abundant in marine fish oils, have recently received global attention for their prominent anti-obesogenic effects. Among PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3), which are n-3 long-chain PUFAs widely referred to as omega-3 oils, were reported to prevent the development of obesity in rodents and humans. In the present study, we evaluated the anti-obesity effects of microalgal oil on high-fat induced obese C57BL/6 mice, compared with commercial omega-3 fish oil and vegetable corn oil. Microalgal oil is an inherent mixture of several PUFAs, including EPA, DHA and other fatty acids produced from a marine microalgal strain of Thraustochytriidae sp. derived mutant. It was found to contain more PUFAs (>80%) and more omega-3 oils than commercial omega-3 fish oil (PUFAs >31%) and corn oil (PUFAs 59%). All three types of oils induced weight loss in high-fat-induced obese mice, with the loss induced by microalgal oil being most significant at 9 weeks (10% reduction). However, the oils tested did not improve blood lipid levels, although microalgal oil showed an apparent inhibitory effect on lipid accumulation in the liver. These findings may be attributed to the higher PUFA content, including omega-3 oils of microalgal oil than other oils. Collectively, these findings suggest that microalgal oil, derived from Thraustochytriidae sp. derived mutant, is a prominent candidate for replacement of omega-3 fish oils based on its apparent anti-obesity effect in vivo.

  20. Ectopic fat accumulation in patients with COPD: an ECLIPSE substudy

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    Martin M

    2017-01-01

    expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1] decline was addressed with the Cochran–Armitage trend test. Regression models were used to investigate possible relationships between CT body composition indices and comorbidities.Results: From the entire ECLIPSE cohort, we identified 585 subjects with valid CT images at L2–L3 to assess body composition. CSA of VAT was increased (P<0.0001 and MT attenuation was reduced (indicating more muscle fat accumulation in patients with COPD (P<0.002. Pro­gressively increasing CSA of VAT was not associated with adverse clinical outcomes. The probability of exhibiting low 6MWD and accelerated FEV1 decline increased with progressively decreasing MT attenuation and CSA of MT. In COPD, the probability of having diabetes (P=0.024 and gastroesophageal reflux (P=0.0048 at baseline increased in parallel with VAT accumulation, while the predicted MT attenuation increased the probability of cardiovascular comorbidities (P=0.042. Body composition parameters did not correlate with coronary artery scores or with survival.Conclusion: Ectopic fat accumulation is increased in COPD, and this was associated with relevant clinical outcomes and comorbidities. Keywords: metabolic syndrome, obesity, abdominal adiposity, muscle

  1. Fat accumulation in adipose tissues as a risk factor for the development of endometrial cancer.

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    Nakamura, Keiichiro; Hongo, Atsushi; Kodama, Junichi; Hiramatsu, Yuji

    2011-07-01

    Fat accumulation in adipose tissues is a risk factor for the development of human cancers. However, there are no studies describing the fat accumulation in adipose tissue or its distribution in human endometrial cancer. We first examined fat accumulation in adipose tissues separately on CT images of 122 patients with endometrial cancer, and investigated the correlation of these findings with various histological types of endometrial cancers. Fat accumulation in adipose tissues [subcutaneous fat area (SFA) and/or visceral fat areas (VFA)] was strongly correlated with the group of obesity-related biological parameters (weight, body mass index (BMI), waist and body surface area (BSA)) in endometrial cancer. The incidence of type I endometrial cancer was more closely correlated with an increase in obesity-related parameters such as weight (p=0.011), BMI (p=0.006), waist circumference (p=0.038), BSA (p=0.016), SFA (p=0.005), total fat area (TFA) (p=0.006) and total cholesterol (T.Cho) (P=0.010) than type II endometrial cancer. In particular, the SFA was most strongly correlated with obesity-related biological parameters of type I endometrial cancer. The present findings indicate that type I endometrial cancer has a statistically significant increase in obesity-related biological parameters than type II endometrial cancer. We propose that the subcutaneous fat accumulation in adipose tissue is a strong risk factor for developing type I endometrial cancer.

  2. Body Fat, Abdominal Fat, and Body Fat Distribution Is Related to Left Atrial Diameter in Young Children

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    Dencker, Magnus; Thorsson, Ola; Karlsson, Magnus K;

    2012-01-01

    In adults, the size of the left atria (LA) has important prognostic information. In obese adults, adolescents and children enlargement of LA have been observed. This has not been investigated on a population-based level in young children. We therefore assessed if total body fat mass (TBF......), abdominal fat, and body fat distribution were related to LA diameter. Cross-sectional study of 244 children (boys = 137 and girls n = 107) aged 8-11 years, recruited from an urban population-based cohort. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measured total lean body mass, TBF, and abdominal fat mass (AFM......). Body fat was also calculated as a percentage of body mass (BF%). Body fat distribution (AFM/TBF) was calculated. Echocardiography was performed with two-dimensional guided M-mode. LA diameter was measured and left ventricular mass (LVM) was calculated. Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood...

  3. Seasonal change in body fat of the Hyrax Procavia capensis (Pallas, 1766 using a body fat ranking index

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    L.J. Fourie

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the body fat content of the hyrax Procavia capensis were used as an indicator of physiological condition. Body fat rankings for the different sexes showed seasonal variations related to physiologically stressful periods (rutting, gestation and lactation. The subjective body fat rankings were correlated significantly with total body fat.

  4. Exercise for hepatic fat accumulation in type 2 diabetic subjects.

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    Bacchi, Elisabetta; Moghetti, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is characterized by frequent ectopic fat accumulation in several tissues and organs. In particular, a number of studies showed that these subjects frequently have hepatic fat accumulation, which may play a role in the metabolic abnormalities typical of diabetes and has been also linked to increased risk for cardiovascular disease. In the last decade, the effect of exercise on ectopic fat content of type 2 diabetic patients has raised growing interest. However, there are only a few small randomized controlled trials on this topic. Results from these intervention studies indicate that exercise training, independent of dietary modifications, may reduce hepatic fat content and serum transaminases in these patients, suggesting that exercise per se may be an effective strategy to be combined with the traditional dietary interventions. As regards the different training modalities, there is recent evidence that both aerobic and resistance exercise may equally reduce hepatic fat accumulation in type 2 diabetic subjects. However, information regarding the effect of exercise on liver histology and fat accumulation in other ectopic sites is still very limited.

  5. Impaired oxidative capacity due to decreased CPT1b levels as a contributing factor to fat accumulation in obesity

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    Ratner, Cecilia; Madsen, Andreas Nygaard; Kristensen, Line Vildbrad

    2015-01-01

    In order to characterize mechanisms responsible for fat accumulation we used a selectively bred obesity-prone (OP) and obesity-resistant (OR) rat model, where the rats were fed a Western diet for 76 days. Body composition was assessed by MRI scans and as expected the OP rats developed a higher...... degree of fat accumulation compared to OR rats. Indirect calorimetry showed that the OP rats had higher respiratory exchange ratio (RER) compared to OR rats indicating an impaired ability to oxidize fat. The OP rats had lower expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1b in intra-abdominal fat...

  6. Common variants near MC4R in relation to body fat, body fat distribution, metabolic traits and energy expenditure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia Inez Iqbal; Holst, C; Toubro, Søren

    2010-01-01

    Common variants near melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) have been related to fatness and type 2 diabetes. We examined the associations of rs17782313 and rs17700633 in relation to body fat, body fat distribution, metabolic traits, weight development and energy expenditure.......Common variants near melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) have been related to fatness and type 2 diabetes. We examined the associations of rs17782313 and rs17700633 in relation to body fat, body fat distribution, metabolic traits, weight development and energy expenditure....

  7. Effect of egg white and its hydrolysate on stearoyl-CoA desaturase index and fat accumulation in rat tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Masaru; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the dietary effects of egg white (EW) and its hydrolysate (EWH) on fat metabolism in rats. Wistar rats were divided into casein, EW and EWH dietary groups, and fed their respective diet for 8 weeks. Dietary EW and EWH decreased food intake, body weight gain and fat accumulation in the carcass, liver, muscles and adipose tissues, but muscle weight was increased. In addition, dietary EW and EWH decreased stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) indices and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity of the liver and gastrocnemius muscle. Dietary EW also increased the fecal excretion of triacylglycerol, cholesterol and total bile acids, and decreased the serum levels of triacylglycerol and leptin. The suppressive effects of dietary EW on food intake and body fat accumulation were weakened by dietary EWH. These findings indicate that EW and EWH, especially EW, are effective in reducing body fat accumulation by regulating hepatic and muscular SCD indices.

  8. Modelling the relationship between body fat and the BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, T C; Gallagher, D; Wang, J; Heshka, S

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Given the increasing concerns about the levels of obesity being reached throughout the world, this paper analyses the relationship between the most common index of obesity, the BMI, and levels of body fat. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: The statistical relationship, in terms of functional form, between body fat and BMI is analysed using a large data set which can be categorized by race, sex and age. RESULTS: Irrespective of race, body fat and BMI are linearly related for males, with age entering logarithmically and with a positive effect on body fat. Caucasian males have higher body fat irrespective of age, but African American males' body fat increases with age faster than that of Asians and Hispanics. Age is not a significant predictor of body fat for females, where the relationship between body fat and BMI is nonlinear except for Asians. Caucasian females have higher predicted body fat than other races, except at low BMIs, where Asian females are predicted to have the highest body fat. DISCUSSION: Using BMIs to make predictions about body fat should be done with caution, as such predictions will depend upon race, sex and age and can be relatively imprecise. The results are of practical importance for informing the current debate on whether standard BMI cut-off values for overweight and obesity should apply to all sex and racial groups given that these BMI values are shown to correspond to different levels of adiposity in different groups.

  9. Fenugreek Seed Extract Inhibit Fat Accumulation and Ameliorates Dyslipidemia in High Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parveen Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the inhibitory effect of aqueous extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds (AqE-TFG on fat accumulation and dyslipidemia in high fat diet- (HFD- induced obese rats. Female Wistar rats were fed with HFD ad libitum, and the rats on HFD were treated orally with AqE-TFG or orlistat ((HFD for 28 days + AqE-TFG (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg or orlistat (10 mg/kg from day 8 to 28, respectively. Treatment with AqE-TFG produced significant reduction in body weight gain, body mass index (BMI, white adipose tissue (WAT weights, blood glucose, serum insulin, lipids, leptin, lipase, and apolipoprotein-B levels and elevation in adiponectin levels. AqE-TFG improved serum aspartate amino transferase (AST, alanine amino transferase (ALT, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH levels. AqE-TFG treatment reduced the hepatic and cardiac thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and elevated the antioxidant enzyme (glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT levels. In addition, liver and uterine WAT lipogenic enzyme (fatty acid synthetase (FAS and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD activities were restored towards normal levels. These findings demonstrated the preventive effect of AqE-TFG on fat accumulation and dyslipidemia, due to inhibition of impaired lipid digestion and absorption, in addition to improvement in glucose and lipid metabolism, enhancement of insulin sensitivity, increased antioxidant defense, and downregulation of lipogenic enzymes.

  10. NMR-based metabolic profiling in healthy individuals overfed different types of fat : links to changes in liver fat accumulation and lean tissue mass.

    OpenAIRE

    Elmsjö, Albert; Rosqvist, Fredrik; Engskog, Mikael K.R.; Haglöf, Jakob; Kullberg, Joel; Iggman, David; Johansson, Lars; Ahlström, Håkan; Arvidsson, Torbjörn; Risérus, Ulf; Pettersson, Curt

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Overeating different dietary fatty acids influence the amount of liver fat stored during weight gain, however, the mechanisms responsible are unclear. We aimed to identify non-lipid metabolites that may differentiate between saturated (SFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) overfeeding using a non-targeted metabolomic approach. We also investigated the possible relationships between plasma metabolites and body fat accumulation. METHODS: In a randomized study (LIPOGAIN study), ...

  11. Dietary whey protein decreases food intake and body fat in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, June; Keenan, Michael J; Losso, Jack N; Raggio, Anne M; Shen, Li; McCutcheon, Kathleen L; Tulley, Richard T; Blackman, Marc R; Martin, Roy J

    2011-08-01

    We investigated the effects of dietary whey protein on food intake, body fat, and body weight gain in rats. Adult (11-12 week) male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three dietary treatment groups for a 10-week study: control. Whey protein (HP-W), or high-protein content control (HP-S). Albumin was used as the basic protein source for all three diets. HP-W and HP-S diets contained an additional 24% (wt/wt) whey or isoflavone-free soy protein, respectively. Food intake, body weight, body fat, respiratory quotient (RQ), plasma cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), and leptin were measured during and/or at the end of the study. The results showed that body fat and body weight gain were lower (P food intake measured over the 10-week study period was lower in the HP-W vs. control and HP-S groups (P fat accumulation and body weight gain, the mechanism(s) involved appear to be different. HP-S fed rats exhibit increased fat oxidation, whereas HP-W fed rats show decreased food intake and increased fat oxidation, which may contribute to the effects of whey protein on body fat.

  12. Familial lipoprotein lipase-activity deficiency: study of total body fatness and subcutaneous fat tissue distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, L D; Gagné, C; Julien, P; Tremblay, A; Moorjani, S; Bouchard, C; Lupien, P J

    1989-10-01

    Total body fatness and subcutaneous fat tissue distribution were evaluated in 19 hyperchylomicronemic patients. Eleven were males, aged 10 to 57 years, and eight were females, aged 13 to 46 years. Familial lipoprotein-lipase-activity deficiency was diagnosed by the absence of lipoprotein-lipase activity in the plasma withdrawn ten and 20 minutes after intravenous injection of ten units of heparin per kilogram of body weight. The 19 patients had skin-fold measurements for evaluation of subcutaneous fat distribution. Fifteen also underwent body density measurements by underwater weighing. Percent body fat was calculated from body density. These anthropometric data were plotted against the regression curves of 1638 normal controls of both sexes (aged 10 to 54 years) for fat tissue weight, percent body fat, subcutaneous fat/total fat mass ratio and trunk/extremity skin-fold ratio. Impairments in the process of building fat tissue reserves could not be shown in the 19 hyperchylomicronemic patients, in spite of the absence of lipoprotein-lipase activity in their postheparin plasma. It is hypothesized that normal fat tissue mass in these patients could be due partly to de novo synthesis of fatty acids by adipocytes, hydrolysis of plasma triglycerides by hepatic lipase, and/or contribution of a specific fat-tissue lipase to the catabolism of plasma triglyceride-rich lipoproteins.

  13. FTO gene associated fatness in relation to body fat distribution and metabolic traits throughout a broad range of fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia I I; Holst, Claus; Zimmermann, Esther;

    2008-01-01

    A common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of FTO (rs9939609, T/A) is associated with total body fatness. We investigated the association of this SNP with abdominal and peripheral fatness and obesity-related metabolic traits in middle-aged men through a broad range of fatness present already...

  14. Visceral fat accumulation is an indicator of adipose tissue macrophage infiltration in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Andréanne; Drolet, Renée; Noël, Suzanne; Paris, Gaëtan; Tchernof, André

    2012-05-01

    We tested the hypothesis that visceral obesity is the best correlate of abdominal adipose tissue macrophage infiltration in women. Omental and subcutaneous fat samples were surgically obtained from 40 women (age, 47.0 ± 4.0 years; body mass index, 28.4 ± 5.8 kg/m(2)). CD68+ cells were identified using fluorescence immunohistochemistry. Expression of macrophage markers was measured by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Body composition and fat distribution were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography, respectively. Mean CD68+ cell percentage tended to be higher in subcutaneous (18.3%) compared with omental adipose tissue (15.5%, P = .07). Positive correlations were observed between CD68+ cell percentage as well as CD68 messenger RNA expression in a given depot vs the other (P ≤ .01). Visceral adipose tissue area and omental adipocyte diameter were positively related to CD68+ cell percentage in omental fat (r = 0.52 and r = 0.35, P ≤ .05). Total and visceral adipose tissue areas as well as subcutaneous adipocyte diameter were significantly correlated with CD68+ cell percentage in subcutaneous adipose tissue (0.32 ≤ r ≤ 0.40, P ≤ .05). Adipose tissue areas and subcutaneous adipocyte diameter were also significantly associated with expression of commonly used macrophage markers including CD68 in the subcutaneous fat compartment (0.32 ≤ r ≤ 0.57, P ≤ .05). Visceral adipose tissue area was the best correlate of CD68+ cell percentage in both omental and subcutaneous fat tissues, explaining, respectively, 20% and 12% of the variance in models also including subcutaneous adipose tissue area, adipocyte sizes, and total body fat mass. Visceral adipose tissue accumulation is the best correlate of macrophage infiltration in both the subcutaneous and omental fat compartments of lean to obese women.

  15. Body fat throughout childhood in 2647 healthy Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Tinggaard, Jeanette; Winther, K.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Total body fat percentage (%BF) evaluated by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans (DXA %BF) is widely recognized as a precise measure of fatness. We aimed to establish national reference curves for DXA %BF, %BF calculated from skinfolds (SF %BF) and waist...... correlation and best agreement with DXA %BF in identifying children with excess fat (+1 s.d.)....

  16. p66Shc-generated oxidative signal promotes fat accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berniakovich, Ina; Trinei, Mirella; Stendardo, Massimo; Migliaccio, Enrica; Minucci, Saverio; Bernardi, Paolo; Pelicci, Pier Giuseppe; Giorgio, Marco

    2008-12-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and insulin signaling in the adipose tissue are critical determinants of aging and age-associated diseases. It is not clear, however, if they represent independent factors or they are mechanistically linked. We investigated the effects of ROS on insulin signaling using as model system the p66(Shc)-null mice. p66(Shc) is a redox enzyme that generates mitochondrial ROS and promotes aging in mammals. We report that insulin activates the redox enzyme activity of p66(Shc) specifically in adipocytes and that p66(Shc)-generated ROS regulate insulin signaling through multiple mechanisms, including AKT phosphorylation, Foxo localization, and regulation of selected insulin target genes. Deletion of p66(Shc) resulted in increased mitochondrial uncoupling and reduced triglyceride accumulation in adipocytes and in vivo increased metabolic rate and decreased fat mass and resistance to diet-induced obesity. In addition, p66(Shc-/-) mice showed impaired thermo-insulation. These findings demonstrate that p66(Shc)-generated ROS regulate the effect of insulin on the energetic metabolism in mice and suggest that intracellular oxidative stress might accelerate aging by favoring fat deposition and fat-related disorders.

  17. Fat accumulation in differentiated brown adipocytes is linked with expression of Hox genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Smita; Rajput, Yudhishthir S; Barui, Amit K; Sharma, Rajan; Datta, Tirtha K

    2016-03-01

    Homeobox (Hox) genes are involved in body plan of embryo along the anterior-posterior axis. Presence of several Hox genes in white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) is indicative of involvement of Hox genes in adipogenesis. We propose that differentiation inducing agents viz. isobutyl-methyl-xanthine (IBMX), indomethacin, dexamethasone (DEX), triiodothyronine (T3) and insulin may regulate differentiation in brown adipose tissue through Hox genes. In vitro culture of brown fat stromalvascular fraction (SVF) in presence or absence of differentiation inducing agents was used for establishing relationship between fat accumulation in differentiated adipocytes and expression of Hox genes. Relative expression of Pref1, UCP1 and Hox genes was determined in different stages of adipogenesis. Presence or absence of IBMX, indomethacin and DEX during differentiation of proliferated pre-adipocytes resulted in marked differences in expression of Hox genes and lipid accumulation. In presence of these inducing agents, lipid accumulation as well as expression of HoxA1, HoxA5, HoxC4 &HoxC8 markedly enhanced. Irrespective of presence or absence of T3, insulin down regulates HoxA10. T3 results in over expression of HoxA5, HoxC4 and HoxC8 genes, whereas insulin up regulates expression of only HoxC8. Findings suggest that accumulation of fat in differentiated adipocytes is linked with expression of Hox genes.

  18. The relationship of female physical attractiveness to body fatness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanlin; Djafarian, Kurosh; Egedigwe, Chima A.; El Hamdouchi, Asmaa; Ojiambo, Robert; Ramuth, Harris; Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra Johanna; Lackner, Sonja; Diouf, Adama; Sauciuvenaite, Justina; Hambly, Catherine; Vaanholt, Lobke M.; Faries, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    Aspects of the female body may be attractive because they signal evolutionary fitness. Greater body fatness might reflect greater potential to survive famines, but individuals carrying larger fat stores may have poor health and lower fertility in non-famine conditions. A mathematical statistical model using epidemiological data linking fatness to fitness traits, predicted a peaked relationship between fatness and attractiveness (maximum at body mass index (BMI) = 22.8 to 24.8 depending on ethnicity and assumptions). Participants from three Caucasian populations (Austria, Lithuania and the UK), three Asian populations (China, Iran and Mauritius) and four African populations (Kenya, Morocco, Nigeria and Senegal) rated attractiveness of a series of female images varying in fatness (BMI) and waist to hip ratio (WHR). There was an inverse linear relationship between physical attractiveness and body fatness or BMI in all populations. Lower body fat was more attractive, down to at least BMI = 19. There was no peak in the relationship over the range we studied in any population. WHR was a significant independent but less important factor, which was more important (greater r2) in African populations. Predictions based on the fitness model were not supported. Raters appeared to use body fat percentage (BF%) and BMI as markers of age. The covariance of BF% and BMI with age indicates that the role of body fatness alone, as a marker of attractiveness, has been overestimated. PMID:26336638

  19. The relationship of female physical attractiveness to body fatness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanlin Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aspects of the female body may be attractive because they signal evolutionary fitness. Greater body fatness might reflect greater potential to survive famines, but individuals carrying larger fat stores may have poor health and lower fertility in non-famine conditions. A mathematical statistical model using epidemiological data linking fatness to fitness traits, predicted a peaked relationship between fatness and attractiveness (maximum at body mass index (BMI = 22.8 to 24.8 depending on ethnicity and assumptions. Participants from three Caucasian populations (Austria, Lithuania and the UK, three Asian populations (China, Iran and Mauritius and four African populations (Kenya, Morocco, Nigeria and Senegal rated attractiveness of a series of female images varying in fatness (BMI and waist to hip ratio (WHR. There was an inverse linear relationship between physical attractiveness and body fatness or BMI in all populations. Lower body fat was more attractive, down to at least BMI = 19. There was no peak in the relationship over the range we studied in any population. WHR was a significant independent but less important factor, which was more important (greater r2 in African populations. Predictions based on the fitness model were not supported. Raters appeared to use body fat percentage (BF% and BMI as markers of age. The covariance of BF% and BMI with age indicates that the role of body fatness alone, as a marker of attractiveness, has been overestimated.

  20. Comparison of variations between percentage of body fat, body mass index and daily physical activity among young Japanese and Thai female students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morinaka Tomoko

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In our series of investigations concerning the causes of seasonal change in fat accumulation in young university students, we could not find any contribution of seasonal variation in the ratio of carbohydrate and fat metabolism to that of body fat percentage in Japanese and Thai participants. After our previous study, we examined the effect of daily physical activity on body fat percentage to look for the major causes of seasonal change in fat accumulation in young university students. Findings In this study, we measured participants’ (young Japanese and Thai university students daily physical activity by a uniaxial accelerometer in addition to the measurements of body fat percentage and body mass index by a bioelectrical impedance meter. We found that there was significant and moderate negative correlation between body fat percentage and daily step counts among Japanese but not Thai participants. We observed significant, moderate and positive correlations between the percentage of body fat and body mass index among Japanese and Thai participants. Conclusions Daily physical activity plays an important role in the seasonal variation of body fat percentage of Japanese female students. Our present study also confirmed the importance of daily physical activity for controlling body mass index and for the prevention of obesity.

  1. Daily physical activity related to aerobic fitness and body fat in an urban sample of children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, M; Thorsson, O; Karlsson, M K;

    2008-01-01

    -energy x-ray absorptiometry. TBF was calculated as percentage of total body mass (BF%). Body fat distribution was calculated as AFM/TBF. Aerobic fitness was measured by indirect calorimetry during a maximal cycle ergometer exercise test. Daily physical activity was assessed by accelerometers for 4 days......This study evaluates associations between objectively measured daily physical activity vs aerobic fitness and body fat in children aged 8-11 years. A cross-sectional study of 225 children aged 7.9-11.1 years was performed. Abdominal fat mass (AFM) and total body fat (TBF) were quantified by dual...... and daily accumulation of moderate-to-vigorous and vigorous activity was calculated. Significant relationships (Pfitness (r=0.38), whereas moderate-to-vigorous activity displayed weaker relationships...

  2. Sexual dimorphisms in genetic loci linked to body fat distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulit, Sara L.; Karaderi, Tugce

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic condition associated with increased morbidity and mortality and is a risk factor for a number of other diseases including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Obesity confers an enormous, costly burden on both individuals and public health more broadly. Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes. Body fat distribution is distinct from overall obesity in measurement, but studies of body fat distribution can yield insights into the risk factors for and causes of overall obesity. Sexual dimorphism in body fat distribution is present throughout life. Though sexual dimorphism is subtle in early stages of life, it is attenuated in puberty and during menopause. This phenomenon could be, at least in part, due to the influence of sex hormones on the trait. Findings from recent large genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for various measures of body fat distribution (including waist-to-hip ratio, hip or waist circumference, trunk fat percentage and the ratio of android and gynoid fat percentage) emphasize the strong sexual dimorphism in the genetic regulation of fat distribution traits. Importantly, sexual dimorphism is not observed for overall obesity (as assessed by body mass index or total fat percentage). Notably, the genetic loci associated with body fat distribution, which show sexual dimorphism, are located near genes that are expressed in adipose tissues and/or adipose cells. Considering the epidemiological and genetic evidence, sexual dimorphism is a prominent feature of body fat distribution. Research that specifically focuses on sexual dimorphism in fat distribution can provide novel insights into human physiology and into the development of obesity and its comorbidities, as well as yield biological clues that will aid in the improvement of disease prevention and treatment. PMID:28073971

  3. Regulation of glycogenolysis in the locust fat body during flight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marrewijk, W.J.A. van; Broek, A.Th.M. van den; Beenakkers, A.M.Th.

    1980-01-01

    Glycogen reserves in the fat body of Locusta migratoria decrease dramatically during the first two hours of flight. In fat body of rested locusts only 10% of glycogen phosphorylase occurs in the active form. The enzyme is activated significantly during flight, when up to one-third of the total phosp

  4. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, body fat and inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anne-Sofie Quist; Hasselbalch, Ann Louise; Gamborg, Michael

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Based on animal studies, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been suggested to lower the risk of obesity and inflammation. We aimed to investigate if, among humans, intake of n-3 PUFAs was associated with i) total body fat, ii) body fat distribution and iii) obesity......-related inflammatory markers. METHODS: The study population consisted of 1,212 healthy individuals with information on habitual food intake from food frequency questionnaires, six different measures of body fat, and levels of six circulating inflammatory markers. Multiple linear regression analysis of intakes of PUFAs...... in relation to outcomes were performed and adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: Absolute n-3 PUFA intake, but not n-3/n-6, was inversely associated with the different measures of body fat. Among n-3 PUFA derivatives, only α-linolenic acid (ALA) was inversely associated with body fat measures...

  5. Clinical Studies of Sweet Bee Venom to The Effect of Abdominal Fat Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim, Chung-San

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Sweet Bee Venom to the abdominal fat accumulation clinically. Methods The 20 healthy women volunteers who showed the notice of this study by the home page of Sangji University were treated with Sweet Bee Venom(SBV during twenty times. To investigate the effects of Sweet Bee Venom of the abdominal fat accumulation, abdominal CT, LFT, Thermography, BMI, Inbody 3.0 etc. were performed during clinical trials. And statistical analysis was carried out the data of 10 volunteers who performed all the schedule of this study. Results Following results were obtained from the clinical studies Sweet Bee Venom showed the effect of decreased the body weight, thickness of abdominal skin and fat layer, BMI, and increased abdominal heat, but they are not showed statistical significant. Conclusions These results suggest that treatment Sweet Bee Venom on the abdomen was effective to decrease fat tissue but for the treatment of obesity was performed with right diet program and exercise.

  6. Body fat and fat-free mass and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigaard, Janne; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Tjønneland, Anne

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the association between BMI and all-cause mortality could be disentangled into opposite effects of body fat and fat-free mass (FFM). RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: All-cause mortality was studied in the Danish follow-up study "Diet, Cancer and Health" with 27......,178 men and 29,875 women 50 to 64 years old recruited from 1993 to 1997. By the end of year 2001, the median follow-up was 5.8 years, and 1851 had died. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance. Cox regression models were used to estimate the relationships among body fat mass index (body...... fat mass divided by height squared), FFM index (FFM divided by height squared), and mortality. All analyses were adjusted for smoking habits. RESULTS: Men and women showed similar associations. J-shaped associations were found between body fat mass index and mortality adjusted for FFM and smoking...

  7. Abdominal Fat Accumulation with Hyperuricemia and Hypercholesterolemia Quail Model Induced by High Fat Diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-jian Lin; Bing Zhang; Xiao-qing Liu; Hong-lian Yang

    2009-01-01

    Objective To establish abdominal fat accumulation with hyperuricemia and hypercholesterolemia quail model fed with high fat diet.And then to investigate the pathological characteristics of this quail model.Methods Thirty Longcheng quails were randomly divided into two groups:control group and model group(n=15).The control group quails were fed with normal diet and model group quails were fed with high fat diet for 14 days.After a 12-hour overnight fast,liver and abdominal fat at euthanasia as well as serum were collected.The levels of serum uric acid,total cholesterol,high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C),low density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C),triglyceride,free fatty acid(FFA),and blood glucose were assayed.The activity changes of adenosine deaminase(ADA),xanthine oxidase(XOD),lipoprotein lipase(LPL),hepatic lipase(HL),and fatty acid synthetase(FAS)were analyzed.Results Comparcd with control group,the abdominal fat content(0.74±0.63 vs.1.36±0.65 g,P<0.05)and abdominal fat index(0.44% ±0.30% vs.0.85% ±0.30% ,P<0.01)as well as live lipid index (3.61% ±0.65% vs.11.33% ±2.14% ,P<0.01)in model group significantly increased;the levels of serum uric acid(210.61±94.76 vs.304.25±141.94 μmol/L,P<0.05),total cholesterol(4.20±0.51 vs.20.10±11.25 mmol/L,P<0.01),LDL-C(1.16±0.29 vs.10.78±6.48 mmol/L,P<0.01),and FFA(0.39±0.14 vs.0.55±0.15 mmol/L,P<0.01)in model group significantly increased;HDL-C(5.85±0.95 vs.4.14±2.03mmol/L,P<0.05)significantly decreased;the levels of triglyceride and blood glucose had no significant changes(P>0.05);the activities of ADA(9.71±3.05 vs.17.19±5.10 U/ml,P<0.01)and XOD(10.58±6.88vs.19.22±9.44 U/L,P<0.01)in model group significantly increased;and FAS,LPL,HL had no significant changes(P>0.05).Conclusions High fat diet can induce abdominal fat accumulation with hyperuricemia and hypercholesterolemia quail model.The changes of uric acid and lipid metabolic enzyme activities may be the pathological

  8. Anorexia Nervosa and Body Fat Distribution: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan El Ghoch

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to conduct a systematic review of body fat distribution before and after partial and complete weight restoration in individuals with anorexia nervosa. Literature searches, study selection, method development and quality appraisal were performed independently by two authors, and data was synthesized using a narrative approach. Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria and were consequently analyzed. The review had five main findings. First, during anorexia nervosa adolescent females lose more central body fat, while adult females more peripheral fat. Second, partial weight restoration leads to greater fat mass deposition in the trunk region than other body regions in adolescent females. Third, after short-term weight restoration, whether partial or complete, adults show a central adiposity phenotype with respect to healthy age-matched controls. Fourth, central fat distribution is associated with increased insulin resistance, but does not adversely affect eating disorder psychopathology or cause psychological distress in female adults. Fifth, the abnormal central fat distribution seems to normalize after long-term maintenance of complete weight restoration, indicating that preferential central distribution of body fat is a transitory phenomenon. However, a discrepancy in the findings has been noted, especially between adolescents and adults; besides age and gender, these appear to be related to differences in the methodology and time of body composition assessments. The PROSPERO Registry—Anorexia Nervosa and Body Fat Distribution: A Systematic Review (CRD42014008738.

  9. Variations in the efficacy of resistant maltodextrin on body fat reduction in rats fed different high-fat models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hui-Fang; Pan, Min-Hsiung; Ho, Chi-Tang; Tseng, Yu-Han; Wang, William Wei-Li; Chau, Chi-Fai

    2014-01-08

    Many studies have utilized a variety of methods to induce obesity in rodents, but they often received inconsistent results. The present study intended to use resistant maltodextrin (RMD) as a means to investigate the variations in its efficacy on body fat accumulation under the influence of four high-fat (HF) models of 23% or 40% total fat, comprising soybean oil, lard, and/or condensed milk. Results indicated that integrating condensed milk into the diets could help increase diet intake, boost energy intake, increase weight gain, and enhance fat formation. Supplementation of RMD (2.07 g/kg) notably reduced total body fat levels in three HF models, with the exception of a condensed-milk-added 40%-fat diet that may have misrepresented the functions of RMD. The uses of the 23% HF diets, with and without milk, and the milk-free 40% HF diet were therefore recommended as suitable models for antiobesity evaluations of RMD, or other fiber-rich products.

  10. Fat body, fat pad and adipose tissues in invertebrates and vertebrates: the nexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeez, Odunayo Ibraheem; Meintjes, Roy; Chamunorwa, Joseph Panashe

    2014-04-23

    The fat body in invertebrates was shown to participate in energy storage and homeostasis, apart from its other roles in immune mediation and protein synthesis to mention a few. Thus, sharing similar characteristics with the liver and adipose tissues in vertebrates. However, vertebrate adipose tissue or fat has been incriminated in the pathophysiology of metabolic disorders due to its role in production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This has not been reported in the insect fat body. The link between the fat body and adipose tissue was examined in this review with the aim of determining the principal factors responsible for resistance to inflammation in the insect fat body. This could be the missing link in the prevention of metabolic disorders in vertebrates, occasioned by obesity.

  11. Sonographic Prediction of Body Fat Volume (Subcutaneous and Visceral Fat in Cardiovascular Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Soleymanzadeh

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inappropriate body composition represents impaired energy and nutrient intake and can be a risk factor for many diseases, especially for cardiovascular disease. Different methods have been suggested for the estimation of body fat volume and its distribution. However, they may be either expensive or hazardous for some groups of patients. Sonography is a very accessible technique, which may be used for the evaluation of visceral and subcutaneous fat volume. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sonographic prediction of body fat and its distribution in subcutaneous and visceral compartments.Methods: During a three-month period, we conducted sonographic evaluations for visceral and subcutaneous fat in 106 patients who were admitted to our hospital. The subcutaneous fat was measured at the para-umbilical region and visceral fat was measured in the right para-renal space. The results were compared with the data obtained from the body mass index(BMI and bioelectric impedance analysis.Results: The mean age of the patients was 58.8 years, and the mean BMI was26.48 ± 0.33. The mean values of fat percent and fat mass obtained by the electric-method were 31.07 ± 0.81% and 22.12 ± 0.68 kg, respectively. The respective mean values of subcutaneous and visceral fat obtained by sonography were 20.50±0.56 mm and 24.14 ± 0.58 mm. The correlationbetween BMI and subcutaneous fat was 0.85 (p value < 0.0001 and the correlation between BMI and visceral fat was0.46(p value < 0.0001.Conclusion: Sonography is a reliable and available method for the estimation of body fat and its distribution in cardiovascularpatients, in subcutaneous and visceral compartments.

  12. Differences in nutrient uptake between the fat body and embryonic primary cultures of silkworm (Bombyx mori)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEILA MATINDOOST; JALAL J. SENDI; HOORIEH SOLEIMAN JAHI; KAYVAN ETEBARI

    2006-01-01

    Nutrition utilization and by-product formation in cultured insect cells has been investigated in several insect cells and has been of great interest to cell culturists and physiologists. In this research the biochemical changes in embryonic and fat body primary cultures of silkworm, Bombyx mori, have been compared. TC-100 medium supplemented with 10% and 20% FBS was used in embryonic and fat body primary cultures, respectively.Medium was renewed every week and the amount of glucose, uric acid, urea, total protein and alkaline phosphatase were measured in the samples from medium of primary cultures using spectrophotometeric methods. All biochemical macromolecules except uric acid showed significant changes. Glucose decreased in embryonic tissues, while in fat body culture its amount increased. Urea accumulation in embryonic culture was higher than in the fat body cultures. Since urea is a by-product, this accumulation could be due to higher utilization of amino acids. Total protein showed considerable changes and was consumed by embryonic culture more than the fat body' s. Alkaline phosphatase showed stronger activity in embryonic cells.

  13. Observational study of body weight, body fat with segmental fat distribution, visceral fat and body mass index in type 2 diabetic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Sunil Dube; Shanti Viswanathan; Manjree Dube

    2016-01-01

    Background: There has been an increase in the prevalence of non-communicable diseases in the last decade. This prevalence has been steadily increasing and is expected to increase further in the coming decade. The change in our lifestyle plus a sedentary lifestyle has led to this .Various body composition monitoring methods help us evaluate obesity and its association with diabetes. In this study, we analysed the trend of body fat distribution in diabetics. Methods: A multifrequency body c...

  14. Factors associated with visceral fat accumulation in the general population in Okinawa, Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shingo Arakaki; Tatsuji Maeshiro; Akira Hokama; Kunikazu Hoshino; Shuichi Maruwaka; Miwa Higashiarakawa; Gretchen Parrott; Tetsuo Hirata; Kozen Kinjo; Jiro Fujita

    2016-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the clinical and biochemical factors associated with visceral fat accumulation in the general population.METHODS:We enrolled 1004 subjects who underwent a medical health checkup between April 2008 and March 2009.The medical health checkup included the following tests:Height,body weight,waist circumference(WC),systolic blood pressure,diastolic blood pressure,urinalysis,blood-cell counts,blood chemistry,electrocardiography,chest radiography,and abdominal computed tomography(CT)for visceral fat accumulation.The patients’medical history and lifestyle factors were collected privately by nurses using a selfadministered questionnaire,and they included questions regarding physical activity,sleep duration,dietary habits,smoking,and alcohol consumption.visceral fat area(VFA)was defined as the sum of the intraperitoneal fat area at the level of the umbilicus with CT density in the range of-150 to-50 Hounsfield units.RESULTS:The mean age and body mass index(BMI)of the study subjects were 57.0 years and 24.4 kg/m2.In both male and females,v FA was significantly andpositively correlated with WC(r=0.532,P<0.01;r=0.612,P<0.01).Subjects with high levels of v FA were primarily male with significantly higher age,height,body weight,BMI,systolic blood pressure(BP),diastolic BP,and hemoglobin in all subjects(P<0.05).A multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that vF A had a positive relationship with age≥56,BMI≥25 kg/m2,and triglyceride level≥149 in males(P<0.05),whereas it had a positive relationship with age≥58,BMI≥24.4 kg/m2,high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level<40 mg/d L,and current drinking in females(P<0.05).CONCLUSION:These results suggest that gender differences exist in the clinical and biochemical parameters associated with visceral fat accumulation.

  15. Detrimental and protective fat: body fat distribution and its relation to metabolic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Andrea; Magnuson, Aaron; Foster, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is linked to numerous comorbidities that include, but are not limited to, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular disease. Current evidence suggests, however, obesity itself is not an exclusive predictor of metabolic dysregulation but rather adipose tissue distribution. Obesity-related adverse health consequences occur predominately in individuals with upper body fat accumulation, the detrimental distribution, commonly associated with visceral obesity. Increased lower body subcutaneous adipose tissue, however, is associated with a reduced risk of obesity-induced metabolic dysregulation and even enhanced insulin sensitivity, thus, storage in this region is considered protective. The proposed mechanisms that causally relate the differential outcomes of adipose tissue distribution are often attributed to location and/or adipocyte regulation. Visceral adipose tissue effluent to the portal vein drains into the liver where hepatocytes are directly exposed to its metabolites and secretory products, whereas the subcutaneous adipose tissue drains systemically. Adipose depots are also inherently different in numerous ways such as adipokine release, immunity response and regulation, lipid turnover, rate of cell growth and death, and response to stress and sex hormones. Proximal extrinsic factors also play a role in the differential drive between adipose tissue depots. This review focuses on the deleterious mechanisms postulated to drive the differential metabolic response between central and lower body adipose tissue distribution.

  16. EFFECT OF GREEN TEA AND ITS COMPONENTS ON BODY WEIGHT, FAT ACCUMULATION AND ACTIVITY OF HEPATIC FAT METABOLISM RELATED ENZYMES IN MICE%绿茶及其成分对小鼠体重、脂肪沉积和肝脏脂肪代谢酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑国栋; 黎冬明; 张清峰

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the anti-obesity mechanism of green tea and its components in mice. Method Fifty female Kunming mice were randomly assigned to 5 groups and fed on commercial powder diets containing none (control), 2% green tea, 0.05% caffeine, 0.3% catechins and 0.05% caffeine + 0.3% catechins for 8 w respectively. Liver and intraperitoneal adipose tissues (IPAT) were weighed at the end of experiment. Serum levels of glucose, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterols, leptin and insulin, and lipids in liver were measured. Fatty acid synthese (FAS), carnitine acyltransferase (CAT) and acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO) in liver were determined. Results The body weight gain and IPAT weight were significantly reduced by green tea, caffeine and caffeine + catechins. Serum TG and leptin concentrations were significantly decreased by caffeine + catechins. Green tea, catechins and caffeine + catechins reduced TG level in liver. Caffeine + catechins significantly reduced FAS activity, and remarkably increased CAT and ACO activities in liver. Conclusion Caffeine + catechins can inhibit fat accumulation and body weight gain in mice through regulating fat metabolism related enzymes activities. Moreover, caffeine and catechins possess synergistic anti-obesity effect.%目的 研究绿茶及其成分的减肥作用机制.方法 50只雌性昆明小鼠随机分成5组,分别为对照组、2%绿茶组、0.05%咖啡碱组、0.3%儿茶素组及0.05%咖啡碱+0.3%儿茶素组.混合饲料投喂8w后,摘取肝脏和腹腔脂肪(IPAT)并称重.分析血清中血糖、甘油三酯(TG)、总胆固醇、瘦素及胰岛素浓度和肝脏中脂类含量.测定肝脏中脂肪酸合成酶(FAS)、肉毒碱脂酰转移酶(CAT)和酰基辅酶A氧化酶(ACO)的活性.结果 绿茶、咖啡碱、咖啡碱+儿茶素组体重增加和IPAT重量比对照组明显减少,特别是咖啡碱+儿茶素效果极显著.咖啡碱+儿茶素显著降低血中TG和瘦素浓度.绿茶、儿茶素、咖啡

  17. MR-based assessment of body fat distribution and characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Thomas; Cordes, Christian; Dieckmeyer, Michael; Ruschke, Stefan; Franz, Daniela; Hauner, Hans; Kirschke, Jan S; Karampinos, Dimitrios C

    2016-08-01

    The assessment of body fat distribution and characteristics using magnetic resonance (MR) methods has recently gained significant attention as it further extends our pathophysiological understanding of diseases including obesity, metabolic syndrome, or type 2 diabetes mellitus, and allows more detailed insights into treatment response and effects of lifestyle interventions. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to review the current literature on MR-based assessment of body fat distribution and characteristics. PubMed search was performed to identify relevant studies on the assessment of body fat distribution and characteristics using MR methods. T1-, T2-weighted MR Imaging (MRI), Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS), and chemical shift-encoding based water-fat MRI have been successfully used for the assessment of body fat distribution and characteristics. The relationship of insulin resistance and serum lipids with abdominal adipose tissue (i.e. subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue), liver, muscle, and bone marrow fat content have been extensively investigated and may help to understand the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and the multifaceted obese phenotype. MR methods have also been used to monitor changes of body fat distribution and characteristics after interventions (e.g. diet or physical activity) and revealed distinct, adipose tissue-specific properties. Lastly, chemical shift-encoding based water-fat MRI can detect brown adipose tissue which is currently the focus of intense research as a potential treatment target for obesity. In conclusion, MR methods reliably allow the assessment of body fat distribution and characteristics. Irrespective of the promising findings based on these MR methods the clinical usefulness remains to be established.

  18. [Body composition at menarche. Estimation of total body weight, total body water, lean and fat body weight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurlo de Mirotti, S M; Lesa, A M; Barrón de Carbonetti, M; Roitter, H; Villagra de Lacuara, S

    1995-01-01

    Our aim was to confirm in our environment what has been observed and described by other writers about the importance of achieving a "critical body weight'' and an adequate "fat percentage'' -on the basis of the calculation of total body water- for the initiation and development of pubertal events. This study included 92 girls, healthy, well nourished, belonging to upper middle class from a high school of The National University of Cordoba. The longitudinal method of control was used every 6 months and at the precise moment of menarche. Out of 20 antropometrical variables observed height, weight and height, TBW as percentage of body weight, lean body and fat weight, fat percentage and skin folds ppercentiles for each girl at menarche. A regression between fat percentage and skin folds was done. Percentiles 5 to 95 of fat percentage in relation to body water percentage were estimated. At menarche the average for the different variables are: Heigth 155.6 cm +/- 0.469; Weight 45.8 Kg +/- 0,5; TBW 25.216 lit. +/- 0.318; lean body weigth 35.02 Kg (S.D.2.98); fat weigth 10.86 Kg (S. D. 3.17). The addition of skin folds was correlated fat percentage, thus, an equation was obtained for the average calculation of such percentage %F= 12.16 + (0.313 x fold addition). The minium percentage for the onset of menstrual cycles is 17.3% and corresponds to percentile 10. However, there is a 5% of girls who start to menstruate with a 15.5% of fat and none of them is below that value. The reasons mentioned above suggest that is necessary to obtain a "critical body weigth'' as well as a "fat percentage'' minimum for the onset and maintenance of menstrual cycles, among our girls, similar o what has been obtained by doctor Frisch.

  19. Visual adaptation to thin and fat bodies transfers across identity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Hummel

    Full Text Available Visual perception is highly variable and can be influenced by the surrounding world. Previous research has revealed that body perception can be biased due to adaptation to thin or fat body shapes. The aim of the present study was to show that adaptation to certain body shapes and the resulting perceptual biases transfer across different identities of adaptation and test stimuli. We designed two similar adaptation experiments in which healthy female participants adapted to pictures of either thin or fat bodies and subsequently compared more or less distorted pictures of their own body to their actual body shape. In the first experiment (n = 16 the same identity was used as adaptation and test stimuli (i.e. pictures of the participant's own body while in the second experiment (n = 16 we used pictures of unfamiliar thin or fat bodies as adaptation stimuli. We found comparable adaptation effects in both experiments: After adaptation to a thin body, participants rated a thinner than actual body picture to be the most realistic and vice versa. We therefore assume that adaptation to certain body shapes transfers across different identities. These results raise the questions of whether some type of natural adaptation occurs in everyday life. Natural and predominant exposure to certain bodily features like body shape--especially the thin ideal in Western societies--could bias perception for these features. In this regard, further research might shed light on aspects of body dissatisfaction and the development of body image disturbances in terms of eating disorders.

  20. Cathepsin K null mice show reduced adiposity during the rapid accumulation of fat stores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Funicello

    Full Text Available Growing evidences indicate that proteases are implicated in adipogenesis and in the onset of obesity. We previously reported that the cysteine protease cathepsin K (ctsk is overexpressed in the white adipose tissue (WAT of obese individuals. We herein characterized the WAT and the metabolic phenotype of ctsk deficient animals (ctsk-/-. When the growth rate of ctsk-/- was compared to that of the wild type animals (WT, we could establish a time window (5-8 weeks of age within which ctsk-/-display significantly lower body weight and WAT size as compared to WT. Such a difference was not observable in older mice. Upon treatment with high fat diet (HFD for 12 weeks ctsk-/- gained significantly less weight than WT and showed reduced brown adipose tissue, liver mass and a lower percentage of body fat. Plasma triglycerides, cholesterol and leptin were significantly lower in HFD-fed-ctsk-/- as compared to HFD-fed WT animals. Adipocyte lipolysis rates were increased in both young and HFD-fed-ctsk-/-, as compared to WT. Carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 activity, was higher in mitochondria isolated from the WAT of HFD treated ctsk-/- as compared to WT. Together, these data indicate that ctsk ablation in mice results in reduced body fat content under conditions requiring a rapid accumulation of fat stores. This observation could be partly explained by an increased release and/or utilization of FFA and by an augmented ratio of lipolysis/lipogenesis. These results also demonstrate that under a HFD, ctsk deficiency confers a partial resistance to the development of dyslipidemia.

  1. Age-related rump fat, fat percent, body fat mass, leptin, androgens and semen parameters ofArab stallions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AmalMAboEl-Maaty; GamalA ElSisy; MonaHShaker; OmimaH Ezzo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives:To study the effect of age and body fat on leptin levels and semen parameters of Arab horse.Methods:Fifteen fertileArab stallions of different ages belonging toPoliceAcademy were divided into three equal groups according to their age.Old horses are those of >18 yeas (18-27),Mid-age horses≥13 to18 years(13-18),Young horses are those of <12 years(7-11). Semen was evaluated three times for each stallion.Blood and seminal plasma were assayed for measuring leptin, testosterone and estradiol.Subcutaneous rump fat thickness was measured using ultrasound for estimating body fat percent and fat mass percent.Results:All body fat parameters were significantly high inYoung stallions and decreased with increasing age.As age increased, testosterone levels increases but leptin levels decreased.Age was inversely correlated with fat%, fat mass and leptin.All fat parameters had direct correlation with leptin in semen and serum but an inverse one with serum testosterone.Serum leptin directly correlated with sperm cell concentration inMid- age stallions and inversely correlated with percent of live sperm in Old stallions.Semen leptin correlated directly with both percent of live sperm and percent of abnormal sperm inOld stallions.Conclusion:This study proved that aging in stallions is related to a drop in fertility, a decrease in body fat and in turn leptin.Arab stallions of age7 to18 years could be used in the breeding efficiently.

  2. Somatic maturation and body composition in female healthy adolescents with or without adjustment for body fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Paulo N. Miranda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the relationship between the stages of somatic maturation and body composition in eutrophic female adolescents with or without excessive body fat. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 118 female adolescents, from 14 to 19 years-old, in Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Southeast Brazil. The adolescents were divided in two groups: Group 1 (G1, eutrophic with adequate body fat percentage, and Group 2 (G2, eutrophic with high body fat percentage. The somatic maturation was assessed by the formula for estimating the Peak Height Velocity (PHV. Results: The PHV had higher average score in G1 adolescents compared to G2 (0.26 versus 0.05; p=0.032. There was an association between G1, G2 and the somatic maturation (p=0.049. The female adolescents before and during PHV presented higher values of fat body BMI (p=0.034 and percentage of central fat (p=0.039 compared to the adolescents after PHV. There was a correspondence between before PHV stage and the excess of body fat (α=0.751. Conclusions: There was an association between somatic maturation and body composition in eutrophic female adolescents. Length, BMI and fat percentage were different among the somatic maturation stages. It is relevant to evaluate the somatic maturation and the changes occurring in the body composition during adolescence in order to better evaluate and manage the nutritional status and the body fat excess.

  3. Evaluation of a rotary laser body scanner for body volume and fat assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, M Reese; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H; Yu, Wurong; Stanforth, Philip R; Xu, Bugao

    2010-07-08

    This paper reports the evaluation tests on the reliability and validity of a 3-dimensional (3D) laser body scanner for estimation of body volume and % fat. Repeated measures of body imaging were performed for reproducibility analysis. Validity of the instrument was assessed by comparison of measures of body volume by imaging to hydrodensitometry, and body fat was compared to hydrodensitometry and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Reproducibility analysis showed little difference between within-subjects measurements of volume (ICC ≥ 0.99, p laser body scanner and hydrodensitometry were strongly related (r = 0.99, p 0.05). These findings indicate that the 3D laser body scanner is a reliable and valid technique for the estimation of body volume. Furthermore, body imaging is an accurate measure of body fat, as compared to dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. This new instrument is promising as a quick, simple to use, and inexpensive method of body composition analysis.

  4. Fucoidan prevents high-fat diet-induced obesity in animals by suppression of fat accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Ja; Jeon, Joseph; Lee, Jin-Sil

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the antiobesity effects of fucoidan in an animal model of diet-induced obesity. Mice were fed a standard diet or high-fat diet (HFD) for 5 weeks. After that, the mice were divided into four experimental groups, with 10 mice per group, including a standard diet group, HFD group, HFD containing 1% fucoidan (HFD + FUCO 1%) group and HFD containing 2% fucoidan (HFD + FUCO 2%) group. The fucoidan supplementation group had significantly decreased body-weight gain, food efficiency ratio and relative liver and epididymal fat mass compared with the HFD group. The mice supplemented with fucoidan showed significantly reduced triglyceride, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein levels in the plasma. Liver steatosis induced by the HFD improved in the fucoidan-supplemented group. Furthermore, fucoidan affected the down-regulation expression patterns of epididymal adipose tissue genes such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, adipose-specific fatty acid binding protein and acetyl CoA carboxylase. Therefore, fucoidan may be considered for use in improving obesity.

  5. Eating Regulation Styles, Appearance Schemas, and Body Satisfaction Predict Changes in Body Fat for Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Ali Zaremba; Keiley, Margaret K.; Ryan, Aubrey E.; Radomski, Juliana Groves; Gropper, Sareen S.; Connell, Lenda Jo; Simmons, Karla P.; Ulrich, Pamela V.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and high body fat percentages are a major public health issue. The percentage of obese and overweight Americans has increased over the past 30 years. On average, overweight individuals with higher percent body fat than normal weight individuals are at increased risk for numerous negative outcomes both physically and mentally. A prime time…

  6. Associations between dietary intake and body fat independent of genetic and familial environmental background

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Ann Louise; Heitmann, B L; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm;

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether habitual dietary intake was associated with body fat mass and body fat distribution, independently of possible confounding by the genetic and shared environmental background.......To determine whether habitual dietary intake was associated with body fat mass and body fat distribution, independently of possible confounding by the genetic and shared environmental background....

  7. Tracking of weight status and body fatness in Italian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toselli, Stefania; Brasili, Patricia; Di Michele, Rocco

    2013-12-01

    The prevalence of weight disorders among school-aged children is an increasing phenomenon and it is of great importance to identify the characteristics of individuals at risk of gaining or retaining weight. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of weight disorders and their tracking over a 3-year period in a sample of Italian children. Body mass, body height and selected skinfold thicknesses were assessed in 355 children at the age of 7 and 10 years. Tracking of body mass index (BMI), inverted BMI (iBMI) and skinfold-based body fat were analyzed and the relationships between changes in BMI and body fat were examined. Children presenting with overweight or obesity at 7 years old showed a trend toward lower weight categories at 10 years old. Conversely, a trend to become overweight was observed among normal weight boys, and a trend to become underweight was observed among normal weight girls. BMI, iBMI and body fat showed good levels of tracking, with high correlations between measurements performed at 7 and 10 years of age. Furthermore, BMI and iBMI changes were correlated to body fatness changes. The present study shows the importance of carefully following children's development over time because weight disorders may appear even in previously normal weight children.

  8. Impaired oxidative capacity due to decreased CPT1b levels as a contributing factor to fat accumulation in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratner, Cecilia; Madsen, Andreas Nygaard; Kristensen, Line Vildbrad; Skov, Louise Julie; Pedersen, Katrine Seide; Mortensen, Ole Hartvig; Knudsen, Gitte Moos; Raun, Kirsten; Holst, Birgitte

    2015-06-01

    To characterize mechanisms responsible for fat accumulation we used a selectively bred obesity-prone (OP) and obesity-resistant (OR) rat model where the rats were fed a Western diet for 76 days. Body composition was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging scans, and as expected, the OP rats developed a higher degree of fat accumulation compared with OR rats. Indirect calorimetry showed that the OP rats had higher respiratory exchange ratio (RER) compared with OR rats, indicating an impaired ability to oxidize fat. The OP rats had lower expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1b in intra-abdominal fat, and higher expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 in subcutaneous fat compared with OR rats, which could explain the higher fat accumulation and RER values. Basal metabolic parameters were also examined in juvenile OP and OR rats before and during the introduction of the Western diet. Juvenile OP rats likewise had higher RER values, indicating that this trait may be a primary and contributing factor to their obese phenotype. When the adult obese rats were exposed to the orexigenic and adipogenic hormone ghrelin, we observed increased RER values in both OP and OR rats, while OR rats were more sensitive to the orexigenic effects of ghrelin as well as ghrelin-induced attenuation of activity and energy expenditure. Thus increased fat accumulation characterizing obesity may be caused by impaired oxidative capacity due to decreased carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1b levels in the white adipose tissue, whereas ghrelin sensitivity did not seem to be a contributing factor.

  9. Holding fat stereotypes is associated with lower body dissatisfaction in normal weight Caucasian women who engage in body surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jean; Jarry, Josée L

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the moderating effect of body surveillance on the relationship between fat stereotype endorsement and body dissatisfaction in normal weight women. Participants (N=225) completed online measures of fat stereotyping, body surveillance, body dissatisfaction, and internalized thin ideals. After accounting for thin ideals, body surveillance moderated the relationship between fat stereotypes and body dissatisfaction. Contrary to hypotheses, higher fat stereotype endorsement predicted lower body dissatisfaction in women with higher body surveillance. Conversely, higher fat stereotype endorsement predicted greater body dissatisfaction in women with lower body surveillance. Thus, endorsing fat stereotypes appears protective against body dissatisfaction in normal weight women who extensively engage in body surveillance. For women who hold fat stereotypes and report high body surveillance, we propose that downward appearance comparison may create a contrast between themselves and the people with overweight whom they denigrate, thus improving body dissatisfaction.

  10. Identification of Novel Clinical Factors Associated with Hepatic Fat Accumulation in Extreme Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn S. Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The accumulation of lipids stored as excess triglycerides in the liver (steatosis is highly prevalent in obesity and has been associated with several clinical characteristics, but most studies have been based on relatively small sample sizes using a limited set of variables. We sought to identify clinical factors associated with liver fat accumulation in a large cohort of patients with extreme obesity. Methods. We analyzed 2929 patients undergoing intraoperative liver biopsy during a primary bariatric surgery. Univariate and multivariate regression modeling was used to identify associations with over 200 clinical variables with the presence of any fat in the liver and with moderate to severe versus mild fat accumulation. Results. A total of 19 data elements were associated with the presence of liver fat and 11 with severity of liver fat including ALT and AST, plasma lipid, glucose, and iron metabolism variables, several medications and laboratory measures, and sleep apnea. The accuracy of a multiple logistic regression model for presence of liver fat was 81% and for severity of liver fat accumulation was 77%. Conclusions. A limited set of clinical factors can be used to model hepatic fat accumulation with moderate accuracy and may provide potential mechanistic insights in the setting of extreme obesity.

  11. Excess of the endocannabinoid anandamide during lactation induces overweight, fat accumulation and insulin resistance in adult mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguirre Carolina A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Environmental conditions in early life can induce permanent physiological changes, sometimes increasing the risk of chronic diseases during adulthood. Neural and peripheral circuits controlling energy balance may be modulated during such a critical period. Since type 1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1R have recently emerged as targets for modulating energy balance, their premature chronic activation during early life may result in long-term metabolic consequences associated to overweight/obesity. Endogenous activation of CB1R mainly occurs after binding to the endocannabinoid Anandamide (AEA. Objective To evaluate long-term effects of AEA treatment during lactation on body weight, epididymal fat accumulation and related metabolic parameters during adulthood. Design Male mice pups were orally treated with a solution of AEA (20 μg/g body weight in soy oil or vehicle during the whole lactation period. After weaning, food intake and body weight were recorded every 10 days. Adult animals were subjected to glucose and insulin tolerance tests. Subsequently, animals were sacrificed and epididymal fat pads were extracted. Circulating levels of plasma insulin, leptin, non-sterified fatty acids (NEFA, triglyceride and cholesterol were also evaluated. Results AEA-treated mice during lactation showed a significant increase in accumulated food intake, body weight and epididymal fat during adulthood when compared to control mice. When evaluating CB1R protein expression in epididymal fat, the AEA-treated group showed a 150 % increase in expression compared to the control mice. This group also displayed significantly higher levels of circulating glucose, insulin, leptin, triglycerides, cholesterol and NEFA. Moreover, a marked state of insulin resistance was an important finding in the AEA-treated group. Conclusion This study showed that overweight, accumulation of visceral fat and associated metabolic disturbances, such as a higher lipid

  12. Light physical activity increased body fat percentage in elderly Javanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatmah Fatmah

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity in Indonesia is rapidly increasing, particularly in older people. Obesity is characterized by increased percentage of body fat in the form of visceral fat and non-visceral or subcutaneous fat. The aim of this study was to analyze body fat percentage (BFP and associated risk factors, i.e. type of residence (rural or urban, physical activity, gender, age, intakes of energy and fat, and socio-economic background (educational level and occupational status. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 812 older persons (517 females and 295 males from December 2007- February 2008 in the cities of Surabaya, Semarang, Yogyakarta, Wonogiri, Gunung Kidul, and Magetan subdistricts. BFP was assessed using an Omron Fat Analyzer. Nutritional intakes were collected through interviews using semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. To obtain overall total energy expenditure for physical activity (PA, the energy expenditures for exercise (sports PA, daily activities, and leisure time PA were added together. The study results indicated that urban residence and light PA at age 55 years constituted risk factors for high BFP. Light PA at 55 years of age was the most influential risk factor, since it was 4.3 times greater than vigorous PA at the same age (OR=4.3; 95% Confidence interval 2.6-7.1 It is recommended to implement nutritional counseling about adequate intakes for increased PA in all age groups (adolescents, adults, older persons, particularly in urban areas with their greater risk of high BFP.

  13. Neither Good nor Useful: Looking Ad Vivum in Children's Assessments of Fat and Healthy Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    Fat bodies are not, fait accompli, bad. Yet in our international research, we found overwhelmingly that fat functioned as a marker to indicate health or lack of health. A body with fat was simply and conclusively unhealthy. This article reports on how this unbalanced view of fat was tied to assessments of healthy bodies that were achieved by "the…

  14. Sequence of fat partitioning and its relationship with whole body insulin resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Xiu-ping; LI Hong-liang; YANG Wen-ying; XIAO Jian-zhong; WANG Bing; LOU Da-jun; DU Rui-qin

    2010-01-01

    Background Currently it is unclear whether lipid accumulation occurs in a particular sequence and its relationship with whole body insulin resistance (IR). This study aimed to answer this question.Methods Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were fed on a normal or a high-fat diet for 20 weeks. Serum triglycerides (TG), serum free fatty acids (FFA), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and liver and skeletal muscle TG were measured. The glucose infusion rate (GIR) and mRNA levels of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1) in the liver and skeletal muscle were determined at different stages.Results Compared with rats fed on the normal diet, serum FFA was not significantly increased in rats fed on the high-fat diet until 20 weeks. In contrast, liver TG was significantly increased by the high-fat diet by four weeks (20-fold; P <0.01),and remained elevated until the end of the study. However, skeletal muscle TG was not significantly increased by the high-fat diet until 20 weeks (10.6-fold; P<0.01), and neither was the FPG. The GIR was significantly reduced (1.6-fold; P <0.01) by the high-fat diet after 8 weeks. The mRNA levels of ACC gradually increased over time and CPT-1 decreased over time, in both the liver and skeletal muscle in rats fed the high-fat diet.Conclusions Lipid accumulation in the liver occurs earlier than lipid accumulation in the skeletal muscle. Fatty liver may be one of the early markers of whole body IR. Changes in the gene expression levels of ACC and CPT-1 may have important roles in the process of IR development.

  15. Predicting Body Fat Using Data on the BMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Terence C.

    2005-01-01

    A data set contained in the "Journal of Statistical Education's" data archive provides a way of exploring regression analysis at a variety of teaching levels. An appropriate functional form for the relationship between percentage body fat and the BMI is shown to be the semi-logarithmic, with variation in the BMI accounting for a little over half…

  16. Physics for Medicine and Biology: Determining Body Fat Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Ronald; Altman, Albert

    2011-04-01

    Hydrostatic weighing is a technique for determining body fat content that is based on Archimedes principle and varied applications of the ideal gas law. We use this procedure as an example of the types of physics material which should be presented in an introductory course for students that are interested in careers in biology and medicine.

  17. Proline synthesis in fat body of Leptinotarsa decemlineata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weeda, E.; Koopmanschap, A.B.; Kort, C.A.D. de; Beenakkers, A.M.Th.

    1980-01-01

    Fat body isolated from the Colorado potato beetle is capable of synthesizing proline. Maximum rate of proline synthesis is achieved with alanine as substrate. A metabolic pathway in which stored lipid participates in proline synthesis is suggested. The close relationship between flight muscle and fa

  18. Fat Talk and Body Dissatisfaction among College Dancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartawidjaja, Jenae E.; Cordero, Elizabeth D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate "fat talk" conversations about weight and body dissatisfaction within college dancers. Participants were 116 female undergraduates who were dancers/dance majors ("n"?=?20), dancers/nondance majors ("n"?=?32), and nondancers ("n"?=?63). Participants responded to…

  19. Clinical Usefulness of a New Equation for Estimating Body Fat

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez-Ambrosi, J.; De Silva, C.; Catalan, V.; Rodriguez, A.; Galofre, J.C. (Juan Carlos); Escalada, J.; Valenti, V; Rotellar, F. (Fernando); Romero, S.; Ramirez, B.; J. Salvador; Frühbeck, G.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the predictive capacity of a recently described equation that we have termed CUN-BAE (Clínica Universidad de Navarra-Body Adiposity Estimator) based on BMI, sex, and age for estimating body fat percentage (BF%) and to study its clinical usefulness. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a comparison study of the developed equation with many other anthropometric indices regarding its correlation with actual BF% in a large cohort of 6,510 white subjects from b...

  20. Association between cardiorespiratory fitness and body fat in girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minatto, Giseli; de Sousa, Thiago Ferreira; de Carvalho, Wellington Roberto Gomes; Ribeiro, Roberto Régis; Santos, Keila Donassolo; Petroski, Edio Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To estimate the prevalence of low cardiorespiratory fitness and its association with excess body fat, considering the sexual maturation and economic level in female adolescents. Methods: Cross-sectional, epidemiological study of 1223 adolescents (10-17 years) from the public school system of Cascavel, PR, Brazil, in 2006. We analyzed the self-assessed sexual maturation level (prepubertal, pubertal and post-pubertal), the economic level (high and low) through a questionnaire and body fat (normal and high) through triceps and subscapular skinfolds. The 20-meter back-and-forth test was applied to estimate maximum oxygen consumption. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed according to reference criteria and considered low when the minimum health criterion for age and sex was not met. Chi-square test and logistic regression were applied, with a significance level of 5%. Results: The prevalence of low cardiorespiratory fitness was 51.3%, being associated with all study variables (p<0.001). At the crude analysis, adolescents with high body fat were associated with low cardiorespiratory fitness, when compared to those with normal body fat (OR=2.76; 95%CI: 2.17-3.52). After adjustment by sexual maturation, this association remained valid and showed an effect that was 1.8-fold higher (95%CI: 1.39-2.46) and after adjusting by economic level, the effect was 1.9-fold higher (95%CI: 1.45-2.61). Conclusions: Approximately half of the assessed girls showed unsatisfactory levels of cardiorespiratory fitness for health, which was associated with high body fat, regardless of sexual maturation level and economic level. Effective public health measures are needed, with particular attention to high-risk groups. PMID:27131896

  1. Dietary intake mediates the relationship of body fat to pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Charles F; Olson, KayLoni L; Bodine, Andrew; Lee, Victoria; Habash, Diane L

    2017-02-01

    Prior studies have documented an association of obesity with chronic pain, but the mechanism explaining the association remains unknown. This study evaluated the degree to which dietary intake of foods with anti-inflammatory effects mediates the relationship of body fat to body pain. Ninety-eight community-residing healthy adults (60% women; mean age = 43.2 ± 15.3 years; range: 20-78 years) participated in a home-based study of home environment, food-related behaviors, health, and adiposity. During a 3-hour home visit evaluation, 3 measures of body fat were collected, including height and weight for calculation of body mass index (BMI). Participants also completed a 24-hour food recall interview and self-report measures of bodily pain (BP; BP subscale from the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36) and psychological distress (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). Quality of dietary intake was rated using the Healthy Eating Index-2010. Mediation models were conducted with the PROCESS macro in SAS 9.3. Mean BMI was consistent with obesity (30.4 ± 7.8; range: 18.2-53.3), and BP values (73.2 ± 22.1; range: 0-100) and dietary intake quality (59.4 ± 15.5; range: 26.8-88.1) were consistent with population norms. Modeling in PROCESS revealed that Healthy Eating Index-2010 scores mediated the relationship between BMI and BP (bindirect = -0.34, 95% confidence interval = -0.68 to -0.13). The mediation model remained significant when controlling for biomechanical factors (arthritis/joint pain), medication use, psychological distress, age, and education, and models remained significant using the other 2 body fat measures. Thus, the data indicate that dietary intake of foods with anti-inflammatory effects mediates the relationship of body fat to body pain in healthy men and women.

  2. Doenjang, a fermented soybean paste, decreased visceral fat accumulation and adipocyte size in rats fed with high fat diet more effectively than nonfermented soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Chung Shil; Park, Sang Chul; Song, Kye Yong

    2012-01-01

    Soybean is known to have an anti-obesity effect. We compared the anti-obesity effect of doenjang, a fermented soybean paste, with that of nonfermented soybeans in rats. Steamed soybeans and doenjang (steamed soybeans fermented and aged for 10 months) were sampled and freeze-dried. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed basal (BA) (5% fat), high fat (HF) (30% fat), HF+steamed soybeans (SOY), or HF+doenjang (DJ) diet ad libitum for 8 weeks. HF significantly increased body weight gain, liver weight, hepatic triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol levels, and epididymal fat pad weight compared with BA. Compared with HF, body weight gain and hepatic TG and cholesterol levels were significantly lower in SOY and DJ groups, but they were not significantly different from each other. DJ significantly reduced visceral fat weight and epididymal adipocyte size compared with HF, whereas SOY resulted in a mild reduction without significance. This was possibly because DJ showed lowered fatty acid synthase (FAS) activity and elevated carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT)-1 activity in liver tissue more than SOY. SOY and DJ did not affect serum total and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels compared with HF; however, DJ significantly lowered the atherogenic index and serum leptin level. In conclusion, doenjang, a fermented soybean product, was more effective than soybeans for preventing diet-induced visceral fat accumulation, possibly because of its greater effects on CPT-1 activity stimulation and FAS activity suppression. These effects may be due in part to the higher content of aglycone isoflavones in doenjang.

  3. Association of body fat with inflammation in peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mattos, Andresa Marques; Ovidio, Paula Payão; Jordão, Alceu Afonso; da Costa, José Abrão Cardeal; Chiarello, Paula Garcia

    2013-06-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) frequently leads to body weight gain, which appears to be a potential cause of the chronic inflammation frequently present in these patients. The consequences of this inflammation are impaired nutritional status, accelerated atherosclerosis, and increased mortality. To assess the association between inflammation and body fat in female patients treated with PD. Nineteen female patients on PD for at least 6 months with no infectious complications or malignant or acute inflammatory diseases. Nutritional status was determined by measuring weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist (WC), and mid-arm circumferences (MAC), mid-arm muscle area, and tricipital fold (TCF). Bioelectrical impedance (BIA) was used to determine body composition. Biochemical evaluation included the determination of serum albumin, urea, creatinine, and C-reactive protein (CRP). The glucose absorbed from the dialysis solution was quantitated. According to BMI, two patients were classified as malnourished and ten as overweight/obese. Sixteen individuals had high WC measurements and 12 had excess body fat (BF) as measured by BIA. High CRP levels were observed in 12 patients, who had higher WC, MAC, BMI, TCF, and BF measurements compared to non-inflamed patients. Positive associations were detected between CRP and BMI, MAC, WC, and TCF. Associations between BF and CRP suggest that adiposity may be a potent exacerbating factor of inflammation in this population, especially visceral fat. Thus, obesity may be considered to be one more factor responsible for the early atherosclerosis and high cardiovascular mortality observed in these patients.

  4. Effects of puerarin on lipid accumulation and metabolism in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Zheng

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the mechanisms by which puerarin from kudzu root extract regulates lipid metabolism, fifty mice were randomly assigned to five groups: normal diet, high-fat diet (HFD, and HFD containing 0.2%, 0.4% or 0.8% puerarin for 12 weeks. Body weight, intraperitioneal adipose tissue (IPAT weight, serum biochemical parameters, and hepatic and feces lipids were measured. Activity and mRNA and protein expressions of hepatic lipid metabolism-related enzymes were analyzed. Compared with HFD, 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin significantly decreased body and IPAT weight. There was a significant decrease in the serum and hepatic concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides and leptin in mice fed the 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets compared with HFD. Fatty acid synthase activity was suppressed in mice fed the 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets, while the activities of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, carnitine acyltransferase (CAT and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL were increased. mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ 2 (PPARγ 2 was down-regulated in liver of mice fed the 0.8% diet compared with HFD, while mRNA expression of CAT and HSL was considerably up-regulated by 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets. The protein expression of PPARγ2 in liver was decreased and those of p-AMPK, HSL and p-HSL were increased in mice fed 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets. These results suggest that > 0.4% puerarin influenced the activity, mRNA and protein levels of hepatic lipid metabolism-related enzymes, decreasing serum and liver lipids, body weight gain and fat accumulation. Puerarin might be beneficial to prevent lifestyle-related diseases.

  5. Associations between body fat and vitamin K status in older women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fat soluble nutrients are stored in fat tissue. Yet, the association between body fat and vitamin K status is not clear. We examined associations between % body fat (%BF) and 3 circulating measures of vitamin K status [plasma phylloquinone (plasma K1), uncarboxylated prothrombin (PIVKA), uncarboxyla...

  6. Body Fat Percentage Prediction Using Intelligent Hybrid Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuehjen E. Shao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Excess of body fat often leads to obesity. Obesity is typically associated with serious medical diseases, such as cancer, heart disease, and diabetes. Accordingly, knowing the body fat is an extremely important issue since it affects everyone’s health. Although there are several ways to measure the body fat percentage (BFP, the accurate methods are often associated with hassle and/or high costs. Traditional single-stage approaches may use certain body measurements or explanatory variables to predict the BFP. Diverging from existing approaches, this study proposes new intelligent hybrid approaches to obtain fewer explanatory variables, and the proposed forecasting models are able to effectively predict the BFP. The proposed hybrid models consist of multiple regression (MR, artificial neural network (ANN, multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS, and support vector regression (SVR techniques. The first stage of the modeling includes the use of MR and MARS to obtain fewer but more important sets of explanatory variables. In the second stage, the remaining important variables are served as inputs for the other forecasting methods. A real dataset was used to demonstrate the development of the proposed hybrid models. The prediction results revealed that the proposed hybrid schemes outperformed the typical, single-stage forecasting models.

  7. Administration of dried Aloe vera gel powder reduced body fat mass in diet-induced obesity (DIO) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misawa, Eriko; Tanaka, Miyuki; Nabeshima, Kazumi; Nomaguchi, Kouji; Yamada, Muneo; Toida, Tomohiro; Iwatsuki, Keiji

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-obesity effects of Aloe vera gel administration in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with diet-induced obesity (DIO). SD rats at 7 wk of age were fed either a standard diet (10 kcal% fat) (StdD) or high-fat (60 kcal% fat) diet (HFD) during the experimental period. Four weeks after of HFD-feeding, DIO rats (11 wk of age) were orally administered with two doses of Aloe vera gel powder (20 and 200 mg/kg/d) for 90 d. Body weights (g) and body fat (%) of HFD fed rats were significantly higher than those of StdD-fed rats. Although a modest decrease of body weight (g) was observed with the administration of dried Aloe vera gel powder, both subcutaneous and visceral fat weight (g) and body fat (%) were reduced significantly in Aloe vera gel-treated rats. Serum lipid parameters elevated by HFD were also improved by the Aloe vera gel treatment. The oxygen consumption (VO(2)), an index of energy expenditure, was decreased in HFD-fed rats compared with that in StdD-fed rats. Administration of Aloe vera gel reversed the change in VO(2) in the HFD-fed rats. These results suggest that intake of Aloe vera gel reduced body fat accumulation, in part, by stimulation of energy expenditure. Aloe vera gel might be beneficial for the prevention and improvement of diet-induced obesity.

  8. Over-expression of Follistatin-like 3 attenuates fat accumulation and improves insulin sensitivity in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Claus; Hansen, Rasmus Hvass; Hansen, Jakob Bondo

    2015-01-01

    -fat feeding. Body weight, food intake, fat accumulation by MR scanning, and glucose, insulin and glucagon tolerance were evaluated, as was the response in body weight and metabolic parameters to 24h fasting. Effects of fstl3 on pancreatic insulin and glucagon content, and pancreatic islet morphology were...... through systemic fstl3 over-expression protects against diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. METHODS: Fstl3 was over-expressed by DNA electrotransfer in tibialis anterior, quadriceps and gastrocnemius muscles in female C57BL/C mice, and the mice were subsequently randomized to chow or high....../glucagon ratio. Accordingly, fstl3 transfection improved counter-regulation to 24h fasting. CONCLUSION: Fstl3 over-expression regulates insulin and glucagon sensitivities through increased muscular insulin action, as well as increased hepatic glucagon sensitivity and pancreatic glucagon content....

  9. Body fat and cholecalciferol supplementation in elderly homebound individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H.S. Canto-Costa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency, observed mainly in the geriatric population, is responsible for loss of bone mass and increased risk of bone fractures. Currently, recommended doses of cholecalciferol are advised, but since there are few studies evaluating the factors that influence the serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD following supplementation, we analyzed the relationship between the increase in serum 25(OHD after supplementation and body fat. We studied a group of 42 homebound elderly subjects over 65 years old (31 women in order to assess whether there is a need for adjustment of the doses of cholecalciferol administered to this group according to their adipose mass. Baseline measurements of 25(OHD, intact parathyroid hormone and bone remodeling markers (osteocalcin and carboxy-terminal fraction of type 1 collagen were performed. Percent body fat was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The patients were divided into three groups according to their percent body fat index and were treated with cholecalciferol, 7,000 IU a week, for 12 weeks. The increases in serum levels of 25(OHD were similar for all groups, averaging 7.46 ng/mL (P < 0.05. It is noteworthy that this increase only shifted these patients from the insufficiency category to hypovitaminosis. Peak levels of 25(OHD were attained after only 6 weeks of treatment. This study demonstrated that adipose tissue mass does not influence the elevation of 25(OHD levels following vitamin D supplementation, suggesting that there is no need to adjust vitamin D dose according to body fat in elderly homebound individuals.

  10. Estimation of body fat in rats by whole-body counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pommer, A.M.; Lakshmanan, F.L.

    1975-07-01

    A method for determining body fat in vivo in rats by whole-body counting of /sup 40/K is described. The technique utilizes a Nuclear Chicago Corporation TOBOR system with 5-in thallium-activated sodium iodide crystals. To test the method a regression equation was developed using the /sup 40/K counts and body weight of young adult rats weighing 333 to 788 g; the results were compared with those obtained from the gravimetric determination of fat in the carcass. The correlation coefficient between the two methods was 0.945. (auth)

  11. Purple Tea and Its Extract Suppress Diet-induced Fat Accumulation in Mice and Human Subjects by Inhibiting Fat Absorption and Enhancing Hepatic Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoda, Hiroshi; Hitoe, Shoketsu; Nakamura, Seikou; Matsuda, Hisashi

    2015-06-01

    A number of clinical trials have been completed using green tea and black tea to investigate their effect in controlling weight in overweight adults. The results of these investigations, however, have often been contradictory, with some trials reporting positive effects of tea supplementation and some trials reporting no effect. As a result, the use of these teas for weight loss is controversial. Purple tea is a variety of green tea developed in Kenya (called TRFK306), which in addition to certain tea constituents found in green tea, also contains anthocyanins. The major constituents in the leaves of purple tea are caffeine, theobromine, epigallocatechin (ECG), epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and 1,2-di-O-galloyl-4,6-O-(S)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-β-D-glucose (GHG). We investigated the efficacy of purple tea extract (PTE) on diet-induced fat accumulation in mice. PTE administration (200 mg/kg) significantly suppressed body weight gain, liver weight, abdominal fat and triglycerides in serum and liver. Protein expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) 1A was also enhanced. In olive oil loaded mice, PTE (100 mg/kg) and caffeine (25 mg/kg) suppressed fat absorption. PTE (10 μg/mL) and GHG (10 μg/mL) also enhanced protein expression of CPT1A in HepG2 hepatoma. Moreover, 4-week daily consumption of purple tea drink in humans improved obesity parameters compared to baseline, including body weight (79.9 ± 3.1 kg vs 80.8 ± 3.2, pweight gain by suppression of fat absorption and enhancement of hepatic fat metabolism.

  12. Betaine alleviates hepatic lipid accumulation via enhancing hepatic lipid export and fatty acid oxidation in rats fed with a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li; Huang, Danping; Hu, Qiaolin; Wu, Jing; Wang, Yizhen; Feng, Jie

    2015-06-28

    To assess the effects of betaine on hepatic lipid accumulation and investigate the underlying mechanism, thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 100 (sd 2·50) g were divided into four groups, and started on one of four treatments: basal diet, basal diet with betaine administration, high-fat diet and high-fat diet with betaine administration. The results showed that no significant difference of body weight was found among experimental groups. Compared with high-fat diet-fed rats, a betaine supplementation decreased (Pbetaine-homocysteine methyltransferase concentration [corrected] as well as its mRNA abundance and lecithin level were found increased (Pbetaine supplementation in both basal diet-fed rats and high-fat diet-fed rats. Betaine administration in high-fat diet-fed rats exhibited a higher (Pbetaine administration in high-fat diet-fed rats elevated (Pbetaine administration in high-fat diet group; meanwhile the gene expression of hepatic AMP-activated protein kinase was increased (Pbetaine administration enhanced hepatic lipid export and fatty acid oxidation in high-fat diet-fed rats, thus effectively alleviating fat accumulation in the liver.

  13. Prolonged adaptation to fat-rich diet and training; effects on body fat stores and insulin resistance in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the effect of prolonged adaptation to training and fat- or carbohydrate-rich diet on body composition and insulin resistance.......To investigate the effect of prolonged adaptation to training and fat- or carbohydrate-rich diet on body composition and insulin resistance....

  14. Korean Pine Nut Oil Attenuated Hepatic Triacylglycerol Accumulation in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soyoung; Shin, Sunhye; Lim, Yeseo; Shin, Jae Hoon; Seong, Je Kyung; Han, Sung Nim

    2016-01-21

    Korean pine nut oil (PNO) has been reported to influence weight gain and lipid metabolism. We examined whether PNO replacement in a high-fat diet (HFD) can ameliorate HFD-induced hepatic steatosis. Five-week-old male C57BL mice were fed control diets containing 10% of the energy from fat from PNO or soybean oil (SBO) (PC, SC) or HFDs with 45% of the energy from fat, with 10% from PNO or SBO and 35% from lard (PHFD, SHFD), for 12 weeks. Body weight gain and amount of white adipose tissue were lower in PHFD (10% and 18% lower, respectively) compared with SHFD. Hepatic triacylglycerol (TG) level was significantly lower in PHFD than the SHFD (26% lower). PNO consumption upregulated hepatic ACADL mRNA levels. The hepatic PPARG mRNA level was lower in the PC than in the SC. Expression of the sirtuin (SIRT) 3 protein in white adipose tissue was down-regulated in the SHFD and restored in the PHFD to the level in the lean control mice. SIRT 3 was reported to be upregulated under conditions of caloric restriction (CR) and plays a role in regulating mitochondrial function. PNO consumption resulted in lower body fat and hepatic TG accumulation in HFD-induced obesity, which seemed to be associated with the CR-mimetic response.

  15. Korean Pine Nut Oil Attenuated Hepatic Triacylglycerol Accumulation in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyoung Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Korean pine nut oil (PNO has been reported to influence weight gain and lipid metabolism. We examined whether PNO replacement in a high-fat diet (HFD can ameliorate HFD-induced hepatic steatosis. Five-week-old male C57BL mice were fed control diets containing 10% of the energy from fat from PNO or soybean oil (SBO (PC, SC or HFDs with 45% of the energy from fat, with 10% from PNO or SBO and 35% from lard (PHFD, SHFD, for 12 weeks. Body weight gain and amount of white adipose tissue were lower in PHFD (10% and 18% lower, respectively compared with SHFD. Hepatic triacylglycerol (TG level was significantly lower in PHFD than the SHFD (26% lower. PNO consumption upregulated hepatic ACADL mRNA levels. The hepatic PPARG mRNA level was lower in the PC than in the SC. Expression of the sirtuin (SIRT 3 protein in white adipose tissue was down-regulated in the SHFD and restored in the PHFD to the level in the lean control mice. SIRT 3 was reported to be upregulated under conditions of caloric restriction (CR and plays a role in regulating mitochondrial function. PNO consumption resulted in lower body fat and hepatic TG accumulation in HFD-induced obesity, which seemed to be associated with the CR-mimetic response.

  16. Screening for bioactive metabolites in plant extracts modulating glucose uptake and fat accumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Houri, Rime Bahij; Kotowska, Dorota Ewa; C. B. Olsen, Louise;

    2014-01-01

    while weekly activating PPARγ without promoting adipocyte differentiation. In addition, these extracts were able to decrease fat accumulation in C. elegans. Methanol extracts of summer savory (Satureja hortensis), common elder, and broccoli (Brassica oleracea) enhanced glucose uptake in myotubes...... bioassays, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ-mediated transactivation, adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cell cultures, and glucose uptake in both 3T3-L1 adipocytes and primary porcine myotubes, as well as one in vivo bioassay, fat accumulation in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We...

  17. Association of body fat and vitamin D status and the effect of body fat on the response to vitamin D supplementation in Pakistani immigrants in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønborg, Ida Marie; Lundby, M.; Mølgaard, C.;

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency and obesity are both prevalent conditions in the northern countries, especially among immigrants. The aims were to assess the possible relationship between body fat and vitamin D status, and to investigate the effect of body fat on the response to oral vitamin D supplementation...... in Pakistani immigrants in Denmark. Data were obtained from a 1-year double-blind randomised controlled trial with oral vitamin D supplementation. A total of 122 women and men received either vitamin D3 supplementation (10 or 20 μg/day) or placebo. No association was found between body fat percentage...... and vitamin D status in a multiple linear regression model (Pbody fat was seen on the vitamin D status response following the intervention with vitamin D. In conclusion, there was no baseline association between body fat percentage and vitamin D status, and body fat percentage had...

  18. Brief communication: Body mass index, body adiposity index, and percent body fat in Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dapeng; Li, Yonglan; Zheng, Lianbin; Yu, Keli

    2013-10-01

    Human obesity is a growing epidemic throughout the world. Body mass index (BMI) is commonly used as a good indicator of obesity. Body adiposity index (BAI = hip circumference (cm)/stature (m)(1.5) - 18), as a new surrogate measure, has been proposed recently as an alternative to BMI. This study, for the first time, compares BMI and BAI for predicting percent body fat (PBF; estimated from skinfolds) in a sample of 302 Buryat adults (148 men and 154 women) living in China. The BMI and BAI were strongly correlated with PBF in both men and women. The correlation coefficient between BMI and PBF was higher than that between BAI and PBF for both sexes. For the linear regression analysis, BMI better predicted PBF in both men and women; the variation around the regression lines for each sex was greater for BAI comparisons. For the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, the area under the ROC curve for BMI was higher than that for BAI for each sex, which suggests that the discriminatory capacity of the BMI is higher than the one of BAI. Taken together, we conclude that BMI is a more reliable indicator of PBF derived from skinfold thickness in adult Buryats.

  19. Circulating persistent organic pollutants and body fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zong, Geng; Grandjean, Philippe; Wu, Hongyu

    2015-01-01

    and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004. Partial Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated, after adjusting for major confounders, including age, smoking status, and history of lactation and parity. Wolfe's method was used to compare correlation coefficients derived from the same participants. RESULTS......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare the correlations of various circulating persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with fat mass percentages (FM%) of trunk, leg, and whole body measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. METHODS: This study included 2358 adults (≥20 years) in the National Health......: Twelve POPs showed significantly different correlations with fat depots in trunk and leg regions. β-hexachlorocyclohexane, heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-126 showed stronger positive correlations with trunk FM% than with leg FM%, whereas PCBs...

  20. Non-invasive Quantitative Analysis of Specific Fat Accumulation in Subcutaneous Adipose Tissues using Raman Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meksiarun, Phiranuphon; Andriana, Bibin B; Matsuyoshi, Hiroko; Sato, Hidetoshi

    2016-11-15

    Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and fat beneath the dermis layer were investigated using a ball lens top hollow optical fiber Raman probe (BHRP). Hamsters were fed with trilinolein (TL) and tricaprin (TC) for six weeks and measurements were carried out every two weeks. The BHRP with an 800 μm diameter fused-silica ball lens was able to obtain information on the subcutaneous fat in a totally non-invasive manner. Changes in the concentration of TL and TC during the treatment were analyzed, and the relationship between fat accumulation and dietary fat was studied. It was found that SAT had, in general, a higher degree of unsaturation than VAT. The accumulation rate of TC found in SAT and VAT was 0.52 ± 0.38 and 0.58 ± 0.4%, respectively, while the TL accumulation rate was 4.45 ± 1.6 and 4.37 ± 2.4%, respectively. The results suggest different metabolic pathways for TC, a typical medium-chain fatty acid, and TL, a long-chain unsaturated fatty acid. Raman subsurface spectra were successfully obtained and used to analyze the subcutaneous fat layer. The accumulation rates of TL and TC found in skin fat were 5.01 ± 3.53% and 0.45 ± 0.36%, respectively. The results demonstrate the high feasibility of Raman spectroscopy for non-invasive analysis of adipose tissue.

  1. New percentage body fat prediction equations for Japanese males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, Masaharu; Kerr, Deborah; Binns, Colin W

    2006-07-01

    Anthropometry is simple, cheap, portable and non-invasive method for the assessment of body composition. While the Nagamine and Suzuki body density prediction equation has been frequently used to estimate %BF of Japanese, the equation was developed more than 40 years ago and its applicability to the current Japanese population has not been studied. This study aimed to compare %BF results estimated from anthropometry and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in order to examine applicability of the Nagamine and Suzuki equation. Body composition of 45 Japanese males (age: 24.3+/-5.5 years, stature: 171.6+/-5.8 cm, body mass: 62.6+/-7.1 kg, %BF: 15.7+/-5.6%) were assessed using whole-body DXA (Hologic QDR-2000) scan and anthropometry using the protocol of the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK). From anthropometric measurements %BF was calculated using the Nagamine and Suzuki equation. The results showed that the Nagamine and Suzuki equation significantly (p<0.05) underestimated %BF of Japanese males compared to the DXA results. There was a trend towards greater underestimation as the estimated %BF values using DXA increased. New %BF prediction equations were proposed from the DXA and anthropometry results. Application of the proposed equations may assist in more accurate assessment of body fatness in Japanese males living today.

  2. Ultrasound as a Tool to Assess Body Fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale R. Wagner

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound has been used effectively to assess body fat for nearly 5 decades, yet this method is not known as well as many other body composition techniques. The purpose of this review is to explain the technical principles of the ultrasound method, explain the procedures for taking a measurement and interpreting the results, evaluate the reliability and validity of this method for measuring subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue, highlight the advantages and limitations of ultrasound relative to other body composition methods, consider its utility to clinical populations, and introduce new body composition-specific ultrasound technology. The focus of this review is adipose, although various tissue thicknesses (e.g., muscle and bone can be measured with ultrasound. Being a portable imaging device that is capable of making fast regional estimates of body composition, ultrasound is an attractive assessment tool in instances when other methods are limited. Furthermore, much of the research suggests that it is reliable, reproducible, and accurate. The biggest limitations appear to be a lack of standardization for the measurement technique and results that are highly dependent on operator proficiency. New ultrasound devices and accompanying software designed specifically for the purpose of body composition assessment might help to minimize these limitations.

  3. [Measurement of human body fat by means of gravimetry. Application of Archimedes' principle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettwiler, W; Ribordy, M; Donath, A; Scherrer, J R

    1978-12-02

    The weighing of the human body under water is an application of Archimedes' law. Fat being lighter than water or than the structures of lean body mass, body fat can be measured by determining the specific gravity of the human body; that is, by underwater weighing. Body fat has been determined in an "ideal" sample of 14 men and 23 women, all aged 20 years. Testing against a reference measure of body fat makes it possible to test the validity of some anthropometric measurements and of some indices of obesity. These indices offer no advantages over anthropometric measurements.

  4. Assessment of body fatness in childhood obesity: evaluation of laboratory and anthropometric techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandini, L.G.; Dietz, W.H. Jr.

    1987-10-01

    The identification of obesity as a pathological diagnosis depends on an accurate assessment of body fatness and a correlation of fatness with pathological consequences. Because total body fat varies with body weight, the proportion of body weight that is fat is probably a more reliable indicator of risk. Among obese children and adolescents, several problems have hindered the development of accurate clinical measures of percent body fat and total body fat. First, the use of direct methods to measure body composition is limited by expense and labor. Second, the relationship between anthropometric indexes and body composition in obese children and adolescents has not been intensively studied. Third, sample sizes of normal weight children have been too small to permit the development of diagnostic criteria. Fourth, the triceps skinfold is less reproducible in overweight subjects. Increases in lean body mass in obese adolescents may confound the use of the body mass index as a measure of adiposity. Current laboratory methods for the measurement of body composition include: (1) underwater weighing, (2) 40K counting, (3) isotopic dilution measures, (4) neutron activation, and (5) electrical impedance. This article examines relationships between those methods and anthropometry in the measurement of fatness in children and adolescents, as well as the difficulties in measuring body fatness and the importance of body fat distribution and its relationship to morbidity in children. Current evidence suggests an association of morbidity and upper segment obesity in adults. Corresponding studies in children and adolescents are yet to be carried out.

  5. Central Body Fat Distribution Associates with Unfavorable Renal Hemodynamics Independent of Body Mass Index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwakernaak, Arjan J.; Zelle, Dorien M.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Navis, Gerjan

    2013-01-01

    Central distribution of body fat is associated with a higher risk of renal disease, but whether it is the distribution pattern or the overall excess weight that underlies this association is not well understood. Here, we studied the association between waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), which reflects centra

  6. Genetic Correlation between Body Fat Percentage and Cardiorespiratory Fitness Suggests Common Genetic Etiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnurr, Theresia Maria; Gjesing, Anette Marianne Prior; Sandholt, Camilla Helene

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: It has long been discussed whether fitness or fatness is a more important determinant of health status. If the same genetic factors that promote body fat percentage (body fat%) are related to cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), part of the concurrent associations with health outcomes could...... reflect a common genetic origin. In this study we aimed to 1) examine genetic correlations between body fat% and CRF; 2) determine whether CRF can be attributed to a genetic risk score (GRS) based on known body fat% increasing loci; and 3) examine whether the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) locus...... associates with CRF. Methods: Genetic correlations based on pedigree information were examined in a family based cohort (n = 230 from 55 families). For the genetic association analyses, we examined two Danish population-based cohorts (ntotal = 3206). The body fat% GRS was created by summing the alleles...

  7. Genetic Correlation between Body Fat Percentage and Cardiorespiratory Fitness Suggests Common Genetic Etiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnurr, Theresia M; Gjesing, Anette P; Sandholt, Camilla H

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: It has long been discussed whether fitness or fatness is a more important determinant of health status. If the same genetic factors that promote body fat percentage (body fat%) are related to cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), part of the concurrent associations with health outcomes could...... reflect a common genetic origin. In this study we aimed to 1) examine genetic correlations between body fat% and CRF; 2) determine whether CRF can be attributed to a genetic risk score (GRS) based on known body fat% increasing loci; and 3) examine whether the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) locus...... associates with CRF. METHODS: Genetic correlations based on pedigree information were examined in a family based cohort (n = 230 from 55 families). For the genetic association analyses, we examined two Danish population-based cohorts (ntotal = 3206). The body fat% GRS was created by summing the alleles...

  8. Effect of Physical Activity on BMI and Percent Body Fat of Chinese Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Frank H.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of regular physical activity on body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat of Chinese girls grouped by age and physical activity patterns. Measurements of skinfold, height, and weight, and BMI calculations, found differences in BMI and percent body fat between active and inactive girls. (SM)

  9. Deletion of CDKAL1 affects high-fat diet-induced fat accumulation and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in mice, indicating relevance to diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Okamura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The CDKAL1 gene is among the best-replicated susceptibility loci for type 2 diabetes, originally identified by genome-wide association studies in humans. To clarify a physiological importance of CDKAL1, we examined effects of a global Cdkal1-null mutation in mice and also evaluated the influence of a CDKAL1 risk allele on body mass index (BMI in Japanese subjects. METHODS: In Cdkal1-deficient (Cdkal1⁻/⁻ mice, we performed oral glucose tolerance test, insulin tolerance test, and perfusion experiments with and without high-fat feeding. Based on the findings in mice, we tested genetic association of CDKAL1 variants with BMI, as a measure of adiposity, and type 2 diabetes in Japanese. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: On a standard diet, Cdkal1⁻/⁻ mice were modestly lighter in weight than wild-type littermates without major alterations in glucose metabolism. On a high fat diet, Cdkal1⁻/⁻ mice showed significant reduction in fat accumulation (17% reduction in %intraabdominal fat, P = 0.023 vs. wild-type littermates with less impaired insulin sensitivity at an early stage. High fat feeding did not potentiate insulin secretion in Cdkal1⁻/⁻ mice (1.0-fold, contrary to the results in wild-type littermates (1.6-fold, P<0.01. Inversely, at a later stage, Cdkal1⁻/⁻ mice showed more prominent impairment of insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. mRNA expression analysis indicated that Scd1 might function as a critical mediator of the altered metabolism in Cdkal1⁻/⁻ mice. In accordance with the findings in mice, a nominally significant (P<0.05 association between CDKAL1 rs4712523 and BMI was replicated in 2 Japanese general populations comprising 5,695 and 12,569 samples; the risk allele for type 2 diabetes was also associated with decreased BMI. CONCLUSIONS: Cdkal1 gene deletion is accompanied by modestly impaired insulin secretion and longitudinal fluctuations in insulin sensitivity during high-fat feeding in mice

  10. Targeting gene expression to the female larval fat body of transgenic Aedes aegypti mosquitoes

    OpenAIRE

    TOTTEN, Daniel C.; Vuong, Mai; LITVINOVA, Oksana V.; Jinwal, Umesh K.; Gulia-Nuss, Monika; Harrell, Robert A.; Beneš, Helen

    2012-01-01

    As the fat body is a critical tissue for mosquito development, metamorphosis, immune and reproductive system function, characterization of regulatory modules targeting gene expression to the female mosquito fat body at distinct life stages is much needed for multiple, varied strategies for controlling vector-borne diseases such as dengue and malaria. The hexameric storage protein, Hexamerin-1.2, of the mosquito, Aedes atropalpus, is female-specific and uniquely expressed in the fat body of fo...

  11. Type of body fat distribution in postmenopausal women and its related factors

    OpenAIRE

    Noroozi, Mahnaz; Rastegari, Zahra; Paknahad, Zamzam

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The type of body fat distribution has an important role for identifying risk of diseases. One of the simple anthropometric indexes for estimating type of body fat distribution is waist circumference index. This study is aimed to determine the type of body fat distribution in postmenopausal women and its related factors. METHODS: This is a cross sectional descriptive analytical study. Samples were 278 postmenopausal women in Isfahan who were selected by stratified sampling and then...

  12. Effect of breed-type on the relationships between intramuscular and total body fat in steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, P T; Casal, J J; Parodi, J J

    1986-01-01

    The partitioning of total dissectible body fat and the amounts of intramuscular fat in Psoas major, Semitendinosus and Biceps brachii muscles were determined in two groups of A. Angus and AA × Nelore steers with similar averages of total dissectible fat (27·7 kg). In addition, the fatty acid composition of total fat and the triglyceride fraction from dissectible and intramuscular fats were determined. The AA × Nelore steers have higher levels of subcutaneous fat and lower levels of intermuscular fat than the A. Angus but contain lower levels of intramuscular fat in the three muscles. The allometric regressions varied according to the muscle and breed type. The fatty acid composition of subcutaneous and kidney fats were similar but differences in the percentages of 14:0, 18:0, 18:2 and 20:4 fatty acids in intramuscular fats between the two genetic groups were detected.

  13. Body Mass Index, percent body fat, and regional body fat distribution in relation to leptin concentrations in healthy, non-smoking postmenopausal women in a feeding study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell William

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between BMI and leptin has been studied extensively in the past, but previous reports in postmenopausal women have not been conducted under carefully controlled dietary conditions of weight maintenance using precise measures of body fat distribution. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between serum leptin concentration and adiposity as estimated by BMI and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA measures (percent body fat, central and peripheral fat, and lean mass in postmenopausal women. Methods This study was conducted as a cross-sectional analysis within the control segment of a randomized, crossover trial in which postmenopausal women (n = 51 consumed 0 (control, 15 (one drink, and 30 (two drinks g alcohol (ethanol/d for 8 weeks as part of a controlled diet. BMIs were determined and DEXA scans were administered to the women during the 0 g alcohol treatment, and a blood sample was collected at baseline and week 8 of each study period for leptin analysis. Results and discussion In multivariate analysis, women who were overweight (BMI > 25 to ≤ 30 kg/m2 had a 2-fold increase, and obese women (BMI > 30 kg/m2 had more than a 3-fold increase in serum leptin concentrations compared to normal weight (BMI ≤25 kg/m2 women. When the models for the different measures of adiposity were assessed by multiple R2, models which included percent body fat explained the highest proportion (approximately 80% of the serum leptin variance. Conclusion Under carefully controlled dietary conditions, we confirm that higher levels of adiposity were associated with higher concentrations of serum leptin. It appears that percent body fat in postmenopausal women may be the best adiposity-related predictor of serum leptin.

  14. Iron deposition and fat accumulation in dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver fibrosis in rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Yang He; Wen-Hua Ge; Yuan Chen

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate if iron deposition and fat accumulation in the liver play a pathogenetic role in dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-induced liver fibrosis in rat.METHODS: Thirty rats were treated with DMN at does consecutive days of 10 μL/kg daily, i.p., for 3 consecutive day each week for 4 wk. Rats (n = 30) were sacrificed on the first day (model group A) and 21st d (model group B) after cessation of DMN injection. The control group (n = 10) received an equivalent amount of saline. Liver tissues were stained with hematoxylin & eosin (HE) and Masson and Prussian blue assay and oberserved under electron microscopy. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT)and liver tissue hydroxyproline (Hyp) content were tested.RESULTS: The liver fibrosis did not automaticallyreverse, which was similar to previous reports, the perilobular deposition of iron accompanied with collagen showed marked characteristics at both the first and 21st d after cessation of DMN injection. However, fat accumulation in hepatocytes occurred only at the 21st d after cessation of DMN injection.CONCLUSION: Iron deposition and fat accumulation may play important roles in pathological changes in DMN-induced rat liver fibrosis. The detailed mechanisms of these characteristics need further research.

  15. MiR-103 controls milk fat accumulation in goat (Capra hircus mammary gland during lactation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianzi Lin

    Full Text Available Milk is the primary source of nutrition for young mammals including humans. The nutritional value of milk is mainly attributable to fats and proteins fractions. In comparison to cow milk, goat milk contains greater amounts of total fat, including much higher levels of the beneficial unsaturated fatty acids. MicroRNAs (miRNAs, a well-defined group of small RNAs containing about 22 nucleotides (nt, participate in various metabolic processes across species. However, little is known regarding the role of miRNAs in regulating goat milk composition. In the present study, we performed high-throughput sequencing to identify mammary gland-enriched miRNAs in lactating goats. We identified 30 highly expressed miRNAs in the mammary gland, including miR-103. Further studies revealed that miR-103 expression correlates with the lactation. Further functional analysis showed that over-expression of miR-103 in mammary gland epithelial cells increases transcription of genes associated with milk fat synthesis, resulting in an up-regulation of fat droplet formation, triglyceride accumulation, and the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids. This study provides new insight into the functions of miR-103, as well as the molecular mechanisms that regulate milk fat synthesis.

  16. Independent Aftereffects of Fat and Muscle: Implications for neural encoding, body space representation, and body image disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturman, Daniel; Stephen, Ian D.; Mond, Jonathan; Stevenson, Richard J; Brooks, Kevin R.

    2017-01-01

    Although research addressing body size misperception has focused on socio-cognitive processes, such as internalization of the “ideal” images of bodies in the media, the perceptual basis of this phenomenon remains largely unknown. Further, most studies focus on body size per se even though this depends on both fat and muscle mass – variables that have very different relationships with health. We tested visual adaptation as a mechanism for inducing body fat and muscle mass misperception, and assessed whether these two dimensions of body space are processed independently. Observers manipulated the apparent fat and muscle mass of bodies to make them appear “normal” before and after inspecting images from one of four adaptation conditions (increased fat/decreased fat/increased muscle/decreased muscle). Exposure resulted in a shift in the point of subjective normality in the direction of the adapting images along the relevant (fat or muscle) axis, suggesting that the neural mechanisms involved in body fat and muscle perception are independent. This supports the viability of adaptation as a model of real-world body size misperception, and extends its applicability to clinical manifestations of body image disturbance that entail not only preoccupation with thinness (e.g., anorexia nervosa) but also with muscularity (e.g., muscle dysmorphia). PMID:28071712

  17. Body Mass Index and Body Fat Status of Men Involved in Sports, Exercise, and Sedentary Activites

    OpenAIRE

    Wan Nudri, Wan Daud; Wan Abdul Manan, Wan Muda; Mohamed Rusli, Abdullah

    2009-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out in Kota Bharu on three groups of men with ages ranging from 18 to 44 years. The study groups included 83 athletes representing various types of sports and levels of participation (athlete group), 80 active men who exercised a minimum of 30 minutes per day at least 3 times per week (exercise group), and 80 inactive men (sedentary group). The objectives of the study were to compare the body mass indices (BMIs) and body fat statuses among the three groups ...

  18. Telomerase RNA accumulates in Cajal bodies in human cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yusheng; Tomlinson, Rebecca L; Lukowiak, Andrew A; Terns, Rebecca M; Terns, Michael P

    2004-01-01

    Telomerase synthesizes telomeric DNA repeats at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes. The RNA component of the enzyme (hTR) provides the template for telomere synthesis, which is catalyzed by telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT). Little is known regarding the subcellular localization of hTR and hTERT and the pathway by which telomerase is assembled. Here we report the first glimpse of the detailed subcellular localization of endogenous hTR in human cells, which we obtained by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Our studies have revealed a distinctive hTR localization pattern in cancer cells. We have found that hTR accumulates within intranuclear foci called Cajal bodies in all typical tumor-derived cell lines examined (in which telomerase is active), but not in primary or ALT cells (where little or no hTERT is present). Accumulation of hTR in the Cajal bodies of primary cells is induced when hTERT is ectopically expressed. Moreover, we report that hTERT is also found in Cajal bodies. Our data suggest that Cajal bodies are involved in the assembly and/or function of human telomerase.

  19. The Relationship between Physical Activity Level, Body Mass Index, and Body Fat Percentages in Urban and Rural Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Özlem

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the physical activity levels, physical activity types, Body Mass Index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BF%) values of elementary school students living in rural and urban. Body height (BH), body weight (BW), BF% and BMI data were measured. Physical activity questionnaire was conducted to determine the…

  20. Increased FAT/CD36 cycling and lipid accumulation in myotubes derived from obese type 2 diabetic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celine Aguer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Permanent fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36 relocation has previously been shown to be related to abnormal lipid accumulation in the skeletal muscle of type 2 diabetic patients, however mechanisms responsible for the regulation of FAT/CD36 expression and localization are not well characterized in human skeletal muscle. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Primary muscle cells derived from obese type 2 diabetic patients (OBT2D and from healthy subjects (Control were used to examine the regulation of FAT/CD36. We showed that compared to Control myotubes, FAT/CD36 was continuously cycling between intracellular compartments and the cell surface in OBT2D myotubes, independently of lipid raft association, leading to increased cell surface FAT/CD36 localization and lipid accumulation. Moreover, we showed that FAT/CD36 cycling and lipid accumulation were specific to myotubes and were not observed in reserve cells. However, in Control myotubes, the induction of FAT/CD36 membrane translocation by the activation of (AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK pathway did not increase lipid accumulation. This result can be explained by the fact that pharmacological activation of AMPK leads to increased mitochondrial beta-oxidation in Control cells. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Lipid accumulation in myotubes derived from obese type 2 diabetic patients arises from abnormal FAT/CD36 cycling while lipid accumulation in Control cells results from an equilibrium between lipid uptake and oxidation. As such, inhibiting FAT/CD36 cycling in the skeletal muscle of obese type 2 diabetic patients should be sufficient to diminish lipid accumulation.

  1. Improved visualization of fat body conditions and abundance in the southern green stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fat bodies are a crucial source of energy for insect survival and reproduction. Differing types of fat body cells and amounts have been previously reported for southern green stink bug but clear supporting images are lacking. Further, in ongoing studies elucidating the ecology of southern green st...

  2. Determinants of relative weight and body fat distribution in an international perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Molarius (Anu)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractOverweight can be defined as excess storage of body fat in an individual. In adult men with a "normal" weight, the percentage of body fat is about 15-20%. In women this percentage is higher, about 25-30%. In spite of the fact that differences in weight between individuals are only partly

  3. Field method to measure changes in percent body fat of young women: The TIGER Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Body mass index (BMI), waist (W) and hip (H) circumference (C) are commonly used to assess changes in body composition for field research. We developed a model to estimate changes in dual energy X-ray absorption (DXA) percent fat (% fat) from these variables with a diverse sample of young women fro...

  4. New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shungin, Dmitry; Winkler, Thomas W.; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C.; Ferreira, Teresa; Lockes, Adam E.; Maegi, Reedik; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Pers, Tune H.; Fischer, Krista; Justice, Anne E.; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Wu, Joseph M. W.; Buchkovich, Martin L.; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Roman, Tamara S.; Drong, Alexander W.; Song, Ci; Gustafsson, Stefan; Day, Felix R.; Esko, Tonu; Fall, Tove; Kutalik, Zoltan; Luan, Jian'an; Randall, Joshua C.; Scherag, Andre; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wood, Andrew R.; Chen, Jin; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Karjalainen, Juha; Kahali, Bratati; Liu, Ching-Ti; Schmidt, Ellen M.; Absher, Devin; Amin, Najaf; Anderson, Denise; Beekman, Marian; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; Buyske, Steven; Demirkan, Ayse; Ehret, Georg B.; Feitosa, Mary F.; Goel, Anuj; Jackson, Anne U.; Johnson, Toby; Kleber, Marcus E.; Kristiansson, Kati; Mangino, Massimo; Leach, Irene Mateo; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Palmer, Cameron D.; Pasko, Dorota; Pechlivaniss, Sonali; Peters, Marjolein J.; Prokopenko, Inga; Stancakova, Alena; Sung, Yun Ju; Tanakam, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Yengo, Loic; Zhang, Weihua; Albrecht, Eva; Arnlov, Johan; Arscott, Gillian M.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barrett, Amy; Bellis, Claire; Bennett, Amanda J.; Berne, Christian; Blueher, Matthias; Buhringer, Stefan; Bonnet, Fabrice; Boettcher, Yvonne; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Carba, Delia B.; Caspersen, Ida H.; Clarke, Robert; Daw, E. Warwick; Deelen, Joris; Deelman, Ewa; Delgado, Graciela; Doney, Alex S. F.; Eklund, Niina; Erdos, Michael R.; Estrada, Karol; Eury, Elodie; Friedrichs, Nele; Garcia, Melissa E.; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Gigante, Bruna; Go, Alan S.; Golay, Alain; Grallert, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B.; Graessler, Juergen; Grewal, Jagvir; Groves, Christopher J.; Haller, Toomas; Hallmans, Goran; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hassinen, Maija; Hayward, Caroline; Heikkila, Kauko; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Helmer, Quinta; Hillege, Hans L.; Holmen, Oddgeir; Hunt, Steven C.; Isaacs, Aaron; Ittermann, Till; James, Alan L.; Johansson, Ingegerd; Juliusdottir, Thorhildur; Kalafati, Ioanna-Panagiota; Kinnunen, Leena; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kooner, Ishminder K.; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Lamina, Claudia; Leander, Karin; Lee, Nanette R.; Lichtner, Peter; Lind, Lars; Lindstrom, Jaana; Lobbens, Stephane; Lorentzon, Mattias; Mach, Francois; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Mahajan, Anubha; McArdle, Wendy L.; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Mills, Rebecca; Moayyeri, Alireza; Monda, Ken L.; Mooijaart, Simon P.; Muehleisen, Thomas W.; Mulas, Antonella; Mueller, Gabriele; Mueller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Nalls, Michael A.; Narisu, Narisu; Glorioso, Nicola; Nolte, Ilja M.; Olden, Matthias; Rayner, Nigel W.; Renstrom, Frida; Ried, Janina S.; Robertson, Neil R.; Rose, Lynda M.; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Scholtens, Salome; Sennblad, Bengt; Seufferlein, Thomas; Sitlani, Colleen M.; Smith, Albert Vernon; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stringham, Heather M.; Sundstrom, Johan; Swertz, Morris A.; Swift, Amy J.; Syvanen, Ann-Christine; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Thorand, Barbara; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Troffa, Chiara; van Oort, Floor V. A.; Verweij, Niek; Vonk, Judith M.; Waite, Lindsay L.; Wennauer, Roman; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojczynski, Mary K.; Wong, Andrew; Zhang, Qunyuan; Zhao, Jing Hua; Brennan, Eoin P.; Choi, Murim; Eriksson, Per; Folkersen, Lasse; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Gharavi, Ali G.; Hedman, Asa K.; Hivert, Marie-France; Huang, Jinyan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karpe, Fredrik; Keildson, Sarah; Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Liang, Liming; Lifton, Richard P.; Ma, Baoshan; McKnight, Amy J.; McPherson, Ruth; Metspalu, Andres; Min, Josine L.; Moffatt, Miriam F.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Nicholson, George; Nyholt, Dale R.; Olsson, Christian; Perry, John R. B.; Reinmaa, Eva; Salem, Rany M.; Sandholm, Niina; Schadt, Eric E.; Scott, Robert A.; Stolk, Lisette; Vallejo, Edgar E.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zondervan, Krina T.; Amouyel, Philippe; Arveiler, Dominique; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Beilby, John; Bergman, Richard N.; Blangero, John; Brown, Morris J.; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chiness, Peter S.; Claudi-Boehmi, Simone; Collins, Francis S.; Crawford, Dana C.; Danesh, John; de Faire, Ulf; de Geusl, Eco J. C.; Doerr, Marcus; Erbel, Raimund; Eriksson, Johan G.; Farrall, Martin; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrieres, Jean; Forouhi, Nita G.; Forrester, Terrence; Franco, Oscar H.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Gieger, Christian; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Haiman, Christopher A.; Harris, Tamara B.; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Heliovaara, Markku; Hicks, Andrew A.; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Humphries, Steve E.; Hyppoenen, Elina; Illig, Thomas; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Johansen, Berit; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jula, Antti M.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kee, Frank; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M.; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Kooperberg, Charles; Kovacs, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T.; Kumari, Meena; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lakka, Timo A.; Langenberg, Claudia; Le Marchand, Loic; Lehtimaki, Terho; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Mannisto, Satu; Marette, Andre; Matise, Tara C.; McKenzie, Colin A.; McKnight, Barbara; Musk, Arthur W.; Mohlenkamp, Stefan; Morris, Andrew D.; Nelis, Mari; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Ong, Ken K.; Palmer, Lyle J.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Peters, Annette; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Raitakari, Olli T.; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D. C.; Rice, Treva K.; Ridker, Paul M.; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J.; Saramies, Jouko; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Staessen, Jan A.; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stolk, Ronald P.; Strauch, Konstantin; Toenjes, Anke; Tremblay, Angelo; Tremoli, Elena; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Voelker, Uwe; Vollenweider, Peter; Wilson, James F.; Witteman, Jacqueline C.; Adair, Linda S.; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Bouchard, Claude; Cauchi, Stephane; Caulfield, Mark J.; Chambers, John C.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Cooper, Richard S.; Dedoussis, George; Ferrucci, Luigi; Froguel, Philippe; Grabe, Hans-Joergen; Hamsten, Anders; Hui, Jennie; Hveem, Kristian; Joeckel, Karl-Heinz; Kivimaki, Mika; Kuh, Diana; Laakso, Markku; Liu, Yongmei; Maerz, Winfried; Munroe, Patricia B.; Njolstad, Inger; Oostra, Ben A.; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Perola, Markus; Perusse, Louis; Peters, Ulrike; Power, Chris; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Saaristo, Timo E.; Saleheen, Danish; Sinisalo, Juha; Slagboom, P. Eline; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Tim D.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur R.; Stumvoll, Michael; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Uusitupa, Math; van der Harst, Pim; Veronesi, Giovanni; Walker, Mark; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Watkins, Hugh; Wichmann, H-Erich; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Boehnkes, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Deloukas, Panos; Franke, Lude; Frayling, Timothy M.; Groop, Leif C.; Hunter, David J.; Kaplan, Robert C.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Qi, Lu; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P.; Stefansson, Kari; van Dujin, Cornelia M.; Willer, Cristen J.; Visscher, Peter M.; Yang, Jian; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Zillikens, M. Carola; McCarthy, Mark I.; Speliotes, Elizabeth K.; North, Kari E.; Fox, Caroline S.; Barroso, Ines; Franks, Paul W.; Ingelsson, Erik; Heid, Iris M.; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Morris, Andrew P.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Mohlke, Karen L.; Uiterwaal, C.S.P.M.; Moret, NC; Broekmans, FJM; Fauser, BCJM

    2015-01-01

    Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, here we conduct genome-wide asso

  5. New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Shungin (Dmitry); T.W. Winkler (Thomas W.); D.C. Croteau-Chonka (Damien); T. Ferreira (Teresa); A. Locke (Adam); R. Mägi (Reedik); R.J. Strawbridge (Rona); T.H. Pers (Tune); K. Fischer (Krista); A.E. Justice (Anne); T. Workalemahu (Tsegaselassie); J.M.W. Wu (Joseph M. W.); M.L. Buchkovich (Martin); N.L. Heard-Costa (Nancy); T.S. Roman (Tamara S.); A. Drong (Alexander); C. Song (Ci); S. Gustafsson (Stefan); F.R. Day (Felix); T. Esko (Tõnu); M. Fall (Magnus); Z. Kutalik (Zolta'n); J. Luan; J.C. Randall (Joshua); A. Scherag (Andre); S. Vedantam (Sailaja); A.R. Wood (Andrew); J. Chen (Jin); R.S.N. Fehrmann (Rudolf); J. Karjalainen (Juha); B. Kahali (Bratati); C.-T. Liu (Ching-Ti); E.M. Schmidt (Ellen); D. Absher (Devin); N. Amin (Najaf); D. Anderson (David); M. Beekman (Marian); J.L. Bragg-Gresham (Jennifer L.); S. Buyske (Steven); A. Demirkan (Ayşe); G.B. Ehret (Georg); M.F. Feitosa (Mary Furlan); A. Goel (Anuj); A.U. Jackson (Anne); T. Johnson (Toby); M.E. Kleber (Marcus); K. Kristiansson (Kati); M. Mangino (Massimo); I.M. Leach (Irene Mateo); M.C. Medina-Gomez (Carolina); C. Palmer (Cameron); D. Pasko (Dorota); S. Pechlivanis (Sonali); M.J. Peters (Marjolein); I. Prokopenko (Inga); A. Stanca'kova' (Alena); Y.J. Sung (Yun Ju); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); A. Teumer (Alexander); J.V. van Vliet-Ostaptchouk (Jana); L. Yengo (Loic); W. Zhang (Weihua); E. Albrecht (Eva); J. Ärnlöv (Johan); G.M. Arscott (Gillian M.); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); A. Barrett (Angela); C. Bellis (Claire); A.J. Bennett (Amanda); C. Berne (Christian); M. Blüher (Matthias); S. Böhringer (Stefan); F. Bonnet (Fabrice); Y. Böttcher (Yvonne); M. Bruinenberg (M.); D.B. Carba (Delia B.); I.H. Caspersen (Ida H.); R. Clarke (Robert); E.W. Daw (E. Warwick); J. Deelen (Joris); E. Deelman (Ewa); G. Delgado; A.S.F. Doney (Alex); N. Eklund (Niina); M.R. Erdos (Michael); K. Estrada Gil (Karol); E. Eury (Elodie); N. Friedrich (Nele); M. Garcia (Melissa); V. Giedraitis (Vilmantas); B. Gigante (Bruna); A. Go (Attie); A. Golay (Alain); H. Grallert (Harald); T.B. Grammer (Tanja); J. Gräsler (Jürgen); J. Grewal (Jagvir); C.J. Groves (Christopher); T. Haller (Toomas); G. Hallmans (Göran); C.A. Hartman (Catharina); M. Hassinen (Maija); C. Hayward (Caroline); K. Heikkilä (Kauko); K.H. Herzig; Q. Helmer (Quinta); H.L. Hillege (Hans); O.L. Holmen (Oddgeir); S.C. Hunt (Steven); A. Isaacs (Aaron); T. Ittermann (Till); A.L. James (Alan); I. Johansson (Inger); T. Juliusdottir (Thorhildur); I.-P. Kalafati (Ioanna-Panagiota); L. Kinnunen (Leena); W. Koenig (Wolfgang); I.K. Kooner (Ishminder K.); W. Kratzer (Wolfgang); C. Lamina (Claudia); K. Leander (Karin); N.R. Lee (Nanette R.); P. Lichtner (Peter); L. Lind (Lars); J. Lindström (Jaana); S. Lobbens (Stéphane); M. Lorentzon (Mattias); F. MacH (François); P.K. Magnusson (Patrik); A. Mahajan (Anubha); W.L. McArdle (Wendy); C. Menni (Cristina); S. Merger (Sigrun); E. Mihailov (Evelin); L. Milani (Lili); R. Mills (Rebecca); A. Moayyeri (Alireza); K.L. Monda (Keri); S.P. Mooijaart (Simon); T.W. Mühleisen (Thomas); A. Mulas (Antonella); G. Müller (Gabriele); M. Müller-Nurasyid (Martina); R. Nagaraja (Ramaiah); M.A. Nalls (Michael); N. Narisu (Narisu); N. Glorioso (Nicola); I.M. Nolte (Ilja M.); M. Olden (Matthias); N.W. Rayner (Nigel William); F. Renström (Frida); J.S. Ried (Janina); N.R. Robertson (Neil R.); L.M. Rose (Lynda); S. Sanna (Serena); H. Scharnagl (Hubert); S. Scholtens (Salome); B. Sennblad (Bengt); T. Seufferlein (Thomas); C.M. Sitlani (Colleen); G.D. Smith; K. Stirrups (Kathy); H.M. Stringham (Heather); J. Sundstrom (Johan); M. Swertz (Morris); A.J. Swift (Amy); A.C. Syvanen; B. Tayo (Bamidele); B. Thorand (Barbara); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); A. Tomaschitz (Andreas); C. Troffa (Chiara); F.V.A. van Oort (Floor); N. Verweij (Niek); J.M. Vonk (Judith); L. Waite (Lindsay); R. Wennauer (Roman); T. Wilsgaard (Tom); M.K. Wojczynski (Mary ); A. Wong (Andrew); Q. Zhang (Qunyuan); J.H. Zhao; E.P. Brennan (Eoin P.); M. Choi (Murim); P. Eriksson (Per); L. Folkersen (Lasse); A. Franco-Cereceda (Anders); A.G. Gharavi (Ali G.); A.K. Hedman (Asa); M.-F. Hivert (Marie-France); J. Huang (Jinyan); S. Kanoni (Stavroula); F. Karpe (Fredrik); S. Keildson (Sarah); K. Kiryluk (Krzysztof); L. Liang (Liming); R.P. Lifton (Richard); B. Ma (Baoshan); A.J. McKnight (Amy J.); R. McPherson (Ruth); A. Metspalu (Andres); J.L. Min (Josine L.); M.F. Moffatt (Miriam); G.W. Montgomery (Grant); J. Murabito (Joanne); G. Nicholson (Ggeorge); A.S. Dimas (Antigone); C. Olsson (Christian); J.R.B. Perry (John); E. Reinmaa (Eva); R.M. Salem (Rany); N. Sandholm (Niina); E.E. Schadt (Eric); R.A. Scott (Robert); L. Stolk (Lisette); E.E. Vallejo (Edgar E.); H.J. Westra (Harm-Jan); K.T. Zondervan (Krina); P. Amouyel (Philippe); D. Arveiler (Dominique); S.J.L. Bakker (Stephan); J.P. Beilby (John); R.N. Bergman (Richard); J. Blangero (John); M.J. Brown (Morris); M. Burnier (Michel); H. Campbell (Harry); A. Chakravarti (Aravinda); P.S. Chines (Peter); S. Claudi-Boehm (Simone); F.S. Collins (Francis); D.C. Crawford (Dana); J. Danesh (John); U. de Faire (Ulf); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); M. Dörr (Marcus); R. Erbel (Raimund); K. Hagen (Knut); M. Farrall (Martin); E. Ferrannini (Ele); J. Ferrieres (Jean); N.G. Forouhi (Nita); T. Forrester (Terrence); O.H. Franco (Oscar); R.T. Gansevoort (Ron); C. Gieger (Christian); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); C.A. Haiman (Christopher); T.B. Harris (Tamara); A.T. Hattersley (Andrew); M. Heliovaara (Markku); A.A. Hicks (Andrew); A. Hingorani (Aroon); W. Hoffmann (Wolfgang); A. Hofman (Albert); G. Homuth (Georg); S.E. Humphries (Steve); E. Hypponen (Elina); T. Illig (Thomas); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); B. Johansen (Berit); P. Jousilahti (Pekka); A. Jula (Antti); J. Kaprio (Jaakko); F. Kee (F.); S. Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi (Sirkka); J.S. Kooner (Jaspal S.); C. Kooperberg (Charles); P. Kovacs (Peter); A. Kraja (Aldi); M. Kumari (Meena); K. Kuulasmaa (Kari); J. Kuusisto (Johanna); T.A. Lakka (Timo); C. Langenberg (Claudia); L. Le Marchand (Loic); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); V. Lyssenko (Valeriya); S. Männistö (Satu); A. Marette (Andre'); T.C. Matise (Tara C.); C.A. McKenzie (Colin A.); B. McKnight (Barbara); A.W. Musk (Arthur); S. Möhlenkamp (Stefan); A.D. Morris (Andrew); M. Nelis (Mari); C. Ohlsson (Claes); A.J. Oldehinkel (Albertine); K.K. Ong (Ken K.); C. Palmer (Cameron); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); A. Peters (Annette); P.P. Pramstaller (Peter Paul); O. Raitakari (Olli); T. Rankinen (Tuomo); D.C. Rao (Dabeeru C.); T.K. Rice (Treva K.); P.M. Ridker (Paul); M.D. Ritchie (Marylyn D.); I. Rudan (Igor); V. Salomaa (Veikko); N.J. Samani (Nilesh); J. Saramies (Jouko); M.A. Sarzynski (Mark A.); P.E.H. Schwarz (Peter E. H.); A.R. Shuldiner (Alan); J.A. Staessen (Jan); V. Steinthorsdottir (Valgerdur); R.P. Stolk (Ronald); K. Strauch (Konstantin); A. Tönjes (Anke); A. Tremblay (Angelo); E. Tremoli (Elena); M.-C. Vohl (Marie-Claude); U. Völker (Uwe); P. Vollenweider (Peter); J.F. Wilson (James F); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); L.S. Adair (Linda); M. Bochud (Murielle); B.O. Boehm (Bernhard); S.R. Bornstein (Stefan R.); C. Bouchard (Claude); S. Cauchi (Ste'phane); M. Caulfield (Mark); J.C. Chambers (John C.); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); R.S. Cooper (Richard S.); G.V. Dedoussis (George); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); P. Froguel (Philippe); H.J. Grabe (Hans Jörgen); A. Hamsten (Anders); J. Hui (Jennie); K. Hveem (Kristian); K.-H. Jöckel (Karl-Heinz); M. Kivimaki (Mika); D. Kuh (Diana); M. Laakso (Markku); Y. Liu (Yongmei); W. März (Winfried); P. Munroe (Patricia); I. Njølstad (Inger); B.A. Oostra (Ben); C.N.A. Palmer (Colin); N.L. Pedersen (Nancy L.); M. Perola (Markus); L. Perusse (Louis); U. Peters (Ulrike); C. Power (Christopher); T. Quertermous (Thomas); R. Rauramaa (Rainer); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); T. Saaristo (Timo); D. Saleheen; J. Sinisalo (Juha); P.E. Slagboom (Eline); H. Snieder (Harold); T.D. Spector (Timothy); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); M. Stumvoll (Michael); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); M. Uusitupa (Matti); P. van der Harst (Pim); G. Veronesi (Giovanni); M. Walker (Mark); N.J. Wareham (Nick); H. Watkins (Hugh); H.E. Wichmann (Heinz Erich); G.R. Abecasis (Gonçalo); T.L. Assimes (Themistocles); S.I. Berndt (Sonja); M. Boehnke (Michael); I.B. Borecki (Ingrid); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); L. Franke (Lude); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); L. Groop (Leif); D. Hunter (David); R.C. Kaplan (Robert); J.R. O´Connell; L. Qi (Lu); D. Schlessinger (David); D.P. Strachan (David); J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); C.J. Willer (Cristen); P.M. Visscher (Peter); J. Yang (Joanna); J.N. Hirschhorn (Joel N.); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); E.K. Speliotes (Elizabeth); K.E. North (Kari); C.S. Fox (Caroline S.); I. Barroso (Inês); P.W. Franks (Paul); E. Ingelsson (Erik); I.M. Heid (Iris); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); A.P. Morris (Andrew); C.M. Lindgren (Cecilia); K.L. Mohlke (Karen)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBody fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, here we conduct geno

  6. Macronutrient distribution over a period of 23 years in relation to energy intake and body fatness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppes, L.L.J.; Boon, N.; Nooyens, A.C.J.; Mechelen, W. van; Saris, W.H.M.

    2009-01-01

    The distribution of the four macronutrients is associated with energy intake and body fatness according to short-term interventions. The present study involves macronutrient distribution in relation to energy intake and body fatness over a period of 23 years in individuals who have ad libitum access

  7. Meal-Skipping Behaviors and Body Fat in 6-Year-Old Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.I. Wijtzes (Anne); W. Jansen (Wilma); S.H. Bouthoorn (Selma); F.J. van Lenthe (Frank); O.H. Franco (Oscar); A. Hofman (Albert); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent W. V.); H. Raat (Hein)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractObjective To assess the prospective associations of breakfast, lunch, and dinner skipping at age 4 years with body fat (ie, percent fat mass, body mass index [BMI], and weight status) at age 6 years. Study design Data were analyzed from 5913 children participating in the Generation R Stu

  8. Effects of recombinant human growth hormone on hepatic lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in HIV-infected patients with fat accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Jean-Marc; Mulligan, Kathleen; Lee, Jeongae; Lo, Joan C; Wen, Michael; Noor, Mustafa A; Grunfeld, Carl; Schambelan, Morris

    2002-02-01

    We recently reported that treatment with a pharmacologic dose of recombinant human growth hormone (GH) resulted in a significant loss of body fat and gain in lean tissue in HIV-infected patients with syndromes of fat accumulation. However, insulin-mediated glucose disposal decreased transiently after one month of GH therapy. The present paper focuses on the changes of hepatic carbohydrate and fat metabolism associated with GH treatment in the same subjects. We assessed hepatic insulin sensitivity under both fasting and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp conditions prior to and after one and six months of GH treatment (3 mg/day) in five patients using stable isotope tracer techniques. Indirect calorimetry, and measurements of lipid concentrations. Fasting endogenous glucose production (EGP) increased significantly at one month (12.0 +/- 0.7 to 14.9 +/- 0.9 micromol/kg/min, P glucogenesis (GNG) (3.5 +/- 0.9 to 5.2 +/- 0.9 and 5.8 +/-1.2 micromol/kg/min, n = 4, P < 0.01 and P < 0.01 at one and six months, respectively); small changes in hepatic glycogenolysis also contributed. Sustained increases in lipolysis and progressive decreases in hepatic fractional de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and triglyceride concentrations occurred with GH treatment. These changes were accompanied by an improved lipid profile with a significant increase in HDL cholesterol and significant decreases in total and LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels, the latter consistent with the decrease in hepatic DNL. During a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic glucose clamp, EGP and GNG were markedly suppressed compared to the corresponding time points under fasting conditions, albeit less so when measured after one month of GH treatment. Thus, in HIV-infected patients with abnormal fat distribution, pharmacologic doses of GH improved the overall lipid profile, but worsened glucose homeostasis under both fasting and hyperinsulinemic conditions. The combined implications of these positive and negative metabolic

  9. Measuring adiposity in patients: the utility of body mass index (BMI, percent body fat, and leptin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirav R Shah

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is a serious disease that is associated with an increased risk of diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, stroke, and cancer, among other diseases. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC estimates a 20% obesity rate in the 50 states, with 12 states having rates of over 30%. Currently, the body mass index (BMI is most commonly used to determine adiposity. However, BMI presents as an inaccurate obesity classification method that underestimates the epidemic and contributes to failed treatment. In this study, we examine the effectiveness of precise biomarkers and duel-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA to help diagnose and treat obesity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional study of adults with BMI, DXA, fasting leptin and insulin results were measured from 1998-2009. Of the participants, 63% were females, 37% were males, 75% white, with a mean age = 51.4 (SD = 14.2. Mean BMI was 27.3 (SD = 5.9 and mean percent body fat was 31.3% (SD = 9.3. BMI characterized 26% of the subjects as obese, while DXA indicated that 64% of them were obese. 39% of the subjects were classified as non-obese by BMI, but were found to be obese by DXA. BMI misclassified 25% men and 48% women. Meanwhile, a strong relationship was demonstrated between increased leptin and increased body fat. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate the prevalence of false-negative BMIs, increased misclassifications in women of advancing age, and the reliability of gender-specific revised BMI cutoffs. BMI underestimates obesity prevalence, especially in women with high leptin levels (>30 ng/mL. Clinicians can use leptin-revised levels to enhance the accuracy of BMI estimates of percentage body fat when DXA is unavailable.

  10. COPD, Body Mass, Fat Free Body Mass and prognosis in Patients from a Random Population Sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, Jørgen; Prescott, E; Almdal, Thomas Peter;

    2006-01-01

    RATIONALE: Low body mass index (BMI) is a marker of poor prognosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the general population, the harmful effect of low BMI is due to the deleterious effects of a low fat-free mass index (FFMI; fat-free mass/weight(2)). OBJECTIVES: We explored...... distribution of low FFMI and its association with prognosis in a population-based cohort of patients with COPD. METHODS: We used data on 1,898 patients with COPD identified in a population-based epidemiologic study in Copenhagen. FFM was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Patients were followed...... 10th percentile of the general population. BMI and FFMI were significant predictors of mortality, independent of relevant covariates. Being in the lowest 10th percentile of the general population for FFMI was associated with a hazard ratio of 1.5 (95% confidence interval, 1.2-1.8) for overall...

  11. Body fat related to daily physical activity and insulin concentrations in non-diabetic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Thorsson, Ola; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2007-01-01

    This study explored the associations between body fat versus daily physical activity and insulin concentrations in non-diabetic young children in a cross-sectional study of 172 children (93 boys and 79 girls) aged 8-11 years. Blood samples were analysed for serum insulin and daily physical activity...... was measured by accelerometers. Time spent performing vigorous activity was estimated from accelerometer data by using established cut-off points. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to quantify abdominal fat mass (AFM) and total body fat (TBF), also calculated as percentage of body weight (BF......%). Body fat distribution was calculated as AFM/TBF. Body fat distribution was independently linked to both insulin concentrations and physical activity. In contrast, TBF, AFM, and BF% were linked to physical activity only and not to insulin concentrations. In conclusion in this population of non...

  12. Fat and lean BMI reference curves in children and adolescents and their utility in identifying excess adiposity compared with BMI and percentage body fat1234

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, David R.; Moore, Reneé H.; Leonard, Mary B.; Zemel, Babette S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Body mass index (BMI) and percentage body fat (%BF) are widely used to assess adiposity. These indexes fail to account for independent contributions of fat mass (FM) and lean body mass (LBM) to body weight, which vary according to age, sex, pubertal status, and population ancestry in the pediatric population.

  13. Influence of age, menopause status, body mass index and physical activity on body composition and body fat distribution in midlife women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Dai-min; Yu Qi; Zhang Ying; Chen Feng-ling

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence of age,menopause status,body mass index (BMI) and physical activity on body composition and body fat distribution in Chinese midlife women.Methods: The healthy women who underwent anniversary health checkup in Peking Union Medical College Hospital were recruited cross-sectionally.The level of physical activity was determined via International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short in Chinese Version.The body composition and fat distribution were measured by dualenergy X-ray absorptiometry.Results: A total of 162 women with average age 52 years (40-62 years) were recruited.Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to test the relationship between age,menopause status,BMI and physical activity and parameters of body composition and body fat distribution.The total fat tissue percentage was positively associated with BMI (standardized partial regression coefficient: b=0.70),menopause status (b=0.19,grading variables 1,2,3 were assigned to represent for reproductive group,menopausal transition group and postmenopausal group,respectively),and negatively associated with physical activity energy expenditure (b=-0.17) with model determination coefficient 0.55.Total body fat-free-tissue mass was positively associated with BMI (b =0.61),negatively associated with menopause status (b =-0.14) with model determination coefficient 0.39.The ratio of trunk fat-tissue mass/total body fat-tissue mass (Tr/T) was positively associated with BMI (b=0.32) and menopause status (b= 0.30) with model determination coefficient 0.20.After adjusted the effects of BMI,menopause status and physical activity,age was not significantly related with total fat tissue percentage,body fat-free-tissue mass,nor ratio of (Tr/T).Conclusion: Menopause impacts body composition and body fat distribution independently.During the process of female reproductive aging,body fat tissue mass and centrally distributed fat tissue mass increase,while body fatfree

  14. Effect of high-fat diets on body composition, lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity, and the role of exercise on these parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.F. Coelho

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fat composition can interfere in the development of obesity due to the specific roles of some fatty acids that have different metabolic activities, which can alter both fat oxidation and deposition rates, resulting in changes in body weight and/or composition. High-fat diets in general are associated with hyperphagia, but the type of dietary fat seems to be more important since saturated fats are linked to a positive fat balance and omental adipose tissue accumulation when compared to other types of fat, while polyunsaturated fats, omega-3 and omega-6, seem to increase energy expenditure and decrease energy intake by specific mechanisms involving hormone-sensitive lipase, activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα and others. Saturated fat intake can also impair insulin sensitivity compared to omega-3 fat, which has the opposite effect due to alterations in cell membranes. Obesity is also associated with impaired mitochondrial function. Fat excess favors the production of malonyl-CoA, which reduces GLUT4 efficiency. The tricarboxylic acid cycle and beta-oxidation are temporarily uncoupled, forming metabolite byproducts that augment reactive oxygen species production. Exercise can restore mitochondrial function and insulin sensitivity, which may be crucial for a better prognosis in treating or preventing obesity.

  15. Rosiglitazone, a PPAR-γ agonist, fails to attenuate CLA-induced milk fat depression and hepatic lipid accumulation in lactating mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Diwakar; Teter, Beverly B; Delmonte, Pierluigi; Erdman, Richard A

    2014-07-01

    Our objective was to investigate the combination of rosiglitazone (ROSI) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on mammary and hepatic lipogenesis in lactating C57Bl/6 J mice. Twenty-four lactating mice were randomly assigned to one of four treatments applied from postpartum day 6 to day 10. Treatments included: (1) control diet, (2) control plus 1.5 % dietary CLA (CLA) substituted for soybean oil, (3) control plus daily intra-peritoneal (IP) rosiglitazone injections (10 mg/kg body weight) (ROSI), and (4) CLA plus ROSI (CLA-ROSI). Dam food intake and milk fat concentration were depressed with CLA. However, no effects were observed with ROSI. The CLA-induced milk fat depression was due to reduced expression for mammary lipogenic genes involved in de-novo fatty acid (FA) synthesis, FA uptake and desaturation, and triacyglycerol synthesis. Liver weight (g/100 g body weight) was increased by CLA due to an increase in lipid accumulation triggering a compensatory reduction in mRNA abundance of hepatic lipogenic enzymes, including acetyl-CoA carboxylase I and stearoyl-CoA desaturase I. On the contrary, no effects were observed with ROSI on hepatic and mammary lipogenic gene and enzyme expression. Overall, feeding CLA to lactating mice induced milk fat depression and increased hepatic lipid accumulation, probably due to the presence of trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomer, while ROSI failed to significantly attenuate both hepatic steatosis and reduction in milk fat content.

  16. Total body fat content versus BMI in 4-year-old healthy Swedish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsum, Elisabet; Flinke Carlsson, Eva; Henriksson, Hanna; Henriksson, Pontus; Löf, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Childhood overweight and obesity, a worldwide problem, is generally identified using BMI (body mass index). However, this application of BMI has been little investigated in children below 5 years of age due to a lack of appropriate methods to assess body composition. Therefore, we used air displacement plethysmography (ADP) to study 4.4-year old boys and girls since this method is accurate in young children if they accept the requirements of the measurement. The purpose was to analyze the relationship between BMI and body fat in these children. Body composition was assessed in 76 (43 boys, 33 girls) of the 84 children brought to the measurement session. Boys and girls contained 25.2 ± 4.7 and 26.8 ± 4.0% body fat, respectively. BMI-based cut-offs for overweight could not effectively identify children with a high body fat content. There was a significant (P BMI and body fat (%). In conclusion, requirements associated with a successful assessment of body composition by means of ADP were accepted by most 4-year-olds. Furthermore, BMI-based cut-offs for overweight did not effectively identify children with a high body fatness and BMI explained only a small proportion of the variation in body fat (%) in this age group.

  17. Trained vs untrained evaluator assessment of body condition score as a predictor of percent body fat in adult cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoveller, Anna K; DiGennaro, Joe; Lanman, Cynthia; Spangler, Dawn

    2014-12-01

    Body condition scoring (BCS) provides a readily available technique that can be used by both veterinary professionals and owners to assess the body condition of cats, and diagnose overweight or underweight conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate a five-point BCS system with half-point delineations using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Four evaluators (a veterinarian, veterinary technician, trained scorer and untrained scorer) assessed 133 neutered adult cats. For all scorers, BCS score was more strongly correlated with percent body fat than with body weight. Percent body fat increased by approximately 7% within each step increase in BCS. The veterinarian had the strongest correlation coefficient between BCS and percent fat (r = 0.80). Mean body fat in cats classified as being in ideal body condition was 12 and 19%, for 3.0 and 3.5 BCS, respectively. Within BCS category, male cats were significantly heavier in body weight than females within the same assigned BCS category. However, DXA-measured percent body fat did not differ significantly between male and female cats within BCS category, as assigned by the veterinarian (P >0.13). Conversely, when assessed by others, mean percent body fat within BCS category was lower in males than females for cats classified as being overweight (BCS >4.0). The results of this study show that using a BCS system that has been validated within a range of normal weight to moderately overweight cats can help to differentiate between lean cats and cats that may not be excessively overweight, but that still carry a higher proportion of body fat.

  18. Growth hormone-mediated breakdown of body fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, T.; Malmlöf, K.; Richelsen, Bjørn

    2003-01-01

    regimen. Twelve-month-old rats fed first a high-fat diet or a low-fat diet for 14 weeks were injected with saline or growth hormone (4 mg/kg/d) for four days or three weeks in different combinations with either high- or low-fat diets. In adipose tissue, growth hormone generally inhibited lipoprotein...... lipase and also attenuated the inhibiting effect of insulin on hormone-sensitive lipase activity. Growth hormone treatment combined with restricted high-fat feeding reduced the activity of both lipases in adipose tissue and stimulated hormone-sensitive lipase in muscle. Generally, plasma levels of free...... fatty acids, glycerol and cholesterol were reduced by growth hormone, and in combination with restricted high-fat feeding, triglyceride levels improved too. We conclude that growth hormone inhibits lipid storage in adipose tissue by reducing both lipoprotein lipase activity and insulin's inhibitory...

  19. Mexican American Female Adolescent Self-Esteem: The Effect of Body Image, Exercise Behavior, and Body Fatness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Bobby; Semper, Tom; Jorgensen, Layne

    1997-01-01

    A study of 254 Mexican American eighth-grade girls in south Texas found that girls' self-esteem was positively related to body image and exercise involvement and negatively related to body fatness. This population displayed somewhat distorted body image, which was the strongest predictor of self-esteem. Contains 43 references. (SV)

  20. [Regional distribution of the body fat: use of image techniques as tools for nutritional diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Miguelsanz, M J; Cabrera Parra, W; Varela Moreiras, G; Garaulet, M

    2010-01-01

    Fat mass is the most variable component in the human body, both when comparing several individuals and when considering changes in the same person throughout life. Obesity is characterized by an excess of body fat that affects health and well-being of individuals. Risk associated with excess body fat is due, in part, to location of fat rather than to total amount. Today is stated that causes and metabolic consequences of regional distribution of fat are of particular clinical importance. To identify a compartment of morbid adipose tissue and to be able to act on it is one of the main aims of the present research. In this review, we have revised the existing literature on location and characteristics of total body fat in human adult. We have focused on abdominal region, basing this review on the use of modern imaging techniques available nowadays, such as computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, with their advantages and limitations. The purpose of this review is to assess whether it is possible to know the body composition and fat distribution on the basis of image methods. Computed tomography technique was first applied in studies of obesity, but today, due to the inconvenience of irradiating the patient, this technique is being replaced by magnetic resonance that, in addition to avoid radiation, provides images of extraordinary quality. Both methods allow to subdivide the classic general fat depots in others more specific. Subcutaneous fat depot can be superficial or deep, while visceral can be divided in mesenteric, omental or epiploic, retroperitoneal and perirrenal fat. In addition, these modern techniques of imaging permit to study muscular fat, considered by some authors as the new fat compartment. Muscular fat includes fat located between skeletal muscle fibers, called extramyocellular fat, as well as lipids located within skeletal muscle fibers (intramyocellular fat). Its importance lies not only in size, similar to visceral fat, but on its

  1. Total body fat as a possible indicator of metabolic syndrome in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Navarro Lechuga

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The metabolic syndrome is a set of factors related to insulin resistance, which increases the likelihood of coronary events. It is important timely onset identifying to reduce its prevalence. Objective: To explore the percentage of total body fat as indicator of metabolic syndrome in adults from Soledad, Colombia. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional study. n=99 adults (non-pregnant, nor subjects with psychomotor disturbances. Blood samples were taken: total cholesterol, HDL; triglycerides and glucose. Waist circumference, Body Mass Index and body fat by bioimpedance and skinfold thickness were measured. Diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was made according to NHLBI/AHA, ATP III and IDF criteria. Subjects with and without metabolic syndrome according to total body fat averages were compared. Results: The average percentage of body fat was higher (p0.05 in the classification according to ATP III in women, where the average fat percentage was 39.31 % in those with metabolic syndrome and 37.7% in those not suffering. Conclusions: Subjects with metabolic syndrome have higher mean total body fat, significantly, compared with those who did not, so it could be considered the values of total body fat obtained by bioimpedance as future indicators of metabolic syndrome, both as screening and control.

  2. Iron Overload Coordinately Promotes Ferritin Expression and Fat Accumulation in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haizhen; Jiang, Xue; Wu, Jieyu; Zhang, Linqiang; Huang, Jingfei; Zhang, Yuru; Zou, Xiaoju; Liang, Bin

    2016-05-01

    The trace element iron is crucial for living organisms, since it plays essential roles in numerous cellular functions. Systemic iron overload and the elevated level of ferritin, a ubiquitous intracellular protein that stores and releases iron to maintain the iron homeostasis in cells, has long been epidemiologically associated with obesity and obesity-related diseases. However, the underlying mechanisms of this association remain unclear. Here, using Caenorhabditis elegans, we show that iron overload induces the expression of sgk-1, encoding the serum and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase, to promote the level of ferritin and fat accumulation. Mutation of cyp-23A1, encoding a homolog of human cytochrome P450 CYP7B1 that is related to neonatal hemochromatosis, further enhances the elevated expression of ftn-1, sgk-1, and fat accumulation. sgk-1 positively regulates the expression of acs-20 and vit-2, genes encoding homologs of the mammalian FATP1/4 fatty acid transport proteins and yolk lipoproteins, respectively, to facilitate lipid uptake and translocation for storage under iron overload. This study reveals a completely novel pathway in which sgk-1 plays a central role to synergistically regulate iron and lipid homeostasis, offering not only experimental evidence supporting a previously unverified link between iron and obesity, but also novel insights into the pathogenesis of iron and obesity-related human metabolic diseases.

  3. The body that does not diminish itself: fat acceptance in Israel's lesbian queer communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maor, Maya

    2012-01-01

    This article follows Charlotte Cooper's call to widen fat studies scholarship to contexts outside the United States, and Adrianne Hill's call to locate historically specific connections between lesbian communities and promotion of fat acceptance. Three in-depth interviews were conducted with Jewish-Israeli fat women. Through the development of their ability to appreciate their fat body and the fat bodies of other women, participants employed a mixture of disparate feminist-lesbian and queer discourses, in a similar, albeit not identical manner to the one used in the U.S. context. One of the major differences is that queer/lesbian communities in Israel are not in contact with the Israeli fat acceptance movement.

  4. Relationships between body size and percent body fat among Melanesians in Vanuatu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancause, Kelsey Needham; Vilar, Miguel; DeHuff, Christa; Wilson, Michelle; Soloway, Laura E; Chan, Chim; Lum, J Koji; Garruto, Ralph M

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is a global epidemic, and measures to define it must be appropriate for diverse populations for accurate assessment of worldwide risk. Obesity refers to excess body fatness, but is more commonly defined by body mass index (BMI). Body composition varies among populations: Asians have higher percent body fat (%BF), and Pacific Islanders lower %BF at a given BMI compared to Europeans. Many researchers thus propose higher BMI cut-off points for obesity among Pacific Islanders and lower cut-offs for Asians. Because of the great genetic diversity in the Asia-Pacific region, more studies analyzing associations between BMI and %BF among diverse populations remain necessary. We measured height; weight; tricep, subscapular, and suprailiac skinfolds; waist and hip circumference; and %BF by bioelectrical impedance among 546 adult Melanesians from Vanuatu in the South Pacific. We analyzed relationships among anthropometric measurements and compared them to measurements from other populations in the Asia-Pacific region. BMI was a relatively good predictor of %BF among our sample. Based on regression analyses, the BMI value associated with obesity defined by %BF (>25% for men, >35% for women) at age 40 was 27.9 for men and 27.8 for women. This indicates a need for a more nuanced definition of obesity than provided by the common BMI cut-off value of 30. Rather than using population-specific cut-offs for Pacific Islanders, we suggest the World Health Organization's public health action cut-off points (23, 27.5, 32.5, 37.5), which enhance the precision of assessments of population-wide obesity burdens while still allowing for international comparison.

  5. The plasma leptin concentration is closely associated with the body fat mass in nondiabetic uremic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Nielsen, P K; Olgaard, K

    1999-01-01

    Plasma leptin is associated with the body mass index and, more precisely, with the body fat mass. Plasma leptin has been found to be elevated in uremic patients. This study aimed at investigating the plasma leptin concentration and associations between plasma leptin, body fat mass, and glomerular...... filtration rate in nondiabetic predialysis uremic patients and in nondiabetic patients on chronic hemodialysis. Plasma leptin, body fat mass, and creatinine clearance were measured in 22 predialysis uremic patients, 18 hemodialysis patients, and 24 healthy control subjects. The logarithmically transformed...... plasma leptin concentration was closely associated with the body fat mass in all groups (r = 0.93, r = 0.83, and r = 0.72, respectively; p

  6. [Development of skin moisture and body fat measurement system for mobile application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Naihan; Chen, Xiang; Wang, Congzheng; Dong, Zhongfei

    2014-03-01

    Integrating physiological parameters measurement into mobile devices is a development tendency of mobile healthcare. Measurement methods for skin moisture and body fat content are studied in this paper. Electrodes are designed for easy integration into mobile devices, and can be embedded in the cover of the mobile phone. Experiments were conducted to obtain a fast and easy measurement method. The results of evaluation show that the measurement system can achieve the same accuracy as commercial products (with correlation above 0.9 and root mean squared error below 4%) in skin moisture and body fat content measurement. Measurement of local-area body fat content showed a nearly linear positive correlation between local-area body fat content and local-area body impedance.

  7. The body fat-lowering effect of conjugated linoleic acid: a comparison between animal and human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, V; Fernández-Quintela, A; Churruca, I; Portillo, M P

    2006-06-01

    Different reasons which justify differences between rodents and humans in body fat reduction produced by conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) could be proposed. The doses used in humans are lower than those used in rodents. Human experiments have been performed with CLA isomer mixtures instead of isolated isomers. The variable dilution of t-10, c-12, the active isomer, among different preparations might explain the reduced responsiveness in humans. Diet composition may modulate CLA effects on body fat accumulation. As far as human studies are concerned, a specific dietary pattern has not been established. As a result differences among studies and also among subjects in the same study are likely. In rodents, the effects of CLA vary with genotype, suggesting that genetic predisposition to fat accumulation can play an important role in the effectiveness of CLA. Human volunteers with different body mass index have participated in the published studies and even in the same experiment. So, differences in lipid metabolism among subjects could help to explain the discrepancies observed in the literature. Age and maturity may also be crucial. Experiments using rodents have been conducted with growing animals and there is little evidence of CLA effectiveness in adult animals. By contrast, human studies have been performed with adults. Inhibition of lipogenesis in white adipose tissue is one of the mechanisms which have been proposed to explain the body-fat lowering effect of CLA, but lipogenesis in this tissue is very low in humans. Another mechanism suggested is increased fatty acid oxidation in the liver associated with peroxisome proliferation, but humans are relatively insensitive to this effect.

  8. Apiology: royal secrets in the queen's fat body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Naoki; O'Connor, Michael B

    2011-07-12

    Royalactin, a component of royal jelly, induces queen differentiation in honeybees. Surprisingly, royalactin has a similar effect on growth in fruit flies, highlighting many unexpected features of growth regulation by the insect fat tissue.

  9. Associations among eating regulation and body mass index, weight, and body fat in college students: the moderating role of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gropper, Sareen S; Arsiwalla, Dilbur D; Lord, Denali C; Huggins, Kevin W; Simmons, Karla P; Ulrich, Pamela V

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated associations between eating regulation behaviors and body mass index (BMI), weight, and percent body fat in male and female students over the first two years of college. Subjects included 328 college students (215 females and 113 males). Height and weight (via standard techniques), body composition (via bioelectrical impedance analysis), and eating regulation behaviors (using the Regulation of Eating Behavior Scale) were conducted two to three times during both the freshman and sophomore years. Significant associations between eating regulation and BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat were shown mostly in females. In females, higher BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat at the end of the second year of college were found in those with low levels of autonomous, intrinsic motivation, and identified regulation, and high levels of amotivation, while lower BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat were associated with high levels of autonomous, intrinsic motivation, and identified regulation, and low levels of amotivation. The findings that specific eating behaviors in females during the first two years of college influence BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat may be useful for inclusion in university programs focused on college student health to help decrease the risk of obesity and disordered eating/eating disorders in female college students.

  10. Body Fat Assessment: A Comparison of Visual Estimation and Skinfold Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterner, Thomas G.; Burke, Edmund J.

    1986-01-01

    This study compared skinfold measurements and visual estimation as methods of measuring percent body fat against underwater weighing, using a sample of 71 males. The results suggest some individuals can visually estimate percent fat about as accurately as skinfold measures do. (MT)

  11. A central body fat distribution is related to renal function impairment, even in lean subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinto-Sietsma, SJ; Navis, G; Janssen, WMT; de Zeeuw, D; Gans, ROB; de Jong, PE

    2003-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity are believed to be associated with renal damage. Whether this depends on fat distribution is not known. We hypothesize that in addition to overweight, fat distribution may be associated with renal function abnormalities. Methods: We studied the relation between body

  12. Transcript levels of genes implicated in steroidogenesis in the testes and fat tissue in relation to androstenone accumulation in fat of pubertal pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robic, A; Feve, K; Riquet, J; Prunier, A

    2016-10-01

    The present study was performed to measure messenger RNA levels of steroidogenic enzymes in testes and fat tissue and determine whether they are related to fat androstenone level. Real-time polymerase chain reaction experiments were performed on 26 testes and 12 adipose tissue samples from pubertal boars using 21 genes. The absence of significant correlations between fat androstenone and the transcriptional activity of the SRD5A2 and SRD5A3 genes but the high correlation coefficient with that of the SRD5A1 gene (r = 0.62, P fat concentration of androstenone (0.57 fat is related to the production in testes of androstenone and more generally to all sex steroids. Altogether, our data are in favor of a preponderant role of AKR1C-pig6 instead of HSD17B3 for testicular synthesis of steroids. Concerning fat tissue, our data do not support a significant de novo biosynthesis of steroids in porcine adipose tissues. The presence of transcripts coding for steroid enzymes, especially those of AKR1C-pig6, suggests that steroids can be transformed. None of transcript abundance was related to androstenone accumulation (P > 0.1). Therefore, steroids synthesized elsewhere can be transformed in fat tissue but synthesis of androstenone is unlikely.

  13. Effects of exenatide, insulin, and pioglitazone on liver fat content and body fat distributions in drug-naive subjects with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Yan; Zhang, Bing; Xu, Wen; Yang, Huijie; Feng, Wenhuan; Li, Cuiliu; Tong, Guoyu; Li, Ming; Wang, Xin; Shen, Shanmei; Zhu, Bin; Weng, Jianping; Zhu, Dalong

    2014-10-01

    Ectopic accumulation of lipids in nonadipose tissues plays a primary role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study was to examine the effects of exenatide, insulin, and pioglitazone on liver fat content and body fat distributions in T2DM. Thirty-three drug-naive T2DM patients (age 52.7 ± 1.7 years, HbA1c 8.7 ± 0.2 %, body mass index 24.5 ± 0.5 kg/m(2)) were randomized into exenatide, insulin, or pioglitazone for 6 months. Intrahepatic fat (IHF), visceral fat (VF), and subcutaneous fat (SF) were measured using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Plasma tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and adiponectin were assayed by ELISA. HbA1c declined significantly in all three groups. Body weight, waist, and serum triglycerides decreased with exenatide. After interventions, IHF significantly reduced with three treatments (exenatide Δ = -68 %, insulin Δ = -58 %, pioglitazone Δ = -49 %). Exenatide reduced VF (Δ = -36 %) and SF (Δ = -13 %), and pioglitazone decreased VF (Δ = -30 %) with no impact on SF, whereas insulin had no impact on VF or SF. Levels of TNFα (exenatide/insulin/pioglitazone) decreased, and levels of adiponectin (exenatide/pioglitazone) increased. Analysis showed that ΔIHF correlated with ΔHbA1c and Δweight. Besides, ΔIHF correlated with Δtriglycerides and ΔTNFα, but the correlations fell short of significance after BMI adjustment. By linear regression analysis, ΔHbA1c alone explained 41.5 % of the variance of ΔIHF, and ΔHbA1c + Δweight explained 57.6 % of the variance. Liver fat content can be significantly reduced irrespective of using exenatide, insulin, and pioglitazone. Early glycaemic control plays an important role in slowing progression of fatty liver in T2DM.

  14. Hibiscus sabdariffa extract inhibits obesity and fat accumulation, and improves liver steatosis in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hong-Chou; Peng, Chiung-Huei; Yeh, Da-Ming; Kao, Erl-Shyh; Wang, Chau-Jong

    2014-04-01

    Obesity is associated with a great diversity of diseases including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Our previous report suggested that Hibiscus sabdariffa extracts (HSE) had a metabolic-regulating and liver-protecting potential. In this study, we performed a clinical trial to further confirm the effect of HSE. Subjects with a BMI ≧ 27 and aged 18-65, were randomly divided into control (n = 17) and HSE-treated (n = 19) groups, respectively, for 12 weeks. Our data showed that consumption of HSE reduced body weight, BMI, body fat and the waist-to-hip ratio. Serum free fatty acid (FFA) was lowered by HSE. Anatomic changes revealed that HSE improved the illness of liver steatosis. Ingestion of HSE was well tolerated and there was no adverse effect during the trial. No alteration was found for serum α-amylase and lipase. The clinical effect should mainly be attributed to the polyphenols of HSE, since composition analysis showed that branched chain-amino acids, which is associated with obesity, is not obviously high. In conclusion, consumption of HSE reduced obesity, abdominal fat, serum FFA and improved liver steatosis. HSE could act as an adjuvant for preventing obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver.

  15. The fat body transcriptomes of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti, pre- and post- blood meal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P Price

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The fat body is the main organ of intermediary metabolism in insects and the principal source of hemolymph proteins. As part of our ongoing efforts to understand mosquito fat body physiology and to identify novel targets for insect control, we have conducted a transcriptome analysis of the fat body of Aedes aegypti before and in response to blood feeding. RESULTS: We created two fat body non-normalized EST libraries, one from mosquito fat bodies non-blood fed (NBF and another from mosquitoes 24 hrs post-blood meal (PBM. 454 pyrosequencing of the non-normalized libraries resulted in 204,578 useable reads from the NBF sample and 323,474 useable reads from the PBM sample. Alignment of reads to the existing reference Ae. aegypti transcript libraries for analysis of differential expression between NBF and PBM samples revealed 116,912 and 115,051 matches, respectively. De novo assembly of the reads from the NBF sample resulted in 15,456 contigs, and assembly of the reads from the PBM sample resulted in 15,010 contigs. Collectively, 123 novel transcripts were identified within these contigs. Prominently expressed transcripts in the NBF fat body library were represented by transcripts encoding ribosomal proteins. Thirty-five point four percent of all reads in the PBM library were represented by transcripts that encode yolk proteins. The most highly expressed were transcripts encoding members of the cathepsin b, vitellogenin, vitellogenic carboxypeptidase, and vitelline membrane protein families. CONCLUSION: The two fat body transcriptomes were considerably different from each other in terms of transcript expression in terms of abundances of transcripts and genes expressed. They reflect the physiological shift of the pre-feeding fat body from a resting state to vitellogenic gene expression after feeding.

  16. Consumption of pork-liver protein hydrolysate reduces body fat in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats by suppressing hepatic lipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Muneshige; Tanabe, Soichi; Morimatsu, Fumiki; Nagao, Koji; Yanagita, Teruyoshi; Kato, Norihisa; Nishimura, Toshihide

    2006-01-01

    This study was performed to examine the effect of consumption of pork-liver protein hydrolysate (PLH) on body fat accumulation in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats as a non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus model and in Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats as a control. Male 20-week-old OLETF and LETO rats were pair-fed either PLH or casein containing diet for 14 weeks. In the OLETF rats, dietary PLH significantly reduced the growth and weight of fat pad including perirenal and epididymal adipose tissues. Consumption of PLH markedly suppressed hepatic activities of lipogenesis enzymes such as glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and fatty acid synthase and slightly elevated fecal excretion of total fat. In the LETO rats, growth and adipose tissue weight were unaffected by dietary treatment. The results suggest that PLH is a novel ingredient suppressing body fat in genetically obese rats by reducing lipogenesis.

  17. Validation study of the body adiposity index as a predictor of percent body fat in older individuals: findings from the BLSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hui; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Ferrucci, Luigi; Cooper, Jamie A

    2014-09-01

    A new body adiposity index (BAI = (hip circumference)/((height)(1.5)) - 18) has been developed and validated in adult populations. We aimed to assess the validity of BAI in an older population. We compared the concordance correlation coefficient between BAI, body mass index (BMI), and percent body fat (fat%; by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) in an older population (n = 954) participating in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. BAI was more strongly correlated with fat% than BMI (r of .7 vs .6 for BAI vs BMI and fat%, respectively, p BMI and fat%, respectively, p BMI was in better agreement with fat% (r of .6 vs .7 for BAI vs BMI and fat%, respectively, p BMI and fat%, respectively, p BMI may be a better index for older men. Finally, BAI is not accurate in people with extremely low or high body fat percentages.

  18. Obesity classification in military personnel: A comparison of body fat, waist circumference, and body mass index measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate obesity classifications from body fat percentage (BF%), body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC). A total of 451 overweight/obese active duty military personnel completed all three assessments. Most were obese (men, 81%; women, 98%) using National...

  19. The paradox of low body mass index and high body fat percentage among Chinese, Malays and Indians in Singapore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurenberg-Yap, M.; Schmidt, G.; Staveren, van W.A.; Deurenberg, P.

    2000-01-01

    To study the relationship between body fat percentage and body mass index (BMI) in three different ethnic groups in Singapore (Chinese, Malays and Indians) in order to evaluate the validity of the BMI cut-off points for obesity. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SUBJECTS: Two-hundred and ninety-one sub

  20. The validity of predicted body fat percent from body mass index and from impedance in samples of five European populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurenberg, P.; Andreoli, A.; Borg, P.; Kukkonen-Harjula, K.; Lorenzo, de A.; Marken Lichtenbelt, van W.; Testolin, G.; Vigano, R.; Vollaard, N.

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: To test and compare the validity of a body mass index (BMI)-based prediction equation and an impedance-based prediction equation for body fat percentage among various European population groups. Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Settings: The study was performed in five differ

  1. Asians are different from Caucasians and from each other in their body mass index/body fat per cent relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurenberg, P.; Deurenberg-Yap, M.; Guricci, S.

    2002-01-01

    The objective was to study the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and body fat per cent (BF%) in different population groups of Asians. The study design was a literature overview with special attention to recent Asian data. Specific information is provided on Indonesians (Malays and Chinese

  2. A systematic review of body fat distribution and mortality in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Su-Hsin; Beason, Tracey S; Hunleth, Jean M; Colditz, Graham A

    2012-07-01

    We conducted a systematic review investigating body fat distribution in older adults and its association with morbidity and mortality. Our search yielded 2702 citations. Following three levels of screening, 25 studies were selected to evaluate the association between body fat distribution and comorbidity, and 17 studies were used in the mortality analysis. Most of the selected studies in our analyses used anthropometric measures, e.g., body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio; relatively few studies used direct measures, such as body fat/lean mass, and percentage body fat. Studies reported inconsistent findings regarding the strongest predictor(s) of morbidity and mortality. However, the majority of studies suggested that BMI per se was not the most appropriate predictor of morbidity and mortality in the elderly because of its inability to discern or detect age-related body fat redistribution. In addition, studies using BMI found that the optimal BMI range for the lowest mortality in the elderly was overweight (25 kg/m(2)≤BMIBMIbody fat distribution measurements, and to certify that these guidelines will not be applied to inappropriate populations.

  3. Influence of Regular Exercise on Body Fat and Eating Patterns of Patients with Intermittent Claudication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Leicht

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the impact of regular supervised exercise on body fat, assessed via anthropometry, and eating patterns of peripheral arterial disease patients with intermittent claudication (IC. Body fat, eating patterns and walking ability were assessed in 11 healthy adults (Control and age- and mass-matched IC patients undertaking usual care (n = 10; IC-Con or supervised exercise (12-months; n = 10; IC-Ex. At entry, all groups exhibited similar body fat and eating patterns. Maximal walking ability was greatest for Control participants and similar for IC-Ex and IC-Con patients. Supervised exercise resulted in significantly greater improvements in maximal walking ability (IC-Ex 148%–170% vs. IC-Con 29%–52% and smaller increases in body fat (IC-Ex −2.1%–1.4% vs. IC-Con 8.4%–10%. IC-Con patients exhibited significantly greater increases in body fat compared with Control at follow-up (8.4%–10% vs. −0.6%–1.4%. Eating patterns were similar for all groups at follow-up. The current study demonstrated that regular, supervised exercise significantly improved maximal walking ability and minimised increase in body fat amongst IC patients without changes in eating patterns. The study supports the use of supervised exercise to minimize cardiovascular risk amongst IC patients. Further studies are needed to examine the additional value of other lifestyle interventions such as diet modification.

  4. BL153 Partially Prevents High-Fat Diet Induced Liver Damage Probably via Inhibition of Lipid Accumulation, Inflammation, and Oxidative Stress

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    Jian Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was to investigate whether a magnolia extract, named BL153, can prevent obesity-induced liver damage and identify the possible protective mechanism. To this end, obese mice were induced by feeding with high fat diet (HFD, 60% kcal as fat and the age-matched control mice were fed with control diet (10% kcal as fat for 6 months. Simultaneously these mice were treated with or without BL153 daily at 3 dose levels (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg by gavage. HFD feeding significantly increased the body weight and the liver weight. Administration of BL153 significantly reduced the liver weight but without effects on body weight. As a critical step of the development of NAFLD, hepatic fibrosis was induced in the mice fed with HFD, shown by upregulating the expression of connective tissue growth factor and transforming growth factor beta 1, which were significantly attenuated by BL153 in a dose-dependent manner. Mechanism study revealed that BL153 significantly suppressed HFD induced hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress and slightly prevented liver inflammation. These results suggest that HFD induced fibrosis in the liver can be prevented partially by BL153, probably due to reduction of hepatic lipid accumulation, inflammation and oxidative stress.

  5. Indices of vascular stiffness and wave reflection in relation to body mass index or body fat in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wykretowicz, Andrzej; Adamska, Karolina; Guzik, Przemyslaw; Krauze, Tomasz; Wysocki, Henryk

    2007-10-01

    1. Obesity appears to influence vascular stiffness, an important cardiovascular risk factor. An accurate picture of arterial stiffness may be obtained when a combination of various techniques is used. 2. The purpose of the present study was to assess whether the body mass index (BMI) and body fat content obtained by bioimpedance were of equal value in estimating the influence of body fatness on various indices of vascular stiffness and wave reflection. 3. A total of 175 healthy subjects was studied. Anthropometric measurements and total body bio-impedance analysis were performed to assess fat mass as a proportion of total body composition. Arterial stiffness and wave reflection were assessed using digital volume pulse analysis and tonometric measurement of the wave reflection indices and central haemodynamics. 4. Significant differences in the stiffness index (SI(DVP); P < 0.0001), peripheral augmentation index (pAI(x); P < 0.0001), central augmentation index (cAI(x); P < 0.0001), peripheral pulse pressure (pPP; P = 0.026) and central pulse pressure (cPP; P < 0.0001) were found when the population examined was divided accordingly to tertile of body fat content. However, subdividing various indices of arterial stiffness according to the tertile of BMI did not reveal any significant differences between groups, except for pPP and cPP. 5. Body fat content was significantly correlated with SI(DVP), pAI(x), cAI(x), pPP and cPP. The BMI correlated weakly with SI(DVP), pPP and cPP. 6. In conclusion, the BMI is not very useful in predicting changes in arterial stiffness and wave reflection due to obesity. However, stiffness and wave reflection indices derived from digital volume pulse analysis, the characteristics of radial and aortic pressure waveforms and peripheral and aortic pulse pressure are all related to body fat content, as estimated by bioimpedance.

  6. Relationship between body fat mass and free fatty acid kinetics in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittendorfer, Bettina; Magkos, Faidon; Fabbrini, Elisa; Mohammed, B Selma; Klein, Samuel

    2009-10-01

    An increased release of free fatty acids (FFAs) into plasma likely contributes to the metabolic complications associated with obesity. However, the relationship between body fat and FFA metabolism is unclear because of conflicting results from different studies. The goal of our study was to determine the inter-relationships between body fat, sex, and plasma FFA kinetics. We determined FFA rate of appearance (Ra) in plasma, by using stable isotopically labeled tracer techniques, during basal conditions in 106 lean, overweight, and obese, nondiabetic subjects (43 men and 63 women who had 7.0-56.0% body fat). Correlation analyses demonstrated: (i) no differences between men and women in the relationship between fat mass (FM) and total FFA Ra (micromol/min); (ii) total FFA Ra increased linearly with increasing FM (r=0.652, Pfashion with increasing FM (r=-0.806; Pmen; and (v) abdominal fat itself was not an important determinant of total FFA Ra. We conclude that total body fat, not regional fat distribution or sex, is an important modulator of the rate of FFA release into plasma. Although increased adiposity is associated with a decrease in fatty acid release in relationship to FM, this downregulation is unable to completely compensate for the increase in FM, so total FFA Ra and FFA Ra with respect to FFM are greater in women than in men and in obese than in lean subjects.

  7. Transgenic mice with astrocyte-targeted production of interleukin-6 are resistant to high-fat diet-induced increases in body weight and body fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hidalgo, Juan; Florit, Sergi; Giralt, Mercedes

    2010-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a major cytokine involved in both normal physiological brain functions and underlying significant neuropathology. IL-6 has been suggested to play a role in the control of body weight but the results are somewhat controversial. In this study we have challenged transgenic mi......-fat diet feeding. In summary, the present results demonstrate that brain-specific IL-6 controls body weight which may be a significant factor in physiological conditions and/or in diseases causing neuroinflammation....

  8. Relationship of body fat and cardiorespiratory fitness with cardiovascular risk in Chinese children.

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    Pei-gang Wang

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: BACKGROUNDS/OBJECTIVES: Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF and body fat play an important role in elevated risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD. However, the combined effects of CRF and obesity on metabolic health in Chinese children are unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the independent and combined associations between body fat, CRF, and CVD risk in Chinese schoolchildren. METHODS: The study subjects comprised 676 schoolchildren (392 boys and 284 girls, aged 9.6±0.7 yrs old in Wuhan, China. Their body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, CRF, blood pressure (BP, lipids, glucose, and pubertal status were assessed. Children were categorized into different groups based on their BMI, WC, and CRF using Chinese obesity cut-off points and CRF sex-specific median points. Metabolic Risk Score (MRS was computed based on the standardized scores of BP, lipids, and glucose. RESULTS: Multiple linear regression models showed that, in the separate models, body fat was positively associated with MRS while CRF was inversely associated with MRS (p<0.001. However, when assessed simultaneously, only body fat had a significant association with MRS (p<0.001. In general, low-fit children had a lower MRS compared to their counterparts, and a significant difference between the two extreme groups was observed (low CRF and high fat vs. high CRF and low fat, p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that both body fat and CRF should be considered when interpreting CVD risk in Chinese children, while body fat may be correlated with CVD risk more than CRF.

  9. Insulin resistance and body fat distribution in South Asian men compared to Caucasian men.

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    Manisha Chandalia

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: South Asians are susceptible to insulin resistance even without obesity. We examined the characteristics of body fat content, distribution and function in South Asian men and their relationships to insulin resistance compared to Caucasians. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Twenty-nine South Asian and 18 Caucasian non-diabetic men (age 27+/-3 and 27+/-3 years, respectively underwent euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp for insulin sensitivity, underwater weighing for total body fat, MRI of entire abdomen for intraperitoneal (IP and subcutaneous abdominal (SA fat and biopsy of SA fat for adipocyte size. RESULTS: Compared to Caucasians, in spite of similar BMI, South Asians had higher total body fat (22+/-6 and 15+/-4% of body weight; p-value<0.0001, higher SA fat (3.5+/-1.9 and 2.2+/-1.3 kg, respectively; p-value = 0.004, but no differences in IP fat (1.0+/-0.5 and 1.0+/-0.7 kg, respectively; p-value = 0.4. SA adipocyte cell size was significantly higher in South Asians (3491+/-1393 and 1648+/-864 microm2; p-value = 0.0001 and was inversely correlated with both glucose disposal rate (r-value = -0.57; p-value = 0.0008 and plasma adiponectin concentrations (r-value = -0.71; p-value<0.0001. Adipocyte size differences persisted even when SA was matched between South Asians and Caucasians. CONCLUSIONS: Insulin resistance in young South Asian men can be observed even without increase in IP fat mass and is related to large SA adipocytes size. Hence ethnic excess in insulin resistance in South Asians appears to be related more to excess truncal fat and dysfunctional adipose tissue than to excess visceral fat.

  10. Effects of covert subject actions on percent body fat by air-displacement plethsymography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegenkamp, Michelle H; Clark, R Randall; Schoeller, Dale A; Landry, Greg L

    2011-07-01

    Air-displacement plethysmography (ADP) is used for estimation of body composition, however, some individuals, such as athletes in weight classification sports, may use covert methods during ADP testing to alter their apparent percent body fat. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of covert subject actions on percent body fat measured by ADP. Subjects underwent body composition analysis in the Bod Pod following the standard procedure using the manufacturer's guidelines. The subjects then underwent 8 more measurements while performing the following intentional manipulations: 4 breathing patterns altering lung volume, foot movement to disrupt air, hand cupping to trap air, and heat and cold exposure before entering the chamber. Increasing and decreasing lung volume during thoracic volume measurement and during body density measurement altered the percent body fat assessment (p < 0.001). High lung volume during thoracic gas measures overestimated fat by 3.7 ± 2.1 percentage points. Lowered lung volume during body volume measures overestimated body fat by an additional 2.2 ± 2.1 percentage points. The heat and cold exposure, tapping, and cupping treatments provided similar estimates of percent body fat when compared with the standard condition. These results demonstrate the subjects were able to covertly change their estimated ADP body composition value by altering breathing when compared with the standard condition. We recommend that sports conditioning coaches, athletic trainers, and technicians administering ADP should be aware of the potential effects of these covert actions. The individual responsible for administering ADP should remain vigilant during testing to detect deliberate altered breathing patterns by athletes in an effort to gain a competitive advantage by manipulating their body composition assessment.

  11. Body Fat Distribution and Its Association with Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Adolescent Iranian Girls

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    Mohammad-Reza Parizadeh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The relationships between body fat distribution, lipid profile and blood pressure, have not been studied extensively in young population. This study was designed to evaluate the association between measures of adiposity and established cardiovascular risk factors in adolescent girls.Methods: A total of 477 adolescent girls aged 15 to 18 years were recruited from Mashhad high schools.Socio-demographic characteristics were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. Anthropometricassessments, blood pressure measurement and biochemical assessment were performed. Total and regionalfat mass were determined by bio-impedance analysis. Cardiovascular disease risk factors were assessed in relation to body fat measures with adjustment for confounder factors including age and family socioeconomic status.Findings: The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 14.6% and 3.4% respectively; 16% of study population had greater fat mass compared to its ideal distribution. The majority of cardiovascular riskfactors, especially systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride concentration, CRP and fasting blood sugar were significantly higher in group with a high body fat when compared to those with normal and low values. All anthropometric indices showed significant correlation with fat mass, fat free mass, total andregional body fat percent (P<0.001. After adjustment for age and family socioeconomic status, a high fat massespecially, truncal fat, was positively associated with triglyceride and blood pressure.Conclusion: Adiposity, especially truncal adiposity, which can be assessed by simple measures such as Body Mass Index (BMI and Waist Circumference (WC may predispose adolescent girls for demonstration of metabolic abnormalities and consequently cardiovascular diseases.

  12. Daily ingestion of grains of paradise (Aframomum melegueta) extract increases whole-body energy expenditure and decreases visceral fat in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Jun; Yoneshiro, Takeshi; Sugishima, Yuuki; Ikemoto, Takeshi; Uchiwa, Hideyo; Suzuki, Isao; Saito, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    We reported previously that a single ingestion of an alcohol extract of grains of paradise (GP, Aframomum melegueta), a species of the ginger family, increases energy expenditure (EE) through the activation of brown adipose tissue, a site of sympathetically mediated metabolic theromogenesis. The present study aimed to examine a daily ingestion of GP extract on whole-body EE and body fat in humans. Whole-body EE and body fat content were measured before and after daily oral ingestion of GP extract (30 mg/d) for 4 wk in 19 non-obese female volunteers aged 20-22 y in a single-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover design. Four-week daily ingestion of GP and a placebo decreased and increased slightly the visceral fat area at the umbilicus level, respectively. The GP-induced change was significantly different from that induced by the placebo (pwhole-body EE (p<0.05). These results suggest that GP extract may be an effective and safe tool for reducing body fat, mainly by preventing visceral fat accumulation.

  13. Comparison of methods to assess body fat in non-obese six to seven-year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abée, l' C.; Visser, G.H.; Liem, E.T.; Kok, D.E.G.; Sauer, P.J.; Stolk, R.P.

    2010-01-01

    Background & aim Different non-invasive methods exist to evaluate total body fat in children. Most methods have shown to be able to confirm a high fat percentage in children with overweight and obesity. No data are available on the estimation of total body fat in non-obese children. The aim of t

  14. Comparison of methods to assess body fat in non-obese six to seven-year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L'Abee, Carianne; Visser, G. Henk; Liem, Eryn T.; Kok, Dieuwertje E. G.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Stolk, Ronald P.

    2010-01-01

    Background & aim: Different non-invasive methods exist to evaluate total body fat in children. Most methods have shown to be able to confirm a high fat percentage in children with overweight and obesity. No data are available on the estimation of total body fat in non-obese children. The aim of this

  15. Lipid Droplet Accumulation and Impaired Fat Efflux in Polarized Hepatic Cells: Consequences of Ethanol Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVicker, Benita L.; Rasineni, Karuna; Tuma, Dean J.; McNiven, Mark A.; Casey, Carol A.

    2012-01-01

    Steatosis, an early manifestation in alcoholic liver disease, is associated with the accumulation of hepatocellular lipid droplets (LDs). However, the role ethanol metabolism has in LD formation and turnover remains undefined. Here, we assessed LD dynamics following ethanol and oleic acid treatment to ethanol-metabolizing WIF-B cells (a hybrid of human fibroblasts (WI 38) and Fao rat hepatoma cells). An OA dose-dependent increase in triglyceride and stained lipids was identified which doubled (P < 0.05) in the presence of ethanol. This effect was blunted with the inclusion of an alcohol metabolism inhibitor. The ethanol/ OA combination also induced adipophilin, LD coat protein involved in the attenuation of lipolysis. Additionally, ethanol treatment resulted in a significant reduction in lipid efflux. These data demonstrate that the metabolism of ethanol in hepatic cells is related to LD accumulation, impaired fat efflux, and enhancements in LD-associated proteins. These alterations in LD dynamics may contribute to ethanol-mediated defects in hepatocellular LD regulation and the formation of steatosis. PMID:22506128

  16. Body Fat and Physical Activity Modulate the Association Between Sarcopenia and Osteoporosis in Elderly Korean Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Inhwan; Cho, Jinkyung; Jin, Youngyun; Ha, Changduk; Kim, Taehee; Kang, Hyunsik

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether modifiable lifestyle factors, such as body fatness and physical activity, modulate the association between sarcopenia and osteoporosis. In a cross-sectional design, 269 postmenopausal women, aged 65 years and older, underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans to measure their body fat percentage, total fat mass, total fat-free mass, appendicular lean mass, bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content. The participants wore a uniaxial accelerometer for seven consecutive days to quantify daily physical activity. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, and a binary logistic regression. Pearson correlation analyses showed that total neck/femur BMD was positively associated with weight-adjusted appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) and objectively-measured physical activities. ASM was positively associated with body fatness. Binary logistic regression analyses showed that the odds ratio (OR) of sarcopenia for osteopenia and/or osteoporosis was substantially attenuated but remained marginally significant when adjusted for age and postmenopausal period (OR = 2.370 and p = 0.050). However, the OR was no longer significant when additionally adjusted for body fatness (OR = 2.218 and p = 0.117) and physical activity (OR = 1.240 and p = 0.448). The findings of the study showed that, in this sample of elderly Korean women, modifiable lifestyle risk factors such as body fatness and physical inactivity played an important role in determining the association between sarcopenia and osteopenia/osteoporosis. Key points Osteoporosis and sarcopenia are major health conditions responsible for an increased risk of bone fractures and reduced functional capacity, respectively, in older adults. We investigated whether lifestyle-related risk factors modulate the association between sarcopenia and osteoporosis in older Korean adults. The current findings of the study suggest that physical activity and

  17. Lipid body accumulation alters calcium signaling dynamics in immune cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greineisen, William E; Speck, Mark; Shimoda, Lori M N; Sung, Carl; Phan, Nolwenn; Maaetoft-Udsen, Kristina; Stokes, Alexander J; Turner, Helen

    2014-09-01

    There is well-established variability in the numbers of lipid bodies (LB) in macrophages, eosinophils, and neutrophils. Similarly to the steatosis observed in adipocytes and hepatocytes during hyperinsulinemia and nutrient overload, immune cell LB hyper-accumulate in response to bacterial and parasitic infection and inflammatory presentations. Recently we described that hyperinsulinemia, both in vitro and in vivo, drives steatosis and phenotypic changes in primary and transformed mast cells and basophils. LB reach high numbers in these steatotic cytosols, and here we propose that they could dramatically impact the transcytoplasmic signaling pathways. We compared calcium release and influx responses at the population and single cell level in normal and steatotic model mast cells. At the population level, all aspects of FcɛRI-dependent calcium mobilization, as well as activation of calcium-dependent downstream signaling targets such as NFATC1 phosphorylation are suppressed. At the single cell level, we demonstrate that LB are both sources and sinks of calcium following FcɛRI cross-linking. Unbiased analysis of the impact of the presence of LB on the rate of trans-cytoplasmic calcium signals suggest that LB enrichment accelerates calcium propagation, which may reflect a Bernoulli effect. LB abundance thus impacts this fundamental signaling pathway and its downstream targets.

  18. Body mass index versus percentage body fat in Chinese, African-American and Caucasian postmenopausal women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Ai-jun; He Qing; Lin Shou-qing; Tian Jun-ping; Stan He-shka; Jack Wang; Steven Heymsfield; Richard N. Pierson; Dympna Gallagher

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate in postmenopausal women whether the relationship between percentage body fat (PBF) and body mass index (BMI) differs between Asians living in Beijing (BA) and African-Americans (AA), and Caucasians (Ca) living in New York City.Methods: Healthy postmenopausal women (231 BA; 113 AA, 95 Ca), aged 50-80 years, were studied. Weight, height and PBF by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were measured. The relationship between PBF and BMI was assessed by multiple regression analysis. Results: Race, reciprocal of BMI (1/BMI) and the interaction between race and 1/BMI were all significantly (P<0.05) related to PBF in this sample. The slope of the line relating 1/BMI to PBF was different for BA compared to AA (P=0.01) and Ca (P=0.003) while the slopes for AA and Ca were not different (P>0.05). At lower levels of BMI, Asians tended to have higher PBF comparable to AA and Ca, while at BMI >30 BA tended to have less PBF than the other groups. Conclusion: The relation between PBF and BMI in BA postmenopausal women differs from that of AA and Ca women in this sample.

  19. Does relative body fat influence the Movement ABC-2 assessment in children with and without developmental coordination disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faught, Brent E; Demetriades, Stephen; Hay, John; Cairney, John

    2013-12-01

    Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a condition that results in an impairment of gross and/or fine motor coordination. Compromised motor coordination contributes to lower levels of physical activity, which is associated with elevated body fat. The impact of elevated body fat on motor coordination diagnostic assessments in children with DCD has not been established. The purpose of this study was to determine if relative body fat influences performance on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, 2nd Edition (MABC-2) test items in children with and without DCD. A nested case-control, design was conducted within the Physical Health Activity Study Team longitudinal cohort study. The MABC-2 was used to assess motor coordination to categorize cases and matched controls. Relative body fat was assessed using whole body air displacement plethysmography. Relative body fat was negatively associated with the MABC-2 "balance" subcategory after adjusting for physical activity and DCD status. Relative body fat did not influence the subcategories of "manual dexterity" or "aiming and catching". Item analysis of the three balance tasks indicated that relative body fat significantly influences both "2-board balance" and "zig-zag hopping", but not "walking heel-toe backwards". Children with higher levels of relative body fat do not perform as well on the MABC-2, regardless of whether the have DCD or not. Dynamic balance test items are most negatively influenced by body fat. Health practitioners and researchers should be aware that body fat can influence results when interpreting MABC-2 test scores.

  20. Comparison of estimates of body fat content in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinicato, N A; Peres, F A; de Oliveira Peliçari, K; de Oliveira Santos, A; Ramos, C D; Marini, R; Appenzeller, S

    2017-04-01

    Objective We aimed to compare estimates of body fat content with respect to their ability to predict the percentage of body fat, confirmed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus. Methods We included 64 consecutive childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients and 64 healthy age and sex-matched controls in a cross-sectional study. Anthropometric data, body mass index and body adiposity index were calculated for all subjects. Childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients were further assessed for clinical and laboratory childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus manifestations and fat mass, lean mass and percentage of body fat evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results Elevated waist/hip ratio was observed in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients when compared to controls ( p systemic lupus erythematosus patients and controls. Using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry as gold standard we observed that all indirect estimates of body fat were correlated with whole body fat mass. We observed a correlation between height and cumulative corticosteroid dose adjusted by weight ( r = 0.429, p = 0.005) in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus. On whole body analysis we observed a correlation between lean mass and ACR Damage Index scores ( r = -0.395; p = 0.019); percentage of body fat and adjusted Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index ( r = 0.402; p = 0.008), disease duration ( r = -0.370; p = 0.012). On trunk analysis we observed a correlation between lean mass and ACR Damage Index ( r = -0.319; p = 0.042); percentage of body fat with adjusted Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index ( r = 0.402; p = 0.005), disease duration ( r = -0.408; p = 0.005). Conclusions This is the first study analyzing body adiposity index in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients. We observed that all

  1. Negotiating and Navigating my Fat body - feminist autoethnographic encounters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Smailes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two years I have been consciously critically engaging with autoethnography as a way of gaining insight into the cultural phenomenon of being a fat woman. Autoethnography is an in-depth and engaged approach which opens up spaces of particular ways of being which have often been colonised by particular discourse in formed by invested situational knowledge. This process has involved me drawing on past journals, memories and re-memory work and present interwoven layers of process and reflection (Ronai 1995. It has been and is challenging, Chatham-Carpenter (2010 writes about the difficulties of being with and exposing vulnerable 'selves' - a self which is still very much part of the present, rather than a neatly contained and managed 'identity'. So part of what I will do in this article is consider the critical process of my feminist autoethnography, interweaving and responding to the literature' in feminist research, feminisms, autoethnography, critical fat studies, and intersectionality.  A key to this exploration is the experience of researching the experiences of being a fat woman, from within a feminist commitment - at some level I want to consider whether and how the experience reflects Averett, Soper's (2011, 371-372 suggestion that "Feminist autoethnography is intended to resist the social and institutional norms that often dictate research. It promotes women's voices and unique experiences".

  2. Body Fat and Breast Cancer Risk in Postmenopausal Women: A Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Rohan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Associations between anthropometric indices of obesity and breast cancer risk may fail to capture the true relationship between excess body fat and risk. We used dual-energy-X-ray-absorptiometry- (DXA- derived measures of body fat obtained in the Women’s Health Initiative to examine the association between body fat and breast cancer risk; we compared these risk estimates with those for conventional anthropometric measurements. The study included 10,960 postmenopausal women aged 50–79 years at recruitment, with baseline DXA measurements and no history of breast cancer. During followup (median: 12.9 years, 503 incident breast cancer cases were diagnosed. Hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. All baseline DXA-derived body fat measures showed strong positive associations with breast cancer risk. The multivariable-adjusted HR for the uppermost quintile level (versus lowest ranged from 1.53 (95% CI 1.14–2.07 for fat mass of the right leg to 2.05 (1.50–2.79 for fat mass of the trunk. Anthropometric indices (categorized by quintiles of obesity (BMI (1.97, 1.45–2.68, waist circumference (1.97, 1.46–2.65, and waist : hip ratio (1.91, 1.41–2.58 were all strongly, positively associated with risk and did not differ from DXA-derived measures in prediction of risk.

  3. Non-invasive assessment of hepatic fat accumulation in chronic hepatitis C by {sup 1}H magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krssak, Martin [Department of Internal Medicine III, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Hofer, Harald [Department of Internal Medicine III, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Wrba, Fritz [Department of Clinical Pathology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Meyerspeer, Martin [MR Centre-of-Excellence, Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Center for Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Brehm, Attila [Department of Internal Medicine III, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Institute for Clinical Diabetology, German Diabetes Center, Leibniz Center of Diabetes Research and Department of Medicine/Metabolic Diseases, Heinrich Heine University, Duesseldorf (Germany); Lohninger, Alfred [Department of Medical Chemistry, Center for Physiology and Pathophysiology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Steindl-Munda, Petra [Department of Internal Medicine III, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); MR Centre-of-Excellence, Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Moser, Ewald [MR Centre-of-Excellence, Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Center for Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Ferenci, Peter [Department of Internal Medicine III, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Roden, Michael, E-mail: michael.roden@ddz.uni-duesseldorf.d [Department of Internal Medicine III, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Institute for Clinical Diabetology, German Diabetes Center, Leibniz Center of Diabetes Research and Department of Medicine/Metabolic Diseases, Heinrich Heine University, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    Background: Liver biopsy is the standard method for diagnosis of hepatic steatosis, but is invasive and carries some risk of morbidity. Aims and methods: Quantification of hepatocellular lipid content (HCL) with non-invasive single voxel {sup 1}H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) at 3 T was compared with histological grading and biochemical analysis of liver biopsies in 29 patients with chronic hepatitis C. Body mass index, indices of insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment index, HOMA-IR), serum lipids and serum liver transaminases were also quantified. Results: HCL as assessed by {sup 1}H MRS linearly correlated (r = 0.70, p < 0.001) with histological evaluation of liver biopsies and was in agreement with histological steatosis staging in 65% of the patients. Biochemically assessed hepatic triglyceride contents correlated with HCL measured with {sup 1}H MRS (r = 0.63, p < 0.03) and allowed discriminating between none or mild steatosis versus moderate or severe steatosis. Patients infected with hepatitis C virus genotype 3 had a higher prevalence of steatosis (62%) which was not explained by differences in body mass or whole body insulin resistance. When these patients were excluded from correlation analysis, hepatic fat accumulation positively correlated with insulin resistance in the remaining hepatitis C patients (HCL vs. HOMA-IR, r = 0.559, p < 0.020, n = 17). Conclusion: Localized {sup 1}H MRS is a valid and useful method for quantification of HCL content in patients with chronic hepatitis C and can be easily applied to non-invasively monitoring of steatosis during repeated follow-up measurements in a clinical setting.

  4. Insulin resistance as a predictor of gains in body fat, weight, and abdominal fat in nondiabetic women: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Larry A; Tucker, Jared M

    2012-07-01

    The purpose was to determine the relationship between insulin resistance (IR) and risk of gaining body fat percentage (BF%), body weight, and abdominal fat over 18 months. A prospective cohort study was conducted using a sample of 226 women. IR was assessed using fasting blood insulin and glucose levels to calculate homeostatic model assessment (HOMA). Participants were divided into High (4th quartile) Moderate (2nd and 3rd quartiles), and Low (1st quartile) HOMA categories. BF% was estimated using plethysmography (Bod Pod), weight was measured in a standard swimsuit, and abdominal fat was indexed using the average of two circumferences taken at the umbilicus. Participants wore accelerometers and completed weighed food logs for 7 consecutive days to control for the effect of physical activity (PA) and energy intake, respectively. On average, women in the High HOMA group decreased in BF% (-0.48 ± 3.60), whereas those in the Moderate (0.40 ± 3.66) and Low HOMA (1.17 ± 3.15) groups gained BF% (F = 5.4, P = 0.0211). Changes in body weight showed a similar dose-response relationship (F = 4.7, P = 0.0317). However, baseline IR was not predictive of changes in abdominal fat (F = 0.8, P = 0.3635). Controlling for several covariates had little effect on gains in BF% and weight, but adjusting for initial BF% and/or initial weight nullified changes in BF% and weight across the IR groups. In conclusion, women with High HOMA tend to gain significantly less BF% and weight than women with low or moderate HOMA. The decreased risk appears unrelated to several covariates, except initial BF% and weight levels, which seem to play key roles in the relationships.

  5. Aerobic fitness in prepubertal children according to level of body fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Bugge, Anna; Hermansen, Bianca;

    2010-01-01

    (2PEAK) was measured by indirect calorimetry during a maximal exercise test. Percent body fat (BF%) was estimated from skinfold measurements. RESULTS:  Significant relationships existed between BF% and absolute values of VO(2PEAK) (mL/min), VO(2PEAK) scaled by body weight (mL/min/kg) and VO(2PEAK...... independent way of expressing fitness....

  6. Personality characteristics in adolescence predict long-term changes in body fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koppes, Lando L J; de Boer, Michiel R; Samoocha, David

    2008-01-01

    Five personality characteristics were assessed in 312 adolescent boys and girls, and investigated in relation to the change in body fat percentage over 22 years of follow up. Boys with low levels of Social Inadequacy and girls with high levels of Recalcitrance showed relatively large gains in body...

  7. Relationships Between Body Fat and Appearance Ratings of U.S. Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-01

    of endomorphy using Sheldon’s (1940) visual somatotyping scheme and body specific gravity. This work was extended by Brozek and Keys (1952) to show...1950) Anthropometry of extreme somatotypes . Amer. J. Phys. Anthrop. 8:367-385. Durnin, J.V.G.A., and J. Womersely. (1974) Body fat assessed from total

  8. Effects of dietary heme iron and exercise training on abdominal fat accumulation and lipid metabolism in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsumura, Masanori; Takagi, Shoko; Oya, Hana; Tamura, Shohei; Saneyasu, Takaoki; Honda, Kazuhisa; Kamisoyama, Hiroshi

    2016-12-02

    Animal by-products can be recycled and used as sources of essential nutrients. Water-soluble heme iron (WSHI), a functional food additive for supplementing iron, is produced by processing animal blood. In this study, we investigated the effects of dietary supplementation of 3% WSHI and exercise training for 4 weeks on the accumulation of abdominal fat and lipid metabolism in mice fed high-fat diet. Exercise-trained mice had significantly less perirenal adipose tissue, whereas WSHI-fed mice tended to have less epididymal adipose tissue. In addition, total weight of abdominal adipose tissues was significantly decreased in the Exercise + WSHI group. Dietary WSHI significantly increased the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of lipoprotein lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase. WSHI-fed mice also tended to show increased mRNA levels of adipose triglyceride lipase in their epididymal adipose tissue. Dietary WSHI also significantly decreased the mRNA levels of fatty acid oxidation-related enzymes in the liver, but did not influence levels in the Gastrocnemius muscle. Exercise training did not influence the mRNA levels of lipid metabolism-related enzymes in the epididymal adipose tissue, liver or the Gastrocnemius muscle. These findings suggest that the accumulation of abdominal fat can be efficiently decreased by the combination of dietary WSHI and exercise training in mice fed high-fat diet.

  9. A 12-week aerobic exercise program reduces hepatic fat accumulation and insulin resistance in obese, Hispanic adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rise in obesity-related morbidity in children and adolescents requires urgent prevention and treatment strategies. Currently, only limited data are available on the effects of exercise programs on insulin resistance, and visceral, hepatic, and intramyocellular fat accumulation. We hypothesized t...

  10. The effects of the academic performance of college students whose major is sports on body composition and abdominal fat rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hyeon-Ok; Lee, Bo-Ae

    2016-08-01

    The subjects of this research are 30 students of Dong-Eui Institute of Technology in Busan city, who were grouped into two categories after applying the curriculum of the second semester of the freshman year to their classes: those whose academic performance was at the top 20% (15 students) and those whose academic performance was at the bottom 20% (15 students). For the measurement items, we measured their weight, body fat mass, body fat rates, body mass index, and abdominal fat rates by using a body composition testing machine. We then analyzed the t-test results by using the IBM SPSS ver. 18.0 program. Through this research, we found that there was a significant difference among those in the group of students whose academic performance was at the top 20% in terms of body fat mass and body fat rates, which means that academic performance has relatively little effect on body composition and abdominal fat rates.

  11. The effects of the academic performance of college students whose major is sports on body composition and abdominal fat rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hyeon-Ok; Lee, Bo-Ae

    2016-01-01

    The subjects of this research are 30 students of Dong-Eui Institute of Technology in Busan city, who were grouped into two categories after applying the curriculum of the second semester of the freshman year to their classes: those whose academic performance was at the top 20% (15 students) and those whose academic performance was at the bottom 20% (15 students). For the measurement items, we measured their weight, body fat mass, body fat rates, body mass index, and abdominal fat rates by using a body composition testing machine. We then analyzed the t-test results by using the IBM SPSS ver. 18.0 program. Through this research, we found that there was a significant difference among those in the group of students whose academic performance was at the top 20% in terms of body fat mass and body fat rates, which means that academic performance has relatively little effect on body composition and abdominal fat rates. PMID:27656630

  12. Comparison of two field methods for estimating body fat in different Spanish Dance disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ramón Alvero-Cruz

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate percentage body fat (%BF differences in three Spanish dance disciplines and to compare skinfold and bioelectrical impedance predictions of body fat percentage in the same sample. Seventy-six female dancers, divided into three groups, Classical (n=23, Spanish (n=29 and Flamenco (n=24, were measured using skinfold measurements at four sites: triceps, subscapular, biceps and iliac crest, and whole body multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance (BIA. The skin-fold measures were used to predict body fat percentage via Durnin and Womersley's and Segal, Sun and Yannakoulia equations by BIA. Differences in percent fat mass between groups (Classical, Spanish and Flamenco were tested by using repeated measures analysis (ANOVA. Also, Pearson's product-moment correlations were performed on the body fat percentage values obtained using both methods. In addition, Bland-Altman plots were used to assess agreement, between anthropometric and BIA methods. Repeated measures analysis of variance did not found differences in %BF between modalities (p<0.05. Fat percentage correlations ranged from r= 0.57 to r=0.97 (all, p<0.001. Bland-Altman analysis revealed differences between BIA Yannakoulia as a reference method with BIA Segal (-0.35 ± 2.32%, 95%CI: -0.89to 0.18, p=0.38, with BIA Sun (-0.73 ± 2.3%, 95%CI: -1.27 to -0.20, p=0.014 and Durnin-Womersley (-2.65 ± 2,48%, 95%CI: -3.22 to -2.07, p<0.0001. It was concluded that body fat percentage estimates by BIA compared with skinfold method were systematically different in young adult female ballet dancers, having a tendency to produce underestimations as %BF increased with Segal and Durnin-Womersley equations compared to Yannakoulia, concluding that these methods are not interchangeable.

  13. Topographical body fat distribution links to amino acid and lipid metabolism in healthy obese women [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois-Pierre J Martin

    Full Text Available Visceral adiposity is increasingly recognized as a key condition for the development of obesity related disorders, with the ratio between visceral adipose tissue (VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT reported as the best correlate of cardiometabolic risk. In this study, using a cohort of 40 obese females (age: 25-45 y, BMI: 28-40 kg/m(2 under healthy clinical conditions and monitored over a 2 weeks period we examined the relationships between different body composition parameters, estimates of visceral adiposity and blood/urine metabolic profiles. Metabonomics and lipidomics analysis of blood plasma and urine were employed in combination with in vivo quantitation of body composition and abdominal fat distribution using iDXA and computerized tomography. Of the various visceral fat estimates, VAT/SAT and VAT/total abdominal fat ratios exhibited significant associations with regio-specific body lean and fat composition. The integration of these visceral fat estimates with metabolic profiles of blood and urine described a distinct amino acid, diacyl and ether phospholipid phenotype in women with higher visceral fat. Metabolites important in predicting visceral fat adiposity as assessed by Random forest analysis highlighted 7 most robust markers, including tyrosine, glutamine, PC-O 44∶6, PC-O 44∶4, PC-O 42∶4, PC-O 40∶4, and PC-O 40∶3 lipid species. Unexpectedly, the visceral fat associated inflammatory profiles were shown to be highly influenced by inter-days and between-subject variations. Nevertheless, the visceral fat associated amino acid and lipid signature is proposed to be further validated for future patient stratification and cardiometabolic health diagnostics.

  14. A role for the adult fat body in Drosophila male courtship behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna A Lazareva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Mating behavior in Drosophila depends critically on the sexual identity of specific regions in the brain, but several studies have identified courtship genes that express products only outside the nervous system. Although these genes are each active in a variety of non-neuronal cell types, they are all prominently expressed in the adult fat body, suggesting an important role for this tissue in behavior. To test its role in male courtship, fat body was feminized using the highly specific Larval serum protein promoter. We report here that the specific feminization of this tissue strongly reduces the competence of males to perform courtship. This effect is limited to the fat body of sexually mature adults as the feminization of larval fat body that normally persists in young adults does not affect mating. We propose that feminization of fat body affects the synthesis of male-specific secreted circulating proteins that influence the central nervous system. In support of this idea, we demonstrate that Takeout, a protein known to influence mating, is present in the hemolymph of adult males but not females and acts as a secreted protein.

  15. Increased Akt signaling in the mosquito fat body increases adult survivorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arik, Anam J; Hun, Lewis V; Quicke, Kendra; Piatt, Michael; Ziegler, Rolf; Scaraffia, Patricia Y; Badgandi, Hemant; Riehle, Michael A

    2015-04-01

    Akt signaling regulates diverse physiologies in a wide range of organisms. We examine the impact of increased Akt signaling in the fat body of 2 mosquito species, the Asian malaria mosquito Anopheles stephensi and the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. Overexpression of a myristoylated and active form of A. stephensi and Ae. aegypti Akt in the fat body of transgenic mosquitoes led to activation of the downstream signaling molecules forkhead box O (FOXO) and p70 S6 kinase in a tissue and blood meal-specific manner. In both species, increased Akt signaling in the fat body after blood feeding significantly increased adult survivorship relative to nontransgenic sibling controls. In A. stephensi, survivorship was increased by 15% to 45%, while in Ae. aegypti, it increased 14% to 47%. Transgenic mosquitoes fed only sugar, and thus not expressing active Akt, had no significant difference in survivorship relative to nontransgenic siblings. Expression of active Akt also increased expression of fat body vitellogenin, but the number of viable eggs did not differ significantly between transgenic and nontransgenic controls. This work demonstrates a novel mechanism of enhanced survivorship through increased Akt signaling in the fat bodies of multiple mosquito genera and provides new tools to unlock the molecular underpinnings of aging in eukaryotic organisms.

  16. Association between body fat and vitamin D status in Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seung Seok; Kim, Myounghee; Lee, Su Mi; Lee, Jung Pyo; Kim, Sejoong; Joo, Kwon Wook; Lim, Chun Soo; Kim, Yon Su; Kim, Dong Ki

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between body fat mass and vitamin D appears to vary by ethnicity, but our understanding of this predisposition in Asians is limited due to the scarcity of prior investigations. Data on 1,697 Korean adults were obtained from the second and third years (2008-2009) of the fourth Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey. Body fat mass was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Both linear regression analysis for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and logistic analysis for vitamin D deficiency [25(OH)D BMI, waist circumference (WC), and body fat percentage (BF), after adjustment of multiple covariates. To explore a possible non-linear relationship between them, the fractional polynomials method was used. All analyses were conducted following stratification by sex. In linear regression analysis, BMI and WC were not associated with 25(OH)D. However, BF was inversely related to 25(OH)D, irrespective of the fat location (both appendicular and truncal fat) in both sexes. In logistic regression analysis, the highest quartile group of BF had a greater OR for vitamin D deficiency than the lower quartile groups, irrespective of the fat location and sex. However, the quartiles of BMI and WC were not associated with vitamin D deficiency. The linear relationships between BF and 25(OH)D (or vitamin D deficiency) were confirmed despite use of the fractional polynomials method. Body fat mass is inversely associated with serum 25(OH)D in Korean adults. Monitoring of vitamin D deficiency in Korean adults with high fat mass is needed.

  17. A new method for body fat evaluation, body adiposity index, is useful in women with familial partial lipodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy-Matos, Amélio F; Moreira, Rodrigo O; Valerio, Cynthia M; Mory, Patricia B; Moises, Regina S

    2012-02-01

    BMI is a widely used method to evaluate adiposity. However, it has several limitations, particularly an inability to differentiate lean from fat mass. A new method, body adiposity index (BAI), has been recently proposed as a new measurement capable to determine fat excess better than BMI. The aim of this study was to investigate BAI as a mean to evaluate adiposity in a group of women with familial partial lipodystrophy (FPLD) and compare it with BMI. Thirteen women with FLPD Dunnigan type (FPLD2) and 13 healthy volunteers matched by age and BMI were studied. Body fat content and distribution were analyzed by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Plasma leptin was also measured. BAI was significantly lower in FPLD2 in comparison to control group (24.6 ± 1.5 vs. 30.4 ± 4.3; P < 0.001) and presented a more significant correlation with total fat (%) (r = 0.71; P < 0.001) and fat Mass (g) (r = 0.80; P < 0.001) than BMI (r = 0.27; P = 0.17 for total fat and r = 0.52; P = 0.006 for fat mass). There was a correlation between leptin and BAI (r = 0.57; P = 0.01), [corrected] but not between leptin and BMI. In conclusion, BAI was able to catch differences in adiposity in a sample of FPLD2 patients. It also correlated better with leptin levels than BMI. Therefore, we provide further evidence that BAI may become a more reliable indicator of fat mass content than the currently available measurements.

  18. Conjugated Linoleic Acids Reduce Body Fat in Healthy Postmenopausal Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raff, M.; Tholstrup, T.; Toubro, S.

    2009-01-01

    Isomers of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) reduce fat mass FM) and increase insulin sensitivity in some, but not all, murine studies. In humans, this effect is still debatable. In this study, we compared the effect of 2 CLA supplements on total and regional FM assessed by dual energy X-ray absorp......Isomers of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) reduce fat mass FM) and increase insulin sensitivity in some, but not all, murine studies. In humans, this effect is still debatable. In this study, we compared the effect of 2 CLA supplements on total and regional FM assessed by dual energy X......-ray absorptiometry, changes in serum insulin and glucose concentrations, and adipose tissue (AT) gene expression in humans. In a double-blind, parallel, 16-wk intervention, we randomized 81 healthy postmenopausal women to 1) 5.5 g/d of 40/40% of cis9, trans11-CLA (c9, t11-CLA) and trans10, cis12-CLA (t10, c12-CLA...

  19. Fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Katrine Kleberg

    In 1727, the English physician Thomas Short wrote: “I believe no Age did ever afford more instances of Corpulency than our own.” Even in the 18th century, fatness was addressed as an issue of special contemporary concern. This thesis probes concepts and perceptions of fatness in Western European...... Medicine c. 1700–1900. It has been written with particular attention to whether and how fatness has been regarded as a disease during that period in history. One purpose of the thesis is to investigate the immediate period before fatness allegedly became problematized. Another purpose has been to grasp...

  20. Peer pressure to "Fat talk": Does audience type influence how women portray their body image?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Ashley B; Martz, Denise M; Bazzini, Doris G

    2007-04-01

    "Fat talk" describes women discussing their bodies disparangingly for impression management while interacting with one another. This study examined whether college females deliberately alter their self-reported body image according to characteristics of their prospective audience. This study was a mixed experimental design with four audience conditions (private, public, female audience, male audience) as the between-subjects factor and time across trials as the within-subjects factor using college females as participants (N=100). Pre versus posttest changes on the Body Esteem Scale (BES) and the Body Weight Figure Assessment (BWFA) served as the dependent variables. It was hypothesized that body image would decrease to indicate self-derogation (fat talk) in the public audience and female audience conditions, whereas body image would increase in the male audience condition. These hypotheses were not supported using repeated measures ANOVA. Strengths and weaknesses of the study are discussed.

  1. Quercetin Alleviates High-Fat Diet-Induced Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein Accumulation in the Liver: Implication for Autophagy Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence has indicated that high-fat diet-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is usually accompanied by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL deposited in the liver. The current study aimed to investigate the effect of quercetin on high-fat diet-induced ox-LDL accumulation in the liver and to explore the potential underlying mechanisms. The results demonstrate that quercetin supplementation for 24 weeks significantly alleviated high-fat diet-induced liver damage and reduced hepatic cholesterol and ox-LDL level. Quercetin notably inhibited both mRNA and protein expression of CD36 (reduced by 53% and 71%, resp. and MSR1 (reduced by 25% and 45%, resp., which were upregulated by high-fat diet. The expression of LC3II was upregulated by 2.4 times whereas that of p62 and mTOR was downregulated by 57% and 63% by quercetin treatment. Therefore, the significantly improved autophagy lysosomal degradation capacity for ox-LDL may be implicated in the hepatoprotective effect of quercetin; scavenger receptors mediated ox-LDL uptake might also be involved.

  2. The accuracy of the body adiposity index for predicting body fat percentage in collegiate female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esco, Michael R

    2013-06-01

    The body adiposity index (BAI) is a new simplistic method for predicting body fat percentage (BF%) via a simple equation of hip circumference to height. A scientific study of this novel method in athletic groups is warranted because of the possibility of it serving as an inexpensive field technique. The purpose of this study was to cross-validate the BAI for predicting BF% in a group of collegiate female athletes by using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as the criterion variable. Thirty college-aged female athletes (age = 20.0 ± 1.3 years) participated in this study. For each participant, BF% was obtained with the BAI method and compared with DXA. The mean BF% was 27.1 ± 3.4 by the BAI and 26.7 ± 5.9 from DXA, which was not significantly different (p > 0.05). However, the BAI did not provide a significant correlation with the DXA (r = 0.28, R2 = 0.08, p > 0.05) and resulted in a standard error of estimate = 5.78% and total error = 5.84%. Bland-Altman plot showed that the limits of agreement (95% confidence intervals) between the DXA and BAI ranged between -10.2 and 11.8%, and there was a significant negative association between the difference and mean of the 2 methods (r = -0.52, p < 0.01). The results of this investigation indicate that BAI results in large individual errors when predicting BF% in female athletes and has a tendency to provide overestimated values as BF% decreases. Therefore, this method should not be used for predicting individual BF% in athletic women.

  3. Genetic association study of common mitochondrial variants on body fat mass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tie-Lin Yang

    Full Text Available Mitochondria play a central role in ATP production and energy metabolism. Previous studies suggest that common variants in mtDNA are associated with several common complex diseases, including obesity. To test the hypothesis that common mtDNA variants influence obesity-related phenotypes, including BMI and body fat mass, we genotyped a total of 445 mtSNPs across the whole mitochondrial genome in a large sample of 2,286 unrelated Caucasian subjects. 72 of these 445 mtSNPs passed quality control criteria, and were used for subsequent analyses. We also classified all subjects into nine common European haplogroups. Association analyses were conducted for both BMI and body fat mass with single mtSNPs and mtDNA haplogroups. Two mtSNPs, mt4823 and mt8873 were detected to be significantly associated with body fat mass, with adjusted P values of 4.94 × 10⁻³ and 4.58 × 10⁻², respectively. The minor alleles mt4823 C and mt8873 A were associated with reduced fat mass values and the effect size (β was estimated to be 3.52 and 3.18, respectively. These two mtSNPs also achieved nominally significant levels for association with BMI. For haplogroup analyses, we found that haplogroup X was strongly associated with both BMI (adjusted P = 8.31 × 10⁻³ and body fat mass (adjusted P = 5.67×10⁻⁴ Subjects classified as haplogroup X had lower BMI and fat mass values, with the β estimated to be 2.86 and 6.03, respectively. Our findings suggest that common variants in mitochondria might play a role in variations of body fat mass. Further molecular and functional studies will be needed to clarify the potential mechanism.

  4. Effects of behavior modification on body image, depression and body fat in obese Korean elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Young Im; Park, Ho Ran; Koo, Hyun Young; Kim, Hyo Shin

    2004-02-29

    This study was performed to investigate the effects of behavior modification on body image, depression and body fat in obese elementary school children. Sixty-two elementary students of the 4th to 6th grade were selected from two different Seoul schools. Thirty-four children in one school were designated as the experimental group, and 28 children from the other school as the control group. The experimental group received 60 - 70 minutes of behavior modification, once a week, for 8 weeks. The control group received neither management nor treatment. The results indicated a significant improvement of body image and a reduction in the increase rate of body fat for the experimental group. This finding strongly supports the theory that behavior modification can be used as an effective strategy in the treatment of obese children.

  5. High-fat-diet exposure induces IgG accumulation in hypothalamic microglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Xia Yi

    2012-09-01

    The mediobasal hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC, with its relatively ‘leaky’ blood-brain barrier that allows more circulating molecules to enter the brain, has emerged as a key sensor of blood-borne signals. In both the ARC and white adipose tissue (WAT, consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD rapidly induces infiltration of microglia (ARC or macrophages (WAT. Animals with HFD-induced obesity (DIO and insulin resistance additionally accumulate B cells in WAT, increasing the local production of pathogenic antibodies. We therefore investigated whether DIO mice or genetically obese ob/ob mice have increased IgG in the ARC, analogous to the recent observations in WAT. Following 16 weeks of exposure to a HFD, wild-type (WT mice had significantly increased IgG-immunoreactivity (ir signaling that was specific to the ARC and was exclusively concentrated in microglia. By contrast, IgG-ir of age-matched obese ob/ob mice fed standard chow had ARC IgG levels comparable with those in chow-fed WT control mice. However, following 2 weeks of HFD exposure, ob/ob mice also had a significant increase of IgG-ir in the ARC. In summary, our findings reveal a novel pathophysiological phenomenon, specific for the hypothalamic ARC, that is induced by exposure to a HFD and can be enhanced, but not caused, by genetic obesity.

  6. A Heterozygous ZMPSTE24 Mutation Associated with Severe Metabolic Syndrome, Ectopic Fat Accumulation, and Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Galant

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ZMPSTE24 encodes the only metalloprotease, which transforms prelamin into mature lamin A. Up to now, mutations in ZMPSTE24 have been linked to Restrictive Dermopathy (RD, Progeria or Mandibulo-Acral Dysplasia (MAD. We report here the phenotype of a patient referred for severe metabolic syndrome and cardiomyopathy, carrying a mutation in ZMPSTE24. The patient presented with a partial lipodystrophic syndrome associating hypertriglyceridemia, early onset type 2 diabetes, and android obesity with truncal and abdominal fat accumulation but without subcutaneous lipoatrophy. Other clinical features included acanthosis nigricans, liver steatosis, dilated cardiomyopathy, and high myocardial and hepatic triglycerides content. Mutated fibroblasts from the patient showed increased nuclear shape abnormalities and premature senescence as demonstrated by a decreased Population Doubling Level, an increased beta-galactosidase activity and a decreased BrdU incorporation rate. Reduced prelamin A expression by siRNA targeted toward LMNA transcripts resulted in decreased nuclear anomalies. We show here that a central obesity without subcutaneous lipoatrophy is associated with a laminopathy due to a heterozygous missense mutation in ZMPSTE24. Given the high prevalence of metabolic syndrome and android obesity in the general population, and in the absence of familial study, the causative link between mutation and phenotype cannot be formally established. Nevertheless, altered lamina architecture observed in mutated fibroblasts are responsible for premature cellular senescence and could contribute to the phenotype observed in this patient.

  7. Body mass index and body fat distribution as renal risk factors : a focus on the role of renal haemodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwakernaak, Arjan J.; Toering, Tsjitske J.; Navis, Gerjan

    2013-01-01

    Weight excess and/or central body fat distribution are associated with increased long-term renal risk, not only in subjects with renal disease or renal transplant recipients, but also in the general population. As the prevalence of weight excess is rising worldwide, this may become a main renal risk

  8. Relationship between Body Mass Index and Percent Body Fat in Vietnamese: Implications for the Diagnosis of Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Ho-Pham, Lan T; Lai, Thai Q.; Nguyen, Mai T. T.; Nguyen, Tuan V

    2015-01-01

    Background The burden of obesity in Vietnam has not been well defined because there is a lack of reference data for percent body fat (PBF) in Asians. This study sought to define the relationship between PBF and body mass index (BMI) in the Vietnamese population. Methods The study was designed as a comparative cross-sectional investigation that involved 1217 individuals of Vietnamese background (862 women) aged 20 years and older (average age 47 yr) who were randomly selected from the general ...

  9. The influence of hormones on the lipid profile in the fat body of insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Cerkowniak

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Peptide hormones play a special role in the neuroendocrine systems of insects and affect a number of physiological processes related to their development, reproduction and behavior. The lipid content in the fat body of insects is closely correlated with the work of the endocrine glands. The lipid profile of the fat body of the Zophobas atratus beetle reveals a predominant proportion of triacylglycerols when compared to free fatty acids and other lipid compounds, such as fatty acid esters, fatty alcohols and sterols. Although it may depend on the stage of the insects’ development, the disparate impacts of the adipokinetic hormone (AKH on the lipid content in the fat bodies of the feeding larvae and the non-feeding pupae of Z. atratus, may signify the different roles this hormone plays in the indirect control of the insects’ metabolism.

  10. Menopause is associated with decreased whole body fat oxidation during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, J; Pedersen, A T; Green, C J

    2013-01-01

    ), and postmenopausal (n = 14)]. Estimated insulin sensitivity was obtained from an oral glucose tolerance test. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging. Fat oxidation and energy expenditure were measured during an acute exercise bout of 45 min of ergometer...... biking at 50% of maximal oxygen consumption (Vo2 max). Muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis of the quadriceps muscle were obtained before and immediately after the exercise bout. Postmenopausal women had 33% [confidence interval (CI) 95%: 12-55] lower whole body fat oxidation (P = 0.005) and 19% (CI...... 95%: 9-22) lower energy expenditure (P = 0.02) during exercise, as well as 4.28 kg lower lean body mass (LBM) than premenopausal women. Correction for LBM reduced differences in fat oxidation to 23% (P = 0.05), whereas differences in energy expenditure disappeared (P = 0.22). No differences between...

  11. The Herbal Medicine KBH-1 Inhibits Fat Accumulation in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes and Reduces High Fat Diet-Induced Obesity through Regulation of the AMPK Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hye Lee

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether a novel formulation of an herbal extract, KBH-1, has an inhibitory effect on obesity. To determine its anti-obesity effects and its underlying mechanism, we performed anti-obesity-related experiments in vitro and in vivo. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were analyzed for lipid accumulation as well as the protein and gene expression of molecular targets involved in fatty acid synthesis. To determine whether KBH-1 oral administration results in a reduction in high-fat diet (HFD-induced obesity, we examined five groups (n = 9 of C57BL/6 mice as follows: 10% kcal fat diet-fed mice (ND, 60% kcal fat diet-fed mice (HFD, HFD-fed mice treated with orlistat (tetrahydrolipstatin, marketed under the trade name Xenical, HFD-fed mice treated with 150 mg/kg KBH-1 (KBH-1 150 and HFD-fed mice treated with 300 mg/kg KBH-1 (KBH-1 300. During adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells in vitro, KBH-1 significantly reduced lipid accumulation and down-regulated the expression of master adipogenic transcription factors, including CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP β, C/EBP α and peroxisome proliferation-activity receptor (PPAR γ, which led to the suppression of the expression of several adipocyte-specific genes and proteins. KBH-1 also markedly phosphorylated the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC. In addition, KBH-1-induced the inhibition effect on lipid accumulation and AMPK-mediated signal activation were decreased by blocking AMPK phosphorylation using AMPK siRNA. Furthermore, daily oral administration of KBH-1 resulted in dose-dependent decreases in body weight, fat pad mass and fat tissue size without systemic toxicity. These results suggest that KBH-1 inhibits lipid accumulation by down-regulating the major transcription factors of the adipogenesis pathway by regulating the AMPK pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and in mice with HFD-induced obesity. These results implicate KBH-1, a

  12. AHSG gene variation is not associated with regional body fat distribution--a magnetic resonance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müssig, K; Staiger, H; Machicao, F; Machann, J; Hennige, A M; Schick, F; Claussen, C D; Fritsche, A; Häring, H-U; Stefan, N

    2009-09-01

    Obesity-resistance in AHSG-knockout mice indicate an important role of alpha2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein/fetuin-A (AHSG) in the development of obesity. We studied whether genetic variation within AHSG affects whole-body adiposity and regional fat distribution in humans. We genotyped 321 subjects at increased risk for type 2 diabetes for five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) rs2248690, rs4831, rs2070635, rs4917, and rs1071592. Body fat distribution and ectopic hepatic and intramyocellular lipids were assessed by magnetic resonance techniques. AHSG levels were determined by immunoturbidimetry. The five chosen SNPs covered 100% of common genetic variation (minor allele frequency >/=0.05) within AHSG (r (2)>/=0.8). All SNPs were significantly associated with AHSG levels (pbody mass index (BMI). AHSG levels were associated with liver fat content (p=0.0160) and BMI (p=0.0247) after adjustment for gender and age. While rs2248690 was nominally associated with BMI in the dominant model (p=0.0432), none of the SNPs was associated with regional fat distribution. Common genetic variation within AHSG does not appear to influence regional body fat distribution, but may affect whole-body adiposity in humans.

  13. Comparison of Body Adiposity Index (BAI) and Body Mass Index (BMI) with Estimations of % Body Fat in Clinically Severe Obese Women

    OpenAIRE

    Geliebter, Allan; Atalayer, Deniz; Flancbaum, Louis; Gibson, Charlisa D.

    2013-01-01

    Body Adiposity Index (BAI), a new surrogate measure of body fat (hip circumference/[height1.5 -18]), has been proposed as an alternative to BMI. We compared BAI with BMI, and each of them with laboratory measures of body fat-derived from bioimpedance analysis (BIA), air displacement (ADP), and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in clinically severe obese (CSO) participants. Nineteen pre-bariatric surgery CSO, non-diabetic women were recruited (age=32.6±7.7 SD; BMI=46.5±9.0 kg/m2). Anthrop...

  14. How Do Tracking and Changes in Dietary Pattern during Adolescence Relate to the Amount of Body Fat in Early Adulthood?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Celestino Schneider

    Full Text Available Few studies have addressed the influence of dietary patterns (DP during adolescence on the amount of body fat in early adulthood.To analyze the associations between DP tracking and changes in the period between 15 and 18 years of age and the percentage of body fat (%BF at age 18 years.We used data from 3,823 members of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil birth cohort. Body density was measured at age 18 years by air displacement plethysmograph (BOD POD and the %BF was calculated applying the Siri equation. Based on the estimates from the FFQ, we identified DP at ages 15 ("Varied", "Traditional", "Dieting" and "Processed meats" and 18 years ("Varied", "Traditional", "Dieting" and "Fish, fast food and alcohol". The DP tracking was defined as the individual's adherence to the same DP at both ages. Associations were tested using multiple linear regression models stratified by sex.The mean %BF was 25.0% (95% CI: 24.7 to 25.4, significantly greater for girls than boys (p<0.001. The adherence to any DP at age 15 years was not associated with the %BF at age 18 years. However, individuals who adhered to a "Dieting" DP at age 18 years showed greater %BF (1.30 and 1.91 percentage points in boys and girls, respectively in comparison with those who adhered to a "Varied" DP. Boys who presented tracking of a "Dieting" DP presented greater average %BF in comparison with others DP, as well as girls who changed from the "Traditional" or "Processed meats" DP to a "Dieting" DP.These results may support public health policies and strategies focused on improving dietary habits of adolescents and young adults and preventing accumulation of body fat, especially among the adolescents with restrictive dietary habits.

  15. Adipokines, cytokines and body fat stores in hepatitis Cvirus liver steatosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    AIM To identify patients with or without liver steatosisand its severity in treatment-na?ve patients affected byhepatitis C virus (HCV) infection.METHODS: We included 56 HCV infected patients, andassessed the amount of liver fat by histomorphometry,and its relationships with fat and lean mass at differentparts of the body (by densitometry), hormones [insulin,homeostatic model assessment (HOMA)], adipokines(resistin, adiponectin, leptin), and cytokines (tumornecrosis factor α, interleukin-6).RESULTS: Although the intensity of liver steatosis isrelated to trunk fat mass and HOMA, 33% of patientsshowed no liver steatosis, and this finding was notrelated to body mass index or genotype. Besides trunk fat mass, no other factor was related to the presenceor not of liver steatosis, or to the intensity of it, by multivariateanalysis. Lean mass was not related to liversteatosis. Adiponectin levels were lower among patients.No differences were observed in leptin and resistin.CONCLUSION: Steatosis in HCV infection is common(67.2%), and closely related to trunk fat, and insulinresistance, but not with leg fat mass or adipokines.

  16. Effects of trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid on body fat and serum lipids in young and adult hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, V; Miranda, J; Churruca, I; Fernández-Quintela, A; Rodríguez, V M; Portillo, M P

    2006-06-01

    The aim of the present work was to determine whether t-10, c-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) feeding was able to reduce body fat accumulation and improve the serum lipid profile in adult hamsters fed an atherogenic diet, in order to compare these effects with those observed in young growing hamsters. Young and adult hamsters were fed semi-purified atherogenic diets supplemented with 0.5 % linoleic acid or 0.5% t-10, c-12 CLA for 6 weeks. Body weight and food intake were measured every two days. Adipose tissue from different anatomical locations, liver and gastrocnemious muscle were dissected and weighed. Cholesterol, triacylglycerols, non-esterified fatty acids and proteins were determined spectrophotometrically and water content by gravimetry. In young hamsters, no significant differences were found in food intake, final body weight and gastrocnemious muscle weight. White adipose tissue weights were reduced, liver weight was increased and cholesterol and triacyl-glycerols in both serum and liver were reduced. In adult hamsters, CLA feeding decreased food intake and adipose tissue weights. No changes were observed in other parameters. The present study demonstrates that age has an influence in hamster responsiveness to t-10, c-12 CLA because, although when this isomer is added to an atherogenic diet it reduces body fat accumulation in both young and adults hamsters, the lessening of the effects on serum lipids brought about by atherogenic feeding is only observed in young animals. Moreover, it is clear that liver is a target for CLA in young but not in adult hamsters.

  17. Comparison of body fat in Brazilian adult females by bioelectrical impedance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamir, Vaz; Frère, Slaets Annie France; Ramírez Leonardo, López

    2012-12-01

    Body-fat is essential for human body, provided that its amount is at healthy levels. If in-excess body-fat is deleterious, its lack is otherwise also harmful. Estimated percent body-fat performed with commercially available devices measuring bioimpedance have many advantages, such as easy measurement and low cost. However, these measurements are based on standard models and equations that are not disclosed by manufacturers, and this leads to questioning the validity of these estimates for Brazilian females. The aim of this study was to compare electrical tetrapolar and octapolar impedance results obtained with commercially available equipment: Maltron BF-906 and OMRON 510-W. Data analysis involved descriptive and inferential statistics. Devices used in this study to estimate body fat quantity have not shown any significant differences in results; this is a major issue when selecting equipment based on three factors: study focus, available financial resources, and target population. Results obtained from the two devices have not shown any significant differences, which lead to the conclusion that either device may be reliably used.

  18. Renal morphology assessed by ultrasound in relation to central haemodynamics and body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wykretowicz, Mateusz; Katulska, Katarzyna; Krauze, Tomasz; Milewska, Agata; Przymuszala, Dagmara; Piskorski, Jaroslaw; Stajgis, Marek; Wysocki, Henryk

    2013-02-01

    There is a correlation between renal function and the morphological characteristics of the kidney. However, little is known about the association between renal morphology and other important predictors of the risk of cardiovascular diseases, such as central haemodynamics or body fat. Thus, in the present study we investigated correlations between renal morphology, body fat and central haemodynamics. Renal morphology and intra-abdominal and subcutaneous fat were assessed by ultrasound, whereas central haemodynamics were evaluated by pulse wave analysis, in 93 healthy, non-obese subjects (mean (±SEM) age 52 ± 1 years; 43 men, 50 women). Significant correlations were found for indices of body fat (waist : hip ratio, body mass index and intra-abdominal fat) and renal morphology (kidney length, width and volume). Significant inverse correlations were found between central augmentation pressure (cAP) and kidney length (r = -0.33; P = 0.0009), width (r = -0.24; P = 0.01) and volume (r = -0.27; P = 0.007). In addition, significant negative correlations were found between the central augmentation index (cAIx) and kidney length (r = -0.36; P = 0.0003), width (r = -0.29; P = 0.003) and volume (r = -0.33; P = 0.0008). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed independent associations between kidney length and both cAP and cAIx. In conclusion, common morphometric characteristics of the kidney, as assessed by ultrasound, are associated with measures of body fat and descriptors of central haemodynamics. The relationships demonstrated in the present study indicate that these associations may be a biologically plausible phenomenon.

  19. Efficacy of orlistat 60 mg on weight loss and body fat mass in US Army soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tracey J; Crombie, Aaron; Sanders, Leslee Funderburk; Sigrist, Lori D; Bathalon, Gaston P; McGraw, Susan; Young, Andrew J

    2012-04-01

    A higher body mass index is associated with exercise-related injuries and increased risk for musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders, which are relevant to military personnel. Studies show the efficacy of orlistat 60 mg for promoting weight and body fat loss in civilians; however, its efficacy among predominantly young, male soldiers is unknown. This study's objective was to examine the effect of a 6-month, standard education-based weight-management program with and without orlistat 60 mg on changes in weight and body fat in overweight soldiers. Data were collected for this randomized, controlled trial from March 2008 to November 2010 at Fort Bragg, NC. Participants were enrolled in an education-based weight management program (n=435; 75% men) and were randomized to placebo or orlistat 60 mg, three capsules daily with meals. All participants were recommended to maintain a reduced-energy, low-fat diet. Among study completers (14% retention rate; placebo n=22, orlistat n=35) members of both groups lost significant weight from baseline (placebo -3.0±5.2 kg; orlistat -3.2±4.7 kg; Porlistat group lost fat mass (-2.5±3.9 kg; Porlistat group lost more fat mass vs the placebo group (-1.3±2.9 kg vs ?0.6±1.8 kg, respectively; POrlistat 60 mg may be an effective adjunct to an education-based weight management program in a mostly young, male soldier population.

  20. Effects of Dietary Calcium on Body Weight, Carcass Fat Content and Adipocyte Size in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Malekzadeh

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Calcium is a micronutrient and now receiving much attention for its doubtful effects on weight and body fatness. A few mechanisms has been suggested for calcium effects on body fatness and the most emphasized one is the reducing of lipolysis and increasing lipogenesis via reducing parathyroid hormone levels. The present study is designed to evaluate the effects of nondairy dietary calcium on adipogenesis and adipocyte size in male Sprague dawley rats. Materials & Methods: This experimental study was done from November to September of 2005 at Tehran school of health, nutrition department. 48 male Spragu-Dawley rats from Damgostar Company were used in three randomly selected groups. The rats were fed low (0.2% W/W, usual (0.5% W/W and high (1.2% W/W dietary calcium based on AIN-93M purified diet. Rats were housed in 12 hours light-dark cycle, 22-25°C room temperature with free access to their respective diets. At the end of the experiment, rats were decapitated and carcass fat content, carcass ash content and mean adipocyte size in testis, peritoneal and subcutaneous fat pads were compared in three groups. The SPSS 11.5 was used as statistical software, running analysis of variance for comparing the effects. Results: weight gain, carcass fat content and adipocyte size, in groups were not significantly different, while serum parathyroid hormone concentrations in high calcium group was significantly lower than low calcium group (p<0.05 and insignificantly lower than usual calcium group [12.36, 23.57 and 42.2 pg/dl respectively]. Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxy cholecalciferol were also insignificantly lower in high calcium group. Conclusion: Our findings suggested that physiological concentration of dietary calcium is not effective on weight gain, body fatness and adipocyte size. Relatively equal fat content beside significant difference in serum parathyroid hormone levels is against the parathyroid theory of calcium

  1. Food reward in active compared to inactive men: Roles for gastric emptying and body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Katy M; Finlayson, Graham; Byrne, Nuala M; King, Neil A

    2016-06-01

    Habitual exercise could contribute to weight management by altering processes of food reward via the gut-brain axis. We investigated hedonic processes of food reward in active and inactive men and characterised relationships with gastric emptying and body fat. Forty-four men (active: n=22; inactive: n=22, BMI range 21-36kg/m(2); percent fat mass range 9-42%) were studied. Participants were provided with a standardised fixed breakfast and an ad libitum lunch meal 5h later. Explicit liking, implicit wanting and preference among high-fat, low-fat, sweet and savoury food items were assessed immediately post-breakfast (fed state) and again pre-lunch (hungry state) using the Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire. Gastric emptying was assessed by (13)C-octanoic acid breath test. Active individuals exhibited a lower liking for foods overall and a greater implicit wanting for low-fat savoury foods in the fed state, compared to inactive men. Differences in the fed state remained significant after adjusting for percent fat mass. Active men also had a greater increase in liking for savoury foods in the interval between breakfast and lunch. Faster gastric emptying was associated with liking for savoury foods and with an increase in liking for savoury foods in the postprandial interval. In contrast, greater implicit wanting for high-fat foods was associated with slower gastric emptying. These associations were independent of each other, activity status and body fat. In conclusion, active and inactive men differ in processes of food reward. The rate of gastric emptying may play a role in the association between physical activity status and food reward, via the gut-brain axis.

  2. Correlation study of intra-abdominal fat accumulation and ambulatory blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li ZHANG

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To explore the influence of intra-abdominal fat (IAF accumulation on ambulatory blood pressure (ABP. Methods  Four hundred and forty-eight hospitalized patients with cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, including 235 males and 213 females, aged 20-85 (55±12 years old, were enrolled in this study. The abdominal fatty thickness was measured with B-mode ultrasound. Simultaneously the patient received 24hABP monitoring. The patients were divided into excessive IAF group, normal group, and quintile subgroups according to the cut-off points (male 38.5mm, female 34.7mm for observing the difference in indexes of ambulatory blood pressure between different groups/subgroups. Results  The 24h mean systolic BP (24hMSBP, 24h mean BP (24hMBP, 24h mean diastolic BP (24hMDBP, daytime MSBP (dMSBP, daytime MBP (dMBP, daytime MDBP (dMDBP, nighttime MSBP (nMSBP, nighttime MBP (nMBP, night MDBP (nMDBP were significantly higher in the excessive IAF group than in the normal group (P < 0.05. However, the elevation of ABP was not a simple gradual linear elevation corresponding to a gradual increase in IAF thickness, but manifested an approximately U-shaped trend. Pearson correlation analysis showed IAF thickness was positively correlated with all the indexes of 24hABP, while partial correlation analysis after adjustment for age and sex showed IAF thickness was positively correlated with 24hSBP, 24hMBP, dMBP and nMBP. Conclusion  The relationship between IAF thickness and ABP presents a U-shaped curve, which may provide an enlightenment in controlling blood pressure by weight loss in clinical work.

  3. Camphor Tree Seed Kernel Oil Reduces Body Fat Deposition and Improves Blood Lipids in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jing; Wang, Baogui; Gong, Deming; Zeng, Cheng; Jiang, Yihao; Zeng, Zheling

    2015-08-01

    The total and positional fatty acid composition in camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora) seed kernel oil (CKO) were analyzed, and for the first time, the effect of CKO on body fat deposition and blood lipids in rats was studied. The major fatty acids in CKO were determined to be decanoic acid (C10:0, 51.49%) and dodecanoic acid (C12:0, 40.08%), and uniformly distributed at Sn-1, 3, and Sn-2 positions in triglyceride (TG). Rats were randomly divided into control, CKO, lard, and soybean oil groups. At the end of the experiment, levels of blood lipids and the fats of abdomen in the rats were measured. The main organ were weighted and used for the histological examination. The results showed that body weight and fat deposition in CKO group were significantly lower than the lard and soybean groups. Moderate consumption of CKO was found to improve the levels of blood TG and low density lipoprotein cholesterol.

  4. Correlation between percentage of body fat measured by the Slaughter equation and bio impedance analysis technique in Mexican schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Orta Duarte

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity is considered one of the most serious public health problems of the 21st century in children and adolescents. The percentile or Z-score of the body mass index is widely used in children and adolescents to define and assess overweight and obesity, but it does not determine the percentage of total body fat. Other anthropometric measurements that determine total body fat are skinfold thickness and methods of body composition assessment such as bio impedance analysis, both of which are rapid and inexpensive. Objetive: The aim of the study was to correlate the percentage of body fat determined by the Slaughter equation with the percentage of body fat determined by the bio impedance analysis technique, and the body mass index in schoolchildren. Methods: The design of the study is cross-sectional and it was performed on a random selection of 74 children (9.47 ± 1.55 years old attending a primary school in Colima, Mexico during 2011. The percentage of body fat was measured by the Slaughter equation and bio impedance analysis technique. Body mass index was calculated. Inferential statistics were performed with the non-paired Student's t test, Pearson's correlation for quantitative variables (percentage of body fat by the Slaughter equation and bio impedance analysis and the Fisher exact test for qualitative variables. Results: A significant correlation (r = 0.74; p < 0.001 was identified between the percentage of fat measured by the Slaughter equation and bio impedance analysis. We also identified a significant correlation between the percentage of fat measured by the Slaughter equation and body mass index (r = 0. 85; p < 0.001 and the percentage of fat measured by bio impedance analysis and body mass index (r = 0.78; p < 0.001. Conclusion: Given that we identified a significant positive correlation between BIA and STE, we conclude that both are adequate alternatives for measuring the percentage of body fat among schoolchildren in

  5. Newborn body fat: associations with maternal metabolic state and placental size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla M Friis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neonatal body composition has implications for the health of the newborn both in short and long term perspective. The objective of the current study was first to explore the association between maternal BMI and metabolic parameters associated with BMI and neonatal percentage body fat and to determine to which extent any associations were modified if adjusting for placental weight. Secondly, we examined the relations between maternal metabolic parameters associated with BMI and placental weight. METHODS: The present work was performed in a subcohort (n = 207 of the STORK study, an observational, prospective study on the determinants of fetal growth and birthweight in healthy pregnancies at Oslo University Hospital, Norway. Fasting glucose, insulin, triglycerides, free fatty acids, HDL- and total cholesterol were measured at week 30-32. Newborn body composition was determined by Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA. Placenta was weighed at birth. Linear regression models were used with newborn fat percentage and placental weight as main outcomes. RESULTS: Maternal BMI, fasting glucose and gestational age were independently associated with neonatal fat percentage. However, if placental weight was introduced as a covariate, only placental weight and gestational age remained significant. In the univariate model, the determinants of placenta weight included BMI, insulin, triglycerides, total- and HDL-cholesterol (negatively, gestational weight gain and parity. In the multivariable model, BMI, total cholesterol HDL-cholesterol, gestational weight gain and parity remained independent covariates. CONCLUSION: Maternal BMI and fasting glucose were independently associated with newborn percentage fat. This effect disappeared by introducing placental weight as a covariate. Several metabolic factors associated with maternal BMI were associated with placental weight, but not with neonatal body fat. Our findings are consistent with a concept

  6. Adipocytokine responses to acute exercise in athletes with different body fat content and sedentary controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Sumarac Dumanovic

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recent research in the biology of adipose tissue indicates that it is far more than a simply an energy storage organ, and it is in fact an active endocrine organ secreting numerous bioactive mediators, called adipokines, including leptin, adiponectin and visfatin (Galic, 2010. To date, less attention has been focused on the kinetics of adipokines levels during and after high intensity exercise. Several reports pointed at the metabolic role of adipokines during exercise in elite athletes, but the data are currently equivocal (Bouassida et al., 2010; Jürimäe et al., 2011. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate adipocytokine responses to a single bout acute exercise in elite athletes with low percentage of body fat, elite athletes with a high percentage of body fat and sedentary controls. Methods: Sixteen athletes with low percentage of body fat (volleyball players, low fat athletes group, LFAG, fifteen athletes with high percentage of body fat (water polo players, high fat athletes group, HFAG and fifteen sedentary subjects participated in this study (age [years] 20±2; 20±2; 20±1, respectively. All subjects were exposed to: anthropometric measurements; exercise test on treadmill in order to examine acute changes of adipocytokines; blood samples were obtained at baseline levels, immediately after the exercise test and 30 minutes after recovery. Separated serum or plasma were used for hormone (leptin, adiponectin and visfatin ELISA analysis. Results: In athletes in LFAG, baseline leptin concentration was significantly lower, but adiponectin and visfatin concentrations were significantly higher, compared to sedentary controls and athletes in HFAG (p0.05. Conclusions: Our findings show leptin and visfatin levels, but not adiponectin respond to acute exercise. Acute exercise elicited an inverse visfatin response in athletes in HFAG and controls. Also, these results suggest that leptin is altered after acute exercise

  7. Waist circumference adjusted for body mass index and intra-abdominal fat mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berentzen, Tina Landsvig; Angquist, Lars; Kotronen, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The association between waist circumference (WC) and mortality is particularly strong and direct when adjusted for body mass index (BMI). One conceivable explanation for this association is that WC adjusted for BMI is a better predictor of the presumably most harmful intra-abdominal fat mass (IAFM...

  8. Perceived parenting behaviours predict young adolescents' nutritional intake and body fatness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Jeong; McIntosh, William A; Anding, Jenna; Kubena, Karen S; Reed, Debra B; Moon, Gap-Soon

    2008-10-01

    This study investigated whether perceptions of parenting behaviours predict young adolescents' nutritional intake and body fatness. The randomly selected study sample consisted of 106 13-15 years olds from Houston Metropolitan Statistical Area. Parenting style variables were created by cluster analysis and factor analysis. A two-cluster solution for both maternal and paternal parenting style represented authoritative vs. non-authoritative parenting. Two parenting dimension factors derived were maternal/paternal nurturing and control. For adolescents' energy and nutrient intake, greater maternal nurturing appeared to be most beneficial given its association with lower consumption of total kilocalorie and lower saturated fat intake. Paternal nurturing was associated with lower sodium intake, whereas paternal control predicted lower percentage of kilocalories from carbohydrate and percentage Dietary Reference Intake for dietary fibre, and greater percentage of kilocalories from total fat. Maternal authoritative parenting and lower maternal control over their adolescents may have protective effects against having heavier and fatter adolescents given their associations with adolescents' body weight, sub-scapular skinfold, waist circumference, body mass index, and the tendencies of being at risk of overweight and being overweight. None of paternal parenting styles or dimensions appeared to be significantly related to adolescents' body fatness.

  9. Optimism and positive body image in women : The mediating role of the feared fat self

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalley, Simon E.; Vidal, Jose

    2013-01-01

    We predicted that an expectancy judgment about acquiring a feared fat self and an expectancy judgment about acquiring a hoped-for thin self would mediate dispositional optimism on positive body image. We also predicted that the mediation pathway through the feared self would be significantly stronge

  10. New loci for body fat percentage reveal link between adiposity and cardiometabolic disease risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Yingchang; Day, Felix R; Gustafsson, Stefan; Buchkovich, Martin L; Na, Jianbo; Bataille, Veronique; Cousminer, Diana L; Dastani, Zari; Drong, Alexander W; Esko, Tõnu; Evans, David M; Falchi, Mario; Feitosa, Mary F; Ferreira, Teresa; Hedman, Åsa K; Haring, Robin; Hysi, Pirro G; Iles, Mark M; Justice, Anne E; Kanoni, Stavroula; Lagou, Vasiliki; Li, Rui; Li, Xin; Locke, Adam; Lu, Chen; Mägi, Reedik; Perry, John R B; Pers, Tune H; Qi, Qibin; Sanna, Marianna; Schmidt, Ellen M; Scott, William R; Shungin, Dmitry; Teumer, Alexander; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A E; Walker, Ryan W; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zhang, Mingfeng; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhu, Zhihong; Afzal, Uzma; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh; Bakker, Stephan J L; Bellis, Claire; Bonnefond, Amélie; Borodulin, Katja; Buchman, Aron S; Cederholm, Tommy; Choh, Audrey C; Choi, Hyung Jin; Curran, Joanne E; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; De Jager, Philip L; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A M; Enneman, Anke W; Eury, Elodie; Evans, Daniel S; Forsen, Tom; Friedrich, Nele; Fumeron, Frédéric; Garcia, Melissa E; Gärtner, Simone; Han, Bok-Ghee; Havulinna, Aki S; Hayward, Caroline; Hernandez, Dena; Hillege, Hans; Ittermann, Till; Kent, Jack W; Kolcic, Ivana; Laatikainen, Tiina; Lahti, Jari; Mateo Leach, Irene; Lee, Christine G; Lee, Jong-Young; Liu, Tian; Liu, Youfang; Lobbens, Stéphane; Loh, Marie; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Michaëlsson, Karl; Nalls, Mike A; Nielson, Carrie M; Oozageer, Laticia; Pascoe, Laura; Paternoster, Lavinia; Polašek, Ozren; Ripatti, Samuli; Sarzynski, Mark A; Shin, Chan Soo; Narančić, Nina Smolej; Spira, Dominik; Srikanth, Priya; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Sung, Yun Ju; Swart, Karin M A; Taittonen, Leena; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tikkanen, Emmi; van der Velde, Nathalie; van Schoor, Natasja M; Verweij, Niek; Wright, Alan F; Yu, Lei; Zmuda, Joseph M; Eklund, Niina; Forrester, Terrence; Grarup, Niels; Jackson, Anne U; Kristiansson, Kati; Kuulasmaa, Teemu; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lichtner, Peter; Luan, Jian'an; Mahajan, Anubha; Männistö, Satu; Palmer, Cameron D; Ried, Janina S; Scott, Robert A; Stancáková, Alena; Wagner, Peter J; Demirkan, Ayse; Döring, Angela; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Kiel, Douglas P; Kühnel, Brigitte; Mangino, Massimo; Mcknight, Barbara; Menni, Cristina; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Oostra, Ben A; Shuldiner, Alan R; Song, Kijoung; Vandenput, Liesbeth; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Vollenweider, Peter; White, Charles C; Boehnke, Michael; Boettcher, Yvonne; Cooper, Richard S; Forouhi, Nita G; Gieger, Christian; Grallert, Harald; Hingorani, Aroon; Jørgensen, Torben; Jousilahti, Pekka; Kivimaki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Laakso, Markku; Langenberg, Claudia; Linneberg, Allan; Luke, Amy; Mckenzie, Colin A; Palotie, Aarno; Pedersen, Oluf; Peters, Annette; Strauch, Konstantin; Tayo, Bamidele O; Wareham, Nicholas J; Bennett, David A; Bertram, Lars; Blangero, John; Blüher, Matthias; Bouchard, Claude; Campbell, Harry; Cho, Nam H; Cummings, Steven R; Czerwinski, Stefan A; Demuth, Ilja; Eckardt, Rahel; Eriksson, Johan G; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franco, Oscar H; Froguel, Philippe; Gansevoort, Ron T; Hansen, Torben; Harris, Tamara B; Hastie, Nicholas; Heliövaara, Markku; Hofman, Albert; Jordan, Joanne M; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kajantie, Eero; Knekt, Paul B; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lind, Lars; Liu, Yongmei; Orwoll, Eric S; Osmond, Clive; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Raitakari, Olli T; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D C; Rice, Treva K; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Stumvoll, Michael; Tönjes, Anke; Towne, Bradford; Tranah, Gregory J; Tremblay, Angelo; Uitterlinden, André G; van der Harst, Pim; Vartiainen, Erkki; Viikari, Jorma S; Vitart, Veronique; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völzke, Henry; Walker, Mark; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wild, Sarah; Wilson, James F; Yengo, Loïc; Bishop, D Timothy; Borecki, Ingrid B; Chambers, John C; Cupples, L Adrienne; Dehghan, Abbas; Deloukas, Panos; Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Fox, Caroline; Furey, Terrence S; Franke, Lude; Han, Jiali; Hunter, David J; Karjalainen, Juha; Karpe, Fredrik; Kaplan, Robert C; Kooner, Jaspal S; McCarthy, Mark I; Murabito, Joanne M; Morris, Andrew P; Bishop, Julia A N; North, Kari E; Ohlsson, Claes; Ong, Ken K; Prokopenko, Inga; Richards, J Brent; Schadt, Eric E; Spector, Tim D; Widén, Elisabeth; Willer, Cristen J; Yang, Jian; Ingelsson, Erik; Mohlke, Karen L; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Pospisilik, John Andrew; Zillikens, M Carola; Lindgren, Cecilia; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas Oskari; Loos, Ruth J F

    2016-01-01

    To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of adiposity and its links to cardiometabolic disease risk, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of body fat percentage (BF%) in up to 100,716 individuals. Twelve loci reached genome-wide significance (P<5 × 10(-8)), of which eight w

  11. New loci for body fat percentage reveal link between adiposity and cardiometabolic disease risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Lu (Yingchang); F.R. Day (Felix); S. Gustafsson (Stefan); M.L. Buchkovich (Martin); Na, J. (Jianbo); V. Bataille (Veronique); D.L. Cousminer (Diana); Z. Dastani (Zari); A. Drong (Alexander); T. Esko (Tõnu); D.M. Evans (David); M. Falchi (Mario); M.F. Feitosa (Mary Furlan); T. Ferreira (Teresa); A.K. Hedman (Asa); R. Haring (Robin); P.G. Hysi (Pirro); M.M. Iles (Mark M.); A.E. Justice (Anne); S. Kanoni (Stavroula); V. Lagou (Vasiliki); R. Li (Rui); X. Li (Xin); A. Locke (Adam); C. Lu (Chao); R. Mägi (Reedik); J.R.B. Perry (John); T.H. Pers (Tune); Q. Qi; Sanna, M. (Marianna); E.M. Schmidt (Ellen); W.R. Scott (William R.); D. Shungin (Dmitry); A. Teumer (Alexander); A.A.E. Vinkhuyzen (Anna A.); Walker, R.W. (Ryan W.); H.J. Westra (Harm-Jan); M. Zhang (Mingfeng); W. Zhang (Weihua); J.H. Zhao; Z. Zhu; U. Afzal (Uzma); T.S. Ahluwalia (Tarunveer Singh); S.J.L. Bakker (Stephan); C. Bellis (Claire); A. Bonnefond (Amélie); K. Borodulin (Katja); Buchman, A.S. (Aron S.); T. Cederholm (Tommy); A.C. Choh (Audrey); Choi, H.J. (Hyung Jin); J.E. Curran (Joanne); L.C.P.G.M. de Groot (Lisette); P.L. de Jager (Philip); R.A.M. Dhonukshe-Rutten (Rosalie); A.W. Enneman (Anke); E. Eury (Elodie); D.S. Evans (Daniel); T. Forsen (Tom); N. Friedrich (Nele); Fumeron, F. (Frédéric); M. Garcia (Melissa); Gärtner, S. (Simone); B.-G. Han; A.S. Havulinna (Aki); C. Hayward (Caroline); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); H.L. Hillege (Hans); T. Ittermann (Till); J.W. Kent (Jack W.); I. Kolcic (Ivana); T. Laatikainen (Tiina); J. Lahti (Jari); I.M. Leach (Irene Mateo); Lee, C.G. (Christine G.); J.-Y. Lee (Jong-Young); T. Liu (Tian); Liu, Y. (Youfang); S. Lobbens (Stéphane); Loh, M. (Marie); L.-P. Lyytikäinen (Leo-Pekka); Medina-Gomez, C. (Carolina); K. Michaëlsson; M.A. Nalls (Michael); C. Nielson (Carrie); L. Oozageer (Laticia); L. Pascoe (Laura); L. Paternoster (Lavinia); O. Polasek (Ozren); S. Ripatti (Samuli); M.A. Sarzynski (Mark A.); Shin, C.S. (Chan Soo); Naranäiä, N.S. (Nina Smolej); Spira, D. (Dominik); P. Srikanth (Priya); Steinhagen-Thiessen, E. (Elisabeth); Sung, Y.J. (Yun Ju); K.M.A. Swart (Karin); Taittonen, L. (Leena); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); E. Tikkanen (Emmi); N. van der Velde (Nathalie); N.M. van Schoor (Natasja); N. Verweij (Niek); A.F. Wright (Alan); L. Yu (Lei); J. Zmuda (Joseph); N. Eklund (Niina); T. Forrester (Terrence); N. Grarup (Niels); A.U. Jackson (Anne); K. Kristiansson (Kati); T. Kuulasmaa (Teemu); J. Kuusisto (Johanna); P. Lichtner (Peter); J. Luan (Jian'An); A. Mahajan (Anubha); S. Männistö (Satu); C. Palmer (Cameron); J.S. Ried (Janina); R.A. Scott (Robert); A. Stancáková (Alena); P.J. Wagner (Peter); A. Demirkan (Ayşe); A. Döring (Angela); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); D.P. Kiel (Douglas P.); B. Kuhnel (Brigitte); M. Mangino (Massimo); B. McKnight (Barbara); C. Menni (Cristina); O'Connell, J.R. (Jeffrey R.); B.A. Oostra (Ben); A.R. Shuldiner (Alan); K. Song (Kijoung); L. Vandenput (Liesbeth); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); P. Vollenweider (Peter); C.C. White (Charles); M. Boehnke (Michael); Boettcher, Y. (Yvonne); Cooper, R.S. (Richard S.); N.G. Forouhi (Nita); C. Gieger (Christian); H. Grallert (Harald); A. Hingorani (Aroon); T. Jorgensen (Torben); P. Jousilahti (Pekka); M. Kivimaki (Mika); M. Kumari (Meena); M. Laakso (Markku); C. Langenberg (Claudia); A. Linneberg (Allan); Luke, A. (Amy); C.A. McKenzie (Colin); A. Palotie (Aarno); O. Pedersen (Oluf); A. Peters (Annette); K. Strauch (Konstantin); B. Tayo (Bamidele); N.J. Wareham (Nick); D.A. Bennett (David A.); L. Bertram (Lars); J. Blangero (John); M. Blüher (Matthias); C. Bouchard (Claude); H. Campbell (Harry); Cho, N.H. (Nam H.); S.R. Cummings (Steven R.); S.A. Czerwinski (Stefan); I. Demuth (Ilja); Eckardt, R. (Rahel); K. Hagen (Knut); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); O.H. Franco (Oscar); P. Froguel (Philippe); R.T. Gansevoort (Ron); T. Hansen (T.); T.B. Harris (Tamara); N. Hastie (Nick); M. Heliovaara (Markku); Hofman, A. (Albert); Jordan, J.M. (Joanne M.); A. Jula (Antti); M. Kähönen (Mika); E. Kajantie (Eero); P. Knekt; Koskinen, S. (Seppo); P. Kovacs (Peter); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); W.H.L. Kao (Wen); Y. Liu (Yongmei); E.S. Orwoll (Eric); C. Osmond (Clive); M. Perola (Markus); L. Perusse (Louis); Raitakari, O.T. (Olli T.); T. Rankinen (Tuomo); Rao, D.C.; Rice, T.K. (Treva K.); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); I. Rudan (Igor); V. Salomaa (Veikko); T.I.A. Sørensen (Thorkild); M. Stumvoll (Michael); A. Tönjes (Anke); B. Towne (Bradford); G.J. Tranah (Gregory); Tremblay, A. (Angelo); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); P. van der Harst (Pim); Vartiainen, E. (Erkki); J. Viikari (Jorma); Vitart, V. (Veronique); M.-C. Vohl (Marie-Claude); H. Völzke (Henry); Walker, M. (Mark); H. Wallaschofski (Henri); S.H. Wild (Sarah); J.F. Wilson (James F.); L. Yengo (Loic); D.T. Bishop (David Timothy); I.B. Borecki (Ingrid); J.C. Chambers (John C.); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); A. Dehghan (Abbas); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); Fatemifar, G. (Ghazaleh); C.S. Fox (Caroline); Furey, T.S. (Terrence S.); L. Franke (Lude); J. Han; D. Hunter (David); J. Karjalainen (Juha); F. Karpe (Fredrik); R.C. Kaplan (Robert); J.S. Kooner (Jaspal S.); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); J. Murabito (Joanne); A.P. Morris (Andrew); Bishop, J.A.N. (Julia A. N.); K.E. North (Kari); C. Ohlsson (Claes); K.K. Ong (Ken); I. Prokopenko (Inga); Richards, J.B. (J. Brent); E.E. Schadt (Eric); T.D. Spector (Timothy); E. Widen (Elisabeth); C.J. Willer (Cristen); J. Yang (Joanna); Ingelsson, E. (Erik); K.L. Mohlke (Karen); J.N. Hirschhorn (Joel); J.A. Pospisilik (Andrew); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); C.M. Lindgren (Cecilia M.); T.O. Kilpeläinen (Tuomas); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractTo increase our understanding of the genetic basis of adiposity and its links to cardiometabolic disease risk, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of body fat percentage (BF%) in up to 100,716 individuals. Twelve loci reached genome-wide significance (Po5108), of which e

  12. New loci for body fat percentage reveal link between adiposity and cardiometabolic disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Yingchang; Day, Felix R; Gustafsson, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of adiposity and its links to cardiometabolic disease risk, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of body fat percentage (BF%) in up to 100,716 individuals. Twelve loci reached genome-wide significance (P<5 × 10(-8)), of which eigh...

  13. Androgen Receptor CAG Repeat Length Is Associated With Body Fat and Serum SHBG in Boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, Annette; Hagen, Casper P; Sørensen, Kaspar;

    2013-01-01

    was to evaluate associations between the AR (CAG)n polymorphism and development of pubic hair, levels of androgens, and body fat content in healthy boys. Methods: A longitudinal study of 78 healthy boys (age 6.2-12.4 years at inclusion) from the COPENHAGEN Puberty Study was conducted with clinical examinations...

  14. New loci for body fat percentage reveal link between adiposity and cardiometabolic disease risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Y.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of adiposity and its links to cardiometabolic disease risk, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of body fat percentage (BF%) in up to 100,716 individuals. Twelve loci reached genome-wide significance (P<5 × 10−8), of which eight

  15. Smoking and body fatness measurements : A cross-sectional analysis in the EPIC-PANACEA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Travier, Noemie; Agudo, Antonio; May, Anne M.; Gonzalez, Carlos; Luan, Jian'an; Besson, Herve; Wareham, Nick J.; Slimani, Nadia; Rinaldi, Sabina; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Palli, Domenico; Agnoli, Claudia; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Rodriguez, Laudina; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Dorronsoro, Miren; Barricarte, Aurelio; Tormo, Maria-Jose; Norat, Teresa; Mouw, Traci; Key, Tim J.; Spencer, Elizabeth A.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Vrieling, Alina; Orfanos, Philippos; Naska, Ada; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Rohrmann, Sabina; Kaaks, Rudolf; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Boeing, Heiner; Hallmans, Goran; Johansson, Ingegerd; Manjer, Jonas; Lindkvist, Bjorn; Jakobsen, Mariane Uhre; Overvad, Kim; Tjonneland, Anne; Halkjaer, Jytte; Lund, Eiliv; Braaten, Toni; Odysseos, Andreani; Riboli, Elio; Peeters, Petra H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective. The present study investigates the cross-sectional relationship between tobacco smoking and body fatness. Methods. This cross-sectional study consisted of 469,543 men and women who participated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study between 1992 a

  16. Targeting gene expression to the female larval fat body of transgenic Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totten, D C; Vuong, M; Litvinova, O V; Jinwal, U K; Gulia-Nuss, M; Harrell, R A; Beneš, H

    2013-02-01

    As the fat body is a critical tissue for mosquito development, metamorphosis, immune and reproductive system function, the characterization of regulatory modules targeting gene expression to the female mosquito fat body at distinct life stages is much needed for multiple, varied strategies for controlling vector-borne diseases such as dengue and malaria. The hexameric storage protein, Hexamerin-1.2, of the mosquito Aedes atropalpus is female-specific and uniquely expressed in the fat body of fourth instar larvae and young adults. We have identified in the Hex-1.2 gene, a short regulatory module that directs female-, tissue-, and stage-specific lacZ reporter gene expression using a heterologous promoter in transgenic lines of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. Male transgenic larvae and pupae of one line expressed no Escherichia coli β-galactosidase or transgene product; in two other lines reporter gene activity was highly female-biased. All transgenic lines expressed the reporter only in the fat body; however, lacZ mRNA levels were no different in males and females at any stage examined, suggesting that the gene regulatory module drives female-specific expression by post-transcriptional regulation in the heterologous mosquito. This regulatory element from the Hex-1.2 gene thus provides a new molecular tool for transgenic mosquito control as well as functional genetic analysis in aedine mosquitoes.

  17. BODY FAT TOPOGRAPHY AND WAIST HIP RATIO IN FEMALE HANDBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Anand Asia

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The WHR was significantly lower in sport group as compared to control group. Body fat (% did not differ significantly in the two groups. The FFM (kg was significantly greater in the sports group. Findings of the above study could be utilized for the selection and recruitment of athletes and development of training programmes.

  18. Methods of Assessing Body Fatness among Children: Implications for the National Child Measurement Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Sharon; Twist, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is increasingly recognized as an inadequate measure for determining obesity in children. Therefore, the aim within this study was to investigate other indirect methods of body fat assessment that could potentially be used in place of BMI. Twenty-four children (boys: 13.8 [plus or minus] 0.8 yr; girls: 13.3 [plus or minus] 0.5…

  19. Ethnic differences in the relationship between body mass index and percentage body fat among Asian children from different backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ailing; Byrne, Nuala M; Kagawa, Masaharu; Ma, Guansheng; Poh, Bee Koon; Ismail, Mohammad Noor; Kijboonchoo, Kallaya; Nasreddine, Lara; Trinidad, Trinidad Palad; Hills, Andrew P

    2011-11-01

    Overweight and obesity in Asian children are increasing at an alarming rate; therefore a better understanding of the relationship between BMI and percentage body fat (%BF) in this population is important. A total of 1039 children aged 8-10 years, encompassing a wide BMI range, were recruited from China, Lebanon, Malaysia, The Philippines and Thailand. Body composition was determined using the 2H dilution technique to quantify total body water and subsequently fat mass, fat-free mass and %BF. Ethnic differences in the BMI-%BF relationship were found; for example, %BF in Filipino boys was approximately 2 % lower than in their Thai and Malay counterparts. In contrast, Thai girls had approximately 2.0 % higher %BF values than in their Chinese, Lebanese, Filipino and Malay counterparts at a given BMI. However, the ethnic difference in the BMI-%BF relationship varied by BMI. Compared with Caucasian children of the same age, Asian children had 3-6 units lower BMI at a given %BF. Approximately one-third of the obese Asian children (%BF above 25 % for boys and above 30 % for girls) in the study were not identified using the WHO classification and more than half using the International Obesity Task Force classification. Use of the Chinese classification increased the sensitivity. Results confirmed the necessity to consider ethnic differences in body composition when developing BMI cut-points and other obesity criteria in Asian children.

  20. Nuclear Immunolocalization of Hexamerins in the Fat Body of Metamorphosing Honey Bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Ramos Martins

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Hexamerins are storage proteins with primordial functions in insect metamorphosis. They are actively secreted by the larval fat body and stored in the hemolymph. During metamorphosis, they return to the fat body to be processed. For decades, these proteins were thought to exclusively function as an amino acid source for tissue reconstruction during the non-feeding pupal and pharate adult stages and, in some species, for egg production. Recently, new findings have linked the hexamerins to caste polyphenism and gonad development in social insects. To explore the roles of hexamerins during the honey bee metamorphosis, we used specific antibodies in expression analysis by western blot, in situ immunolocalization by confocal laser-scanning microscopy and in vivo injections to lower their endogenous levels. Our expression analysis highlighted the changing expression patterns in the fat body and hemolymph during development, which is consistent with the temporal dynamics of hexamerin secretion, storage and depletion. Confocal microscopy showed hexamerin expression in the cytoplasm of both types of fat body cells, trophocytes and oenocytes. Notably, hexamerin foci were also found in the nuclei of these cells, thus confirming our western blot analysis of fat body nuclear-enriched fractions. We also observed that the decrease in soluble hexamerins in antibody-treated pharate adults led to a precocious adult ecdysis, perhaps in response to the lack (or decrease in hexamerin-derived amino acids. Taken together, these findings indicate that hexamerins have other functions in addition to their well-established role as amino acid sources for development.

  1. Sex effect on productive parameters, carcass and body fat composition of two commercial broilers lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rondelli

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate sex effect on behavior of two commercial broilers lines. Productive parameters, carcass composition and yield, amount and quality of fat deposited in the meat and skin and total body fat were studied. A completely randomized design with four treatments (MR-Male Ross, HR-Female Ross, MAF-Male Avian Farm and HAF-Female Avian Farm and eight repetitions of 40 chickens was used. Animals received water and food ad libitum. After 50 days, two birds (a male and a female per repetition were chosen at random and slaughtered for carcass evaluation. Samples of breast, leg, skin and abdominal fats were analyzed to determine the percentage of intramuscular fat, total cholesterol and fatty acid composition. The Ross line showed higher final weight and weight gain, better intake and feed conversion rate. Also, it was observed that females of both lines had similar results in relation to these parameters. Better yield of breast with bone was found in Ross males and females. In relation to legs and thigh, Ross males showed better results and no differences were observed among females of both lines. Males deposited less fat than females. Finally, differences in percentage of intramuscular fat, content of cholesterol in breast with skin, leg with skin and skin, percentage of saturated, mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids were observed between sex and lines.

  2. Detecting body fat-A weighty problem BMI versus subcutaneous fat patterns in athletes and non-athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruschitz, Renate; Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra J; Hamlin, Michael J; Moser, Maximilian; Ludvik, Bernhard; Schnedl, Wolfgang J; Tafeit, Erwin

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to describe the relationship between BMI and the subcutaneous adipose tissue topography within young athletes and non-athletic controls, to comparatively evaluate the diagnostic powers of subcutaneous adipose tissue thicknesses at different body sites, furthermore to explore appropriate cut-offs to discriminate between athletes and controls. Measurements were determined in 64 males and 42 females, who were subsequently separated into two even groups (athletes and non-athletes). The optical device LIPOMETER was applied at standardised body sites to measure the thickness of subcutaneous adipose tissue layers. To calculate the power of the different body sites and the BMI to discriminate between athletes and non-athletes, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed. In men, the neck (optimal cut-off value 2.3 mm) and trunk (optimal cut-off value 15.5 mm) provided the strongest discrimination power: with 90.6% (58 of 64) of the subjects being correctly classified into athletes or non-athletes. Discrimination power of the BMI values was 64.1% (41 of 64 were correctly classified). In women, the upper back (optimal cut-off value 3.3 mm) and arms (optimal cut-off value 15.9 mm) provided the strongest discrimination power with 88.1% (37 of 42 being correctly classified). When using BMI to discriminate between athletes and non-athletes only 52.4% (22 of 42) were correctly classified. These results suggest that compared to BMI levels, subcutaneous fat patterns are a more accurate way of discriminating between athletes and non-athletes. In particular the neck and the trunk compartment in men and the upper back and arms compartment in women, were the best sites to discriminate between young athletes and non-athletes on the basis of their fat patterns.

  3. Personal Best Time, Percent Body Fat, and Training Are Differently Associated with Race Time for Male and Female Ironman Triathletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Wirth, Andrea; Baumann, Barbara; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We studied male and female nonprofessional Ironman triathletes to determine whether percent body fat, training, and/or previous race experience were associated with race performance. We used simple linear regression analysis, with total race time as the dependent variable, to investigate the relationship among athletes' percent body fat, average…

  4. Body fat and racial genetic admixture are associated with aerobic fitness levels in a multiethnic pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willig, Amanda L; Hunter, Gary R; Casazza, Krista; Heimburger, Douglas C; Beasley, T Mark; Fernandez, Jose R

    2011-11-01

    Aerobic fitness and adiposity are each independently associated with health outcomes among children, although the relationship between these two variables is unclear. Our objectives were to evaluate (i) the association of adiposity with aerobic fitness using objectively measured levels of percent body fat, compared to BMI as a percentile proxy for adiposity while controlling for genetic admixture, and (ii) the congruence of BMI categories with high and low body fat categories of objectively measured percent body fat. Participants were 232 African-American (AA), European-American (EA), and Hispanic-American (HA) children aged 7-12 years (Tanner stage body fat group (body fat group based on their percent body fat; children were also categorized according to BMI percentile. Children in the low body fat group had significantly higher aerobic fitness (P BMI percentile classification. Higher African genetic admixture was associated with lower aerobic fitness (P body fat and genetic admixture irrespective of BMI classification, and such differences should be taken into account when evaluating outcomes of health interventions.

  5. A regulatory pathway, ecdysone-transcription factor relish-cathepsin L, is involved in insect fat body dissociation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Zhang

    Full Text Available Insect fat body is the organ for intermediary metabolism, comparable to vertebrate liver and adipose tissue. Larval fat body is disintegrated to individual fat body cells and then adult fat body is remodeled at the pupal stage. However, little is known about the dissociation mechanism. We find that the moth Helicoverpa armigera cathepsin L (Har-CL is expressed heavily in the fat body and is released from fat body cells into the extracellular matrix. The inhibitor and RNAi experiments demonstrate that Har-CL functions in the fat body dissociation in H. armigera. Further, a nuclear protein is identified to be transcription factor Har-Relish, which was found in insect immune response and specifically binds to the promoter of Har-CL gene to regulate its activity. Har-Relish also responds to the steroid hormone ecdysone. Thus, the dissociation of the larval fat body is involved in the hormone (ecdysone-transcription factor (Relish-target gene (cathepsin L regulatory pathway.

  6. The Correlation of Sonographic Finding of Fatty Liver with Hematologic Examination and Body Fat Percentage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheon, Hae Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Sun General Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Tae Yong; Kim, Young Ran [Dept. of Preventive Medicine and Public Health College of Midicin, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Ultrasonography has been used as a basic examination of a medical check up for prevention and diagnostics of diseases. Even the person who has no particular subjective symptoms can have a variety of diseases. Especially fatty liver is found in many cases. In this study, we tested 3582 persons who are in between the ages of 15 to 81 and observed that 1390 persons had fatty liver while 2192 persons are normal. We classified the grade of fatty liver and compared their life styles with the results of liver function test and BMI. The results are as follows. Ratio of the subjects who had a fatty liver is 38.8%. Male and female ratio was 46.2% and 24.2%. On the correlation among the fatty liver, the body mass index and the body fat, the average value of body mass index and body fat were significantly higher in the group of the fatty liver than in those of the normal liver. The influence of the related factor and the correlation on the fatty liver was shown that it was more related with the order of age, body mass index, triglyceride, ALT, body fat, sex, HDL-Cholesterol, LDL-Cholesterol, and GGT. The result of the ultrasonography carried out for the purpose of regular health check up indicates that even the 38.8% of those who was diagnosed as normal condition could have the fatty liver and have possibility of other diseases. Therefore, if there are any troubles related to liver function and lipid through hematologic examination or when practicing follow-up study with ultrasonography concerning the correlation relation between the body fat and dietary preference, alcohol consumption and exercise, the ultrasonography is definitely useful for prevention and treatment of diseases.

  7. Tissue Liquefaction Liposuction for Body Contouring and Autologous Fat Transfer: A Retrospective Review Over 3 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godek, Christopher P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Tissue liquefaction lipoplasty is a novel, low-energy method cleared for use in aesthetic body contouring and autologous fat transfer. This is a retrospective review of the clinical effectiveness and safety of a liquefaction lipoplasty system for liposuction and autologous fat transfer. Methods: A retrospective review was done evaluating all liquefaction lipoplasty procedures with or without autologous fat transfer performed by a single surgeon (March 2013 to June 2016). Patient demographics, operative details, and any complications were tabulated from patient charts. A typical case reported is presented with pre-/postoperative photographs. Results: Two hundred fifty-five consecutive liquefaction lipoplasty procedures were performed over 39 months. The average lipoaspirate volume was 1208 ± 991 mL and the average fat graft volume was 322 ± 277 mL. The overall complication rate was 9 of 255 (3.52%). There were 2 episodes of seroma (0.78%) that were aspirated and 2 episodes of cellulitis (0.78%) that responded to oral antibiotics. In the autologous fat transfer cohort, there were 5 of 103 (4.85%) cases of mild to moderate fat necrosis, with 1 patient requiring return to the operating room for removal of an oil cyst. No revisions of donor sites were required. Conclusions: Liquefaction lipoplasty appears safe for liposuction and autologous fat transfer, with a complication profile that is comparable with other widely used forms of suction-assisted liposuction. The liquefaction lipoplasty technology also provides potential time savings in the operating room that can minimize surgeon fatigue when harvesting large volumes of high-quality fat. Liquefaction lipoplasty appears to have advantages for both the patient and the surgeon, and further studies are underway. PMID:28077985

  8. MicroRNA-8 targets the Wingless signaling pathway in the female mosquito fat body to regulate reproductive processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Keira J; Roy, Sourav; Ha, Jisu; Gervaise, Amanda L; Kokoza, Vladimir A; Raikhel, Alexander S

    2015-02-03

    Female mosquitoes require a blood meal for reproduction, and this blood meal provides the underlying mechanism for the spread of many important vector-borne diseases in humans. A deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms linked to mosquito blood meal processes and reproductive events is of particular importance for devising innovative vector control strategies. We found that the conserved microRNA miR-8 is an essential regulator of mosquito reproductive events. Two strategies to inhibit miR-8 function in vivo were used for functional characterization: systemic antagomir depletion and spatiotemporal inhibition using the miRNA sponge transgenic method in combination with the yeast transcriptional activator gal4 protein/upstream activating sequence system. Depletion of miR-8 in the female mosquito results in defects related to egg development and deposition. We used a multialgorithm approach for miRNA target prediction in mosquito 3' UTRs and experimentally verified secreted wingless-interacting molecule (swim) as an authentic target of miR-8. Our findings demonstrate that miR-8 controls the activity of the long-range Wingless (Wg) signaling by regulating Swim expression in the female fat body. We discovered that the miR-8/Wg axis is critical for the proper secretion of lipophorin and vitellogenin by the fat body and subsequent accumulation of these yolk protein precursors by developing oocytes.

  9. Body electrical loss analysis (BELA in the assessment of visceral fat: a demonstration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blomqvist Kim H

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body electrical loss analysis (BELA is a new non-invasive way to assess visceral fat depot size through the use of electromagnetism. BELA has worked well in phantom measurements, but the technology is not yet fully validated. Methods Ten volunteers (5 men and 5 women, age: 22-60 y, BMI: 21-30 kg/m2, waist circumference: 73-108 cm were measured with the BELA instrument and with cross-sectional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI at the navel level, navel +5 cm and navel -5 cm. The BELA signal was compared with visceral and subcutaneous fat areas calculated from the MR images. Results The BELA signal did not correlate with subcutaneous fat area at any level, but correlated significantly with visceral fat area at the navel level and navel +5 cm. The correlation was best at level of navel +5 cm (R2 = 0.74, P 2, LOOCV = 40.1 cm2, where SEE is the standard error of the estimate and LOOCV is the root mean squared error of leave-one-out style cross-validation. The average estimate of repeatability of the BELA signal observed through the study was ±9.6 %. One of the volunteers had an exceptionally large amount of visceral fat, which was underestimated by BELA. Conclusions The correlation of the BELA signal with the visceral but not with the subcutaneous fat area as measured by MRI is promising. The lack of correlation with the subcutaneous fat suggests that subcutaneous fat has a minor influence to the BELA signal. Further research will show if it is possible to develop a reliable low-cost method for the assessment of visceral fat either using BELA only or combining it, for example, with bioelectrical impedance measurement. The combination of these measurements may help assessing visceral fat in a large scale of body composition. Before large-scale clinical testing and ROC analysis, the initial BELA instrumentation requires improvements. The accuracy of the present equipment is not sufficient for such new technology.

  10. Statistical modeling and MAP estimation for body fat quantification with MRI ratio imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wilbur C. K.; Johnson, David H.; Wilson, David L.

    2008-03-01

    We are developing small animal imaging techniques to characterize the kinetics of lipid accumulation/reduction of fat depots in response to genetic/dietary factors associated with obesity and metabolic syndromes. Recently, we developed an MR ratio imaging technique that approximately yields lipid/{lipid + water}. In this work, we develop a statistical model for the ratio distribution that explicitly includes a partial volume (PV) fraction of fat and a mixture of a Rician and multiple Gaussians. Monte Carlo hypothesis testing showed that our model was valid over a wide range of coefficient of variation of the denominator distribution (c.v.: 0-0:20) and correlation coefficient among the numerator and denominator (ρ 0-0.95), which cover the typical values that we found in MRI data sets (c.v.: 0:027-0:063, ρ: 0:50-0:75). Then a maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimate for the fat percentage per voxel is proposed. Using a digital phantom with many PV voxels, we found that ratio values were not linearly related to PV fat content and that our method accurately described the histogram. In addition, the new method estimated the ground truth within +1.6% vs. +43% for an approach using an uncorrected ratio image, when we simply threshold the ratio image. On the six genetically obese rat data sets, the MAP estimate gave total fat volumes of 279 +/- 45mL, values 21% smaller than those from the uncorrected ratio images, principally due to the non-linear PV effect. We conclude that our algorithm can increase the accuracy of fat volume quantification even in regions having many PV voxels, e.g. ectopic fat depots.

  11. Visceral fat dominant distribution in male type 2 diabetic patients is closely related to hepatic insulin resistance, irrespective of body type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyazaki Yoshinori

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background All previous studies that investigated the association between abdominal fat distribution and insulin resistance evaluated subcutaneous and visceral fat area and/or volume, but these values were not related to the body type of each subject. In the present study we have examined the association between abdominal fat distribution and peripheral (muscle/hepatic sensitivity to insulin using the visceral to abdominal subcutaneous fat area ratio (VF/SF ratio in male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This ratio defines the predominancy of visceral or subcutaneous abdominal adiposity, independent of the body type of each individual. Methods Thirty-six type 2 diabetic male patients underwent a euglycemic insulin clamp (insulin infusion rate = 40 mU/m2·min with 3-3H-glucose to measure insulin-mediated total body (primarily reflects muscle glucose disposal (TGD and suppression of endogenous (primarily reflects liver glucose production (EGP in response to a physiologic increase in plasma insulin concentration. Abdominal subcutaneous (SF and intraabdominal visceral fat (VF areas were quantitated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI at the level of L4–5. Results TGD and TGD divided by steady state plasma insulin concentration during the insulin clamp (TGD/SSPI correlated inversely with body mass index (BMI, total fat mass (FM measured by 3H2O, SF and VF areas, while VF/SF ratio displayed no significant relationship with TGD or TGD/SSPI. In contrast, EGP and the product of EGP and SSPI during the insulin clamp (an index hepatic insulin resistance correlated positively with VF/SF ratio, but not with BMI, FM, VF or SF. Conclusion We conclude that, independent of the individual's body type, visceral fat dominant accumulation as opposed to subcutaneous fat accumulation is associated with hepatic insulin resistance, whereas peripheral (muscle insulin resistance is more closely related to general obesity (i.e. higher BMI and total FM

  12. Sex effect on productive parameters, carcass and body fat composition of two commercial broilers lines

    OpenAIRE

    S Rondelli; Martinez, O; PT García

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate sex effect on behavior of two commercial broilers lines. Productive parameters, carcass composition and yield, amount and quality of fat deposited in the meat and skin and total body fat were studied. A completely randomized design with four treatments (MR-Male Ross, HR-Female Ross, MAF-Male Avian Farm and HAF-Female Avian Farm) and eight repetitions of 40 chickens was used. Animals received water and food ad libitum. After 50 days, two birds (a male and a...

  13. Basal metabolic rate and body fatness of adult men in northern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, M E; Moya, S Y; McNeill, G; Haggarty, P

    1994-03-01

    To investigate the possibility that overprediction of basal metabolic rate (BMR) of tropical populations is related to differences in fatness between tropical and temperate populations, 32 Mexican men aged 18-40 years underwent measurements of BMR and body fat content. The men were divided into four body mass index (BMI) groups (FAO/WHO/UNU (1985) equations. The FAO/WHO/UNU equations overestimated measured BMR by 9.8%, 9.6%, 7.8% and 5.5% in the four groups. The overall difference was 8.2%, which was statistically significant (P < 0.001). The intercepts of the two equations were significantly different (P < 0.001) by 532 kJ/day, but there was no significant difference between the slopes of the two regression equations. There was no significant difference between BMR/kg fat-free mass in the four BMI groups. The results therefore do not support the possibility that the overprediction of BMR in tropical populations by international prediction equations based on body weight is accounted for by differences in fatness between tropical and temperate populations.

  14. Resveratrol does not increase body fat loss induced by energy restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberdi, Goiuri; Macarulla, M Teresa; Portillo, María P; Rodríguez, Víctor M

    2014-06-01

    Resveratrol (RSV) is known to have an antiobesogenic effect because it mimics energy restriction. However, hardly any evidence exists concerning the combined effects of RSV and energy restriction on body fat reduction. So, the aim of the present study was to determine whether RSV increases body fat reduction induced by energy restriction. Male Wistar rats were fed a high-fat, high-sucrose diet for 6 weeks to obtain a diet-induced obesity model. Then they were submitted to a mild energy restriction (25%) without or with RSV supplementation (30 mg/kg body weight/day) for 2 weeks. Final body weight, subcutaneous and intra-abdominal white adipose tissues weights, Adipose Index, and serum triacylglycerol, cholesterol, glucose, and insulin were assessed. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) activities, as well as their genetic expressions, were measured in white adipose tissue. Final body weight, white adipose tissue weights, Adipose Index, and serum triacylglycerol, cholesterol, and insulin were reduced in both groups, but no differences were found among them. FAS, ACC, and LPL activities and expressions were also similar in both groups. These results suggest a lack of any adjuvant effect of RSV on energy restriction for obesity treatment purposes.

  15. New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shungin, Dmitry; Winkler, Thomas W; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C.;

    2015-01-01

    Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, here we conduct genome......-wide association meta-analyses of traits related to waist and hip circumferences in up to 224,459 individuals. We identify 49 loci (33 new) associated with waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index (BMI), and an additional 19 loci newly associated with related waist and hip circumference measures (P ...(-8)). In total, 20 of the 49 waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for BMI loci show significant sexual dimorphism, 19 of which display a stronger effect in women. The identified loci were enriched for genes expressed in adipose tissue and for putative regulatory elements in adipocytes. Pathway analyses implicated...

  16. Pentosidine accumulates in the aging vitreous body: a gender effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deemter, M.; Ponsioen, T.L.; Bank, R.A.; Snabel, J.M.M.; van der Worp, R.J.; Hooymans, J.M.M.; Los, L.I.

    2009-01-01

    The human vitreous body undergoes structural changes with aging. This can be followed by a posterior vitreous detachment, which can result in ocular pathology. As in many collagenous tissues, age-related changes in the vitreous could be caused by the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGE

  17. Pentosidine accumulates in the aging vitreous body : A gender effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deemter, M.; Ponsioen, T. L.; Bank, R. A.; Snabel, J. M. M.; van der Worp, R. J.; Hooymans, J. M. M.; Los, L. I.

    2009-01-01

    The human vitreous body undergoes structural changes with aging. This can be followed by a posterior vitreous detachment, which can result in ocular pathology. As in many collagenous tissues, age-related changes in the vitreous could be caused by the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGE

  18. Pentosidine accumulates in the aging vitreous body: A gender effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deemter, M. van; Ponsioen, T.L.; Bank, R.A.; Snabel, J.M.M.; Worp, R.J. van der; Hooymans, J.M.M.; Los, L.I.

    2009-01-01

    The human vitreous body undergoes structural changes with aging. This can be followed by a posterior vitreous detachment, which can result in ocular pathology. As in many collagenous tissues, age-related changes in the vitreous could be caused by the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGE

  19. Metabolic adaptations in the adipose tissue that underlie the body fat mass gain in middle-aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sertié, Rogério Antonio Laurato; Caminhotto, Rennan de Oliveira; Andreotti, Sandra; Campaña, Amanda Baron; de Proença, André Ricardo Gomes; de Castro, Natalie Carolina; Lima, Fábio Bessa

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about adipocyte metabolism during aging process and whether this can influence body fat redistribution and systemic metabolism. To better understand this phenomenon, two animal groups were studied: young-14 weeks old-and middle-aged-16 months old. Periepididymal (PE) and subcutaneous (SC) adipocytes were isolated and tested for their capacities to perform lipolysis and to incorporate D-[U-(14)C]-glucose, D-[U-(14)C]-lactate, and [9,10(n)-(3)H]-oleic acid into lipids. Additionally, the morphometric characteristics of the adipose tissues, glucose tolerance tests, and biochemical determinations (fasting glucose, triglycerides, insulin) in blood were performed. The middle-aged rats showed adipocyte (PE and SC) hypertrophy and glucose intolerance, although there were no significant changes in fasting glycemia and insulin. Furthermore, PE tissue revealed elevated rates (+50 %) of lipolysis during beta-adrenergic-stimulation. There was also an increase (+62 %) in the baseline rate of glucose incorporation into lipids in the PE adipocytes, while these PE cells were almost unresponsive to insulin stimulation and less responsive (a 34 % decrease) in the SC tissue. Also, the capacity of oleic acid esterification was elevated in baseline state and with insulin stimulus in the PE tissue (+90 and 82 %, respectively). Likewise, spontaneous incorporation of lactate into lipids in the PE and SC tissues was higher (+100 and 11 %, respectively) in middle-aged rats. We concluded that adipocyte metabolism of middle-aged animals seems to strongly favor cellular hypertrophy and increased adipose mass, particularly the intra-abdominal PE fat pad. In discussion, we have interpreted all these results as a metabolic adaptations to avoid the spreading of fat that can reach tissues beyond adipose protecting them against ectopic fat accumulation. However, these adaptations may have the potential to lead to future metabolic dysfunctions seen in the senescence.

  20. Whole-body electromyostimulation as a means to impact muscle mass and abdominal body fat in lean, sedentary, older female adults: subanalysis of the TEST-III trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemmler W

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Wolfgang Kemmler, Simon von StengelInstitute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, GermanyBackground: The primary aim of this study was to determine the effect of 12 months of whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS exercise on appendicular muscle mass and abdominal fat mass in subjects specifically at risk for sarcopenia and abdominal obesity, but unable or unwilling to exercise conventionally.Methods: Forty-six lean, nonsportive (<60 minutes of exercise per week, elderly women (aged 75 ± 4 years with abdominal obesity according to International Diabetes Federation criteria were randomly assigned to either a WB-EMS group (n=23 which performed 18 minutes of intermittent, bipolar WB-EMS (85 Hz three sessions in 14 days or an "active" control group (n=23. Whole-body and regional body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry to determine appendicular muscle mass, upper leg muscle mass, abdominal fat mass, and upper leg fat mass. Maximum strength of the leg extensors was determined isometrically by force plates.Results: After 12 months, significant intergroup differences were detected for the primary endpoints of appendicular muscle mass (0.5% ± 2.0% for the WB-EMS group versus −0.8% ± 2.0% for the control group, P=0.025 and abdominal fat mass (−1.2% ± 5.9% for the WB-EMS group versus 2.4% ± 5.8% for the control group, P=0.038. Further, upper leg lean muscle mass changed favorably in the WB-EMS group (0.5% ± 2.5% versus −0.9% ± 1.9%, in the control group, P=0.033, while effects for upper leg fat mass were borderline nonsignificant (−0.8% ± 3.5% for the WB-EMS group versus 1.0% ± 2.6% for the control group, P=0.050. With respect to functional parameters, the effects for leg extensor strength were again significant, with more favorable changes in the WB-EMS group (9.1% ± 11.2% versus 1.0% ± 8.1% in the control group, P=0.010.Conclusion: In summary, WB-EMS showed positive effects on the

  1. Relationship between Regional Body Fat Distribution and Diabetes Mellitus: 2008 to 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soo In; Chung, Dawn; Lim, Jung Soo; Lee, Mi Young; Shin, Jang Yel; Chung, Choon Hee

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the association between regional body fat distribution, especially leg fat mass, and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in adult populations. Methods A total of 3,181 men and 3,827 postmenopausal women aged 50 years or older were analyzed based on Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2008 to 2010). Body compositions including muscle mass and regional fat mass were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results The odds ratios (ORs) for DM was higher with increasing truncal fat mass and arm fat mass, while it was lower with increasing leg fat mass. In a partial correlation analysis adjusted for age, leg fat mass was negatively associated with glycosylated hemoglobin in both sexes and fasting glucose in women. Leg fat mass was positively correlated with appendicular skeletal muscle mass and homeostasis model assessment of β cell. In addition, after adjusting for confounding factors, the OR for DM decreased gradually with increasing leg fat mass quartiles in both genders. When we subdivided the participants into four groups based on the median values of leg fat mass and leg muscle mass, higher leg fat mass significantly lowered the risk of DM even though they have smaller leg muscle mass in both genders (P<0.001). Conclusion The relationship between fat mass and the prevalence of DM is different according to regional body fat distribution. Higher leg fat mass was associated with a lower risk of DM in Korean populations. Maintaining leg fat mass may be important in preventing impaired glucose tolerance. PMID:28029016

  2. Glycemic index and glycemic load in relation to changes in body weight, body fat distribution, and body composition in adult Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hare-Bruun, Helle; Flint, Anne; Heitmann, Berit L

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A diet with a high glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) may promote overconsumption of energy and increase the risk of weight gain. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to investigate the relation between GI and GL of habitual diets and subsequent 6-y changes in body weight...... born in 1922, 1932, 1942, or 1952. A baseline health examination and a dietary history interview were carried out in 1987 and 1988; a follow-up health examination was performed in 1993 and 1994. RESULTS: Positive associations between GI and changes in body weight (DeltaBW), percentage body fat (Delta...... observed in men, and no significant associations with GL were observed in either sex. CONCLUSIONS: High-GI diets may lead to increases in BW, body fat mass, and WC in women, especially in sedentary women, which suggests that physical activity may protect against diet-induced weight gain. No associations...

  3. Animal models of sugar and fat bingeing: relationship to food addiction and increased body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avena, Nicole M; Bocarsly, Miriam E; Hoebel, Bartley G

    2012-01-01

    Binge eating is a behavior that occurs in some eating disorders, as well as in obesity and in nonclinical populations. Both sugars and fats are readily consumed by human beings and are common components of binges. This chapter describes animal models of sugar and fat bingeing, which allow for a detailed analysis of these behaviors and their concomitant physiological effects. The model of sugar bingeing has been used successfully to elicit behavioral and neurochemical signs of dependence in rats; e.g., indices of opiate-like withdrawal, increased intake after abstinence, cross-sensitization with drugs of abuse, and the repeated release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens following repeated bingeing. Studies using the model of fat bingeing suggest that it can produce some, but not all, of the signs of dependence that are seen with sugar binge eating, as well as increase body weight, potentially leading to obesity.

  4. Accuracy of body mass index (BMI) thresholds for predicting excess body fat in girls from five ethnicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, J Scott; Duncan, Elizabeth K; Schofield, Grant

    2009-01-01

    The association between body mass index (BMI) and body fat in young people differs among ethnic groups. Consequently, BMI thresholds for defining childhood overweight may not represent an equivalent level of adiposity in multiethnic populations. The objectives of this study were to characterise the relationships between BMI and percentage body fat (%BF) and to determine the appropriateness of universal BMI standards for predicting excess fatness in girls from five ethnic groups. The BMI and %BF of 1,676 European, Maori, Pacific Island, East Asian, and South Asian girls aged 5-16 years were determined using anthropometric and bioimpedance measurements. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were prepared to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the International Obesity Taskforce (IOTF) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) BMI thresholds for detecting %BF >85th percentile. Compared with European girls, South and East Asians averaged 4.2% and 1.3% more %BF at a fixed BMI and age, whereas Pacific Islanders averaged 1.8% less %BF. Areas under the ROC curves ranged from 89.9% to 92.4%, suggesting that BMI is an acceptable screening tool for identifying excess adiposity. However, the IOTF and CDC thresholds showed low sensitivity for predicting excess %BF in South and East Asian girls, with low specificity in Pacific Island and Maori girls. The development of an ethnic-specific definition of overweight improved diagnostic performance. We conclude that BMI can be an acceptable proxy measure of excess fatness in girls from diverse ethnicities, especially when ethnic-specific BMI reference points are implemented.

  5. Body mass, fat-free body mass, and prognosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease from a random population sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, Jørgen; Prescott, Eva; Almdal, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Low body mass index (BMI) is a marker of poor prognosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the general population, the harmful effect of low BMI is due to the deleterious effects of a low fat-free mass index (FFMI; fat-free mass/weight(2)).......Low body mass index (BMI) is a marker of poor prognosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the general population, the harmful effect of low BMI is due to the deleterious effects of a low fat-free mass index (FFMI; fat-free mass/weight(2))....

  6. Monascus pilosus-fermented black soybean inhibits lipid accumulation in adipocytes and in high-fat diet-induced obese mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Young-Sil Lee; Bong-Keun Choi; Hae Jin Lee; Dong-Ryung Lee; Jinhua Cheng; Won-Keun Lee; Seung Hwan Yang; Joo-Won Suh

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the anti-obesity effects and the mechanism of action of Monascus pilosus (M. pilosus)-fermented black soybean (MFBS) extracts (MFBSE) and MFBS powders (MFBSP) in adipocytes and high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice, respectively. Methods:Black soybean was fermented with M. pilosus, and the main constituents in MFBS were analyzed by HPLC analysis. In vitro, MFBSE were examined for anti-adipogenic effects using Oil-Red O staining. In vivo, mice were fed a normal-fat diet (NFD) control, HFD control or HFD containing 1 g/kg MFBSP for 12 weeks, and then body weight gain and tissues weight measured. Real-time PCR and western blot assay were used to determine the mechanism of anti-adipogenic effects. Results: MFBSE inhibited lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes without exerting cell cytotoxicity. MFBSP treatment in HFD-fed mice significantly decreased the body weight gain compared with the HFD control mice. MFBSE and MFBSP treatment resulted in significantly lower mRNA levels of adipogenesis-related genes, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4), and fatty acid synthase (FAS), in adipocytes and in white adipose tissue (WAT) of HFD-induced obese mice. Conclusions: These results suggest that the anti-obesity effects of MFBS are elicited by regulating the expression of adipogenesis-related genes in adipocytes and WAT of HFD-induced obese mice.

  7. Gender- and Gestational Age-Specific Body Fat Percentage at Birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hawkes, Colin P

    2011-08-08

    Background: There is increasing evidence that in utero growth has both immediate and far-reaching influence on health. Birth weight and length are used as surrogate measures of in utero growth. However, these measures poorly reflect neonatal adiposity. Air-displacement plethysmography has been validated for the measurement of body fat in the neonatal population. Objective: The goal of this study was to show the normal reference values of percentage body fat (%BF) in infants during the first 4 days of life. Methods: As part of a large population-based birth cohort study, fat mass, fat-free mass, and %BF were measured within the first 4 days of life using air-displacement plethsymography. Infants were grouped into gestational age and gender categories. Results: Of the 786 enrolled infants, fat mass, fat-free mass, and %BF were measured in 743 (94.5%) infants within the first 4 days of life. %BF increased significantly with gestational age. Mean (SD) %BF at 36 to 37 weeks\\' gestation was 8.9% (3.5%); at 38 to 39 weeks\\' gestation, 10.3% (4%); and at 40 to 41 weeks\\' gestation, 11.2% (4.3%) (P < .001). Female infants had significantly increased mean (SD) %BF at 38 to 39(11.1% [3.9%] vs 9.8% [3.9%]; P = .012) and at 40 to 41 (12.5% [4.4%] vs 10% [3.9%]; P < .001) weeks\\' gestation compared with male infants. Gender- and gestational age-specific centiles were calculated, and a normative table was generated for reference. Conclusion: %BF at birth is influenced by gestational age and gender. We generated accurate %BF centiles from a large population-based cohort.

  8. RELATIVE TOTAL BODY FAT AND SKINFOLD PATTERNING IN FILIPINO NATIONAL COMBAT SPORT ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi T. Bercades

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess relative total body fat and skinfold patterning in Filipino national karate and pencak silat athletes. Participants were members of the Philippine men's and women's national teams in karate (12 males, 5 females and pencak silat (17 males and 5 females. In addition to age, the following anthropometric measurements were taken: height, body mass, triceps, subscapular, supraspinale, umbilical, anterior thigh and medial calf skinfolds. Relative total body fat was expressed as sum of six skinfolds. Sum of skinfolds and each individual skinfold were also expressed relative to Phantom height. A two-way (Sport*Gender ANOVA was used to determine the differences between men and women in total body fat and skinfold patterning. A Bonferroni-adjusted alpha was employed for all analyses. The women had a higher proportional sum of skinfols (80.19 ± 25.31 mm vs. 51.77 ± 21.13 mm, p = 0. 001, eta2 = 0.275. The men had a lower proportional triceps skinfolds (-1.72 ± 0.71 versus - 0.35 ± 0.75, p < 0.001. Collapsed over gender, the karate athletes (-2.18 ± 0.66 had a lower proportional anterior thigh skinfold than their pencak silat colleagues (-1.71 ± 0.74, p = 0.001. Differences in competition requirements between sports may account for some of the disparity in anthropometric measurements

  9. Supplementation with CLA: isomer incorporation into serum lipids and effect on body fat of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petridou, Anatoli; Mougios, Vassilis; Sagredos, Angelos

    2003-08-01

    Animal studies have suggested that CLA, a natural component of meat and dairy products, may confer beneficial effects on health. However, human studies using supplementation with CLA have produced contradictory results. The aim of the present study was to further investigate the effect of CLA supplementation on human body fat, serum leptin, and serum lipids, as well as the incorporation of CLA isomers into serum lipids classes. Sixteen young healthy nonobese sedentary women received 2.1 g of CLA (divided equally between the cis,trans-9,11 and trans,cis-10,12 isomers) daily for 45 d and placebo for 45 d in a randomized double-blind crossover design. Body fat was estimated (by measurement of skinfold thickness at 10 sites), and blood was sampled at the beginning, middle, and end of the entire intervention period; an additional blood sample was obtained 2 wk thereafter. No significant differences in energy, carbohydrate, lipid, or protein intake existed between the CLA and placebo intake periods. No significant differences were found in body fat or serum leptin, TAG, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and alanine aminotransferase between CLA and placebo. The CLA isomer content of serum TAG, phospholipids, and total lipids increased 2-5 times with CLA supplementation (P lipids. These data indicate that supplementation with 2.1 g of CLA daily for 45 d increased its levels in blood but had no effect on body composition or the lipidemic profile of nonobese women.

  10. Body adiposity index (BAI) correlates with BMI and body fat pre- and post-bariatric surgery but is not an adequate substitute for BMI in severely obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, C D; Atalayer, D; Flancbaum, L; Geliebter, A

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Body Adiposity Index (BAI), a new surrogate measure of body fat (hip circumference/[height 1.5-18]), has been proposed as a more accurate alternative to BMI. We compared BAI with BMI and their correlations with measures of body fat, waist circumference (WC), and indirect indices of fat pre- and post-Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). METHODS: Sixteen clinically severe obese (CSO) non-diabetic women (age = 33.9± 7.9 SD; BMI = 46.5±9.5 kg/m(2)) were assessed pre-surgery, and at 2 (n=9) and 5 mo (n=8) post-surgery. Body fat percentage (% fat) was estimated with bioimpedance analysis (BIA), air displacement plethysmography (ADP), and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). WC, an indicator of central fat, and both plasma leptin (ng/ml) and insulin (mU/l) concentrations were measured as indirect body fat indices. Pre- and post-surgery values were analyzed with Pearson correlations and linear regressions. RESULTS: BAI and BMI correlated significantly with each other pre-surgery and at each time point post surgery. BAI and BMI also correlated significantly with % fat from BIA and ADP; however, only BMI correlated significantly with % fat from DXA pre- and post-RYGB. BMI was the single best predictor of WC and leptin at 2 and 5 mo post-surgery and had significant longitudinal changes correlating with % fat from BIA and DXA as well as with leptin. DISCUSSION: Both BAI and BMI were good surrogates of % fat as estimated from BIA and ADP, but only BMI was a good surrogate of % fat from DXA in CSO women. Thus, BAI may not be a better alternative to BMI.

  11. Body fat and dairy product intake in lactase persistent and non-persistent children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Almon

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background : Lactase non-persistent (LNP individuals may be lactose intolerant and therefore on a more restricted diet concerning milk and milk products compared to lactase persistent (LP individuals. This may have an impact on body fat mass. Objective : This study examines if LP and LNP children and adolescents, defined by genotyping for the LCT-13910 C > T polymorphism, differ from each other with regard to milk and milk product intake, and measures of body fat mass. Design : Children (n=298, mean age 9.6 years and adolescents (n=386, mean age 15.6 years, belonging to the Swedish part of the European Youth Heart Study, were genotyped for the LCT-13910 C > T polymorphism. Dietary intakes of reduced and full-fat dairy varieties were determined. Results : LNP (CC genotype subjects consumed less milk, soured milk and yoghurt compared to LP (CT/TT genotype subjects (p<0.001. Subsequent partitioning for age group attenuated this observation (p=0.002 for children and p=0.023 in adolescents. Six subjects were reported by parents to be ‘lactose intolerant’, none of whom were LNP. LNP children and adolescents consumed significantly less reduced fat milk and milk products than LP children and adolescents (p=0.009 for children and p = 0.001 for adolescents. Conclusions : We conclude that LP is linked to an overall higher milk and dairy intake, but is not linked to higher body fat mass in children and adolescents.

  12. Effects of diapause and cold-acclimation on the avoidance of freezing injury in fat body tissue of the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis Walker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Yohei; Sonoda, Shoji; Tsumuki, Hisaaki

    2007-07-01

    Overwintering freeze-tolerant larvae of Chilo suppressalis can survive at -25 degrees C, but non-diapausing larvae cannot. We reported earlier that to prevent intracellular freezing, which causes death in overwintering larvae of the Saigoku ecotype distributed in southwestern Japan, water leaves and glycerol enters fat body cells through water channels during freezing. However, it is still unclear how diapause and low-temperature exposure are related to the acquisition of freeze tolerance. We compared the extent of tissue damage, accumulation of glycerol, and transport of glycerol and water in fat body tissues between cold-acclimated and non-acclimated non-diapausing and diapausing larvae. The tissue from cold-acclimated diapausing larvae could survive only when frozen in Grace's insect medium with 0.25 M glycerol at -20 degrees C. The protection provided by glycerol was offset by mercuric chloride, which is a water-channel inhibitor. Fat body tissue isolated from non-acclimated diapausing larvae was injured by freezing even though glycerol was added to the medium, but the level of freezing injury was significantly lower than in non-diapausing larvae. Radiotracer assays in cold-acclimated diapausing larvae showed that during freezing, water left the cells into the medium and glycerol entered the cells from the medium at the same time. Therefore, in Saigoku ecotype larvae of the rice stem borer, both diapause and cold-acclimation are essential to accumulate glycerol and activate aquaporin for the avoidance of freezing injury.

  13. Body mass index and measures of body fat for defining obesity and underweight: a cross-sectional, population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Pasco, Julie A; Kara L. Holloway; Amelia G. Dobbins; Kotowicz, Mark A; Lana J Williams; Brennan, Sharon L

    2014-01-01

    Background The body mass index (BMI) is commonly used as a surrogate marker for adiposity. However, the BMI indicates weight-for-height without considering differences in body composition and the contribution of body fat to overall body weight. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify sex-and-age-specific values for percentage body fat (%BF), measured using whole body dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), that correspond to BMI 18.5 kg/m2 (threshold for underweight), 25.0 kg/m2...

  14. Discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2) regulates body size and fat metabolism in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Ikuma; Matsumura, Hirokazu; Fujii, Wataru; Naito, Kunihiko; Kusakabe, Ken; Kiso, Yasuo; Kano, Kiyoshi

    2014-02-01

    Discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that is activated by fibrillar collagens, which act as its endogenous ligand. DDR2 regulates cell proliferation, cell adhesion, migration, extracellular matrix remodeling and reproductive functions. Both DDR2 null allele mice and mice with a recessive, loss-of-function allele for Ddr2 exhibit dwarfing and a reduction in body weight. However, the detailed mechanisms by which DDR2 exerts its positive systemic regulation of whole body size, local skeletal size and fat tissue volume remain to be clarified. To investigate the systemic role of DDR2 in body size regulation, we produced transgenic mice in which the DDR2 protein is overexpressed, then screened the transgenic mice for abnormalities using systematic mouse abnormality screening. The modified-SHIPRA screen revealed that only the parameter of body size was significantly different among the genotypes. We also discovered that the body length was significantly increased, while the body weight was significantly decreased in transgenic mice compared to their littermate controls. We also found that the epididymal fat pads were significantly decreased in transgenic mice compared to normal littermate mice, which may have been the cause of the leptin decrement in the transgenic mice. The new insight that DDR2 might promote metabolism in adipocyte cells is very interesting, but more experiments will be needed to elucidate the direct relation between DDR2 and adipose-derived hormones. Taken together, our data demonstrated that DDR2 might play a systemic role in the regulation of body size thorough skeletal formation and fat metabolism.

  15. Association of total body and visceral fat mass with iron deficiency in preadolescents: the Healthy Growth Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschonis, George; Chrousos, George P; Lionis, Christos; Mougios, Vassilis; Manios, Yannis

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the associations of obesity, percentage body fat and visceral fat mass with body Fe status in a representative sample of 1493 schoolchildren aged 9-13 years. Anthropometric, body composition, biochemical, clinical (Tanner stage, age of menarche) and dietary intake data were collected. Fe deficiency (ID) was defined as transferrin saturation (TS) deficiency anaemia (IDA) as ID with Hb < 120 g/l. Obese boys and girls and those in the highest quartiles of percentage body fat mass had significantly higher levels of serum ferritin (P ≤ 0.05) compared to their normal-weight peers and those in the corresponding lowest quartiles. Similarly, obese boys and girls and those in the highest quartiles of percentage body fat and visceral fat mass had significantly lower levels of TS (P ≤ 0.05) compared to normal-weight children and those in the corresponding lowest quartiles. The prevalence of ID and IDA was significantly higher in boys and girls in the highest quartiles of percentage body fat than in peers in the lowest quartile. Higher quartiles of percentage body fat and visceral fat mass were the main significant predictors of ID in boys, after controlling for other important confounders, with OR of 2.48 (95 % CI, 1.26, 4.88) and 2.12 (95 % CI, 1.07, 4.19), respectively. Similar significant associations were observed for girls. In conclusion, percentage body fat and visceral fat mass were positively associated with ID in both sexes of preadolescents. These associations might be attributed to the chronic inflammation induced by excess adiposity.

  16. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Obesity, body fatness and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Annie S; Key, Timothy J; Norat, Teresa; Scoccianti, Chiara; Cecchini, Michele; Berrino, Franco; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Espina, Carolina; Leitzmann, Michael; Powers, Hilary; Wiseman, Martin; Romieu, Isabelle

    2015-12-01

    It is estimated that over half the population of the European Union (EU) is overweight or obese due to an imbalance between energy expenditure and energy intake; this is related to an obesogenic environment of sociocultural, economic and marketing challenges to the control of body weight. Excess body fat is associated with nine cancer sites - oesophagus, colorectum, gall bladder, pancreas, postmenopausal breast, endometrium, ovary, kidney and prostate (advanced) - and 4-38% of these cancers (depending on site and gender) can be attributed to overweight/obesity status. Metabolic alterations which accompany excess body weight are accompanied by increased levels of inflammation, insulin, oestrogens and other hormonal factors. There are some indications that intentional weight loss is associated with reduced cancer incidence (notably in postmenopausal breast and endometrial cancers). Excess body weight is also a risk factor for several other diseases, including diabetes and heart disease, and is related to higher risk of premature death. In reviewing the current evidence related to excess body fat and cancer, the European Code against Cancer Nutrition Working Group has developed the following recommendation: 'Take action to be a healthy body weight'.

  17. The correlation study on arch type with physical fitness, body fat and heath-carter somatotype

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Lei; Yin Shuai; Sui Yuelin; Liu Yuanyuan; Ding Wenfeng

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between the arch type and physical form, physical fit-ness, body fat and somatotype. Methods:Measure and type the arch of 382 male soldier in a certain army by foot-print ratio method; Routinely detect the results of height and weight, body fat, 100 and 5 000 meters running, standing jump;According to the international heath-carter method, ten indexes were measured and the somatotype were evaluated. Results:①382 samples, flatfoot 91, accounted for 23. 6%, the foot arch index 0. 60 + 0. 21;non-flatfoot 291 , 76 . 2%, arch index 1 . 14 +0 . 22 , t=22 . 83 , P=0 . 001;②Comparing the mean of the results of height, weight, BMI, body fat percentage,100 and 5 000 meters running, standing jump of the two groups( flatfoot and non-flatfoot) samples, t-text, P>0. 05; ③Assessed by the method of heath-carter shape, flatfoot group so-matotype mean is 2. 7 (0. 7) -4. 8 (1. 3) -2. 7 (0. 9), sam is 1. 5 (0. 9);non flatfoot group somatotype mean is 2. 3 (0. 7) -5. 0 (3. 1) -2. 4 (0. 9), sam is 1. 6 (1. 0);The distance of two groups`points in 3D space mean somatotypes is 0. 54; t-test of the two groups`somatotype mean, P>0. 05. Conclusions: Compared the flatfoot group with the control group, there is no significant difference in physical form, physical fitness, body fat and so-matotype. The increasingly high rate of flatfoot in healthy people is physical, but not flatfoot disease, and no need for surgery.

  18. Ethnic differences in body fat distribution among Asian pre-pubertal children: A cross-sectional multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koon Poh Bee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethnic differences in body fat distribution contribute to ethnic differences in cardiovascular morbidities and diabetes. However few data are available on differences in fat distribution in Asian children from various backgrounds. Therefore, the current study aimed to explore ethnic differences in body fat distribution among Asian children from four countries. Methods A total of 758 children aged 8-10 y from China, Lebanon, Malaysia and Thailand were recruited using a non-random purposive sampling approach to enrol children encompassing a wide BMI range. Height, weight, waist circumference (WC, fat mass (FM, derived from total body water [TBW] estimation using the deuterium dilution technique and skinfold thickness (SFT at biceps, triceps, subscapular, supraspinale and medial calf were collected. Results After controlling for height and weight, Chinese and Thai children had a significantly higher WC than their Lebanese and Malay counterparts. Chinese and Thais tended to have higher trunk fat deposits than Lebanese and Malays reflected in trunk SFT, trunk/upper extremity ratio or supraspinale/upper extremity ratio after adjustment for age and total body fat. The subscapular/supraspinale skinfold ratio was lower in Chinese and Thais compared with Lebanese and Malays after correcting for trunk SFT. Conclusions Asian pre-pubertal children from different origins vary in body fat distribution. These results indicate the importance of population-specific WC cut-off points or other fat distribution indices to identify the population at risk of obesity-related health problems.

  19. Validation Study of the Body Adiposity Index as a Predictor of Percent Body Fat in Older Individuals: Findings From the BLSA

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Hui; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Cooper, Jamie A.

    2013-01-01

    A new body adiposity index (BAI = (hip circumference)/((height)1.5) − 18) has been developed and validated in adult populations. We aimed to assess the validity of BAI in an older population. We compared the concordance correlation coefficient between BAI, body mass index (BMI), and percent body fat (fat%; by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) in an older population (n = 954) participating in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. BAI was more strongly correlated with fat% than BMI (r of ....

  20. Differences in the relationship between BMI and percentage body fat between Japanese and Australian-Caucasian young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, Masaharu; Kerr, Deborah; Uchida, Hayato; Binns, Colin W

    2006-05-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to determine ethnic and environmental influences on the relationship between BMI and percentage body fat, using a sample of 144 Japanese and 140 Australian-Caucasian men living in Australia, and eighty-eight Japanese men living in Japan. Body composition was assessed by anthropometry using standard international methods (International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry protocol). Body density was predicted using Durnin and Womersley's (1974) equation, and percentage body fat was calculated from Siri's (1961) equation. Significant (P<0.05) ethnic differences in stature, body mass and BMI were observed between Japanese and Australian men, but no ethnic differences were observed in their percentage body fat and height-corrected sum of skinfold thicknesses. No differences were found in the BMI-percentage body fat relationship between the Japanese subjects living in Australia and in Japan. Significant (P<0.05) ethnic differences in the BMI-percentage body fat relationship observed from a comparison between pooled Japanese men (aged 18-40 years, BMI range 16.6-32.8 kg/m2) and Australians (aged 18-39 years, BMI range 16.1-31.4 kg/m2) suggest that Japanese men are likely to have a greater percentage body fat than Australian men at any given BMI value. From the analyses, the Japanese men were estimated to have an equivalent amount of body fat to the Australian men at BMI values that were about 1.5 units lower than those of the Australians (23.5 kg/m2 and 28.2 kg/m2, respectively). It was concluded that Japanese men have greater body fat deposition than Australian-Caucasians at the same BMI value. Japanese men may therefore require lower BMI cut-off points to identify obese individuals compared with Australian-Caucasian men.

  1. New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shungin, Dmitry; Winkler, Thomas W; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Ferreira, Teresa; Locke, Adam E; Mägi, Reedik; Strawbridge, Rona J; Pers, Tune H; Fischer, Krista; Justice, Anne E; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Wu, Joseph M W; Buchkovich, Martin L; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Roman, Tamara S; Drong, Alexander W; Song, Ci; Gustafsson, Stefan; Day, Felix R; Esko, Tonu; Fall, Tove; Kutalik, Zoltán; Luan, Jian'an; Randall, Joshua C; Scherag, André; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wood, Andrew R; Chen, Jin; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Karjalainen, Juha; Kahali, Bratati; Liu, Ching-Ti; Schmidt, Ellen M; Absher, Devin; Amin, Najaf; Anderson, Denise; Beekman, Marian; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Buyske, Steven; Demirkan, Ayse; Ehret, Georg B; Feitosa, Mary F; Goel, Anuj; Jackson, Anne U; Johnson, Toby; Kleber, Marcus E; Kristiansson, Kati; Mangino, Massimo; Mateo Leach, Irene; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Palmer, Cameron D; Pasko, Dorota; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Peters, Marjolein J; Prokopenko, Inga; Stančáková, Alena; Ju Sung, Yun; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Yengo, Loïc; Zhang, Weihua; Albrecht, Eva; Ärnlöv, Johan; Arscott, Gillian M; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barrett, Amy; Bellis, Claire; Bennett, Amanda J; Berne, Christian; Blüher, Matthias; Böhringer, Stefan; Bonnet, Fabrice; Böttcher, Yvonne; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Carba, Delia B; Caspersen, Ida H; Clarke, Robert; Daw, E Warwick; Deelen, Joris; Deelman, Ewa; Delgado, Graciela; Doney, Alex S F; Eklund, Niina; Erdos, Michael R; Estrada, Karol; Eury, Elodie; Friedrich, Nele; Garcia, Melissa E; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Gigante, Bruna; Go, Alan S; Golay, Alain; Grallert, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grewal, Jagvir; Groves, Christopher J; Haller, Toomas; Hallmans, Goran; Hartman, Catharina A; Hassinen, Maija; Hayward, Caroline; Heikkilä, Kauko; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Helmer, Quinta; Hillege, Hans L; Holmen, Oddgeir; Hunt, Steven C; Isaacs, Aaron; Ittermann, Till; James, Alan L; Johansson, Ingegerd; Juliusdottir, Thorhildur; Kalafati, Ioanna-Panagiota; Kinnunen, Leena; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kooner, Ishminder K; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Lamina, Claudia; Leander, Karin; Lee, Nanette R; Lichtner, Peter; Lind, Lars; Lindström, Jaana; Lobbens, Stéphane; Lorentzon, Mattias; Mach, François; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Mahajan, Anubha; McArdle, Wendy L; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Mills, Rebecca; Moayyeri, Alireza; Monda, Keri L; Mooijaart, Simon P; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Mulas, Antonella; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Nalls, Michael A; Narisu, Narisu; Glorioso, Nicola; Nolte, Ilja M; Olden, Matthias; Rayner, Nigel W; Renstrom, Frida; Ried, Janina S; Robertson, Neil R; Rose, Lynda M; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Scholtens, Salome; Sennblad, Bengt; Seufferlein, Thomas; Sitlani, Colleen M; Vernon Smith, Albert; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stringham, Heather M; Sundström, Johan; Swertz, Morris A; Swift, Amy J; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tayo, Bamidele O; Thorand, Barbara; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Troffa, Chiara; van Oort, Floor V A; Verweij, Niek; Vonk, Judith M; Waite, Lindsay L; Wennauer, Roman; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojczynski, Mary K; Wong, Andrew; Zhang, Qunyuan; Hua Zhao, Jing; Brennan, Eoin P; Choi, Murim; Eriksson, Per; Folkersen, Lasse; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Gharavi, Ali G; Hedman, Åsa K; Hivert, Marie-France; Huang, Jinyan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karpe, Fredrik; Keildson, Sarah; Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Liang, Liming; Lifton, Richard P; Ma, Baoshan; McKnight, Amy J; McPherson, Ruth; Metspalu, Andres; Min, Josine L; Moffatt, Miriam F; Montgomery, Grant W; Murabito, Joanne M; Nicholson, George; Nyholt, Dale R; Olsson, Christian; Perry, John R B; Reinmaa, Eva; Salem, Rany M; Sandholm, Niina; Schadt, Eric E; Scott, Robert A; Stolk, Lisette; Vallejo, Edgar E; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zondervan, Krina T; Amouyel, Philippe; Arveiler, Dominique; Bakker, Stephan J L; Beilby, John; Bergman, Richard N; Blangero, John; Brown, Morris J; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chines, Peter S; Claudi-Boehm, Simone; Collins, Francis S; Crawford, Dana C; Danesh, John; de Faire, Ulf; de Geus, Eco J C; Dörr, Marcus; Erbel, Raimund; Eriksson, Johan G; Farrall, Martin; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrières, Jean; Forouhi, Nita G; Forrester, Terrence; Franco, Oscar H; Gansevoort, Ron T; Gieger, Christian; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Haiman, Christopher A; Harris, Tamara B; Hattersley, Andrew T; Heliövaara, Markku; Hicks, Andrew A; Hingorani, Aroon D; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Humphries, Steve E; Hyppönen, Elina; Illig, Thomas; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Johansen, Berit; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jula, Antti M; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kee, Frank; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M; Kooner, Jaspal S; Kooperberg, Charles; Kovacs, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T; Kumari, Meena; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lakka, Timo A; Langenberg, Claudia; Le Marchand, Loic; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Männistö, Satu; Marette, André; Matise, Tara C; McKenzie, Colin A; McKnight, Barbara; Musk, Arthur W; Möhlenkamp, Stefan; Morris, Andrew D; Nelis, Mari; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Ong, Ken K; Palmer, Lyle J; Penninx, Brenda W; Peters, Annette; Pramstaller, Peter P; Raitakari, Olli T; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D C; Rice, Treva K; Ridker, Paul M; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J; Saramies, Jouko; Sarzynski, Mark A; Schwarz, Peter E H; Shuldiner, Alan R; Staessen, Jan A; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stolk, Ronald P; Strauch, Konstantin; Tönjes, Anke; Tremblay, Angelo; Tremoli, Elena; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völker, Uwe; Vollenweider, Peter; Wilson, James F; Witteman, Jacqueline C; Adair, Linda S; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bouchard, Claude; Cauchi, Stéphane; Caulfield, Mark J; Chambers, John C; Chasman, Daniel I; Cooper, Richard S; Dedoussis, George; Ferrucci, Luigi; Froguel, Philippe; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Hamsten, Anders; Hui, Jennie; Hveem, Kristian; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kivimaki, Mika; Kuh, Diana; Laakso, Markku; Liu, Yongmei; März, Winfried; Munroe, Patricia B; Njølstad, Inger; Oostra, Ben A; Palmer, Colin N A; Pedersen, Nancy L; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Peters, Ulrike; Power, Chris; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Saaristo, Timo E; Saleheen, Danish; Sinisalo, Juha; Slagboom, P Eline; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Tim D; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stumvoll, Michael; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, André G; Uusitupa, Matti; van der Harst, Pim; Veronesi, Giovanni; Walker, Mark; Wareham, Nicholas J; Watkins, Hugh; Wichmann, H-Erich; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Assimes, Themistocles L; Berndt, Sonja I; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B; Deloukas, Panos; Franke, Lude; Frayling, Timothy M; Groop, Leif C; Hunter, David J; Kaplan, Robert C; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Qi, Lu; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P; Stefansson, Kari; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Willer, Cristen J; Visscher, Peter M; Yang, Jian; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Zillikens, M Carola; McCarthy, Mark I; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; North, Kari E; Fox, Caroline S; Barroso, Inês; Franks, Paul W; Ingelsson, Erik; Heid, Iris M; Loos, Ruth J F; Cupples, L Adrienne; Morris, Andrew P; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Mohlke, Karen L

    2015-02-12

    Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, here we conduct genome-wide association meta-analyses of traits related to waist and hip circumferences in up to 224,459 individuals. We identify 49 loci (33 new) associated with waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index (BMI), and an additional 19 loci newly associated with related waist and hip circumference measures (P < 5 × 10(-8)). In total, 20 of the 49 waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for BMI loci show significant sexual dimorphism, 19 of which display a stronger effect in women. The identified loci were enriched for genes expressed in adipose tissue and for putative regulatory elements in adipocytes. Pathway analyses implicated adipogenesis, angiogenesis, transcriptional regulation and insulin resistance as processes affecting fat distribution, providing insight into potential pathophysiological mechanisms.

  2. [Clinical anatomy of the fat body in the forearm and in the palm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidenbach, M M; Schmidt, H M

    1993-02-01

    In the hand the space between the deep flexor tendons and the interosseous fascia is named the midpalmar space, spatium palmare medianum. A fat body, Corpus adiposum palmare profundum, can be found there regularly. Despite the anatomical narrowness in this region, it reaches up into the carpal canal. Also in the deep forearm space there is always a fat body, Corpus adiposum profundum antebrachii, located dorsally to the deep flexor tendons, lying on the palmar fascia of the pronator quadratus muscle. Usually it is not connected to the Corpus adiposum palmare profundum. The regular occurrence of both fat bodies indicates their functional importance. It is to be supposed that they serve as a gliding layer for the deep flexor tendons. Especially the Corpus adiposum palmare profundum may provide an essential protecting function to the dorsally located deep branch of the ulnar nerve and deep palmar arch. In contrast there is a higher risk of mechanical irritation and compression of the deep branches of the ulnar nerve and artery during their more proximal course through the opponens muscle of the little finger ("opponens-canal") and the ulnar marginal septum. Characteristic features of dimensions and location of the Corpus adiposum profundum antebrachii and the Corpus adiposum palmare profundum and of the deep branches of the ulnar nerve and artery are described. The clinical relevance is discussed.

  3. Cross-talk between the fat body and brain regulates insect developmental arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei-Hua; Lu, Yu-Xuan; Denlinger, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Developmental arrest, a critical component of the life cycle in animals as diverse as nematodes (dauer state), insects (diapause), and vertebrates (hibernation), results in dramatic depression of the metabolic rate and a profound extension in longevity. Although many details of the hormonal systems controlling developmental arrest are well-known, we know little about the interactions between metabolic events and the hormones controlling the arrested state. Here, we show that diapause is regulated by an interplay between blood-borne metabolites and regulatory centers within the brain. Gene expression in the fat body, the insect equivalent of the liver, is strongly suppressed during diapause, resulting in low levels of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) intermediates circulating within the blood, and at diapause termination, the fat body becomes activated, releasing an abundance of TCA intermediates that act on the brain to stimulate synthesis of regulatory peptides that prompt production of the insect growth hormone ecdysone. This model is supported by our success in breaking diapause by injecting a mixture of TCA intermediates and upstream metabolites. The results underscore the importance of cross-talk between the brain and fat body as a regulator of diapause and suggest that the TCA cycle may be a checkpoint for regulating different forms of animal dormancy. PMID:22912402

  4. Cross-talk between the fat body and brain regulates insect developmental arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei-Hua; Lu, Yu-Xuan; Denlinger, David L

    2012-09-04

    Developmental arrest, a critical component of the life cycle in animals as diverse as nematodes (dauer state), insects (diapause), and vertebrates (hibernation), results in dramatic depression of the metabolic rate and a profound extension in longevity. Although many details of the hormonal systems controlling developmental arrest are well-known, we know little about the interactions between metabolic events and the hormones controlling the arrested state. Here, we show that diapause is regulated by an interplay between blood-borne metabolites and regulatory centers within the brain. Gene expression in the fat body, the insect equivalent of the liver, is strongly suppressed during diapause, resulting in low levels of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) intermediates circulating within the blood, and at diapause termination, the fat body becomes activated, releasing an abundance of TCA intermediates that act on the brain to stimulate synthesis of regulatory peptides that prompt production of the insect growth hormone ecdysone. This model is supported by our success in breaking diapause by injecting a mixture of TCA intermediates and upstream metabolites. The results underscore the importance of cross-talk between the brain and fat body as a regulator of diapause and suggest that the TCA cycle may be a checkpoint for regulating different forms of animal dormancy.

  5. The phytochemical glaucarubinone promotes mitochondrial metabolism, reduces body fat, and extends lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarse, K; Bossecker, A; Müller-Kuhrt, L; Siems, K; Hernandez, M A; Berendsohn, W G; Birringer, M; Ristow, M

    2011-04-01

    Naturally occurring compounds that promote energy expenditure and delay aging in model organisms may be of significant interest, since these substances potentially provide pharmaceutical approaches to tackle obesity and promote healthy lifespan in humans. We aimed to test whether pharmaceutical concentrations of glaucarubinone, a cytotoxic and antimalarial quassinoid known from different species of the plant family Simaroubaceae, are capable of affecting metabolism and/or extending lifespan in a nematodal model organism for aging processes, the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans. Adult C. elegans roundworms, maintained on agar plates, were fed with E. coli strain OP50 bacteria, and glaucarubinone was applied to the agar to test (i) whether it alters respiration rates and mitochondrial activity, (ii) whether it affects body fat content, and (iii) whether it may promote longevity by quantifying survival in the presence and absence of the compound. We have found that glaucarubinone induces oxygen consumption and reduces body fat content of C. elegans. Moreover and consistent with the concept of mitohormesis, glaucarubinone extends C. elegans lifespan when applied at a concentration of 1 or 10 nanomolar. Taken together, glaucarubinone is capable of reducing body fat and promoting longevity in C. elegans, tentatively suggesting that this compound may promote metabolic health and lifespan in mammals and possibly humans.

  6. Alterations in the fat body and midgut of Culex quinquefasciatus larvae following exposure to different insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Stênio Nunes; Serrão, José Eduardo; Melo, Alan Lane

    2010-08-01

    This study describes morphological alterations in the fat body and midgut of Culex quinquefasciatus larvae following exposure to different insecticides. To this end, both third and fourth instars of C. quinquefasciatus larvae were exposed for 30 and 60 min to organophosphate (50 ppb), pyrethroids (20 and 30 ppb), and avermectin derivates (1.5 and 54 ppb). Following incubation, pH measurements of the larvae gut were recorded. The fat body and midgut were also analyzed by light and transmission electron microscopy. These studies demonstrate a decrease in the pH of the larvae anterior midgut following exposure to all of the tested insecticides. Histochemical tests revealed a strong reaction for neutral lipids in the control group and a marked decrease in the group exposed to cypermethrin. Furthermore, a weak reaction with acidic lipids in larvae exposed to deltamethrin, temephos, ivermectin and abamectin was also observed. Insecticide-exposed larvae also exhibited cytoplasm granule differences, relative to control larvae. Finally, we noted a small reduction in microvilli size in the apex of digestive cells, although vesicles were found to be present. The destructive changes in the larvae were very similar regardless of the type of insecticide analyzed. These data suggest that alterations in the fat body and midgut are a common response to cellular intoxication.

  7. Comparison of BMI and percentage of body fat of Indian and German children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janewa, Vanessa Schönfeld; Ghosh, Arnab; Scheffler, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    Today, serious health problems as overweight and obesity are not just constricted to the developed world, but also increase in the developing countries (Prentice 2006, Ramachandram et al. 2002). Focusing on this issue, BMI and percentage of body fat were compared in 2094 schoolchildren from two cross-sectional studies from India and Germany investigated in 2008 and 2009. The German children are in all age groups significantly taller, whereas the Indian children show higher values in BMI (e.g. 12 years: Indian: around 22 kg/m2; German: around 19 kg/m2) and in the percentage of body fat (e.g. 12 years: Indian: around 27%; German: around 18-20%) in most of the investigated age groups. The Indian children have significantly higher BMI between 10 and 13 (boys) respectively 14 years (girls). Indian children showed significant higher percentage of body fat between 10 and 15 years (boys) and between 8 and 16 years (girls). The difference in overweight between Indian and German children was strongest at 11 (boys) and 12 (girls) years: 70% of the Indian but 20% of the German children were classified as overweight. In countries such as India that undergo nutritional transition, a rapid increase in obesity and overweight is observed. In contrast to the industrialized countries, the risk of overweight in developing countries is associated with high socioeconomic status. Other reasons of the rapid increase of overweight in the developing countries caused by different environmental or genetic factors are discussed.

  8. Predicting body fat percentage based on gender, age and BMI by using artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupusinac, Aleksandar; Stokić, Edita; Doroslovački, Rade

    2014-02-01

    In the human body, the relation between fat and fat-free mass (muscles, bones etc.) is necessary for the diagnosis of obesity and prediction of its comorbidities. Numerous formulas, such as Deurenberg et al., Gallagher et al., Jackson and Pollock, Jackson et al. etc., are available to predict body fat percentage (BF%) from gender (GEN), age (AGE) and body mass index (BMI). These formulas are all fairly similar and widely applicable, since they provide an easy, low-cost and non-invasive prediction of BF%. This paper presents a program solution for predicting BF% based on artificial neural network (ANN). ANN training, validation and testing are done by randomly divided dataset that includes 2755 subjects: 1332 women (GEN = 0) and 1423 men (GEN = 1), with AGE from 18 to 88 y and BMI from 16.60 to 64.60 kg/m(2). BF% was estimated by using Tanita bioelectrical impedance measurements (Tanita Corporation, Tokyo, Japan). ANN inputs are: GEN, AGE and BMI, and output is BF%. The predictive accuracy of our solution is 80.43%. The main goal of this paper is to promote a new approach to predicting BF% that has same complexity and costs but higher predictive accuracy than above-mentioned formulas.

  9. A comparison between CLNA and CLA effects on body fat, serum parameters and liver composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, J; Fernández-Quintela, A; Macarulla, M T; Churruca, I; García, C; Rodríguez, V M; Simón, E; Portillo, M P

    2009-03-01

    The potential of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) as an anti-obesity molecule for humans is still a matter for debate. Thus, a great deal of scientific work is focussed on the research of new effective molecules without deleterious effects on health. The aim of the present work was to analyse the effects of jacaranda seed oil, rich in a conjugated linolenic acid (CLNA), jacaric acid (cis-8,trans-10,cis-12), on body fat, serum parameters and liver composition in rats, and to compare these effects with those of trans-10,cis-12 CLA. Twenty-six male Wistar rats were divided into three groups fed with high-fat diets, supplemented or not (control group) with 0.5% trans-10,cis-12 CLA (CLA group) or 0.5% jacaric acid (CLNA group) for 7 weeks. No statistical differences in food intake or in final body weight were found. Whereas CLA reduced adipose tissue size, CLNA did not. Both CLA and CLNA significantly reduced non-HDL-cholesterol. In spite of a lack of significant changes in glucose and insulin levels, HOMA-IR index was significantly increased, as well as did non-esterified fatty acid levels in CLNA-fed rats. No changes in liver composition were observed. In conclusion, under our experimental conditions, jacaric acid, unlike CLA, does not show a body-fat lowering effect. Even though it leads to a healthy lipoprotein profile, it impairs insulin function. Consequently, it cannot be proposed as an anti-obesity molecule.

  10. New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawbridge, Rona J; Pers, Tune H; Fischer, Krista; Justice, Anne E; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Wu, Joseph M.W.; Buchkovich, Martin L; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Roman, Tamara S; Drong, Alexander W; Song, Ci; Gustafsson, Stefan; Day, Felix R; Esko, Tonu; Fall, Tove; Kutalik, Zoltán; Luan, Jian’an; Randall, Joshua C; Scherag, André; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wood, Andrew R; Chen, Jin; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Karjalainen, Juha; Kahali, Bratati; Liu, Ching-Ti; Schmidt, Ellen M; Absher, Devin; Amin, Najaf; Anderson, Denise; Beekman, Marian; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Buyske, Steven; Demirkan, Ayse; Ehret, Georg B; Feitosa, Mary F; Goel, Anuj; Jackson, Anne U; Johnson, Toby; Kleber, Marcus E; Kristiansson, Kati; Mangino, Massimo; Leach, Irene Mateo; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Palmer, Cameron D; Pasko, Dorota; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Peters, Marjolein J; Prokopenko, Inga; Stančáková, Alena; Sung, Yun Ju; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Yengo, Loïc; Zhang, Weihua; Albrecht, Eva; Ärnlöv, Johan; Arscott, Gillian M; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barrett, Amy; Bellis, Claire; Bennett, Amanda J; Berne, Christian; Blüher, Matthias; Böhringer, Stefan; Bonnet, Fabrice; Böttcher, Yvonne; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Carba, Delia B; Caspersen, Ida H; Clarke, Robert; Daw, E Warwick; Deelen, Joris; Deelman, Ewa; Delgado, Graciela; Doney, Alex SF; Eklund, Niina; Erdos, Michael R; Estrada, Karol; Eury, Elodie; Friedrich, Nele; Garcia, Melissa E; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Gigante, Bruna; Go, Alan S; Golay, Alain; Grallert, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grewal, Jagvir; Groves, Christopher J; Haller, Toomas; Hallmans, Goran; Hartman, Catharina A; Hassinen, Maija; Hayward, Caroline; Heikkilä, Kauko; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Helmer, Quinta; Hillege, Hans L; Holmen, Oddgeir; Hunt, Steven C; Isaacs, Aaron; Ittermann, Till; James, Alan L; Johansson, Ingegerd; Juliusdottir, Thorhildur; Kalafati, Ioanna-Panagiota; Kinnunen, Leena; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kooner, Ishminder K; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Lamina, Claudia; Leander, Karin; Lee, Nanette R; Lichtner, Peter; Lind, Lars; Lindström, Jaana; Lobbens, Stéphane; Lorentzon, Mattias; Mach, François; Magnusson, Patrik KE; Mahajan, Anubha; McArdle, Wendy L; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Mills, Rebecca; Moayyeri, Alireza; Monda, Keri L; Mooijaart, Simon P; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Mulas, Antonella; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Nalls, Michael A; Narisu, Narisu; Glorioso, Nicola; Nolte, Ilja M; Olden, Matthias; Rayner, Nigel W; Renstrom, Frida; Ried, Janina S; Robertson, Neil R; Rose, Lynda M; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Scholtens, Salome; Sennblad, Bengt; Seufferlein, Thomas; Sitlani, Colleen M; Smith, Albert Vernon; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stringham, Heather M; Sundström, Johan; Swertz, Morris A; Swift, Amy J; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tayo, Bamidele O; Thorand, Barbara; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Troffa, Chiara; van Oort, Floor VA; Verweij, Niek; Vonk, Judith M; Waite, Lindsay L; Wennauer, Roman; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojczynski, Mary K; Wong, Andrew; Zhang, Qunyuan; Zhao, Jing Hua; Brennan, Eoin P.; Choi, Murim; Eriksson, Per; Folkersen, Lasse; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Gharavi, Ali G; Hedman, Åsa K; Hivert, Marie-France; Huang, Jinyan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karpe, Fredrik; Keildson, Sarah; Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Liang, Liming; Lifton, Richard P; Ma, Baoshan; McKnight, Amy J; McPherson, Ruth; Metspalu, Andres; Min, Josine L; Moffatt, Miriam F; Montgomery, Grant W; Murabito, Joanne M; Nicholson, George; Nyholt, Dale R; Olsson, Christian; Perry, John RB; Reinmaa, Eva; Salem, Rany M; Sandholm, Niina; Schadt, Eric E; Scott, Robert A; Stolk, Lisette; Vallejo, Edgar E.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zondervan, Krina T; Amouyel, Philippe; Arveiler, Dominique; Bakker, Stephan JL; Beilby, John; Bergman, Richard N; Blangero, John; Brown, Morris J; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chines, Peter S; Claudi-Boehm, Simone; Collins, Francis S; Crawford, Dana C; Danesh, John; de Faire, Ulf; de Geus, Eco JC; Dörr, Marcus; Erbel, Raimund; Eriksson, Johan G; Farrall, Martin; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrières, Jean; Forouhi, Nita G; Forrester, Terrence; Franco, Oscar H; Gansevoort, Ron T; Gieger, Christian; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Haiman, Christopher A; Harris, Tamara B; Hattersley, Andrew T; Heliövaara, Markku; Hicks, Andrew A; Hingorani, Aroon D; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Humphries, Steve E; Hyppönen, Elina; Illig, Thomas; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Johansen, Berit; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jula, Antti M; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kee, Frank; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M; Kooner, Jaspal S; Kooperberg, Charles; Kovacs, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T; Kumari, Meena; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lakka, Timo A; Langenberg, Claudia; Le Marchand, Loic; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Männistö, Satu; Marette, André; Matise, Tara C; McKenzie, Colin A; McKnight, Barbara; Musk, Arthur W; Möhlenkamp, Stefan; Morris, Andrew D; Nelis, Mari; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Ong, Ken K; Palmer, Lyle J; Penninx, Brenda W; Peters, Annette; Pramstaller, Peter P; Raitakari, Olli T; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, DC; Rice, Treva K; Ridker, Paul M; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J; Saramies, Jouko; Sarzynski, Mark A; Schwarz, Peter EH; Shuldiner, Alan R; Staessen, Jan A; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stolk, Ronald P; Strauch, Konstantin; Tönjes, Anke; Tremblay, Angelo; Tremoli, Elena; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völker, Uwe; Vollenweider, Peter; Wilson, James F; Witteman, Jacqueline C; Adair, Linda S; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bouchard, Claude; Cauchi, Stéphane; Caulfield, Mark J; Chambers, John C; Chasman, Daniel I; Cooper, Richard S; Dedoussis, George; Ferrucci, Luigi; Froguel, Philippe; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Hamsten, Anders; Hui, Jennie; Hveem, Kristian; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kivimaki, Mika; Kuh, Diana; Laakso, Markku; Liu, Yongmei; März, Winfried; Munroe, Patricia B; Njølstad, Inger; Oostra, Ben A; Palmer, Colin NA; Pedersen, Nancy L; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Peters, Ulrike; Power, Chris; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Saaristo, Timo E; Saleheen, Danish; Sinisalo, Juha; Slagboom, P Eline; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Tim D; Stefansson, Kari; Stumvoll, Michael; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, André G; Uusitupa, Matti; van der Harst, Pim; Veronesi, Giovanni; Walker, Mark; Wareham, Nicholas J; Watkins, Hugh; Wichmann, H-Erich; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Assimes, Themistocles L; Berndt, Sonja I; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B; Deloukas, Panos; Franke, Lude; Frayling, Timothy M; Groop, Leif C; Hunter, David J.; Kaplan, Robert C; O’Connell, Jeffrey R; Qi, Lu; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Willer, Cristen J; Visscher, Peter M; Yang, Jian; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Zillikens, M Carola; McCarthy, Mark I; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; North, Kari E; Fox, Caroline S; Barroso, Inês; Franks, Paul W; Ingelsson, Erik; Heid, Iris M; Loos, Ruth JF; Cupples, L Adrienne; Morris, Andrew P; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Mohlke, Karen L

    2014-01-01

    Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, we conducted genome-wide association meta-analyses of waist and hip circumference-related traits in up to 224,459 individuals. We identified 49 loci (33 new) associated with waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index (WHRadjBMI) and an additional 19 loci newly associated with related waist and hip circumference measures (P<5×10−8). Twenty of the 49 WHRadjBMI loci showed significant sexual dimorphism, 19 of which displayed a stronger effect in women. The identified loci were enriched for genes expressed in adipose tissue and for putative regulatory elements in adipocytes. Pathway analyses implicated adipogenesis, angiogenesis, transcriptional regulation, and insulin resistance as processes affecting fat distribution, providing insight into potential pathophysiological mechanisms. PMID:25673412

  11. Comparison of isocaloric very low carbohydrate/high saturated fat and high carbohydrate/low saturated fat diets on body composition and cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Anthony P

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is speculated that high saturated fat very low carbohydrate diets (VLCARB have adverse effects on cardiovascular risk but evidence for this in controlled studies is lacking. The objective of this study was to compare, under isocaloric conditions, the effects of a VLCARB to 2 low saturated fat high carbohydrate diets on body composition and cardiovascular risk. Methods Eighty three subjects, 48 ± 8 y, total cholesterol 5.9 ± 1.0 mmol/L, BMI 33 ± 3 kg/m2 were randomly allocated to one of 3 isocaloric weight loss diets (6 MJ for 8 weeks and on the same diets in energy balance for 4 weeks: Very Low Fat (VLF (CHO:Fat:Protein; %SF = 70:10:20; 3%, High Unsaturated Fat (HUF = (50:30:20; 6%, VLCARB (4:61:35; 20% Results Percent fat mass loss was not different between diets VLCARB -4.5 ± 0.5, VLF-4.0 ± 0.5, HUF -4.4 ± 0.6 kg. Lean mass loss was 32-31% on VLCARB and VLF compared to HUF (21% (P Conclusion Isocaloric VLCARB results in similar fat loss than diets low in saturated fat, but are more effective in improving triacylglycerols, HDL-C, fasting and post prandial glucose and insulin concentrations. VLCARB may be useful in the short-term management of subjects with insulin resistance and hypertriacylglycerolemia.

  12. Relation of fat-mass and obesity-associated gene polymorphism to fat mass content and body mass index in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrzak, Beata; Wisniewska, Alicja; Majcher, Anna; Tysarowski, Andrzej; Demkow, Urszula

    2013-01-01

    Fat mass content, fat distribution, and fat-mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene have been reported among a broad spectrum of genetic variation connected with body weight. The aim of our study was to investigate whether the T/A rs9939609 polymorphism of the FTO gene may influence obesity and metabolic indices in children. A 160 children were examined (136 obese and 24 non-obese). The anthropometric measurements and calculations included: height, weight, waist and hip circumference, sum of the thickness of 3 and 10 skin folds, % of fat content, % FAT- BIA , % LBM-BIA. BMI, SDS of BMI, WHR, and WHtR. Fasting plasma total cholesterol (TC), HDL and LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and HOMA-IR were analyzed and the blood pressure were measured. The rs9939609 polymorphism of FTO gene was genotyped by allele-specific real-time polymerase chain- reaction (RT-PCR). We found that the mean concentrations of TC, TG, LDLC, and HOMA-IR were significantly higher, and HDL was lower in the obese than in non-obese children. The presence of TT, but not AA alleles, related to the percentage of fat content, BMI, and z-score of BMI. None of the other anthropometric indices did differ between the children with gene polymorphism and wild homozygous. In conclusion, rs9939609 polymorphism in the fat-mass and obesity-associated gene is associated with BMI and the percent of fat content in children.

  13. Central infusion of histamine reduces fat accumulation and upregulates UCP family in leptin-resistant obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, T; Yoshimatsu, H; Chiba, S; Watanabe, T; Sakata, T

    2001-02-01

    Leptin resistance has recently been confirmed not only in animal obese models but in human obesity. Evidence is rapidly emerging that suggests that activation of histamine signaling in the hypothalamus may have substantial anti-obesity and antidiabetic actions, particularly in leptin-resistant states. To address this issue, effects of central, chronic treatment with histamine on food intake, adiposity, and energy expenditure were examined using leptin-resistant obese and diabetic mice. Infusion of histamine (0.05 pmol x g body wt(-1) x day(-1)) into the lateral cerebroventricle (i.c.v.) for 7 successive days reduced food intake and body weight significantly in both diet-induced obesity (DIO) and db/db mice. Histamine treatment reduced body fat weight, ob gene expression, and serum leptin concentration more in the model mice than in pair-fed controls. The suppressive effect on fat deposition was significant in visceral fat but not in subcutaneous fat. Serum concentrations of glucose and/or insulin were reduced, and tests for glucose and insulin tolerance showed improvement of insulin sensitivity in those mice treated with histamine compared with pair-fed controls. On the other hand, gene expression of uncoupling protein (UCP)-1 in brown adipose tissue and UCP-3 expression in white adipose tissue were upregulated more in mice with i.c.v. histamine infusion than in the pair-fed controls. These upregulating effects of histamine were attenuated by targeted disruption of the H1-receptor in DIO and db/db mice. Sustained i.c.v. treatment with histamine thus makes it possible to partially restore the distorted energy intake and expenditure in leptin-resistant mice. Together, i.c.v. treatment with histamine contributes to improvement of energy balance even in leptin-resistant DIO and db/db mice.

  14. Lower birth weight and increased body fat at school age in children prenatally exposed to modern pesticides: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grandjean Philippe

    2011-09-01

    combinations of modern, non-persistent pesticides during early pregnancy was associated with affected growth, both prenatally and postnatally. We found a biphasic association with lower weight at birth followed by increased body fat accumulation from birth to school age. We cannot rule out some residual confounding due to differences in social class, although this was adjusted for. Associations were stronger in highly exposed than in medium exposed children, and effects on body fat content at school age was potentiated by maternal smoking in pregnancy.

  15. Relation of Body's Lean Mass, Fat Mass, and Body Mass Index With Submaximal Systolic Blood Pressure in Young Adult Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Vivek K; Drenowatz, Clemens; Hand, Gregory A; Lavie, Carl J; Sui, Xuemei; Demello, Madison; Blair, Steven N

    2016-02-01

    We examined the association of body composition and body mass index (BMI) with submaximal systolic blood pressure (SSBP) among young adult men. The analysis included 211 men with BMI between 20 and 35 kg/m(2). Total lean mass and fat mass were measured using dual x-ray absorptiometry and lean mass percentage was calculated from the total lean mass. Fat mass index (FMI) and BMI were calculated using height and weight (total fat mass and total weight, respectively) measurements. SSBP was measured at each stage of a graded exercise test. Quintiles of lean mass percentage, FMI, and BMI were created with quintile 1 the lowest and quintile 5 the highest lean mass percentage, FMI, and BMI. Compared with men in lean mass percentage quintile 1, those in quintiles 2, 3, and 4 had significantly lower SSBP, whereas there was no significant difference in SSBP between quintile 1 and 5 at 6, 8, and 10 minutes. Compared with men in FMI quintile 5, those in quintiles 2, 3, and 4 had significantly lower SSBP, whereas there was no significant difference in SSBP between quintile 1 and 5. SSBP among men in lean mass percentage quintile 5 and FMI quintile 1 were still less than lean mass percentage quintile 1 and FMI quintile 5, respectively. There were no significant differences in SSBP across BMI quintiles 1 to 4 but a significantly higher SSBP in quintile 5 compared with quintiles 1 to 4. In conclusion, there was a J-curve pattern between SSBP and components of body composition, whereas, a linear relation between SSBP and BMI.

  16. Review of the Mechanisms and Effects of Noninvasive Body Contouring Devices on Cellulite and Subcutaneous Fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alizadeh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Context Today, different kinds of non-invasive body contouring modalities, including cryolipolysis, radiofrequency (RF, low-level laser therapy (LLLT, and high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU are available for reducing the volume of subcutaneous adipose tissue or cellulite. Each procedure has distinct mechanisms for stimulating apoptosis or necrosis adipose tissue. In addition to the mentioned techniques, some investigations are underway for analyzing the efficacy of other techniques such as whole body vibration (WBV and extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT. In the present review the mechanisms, effects and side effects of the mentioned methods have been discussed. The effect of these devices on cellulite or subcutaneous fat reduction has been assessed. Evidence Acquisition We searched pubmed, google scholar and the cochrane databases for systemic reviews, review articles, meta-analysis and randomized clinical trials up to February 2015. The keywords were subcutaneous fat, cellulite, obesity, noninvasive body contouring, cryolipolysis, RF, LLLT, HIFU, ESWT and WBV with full names and abbreviations. Results We included seven reviews and 66 original articles in the present narrative review. Most of them were applied on normal weight or overweight participants (body mass index < 30 kg/m2 in both genders with broad range of ages (18 to 50 years on average. In the original articles, the numbers of included methods were: 10 HIFU, 13 RF, 22 cryolipolysis, 11 LLLT, 5 ESWT and 4 WBV therapies. Six of the articles evaluated combination therapies and seven compared the effects of different devices. Conclusions Some of the noninvasive body contouring devices in animal and human studies such as cryolipolysis, RF, LLLT and HIFU showed statistical significant effects on body contouring, removing unwanted fat and cellulite in some body areas. However, the clinical effects are mild to moderate, for example 2 - 4 cm circumference reduction as a sign of

  17. The role of body mass index, insulin, and adiponectin in the relation between fat distribution and bone mineral density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C. Zillikens (Carola); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); J.P.T.M. van Leeuwen (Hans); A.L. Berends (Anne); P. Henneman (Peter); J.A.P. Willems van Dijk (Ko); B.A. Oostra (Ben); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); H.A.P. Pols (Huib); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractDespite the positive association between body mass index (BMI) and bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC), the role of fat distribution in BMD/BMC remains unclear. We examined relationships between BMD/BMC and various measurements of fat distribution and studied the role of BMI, in

  18. Neuronal histamine decreases fat accumulation and up-regulates UCP family in db/db obese mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    To examine anti-obesity and-diabetic effects of neuronal histamine especially in leptin resistant states, we investigated the effects of chronic central treatment with histamine on lipid, glucose and energy metabolism of db/db obese mice, which are genetically leptin receptor mutated mice. Chronic centrally treatment with histamine (0.05 μmol*g-1 body weight*d-1 for 7 days) decreased body weight, food intake in db/db obese mice, and decreased body fat weight, serum concentration of glucose compared with pair-fed db/db obese mice. Neuronal histamine also suppressed ob mRNA in the white adipose tissue (WAT), serum leptin and increased UCPs mRNA expression in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and in WAT compared with pair-fed controls. These above effects of the histamine were attenuated in these mice with combination of targeted disruption of the histamine H1 receptor gene. In conclusion, neuronal histamine can regulate body fat deposition, serum glucose, leptin, BAT and WAT UCPs expression even in leptin insensitive db/db obese mice.

  19. Body composition among Sri Lankan infants by 18*O dilution method and the validity of anthropometric equations to predict body fat against 18*O dilution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Body composition indicators provide a better guidance for growth and nutritional status of the infants. This study was designed to (1) measure the body composition of the Sri Lankan infants using a reference method, the 18*O dilution method; (2) calculate the body fat content of the infants using pu...

  20. Development of a body condition scoring index for female African elephants validated by ultrasound measurements of subcutaneous fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfeld, Kari A; Lehnhardt, John; Alligood, Christina; Bolling, Jeff; Brown, Janine L

    2014-01-01

    Obesity-related health and reproductive problems may be contributing to non-sustainability of zoo African elephant (Loxodonta africana) populations. However, a major constraint in screening for obesity in elephants is lack of a practical method to accurately assess body fat. Body condition scoring (BCS) is the assessment of subcutaneous fat stores based on visual evaluation and provides an immediate appraisal of the degree of obesity of an individual. The objective of this study was to develop a visual BCS index for female African elephants and validate it using ultrasound measures of subcutaneous fat. To develop the index, standardized photographs were collected from zoo (n = 50) and free-ranging (n = 57) female African elephants for identifying key body regions and skeletal features, which were then used to visually determine body fat deposition patterns. This information was used to develop a visual BCS method consisting of a list of body regions and the physical criteria for assigning an overall score on a 5-point scale, with 1 representing the lowest and 5 representing the highest levels of body fat. Results showed that as BCS increased, ultrasound measures of subcutaneous fat thickness also increased (Pelephants, the median BCS in the free-ranging individuals (BCS = 3, range 1-5) was lower (Pelephants. This tool can be used to examine which factors impact body condition in zoo and free-ranging elephants, providing valuable information on how it affects health and reproductive potential of individual elephants.

  1. Irisin plasma concentration in PCOS and healthy subjects is related to body fat content and android fat distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukajło, Katarzyna; Łaczmański, Łukasz; Kolackov, Katarzyna; Kuliczkowska-Płaksej, Justyna; Bolanowski, Marek; Milewicz, Andrzej; Daroszewski, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Irisin (Ir), a recently identified adipo-myokine, cleaved and secreted from the protein FNDC5 in response to physical activity, has been postulated to induce the differentiation of a subset of white adipocytes into brown fat and to mediate the beneficial effects on metabolic homeostasis. Metabolic syndrome (MS), a cluster of factors leading to impaired energy homeostasis, affects a significant proportion of subjects suffering from polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between Ir plasma concentrations and metabolic disturbances. The study group consisted of 179 PCOS patients and a population of 122 healthy controls (both groups aged 25-35 years). A subset of 90 subjects with MS was isolated. A positive association between Ir plasma level and MS in the whole group and in controls was found. In subjects with high adipose body content (>40%), Ir was higher than in lean persons (<30%). Our results showed a significant positive association between Ir concentration and android type of adipose tissue in the whole study group and in the control group. Understanding the role of Ir in increased energy expenditure may lead to the development of new therapeutics for obesity and obesity-related diseases.

  2. Menopause is associated with decreased whole body fat oxidation during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abildgaard, J; Pedersen, A T; Green, C J; Harder-Lauridsen, N M; Solomon, T P; Thomsen, C; Juul, A; Pedersen, M; Pedersen, J T; Mortensen, O H; Pilegaard, H; Pedersen, B K; Lindegaard, B

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if fat oxidation was affected by menopausal status and to investigate if this could be related to the oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle. Forty-one healthy women were enrolled in this cross-sectional study [premenopausal (n = 19), perimenopausal (n = 8), and postmenopausal (n = 14)]. Estimated insulin sensitivity was obtained from an oral glucose tolerance test. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging. Fat oxidation and energy expenditure were measured during an acute exercise bout of 45 min of ergometer biking at 50% of maximal oxygen consumption (Vo2 max). Muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis of the quadriceps muscle were obtained before and immediately after the exercise bout. Postmenopausal women had 33% [confidence interval (CI) 95%: 12-55] lower whole body fat oxidation (P = 0.005) and 19% (CI 95%: 9-22) lower energy expenditure (P = 0.02) during exercise, as well as 4.28 kg lower lean body mass (LBM) than premenopausal women. Correction for LBM reduced differences in fat oxidation to 23% (P = 0.05), whereas differences in energy expenditure disappeared (P = 0.22). No differences between groups were found in mRNA [carnitine palmitoyltransferase I, β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (β-HAD), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α, citrate synthase (CS), pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α)], protein [phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), vascular endothelial growth factor, pyruvate dehydrogenase-1Eα, cytochrome oxidase I], or enzyme activities (β-HAD, CS) in resting skeletal muscle, except for an increased protein level of cytochrome c in the post- and perimenopausal women relative to premenopausal women. Postmenopausal women demonstrated a trend to a blunted exercise-induced increase in phosphorylation of AMPK compared with premenopausal women (P = 0.06). We conclude

  3. Exploring the Dietary Patterns of Young New Zealand Women and Associations with BMI and Body Fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrijvers, Jenna K; McNaughton, Sarah A; Beck, Kathryn L; Kruger, Rozanne

    2016-07-26

    Examining dietary patterns provides an alternative approach to investigating dietary behaviors related to excess adiposity. The study aim was to investigate dietary patterns and body composition profiles of New Zealand European (NZE) women, participating in the women's EXPLORE (Examining the Predictors Linking Obesity Related Elements) study. Post-menarche, pre-menopausal NZE women (16-45 years) (n = 231) completed a validated 220-item, self-administrated, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated using measured height (cm) and weight (kg); body fat percentage (BF%) was measured using air displacement plethysmography (BodPod). Dietary patterns were identified using principal component factor analysis. Associations between dietary patterns, age, BMI and BF% were investigated. Four dietary patterns were identified: snacking; energy-dense meat; fruit and vegetable; healthy, which explained 6.9%, 6.8%, 5.6% and 4.8% of food intake variation, respectively. Age (p = 0.012) and BMI (p = 0.016) were positively associated with the "energy-dense meat" pattern. BF% (p = 0.016) was positively associated with the "energy-dense meat" pattern after adjusting for energy intake. The women following the identified dietary patterns had carbohydrate intakes below and saturated fat intakes above recommended guidelines. Dietary patterns in NZE women explain only some variations in body composition. Further research should examine other potential factors including physical activity and socioeconomic status.

  4. Exploring the Dietary Patterns of Young New Zealand Women and Associations with BMI and Body Fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna K. Schrijvers

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Examining dietary patterns provides an alternative approach to investigating dietary behaviors related to excess adiposity. The study aim was to investigate dietary patterns and body composition profiles of New Zealand European (NZE women, participating in the women’s EXPLORE (Examining the Predictors Linking Obesity Related Elements study. Post-menarche, pre-menopausal NZE women (16–45 years (n = 231 completed a validated 220-item, self-administrated, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Body mass index (BMI was calculated using measured height (cm and weight (kg; body fat percentage (BF% was measured using air displacement plethysmography (BodPod. Dietary patterns were identified using principal component factor analysis. Associations between dietary patterns, age, BMI and BF% were investigated. Four dietary patterns were identified: snacking; energy-dense meat; fruit and vegetable; healthy, which explained 6.9%, 6.8%, 5.6% and 4.8% of food intake variation, respectively. Age (p = 0.012 and BMI (p = 0.016 were positively associated with the “energy-dense meat” pattern. BF% (p = 0.016 was positively associated with the “energy-dense meat” pattern after adjusting for energy intake. The women following the identified dietary patterns had carbohydrate intakes below and saturated fat intakes above recommended guidelines. Dietary patterns in NZE women explain only some variations in body composition. Further research should examine other potential factors including physical activity and socioeconomic status.

  5. The impact of dietary fat withdrawal on carcass iodine value, belly characteristics, and changes in body fat over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, T A; Prusa, K J; Patience, J F

    2015-01-01

    The inclusion of unsaturated fats in pig diets has raised issues related to pork carcass fat quality. The objective of this experiment was to understand how withdrawal from the diet of unsaturated dietary fat before slaughter impacts the composition of jowl fat during the growth cycle and at market. Fifty individually housed pigs (PIC 337 × C22/29; initial BW = 59.3 ± 0.55 kg) were allotted based on sex and initial BW to 10 treatments for an 82-d experiment as follows: 3 dietary fat withdrawal times before slaughter (21, 42, or 63 d) by 3 dietary fat unsaturation loads (DFUL), which includea high intake of unsaturated fatty acids supplied through an inclusion of 5% corn oil (HIGH), a high intake of a mixture of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids supplied through an inclusion of 5% animal-vegetable blend (MED), and a moderate intake of unsaturated fatty acids supplied through an inclusion of 2.5% corn oil (LOW). Pigs were weighed and jowl adipose samples were collected on d 0, 21, 42, and 63 and at harvest on d 82. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED with treatment and sex as fixed effects. At market (d 82), increasing the withdrawal of dietary fat further away from market increased 18:1 (P = 0.045) and tended to increase 14:0 concentrations (P = 0.054). It also significantly decreased 18:2 (P < 0.001) and tended to decrease 18:3 concentrations (P = 0.081). A HIGH DFUL resulted in the greatest 18:2 concentrations in jowl fat followed by LOW; MED resulted in the lowest 18:2 levels (P < 0.001). Dietary fat withdrawal before market significantly reduced carcass iodine value (IV) measured at d 82 (P = 0.006). In conclusion, elevated 18:2 intake makes lowering carcass IV in the depot fat very difficult and may take as long as 61 d. The withdrawal of unsaturated dietary fat apparently altered the fat depot to be more reflective of fat synthesized de novo, resulting in a more saturated depot fat. Importantly, this alteration of deposited fat composition did not

  6. The Relationship Between Body Fat Percentage and Body Mass Index in Overweight and Obese Individuals in an Urban African Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Julie S.; Igumbor, Ehimario U.

    2016-01-01

    The increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in both developed and developing countries is associated with musculoskeletal and other non-communicable diseases. To address this, an accurate measure of body adiposity, bearing in mind several shortcomings of body mass index (BMI), should be used. This study determined the relationship between BMI and body fat (BF)% among adult Nigerians of different ethnic groups residing in an urban setting. Using multistage cluster sampling technique were recruited 1571 subjects (>18 years; male=51.2%) in a cross-sectional study. Body adiposity indices were assessed using BMI and BF%. Using BF%, the result shows that a total number of 156 (9.9%) had low BF% while 291 (18.5%) had very high BF%, while the BMI classifications of body adiposity, 68 (4.3%) were underweight while 271 (17.3%) were obese. There was a strong and positive statistical relationship between BF% and BMI when both were paired without controlling for gender and age (r=0.81, PBMI and BF%, and age and sex are predictors of this association.

  7. Energy absorption, lean body mass, and total body fat changes during 5 weeks of continuous bed rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Jean M.; Evans, Harlan; Kuo, Mike C.; Schneider, Victor S.; Leblanc, Adrian D.

    1990-01-01

    The nature of the body composition changes due to inactivity was examined together with the question of whether these changes are secondary to changes in energy absorption. Volunteers were 15 healthy males who lived on a metabolic research ward under close staff supervision for 11 weeks. Subjects were ambulatory during the first six weeks and remained in continuous bed rest for the last five weeks of the study. Six male volunteers (age 24-61 years) were selected for body composition measurements. Nine different male volunteers (age 21-50 years) were selected for energy absorption measurements. The volunteers were fed weighed conventional foods on a constant 7-d rotation menu. The average daily caloric content was 2,592 kcal. Comparing the five weeks of continuous bed rest with the previous six weeks of ambulation, it was observed that there was no change in energy absorption or total body weight during bed rest, but a significant decrease in lean body mass and a significant increase in total body fat (p less than 0.05).

  8. New loci for body fat percentage reveal link between adiposity and cardiometabolic disease risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yingchang; Day, Felix R.; Gustafsson, Stefan; Buchkovich, Martin L.; Na, Jianbo; Bataille, Veronique; Cousminer, Diana L.; Dastani, Zari; Drong, Alexander W.; Esko, Tõnu; Evans, David M.; Falchi, Mario; Feitosa, Mary F.; Ferreira, Teresa; Hedman, Åsa K.; Haring, Robin; Hysi, Pirro G.; Iles, Mark M.; Justice, Anne E.; Kanoni, Stavroula; Lagou, Vasiliki; Li, Rui; Li, Xin; Locke, Adam; Lu, Chen; Mägi, Reedik; Perry, John R. B.; Pers, Tune H.; Qi, Qibin; Sanna, Marianna; Schmidt, Ellen M.; Scott, William R.; Shungin, Dmitry; Teumer, Alexander; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A. E.; Walker, Ryan W.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zhang, Mingfeng; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhu, Zhihong; Afzal, Uzma; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Bellis, Claire; Bonnefond, Amélie; Borodulin, Katja; Buchman, Aron S.; Cederholm, Tommy; Choh, Audrey C.; Choi, Hyung Jin; Curran, Joanne E.; de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.; De Jager, Philip L.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A. M.; Enneman, Anke W.; Eury, Elodie; Evans, Daniel S.; Forsen, Tom; Friedrich, Nele; Fumeron, Frédéric; Garcia, Melissa E.; Gärtner, Simone; Han, Bok-Ghee; Havulinna, Aki S.; Hayward, Caroline; Hernandez, Dena; Hillege, Hans; Ittermann, Till; Kent, Jack W.; Kolcic, Ivana; Laatikainen, Tiina; Lahti, Jari; Leach, Irene Mateo; Lee, Christine G.; Lee, Jong-Young; Liu, Tian; Liu, Youfang; Lobbens, Stéphane; Loh, Marie; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Michaëlsson, Karl; Nalls, Mike A.; Nielson, Carrie M.; Oozageer, Laticia; Pascoe, Laura; Paternoster, Lavinia; Polašek, Ozren; Ripatti, Samuli; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Shin, Chan Soo; Narančić, Nina Smolej; Spira, Dominik; Srikanth, Priya; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Sung, Yun Ju; Swart, Karin M. A.; Taittonen, Leena; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tikkanen, Emmi; van der Velde, Nathalie; van Schoor, Natasja M.; Verweij, Niek; Wright, Alan F.; Yu, Lei; Zmuda, Joseph M.; Eklund, Niina; Forrester, Terrence; Grarup, Niels; Jackson, Anne U.; Kristiansson, Kati; Kuulasmaa, Teemu; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lichtner, Peter; Luan, Jian'an; Mahajan, Anubha; Männistö, Satu; Palmer, Cameron D.; Ried, Janina S.; Scott, Robert A.; Stancáková, Alena; Wagner, Peter J.; Demirkan, Ayse; Döring, Angela; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Kiel, Douglas P.; Kühnel, Brigitte; Mangino, Massimo; Mcknight, Barbara; Menni, Cristina; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Oostra, Ben A.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Song, Kijoung; Vandenput, Liesbeth; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Vollenweider, Peter; White, Charles C.; Boehnke, Michael; Boettcher, Yvonne; Cooper, Richard S.; Forouhi, Nita G.; Gieger, Christian; Grallert, Harald; Hingorani, Aroon; Jørgensen, Torben; Jousilahti, Pekka; Kivimaki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Laakso, Markku; Langenberg, Claudia; Linneberg, Allan; Luke, Amy; Mckenzie, Colin A.; Palotie, Aarno; Pedersen, Oluf; Peters, Annette; Strauch, Konstantin; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Bennett, David A.; Bertram, Lars; Blangero, John; Blüher, Matthias; Bouchard, Claude; Campbell, Harry; Cho, Nam H.; Cummings, Steven R.; Czerwinski, Stefan A.; Demuth, Ilja; Eckardt, Rahel; Eriksson, Johan G.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franco, Oscar H.; Froguel, Philippe; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Hansen, Torben; Harris, Tamara B.; Hastie, Nicholas; Heliövaara, Markku; Hofman, Albert; Jordan, Joanne M.; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kajantie, Eero; Knekt, Paul B.; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lind, Lars; Liu, Yongmei; Orwoll, Eric S.; Osmond, Clive; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Raitakari, Olli T.; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D. C.; Rice, Treva K.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Stumvoll, Michael; Tönjes, Anke; Towne, Bradford; Tranah, Gregory J.; Tremblay, Angelo; Uitterlinden, André G.; van der Harst, Pim; Vartiainen, Erkki; Viikari, Jorma S.; Vitart, Veronique; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völzke, Henry; Walker, Mark; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wild, Sarah; Wilson, James F.; Yengo, Loïc; Bishop, D. Timothy; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Chambers, John C.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Dehghan, Abbas; Deloukas, Panos; Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Fox, Caroline; Furey, Terrence S.; Franke, Lude; Han, Jiali; Hunter, David J.; Karjalainen, Juha; Karpe, Fredrik; Kaplan, Robert C.; Kooner, Jaspal S.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Morris, Andrew P.; Bishop, Julia A. N.; North, Kari E.; Ohlsson, Claes; Ong, Ken K.; Prokopenko, Inga; Richards, J. Brent; Schadt, Eric E.; Spector, Tim D.; Widén, Elisabeth; Willer, Cristen J.; Yang, Jian; Ingelsson, Erik; Mohlke, Karen L.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Pospisilik, John Andrew; Zillikens, M. Carola; Lindgren, Cecilia; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas Oskari; Loos, Ruth J. F.

    2016-01-01

    To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of adiposity and its links to cardiometabolic disease risk, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of body fat percentage (BF%) in up to 100,716 individuals. Twelve loci reached genome-wide significance (PCRTC1) were novel associations with BF%. Seven loci showed a larger effect on BF% than on BMI, suggestive of a primary association with adiposity, while five loci showed larger effects on BMI than on BF%, suggesting association with both fat and lean mass. In particular, the loci more strongly associated with BF% showed distinct cross-phenotype association signatures with a range of cardiometabolic traits revealing new insights in the link between adiposity and disease risk. PMID:26833246

  9. Percentile curves for body fatness and cut-offs to define malnutrition in Russians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, D. V.; Rudnev, S. G.; Starunova, O. A.; Eryukova, T. A.; Kolesnikov, V. A.; Ponomareva, E. G.; Soboleva, N. P.; Sterlikov, S. A.

    2013-04-01

    Here, we report first results of the large-scale ongoing bioelectrical impedance body composition study in Russians. By the end of 2012, 216 out of 800 Russian Health Centres submitted raw bioimpedance data on 844,221 adults and children aged 5-80 years, representing nearly 0.6% of the Russian population, who were accessed cross-sectionally using the same type of bioimpedance meter, ABC-01 Medas. Estimates of overweight, obesity, and normal weight obesity prevalence in the general population, as well as characteristics of diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the conventional WHO BMI-based criteria of obesity depending on age are obtained. The smoothed reference centile curves for percentage fat mass are constructed, and localized cut-offs for fatness and thinness are provided that can be used both at the individual and epidemiological levels.

  10. New loci for body fat percentage reveal link between adiposity and cardiometabolic disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Yingchang; Day, Felix R; Gustafsson, Stefan;

    2016-01-01

    To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of adiposity and its links to cardiometabolic disease risk, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of body fat percentage (BF%) in up to 100,716 individuals. Twelve loci reached genome-wide significance (P... were previously associated with increased overall adiposity (BMI, BF%) and four (in or near COBLL1/GRB14, IGF2BP1, PLA2G6, CRTC1) were novel associations with BF%. Seven loci showed a larger effect on BF% than on BMI, suggestive of a primary association with adiposity, while five loci showed larger...... effects on BMI than on BF%, suggesting association with both fat and lean mass. In particular, the loci more strongly associated with BF% showed distinct cross-phenotype association signatures with a range of cardiometabolic traits revealing new insights in the link between adiposity and disease risk....

  11. Body Fat Percentile Curves for Korean Children and Adolescents: A Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kirang; Yun, Sung Ha; Jang, Myoung Jin; Oh, Kyung Won

    2013-01-01

    A valid assessment of obesity in children and adolescents is important due to significant change in body composition during growth. This study aimed to develop percentile curves of body fat and fat free mass using the Lambda, Mu, and Sigma method, and to examine the relationship among body mass index (BMI), fat mass and fat free mass in Korean children and adolescents, using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2009-2010. The study subjects were 834 for boys an...

  12. Analysis of time-dependent adaptations in whole-body energy balance in obesity induced by high-fat diet in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maghdoori Babak

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-fat (HF diet has been extensively used as a model to study metabolic disorders of human obesity in rodents. However, the adaptive whole-body metabolic responses that drive the development of obesity with chronically feeding a HF diet are not fully understood. Therefore, this study investigated the physiological mechanisms by which whole-body energy balance and substrate partitioning are adjusted in the course of HF diet-induced obesity. Methods Male Wistar rats were fed ad libitum either a standard or a HF diet for 8 weeks. Food intake (FI and body weight were monitored daily, while oxygen consumption, respiratory exchange ratio, physical activity, and energy expenditure (EE were assessed weekly. At week 8, fat mass and lean body mass (LBM, fatty acid oxidation and uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1 content in brown adipose tissue (BAT, as well as acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC content in liver and epidydimal fat were measured. Results Within 1 week of ad libitum HF diet, rats were able to spontaneously reduce FI to precisely match energy intake of control rats, indicating that alterations in dietary energy density were rapidly detected and FI was self-regulated accordingly. Oxygen consumption was higher in HF than controls throughout the study as whole-body fat oxidation also progressively increased. In HF rats, EE initially increased, but then reduced as dark cycle ambulatory activity reached values ~38% lower than controls. No differences in LBM were detected; however, epidydimal, inguinal, and retroperitoneal fat pads were 1.85-, 1.89-, and 2.54-fold larger in HF-fed than control rats, respectively. Plasma leptin was higher in HF rats than controls throughout the study, indicating the induction of leptin resistance by HF diet. At week 8, UCP-1 content and palmitate oxidation in BAT were 3.1- and 1.5-fold higher in HF rats than controls, respectively, while ACC content in liver and epididymal fat was markedly reduced

  13. Dietary protein content affects evolution for body size, body fat and viability in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Torsten N; Overgaard, Johannes; Loeschcke, Volker;

    2011-01-01

    The ability to use different food sources is likely to be under strong selection if organisms are faced with natural variation in macro-nutrient (protein, carbohydrate and lipid) availabilities. Here, we use experimental evolution to study how variable dietary protein content affects adult body c...

  14. Eating Disorder Risk and Body Dissatisfaction Based on Muscularity and Body Fat in Male University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Carrie; George, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between risk of eating disorders, body dissatisfaction, and perceptual attractiveness in male university students. Participants: Research was conducted January-April 2012 and involved 339 male and 441 female students. Methods: Eating disorder risk was assessed with the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) and body…

  15. Lethal body concentrations and accumulation patterns determine time-dependent toxicity of cadmium in soil arthropods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crommentuijn, T.; Doodeman, C.J.A.M.; Doornekamp, A.; Pol, J.J.C. van der; Bedaux, J.J.M.; Gestel, C.A.M. van (Vrije Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands))

    1994-11-01

    Time-dependent toxicity in bioassays is usually explained in terms of uptake and elimination kinetics of the toxicant. By comparing different species with essentially different accumulation kinetics, a firm test of this concept may be made. This article compares the sensitivity of six soil arthropods, the collembolans Orchesella cincta and Tomocerus minor, the oribatid mite Platynothrus peltifer, the isopods Porcellio scaber and Oniscus asellus, and the diplopod Cylindroiulus britannicus, when exposed to cadmium in the food. Survival was determined at various time intervals; accumulation of cadmium in the animals was measured at one time interval. Kinetic-based toxicity models were fitted to the data, and estimates were obtained for lethal body concentration, uptake rate constant, elimination rate constant, and ultimate LC50. Two different accumulation patterns could be discerned; these were correlated with time-survival relationships. One, species that have the possibility to eliminate cadmium will reach an equilibrium for the internal concentration and also an ultimate LC50. Two, species that are unable to eliminate cadmium but store it in the body will have an ultimate LC50 equal to zero. For these species the time in which the lethal body concentration is reached is more important. Taxonomically related species appeared to have comparable accumulation patterns, but lethal body concentrations differed. It is concluded that knowledge of the accumulation pattern is indispensable for the evaluation of species' sensitivities to toxicants.

  16. Modification of corporal weight, body fat distribution, blood lipids and glucose levels in oral contraceptive users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza-Lira, S; Bueno Fontal, J P

    2000-01-01

    The association between oral contraceptives and the modification of corporal weight and body fat distribution is controversial. The characteristics of the menstrual cycle, lipids and glucose levels were also analyzed. Thirty women who received ethinylestradiol 0.035 mg and norethindrone 0.400 mg for one year were studied. The following variables were analyzed every 3 months: weight, body mass index (BMI), hip perimeter, waist perimeter, waist-hip ratio (WHR), duration of menstrual cycle, quantity of uterine bleeding, as well as blood levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose. Waist and hip perimeters increased during the third evaluation; as well as the BMI starting from the second evaluation. The triglycerides levels rose from the first evaluation. No modifications were found in the WHR, glucose and cholesterol levels and the duration of the menstrual cycle, but the quantity of uterine bleeding decreased from the third month. The oral contraceptive significantly increased BMI and triglycerides level, but no changes were detected in body fat distribution, cholesterol and glucose levels. Uterine bleeding decreased from the first evaluation.

  17. Body Adiposity Index Performance in Estimating Body Fat Percentage in Colombian College Students: Findings from the FUPRECOL—Adults Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; González-Ruíz, Katherine; Vivas, Andrés; Triana-Reina, Héctor Reynaldo; Martínez-Torres, Javier; Prieto-Benavides, Daniel Humberto; Carrillo, Hugo Alejandro; Ramos-Sepúlveda, Jeison Alexander; Villa-González, Emilio; García-Hermoso, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Recently, a body adiposity index (BAI = (hip circumference)/((height)(1.5))−18) was developed and validated in adult populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of BAI in estimating percentage body fat (BF%) in a sample of Colombian collegiate young adults. The participants were comprised of 903 volunteers (52% females, mean age = 21.4 years ± 3.3). We used the Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient, linear regression, Bland–Altman’s agreement analysis, concordance correlation coefficient (ρc) and the coefficient of determination (R2) between BAI, and BF%; by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA)). The correlation between the two methods of estimating BF% was R2 = 0.384, p < 0.001. A paired-sample t-test showed a difference between the methods (BIA BF% = 16.2 ± 3.1, BAI BF% = 30.0 ± 5.4%; p < 0.001). For BIA, bias value was 6.0 ± 6.2 BF% (95% confidence interval (CI) = −6.0 to 18.2), indicating that the BAI method overestimated BF% relative to the reference method. Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient was poor (ρc = 0.014, 95% CI = −0.124 to 0.135; p = 0.414). In Colombian college students, there was poor agreement between BAI- and BIA-based estimates of BF%, and so BAI is not accurate in people with low or high body fat percentage levels. PMID:28106719

  18. Body Adiposity Index Performance in Estimating Body Fat Percentage in Colombian College Students: Findings from the FUPRECOL—Adults Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Ramírez-Vélez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a body adiposity index (BAI = (hip circumference/((height(1.5−18 was developed and validated in adult populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of BAI in estimating percentage body fat (BF% in a sample of Colombian collegiate young adults. The participants were comprised of 903 volunteers (52% females, mean age = 21.4 years ± 3.3. We used the Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient, linear regression, Bland–Altman’s agreement analysis, concordance correlation coefficient (ρc and the coefficient of determination (R2 between BAI, and BF%; by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA. The correlation between the two methods of estimating BF% was R2 = 0.384, p < 0.001. A paired-sample t-test showed a difference between the methods (BIA BF% = 16.2 ± 3.1, BAI BF% = 30.0 ± 5.4%; p < 0.001. For BIA, bias value was 6.0 ± 6.2 BF% (95% confidence interval (CI = −6.0 to 18.2, indicating that the BAI method overestimated BF% relative to the reference method. Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient was poor (ρc = 0.014, 95% CI = −0.124 to 0.135; p = 0.414. In Colombian college students, there was poor agreement between BAI- and BIA-based estimates of BF%, and so BAI is not accurate in people with low or high body fat percentage levels.

  19. Body electrical loss analysis (BELA) in the assessment of visceral fat: a demonstration

    OpenAIRE

    Blomqvist Kim H; Lundbom Jesper; Lundbom Nina; Sepponen Raimo E

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Body electrical loss analysis (BELA) is a new non-invasive way to assess visceral fat depot size through the use of electromagnetism. BELA has worked well in phantom measurements, but the technology is not yet fully validated. Methods Ten volunteers (5 men and 5 women, age: 22-60 y, BMI: 21-30 kg/m2, waist circumference: 73-108 cm) were measured with the BELA instrument and with cross-sectional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at the navel level, navel +5 cm and navel -5 c...

  20. Effects of 2 different prior endurance exercises on whole-body fat oxidation kinetics: light vs. heavy exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenevière, Xavier; Borrani, Fabio; Droz, David; Gojanovic, Boris; Malatesta, Davide

    2012-10-01

    This study aimed to compare the effects of 2 different prior endurance exercises on subsequent whole-body fat oxidation kinetics. Fifteen men performed 2 identical submaximal incremental tests (Incr2) on a cycle ergometer after (i) a ∼40-min submaximal incremental test (Incr1) followed by a 90-min continuous exercise performed at 50% of maximal aerobic power-output and a 1-h rest period (Heavy); and (ii) Incr1 followed by a 2.5-h rest period (Light). Fat oxidation was measured using indirect calorimetry and plotted as a function of exercise intensity during Incr1 and Incr2. A sinusoidal equation, including 3 independent variables (dilatation, symmetry and translation), was used to characterize the fat oxidation kinetics and to determine the intensity (Fat(max)) that elicited the maximal fat oxidation (MFO) during Incr. After the Heavy and Light trials, Fat(max), MFO, and fat oxidation rates were significantly greater during Incr2 than Incr1 (p < 0.001). However, Δ (i.e., Incr2-Incr1) Fat(max), MFO, and fat oxidation rates were greater in the Heavy compared with the Light trial (p < 0.05). The fat oxidation kinetics during Incr2(Heavy) showed a greater dilatation and rightward asymmetry than Incr1(Heavy), whereas only a greater dilatation was observed in Incr2(Light) (p < 0.05). This study showed that although to a lesser extent in the Light trial, both prior exercise sessions led to an increase in Fat(max), MFO, and absolute fat oxidation rates during Incr2, inducing significant changes in the shape of the fat oxidation kinetics.

  1. Neural adaptation to thin and fat bodies in the fusiform body area and middle occipital gyrus: an fMRI adaptation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Dennis; Rudolf, Anne K; Brandi, Marie-Luise; Untch, Karl-Heinz; Grabhorn, Ralph; Hampel, Harald; Mohr, Harald M

    2013-12-01

    Visual perception can be strongly biased due to exposure to specific stimuli in the environment, often causing neural adaptation and visual aftereffects. In this study, we investigated whether adaptation to certain body shapes biases the perception of the own body shape. Furthermore, we aimed to evoke neural adaptation to certain body shapes. Participants completed a behavioral experiment (n = 14) to rate manipulated pictures of their own bodies after adaptation to demonstratively thin or fat pictures of their own bodies. The same stimuli were used in a second experiment (n = 16) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) adaptation. In the behavioral experiment, after adapting to a thin picture of the own body participants also judged a thinner than actual body picture to be the most realistic and vice versa, resembling a typical aftereffect. The fusiform body area (FBA) and the right middle occipital gyrus (rMOG) show neural adaptation to specific body shapes while the extrastriate body area (EBA) bilaterally does not. The rMOG cluster is highly selective for bodies and perhaps body parts. The findings of the behavioral experiment support the existence of a perceptual body shape aftereffect, resulting from a specific adaptation to thin and fat pictures of one's own body. The fMRI results imply that body shape adaptation occurs in the FBA and the rMOG. The role of the EBA in body shape processing remains unclear. The results are also discussed in the light of clinical body image disturbances.

  2. Normative data of body fat mass and its distribution as assessed by DXA in Indian adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwaha, Raman K; Tandon, Nikhil; Garg, M K; Narang, Archna; Mehan, Neena; Bhadra, Kuntal

    2014-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) assessment of body fat mass is precise and highly correlated with under water weighing. In view of ethnic differences, we undertook this study to prepare normative data for body fat mass in apparently healthy adult Indians and correlate it with body mass index (BMI). This cross-sectional population-based study included 2347 subjects (male: 924; female: 1423) aged >20 yr who participated in a general health examination. They were evaluated for anthropometry and body fat mass by DXA. All subjects were categorized as overweight and obese based on standard BMI criteria. Mean age and BMI were 49.1 ± 18.2yr and 25.0 ± 4.7kg/m(2), respectively. Mean percent total and regional fat (trunk, arm, and leg) reached maximum in the age group of 30-40yr in males and 50-60yr in females. Females had significantly higher total and regional fat mass compared with males. Fat mass was positively correlated with age (r = 0.224; p BMI (r = 0.668; p body fat mass (PTBFM) of 25% in males and 30% in females corresponds to BMI of 22.0kg/m(2) with sensitivity of >80% and specificity of >70% in receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Body fat mass in Indians is higher than that in Western populations for a given age and BMI. PTBFM of 25% in males and 30% in females corresponds to BMI of 22kg/m(2) in Indians.

  3. Pancreatic Fat Is Associated With Metabolic Syndrome and Visceral Fat but Not Beta-Cell Function or Body Mass Index in Pediatric Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staaf, Johan; Labmayr, Viktor; Paulmichl, Katharina; Manell, Hannes; Cen, Jing; Ciba, Iris; Dahlbom, Marie; Roomp, Kirsten; Anderwald, Christian-Heinz; Meissnitzer, Matthias; Schneider, Reinhard; Forslund, Anders; Widhalm, Kurt; Bergquist, Jonas; Ahlström, Håkan; Bergsten, Peter; Weghuber, Daniel; Kullberg, Joel

    2017-01-01

    Objective Adolescents with obesity have increased risk of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Pancreatic fat has been related to these conditions; however, little is known about associations in pediatric obesity. The present study was designed to explore these associations further. Methods We examined 116 subjects, 90 with obesity. Anthropometry, MetS, blood samples, and oral glucose tolerance tests were assessed using standard techniques. Pancreatic fat fraction (PFF) and other fat depots were quantified using magnetic resonance imaging. Results The PFF was elevated in subjects with obesity. No association between PFF and body mass index-standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) was found in the obesity subcohort. Pancreatic fat fraction correlated to Insulin Secretion Sensitivity Index-2 and Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance in simple regression; however, when using adjusted regression and correcting for BMI-SDS and other fat compartments, PFF correlated only to visceral adipose tissue and fasting glucose. Highest levels of PFF were found in subjects with obesity and MetS. Conclusions In adolescents with obesity, PFF is elevated and associated to MetS, fasting glucose, and visceral adipose tissue but not to beta-cell function, glucose tolerance, or BMI-SDS. This study demonstrates that conclusions regarding PFF and its associations depend on the body mass features of the cohort. PMID:27941426

  4. Efficacy of a Meal-Replacement Program for Promoting Blood Lipid Changes and Weight and Body Fat Loss in US Army Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    381 All volunteersa Weight (kg) 56 99.114.1 98.314.3 BMI 56 33.12.9 32.03.0 Body fat (%), CIRC 56 31.66.2 30.76.4 Body fat (%), DEXA 56 31.14.5...with and without meal eplacements for improving blood lipids, and to promote eight and body fat loss in overweight US Army soldiers. oldiers (n113... body fat (1.0%0.4%), nd fat mass (0.80.4 kg) compared to Weigh to Stay olunteers (P0.05). Our findings suggest that meal re- lacement use can be

  5. Evaluation of the BOD POD for estimating percentage body fat in a heterogeneous group of adult humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vescovi, J D; Zimmerman, S L; Miller, W C; Hildebrandt, L; Hammer, R L; Fernhall, B

    2001-08-01

    The primary purpose of this investigation was to compare estimations of percentage body fat (%fat) using air displacement plethysmography (ADP) and hydrostatic weighing (HW) in a heterogeneous (age and %fat) sample of the population. Of secondary importance was to determine whether there were differences between the two methods among lean (n = 32), average (n = 34) and overweight (n = 29) subsets of this sample. A total of 95 adults (men 27, women 68) ranging in age from 18-52 years volunteered for this study. Test-retest reliability for %fat ADP (n = 16) was 0.99 with a technical error of 0.75%fat and a coefficient of variation of 3.4%fat. Mean body density using ADP [1.048 (SD 0.016) g.ml-1] was not significantly different when compared to HW [1.049 (SD 0.017) g.ml-1], which corresponded to a non-significant difference in %fat [22.5 (SD 7.3)% ADP compared to 22.0 (SD 7.6)% HW]. Regression analysis provided the equation: %fat HW = 0.9121%fat ADP + 1.5123; r = 0.88, SEE = 3.6, which did not differ significantly from the line of identity. Data for the subsets revealed a significant overestimation of %fat ADP [16.4 (SD 4.8)%] compared to HW [14.1 (SD 3.2)%] (P = 0.001) for lean individuals while no difference was found in the average [21.9 (SD 4.4)%fat ADP compared to 22.0 (SD 3.4)%fat HW] or overweight [29.9 (SD 5.5)%fat ADP compared to 30.8 (SD 4.1)%fat HW] subsets. Measuring %fat by ADP is a highly reliable method and valid when compared to HW for a heterogeneous sample of adults. The ADP method requires little expertise to operate, is quick to perform, and may be more accommodating for certain individuals compared to HW. However, in this study ADP was less valid for lean individuals. Further investigation is warranted to determine the bias of this method for subsets of the population which may be outside the average range of %fat (men 15.4%-22.0%, women 18.4%-28.5%).

  6. Percent body fat estimations in college women using field and laboratory methods: a three-compartment model approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalbo Vincent J

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methods used to estimate percent body fat can be classified as a laboratory or field technique. However, the validity of these methods compared to multiple-compartment models has not been fully established. This investigation sought to determine the validity of field and laboratory methods for estimating percent fat (%fat in healthy college-age women compared to the Siri three-compartment model (3C. Methods Thirty Caucasian women (21.1 ± 1.5 yrs; 164.8 ± 4.7 cm; 61.2 ± 6.8 kg had their %fat estimated by BIA using the BodyGram™ computer program (BIA-AK and population-specific equation (BIA-Lohman, NIR (Futrex® 6100/XL, a quadratic (SF3JPW and linear (SF3WB skinfold equation, air-displacement plethysmography (BP, and hydrostatic weighing (HW. Results All methods produced acceptable total error (TE values compared to the 3C model. Both laboratory methods produced similar TE values (HW, TE = 2.4%fat; BP, TE = 2.3%fat when compared to the 3C model, though a significant constant error (CE was detected for HW (1.5%fat, p ≤ 0.006. The field methods produced acceptable TE values ranging from 1.8 – 3.8 %fat. BIA-AK (TE = 1.8%fat yielded the lowest TE among the field methods, while BIA-Lohman (TE = 2.1%fat and NIR (TE = 2.7%fat produced lower TE values than both skinfold equations (TE > 2.7%fat compared to the 3C model. Additionally, the SF3JPW %fat estimation equation resulted in a significant CE (2.6%fat, p ≤ 0.007. Conclusion Data suggest that the BP and HW are valid laboratory methods when compared to the 3C model to estimate %fat in college-age Caucasian women. When the use of a laboratory method is not feasible, NIR, BIA-AK, BIA-Lohman, SF3JPW, and SF3WB are acceptable field methods to estimate %fat in this population.

  7. PERCENT FAT MASS AND BODY MASS INDEX AS CARDIORESPIRATORY FITNESS PREDICTORS IN YOUNG ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Dewi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe present study aimed to analyze the association between body fatness measures, i.e. body mass index (BMI and percent fat mass (% FM with cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF in young adults. Seventy five undergraduate students aged 19-21 years were included in this cross sectional study. Body composition was assessed by tetra polar Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis method, and CRF was determined as VO2 max level by conducting Balke test and flexibility by sit-and-reach test. Regression tests were performed to assess the associations between the body fatness measures and CRF. The mean (SD % FM and BMI were 25.6 (8.3 % and 22.4 (4.2 kg/m2, respectively. Both BMI and % FM were inversely associated with VO2 max and flexibility. The associations of % FM with each CRF measure were stronger (% FM-VO2 max: R2=0.45, p<0.0001; % FM-flexibility: R2=0.16, p<0.0001 than those of BMI (BMI-VO2 max: R2= 0.12, p=0.002; BMI-flexibility: R2=0.07, p<0.0001. Including gender as a variable predictor greatly improved almost all associations. We suggest that %FM is a better predictor for VO2max than BMI. Further studies are needed to elucidate the relationships of body fatness measures adjusted for potential confounding factors with CRF measures other than VO2 max.Keywords: body mass index, cardiorespiratory fitness, percent fat massABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan hubungan antara persentase lemak tubuh (PLT dan indeks massa tubuh (IMT dengan kebugaran kardiorespiratorik (KKR pada dewasa muda. Penelitian menggunakan desain potong lintang dengan melibatkan 75 orang mahasiswa usia 19-21 tahun. PLT ditentukan dengan metode tetra polar Bioelectrical Impedance dan KKR ditentukan dengan VO2max berdasarkan uji Balke dan fleksibilitas dengan uji sit-and-reach. Hubungan antara PLT dan IMT dengan KKR dianalisis dengan uji regresi. Rata-rata (standar deviasi dari PLT dan IMT berturut-turut adalah 25,6 (8,3% dan 22,4 (4,2 kg/m2. Baik PLT maupun IMT berbanding

  8. Effects of Exercise Training on Molecular Markers of Lipogenesis and Lipid Partitioning in Fructose-Induced Liver Fat Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siham Yasari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the impact of exercise training on lipogenic gene expression in liver and lipid partitioning following the ingestion of a high fructose load. Female rats were exercise-trained for 8 wk or kept sedentary before being submitted to a fasting/refeeding protocol. Rats were further subdivided as follow: rats were fasted for 24 h, refed a standard diet for 24 h, starved for another 24 h, and refed with a standard or a high-fructose diet 24 h before sacrifice. Fructose refeeding was associated with an increase in hepatic lipid content, endocannabinoid receptor 1, sterol regulatory element-binding protein1c, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase1 gene expression in both Sed and TR rats. However, desaturation indexes measured in liver (C16 : 1/C16 : 0 and C18 : 1/C18 : 0 and plasma (C18 : 1/C18 : 0 were higher (P<0.01 in TR than in Sed rats following fructose refeeding. It is concluded that exercise training does not significantly affect fat accumulation and the molecular expression of genes involved in lipogenesis after fasting and fructose refeeding but does modify the partitioning of lipids so as to provide more unsaturated fatty acids in liver without affecting liver fat content.

  9. Development of a body condition scoring index for female African elephants validated by ultrasound measurements of subcutaneous fat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari A Morfeld

    Full Text Available Obesity-related health and reproductive problems may be contributing to non-sustainability of zoo African elephant (Loxodonta africana populations. However, a major constraint in screening for obesity in elephants is lack of a practical method to accurately assess body fat. Body condition scoring (BCS is the assessment of subcutaneous fat stores based on visual evaluation and provides an immediate appraisal of the degree of obesity of an individual. The objective of this study was to develop a visual BCS index for female African elephants and validate it using ultrasound measures of subcutaneous fat. To develop the index, standardized photographs were collected from zoo (n = 50 and free-ranging (n = 57 female African elephants for identifying key body regions and skeletal features, which were then used to visually determine body fat deposition patterns. This information was used to develop a visual BCS method consisting of a list of body regions and the physical criteria for assigning an overall score on a 5-point scale, with 1 representing the lowest and 5 representing the highest levels of body fat. Results showed that as BCS increased, ultrasound measures of subcutaneous fat thickness also increased (P<0.01, indicating the scores closely coincide with physical measures of fat reserves. The BCS index proved to be reliable and repeatable based on high intra- and inter-assessor agreement across three assessors. In comparing photographs of wild vs. captive African elephants, the median BCS in the free-ranging individuals (BCS = 3, range 1-5 was lower (P<0.001 than that of the zoo population (BCS = 4, range 2-5. In sum, we have developed the first validated BCS index for African elephants. This tool can be used to examine which factors impact body condition in zoo and free-ranging elephants, providing valuable information on how it affects health and reproductive potential of individual elephants.

  10. l-Leucine Supplementation Worsens the Adiposity of Already Obese Rats by Promoting a Hypothalamic Pattern of Gene Expression that Favors Fat Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais T. Zampieri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Several studies showed that l-leucine supplementation reduces adiposity when provided before the onset of obesity. We studied rats that were exposed to a high-fat diet (HFD for 10 weeks before they started to receive l-leucine supplementation. Fat mass was increased in l-leucine-supplemented rats consuming the HFD. Accordingly, l-leucine produced a hypothalamic pattern of gene expression that favors fat accumulation. In conclusion, l-leucine supplementation worsened the adiposity of rats previously exposed to HFD possibly by central mechanisms.

  11. DEXA measures of body fat percentage and acute phase proteins among breast cancer survivors: a Cross-Sectional Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dee Anne

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background C-reactive protein (CRP and Serum amyloid A protein (SAA increases with systemic inflammation and are related to worse survival for breast cancer survivors. This study examines the association between percent body fat and SAA and CRP and the potential interaction with NSAID use and weight change. Methods Participants included 134 non-Hispanic white and Hispanic breast cancer survivors from the Health, Eating, Activity, and Lifestyle Study. Body fat percentage, measured with Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometer (DEXA, and circulating levels of CRP and SAA were obtained 30 months after breast cancer diagnosis. Results Circulating concentrations of CRP and SAA were associated with increased adiposity as measured by DEXA after adjustment for age at 24-months, race/ethnicity, dietary energy intake, weight change, and NSAID use. Survivors with higher body fat ≥35% had significantly higher concentrations of CRP (2.01 mg/l vs. 0.85 mg/l and SAA (6.21 mg/l vs. 4.21 mg/l compared to non-obese (body fat  Conclusions Breast cancer survivors with higher body fat had higher mean concentrations of CRP and SAA than women with lower body fat. Further assessment of NSAID use and weight control in reducing circulating inflammatory markers among survivors may be worthwhile to investigate in randomized intervention trials as higher inflammatory markers are associated with worse survival.

  12. Four waves of hepatocyte proliferation linked with three waves of hepatic fat accumulation during partial hepatectomy-induced liver regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhong Zou

    Full Text Available Partial hepatectomy (PH triggers hepatocyte proliferation-mediated liver repair and is widely used to study the mechanisms governing liver regeneration in mice. However, the dynamics of the hepatocyte proliferative response to PH remain unclear. We found that PH-induced mouse liver regrowth was driven by four consecutive waves of hepatocyte replication. The first wave exhibited the highest magnitude followed by two moderate waves and one minor wave. Underlying this continuous hepatocyte replication was persistent activation of cell cycle components throughout the period of liver regeneration. Hepatocyte mitotic activity in the first three proliferative cycles showed a circadian rhythm manifested by three corresponding mitosis peaks, which were always observed at Zeitgeber time 0. The Bmal1-Clock/Wee1/Cdc2 pathway has been proposed by others to govern the circadian rhythm of hepatocyte mitosis during liver regeneration. However, we did not observe the correlations in the expression or phosphorylation of these proteins in regenerating livers. Notably, Bmal1 protein displayed frequent changes in hepatic distribution and cellular localization as the liver regrowth progressed. Further, three waves of hepatic fat accumulation occurred during hepatic regeneration. The first started before and lasted through the first round of hepatocyte proliferation, whereas the second and third occurred concomitantly with the second and third mitotic peaks, respectively.PH-induced liver regeneration consists of four continuous waves of hepatocyte proliferation coupled with three waves of hepatic fat accumulation. Bmal1, Wee1, and Cdc2 may not form a pathway regulating the circadian rhythm of hepatocyte mitosis during liver regeneration.

  13. Relationship between percentage of body fat and anthropometric indicators in individuals attending a gym

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Grossl

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between percentage of body fat (% BF and anthropometric indicators in individuals attending a gym. Four hundred and thirty eight individuals, 195 men and 243 women, from 18 to 50 years of age took part in this study. The % BF was estimated by the skinfold method. The following anthropometric indicators were assessed: waist circumference, abdomen circumference (AC, waist-to-hip ratio, body mass index (BMI and waist-height ratio. Linear Pearson correlation and simple linear regression analysis were used to investigate the relationship between variables. For women, BMI strongly correlated with % BF (r = .73, whereas for males, AC showed high correlation with % BF (r = .73. With varying degrees of magnitude, there were significant correlations between all of the anthropometric indicators analyzed and % BF.

  14. A composite score combining waist circumference and body mass index more accurately predicts body fat percentage in 6-to 13-year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aeberli, I.; Gut-Knabenhans, M.; Kusche-Ammann, R.S.; Molinari, L.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2013-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) are widely used to predict % body fat (BF) and classify degrees of pediatric adiposity. However, both measures have limitations. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a combination of WC and BMI would more accurately predict %BF than either

  15. Effects of TiO2 nanoparticles on nutrition metabolism in silkworm fat body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Tian

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Silkworm (Bombyx mori is an important economic insect with a fat body that plays a crucial role in the storage and transfer of nutrients. It is also known that TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs can improve feed efficiency and promote silk protein synthesis in the silkworm. In this study, we profiled gene expression in the silkworm fat body after TiO2 NP treatment, validated the major RNA-seq findings, and determined the contents of trehalose and triglyceride, the activity of lipase, and the amount of total proteins. RNA-seq analysis revealed that TiO2 NP treatment caused significant expression changes in 341 genes (P≤0.01, 138 of which were upregulated while the other 203 were downregulated. The expression levels of two target genes in the insulin signaling pathway and two protein metabolism-related target genes, three lipid metabolism-associated target genes, two carbohydrate metabolism related target genes and expression levels of seven heat shock protein genes were increased, and that of threonine dehydratase gene and fatty acid transport protein gene were decreased. The RNA-seq results of 16 genes were validated by quantitative real-time PCR. The lipase activity, content of trehalose, and amount of total proteins were elevated by 3.86-fold, 1.34-fold, and 1.21-fold, respectively, and the content of triglyceride was decreased by 0.94-fold after TiO2 NP treatment. These results indicated that TiO2 NPs activated the insulin signaling pathway, promoted the metabolism of protein, fat, and carbohydrate, and improved nutrition metabolism. Our study provides new support for the understanding of the beneficial effect of TiO2 NPs on silkworm nutrient metabolism.

  16. Fat bodies and thin bodies. Cultural, biomedical and market discourses on obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia-Arnaiz, Mabel

    2010-10-01

    This article addresses the question of why dieting, health, and the care of the body have come to play such a central role in our daily lives, and explores the relationship of these practices to the emergence of obesity as a social and health problem. Messages urging people to regulate their food intake and get more exercise in order to avoid obesity conflict with warnings that anorexia and bulimia are among the possible consequences of overly strict diets and excessive physical activity. The relationship between diet, beauty and health has been appropriated and re-elaborated as a marketing strategy with wide-ranging cultural consequences. "Being on a diet" is no longer only a matter of biology, nutrition, medicine or science; it is also about culture, politics and society.

  17. The relationships among total body fat, bone mineral content and bone marrow adipose tissue in early-pubertal girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L Newton, Anna; J Hanks, Lynae; Davis, Michelle; Casazza, Krista

    2013-01-01

    Investigation of the physiologic relevance of bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) during growth may promote understanding of the bone-fat axis and confluence with metabolic factors. The objective of this pilot investigation was two-fold: (1) to evaluate the relationships among total body fat, bone mineral content (BMC) and femoral BMAT during childhood and underlying metabolic determinants and (2) to determine if the relationships differ by race. Participants included white and non-Hispanic black girls (n=59) ages 4-10 years. Femoral BMAT volume was measured by magnetic resonance imaging, BMC and body fat by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Metabolic parameters were assessed in the fasted state. Total fat and BMC were positively associated with BMAT; however, simultaneous inclusion of BMC and body fat in the statistical model attenuated the association between BMC and BMAT. Differences in BMAT volume were observed, non-Hispanic black girls exhibiting marginally greater BMAT at age eight (P=0.05) and white girls exhibiting greater BMAT at age ten (PBMAT and leptin (P=0.02) and adiponectin (P=0.002) in white girls while BMAT and insulin were inversely related in non-Hispanic black girls (P=0.008). Our findings revealed a positive relationship between BMAT, body fat and BMC, although body fat, respective to leptin, contributed partly to the relationship between BMAT and BMC. Despite large differences in total fat between non-Hispanic black and white, the relationship between BMAT and BMC was similar to white girls. However, this relationship appeared to be impacted through different mechanisms according to race.

  18. Body condition score and its correlation with ultrasonographic back fat thickness in transition crossbred cows

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    Randhir Singh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to study the effect of the transition to body condition score (BCS and ultrasonographic back fat thickness (USG BFT in crossbred cows. Materials and Methods: A total of 101 multiparous crossbred cows in advanced pregnancy from organized dairy farm were taken up for study. The cows were grouped according to transition stage, i.e. far off dry (FOD, close up dry (CUD and fresh (F. BCS was estimated by using the five point visual BCS technique with 0.5 increments. The USG BFT was measured by real-time ultrasound using a portable Sonosite instrument. Results: In cows with BCS 2-2.5, the BFT of F period was significantly lower than FOD period. In cows with BCS 3-3.5, the mean BFT at F period was significantly reduced as compared to FOD and CUD period. The overall correlation coefficient between BCS and BFT for different transition stages was 84%, 79% and 75% for FOD, CUD and F period, respectively. Conclusion: The USG BFT gives an accurate measure of fat reserves in cows. The cows with BCS of ≥3.5 entering the transition period are more prone to lose body condition and hence require better and robust management during the transition period.

  19. Profile of leptin, adiponectin, and body fat in patients with hyperprolactinemia: Response to treatment with cabergoline

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    Nazir Ahmad Pala

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Though hypoadiponectinemia and leptin resistance have been proposed as potential factors for weight gain in patients with hyperprolactinemia (HPL, the effects of HPL and cabergoline on these adipocyte-derived hormones are not clear. Aims of this study were (i to assess the alterations of body fat, leptin, and adiponectin in patients with HPL (ii effect of cabergoline treatment on these parameters. Methods: Nineteen consecutive patients with prolactinoma (median prolactin [PRL] 118.6 (interquartile range: 105.3 μg/L and 20 controls were studied in a nonrandomized matched prospective design. The controls were age, gender, and body mass index (BMI matched. Anthropometric data, metabolic variables, leptin, and adiponectin were studied at baseline and 3 and 6 months after cabergoline treatment. Results: Patients with prolactinoma had increased level of fasting plasma glucose (P < 0.001 as compared to age-, gender-, and BMI-matched healthy controls. Estradiol concentration of controls was higher than that of patients (P = 0.018. Patients with prolactinoma had higher levels of leptin (P = 0.027 as compared to healthy controls without a significant difference in adiponectin levels. There was a significant decrease of body weight at 3 months (P = 0.029, with a further decline at 6 months (P < 0.001 of cabergoline therapy. Furthermore, there was a significant decrement of BMI (P < 0.001, waist circumference (P = 0.003, waist-hip ratio (P = 0.03, total body fat (P = 0.003, plasma glucose (P < 0.001, leptin levels (P = 0.013, and an increase in estradiol concentration (P = 0.03 at 6 months of cabergoline treatment. Conclusion: Patients with prolactinoma have adverse metabolic profile compared to matched controls. Normalization of PRL with cabergoline corrects all the metabolic abnormalities.

  20. Impact of resistant starch on body fat patterning and central appetite regulation.

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    Po-Wah So

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adipose tissue patterning has a major influence on the risk of developing chronic disease. Environmental influences on both body fat patterning and appetite regulation are not fully understood. This study was performed to investigate the impact of resistant starch (RS on adipose tissue deposition and central regulation of appetite in mice. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Forty mice were randomised to a diet supplemented with either the high resistant starch (HRS, or the readily digestible starch (LRS. Using (1H magnetic resonance (MR methods, whole body adiposity, intrahepatocellular lipids (IHCL and intramyocellular lipids (IMCL were measured. Manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI was used to investigate neuronal activity in hypothalamic regions involved in appetite control when fed ad libitum. At the end of the interventional period, adipocytes were isolated from epididymal adipose tissue and fasting plasma collected for hormonal and adipokine measurement. Mice on the HRS and LRS diet had similar body weights although total body adiposity, subcutaneous and visceral fat, IHCL, plasma leptin, plasma adiponectin plasma insulin/glucose ratios was significantly greater in the latter group. Adipocytes isolated from the LRS group were significantly larger and had lower insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. MEMRI data obtained from the ventromedial and paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei suggests a satiating effect of the HRS diet despite a lower energy intake. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: Dietary RS significantly impacts on adipose tissue patterning, adipocyte morphology and metabolism, glucose and insulin metabolism, as well as affecting appetite regulation, supported by changes in neuronal activity in hypothalamic appetite regulation centres which are suggestive of satiation.

  1. Body adiposity and type 2 diabetes: increased risk with a high body fat percentage even having a normal BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Silva, Camilo; Galofré, Juan C; Escalada, Javier; Santos, Silvia; Gil, María J; Valentí, Victor; Rotellar, Fernando; Ramírez, Beatriz; Salvador, Javier; Frühbeck, Gema

    2011-07-01

    Obesity is the major risk factor for the development of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. BMI is widely used as a surrogate measure of obesity, but underestimates the prevalence of obesity, defined as an excess of body fat. We assessed the presence of impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose (both considered together as prediabetes) or type 2 diabetes in relation to the criteria used for the diagnosis of obesity using BMI as compared to body fat percentage (BF%). We performed a cross-sectional study including 4,828 (587 lean, 1,320 overweight, and 2,921 obese classified according to BMI) white subjects (66% females), aged 18-80 years. BMI, BF% determined by air-displacement plethysmography (ADP) and conventional blood markers of glucose metabolism and lipid profile were measured. We found a higher than expected number of subjects with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes in the obese category according to BF% when the sample was globally analyzed (P BMI-classified subjects (P BMI) women with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes as compared to those with normoglycemia (NG) (35.5 ± 7.0 vs. 30.3 ± 7.7%, P BMI. Similarly, increased BF% was found in lean BMI-classified men with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes (25.2 ± 9.0 vs. 19.9 ± 8.0%, P = 0.008), exhibiting no differences in BMI or waist circumference. In conclusion, assessing BF% may help to diagnose disturbed glucose tolerance beyond information provided by BMI and waist circumference in particular in male subjects with BMI <25 kg/m(2) and over the age of 40.

  2. Prediction of fat-free mass and percentage of body fat in neonates using bioelectrical impedance analysis and anthropometric measures: validation against the PEA POD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingwood, Barbara E; Storm van Leeuwen, Anne-Martine; Carberry, Angela E; Fitzgerald, Erin C; Callaway, Leonie K; Colditz, Paul B; Ward, Leigh C

    2012-05-01

    Accurate assessment of neonatal body composition is essential to studies investigating neonatal nutrition or developmental origins of obesity. Bioelectrical impedance analysis or bioimpedance analysis is inexpensive, non-invasive and portable, and is widely used in adults for the assessment of body composition. There are currently no prediction algorithms using bioimpedance analysis in neonates that have been directly validated against measurements of fat-free mass (FFM). The aim of the study was to evaluate the use of bioimpedance analysis for the estimation of FFM and percentage of body fat over the first 4 months of life in healthy infants born at term, and to compare these with estimations based on anthropometric measurements (weight and length) and with skinfolds. The present study was an observational study in seventy-seven infants. Body fat content of infants was assessed at birth, 6 weeks, 3 and 4·5 months of age by air displacement plethysmography, using the PEA POD body composition system. Bioimpedance analysis was performed at the same time and the data were used to develop and test prediction equations for FFM. The combination of weight+sex+length predicted FFM, with a bias of < 100 g and limits of agreement of 6-13 %. Before 3 months of age, bioimpedance analysis did not improve the prediction of FFM or body fat. At 3 and 4·5 months, the inclusion of impedance in prediction algorithms resulted in small improvements in prediction of FFM, reducing the bias to < 50 g and limits of agreement to < 9 %. Skinfold measurements performed poorly at all ages.

  3. No Change of Body Mass, Fat Mass, and Skeletal Muscle Mass in Ultraendurance Swimmers after 12 Hours of Swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Kaul, Rene; Kohler, Gotz

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated whether ultraendurance swimmers suffer a change of body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, total body water, and specific gravity of urine during a 12-hr swim in 12 male Caucasian ultraswimmers. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance of urine samples before and after the race was performed to detect alanine, lactate, and…

  4. Effects of genetic strain on stress-induced weight and body fat loss in rats: Application to air pollution research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to some air pollutants is suspected of contributing to obesity. Hazelton chambers are commonly used in air pollution studies but we found unexpected reductions in body weight and body fat of rats housed in Hazelton chambers under control conditions. We suspect that stres...

  5. Whole-body fat oxidation determined by graded exercise and indirect calorimetry: a role for muscle oxidative capacity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordby, P; Saltin, B; Helge, J W

    2006-01-01

    subjects were recruited and categorized into an untrained (N=8, VO(2max) 3.5+/-0.1 L/min) and a trained (N=8, VO(2max) 4.6+/-0.2 L/min) group. Subjects performed a graded exercise test commencing at 60 W for 8 min followed by 35 W increments every 3 min. On a separate day, muscle biopsies were obtained...... from vastus lateralis and a 3 h bicycle exercise test was performed at 58% of VO(2max). Whole-body fat oxidation was calculated during prolonged and graded exercise from the respiratory exchange ratio using standard indirect calorimetry equations. Based on the graded exercise test, whole-body peak fat...... oxidation was determined. The body composition was determined by DEXA. Whole-body peak fat oxidation (250+/-25 and 462+/-33 mg/min) was higher (PVO(2max)) in trained compared with untrained subjects, respectively. Muscle...

  6. mRNA accumulation in the Cajal bodies of the diplotene larch microsporocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoliński, Dariusz Jan; Kołowerzo, Agnieszka

    2012-02-01

    In microsporocytes of the European larch, we demonstrated the presence of several mRNAs in spherical nuclear bodies. In the nuclei of microsporocytes, we observed up to 12 bodies, ranging from 0.5 to 6 μm in diameter, during the prophase of the first meiotic division. Our previous studies revealed the presence of polyadenylated RNA (poly(A) RNA) in these bodies, but did not confirm the presence of nascent transcripts or splicing factors of the SR family. The lack of these molecules precludes the bodies from being the sites of synthesis and early maturation of primary transcripts (Kołowerzo et al., Protoplasma 236:13-19, 2009). However, the bodies serve as sites for the accumulation of splicing machinery, including the Sm proteins and small nuclear RNAs. Characteristic ultrastructures and the molecular composition of the nuclear bodies, which contain poly(A) RNA, are indicative of Cajal bodies (CBs). Here, we demonstrated the presence of several housekeeping gene transcripts--α-tubulin, pectin methylesterase, peroxidase and catalase, ATPase, and inositol-3-phosphate synthase--in CBs. Additionally, we observed transcripts of the RNA polymerase II subunits RPB2 and RPB10 RNA pol II and the core spliceosome proteins mRNA SmD1, SmD2, and SmE. The co-localization of nascent transcripts and mRNAs indicates that mRNA accumulation/storage, particularly in CBs, occurs in the nucleus of microsporocytes.

  7. Effects of Four Week Body Building Training on Under Skin Fat Percent if Non-Athlete Female Students

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    Amineh Sahranavard Gargari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to study the effect of a training program using weight on under skin fat percent in various body parts of female students of Islamic Azad university of Shabestar. Among 70 students, 40 who had physical education 1,2 course aging 18 to 25 were selected. They were all physically healthy. Using Caliper Under skin fat thickness in areas triceps, Abdomen, femur was measured and categorized using age based woman fat percent estimation table. Average of three times measuring before and after training program was calculated as fat percent using "Raven". Training program by weight consisted of 4 week each containing 3 sessions of 45 min. Results revealed that although most of samples had Lost weight, under skin fat percent before and after program showed significant difference of p<10% yet training program by weight for weight control has been more effective than weight loss.

  8. Body mass index and body fat percentage are associated with decreased physical fitness in adolescent and adult female volleyball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelis Theo Nikolaidis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objectives of this study were to examine (a the prevalence of overweight/obesity, and (b the relationship between body mass index (BMI, body fat percentage (BF and physical fitness in adolescent and adult female volleyball players. Materials and Methods: Adolescent (n = 102, aged 15.2 ± 2.0 year and adult (n = 57, 25.9 ± 5.0 year players were examined for anthropometric characteristics and body composition, and performed the physical working capacity in heart rate 170 min -1 test, a force-velocity test, the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT, sit-and-reach test (SAR, handgrip strength test (HST and countermovement vertical jump (CVJ. Results: Based on international BMI cut-off points, 27.5% (n = 28 of adolescent and 12.3% (n = 7 of adult participants were classified as overweight, with the prevalence of overweight being higher in girls than in women (χ2 = 4.90, P = 0.027. BMI was correlated with BF in both age groups (r = 0.72, P < 0.001 in girls; r = 0.75, P < 0.001 in women. Normal participants had superior certain physical and physiological characteristics than those who were overweight. For instance, normal girls and women had higher mean power during WAnT than their overweight counterparts (P = 0.003 and P = 0.009 respectively. Except for flexibility, BMI and BF were inversely related with physical fitness (e.g., BMI vs. HST r = -0.39, P < 0.001 in girls; BF vs. CVJ r = -0.45, P < 0.001 in women. Conclusion: The findings confirmed the negative effect of overweight and fatness on selected parameters of physical fitness. The prevalence of overweight in adolescent volleyball players was higher than in general population, which was a novel finding, suggesting that proper exercise interventions should be developed to target the excess of body mass in youth volleyball clubs.

  9. Changes in body fat distribution through menopause increase blood pressure independently of total body fat in middle-aged women: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Kyu; Lim, Young-Hyo; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Soon Gil; Kim, Jeong Hyun; Lim, Heon Gil; Shin, Jinho

    2013-05-01

    Blood pressure in women increases sharply in middle age, especially after menopause. As the menopausal transition is known to induce changes in body fat distribution, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of body fat distribution as compared with the effect of total body fat on blood pressure through the menopausal transition. We analyzed 1422 subjects aged 45-55 years using the database from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010. The waist circumference (WC) of post-menopausal women was larger than that of pre-menopausal women (80.44 cm, 95% confidence interval (CI) 79.36-81.52 vs. 78.94 cm, 95% CI 78.27-79.61, P=0.013), but there was no statistically significant difference in body mass index (BMI). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) were significantly higher in post-menopausal women than in pre-menopausal women: SBP was 118.33 mm Hg, 95% CI 116.52-120.15 vs. 115.22 mm Hg, 95% CI 114.17-116.28 (P=0.003) and DBP was 76.94 mm Hg, 95% CI 75.88-77.99 vs. 75.25 mm Hg, 95% CI 74.57-75.93 (P=0.009). BMI and WC were positively correlated with BP. After adjustment for BMI, the correlation of WC with SBP remained significant (β=0.250, 95% CI 0.024-0.476, P=0.030). In a stratified analysis, WC correlated with SBP in women with BMIBMI25 kg m(-2). We conclude that the changes in body fat distribution through the menopausal transition are associated with SBP, independent of total body fat. This finding indicates that alterations in the localization of body fat are another cause of menopause-related changes in BP.

  10. Efficacy of injections of phosphatidylcholine into fat deposits-a non-surgical alternative to liposuction in body-contouring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl-G Heinrich

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Injecting phosphatidylcholine has been used in South America as a non-surgical treatment in body contouring. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the efficacy of injecting phosphatidylcholine in the reduction of localised fat deposits. 86 patients were included in the study. Patients received 1-3 treatments in localised fat deposits in various areas of the body using phosphatidylcholine. After treatment with phosphatidylcholine (250 mg / 5 ml, fat deposits show an average circumferential reduction per application of 2.70 cm. No patient showed irregularities, dimples or any serious side effect after treatment. Results remained stable during the time of follow up. All patients showed remarkable reductions of the fat deposits treated with phosphatidylcholine. Using the correct technique, injecting phosphatidylcholine may be a safe and efficacious alternative to liposuction in patients objecting to surgery.

  11. Effect of the inclusion time of dietary saturated and unsaturated fats before slaughter on the accumulation and composition of abdominal fat in female broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, M; Lopez-Bote, C J; Flores, A; Carmona, J M

    2000-09-01

    The aim of this experiment was to assess the effects of four different feeding programs designed to include tallow, a saturated fat at 0, 8, 12, and 28 d prior to slaughter on female broiler performance and the deposition, fatty acid profile, and melting point of abdominal fat. The following treatment groups were established according to dietary inclusion--from 21 to 49 d of age--of: sunflower oil (SUN), sunflower oil followed by tallow during the last 8 d (SUN + 8TALL), sunflower oil followed by tallow during the last 12 d (SUN + 12TALL), and tallow (TALL). The diets were designed to be isoenergetic and isonitrogenous. Abdominal fat deposition increased linearly with increasing number of days in which birds were fed the tallow-enriched diet. However, linear and quadratic response patterns were found between days before slaughter in which the birds were fed the tallow-enriched diet and abdominal fat melting points. This result suggested an exponential response in which 85% of the maximum level was already attained when the dietary fat type changed from an unsaturated to a saturated condition during the last 8 d of the feeding period. The use of an unsaturated fat source during the first stages of growth, and the substitution of a saturated fat for a few days before slaughter, may offer the advantage of lower abdominal fat deposition and an acceptable fat fluidity compared with the use of a saturated fat source during the whole growing and finishing period.

  12. Protein Supplementation with Low Fat Meat after Resistance Training: Effects on Body Composition and Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Negro

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Beef is a nutrient-rich, high-quality protein containing all the essential amino acids in proportions similar to those found in human skeletal muscle. In order to investigate the efficacy of a beef supplementation strategy on strength and body composition, we recruited 26 young healthy adults to participate in a resistance-training program of eight weeks, based on the use of isotonic machines and free weights at 75% of one repetition maximum. Subjects were randomly divided into two groups, food group and control group, of 12 and 14 subjects respectively. Food group were supplemented after resistance training with a 135 g serving of lean beef (tinned meat, providing 20 g of protein and 1.7 g of fat. No supplementation was provided to control group. Fat mass, fat free mass, lean mass, assessed by bioelectrical impedance analyzer, and muscle strength, assessed by one repetition maximum test, were evaluated in all subjects both at the beginning (week 0 and at the end (week 8 of the study. Pre- and post-training differences were evaluated with paired t-tests while group differences for each outcome parameter was evaluated with independent t-tests. At the end of the study the food group showed a significantly decrease in fat mass (week 0: 15.0 ± 6.7 kg; week 8: 13.1 ± 7.6 kg; Δ: −1.9 ± 2.9 kg; p < 0.05 and a significantly increase in fat free mass (week 0: 52.8 kg ± 9.4; week 8: 55.1 kg ± 10.9; Δ: 2.3 ± 2.5 kg; p < 0.01. No significant differences in lean mass were found in either food group or control group. No significant differences in one repetition maximum tests were found between food group and control group. Tinned meat can be considered a nutrition strategy in addition to other proteins or amino acid supplements, but as with any other supplementation strategy, a proper nutrition plan must be coupled.

  13. Genome-wide association of body fat distribution in African ancestry populations suggests new loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ching-Ti; Monda, Keri L; Taylor, Kira C; Lange, Leslie; Demerath, Ellen W; Palmas, Walter; Wojczynski, Mary K; Ellis, Jaclyn C; Vitolins, Mara Z; Liu, Simin; Papanicolaou, George J; Irvin, Marguerite R; Xue, Luting; Griffin, Paula J; Nalls, Michael A; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Liu, Jiankang; Li, Guo; Ruiz-Narvaez, Edward A; Chen, Wei-Min; Chen, Fang; Henderson, Brian E; Millikan, Robert C; Ambrosone, Christine B; Strom, Sara S; Guo, Xiuqing; Andrews, Jeanette S; Sun, Yan V; Mosley, Thomas H; Yanek, Lisa R; Shriner, Daniel; Haritunians, Talin; Rotter, Jerome I; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Smith, Megan; Rosenberg, Lynn; Mychaleckyj, Josyf; Nayak, Uma; Spruill, Ida; Garvey, W Timothy; Pettaway, Curtis; Nyante, Sarah; Bandera, Elisa V; Britton, Angela F; Zonderman, Alan B; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Ding, Jingzhong; Lohman, Kurt; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Zhao, Wei; Peyser, Patricia A; Kardia, Sharon L R; Kabagambe, Edmond; Broeckel, Ulrich; Chen, Guanjie; Zhou, Jie; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Neuhouser, Marian L; Rampersaud, Evadnie; Psaty, Bruce; Kooperberg, Charles; Manson, Joann E; Kuller, Lewis H; Ochs-Balcom, Heather M; Johnson, Karen C; Sucheston, Lara; Ordovas, Jose M; Palmer, Julie R; Haiman, Christopher A; McKnight, Barbara; Howard, Barbara V; Becker, Diane M; Bielak, Lawrence F; Liu, Yongmei; Allison, Matthew A; Grant, Struan F A; Burke, Gregory L; Patel, Sanjay R; Schreiner, Pamela J; Borecki, Ingrid B; Evans, Michele K; Taylor, Herman; Sale, Michele M; Howard, Virginia; Carlson, Christopher S; Rotimi, Charles N; Cushman, Mary; Harris, Tamara B; Reiner, Alexander P; Cupples, L Adrienne; North, Kari E; Fox, Caroline S

    2013-01-01

    Central obesity, measured by waist circumference (WC) or waist-hip ratio (WHR), is a marker of body fat distribution. Although obesity disproportionately affects minority populations, few studies have conducted genome-wide association study (GWAS) of fat distribution among those of predominantly African ancestry (AA). We performed GWAS of WC and WHR, adjusted and unadjusted for BMI, in up to 33,591 and 27,350 AA individuals, respectively. We identified loci associated with fat distribution in AA individuals using meta-analyses of GWA results for WC and WHR (stage 1). Overall, 25 SNPs with single genomic control (GC)-corrected p-values<5.0 × 10(-6) were followed-up (stage 2) in AA with WC and with WHR. Additionally, we interrogated genomic regions of previously identified European ancestry (EA) WHR loci among AA. In joint analysis of association results including both Stage 1 and 2 cohorts, 2 SNPs demonstrated association, rs2075064 at LHX2, p = 2.24×10(-8) for WC-adjusted-for-BMI, and rs6931262 at RREB1, p = 2.48×10(-8) for WHR-adjusted-for-BMI. However, neither signal was genome-wide significant after double GC-correction (LHX2: p = 6.5 × 10(-8); RREB1: p = 5.7 × 10(-8)). Six of fourteen previously reported loci for waist in EA populations were significant (p<0.05 divided by the number of independent SNPs within the region) in AA studied here (TBX15-WARS2, GRB14, ADAMTS9, LY86, RSPO3, ITPR2-SSPN). Further, we observed associations with metabolic traits: rs13389219 at GRB14 associated with HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting insulin, and rs13060013 at ADAMTS9 with HDL-cholesterol and fasting insulin. Finally, we observed nominal evidence for sexual dimorphism, with stronger results in AA women at the GRB14 locus (p for interaction = 0.02). In conclusion, we identified two suggestive loci associated with fat distribution in AA populations in addition to confirming 6 loci previously identified in populations of EA. These findings reinforce the concept

  14. Genome-wide association of body fat distribution in African ancestry populations suggests new loci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Ti Liu

    Full Text Available Central obesity, measured by waist circumference (WC or waist-hip ratio (WHR, is a marker of body fat distribution. Although obesity disproportionately affects minority populations, few studies have conducted genome-wide association study (GWAS of fat distribution among those of predominantly African ancestry (AA. We performed GWAS of WC and WHR, adjusted and unadjusted for BMI, in up to 33,591 and 27,350 AA individuals, respectively. We identified loci associated with fat distribution in AA individuals using meta-analyses of GWA results for WC and WHR (stage 1. Overall, 25 SNPs with single genomic control (GC-corrected p-values<5.0 × 10(-6 were followed-up (stage 2 in AA with WC and with WHR. Additionally, we interrogated genomic regions of previously identified European ancestry (EA WHR loci among AA. In joint analysis of association results including both Stage 1 and 2 cohorts, 2 SNPs demonstrated association, rs2075064 at LHX2, p = 2.24×10(-8 for WC-adjusted-for-BMI, and rs6931262 at RREB1, p = 2.48×10(-8 for WHR-adjusted-for-BMI. However, neither signal was genome-wide significant after double GC-correction (LHX2: p = 6.5 × 10(-8; RREB1: p = 5.7 × 10(-8. Six of fourteen previously reported loci for waist in EA populations were significant (p<0.05 divided by the number of independent SNPs within the region in AA studied here (TBX15-WARS2, GRB14, ADAMTS9, LY86, RSPO3, ITPR2-SSPN. Further, we observed associations with metabolic traits: rs13389219 at GRB14 associated with HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting insulin, and rs13060013 at ADAMTS9 with HDL-cholesterol and fasting insulin. Finally, we observed nominal evidence for sexual dimorphism, with stronger results in AA women at the GRB14 locus (p for interaction = 0.02. In conclusion, we identified two suggestive loci associated with fat distribution in AA populations in addition to confirming 6 loci previously identified in populations of EA. These findings reinforce the concept

  15. The physiological role of fat body and muscle tissues in response to cold stress in the tropical cockroach Gromphadorhina coquereliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowański, Szymon; Lubawy, Jan; Paluch-Lubawa, Ewelina; Spochacz, Marta; Rosiński, Grzegorz; Słocińska, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    Protective mechanisms against cold stress are well studied in terrestrial and polar insects; however, little is known about these mechanisms in tropical insects. In our study, we tested if a tropical cockroach Gromphadorhina coquereliana, possesses any protective mechanisms against cold stress. Based on the results of earlier studies, we examined how short-term (3 h) cold (4°C) influences biochemical parameters, mitochondrial respiration activity, and the level of HSPs and aquaporins expression in the fat body and leg muscles of G. coquereliana. Following cold exposure, we found that the level of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins did not change significantly. Nevertheless, we observed significant changes in mitochondrial respiration activity. The oxygen consumption of resting (state 4) and phosphorylating (state 3) mitochondria was altered following cold exposure. The increase in respiratory rate in state 4 respiration was observed in both tissues. In state 3, oxygen consumption by mitochondria in fat body was significantly lower compared to control insects, whereas there were no changes observed for mitochondria in muscle tissue. Moreover, there were cold-induced changes in UCP protein activity, but the changes in activity differed in fat body and in muscles. Additionally, we detected changes in the level of HSP70 and aquaporins expression. Insects treated with cold had significantly higher levels of HSP70 in fat body and muscles. On the other hand, there were lower levels of aquaporins in both tissues following exposure to cold. These results suggest that fat body play an important role in protecting tropical insects from cold stress.

  16. An integrated serotonin and octopamine neuronal circuit directs the release of an endocrine signal to control C. elegans body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Tallie; Stieglitz, Jonathan; Srinivasan, Supriya

    2013-11-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is an ancient and conserved neuromodulator of energy balance. Despite its importance, the neural circuits and molecular mechanisms underlying 5-HT-mediated control of body fat remain poorly understood. Here, we decipher the serotonergic neural circuit for body fat loss in C. elegans and show that the effects of 5-HT require signaling from octopamine, the invertebrate analog of adrenaline, to sustain body fat loss. Our results provide a potential molecular explanation for the long-observed potent effects of combined serotonergic and adrenergic weight loss drugs. In metabolic tissues, we find that the conserved regulatory adipocyte triglyceride lipase ATGL-1 drives serotonergic fat loss. We show that the serotonergic chloride channel MOD-1 relays a long-range endocrine signal from C. elegans body cavity neurons to control distal ATGL-1 function, via the nuclear receptor NHR-76. Our findings establish a conserved neuroendocrine axis operated by neural serotonergic and adrenergic-like signaling to regulate body fat.

  17. An Integrated Serotonin and Octopamine Neuronal Circuit Directs The Release of An Endocrine Signal to Control C. elegans Body Fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Tallie; Stieglitz, Jonathan; Srinivasan, Supriya

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is an ancient and conserved neuromodulator of energy balance. Despite its importance, the neural circuits and molecular mechanisms underlying 5-HT-mediated control of body fat remain poorly understood. Here we decipher the serotonergic neural circuit for body fat loss in C. elegans and show that the effects of 5-HT require signaling from octopamine, the invertebrate analog of adrenaline, to sustain body fat loss. Our results provide a potential molecular explanation for the long-observed potent effects of combined serotonergic and adrenergic weight loss drugs. In metabolic tissues we find that the conserved regulatory adipocyte triglyceride lipase ATGL-1 drives serotonergic fat loss. We show that the serotonergic chloride channel MOD-1 relays a long-range endocrine signal via C. elegans body cavity neurons to control distal ATGL-1 function, via the nuclear receptor NHR-76. Our findings establish a conserved neuroendocrine axis operated by neural serotonergic and adrenergic-like signaling, to regulate body fat. PMID:24120942

  18. Role of heart rate in the relation between regional body fat and subendocardial viability ratio in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Joaquin U; Hadri, Omar

    2016-09-01

    Subendocardial viability ratio (SEVR) is a measure of left ventricular function, specifically; it is an index of myocardial perfusion relative to left ventricular workload. Women have lower SEVR than men, partly due to a faster resting heart rate that reduces diastolic time (i.e., time for myocardial perfusion). It is unclear if body fat relates to SEVR, thus the purpose of this study was to examine the relation between body fat and SEVR in women. Twenty-eight middle-aged (31-45 years) and 31 older (60-80 years) women were examined. Radial artery applanation tonometry was used to calculate SEVR from a synthesized central aortic pressure wave. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to assess body composition including fat in the trunk, legs, android and gynoid regions. Body fat was not related (P>.05) with SEVR in older women. In middle-aged women, all measures of regional fat were correlated with heart rate (range, r=.49-.59, P≤.01) and SEVR (range, r=.43-.53, P≤.01). Android-to-gynoid ratio was identified as the strongest predictor (r(2) =-.26, Pfat. Middle-aged women with lower android-to-gynoid fat ratio had higher SEVR (1.96±0.33 vs 1.66±0.20, P=.009) than women with higher fat ratio, even after adjusting for age, height, daily physical activity, and aortic mean pressure (P=.02). Adjusting for heart rate or diastolic time abolished the difference in SEVR between groups (1.80±0.09 vs 1.82±0.09, P=.56). These results suggest that middle-aged women with a greater distribution of fat in the abdomen have poorer left ventricular function that is dependent on the negative influence of heart rate on diastolic time.

  19. Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number in Peripheral Blood Is Independently Associated with Visceral Fat Accumulation in Healthy Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jee-Yon Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Visceral obesity is associated with an increased risk of cardiometabolic diseases and it is important to identify the underlying mechanisms. There is growing evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with metabolic disturbances related to visceral obesity. In addition, maintaining mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA copy number is important for preserving mitochondrial function. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between mtDNA copy number and visceral fat in healthy young adults. Methods. A total of 94 healthy young subjects were studied. Biomarkers of metabolic risk factors were assessed along with body composition by computed tomography. mtDNA copy number was measured in peripheral leukocytes using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR methods. Results. The mtDNA copy number correlated with BMI (r=-0.22, P=0.04, waist circumference (r=-0.23, P=0.03, visceral fat area (r=-0.28, P=-0.01, HDL-cholesterol levels (r=0.25, P=0.02, and hs-CRP (r=0.32, P=0.02 after adjusting for age and sex. Both stepwise and nonstepwise multiple regression analyses confirmed that visceral fat area was independently associated with mtDNA copy number (β=-0.33, P<0.01, β=0.32, and P=0.03, resp.. Conclusions. An independent association between mtDNA content and visceral adiposity was identified. These data suggest that mtDNA copy number is a potential predictive marker for metabolic disturbances. Further studies are required to understand the causality and clinical significance of our findings.

  20. Pioglitazone-induced increase in the stearoyl-CoA desaturation index and fat accumulation in rat muscles are not related to lipoprotein lipase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Masaru; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Muscular insulin resistance is a characteristic of obesity and type 2 diabetes, but little is known about fatty acid (FA) metabolism in insulin-resistant skeletal muscle. In this study, we investigated the effects of the repeated administration of the PPAR-γ agonist pioglitazone on fat accumulation, FA composition, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) index in rat tissues. Seventeen 4-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into control (C, n = 9) and pioglitazone treatment (P, n = 8) groups, and all the rats were fed a high-fat and high-sucrose diet for 8 weeks. Vehicle or pioglitazone (3 mg/kg) was orally administered daily to rats in the C group and P group, respectively. In the eighth week of the test period, an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed after 12 h fasting. At the end of the test period, serum, liver, perirenal adipose tissue, and skeletal muscles were removed after 12 h fasting. The fasting serum and plasma glucose concentrations and OGTT glucose and insulin levels were significantly lower, while the serum adiponectin concentration was significantly higher in the P group than in the C group. Pioglitazone administration increased fat accumulation in the various muscle types examined, perirenal adipose tissue, and brown adipose tissue (BAT), but decreased fat accumulation in the liver. Pioglitazone administration increased the SCD indices for the muscles, perirenal adipose tissue, and liver, but not those of BAT. The lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity of the BAT and perirenal adipose tissue, but not the muscles, was higher in the P group than in the C group. These results indicate that pioglitazone administration improved glucose tolerance and increased fat accumulation and SCD indices in the muscles and adipose tissues of rats. The increased fat accumulation was closely correlated with LPL activity in both adipose tissues, but not in the muscles.

  1. Transformation of lipid bodies related to hydrocarbon accumulation in a green alga, Botryococcus braunii (Race B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiko Suzuki

    Full Text Available The colonial microalga Botryococcus braunii accumulates large quantities of hydrocarbons mainly in the extracellular space; most other oleaginous microalgae store lipids in the cytoplasm. Botryococcus braunii is classified into three principal races (A, B, and L based on the types of hydrocarbons. Race B has attracted the most attention as an alternative to petroleum by its higher hydrocarbon contents than the other races and its hydrocarbon components, botryococcenes and methylsqualenes, both can be readily converted into biofuels. We studied race B using fluorescence and electron microscopy, and clarify the stage when extracellular hydrocarbon accumulation occurs during the cell cycle, in a correlation with the behavior and structural changes of the lipid bodies and discussed development of the algal colony. New accumulation of lipids on the cell surface occurred after cell division in the basolateral region of daughter cells. While lipid bodies were observed throughout the cell cycle, their size and inclusions were dynamically changing. When cells began dividing, the lipid bodies increased in size and inclusions until the extracellular accumulation of lipids started. Most of the lipids disappeared from the cytoplasm concomitant with the extracellular accumulation, and then reformed. We therefore hypothesize that lipid bodies produced during the growth of B. braunii are related to lipid secretion. New lipids secreted at the cell surface formed layers of oil droplets, to a maximum depth of six layers, and fused to form flattened, continuous sheets. The sheets that combined a pair of daughter cells remained during successive cellular divisions and the colony increased in size with increasing number of cells.

  2. The relationships between dioxin accumulation in human body and eating habits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajihara, H.; Miura, A. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Univ. of Niigata, Niigata (Japan); Sasaki, S.; Hasegawa, Y.; Ando, N.; Ozawa, T.; Takahashi, Y. [Faculty of Engineering, Univ. of Niigata, Niigata (Japan); Nakadaira, H.; Yamamoto, M. [Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Univ. of Niigata, Niigata (Japan); Nakamura, S.; Shimada, K. [Niigata Prefectural Kamo Hospital, Niigata (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Exposure of human to dioxins was dominated by food. In Japan, the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of dioxins is set at 4 pg-TEQ/kg/day. However, important parameters, such as adsorption rate and half-life, which are used in the calculation process to determining the TDI of dioxins, were not intensively clarified. The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between dioxin accumulation in the human body and eating habits, in order to obtain information on the accumulation behavior of dioxins ingested by humans.

  3. POPs accumulated in fish and benthos bodies taken from Yangtze River in Jiangsu area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guanjiu; Sun, Cheng; Li, Juan; Zhao, Yonggang; Wang, Hui; Li, Yiqiang

    2009-08-01

    The persistent organic pollutants of DDTs, PCBs, PAHs and HCHs accumulated in the bodies of fish and benthos taken at seven sites were measured to understand the issue of ecological health of Yangtze River at Jiangsu section. The highest levels for DDTs, the total 20 PCBs, the total 16 PAHs and HCHs in fish bodies were 0.076 microg/kg, 23.1 microg/kg, 7.44 ng/kg and 0.028 microg/kg, respectively and that in benthos bodies were 0.082 microg/kg, 14.3 microg/kg, 21.1 ng/kg and 0.026 microg/kg. The PAHs concentrations in benthos were higher than that in fish and they had a significant positive correlation (P < 0.05). Among the detectable chemicals, DDTs were 100% of p,p'-DDE isomers, the main PCBs were 4- and 5-chlorinated biphenyls in which PCB 105 had the highest detection frequency and the main PAHs were the compounds of 2-4 rings. PCBs were accumulated in fish bodies which enrichment factors were as high as 508-42,414 folds occurred at three sites. The results demonstrated that the accumulation measurements can be used to test the effects of PAHs, DDTs, PCBs and HCHs on aquatic ecological health.

  4. [Immunolocalization of microsporidium paranosema locustae canning lSP70 family proteins in locust infected fat body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senderskiĭ, I V; Pavlova, O A; Timofeev, S A; Dolgikh, V V

    2014-01-01

    Immunolabeling method of microsporidium Paranosema locustae proteins on cryosections of locust infected fat body was proposed. In contrast to single parasite cells and artificially infected host cell cultures, this method allows to study molecular mechanisms of host-parasite relationships and in particular the secretory microsporidial proteins either at cellular or tissue level. Immunolocalization of the EPR-specific and cytoplasmic forms of Hsp70 family of molecular chaperones on cryosections showed accumulation of these proteins in the respective compartments of intracellular developmental stages of P. locustae and their absence in host structures. This allows to use them in diagnostics of microsporidiosis lesions in infected tissues as well as in colocalization analysis with P. lociustatre secretory proteins as a marker of parasite. The cytoplasmic chaperone stains cytoplasmic compartment homogeneously, but in the infected host cell during sporogony it disappears partially from the intracellular stages of development which damaged by maturing spores. Thereby study of molecular mechanisms of host-parasite relationships is to be carried out at the earlier stages of infection before active sporogony.

  5. Overexpression of Jazf1 reduces body weight gain and regulates lipid metabolism in high fat diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Woo Young; Bae, Ki Beom; Kim, Sung Hyun; Yu, Dong Hun; Kim, Hei Jung; Ji, Young Rae; Park, Seo Jin; Park, Si Jun; Kang, Min-Cheol; Jeong, Ja In [School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Buk-ku, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sang-Joon [College of Veterinary Medicine, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Buk-ku, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Gyu [School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Buk-ku, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Inkyu [School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, 680 Gukchaebosang-ro, Jung-gu, Daegu 700-842 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myoung Ok [School of Animal BT Sciences, Sangju Campus, Kyungpook National University, 386 Gajang-dong, Sangju, Gyeongsangbuk-do 742-211 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Duhak, E-mail: dhyoon@knu.ac.kr [School of Animal BT Sciences, Sangju Campus, Kyungpook National University, 386 Gajang-dong, Sangju, Gyeongsangbuk-do 742-211 (Korea, Republic of); Ryoo, Zae Young, E-mail: jaewoong64@hanmail.net [School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Buk-ku, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-14

    Highlights: • The expression of Jazf1 in the liver suppressed lipid accumulation. • Jazf1 significantly increases transcription of fatty acid synthase. • Jazf1 plays a critical role in the regulation of energy and lipid homeostasis. • Jazf1 associates the development of metabolic disorder. • Jazf1 may provide a new therapeutic target in the management of metabolic disorder. - Abstract: Jazf1 is a 27 kDa nuclear protein containing three putative zinc finger motifs that is associated with diabetes mellitus and prostate cancer; however, little is known about the role that this gene plays in regulation of metabolism. Recent evidence indicates that Jazf1 transcription factors bind to the nuclear orphan receptor TR4. This receptor regulates PEPCK, the key enzyme involved in gluconeogenesis. To elucidate Jazf1’s role in metabolism, we fed a 60% fat diet for up to 15 weeks. In Jazf1 overexpression mice, weight gain was found to be significantly decreased. The expression of Jazf1 in the liver also suppressed lipid accumulation and decreased droplet size. These results suggest that Jazf1 plays a critical role in the regulation of lipid homeostasis. Finally, Jazf1 may provide a new therapeutic target in the management of obesity and diabetes.

  6. Substituting sugar-sweetened beverages with water or milk is inversely associated with body fatness development from childhood to adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Miaobing; Rangan, Anna; Olsen, Nanna Julie

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the association between different types of beverage intake and substitution of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) by water, milk, or 100% fruit juice in relation to 6-y change in body fatness. METHODS: A cohort of 9-y-old children (N = 358) who...... with changes in BMIz (β = -0.05; P = 0.02), WC (β = -0.33; P = 0.046), and Σ4SF (β = -0.79; P = 0.06). No effect was observed for substitution of SSB by 100% fruit juice. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that SSB intake is associated with long-term changes in body fatness in children, and replacing SSBs...... with water or milk, but not 100% fruit juice, is inversely associated with body fatness development....

  7. Intermittent fasting reduces body fat but exacerbates hepatic insulin resistance in young rats regardless of high protein and fat diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunmin; Yoo, Kyung Min; Hyun, Joo Suk; Kang, Suna

    2017-02-01

    Intermittent fasting (IMF) is a relatively new dietary approach to weight management, although the efficacy and adverse effects have not been full elucidated and the optimal diets for IMF are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that a one-meal-per-day intermittent fasting with high fat (HF) or protein (HP) diets can modify energy, lipid, and glucose metabolism in normal young male Sprague-Dawley rats with diet-induced obesity or overweight. Male rats aged 5 weeks received either HF (40% fat) or HP (26% protein) diets ad libitum (AL) or for 3 h at the beginning of the dark cycle (IMF) for 5 weeks. Epidydimal fat pads and fat deposits in the leg and abdomen were lower with HP and IMF. Energy expenditure at the beginning of the dark cycle, especially from fat oxidation, was higher with IMF than AL, possibly due to greater activity levels. Brown fat content was higher with IMF. Serum ghrelin levels were higher in HP-IMF than other groups, and accordingly, cumulative food intake was also higher in HP-IMF than HF-IMF. HF-IMF exhibited higher area under the curve (AUC) of serum glucose at the first part (0-40 min) during oral glucose tolerance test, whereas AUC of serum insulin levels in both parts were higher in IMF and HF. During intraperitoneal insulin tolerance test, serum glucose levels were higher with IMF than AL. Consistently, hepatic insulin signaling (GLUT2, pAkt) was attenuated and PEPCK expression was higher with IMF and HF than other groups, and HOMA-IR revealed significantly impaired attenuated insulin sensitivity in the IMF groups. However, surprisingly, hepatic and skeletal muscle glycogen storage was higher in IMF groups than AL. The higher glycogen storage in the IMF groups was associated with the lower expression of glycogen phosphorylase than the AL groups. In conclusion, IMF especially with HF increased insulin resistance, possibly by attenuating hepatic insulin signaling, and lowered glycogen phosphorylase expression despite decreased fat mass in young

  8. Smoking and body fat mass in relation to bone mineral density and hip fracture: the Hordaland Health Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannike Øyen

    Full Text Available Lower bone mineral density (BMD in smokers may be attributable to lower body weight or fat mass, rather than to a direct effect of smoking. We analyzed the effects of smoking exposure, assessed by plasma cotinine, and body fat on BMD and the risk of subsequent hip fracture. In the community-based Hordaland Health Study (HUSK, 3003 participants 46-49 years and 2091 subjects 71-74 years were included. Cotinine was measured in plasma and information on health behaviors was obtained from self-administered questionnaires. BMD and total body soft tissue composition were measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Information on hip fracture was obtained from computerized records containing discharge diagnoses for hospitalizations between baseline examinations 1997-2000 through December 31st, 2009. In the whole cohort, moderate and heavy smokers had stronger positive associations between fat mass and BMD compared to never smokers (differences in regression coefficient (95% CI per % change in fat mass = 1.38 (0.24, 2.52 and 1.29 (0.17, 2.4, respectively. In moderate and heavy smokers there was a nonlinear association between BMD and fat mass with a stronger positive association at low compared to high levels of fat mass (Davies segmented test, p<0.001. In elderly women and men, heavy smokers had an increased risk of hip fracture compared to never smokers (hazard ratio = 3.31, 95% CI: 2.05, 5.35; p<0.001. In heavy smokers there was a tendency of a lower risk of hip fracture with higher percentage of fat mass. The deleterious effect of smoking on bone health is stronger in lean smokers than in smokers with high fat mass.

  9. Deleted in Breast Cancer 1 Limits Adipose Tissue Fat Accumulation and Plays a Key Role in the Development of Metabolic Syndrome Phenotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escande, Carlos; Nin, Veronica; Pirtskhalava, Tamar; Chini, Claudia C. S.; Tchkonia, Tamar; Kirkland, James L.; Chini, Eduardo N.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is often regarded as the primary cause of metabolic syndrome. However, many lines of evidence suggest that obesity may develop as a protective mechanism against tissue damage during caloric surplus and that it is only when the maximum fat accumulation capacity is reached and fatty acid spill

  10. Glycemic index and glycemic load in relation to changes in body weight, body fat distribution, and body composition in adult Danes 1-3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hare-Bruun, Helle; Flint, Anne; L. Heitmann, Berit

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: A diet with a high glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) may promote overconsumption of energy and increase the risk of weight gain.Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate the relation between GI and GL of habitual diets and subsequent 6-y changes in body...... born in 1922, 1932, 1942, or 1952. A baseline health examination and a dietary history interview were carried out in 1987 and 1988; a follow-up health examination was performed in 1993 and 1994. Results: Positive associations between GI and changes in bodyweight (¿BW), percentage body fat (%BF......), and waist circumference (¿WC) were observed in women after adjustment for covariates.Significant GI X sex X physical activity interactions for ABSTRACTBackground: A diet with a high glycemic index (GI) and glycemicload (GL) may promote overconsumption of energy and increase therisk of weight gain...

  11. The effect of increasing dairy calcium intake of adolescent girls on changes in body fat and weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappe, Joan M; McMahon, Donald J; Laughlin, Ann; Hanson, Corrine; Desmangles, Jean Claude; Begley, Margaret; Schwartz, Misty

    2017-03-15

    Background: Overweight is epidemic in adolescents and is a major concern because it tracks into adulthood. Evidence supports the efficacy of high-calcium, high-dairy diets in achieving healthy weight in adults. However, no randomized controlled trials of the effect of dairy food on weight and body fat in adolescents have been reported to our knowledge.Objective: The aim was to determine whether increasing calcium intake to recommended amounts with dairy foods in adolescent girls with habitually low calcium intakes would decrease body fat gain compared with girls who continued their low calcium intake. Participants had above-the-median body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)).Design: We enrolled 274 healthy postmenarcheal 13- to 14-y-old overweight girls who had calcium intakes of ≤600 mg/d in a 12-mo randomized controlled trial. Girls were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to 1 of 2 groups within each of 3 BMI percentiles: 50th to dairy, which included low-fat milk or yogurt servings providing ≥1200 mg Ca/d or 2) control, which included the usual diet of ≤600 mg Ca/d.Results: We failed to detect a statistically significant difference between groups in percentage of body fat gain over 12 mo (mean ± SEM: dairy 0.40% ± 0.53% > control; P dairy group gained body fat similar to the control group provide no support for dairy food as a stratagem to decrease body fat or weight gain in overweight adolescent girls. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01066806.

  12. Profile of leptin, adiponectin, and body fat in patients with hyperprolactinemia: Response to treatment with cabergoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pala, Nazir Ahmad; Laway, Bashir Ahmad; Misgar, Raiz Ahmad; Shah, Zaffar Amin; Gojwari, Tariq A.; Dar, Tariq A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Though hypoadiponectinemia and leptin resistance have been proposed as potential factors for weight gain in patients with hyperprolactinemia (HPL), the effects of HPL and cabergoline on these adipocyte-derived hormones are not clear. Aims of this study were (i) to assess the alterations of body fat, leptin, and adiponectin in patients with HPL (ii) effect of cabergoline treatment on these parameters. Methods: Nineteen consecutive patients with prolactinoma (median prolactin [PRL] 118.6 (interquartile range: 105.3) μg/L) and 20 controls were studied in a nonrandomized matched prospective design. The controls were age, gender, and body mass index (BMI) matched. Anthropometric data, metabolic variables, leptin, and adiponectin were studied at baseline and 3 and 6 months after cabergoline treatment. Results: Patients with prolactinoma had increased level of fasting plasma glucose (P prolactinoma had higher levels of leptin (P = 0.027) as compared to healthy controls without a significant difference in adiponectin levels. There was a significant decrease of body weight at 3 months (P = 0.029), with a further decline at 6 months (P prolactinoma have adverse metabolic profile compared to matched controls. Normalization of PRL with cabergoline corrects all the metabolic abnormalities. PMID:27042412

  13. Physical activity and bone health in schoolchildren: the mediating role of fitness and body fat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Torres-Costoso

    Full Text Available The relationship between physical activity (PA and bone health is well known, although the role of percent body fat (%BF and fitness as confounders or mediators in this relationship remains uncertain.To examine whether the association between PA and bone mineral content (BMC is mediated by %BF and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF.In this cross sectional study, BMC, total %BF (by DXA, vigorous PA (VPA, CRF, age and height were measured in 132 schoolchildren (62 boys, aged 8-11 years. ANCOVA was used to test differences in BMC by %BF, CRF and VPA, controlling for different sets of confounders. Simple mediation analyses and serial multiple mediation analyses were fitted to examine whether the relationship between PA and BMC is mediated by %BF and fitness.Children with high %BF had higher total body BMC than their peers after controlling for all sets of confounders. Children with good CRF or VPA had significantly less total body BMC after controlling for age and sex but in children with good CRF this inverse relation disappeared after adjusting by %BF. %BF and CRF both act as a full mediator in the association between VPA and BMC, after inclusion of the potential confounders in the models.Fitness and %BF seem to have a mediator role on the relationship between physical activity and bone mass.

  14. Effects of Synthetic Diets Enriched in Specific Nutrients on Drosophila Development, Body Fat, and Lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Tânia

    2016-01-01

    Gene-diet interactions play a crucial but poorly understood role in susceptibility to obesity. Accordingly, the development of genetically tractable model systems to study the influence of diets in obesity-prone genetic backgrounds is a focus of current research. Here I present a modified synthetic Drosophila diet optimized for timely larval development, a stage dedicated to energy storage. Specifically increasing the levels of individual macronutrients-carbohydrate, lipid, or protein-resulted in markedly different organismal effects. A high-carbohydrate diet adversely affected the timing of development, size, early lifespan and body fat. Strikingly, quadrupling the amount of dietary lipids had none of these effects. Diets rich in protein appeared to be the most beneficial, as larvae developed faster, with no change in size, into long-lived adults. I believe this synthetic diet will significantly facilitate the study of gene-diet interactions in organismal energy balance.

  15. The relationship of internalized racism to body fat distribution and insulin resistance among African adolescent youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Earle C; Tull, Eugene S; Fraser, Henry S; Mutunhu, Nyasha R; Sobers, Natasha; Niles, Elisa

    2004-12-01

    This study examined the relationship of internalized racism (INR) and hostility to body fat distribution and insulin resistance in black adolescent children age 14-16 years on the Caribbean island of Barbados. Questionnaire data on psychosocial variables and anthropometric measurements, together with a fasting blood sample, were obtained from 53 low-birthweight and 119 normal-birthweight adolescents. Insulin resistance was calculated using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). Spearman correlation analyses showed that both INR (r = 0.244) and hostility (r = 0.204) were significantly (p physical activity and family history of diabetes. The results of the current study show that the positive relationship between INR and metabolic health risk seen in African-Caribbean adults also exists in African Caribbean adolescent youth independent of birthweight.

  16. Dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load in Danish children in relation to body fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, B. M.; Bjørnsbo, K. B.; Tetens, Inge;

    2005-01-01

    daily dietary GI value was 85 (SD 6 center dot 9) with a range of 62-111. No significant differences were found between age groups and gender. The daily dietary GL was higher among boys aged 16, with a GL of 330 (sd 95) (P ... among 10-year-old boys than girls (250 (sd 81) v. 230 (sd 66) P Sigma SF) among girls or among 10-year-old boys. Among 16-year-old boys, significant...... associations were observed between dietary GI and Sigma SF (beta=0 center dot 60, SE=0 center dot 21, P=0 center dot 006), and between dietary GL and Sigma SF (beta=0 center dot 15, SE=0.06, P=0 center dot 009). In conclusion, dietary GI and GL were positively associated with body fatness among Danish boys...

  17. How Can Diet Affect the Accumulation of Advanced Glycation End-Products in the Human Body?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Guilbaud

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs is associated with the complications of diabetes, kidney disease, metabolic disorders and degenerative diseases. It is recognized that the pool of glycation products found in the human body comes not only from an endogenous formation, but also from a dietary exposure to exogenous AGEs. In recent years, the development of pharmacologically-active ingredients aimed at inhibiting endogenous glycation has not been successful. Since the accumulation of AGEs in the human body appears to be progressive throughout life, an early preventive action against glycation could be effective through dietary adjustments or supplementation with purified micronutrients. The present article provides an overview of current dietary strategies tested either in vitro, in vivo or both to reduce the endogenous formation of AGEs and to limit exposure to food AGEs.

  18. 24-hour energy expenditure and substrate oxidation rates are unaffected by body fat distribution in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buemann, B; Astrup, A; Quaade, F; Madsen, J

    1994-01-01

    Twenty-four-hour energy expenditure (EE) and nonprotein respiratory quotient (RQnp) were measured by indirect calorimetry in 19 upper-body-obese (UBO) and 15 lower-body-obese (LBO) women with similar body mass index (BMI) and body fat percent. The measurements were performed in a respiration chamber on a predetermined physical activity program and a controlled diet. No differences between the UBO and LBO groups were found in 24-hour, daytime, and sleeping EE after adjustment for differences in fat-free mass (FFM). Furthermore, no group effect was observed in RQnp, but a positive correlation was found between RQnp and age. Despite the fact that an increased free fatty acid (FFA) turnover has been found in UBO subjects, the present study does not support the contention that upper-body obesity is accompanied by an increased lipid oxidation.

  19. Long-term vegetarians have low oxidative stress, body fat, and cholesterol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Kyung; Cho, Sang Woon; Park, Yoo Kyoung

    2012-04-01

    Excessive oxidative stress and abnormal blood lipids may cause chronic diseases. This risk can be reduced by consuming an antioxidant- and fiber-rich vegetarian diet. We compared biomarkers of oxidative stress, antioxidant capacity, and lipid profiles of sex- and age-matched long-term vegetarians and omnivores in Korea. Forty-five vegetarians (23 men and 22 women; mean age, 49.5 ± 5.3 years), who had maintained a vegetarian diet for a minimum of 15 years, and 30 omnivores (15 men and 15 women; mean age, 48.9 ± 3.6 years) participated in this study. Their 1-day, 24-h recall, and 2-day dietary records were analyzed. Oxidative stress was measured by the levels of diacron reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROM). Antioxidant status was determined by the biological antioxidant potential (BAP) and levels of endogenous antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. We observed that vegetarians had a significantly lower body fat percentage (21.6 ± 6.4%) than that of omnivores (25.4 ± 4.6%; P vegetarians than those in omnivores (331.82 ± 77.96 and 375.80 ± 67.26 Carratelli units; P vegetarians and omnivores were 173.73 ± 31.42 mg/dL and 193.17 ± 37.89 mg/dL, respectively (P vegetarians and omnivores, respectively, indicating that vegetarians had significantly lower lipid levels. Thus, oxidative stress, body fat, and cholesterol levels were lower in long-term vegetarians than those in omnivores.

  20. Functional genomics of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae midguts and fat bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bearfield Jeremy C

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae is a significant coniferous forest pest in western North America. It relies on aggregation pheromones to colonize hosts. Its three major pheromone components, trans-verbenol, exo-brevicomin, and frontalin, are thought to arise via different metabolic pathways, but the enzymes involved have not been identified or characterized. We produced ESTs from male and female midguts and associated fat bodies and used custom oligonucleotide microarrays to study gene expression patterns and thereby made preliminary identification of pheromone-biosynthetic genes. Results Clones from two un-normalized cDNA libraries were directionally sequenced from the 5' end to yield 11,775 ESTs following sequence cleansing. The average read length was 550 nt. The ESTs clustered into 1,201 contigs and 2,833 singlets (4,034 tentative unique genes. The ESTs are broadly distributed among GO functional groups, suggesting they reflect a broad spectrum of the transcriptome. Among the most represented genes are representatives of sugar-digesting enzymes and members of an apparently Scolytid-specific gene family of unknown function. Custom NimbleGen 4-plex arrays representing the 4,034 tentative unique genes were queried with RNA from eleven different biological states representing larvae, pupae, and midguts and associated fat bodies of unfed or fed adults. Quantitative (Real-Time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR experiments confirmed that the microarray data accurately reflect expression levels in the different samples. Candidate genes encoding enzymes involved in terminal steps of biosynthetic pathways for exo-brevicomin and frontalin were tentatively identified. Conclusions These EST and microarray data are the first publicly-available functional genomics resources for this devastating forestry pest.

  1. The Study on Correlation Analysis of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism of IGF2 Gene and Body Fatness Traits in Chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhi-hui; LI Hui; WANG Qi-gui; ZHAO Jian-guo; WANG Yu-xiang

    2004-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor Ⅱ has profound effects on the growth and differentiation of animal embryo. Some researches indicated that it affects the fat metabolism of poultry.This study was designed to investigate the effect of IGF2 on chicken fatness traits.Broiler, Hyline Brown layer and three native breeds (Shiqiza, Beijing You, Baier) were used in this research. Body weight and body composition traits were measured in broiler line at the age of 7 weeks. Primers for exon2 in IGF2 were designed from database of chicken genomic sequence. Polymorphisms were detected by PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing.The total χ2 test results showed that there was a significant difference (P< 0.01) in the frequency of genotype among breeds. A C/G mutation at base position 139 was found among individuals in broiler line and the least square analysis showed that BB genotype birds had significant lower (P< 0.05) abdominal fat weight and percentage of abdominal fat than AA or AB genotype birds. From the results we can conclude putatively that IGF2 gene is the major gene affecting the fatness traits of chicken or it links with the major gene,and the mutation could be used as the molecular genetic marker to select the chicken for low abdominal fat.

  2. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on body composition, body fat mobilization, protein accretion, and energy utilization in early lactation dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Soosten, D; Meyer, U; Piechotta, M; Flachowsky, G; Dänicke, S

    2012-03-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of trans-10,cis-12 and cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation on body composition, mobilization or accretion of body fat and protein mass, as well as the energy metabolism of dairy cows during the first 105 d in milk (DIM). For this purpose, a comparative slaughter experiment was conducted with 25 primiparous German Holstein cows. The experiment started at 1 DIM with the slaughter of 5 animals of an initial group receiving no CLA supplement. The remaining animals were fed a CLA supplement (n=10) or a stearic acid-based control fat supplement (CON; n=10) from 1 DIM up to slaughter. After 42 DIM, 5 more cows from each treatment (42-CLA and 42-CON) were slaughtered. The remaining 5 cows in each treatment were slaughtered after 105 DIM (105-CLA and 105-CON). The animals of the CLA groups consumed 6.0 g/d of trans-10,cis-12 CLA and 5.7 g/d of cis-9,trans-11 CLA. During the slaughter process, the empty body mass was recorded and partitioned into 9 fractions (meat, bone, offal, hide, mammary gland, retroperitoneal fat, omental fat, mesenteric fat, and s.c. fat). The fractions were analyzed for dry matter, ether extract, crude protein, and ash to calculate the body composition of the empty body mass at the different slaughter times. The principle of the comparative slaughter technique was applied to estimate body fat or protein mobilization and accretion in the viewed periods from 1 DIM until 42 and 105 DIM. The heat production (HP) was calculated by subtracting the energy in milk and energy changes in body mass from the metabolizable energy intake. The body composition was not affected by CLA supplementation. However, the mobilization of body fat mass from 1 until 42 DIM was 24.1 kg in the 42-CON group and 14.3 kg in the 42-CLA group. This resulted in a trend to lower body mass (fat and protein) mobilization of 10.5 kg in the 42-CLA group. Energy mobilization from body mass was 21.2 MJ/d in

  3. Reduction of abdominal fat accumulation in rats by 8-week ingestion of a newly developed sweetener made from high fructose corn syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Tetsuo; Yamada, Takako; Hayashi, Noriko; Okuma, Kazuhiro; Izumori, Ken; Ishii, Reika; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro

    2013-06-01

    Many studies have shown that ingestion of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) may cause an increase in body weight and abdominal fat. We recently developed a new sweetener containing rare sugars (rare sugar syrup; RSS) by slight isomerization of HFCS. Here, the functional effects of RSS on body weight and abdominal fat, and biochemical parameters in Wistar rats were examined. Rats (n=30) were randomly divided into three groups and maintained for 8-weeks on starch, starch+HFCS (50:50), and starch+RSS (50:50) diets. Rats in the Starch and HFCS groups gained significantly more body weight and abdominal fat than the RSS group. Fasting serum insulin in the RSS group was significantly lower than in the Starch and HFCS groups, although serum glucose in the HFCS and RSS groups was significantly lower than that in the Starch group. Thus, the substitution of HFCS with RSS prevents obesity induced by the consumption of HFCS.

  4. Over-the-counter analgesics normalize blood glucose and body composition in mice fed a high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendig, Eric L; Schneider, Scott N; Clegg, Deborah J; Genter, Mary Beth; Shertzer, Howard G

    2008-07-15

    Type 2 diabetes (noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus) develops from a pre-diabetic condition that is characterized by insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, and is exacerbated by obesity. In this study, we compared the ability of over-the-counter analgesic drugs (OTCAD) [acetaminophen (APAP); ibuprofen (IBU); naproxen (NAP); aspirin (ASA)], to protect against the development of a pre-diabetic state in mice fed a high fat diet. After 10 weeks on the high fat diet, mice had normal fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels, but exhibited impaired glucose tolerance. Treatment with 20 mg OTCADs/kg body weight improved glucose tolerance, with the order of efficacy, APAP=ASA>IBU, while NAP proved ineffective. Mice fed the high fat diet also exhibited increases in weight gain associated with an increase in body fat. OTCADs prevented in part this increase in body fat, in the order of efficacy, APAP=IBU>NAP=ASA. In isolated liver mitochondria, OTCADs inhibited succinate-dependent H2O2 production, while in white adipose tissue, APAP inhibited NADPH-oxidase mediated H2O2 production and lipid peroxidation. Thus, OTCADs diminish pro-oxidant processes that might otherwise exacerbate inflammation and a pre-diabetic state. We conclude that OTCADs, especially APAP and IBU, may be valuable tools to delay or prevent the development of type 2 diabetes from a pre-diabetic condition.

  5. Paternal High Fat Diet in Rats Leads to Renal Accumulation of Lipid and Tubular Changes in Adult Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabiha S. Chowdhury

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Along with diabetes and obesity, chronic kidney disease (CKD is increasing across the globe. Although some data support an effect of maternal obesity on offspring kidney, the impact of paternal obesity is unknown; thus, we have studied the effect of paternal obesity prior to conception. Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed chow diet or high fat diet (HFD for 13–14 weeks before mating with chow-fed females. Male offspring were weaned onto chow and killed at 27 weeks for renal gene expression and histology. Fathers on HFD were 30% heavier than Controls at mating. At 27 weeks of age offspring of obese fathers weighed 10% less; kidney triglyceride content was significantly increased (5.35 ± 0.84 vs. 2.99 ± 0.47 μg/mg, p < 0.05, n = 8 litters per group. Histological analysis of the kidney demonstrated signs of tubule damage, with significantly greater loss of brush border, and increased cell sloughing in offspring of obese compared to Control fathers. Acat1, involved in entry of fatty acid for beta-oxidation, was significantly upregulated, possibly to counteract increased triglyceride storage. However other genes involved in lipid metabolism, inflammation and kidney injury showed no changes. Paternal obesity was associated with renal triglyceride accumulation and histological changes in tubules, suggesting a mild renal insult in offspring, who may be at risk of developing CKD.

  6. Fine Mapping of the Body Fat QTL on Human Chromosome 1q43.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahim Aissani

    Full Text Available Evidence for linkage and association of obesity-related quantitative traits to chromosome 1q43 has been reported in the Quebec Family Study (QFS and in populations of Caribbean Hispanic ancestries yet no specific candidate locus has been replicated to date.Using a set of 1,902 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs genotyped in 525 African American (AA and 391 European American (EA women enrolled in the NIEHS uterine fibroid study (NIEHS-UFS, we generated a fine association map for the body mass index (BMI across a 2.3 megabase-long interval delimited by RGS7 (regulator of G-protein signaling 7 and PLD5 (Phospholipase D, member 5. Multivariable-adjusted linear regression models were fitted to the data to evaluate the association in race-stratified analyses and meta-analysis.The strongest associations were observed in a recessive genetic model and peaked in the 3' end of RGS7 at intronic rs261802 variant in the AA group (p = 1.0 x 10-4 and in meta-analysis of AA and EA samples (p = 9.0 x 10-5. In the EA group, moderate associations peaked at rs6429264 (p = 2.0 x 10-3 in the 2 Kb upstream sequence of RGS7. In the reference populations for the European ancestry in the 1,000 genomes project, rs6429264 occurs in strong linkage disequilibrium (D' = 0.94 with rs1341467, the strongest candidate SNP for total body fat in QFS that failed genotyping in the present study. Additionally we report moderate associations at the 3' end of PLD5 in meta-analysis (3.2 x 10-4 ≤ p ≤ 5.8 x 10-4.We report replication data suggesting that RGS7, a gene abundantly expressed in the brain, might be a putative body fat QTL on human chromosome 1q43. Future genetic and functional studies are required to substantiate our observations and to potentially link them to the neurobehavioral phenotypes associated with the RGS7 region.

  7. Thermogenesis is involved in the body-fat lowering effects of resveratrol in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberdi, Goiuri; Rodríguez, Víctor M; Miranda, Jonatan; Macarulla, M Teresa; Churruca, Itziar; Portillo, María P

    2013-11-15

    The effect of resveratrol on thermogenesis in skeletal muscle and interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT) was investigated. Rats were fed an obesogenic diet supplemented with resveratrol (30mg/kg/day) or not supplemented for 6weeks. Resveratrol intake led to increased gene expression of mitochondrial-transcription-factor-A (TFAM), mitochondrial-protein-cytochrome-C-oxidase subunit-2 (COX2), sirtuin-1 (SIRT1), peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-β/δ (PPARβ/δ) and proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma-coactivator1-α (PGC-1α) in IBAT and increased UCP1protein expression; however, peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-α (PPARα) expression remained unchanged. In gastrocnemius muscle, resveratrol increased the gene expression of TFAM and COX2; however, no changes were observed in levels of SIRT1, PGC-1α and PPARβ/δ. Acetylated-PGC-1α was decreased in the resveratrol-treated group, indicating a higher level of activation, and a significant increase of UCP3 protein expression was observed in this group. The increases in UCP protein expression in two important thermogenic tissues after resveratrol treatment may contribute to increased whole-body energy dissipation, which may help to better understand the body-fat lowering effect of this polyphenol.

  8. Hypothalamic Npy mRNA is correlated with increased wheel running and decreased body fat in calorie-restricted rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruegsegger, Gregory N; Speichinger, Katherine R; Manier, Jacob B; Younger, Kyle M; Childs, Thomas E; Booth, Frank W

    2016-04-01

    The neuro-molecular mechanisms that regulate the relationship between physical activity level, energy homeostasis regulation, and body fat are unclear. Thus, we aimed to investigate the relationship between mRNAs in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) related to energy homeostasis, wheel running distance, and body fat in ad lib (AL) and calorie-restricted (CR) growing rats. We hypothesized that changes in select mRNAs (Pomc, Cart, Agrp, Npy, Lepr, Insr, Mc4r, Ampk, Sirt1, Sirt3) in CR would be associated with decreases in body fat percentage and increased wheel running behavior. Male Wistar rats were given access to voluntary running wheels at 4 weeks of age and randomized into AL (n=8) and CR (70% of AL; n=7) groups at 5 weeks of age until study termination at 12 weeks of age. Body composition, serum leptin, insulin, and adiponectin, and ARC mRNA expression in AL and CR rats were assessed and correlated with week-12 running distance to examine potential relationships that may exist. By 12 weeks of age, wheel running was increased ∼3.3-fold (p=0.03) while body fat percentage was ∼2-fold lower in CR compared to AL (p=0.001). Compared to AL, ARC Npy mRNA expression was ∼2-fold greater in CR (p=0.02), while Lepr, Insr, Ampk, and Sirt1 mRNA were additionally increased in CR (pNpy mRNA levels versus week-12 wheel running distance (r=0.81, p=0.03), body fat (r=-0.93, pNpy action.

  9. A dynamic model to predict fat and protein fluxes and dry matter intake associated with body reserve changes in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedeschi, Luis O; Fox, Danny G; Kononoff, Paul J

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this paper was to develop the structure and concepts of a dynamic model to simulate dry matter intake (DMI) pattern and the fluxes of fat and protein in the body reserves of cattle associated with changes in body condition score (BCS) for application within the structure of applied nutrition models. This model was developed to add the capability of evaluating the effects of factors affecting pre- and postcalving DMI, daily energy and protein balances, and changes in BCS over a reproductive cycle. Input variables are average DMI, diet metabolizable energy, and animal information (body weight, BCS, milk production, and calf birth body weight) from each diet fed over the reproductive cycle. Because the depletion and repletion of body reserves in cattle is a complex system of coordinated metabolic processes that reflect hormonal and physiological changes caused by negative or positive energy balances, the system dynamics modeling methodology was used to develop this model. The model was used to evaluate the effect of the dynamic interactions between dietary supply and animal requirements for energy and protein on the fluxes of body fat and body protein of dairy cows over the reproductive cycle and Monte Carlo simulations were used to assess the sensitivity of the parameters. The main long-term factor affecting DMI pattern was the growth of the gravid uterus causing an increase in the volume of abdominal organs and a compression of the rumen, consequentially reducing feed intake. Changes in body reserves (fat and protein) were computed based on metabolizable energy balance, assuming different efficiency of utilization coefficients for fat and protein during repletion and mobilization. The model was evaluated with data from 37 dairy cows individually fed 3 different diets over the lactation and dry periods. The model was successful in simulating the observed pattern of DMI (mean square error was 3.59, 3.97, and 3.66 for diets A, B, and C, respectively

  10. Body Fat Equations and Electrical Bioimpedance Values in Prediction of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Eutrophic and Overweight Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciane Rocha Faria

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze body fat anthropometric equations and electrical bioimpedance analysis (BIA in the prediction of cardiovascular risk factors in eutrophic and overweight adolescents. 210 adolescents were divided into eutrophic group (G1 and overweight group (G2. The percentage of body fat (% BF was estimated using 10 body fat anthropometric equations and 2 BIA. We measured lipid profiles, uric acid, insulin, fasting glucose, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, and blood pressure. We found that 76.7% of the adolescents exhibited inadequacy of at least one biochemical parameter or clinical cardiovascular risk. Higher values of triglycerides (TG (P=0.001, insulin, and HOMA-IR (P<0.001 were observed in the G2 adolescents. In multivariate linear regression analysis, the % BF from equation (5 was associated with TG, diastolic blood pressure, and insulin in G1. Among the G2 adolescents, the % BF estimated by (5 and (9 was associated with LDL, TG, insulin, and the HOMA-IR. Body fat anthropometric equations were associated with cardiovascular risk factors and should be used to assess the nutritional status of adolescents. In this study, equation (5 was associated with a higher number of cardiovascular risk factors independent of the nutritional status of adolescents.

  11. In vitro studies on hormone-stimulated lipid mobilization from fat body and interconversion of haemolymph lipoproteins of Locusta migratoria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, D.J. van der; Heusden, M.C. van; Beenakkers, A.M.Th.

    1984-01-01

    Both adipokinetic hormone and octopamine have a stimulating effect on lipid release from locust fat body in vitro, when incubated in diluted haemolymph. The presence of adipokinetic hormone results in the formation of the flight-specific haemolymph lipoprotein A⁺ accepting the increased amount of li

  12. Edin Expression in the Fat Body Is Required in the Defense Against Parasitic Wasps in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanha-Aho, Leena-Maija; Anderl, Ines; Vesala, Laura; Hultmark, Dan; Valanne, Susanna; Rämet, Mika

    2015-05-01

    The cellular immune response against parasitoid wasps in Drosophila involves the activation, mobilization, proliferation and differentiation of different blood cell types. Here, we have assessed the role of Edin (elevated during infection) in the immune response against the parasitoid wasp Leptopilina boulardi in Drosophila melanogaster larvae. The expression of edin was induced within hours after a wasp infection in larval fat bodies. Using tissue-specific RNAi, we show that Edin is an important determinant of the encapsulation response. Although edin expression in the fat body was required for the larvae to mount a normal encapsulation response, it was dispensable in hemocytes. Edin expression in the fat body was not required for lamellocyte differentiation, but it was needed for the increase in plasmatocyte numbers and for the release of sessile hemocytes into the hemolymph. We conclude that edin expression in the fat body affects the outcome of a wasp infection by regulating the increase of plasmatocyte numbers and the mobilization of sessile hemocytes in Drosophila larvae.

  13. Age-associated de-repression of retrotransposons in the Drosophila fat body, its potential cause and consequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haiyang; Zheng, Xiaobin; Xiao, Danqing; Zheng, Yixian

    2016-06-01

    Eukaryotic genomes contain transposable elements (TE) that can move into new locations upon activation. Since uncontrolled transposition of TEs, including the retrotransposons and DNA transposons, can lead to DNA breaks and genomic instability, multiple mechanisms, including heterochromatin-mediated repression, have evolved to repress TE activation. Studies in model organisms have shown that TEs become activated upon aging as a result of age-associated deregulation of heterochromatin. Considering that different organisms or cell types may undergo distinct heterochromatin changes upon aging, it is important to identify pathways that lead to TE activation in specific tissues and cell types. Through deep sequencing of isolated RNAs, we report an increased expression of many retrotransposons in the old Drosophila fat body, an organ equivalent to the mammalian liver and adipose tissue. This de-repression correlates with an increased number of DNA damage foci and decreased level of Drosophila lamin-B in the old fat body cells. Depletion of the Drosophila lamin-B in the young or larval fat body results in a reduction of heterochromatin and a corresponding increase in retrotransposon expression and DNA damage. Further manipulations of lamin-B and retrotransposon expression suggest a role of the nuclear lamina in maintaining the genome integrity of the Drosophila fat body by repressing retrotransposons.

  14. IMPACT OF GENETIC STRAIN ON BODY FAT LOSS, FOOD CONSUMPTION, METABOLISM, VENTILATION, AND MOTOR ACTIVITY IN FREE RUNNING FEMALE RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physiologic data associated with different strains of common laboratory rat strains.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Gordon , C., P. Phillips , and A. Johnstone. Impact of Genetic Strain on Body Fat Loss, Food Consumption, Metabolism, Ventilation, and Motor Activity in Free Running Female Rats. PHYSIOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, USA, 153: 56-63, (2016).

  15. Impact of genetic strain on body fat loss, food consumption, metabolism, ventilation, and motor activity in free running female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based body composition analysis is an idea means of assessing changes in relative proportions of fat, lean, and fluid in rodents non­ invasively. While the data are not as accurate as convent ional chemical analysis, the systems allow one to follo...

  16. Inter-relationships among physical activity, body fat, and motor performance in 6- to 8-year-old Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Kyle M; Bugge, Anna; El-Naaman, Bianca

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the interrelationships among physical activity (PA), percent body fat (%BF), and motor performance (MP) in 498 6- to 8-year-old Danish children. PA was assessed by accelerometer, %BF was calculated from skinfolds, and the Koordinations Test für Kinder along with a throwing...

  17. Vitellogenin content in fat body and ovary homogenates of workers and queens of Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides during vitellogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vagner Tadeu Paes de Oliveira; Bruno Berger; Carminda da Cruz-Landim; Zilá Luz PaulinoSim(o)es

    2012-01-01

    Vitellogenin (Vg) is an egg yolk protein that is produced primarily in the fat body of most female insects.In the advanced social structure of eusocial honeybees,the presence of the queen inhibits egg maturation in the workers' ovaries.However in the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata,the workers always develop ovaries and lay a certain amount of eggs while provisioning the brood cells with larval food during what is known as the worker nurse phase.The present work is a comparative study of the presence of Vg in homogenates of the fat bodies and ovaries of the nurse workers,and the virgin and physogastric queens ofM.quadrifasciata.The presence of Vg was determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting using Apis mellifera anti-egg antibody.Vg was not detected in the fat bodies or ovaries of the workers,but it was found in the ovaries of virgin and physogastric queens and in the fat body ofphysogastric queens.The results are discussed,taking into account the reproductive state of the individuals and the other possible roles of Vg,such as a storage protein for metoabolism of other organs.

  18. Prevalence of hypertension and its association with body fat percentage among government and private schoolgirls in Ludhiana

    OpenAIRE

    Jaspreet Kaur; Promila Mehta

    2012-01-01

    Primary hypertension among children and adolescents is on the rise. To analyze the prevalence of primary hypertension in children and its association with body fat percentage, a study was conducted where 1049 girls aged between 10-16 years studying in private schools and government schools were examined. The study was based on the premise that the girls in private schools belong to more affluent families as compared to their counterparts in government schools. The body density was determined ...

  19. Fat-Free Body Mass but not Fat Mass is Associated with Reduced Gray Matter Volume of Cortical Brain Regions Implicated in Autonomic and Homeostatic Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weise, Christopher M; Thiyyagura, Pradeep; Reiman, Eric M; Chen, Kewei; Krakoff, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Obesity has been associated with alterations of both functional and structural aspects of the human central nervous system. In obese individuals both fat mass (FM; primarily consisting of adipose tissue) and fat-free mass (FFM; all non-adipose tissues) are increased and it remains unknown whether these compartments have separate effects on human brain morphology. We used voxel-based morphometry to investigate the relationships between measures of body composition and regional gray matter volume (GMV) in 76 healthy adults with a wide range of adiposity (24F/52M; age 32.1±8.8y; percentage of body fat [PFAT%] 25.5±10.9%; BMI 29.8±8.9). Faf-free mass index (FFMI kg*m-2) showed negative associations in bilateral temporal regions, the bilateral medial and caudolateral OFC, and the left insula. Fat mass index (FMI kg*m-2) showed similar, but less extensive negative associations within temporal cortical regions and the left caudolateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). In addition, negative associations were seen for FMI with GMV of the cerebellum. Associations of FFMI with temporal and medial orbitofrontal GMV appeared to be independent of adiposity. No associations were seen between measures of adiposity (i.e. FM and PFAT) and GMV when adjusted for FFM. The majority of regions that we find associated with FFM have been implicated in the regulation of eating behavior and show extensive projections to central autonomic and homeostatic core structures. These data indicate that not adipose tissue or relative adiposity itself, but obesity related increases in absolute tissue mass and particularly FFM may have a more predominant effect on the human brain. This might be explained by the high metabolic demand of FFM and related increases in total energy needs. PMID:22974975

  20. Measurement of cardiorespiratory fitness in children from two commonly used field tests after accounting for body fatness and maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Michael J; Fraser, Meegan; Lizamore, Catherine A; Draper, Nick; Shearman, Jeremy P; Kimber, Nicholas E

    2014-03-27

    Body fat and maturation both influence cardiorespiratory fitness, however few studies have taken these variables into account when using field tests to predict children's fitness levels. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between two field tests of cardiorespiratory fitness (20 m Maximal Multistage Shuttle Run [20-MST], 550 m distance run [550-m]) and direct measurement of VO2max after adjustment for body fatness and maturity levels. Fifty-three participants (25 boys, 28 girls, age 10.6 ± 1.2 y, mean ± SD) had their body fat levels estimated using bioelectrical impedance (16.6% ± 6.0% and 20.0% ± 5.8% for boys and girls, respectively). Participants performed in random order, the 20-MST and 550-m run followed by a progressive treadmill test to exhaustion during which gas exchange measures were taken. Pearson correlation coefficient analysis revealed that the participants' performance in the 20-MST and 550-m run were highly correlated to VO2max obtained during the treadmill test to exhaustion (r = 0.70 and 0.59 for 20-MST and 550-m run, respectively). Adjusting for body fatness and maturity levels in a multivariate regression analysis increased the associations between the field tests and VO2max (r = 0.73 for 20-MST and 0.65 for 550-m). We may conclude that both the 20-MST and the 550-m distance run are valid field tests of cardiorespiratory fitness in New Zealand 8-13 year old children and incorporating body fatness and maturity levels explains an additional 5-7% of the variance.

  1. Impact on four dimensional dose accumulation using deformable image registration in liver stereotactic body radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Seong Hee; Kim, Tae Ho; Kim, Dong Su; Seong, Cheon Keum; Cho, Min Seok; Kim, Kyeong Hyeon; Suh, Tae Suk [Dept of. Biomedical Engineering, Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, So Hyun [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Uijeongbu ST Mary' s Hospital, the Catholic University of Korea, Uijeongbu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Si Yong [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond (United States)

    2014-11-15

    This study aims to evaluate the dosimetric effect of four-dimensional dose accumulation (4D dose) compared to 3D dose in liver stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). Currently, SBRTT has been widely used to deliver highly conformal dose to target while sparing normal tissue. So, SBRT need accurate target delineation, dose calculation and motion management techniques such as breath-hold or abdominal compressor. In spite of the benefits about these techniques, there are still deformation and movement which could lead to reduce the probability for tumor control, imprecise prediction of normal tissue complication. 4D dose accumulation which can consider dosimetric effect of respiratory motion has a possibility to predict the more accurate delivered dose to target and normal organs and improve treatment accuracy.

  2. The Relationships among Fundamental Motor Skills, Health-Related Physical Fitness, and Body Fatness in South Korean Adolescents with Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, John T.; Harvey, Stephen; Chun, Hae-Ja; Kim, So-Yeun

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the following: (a) the relationships among the latent constructs of fundamental motor skills (FMS), health-related physical fitness (HRF), and observed body fatness in South Korean adolescents with mental retardation (MR); (b) the indirect effect of fundamental motor skills on body fatness when mediated by…

  3. Saturated- and n-6 polyunsaturated-fat diets each induce ceramide accumulation in mouse skeletal muscle: reversal and improvement of glucose tolerance by lipid metabolism inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frangioudakis, G; Garrard, J; Raddatz, K; Nadler, J L; Mitchell, T W; Schmitz-Peiffer, C

    2010-09-01

    Lipid-induced insulin resistance is associated with intracellular accumulation of inhibitory intermediates depending on the prevalent fatty acid (FA) species. In cultured myotubes, ceramide and phosphatidic acid (PA) mediate the effects of the saturated FA palmitate and the unsaturated FA linoleate, respectively. We hypothesized that myriocin (MYR), an inhibitor of de novo ceramide synthesis, would protect against glucose intolerance in saturated fat-fed mice, while lisofylline (LSF), a functional inhibitor of PA synthesis, would protect unsaturated fat-fed mice. Mice were fed diets enriched in saturated fat, n-6 polyunsaturated fat, or chow for 6 wk. Saline, LSF (25 mg/kg x d), or MYR (0.3 mg/kg x d) were administered by mini-pumps in the final 4 wk. Glucose homeostasis was examined by glucose tolerance test. Muscle ceramide and PA were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Expression of LASS isoforms (ceramide synthases) was evaluated by immunoblotting. Both saturated and polyunsaturated fat diets increased muscle ceramide and induced glucose intolerance. MYR and LSF reduced ceramide levels in saturated and unsaturated fat-fed mice. Both inhibitors also improved glucose tolerance in unsaturated fat-fed mice, but only LSF was effective in saturated fat-fed mice. The discrepancy between ceramide and glucose tolerance suggests these improvements may not be related directly to changes in muscle ceramide and may involve other insulin-responsive tissues. Changes in the expression of LASS1 were, however, inversely correlated with alterations in glucose tolerance. The demonstration that LSF can ameliorate glucose intolerance in vivo independent of the dietary FA type indicates it may be a novel intervention for the treatment of insulin resistance.

  4. Effects of gender, age, and body mass index on fat contents and apparent diffusion coefficients in healthy parotid glands: an MRI evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Hing-Chiu [National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, Taipei (China); Duke University Medical Center, Brain Imaging and Analysis Center, Durham, NC (United States); GE Healthcare, Applied Science Laboratory, Taipei (China); Juan, Chun-Jung; Hsu, Hsian-He [National Defense Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Taipei (China); Tri-Service General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Taipei (China); Chiu, Hui-Chu [Tatung University, Graduate Institute of Design Science, Taipei (China); Cheng, Cheng-Chieh; Chiu, Su-Chin [National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, Taipei (China); Liu, Yi-Jui [Feng Chia University, Department of Automatic Control Engineering, Taichung (China); Chung, Hsiao-Wen [National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, Taipei (China); Tri-Service General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University, MD.624, Department of Electrical Engineering, Taipei (China)

    2014-09-15

    To establish standard apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and the fat content as a function of age, gender and body mass index (BMI) in healthy parotid glands, and to address the influences of fat suppression on ADC measurements. A total of 100 healthy adults (gender and age evenly distributed) were prospectively recruited, with parotid fat content measured from gradient-echo images with fat-water separated using iterative decomposition with echo asymmetry and least squares (IDEAL). The ADCs were estimated using both fat-saturated and non-fat-saturated diffusion-weighted imaging via a periodically rotated overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction (PROPELLER) technique. Parotid fat content was larger in men than in women by about 10 percentage points (P < 0.005), and positively associated with BMI and age for both genders (mostly with P < 0.001). ADCs estimated with non-fat-saturated PROPELLER were significantly lower in men than in women (P < 0.005), but showed no gender difference if measured using fat-saturated PROPELLER (P = 0.840). The negative association between parotid ADC and age/BMI/fat (P < 0.001) showed greater regression slopes in non-fat-saturated PROPELLER than in fat-saturated data. Parotid fat content in healthy adults correlates positively with both age and BMI; the correlation with age is gender-dependent. Parotid ADC measurements are strongly influenced by fat saturation. (orig.)

  5. Changes in the visceral fat bodies associated with haematopoiesis and lipid metabolism, in relation to tail regeneration in the scincid lizard, Mabuya carinata: a histomorphological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, R V; Kinariwala, R V; Ramachandran, A V

    1982-01-01

    In order to understand the role of visceral fat bodies in regeneration, a histomorphological analysis of the fat bodies in Mabuya during its tail regeneration was undertaken. The investigation revealed 2 interesting aspects; a visible shrinkage of the fat bodies and a fall in the histosomatic index (HSI), as well as an enhancement in haemopoietic activity and infiltration of lymphocytes in the fat bodies during the 1st 7 days of tail regeneration. These observations are taken to indicate the involvement of visceral fat bodies in the regenerative mechanics. The appearance of lymphocytes on the 5th and 7th days and their subsequent disappearance together with lipid depletion are construed from the functioning of lymphocytes in lipid transport during their passage to the wound site.

  6. Ferritin in iron containing granules from the fat body of the honeybees Apis mellifera and Scaptotrigona postica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim, C N; Cruz-Landim, C; Carneiro, F G; Farina, M

    2002-01-01

    It is already known that the behaviour of the honeybee Apis mellifera is influenced by the Earth's magnetic field. Recently it has been proposed that iron-rich granules found inside the fat body cells of this honeybee had small magnetite crystals that were responsible for this behaviour. In the present work, we studied the iron containing granules from queens of two species of honeybees (A. mellifera and Scaptotrigona postica) by electron microscopy methods in order to clarify this point. The granules were found inside rough endoplasmic reticulum cisternae. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis of granules from A. mellifera showed the presence of iron, phosphorus and calcium. The same analysis performed on the granules of S. postica also indicated the presence of these elements along with the additional element magnesium. The granules of A. mellifera were composed of apoferritin-like particles in the periphery while in the core, clusters of organised particles resembling holoferritin were seen. The larger and more mineralised granules of S. postica presented structures resembling ferritin cores in the periphery, and smaller electron dense particles inside the bulk. Electron spectroscopic images of the granules from A. mellifera showed that iron, oxygen and phosphorus were co-localised in the ferritin-like deposits. These results indicate that the iron-rich granules of these honeybees are formed by accumulation of ferritin and its degraded forms together with elements present inside the rough endoplasmic reticulum, such as phosphorus, calcium and magnesium. It is suggested that the high level of phosphate in the milieu would prevent the crystallisation of iron oxides in these structures, making very unlikely their participation in magnetoreception mechanisms. They are most probably involved in iron homeostasis.

  7. [Daily calorie and macronutrient consumption in girls of different somatotypes with different shares of body fat, muscle and bone components].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fefelova, V V; Fefelova, Yu A; Koloskova, T P; Kazakova, T V; Sergeeva, E Yu

    2016-01-01

    211 practically healthy girls, the students of Krasnoyarsk Medical University in the ages of 16 to 20 years, have been examined. We determined their somatotypes (euriplastic, athletic, subathletic and stenoplastic) and body composition (fat, muscle, bone component). Actual nutrition in these subjects was studied by the method. of 24-hour nutrition recall involving foodstuffs models. Energy consumption in cohorts with different somatotypes did not differ from one another and ranged from 1880 to 2115 kilocalories per day, that corresponded to normal physiological needs in women of this age with the coefficient of physical activity as 1.4 (students). Only the intake of fat (% of calories) exceeded the performance standards. As for macronutrients, the majority of indicators of nutrient intake did not differ significantly among girls with different somatotype, except for fat intake in girls with athletic and stenoplastic somatotypes (psomatotypes (psomatotypes with statistically considerable, differences in both overall dimensions (body mass and length) and the ratios between fat, muscle and bone as somatic components. In general, macronutrient consumption did not show any differences as well. Thus, apart from the energy and macronutrient consumption, definite meaning within the process of the formation of body composition can belong to the characteristics of the changes following nutrition load on lipoid spectrum of blood serum as well 'as the peculiarities of the distribution of substrate flow among cell metabolic paths, appropriate of definite somatotypes.

  8. Ginger Essential Oil Ameliorates Hepatic Injury and Lipid Accumulation in High Fat Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yi-Syuan; Lee, Wan-Ching; Lin, Yu-En; Ho, Chi-Tang; Lu, Kuan-Hung; Lin, Shih-Hang; Panyod, Suraphan; Chu, Yung-Lin; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2016-03-16

    The objective of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective efficacy and mechanism of action of ginger essential oil (GEO) against the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Mice were maintained on either a control diet or high-fat diet (HFD) supplemented with GEO (12.5, 62.5, and 125 mg/kg) or citral (2.5 and 25 mg/kg) for 12 weeks. We demonstrated that GEO and its major component (citral) lowered HFD-induced obesity in a dose-dependent manner, accompanied by anti-hyperlipidemic effects by reducing serum free fatty acid, triglyceride, and total cholesterol levels. Moreover, liver histological results showed that administration of 62.5 and 125 mg/kg GEO and 25 mg/kg citral significantly reduced hepatic lipid accumulation. Further assessment by Western blotting and investigation of the lipid metabolism revealed that hepatic protein expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR), and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) were down-regulated by GEO and citral, indicating that GEO and citral suppressed HFD-stimulated lipid biosynthesis and oxidative stress. Furthermore, GEO and citral effectively enhanced the antioxidant capacities and reduced inflammatory response in mouse liver, which exerted protective effects against steatohepatitis. Collectively, GEO and citral exhibited potent hepatoprotective effects against NAFLD induced by HFD in obese mice. Thus, GEO might be an effective dietary supplement to ameliorate NAFLD-related metabolic diseases, and citral could play a vital role in its management.

  9. Capric Acid Reduces Body Weight in C57BL/6J Mice Fed a High Fat Diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-hua LIU; Yong ZHANG; Qing XU; Xin-sheng ZHANG; Jin WANG; Xiao-ming YU; Xue-yan YANG; Chang-yong XUE

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the body weight reducing effect of two medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA), capric acid and caprylic acid, and the potential underlying mechanisms in C57BL/6J mice fed a high fat diet.Methods Obese C57BL/6J mice were developed on a high-fat diet containing 2% caprylic acid (C8:0), 2% capric acid (C10:0), or 2% oleic acid (C18:1). Body weight and diet intake were monitored twice a week. After 8 weeks of feeding, body fat composition and the protein or mRNA expression of lipolysis-related genes in the white adipose tissue (WAT) were analyzed.Results In the capric acid group, significant reductions were observed in body weight gain, Lee's index, BMI, and epididymal adipose tissue weight, while increased levels of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and beta 3 adrenergic receptor (β3-AR) were found in the adipose tissue, compared to the oleic acid group. No significant differences in these parameters were found between caprylic acid and oleic acid groups.Conclusion Capric acid, but not caprylic acid, is effective in reducing body weight in obese C57BL/6J mice,possibly due to up-regulation of β3-AR, ATGL, and HSL in WAT.

  10. Prevalence of hypertension and its association with body fat percentage among government and private schoolgirls in Ludhiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaspreet Kaur

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Primary hypertension among children and adolescents is on the rise. To analyze the prevalence of primary hypertension in children and its association with body fat percentage, a study was conducted where 1049 girls aged between 10-16 years studying in private schools and government schools were examined. The study was based on the premise that the girls in private schools belong to more affluent families as compared to their counterparts in government schools. The body density was determined by using appropriate regression equations given by Durnin and Wormersley (1974 and body fat percentage was calculated from body density equation by using Siri (1961 criteria. Blood pressure was recorded and prevalence of hypertension was determined by using the fourth report on the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure in children and adolescents suggested by U.S. Department of health and human services (2004. This study found that the systolic and diastolic blood pressure of richer girls from private schools was higher than their relatively poorer counterparts studying in government schools. The difference between the systolic blood pressure of these groups was significantly higher at all age groups in private school girls and similarly diastolic blood pressure difference was significant at all age groups except at 14 years with the private school girls showing higher values as compared to the government school girls. The private school girls also possessed higher body fat percentage than government school girls. Positive association of increase in blood pressure with increase in body fat percentage was also found.

  11. Dairy consumption and insulin resistance: the role of body fat, physical activity, and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Larry A; Erickson, Andrea; LeCheminant, James D; Bailey, Bruce W

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between dairy consumption and insulin resistance was ascertained in 272 middle-aged, nondiabetic women using a cross-sectional design. Participants kept 7-day, weighed food records to report their diets, including dairy intake. Insulin resistance was assessed using the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA). The Bod Pod was used to measure body fat percentage, and accelerometry for 7 days was used to objectively index physical activity. Regression analysis was used to determine the extent to which mean HOMA levels differed across low, moderate, and high dairy intake categories. Results showed that women in the highest quartile of dairy consumption had significantly greater log-transformed HOMA values (0.41 ± 0.53) than those in the middle-two quartiles (0.22 ± 0.55) or the lowest quartile (0.19 ± 0.58) (F = 6.90, P = 0.0091). The association remained significant after controlling for each potential confounder individually and all covariates simultaneously. Adjusting for differences in energy intake weakened the relationship most, but the association remained significant. Of the 11 potential confounders, only protein intake differed significantly across the dairy categories, with those consuming high dairy also consuming more total protein than their counterparts. Apparently, high dairy intake is a significant predictor of insulin resistance in middle-aged, nondiabetic women.

  12. Dairy Consumption and Insulin Resistance: The Role of Body Fat, Physical Activity, and Energy Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry A. Tucker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between dairy consumption and insulin resistance was ascertained in 272 middle-aged, nondiabetic women using a cross-sectional design. Participants kept 7-day, weighed food records to report their diets, including dairy intake. Insulin resistance was assessed using the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA. The Bod Pod was used to measure body fat percentage, and accelerometry for 7 days was used to objectively index physical activity. Regression analysis was used to determine the extent to which mean HOMA levels differed across low, moderate, and high dairy intake categories. Results showed that women in the highest quartile of dairy consumption had significantly greater log-transformed HOMA values (0.41 ± 0.53 than those in the middle-two quartiles (0.22 ± 0.55 or the lowest quartile (0.19 ± 0.58 (F = 6.90, P = 0.0091. The association remained significant after controlling for each potential confounder individually and all covariates simultaneously. Adjusting for differences in energy intake weakened the relationship most, but the association remained significant. Of the 11 potential confounders, only protein intake differed significantly across the dairy categories, with those consuming high dairy also consuming more total protein than their counterparts. Apparently, high dairy intake is a significant predictor of insulin resistance in middle-aged, nondiabetic women.

  13. Application of body mass index adjusted for fat mass (BMIfat obtained by bioelectrical impedance in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mírele Savegnago Mialich

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Body mass index (BMI has been one of the methods most frequently used for diagnose obesity, but it isn't consider body composition. Objective: This study intends to apply one new adiposity index, the BMI adjusted for fat mass (BMIfat developed by Mialich, et al. (2011, in a adult Brazilian sample. Methods: A cross-sectional study with 501 individuals of both genders (366 women, 135 men aged 17 to 38 years and mean age was 20.4 ± 2.8 years, mean weight 63.0 ± 13.5 kg, mean height 166.9 ± 9.0 cm, and BMI 22.4 ± 3.4 kg/m². Results and discussion: High and satisfactory R2 values were obtained, i.e., 91.1%, 91.9% and 88.8% for the sample as a whole and for men and women, respectively. Considering this BMIfat were developed new ranges, as follows: 1.35 to 1.65 (nutritional risk for malnutrition, > 1.65 and ≤ 2.0 (normal weight and > 2.0 (obesity. The BMIfat had a more accurate capacity of detecting obese individuals (0.980. 0.993, 0.974 considering the sample as a whole and women and men, respectively, compared to the traditional BMI (0.932, 0.956, 0.95. Were also defined new cut-off points for the traditional BMI for the classification of obesity, i.e.: 25.24 kg/m² and 28.38 kg/m² for men and women, respectively. Conclusion: The BMIfat was applied for the present population and can be adopted in clinical practice. Further studies are needed to determine its application to different ethnic groups and to compare this index to others previously described in the scientific literature.

  14. Body mass, fat-free body mass, and prognosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease from a random population sample: findings from the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, Jørgen; Prescott, Eva; Almdal, Thomas Peter

    2006-01-01

    Rationale: Low body mass index (BMI) is a marker of poor prognosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the general population the harmful effect of low BMI is due to the deleterious effects of a low fat free mass index (FFMI, fat free mass/weight(2)). Objectives: We explored...... distribution of low FFMI and its association with prognosis in a population based cohort of COPD patients. Methods: We used data on 1,898 COPD patients identified in a population-based epidemiological study in Copenhagen. Fat free mass was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Patients were followed...... the lowest FFMI 10(th) percentile of the general population. BMI and FFMI were significant predictors of mortality, independent of relevant covariates. Being in the lowest FFMI 10(th) percentile of the general population was associated with a hazard ratio of 1.5 (95% confidence interval 1.2-1.8) for overall...

  15. Chronic Insulin Exposure Induces ER Stress and Lipid Body Accumulation in Mast Cells at the Expense of Their Secretory Degranulation Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E Greineisen

    Full Text Available Lipid bodies (LB are reservoirs of precursors to inflammatory lipid mediators in immunocytes, including mast cells. LB numbers are dynamic, increasing dramatically under conditions of immunological challenge. We have previously shown in vitro that insulin-influenced lipogenic pathways induce LB biogenesis in mast cells, with their numbers attaining steatosis-like levels. Here, we demonstrate that in vivo hyperinsulinemia resulting from high fat diet is associated with LB accumulation in murine mast cells and basophils. We characterize the lipidome of purified insulin-induced LB, and the shifts in the whole cell lipid landscape in LB that are associated with their accumulation, in both model (RBL2H3 and primary mast cells. Lipidomic analysis suggests a gain of function associated with LB accumulation, in terms of elevated levels of eicosanoid precursors that translate to enhanced antigen-induced LTC4 release. Loss-of-function in terms of a suppressed degranulation response was also associated with LB accumulation, as were ER reprogramming and ER stress, analogous to observations in the obese hepatocyte and adipocyte. Taken together, these data suggest that chronic insulin elevation drives mast cell LB enrichment in vitro and in vivo, with associated effects on the cellular lipidome, ER status and pro-inflammatory responses.

  16. Znt7 (Slc30a7)-DEFICIENT MICE DISPLAY REDUCED BODY ZINC STATUS AND BODY FAT ACCUMULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    In vitro studies have demonstrated that ZNT7 is involved in transporting the cytoplasmic zinc into the Golgi apparatus of the cell for zinc storage or to be incorporated into the newly synthesized zinc-requiring enzymes/proteins. To evaluate the physiological role of ZNT7, we created a mouse model o...

  17. Supplementation of a Fermented Soybean Extract Reduces Body Mass and Prevents Obesity in High Fat Diet-Induced C57BL/6J Obese Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Yeon; Aravinthan, Adithan; Park, Young Shik; Hwang, Kyo Yeol; Seong, Su-Il; Hwang, Kwontack

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a growing health problem that many countries face, mostly due to the consumption of a Westernized diet. In this present study we observed the effects of a soybean extract fermented by Bacillus subtilis MORI (BTD-1) containing 1-deoxynojirimycin against high fat diet-induced obesity. The results obtained from this study indicated that BTD-1 reduced body weight, regulated hepatic lipid content and adipose tissue, and also affected liver antioxidant enzymes and glucose metabolism. These results suggest that administration of BTD-1 affects obesity by inhibiting hyperglycemia and free radical-mediated stress; it also reduces lipid accumulation. Therefore, BTD-1 may be potentially useful for the prevention of obesity and its related secondary complications. PMID:27752494

  18. Association between body mass index and body fat in 9-11-year-old children from countries spanning a range of human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzmarzyk, P T; Barreira, T V; Broyles, S T; Chaput, J-P; Fogelholm, M; Hu, G; Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Onywera, V; Sarmiento, O L; Standage, M; Tremblay, M S; Tudor-Locke, C; Zhao, P; Church, T S

    2015-12-01

    The purpose was to assess associations between body mass index (BMI) and body fat in a multinational sample of 9-11-year-old children. The sample included 7265 children from countries ranging in human development. Total body fat (TBF) and percentage body fat (PBF) were measured with a Tanita SC-240 scale and BMI z-scores (BMIz) and percentiles were computed using reference data from the World Health Organization and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, respectively. Mean PBF at BMIz values of -1, 0 and +1 were estimated using multilevel models. Correlations between BMI and TBF were >0.90 in all countries, and correlations between BMI and PBF ranged from 0.76 to 0.96. Boys from India had higher PBF than boys from several other countries at all levels of BMIz. Kenyan girls had lower levels of PBF than girls from several other countries at all levels of BMIz. Boys and girls from Colombia had higher values of PBF at BMIz=-1, whereas Colombian boys at BMIz 0 and +1 also had higher values of PBF than boys in other countries. Our results show a consistently high correlation between BMI and adiposity in children from countries representing a wide range of human development.

  19. Validating skinfold thickness as a proxy to estimate total body fat in wild toque macaques (Macaca sinica) using the mass of dissected adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittus, Wolfgang P J; Gunathilake, K A Sunil

    2015-06-01

    Skinfold thickness (SFT) has been used often in non-human primates and humans as a proxy to estimate fatness (% body fat). We intended to validate the relation between SFT (in recently deceased specimens) and the mass of adipose tissue as determined from dissection of fresh carcasses of wild toque macaques (Macaca sinica). In adult male and female toque macaques body composition is normally 2% adipose tissue. Calipers for measuring SFT were suitable for measuring only some subcutaneous deposits of adipose tissue but were not suitable for measuring large fat deposits within the body cavity or minor intermuscular ones. The anatomical distribution of 13 different adipose deposits, in different body regions (subcutaneous, intra-abdominal and intermuscular) and their proportional size differences, were consistent in this species (as in other primates), though varying in total mass among individuals. These consistent allometric relationships were fundamental for estimating fatness of different body regions based on SFT. The best fit statistically significant correlations and regressions with the known masses of dissectible adipose tissue were evident between the SFT means of the seven sites measured, as well as with a single point on the abdomen anterior to the umbilicus. SFT related to total fat mass and intra-abdominal fat mass in curvilinear regressions and to subcutaneous fat mass in a linear relationship. To adjust for differences in body size among individuals, and to circumvent intangible variations in total body mass allocated, for example to the gastro-intestinal contents, dissected fat mass was estimated per unit body size (length of crown-rump)(3). SFT had greater coefficients of correlation and regressions with this Fat Mass Index (g/dm(3)) than with Percent Body Fat.

  20. The ornithine cycle enzyme arginase from Agaricus bisporus and its role in urea accumulation in fruit bodies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagemaker, M.J.M.; Welboren, W.; Drift, C. van der; Jetten, M.S.M.; Griensven, L.J.L.D. van; Camp, H.J.M. op den

    2005-01-01

    An extensive survey of higher fungi revealed that members of the family Agaricaceae, including Agaricus bisporus, accumulate substantial amounts of urea in their fruit bodies. An important role of the ornithine cycle enzymes in urea accumulation has been proposed. In this work, we present the clonin

  1. Bioelectrical impedance analysis and anthropometry for the determination of body composition in rats: effects of high-fat and high-sucrose diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Rodrigues Neto Angéloco

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to determine the impedance of Wistar rats treated with high-fat and high-sucrose diets and correlate their biochemical and anthropometric parameters with chemical analysis of the carcass. METHODS: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were fed a standard (AIN-93, high-fat (50% fat or high-sucrose (59% of sucrose diet for 4 weeks. Abdominal and thoracic circumference and body length were measured. Bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to determine resistance and reactance. Final body composition was determined by chemical analysis. RESULTS: Higher fat intake led to a high percentage of liver fat and cholesterol and low total body water in the High-Fat group, but these changes in the biochemical profile were not reflected by the anthropometric measurements or bioelectrical impedance analysis variables. Anthropometric and bioelectrical impedance analysis changes were not observed in the High-Sucrose group. However, a positive association was found between body fat and three anthropometric variables: body mass index, Lee index and abdominal circumference. CONCLUSION: Bioelectrical impedance analysis did not prove to be sensitive for detecting changes in body composition, but body mass index, Lee index and abdominal circumference can be used for estimating the body composition of rats.

  2. Carrying a biological "backpack": Quasi-experimental effects of weight status and body fat change on perceived steepness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Covill, Guy A H; Eves, Frank F

    2016-03-01

    The apparent steepness of hills and stairs is overestimated in explicit perception. These overestimations are malleable in that when physiological resources are compromised, apparent steepness is further overestimated. An alternative explanation of these experimental findings attributes them to demand characteristics. This article tests the relationship between estimated steepness and naturally occurring differences in body composition. A quasi-experimental field study revealed more exaggerated reports of staircase steepness in overweight than in healthy-weight participants in a situation where experimental demand would be an implausible explanation for any differences. A longitudinal follow-up study used dual X-ray absorptiometry to objectively measure participants' body composition at the beginning and end of a weight-loss program (N = 52). At baseline, higher levels of body fat were associated with steeper explicit estimates of staircase steepness. At follow-up, changes in body fat were associated with changes in estimated steepness such that a loss of fat mass co-occurred with shallower estimates. Discussion focuses on the malleability of perceived steepness at an individual level and the implication of these findings for the debate surrounding "embodied" models of perception. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. Dietary fat type, body composition and fatty acid metabolism in broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wongsuthavas, S.

    2007-01-01

    An increased intake of PUFA in the form of soybean oil at the expense of SFA in the form of tallow reduced abdominal deposition by broiler chickens in a does-dependent fashion, the relationship being essentially independent of the fat level of the diet. Dietary fats rich in MCT would diminish abdomi

  4. Body measures and milk production, milk fat globules granulometry and milk fatty acid content in Cabannina cattle breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Communod

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study was to achieve scientific information about body measures and milk production of Cabannina cattle, a local breed reared in northern Italy. Fourteen body measures and five morphologic indexes were recorded from 86 heads enrolled in the herd book. Low differences between males and females of the same age-class were shown. Body measures were generally greater than those reported in previous studies, probably due to recent crosses. With reference to milk production, 991 test-day records from 128 lactations of 59 cows were analysed. Average milk daily production was 8 kg/d in 1st lactation to 10.61 in 3rd (P<0.05; the parameters of the Wood equation draw atypical curves with the exception of curves from spring calving cows. Only 74.5% of lactations with an adjusted R2 >0.75 showed a standard curve, with low persistence (7.7%, high value of d at peak (103 d and peak production of 20.18 kg of milk. Moreover, 100 milk samples (40 to 220 d of lactation were submitted to a granulometric survey by laser scatter technique in order to evaluate the dimensions of fat globules; then milk fat was analyzed by gas chromatography, and desaturase indexes were determined. Cabannina cows showed small fat globules with high specific surface. Furthermore mean diameter of milk fat globules decreased during lactation then rose. Milk fat contained high levels of cis-MUFA, and high desaturase indexes. In conclusion, the low size of Cabannina cattle orients for a limited meat production. Instead milk production has a higher economic potential, aimed at cheese production and human nutrition.

  5. Novel monitoring method for the management of heart failure: combined measurement of body weight and bioimpedance index of body fat percentage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Hajime

    2009-11-01

    Although body weight scales are most commonly used to evaluate body fluid status during follow-up of definite heart failure (HF) patients, bioimpedance measurement methods have become increasingly available in the clinical setting. These monitoring methods, however, are typically used separately to evaluate body fluid status in HF patients. Kataoka developed a novel method for monitoring HF patients using a digital weight scale that incorporated a bioelectrical impedance analyzer. This method combines the well-known advantages of body weighing with a refined bioimpedance technique to monitor HF status and provides valid information regarding a change in a patient's body fluid status during follow-up for HF, such as predominant fluid versus fat weight gain or loss. This special report describes examples of the practical use of this method for monitoring and treating definite HF patients.

  6. Age-related accumulation of advanced glycation end-products-albumin, S100β, and the expressions of advanced glycation end product receptor differ in visceral and subcutaneous fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Kuk Hui; Son, Myeongjoo; Ahn, Hyosang; Oh, Seyeon; Yum, Yoonji; Choi, Chang Hu; Park, Kook Yang; Byun, Kyunghee

    2016-08-19

    Visceral fat induces more inflammation by activating macrophages than subcutaneous fat, and inflammation is an underlying feature of the pathogeneses of various diseases, including cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs), S100β, and their receptors, the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), lead to macrophage activation. However, little information is available regarding the differential accumulations of AGE-albumin (serum albumin modified by AGEs), S100β, or expressions of RAGE in different adipocyte types in fat tissues. In this study, the authors investigated whether age-related AGE-albumin accumulations S100β level, and RAGE expressions differ in subcutaneous and visceral fat tissues. Subcutaneous and visceral fat were harvested from 3- and 28-week-old rats. Macrophage activation was confirmed by Iba1 staining, and AGE-albumin accumulations and RAGE expressions were assessed by confocal microscopy. S100β were analyzed by immunoblotting. It was found that activated macrophage infiltration, AGE-albumin accumulation, and S100β in visceral fat was significantly greater in 28-week-old rats than in 3-week-old rats, but similar in subcutaneous fat. The expression of RAGE in visceral fat was much greater in 28-week-old rats, but its expression in subcutaneous fat was similar in 3- and 28-week-old rats. Furthermore, inflammatory signal pathways (NFκB, TNF-α) and proliferation pathways (FAK) in visceral fat were more activated in 28-week-old rats. These results imply that age-related AGE-albumin accumulation, S100β, and RAGE expression are more prominent in visceral than in subcutaneous fat, suggesting that visceral fat is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammation-induced diseases in the elderly.

  7. Stress-induced Nuclear Bodies Are Sites of Accumulation of Pre-mRNA Processing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denegri, Marco; Chiodi, Ilaria; Corioni, Margherita; Cobianchi, Fabio; Riva, Silvano; Biamonti, Giuseppe

    2001-01-01

    Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) HAP (hnRNP A1 interacting protein) is a multifunctional protein with roles in RNA metabolism, transcription, and nuclear structure. After stress treatments, HAP is recruited to a small number of nuclear bodies, usually adjacent to the nucleoli, which consist of clusters of perichromatin granules and are depots of transcripts synthesized before stress. In this article we show that HAP bodies are sites of accumulation for a subset of RNA processing factors and are related to Sam68 nuclear bodies (SNBs) detectable in unstressed cells. Indeed, HAP and Sam68 are both present in SNBs and in HAP bodies, that we rename “stress-induced SNBs.” The determinants required for the redistribution of HAP lie between residue 580 and 788. Different portions of this region direct the recruitment of the green fluorescent protein to stress-induced SNBs, suggesting an interaction of HAP with different components of the bodies. With the use of the 580–725 region as bait in a two-hybrid screening, we have selected SRp30c and 9G8, two members of the SR family of splicing factors. Splicing factors are differentially affected by heat shock: SRp30c and SF2/ASF are efficiently recruited to stress-induced SNBs, whereas the distribution of SC35 is not perturbed. We propose that the differential sequestration of splicing factors could affect processing of specific transcripts. Accordingly, the formation of stress-induced SNBs is accompanied by a change in the splicing pattern of the adenovirus E1A transcripts. PMID:11694584

  8. Body Image and Body Type Preferences in St. Kitts, Caribbean: A Cross-Cultural Comparison with U.S. Samples regarding Attitudes towards Muscularity, Body Fat, and Breast Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter B. Gray

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigated body image in St. Kitts, a Caribbean island where tourism, international media, and relatively high levels of body fat are common. Participants were men and women recruited from St. Kitts (n = 39 and, for comparison, U.S. samples from universities (n = 618 and the Internet (n = 438. Participants were shown computer generated images varying in apparent body fat level and muscularity or breast size and they indicated their body type preferences and attitudes. Overall, there were only modest differences in body type preferences between St. Kitts and the Internet sample, with the St. Kitts participants being somewhat more likely to value heavier women. Notably, however, men and women from St. Kitts were more likely to idealize smaller breasts than participants in the U.S. samples. Attitudes regarding muscularity were generally similar across samples. This study provides one of the few investigations of body preferences in the Caribbean.

  9. Adipocyte Accumulation of Long-Chain Fatty Acids in Obesity is Multifactorial, Resulting from Increased Fatty Acid Uptake and Decreased Activity of Genes Involved in Fat Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walewski, José L.; Ge, Fengxia; Gagner, Michel; Inabnet, William B.; Pomp, Alfons; Branch, Andrea D.

    2010-01-01

    Background The obesity epidemic causes significant morbidity and mortality. Knowledge of cellular function and gene expression in obese adipose tissue will yield insights into obesity pathogenesis and suggest therapeutic targets. The aim of this work is to study the processes determining fat accumulation in adipose tissue from obese patients. Methods Omental fat was collected from two cohorts of obese bariatric surgery patients and sex-matched normal-weight donors. Isolated adipocytes were compared for cell size, volume, and long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) uptake. Omental fat RNAs were screened by 10K microarray (cohort 1: three obese, three normal) or Whole Genome microarray (cohort 2: seven obese, four normal). Statistical differences in gene and pathway expression were identified in cohort 1 using the GeneSifter Software (Geospiza) with key results confirmed in cohort 2 samples by microarray, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and pathway analysis. Results Obese omental adipocytes had increased surface area, volume, and Vmax for saturable LCFA uptake. Dodecenoyl-coenzyme A delta isomerase, central to LCFA metabolism, was approximately 1.6-fold underexpressed in obese fat in cohorts 1 and 2. Additionally, the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomics pathway analysis identified oxidative phosphorylation and fatty acid metabolism pathways as having coordinate, nonrandom down-regulation of gene expression in both cohorts. Conclusions In obese omental fat, saturable adipocyte LCFA uptake was greater than in controls, and expression of key genes involved in lipolysis, β-oxidation, and metabolism of fatty acids was reduced. Thus, both increased uptake and reduced metabolism of LCFAs contribute to the accumulation of LCFAs in obese adipocytes. PMID:19866242

  10. Serum Adiponectin and Leptin Concentrations in Relation to Body Fat Distribution, Hematological Indices and Lipid Profile in Humans

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    Anna Lubkowska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relationship between serum adiponectin and leptin concentrations and body composition, hematological indices and lipid profile parameters in adults. The study involved 95 volunteers (BMI from 23.3 to 53 kg/m2. Anthropometric parameters were measured: body weight and height, waist and hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, body fat mass (BMF, subcutaneous and visceral fat mass (SFM, VFM, lean body mass (LBM, skeletal muscle mass (SMM. In serum we determined adiponectin and leptin concentrations, extracellular hemoglobin, total bilirubin, as well as lipid metabolism (TCh, HDL-Ch, LDL-Ch, TG. Mean adipokine levels were significantly higher in women (p ≤ 0.01, adiponectin significantly negatively correlated with body height and weight, systolic blood pressure and absolute LBM and SMM values. The same relation was observed for erythroid system indicators and lipid indicators. A positive correlation was exceptionally found between adiponectin and HDL-Ch. LEP negatively correlated with some percentage rates (%LBM, %SMM. Only in women, we observed a positive correlation between LEP and body weight, BMI and WHR. Studies on ADPN and the ADPN/LEP ratio as a valuable complementary diagnostic element in the prediction and prevention of cardiovascular diseases need to be continued.

  11. Serum Adiponectin and Leptin Concentrations in Relation to Body Fat Distribution, Hematological Indices and Lipid Profile in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubkowska, Anna; Radecka, Aleksandra; Bryczkowska, Iwona; Rotter, Iwona; Laszczyńska, Maria; Dudzińska, Wioleta

    2015-09-14

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relationship between serum adiponectin and leptin concentrations and body composition, hematological indices and lipid profile parameters in adults. The study involved 95 volunteers (BMI from 23.3 to 53 kg/m²). Anthropometric parameters were measured: body weight and height, waist and hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, body fat mass (BMF), subcutaneous and visceral fat mass (SFM, VFM), lean body mass (LBM), skeletal muscle mass (SMM). In serum we determined adiponectin and leptin concentrations, extracellular hemoglobin, total bilirubin, as well as lipid metabolism (TCh, HDL-Ch, LDL-Ch, TG). Mean adipokine levels were significantly higher in women (p ≤ 0.01), adiponectin significantly negatively correlated with body height and weight, systolic blood pressure and absolute LBM and SMM values. The same relation was observed for erythroid system indicators and lipid indicators. A positive correlation was exceptionally found between adiponectin and HDL-Ch. LEP negatively correlated with some percentage rates (%LBM, %SMM). Only in women, we observed a positive correlation between LEP and body weight, BMI and WHR. Studies on ADPN and the ADPN/LEP ratio as a valuable complementary diagnostic element in the prediction and prevention of cardiovascular diseases need to be continued.

  12. "You better not leave me shaming!": Conditional indirect effect analyses of anti-fat attitudes, body shame, and fat talk as a function of self-compassion in college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Jennifer B; Fiery, Mallory F; Jafari, Nadia

    2016-09-01

    The present investigation provided a theoretically-driven analysis testing whether body shame helped account for the predicted positive associations between explicit weight bias in the form of possessing anti-fat attitudes (i.e., dislike, fear of fat, and willpower beliefs) and engaging in fat talk among 309 weight-diverse college women. We also evaluated whether self-compassion served as a protective factor in these relationships. Robust non-parametric bootstrap resampling procedures adjusted for body mass index (BMI) revealed stronger indirect and conditional indirect effects for dislike and fear of fat attitudes and weaker, marginal effects for the models inclusive of willpower beliefs. In general, the indirect effect of anti-fat attitudes on fat talk via body shame declined with increasing levels of self-compassion. Our preliminary findings may point to useful process variables to target in mitigating the impact of endorsing anti-fat prejudice on fat talk in college women and may help clarify who is at higher risk.

  13. The potential for mitochondrial fat oxidation in human skeletal muscle influences whole body fat oxidation during low-intensity exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlin, K; Mogensen, M; Bagger, M; Fernström, M; Pedersen, P K

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate fatty acid (FA) oxidation in isolated mitochondrial vesicles (mit) and its relation to training status, fiber type composition, and whole body FA oxidation. Trained (Vo(2 peak) 60.7 +/- 1.6, n = 8) and untrained subjects (39.5 +/- 2.0 ml.min(-1).kg(-1), n = 5) cycled at 40, 80, and 120 W, and whole body relative FA oxidation was assessed from respiratory exchange ratio (RER). Mit were isolated from muscle biopsies, and maximal ADP stimulated respiration was measured with carbohydrate-derived substrate [pyruvate + malate (Pyr)] and FA-derived substrate [palmitoyl-l-carnitine + malate (PC)]. Fiber type composition was determined from analysis of myosin heavy-chain (MHC) composition. The rate of mit oxidation was lower with PC than with Pyr, and the ratio between PC and Pyr oxidation (MFO) varied greatly between subjects (49-93%). MFO was significantly correlated to muscle fiber type distribution, i.e., %MHC I (r = 0.62, P = 0.03), but was not different between trained (62 +/- 5%) and untrained subjects (72 +/- 2%). MFO was correlated to RER during submaximal exercise at 80 (r = -0.62, P = 0.02) and 120 W (r = -0.71, P = 0.007) and interpolated 35% Vo(2 peak) (r = -0.74, P = 0.004). ADP sensitivity of mit respiration was significantly higher with PC than with Pyr. It is concluded that MFO is influenced by fiber type composition but not by training status. The inverse correlation between RER and MFO implies that intrinsic mit characteristics are of importance for whole body FA oxidation during low-intensity exercise. The higher ADP sensitivity with PC than that with Pyr may influence fuel utilization at low rate of respiration.

  14. Effects of gum Arabic ingestion on body mass index and body fat percentage in healthy adult females: two-arm randomized, placebo controlled, double-blind trial

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    Babiker Rasha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gum Arabic (acacia Senegal is a complex polysaccharide indigestible to both humans and animals. It has been considered as a safe dietary fiber by the United States, Food and Drug Administration (FDA since the 1970s. Although its effects were extensively studied in animals, there is paucity of data regarding its quantified use in humans. This study was conducted to determine effects of regular Gum Arabic (GA ingestion on body mass index and body fat percentage among healthy adult females. Methods A two-arm randomized, placebo controlled, double-blind trial was conducted in the Department of Physiology at the Khartoum University. A total of 120 healthy females completed the study. They were divided to two groups: A test group of 60 volunteers receiving GA (30 gm /day for 6 weeks and a placebo group of 60 volunteers receiving pectin (1 gm/day for the same period of time. Weight and height were measured before and after intervention using standardized height and weight scales. Skin fold thickness was measured using Harpenden Skin fold caliper. Fat percentage was calculated using Jackson and Pollock 7 caliper method and Siri equation. Results Pre and post analysis among the study group showed significant reduction in BMI by 0.32 (95% CI: 0.17 to 0.47; P Conclusions GA ingestion causes significant reduction in BMI and body fat percentage among healthy adult females. The effect could be exploited in the treatment of obesity.

  15. RUNNING 338 KILOMETRES WITHIN FIVE DAYS HAS NO EFFECT ON BODY MASS AND BODY FAT BUT REDUCES SKELETAL MUSCLE MASS - THE ISARRUN 2006

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    Beat Knechtle

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the change of body composition in ultra- endurance runners during a multi-stage ultra-endurance run, the Isarrun 2006 in Bavaria, Germany, where athletes had to run 338 km within 5 days. Body mass, skin fold thicknesses and circumferences of extremities were measured in 21 well-experienced extreme endurance male runners (mean ± SD, 41.5 ± 6.9 years, 72.6 ± 6.4 kg, 178 ± 5 cm, BMI 23.0 ± 2.0 kg/m2, who finished mainly within the first half of the ranking, in order to calculate skeletal muscle mass and body fat mass to prove changes after the race. Body mass and calculated fat mass did not change significantly (p>0.05, but, calculated skeletal muscle mass decreased significantly (p<0.05 by 0.63 ± 0.79 kg by the end of the race. The most apparent decline (p<0.01 of the calculated skeletal muscle mass was during the first stage, and no changes were observed during the last 4 stages. We conclude, that a multi- stage ultra-endurance run over 338 km within 5 days leads to no changes of body mass or body fat mass, but a statistically significant decrease of skeletal muscle mass of 0.63 ± 0.79 kg by the end of the race in well-trained and well-experienced ultra-endurance runners. The change of skeletal muscle mass has to be evaluated in further studies at ultra-endurance races with suitable methods to detect changes in hydration status and water metabolism

  16. Body fat distribution in women with familial partial lipodystrophy caused by mutation in the lamin A/C gene

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    Luciana Z Monteiro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Familial partial lipodystrophy (FPLD, Dunnigan variety, is an autosomal dominant disorder caused due to missense mutations in the lamin A/C (LMNA gene encoding nuclear lamina proteins. Patients with FPLD are predisposed to metabolic complications of insulin resistance such as diabetes. We sought to evaluate and compare body fat distribution with dual-emission X-ray absorptiometry in women with and without FPLD and identify densitometric, clinical and metabolic features.

  17. Hypertrehalosaemic neuropeptides decrease levels of the glycolytic signal fructose 2,6-bisphosphate in cockroach fat body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker; Wegener

    1998-05-21

    In cockroach fat body, trehalogenesis and glycolysis compete for glucose phosphates as common substrates. During trehalogenesis, glycolysis is inhibited, although the mechanism responsible for this is not known. Incubation of the isolated fat body from the Argentine cockroach Blaptica dubia with an extract of the corpora cardiaca containing as little as 0.005 gland equivalents ml-1 of incubation medium increased the release of trehalose (anthrone-positive material) from the tissue by more than 100 %. The content of the glycolytic activator fructose 2,6-bisphosphate was decreased by up to 50 %. A decapeptide was isolated from the corpora cardiaca of B. dubia and shown to be identical to the naturally occurring Blaberus discoidalis hypertrehalosaemic peptide (Bld HrTH), which was also found in the corpora cardiaca. Synthetic Bld HrTH at 2 nmol l-1 and above increased trehalose production and decreased the content of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate to the same extent as did corpus cardiacum extract. The octapeptides Periplaneta americana cardioacceleratory hormones I and II (Pea CAH-I and Pea CAH-II) also had a significant effect on both parameters. Fructose 2,6-bisphosphate is a potent activator of phosphofructokinase from cockroach fat body if the enzyme is assayed at near-physiological concentrations of substrates and effectors. It is suggested that, because of the decrease in fructose 2,6-bisphosphate levels in the fat body, the activity of the key glycolytic enzyme phosphofructokinase is diminished. This can explain the inhibition of glycolytic flux by hypertrehalosaemic peptides which alters the balance of glucose metabolism in favour of trehalose formation.

  18. Overexpression and functional characterization of an Aspergillus niger phytase in the fat body of transgenic silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hanfu; Liu, Yaowen; Wang, Feng; Yuan, Lin; Wang, Yuancheng; Ma, Sanyuan; Beneš, Helen; Xia, QingYou

    2014-08-01

    In a previous study, we isolated 1,119 bp of upstream promoter sequence from Bmlp3, a gene encoding a member of the silkworm 30 K storage protein family, and demonstrated that it was sufficient to direct fat body-specific expression of a reporter gene in a transgenic silkworm, thus highlighting the potential use of this promoter for both functional genomics research and biotechnology applications. To test whether the Bmlp3 promoter can be used to produce recombinant proteins in the fat body of silkworm pupae, we generated a transgenic line of Bombyx mori which harbors a codon-optimized Aspergillus niger phytase gene (phyA) under the control of the Bmlp3 promoter. Here we show that the Bmlp3 promoter drives high levels of phyA expression in the fat body, and that the recombinant phyA protein is highly active (99.05 and 54.80 U/g in fat body extracts and fresh pupa, respectively). We also show that the recombinant phyA has two optimum pH ranges (1.5-2.0 and 5.5-6.0), and two optimum temperatures (55 and 37 °C). The activity of recombinant phyA was lost after high-temperature drying, but treating with boiling water was less harmful, its residual activity was approximately 84% of the level observed in untreated samples. These results offer an opportunity not only for better utilization of large amounts of silkworm pupae generated during silk production, but also provide a novel method for mass production of low-cost recombinant phytase using transgenic silkworms.

  19. Trans-10, cis-12-conjugated linoleic acid does not increase body fat loss induced by energy restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasa, Arrate; Churruca, Itziar; Simón, Edurne; Fernández-Quintela, Alfredo; Rodríguez, Victor Manuel; Portillo, María Puy

    2008-12-01

    Very little evidence exists concerning the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on body fat reduction induced by energy restriction. Moreover, although an effect of trans-10, cis-12-CLA on lipolysis has been suggested, it has not been consistently shown. The aims of the present study were to determine whether trans-10, cis-12-CLA increases the reduction of body fat induced by energy restriction, and to analyse its effect on lipolysis and adipose tissue lipase expression (hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and adipose tissue TAG lipase (ATGL)). Male Syrian Golden hamsters were fed a high-fat diet during 7 weeks in order to make them fatter. Then they were submitted to a mild energy restriction (25 %) without or with supplementation of 0.5 % trans-10, cis-12-CLA for 3 weeks. Basal glycerol release and lipolysis stimulated by several drugs acting at different levels of the lipolytic cascade were measured in epididymal adipose tissue. The expression of HSL and ATGL was assessed by real-time RT-PCR. No differences were found in adipose tissues size between the experimental groups. Medium adipocyte size and total number of adipocytes were similar in both experimental groups. Animals fed the CLA-enriched diet showed similar lipolytic rates as well as HSL and ATGL expressions to the controls. In conclusion, trans-10, cis-12-CLA does not promote adipose tissue lipid mobilisation nor does it heighten body fat reduction induced by energy restriction. Consequently, this CLA isomer does not seem to be a useful tool to be included in body weight-loss strategies followed in obesity treatment.

  20. Bioelectric impedance overestimates the body fat in overweight and underestimates in Brazilian obese women: a comparation with Segal equation 1

    OpenAIRE

    Pimentel, G. D.; Bernhard, A. B. [UNESP; M. R. P. Frezza; Rinaldi, A. E. M. [UNESP; Roberto Carlos BURINI

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Overweight and obesity are risk factors to appearance of cardiovascular diseases and anthropometry is important as clinical tool for planning and health policymaking at population level. Thus, aim of this work was to compare the simple body fat percentage (%BF) obtained straight by bioeletric impedance (BIA) to the one obtained by the equation of Segal et al (1988), which uses the BIA resistance value, overweight among adult women.Methods: This study conducted with 86 adult wome...

  1. Cloning and expression of the VHDL receptor from fat body of the corn ear worm, Helicoverpa zea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, Deryck R; Haunerland, Norbert H

    2004-01-01

    In Noctuids, storage proteins are taken up into fat body by receptor-mediated endocytosis. These include arylphorin and a second, structurally unrelated very high-density lipoprotein (VHDL). Previously, we have isolated a single storage protein receptor from the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, which binds both VHDL and arylphorin. The receptor protein is a basic, N-terminally blocked, approximately 80 kDa protein that is associated with fat body membranes. Microsequencing of proteolytic fragments of the isolated receptor protein revealed internal sequences that were used to clone the complete cDNA of the VHDL receptor by 3' and 5' RACE techniques. The receptor protein, when expressed in vitro via a suitable insect expression vector, reacted with antibodies against the native VHDL receptor and bound strongly to its ligand VHDL, thus confirming that the cloned cDNA represents indeed the previously purified VHDL receptor. The receptor protein and a second, similar protein also found associated with the fat body membrane show considerable homology to putative basic juvenile hormone suppressible proteins cloned previously from other Noctuid species. Sequence analysis revealed that the receptor is likely a peripheral membrane protein that may mediate the selective uptake of VHDL.

  2. Cloning and expression of the VHDL receptor from fat body of the corn ear worm, Helicoverpa zea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deryck R. Persaud

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available In Noctuids, storage proteins are taken up into fat body by receptor-mediated endocytosis. These include arylphorin and a second, structurally unrelated very high-density lipoprotein (VHDL. Previously, we have isolated a single storage protein receptor from the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, which binds both VHDL and arylphorin. The receptor protein is a basic, N-terminally blocked, ?80 kDa protein that is associated with fat body membranes. Microsequencing of proteolytic fragments of the isolated receptor protein revealed internal sequences that were used to clone the complete cDNA of the VHDL receptor by 3' and 5' RACE techniques. The receptor protein, when expressed in vitro via a suitable insect expression vector, reacted with antibodies against the native VHDL receptor and bound strongly to its ligand VHDL, thus confirming that the cloned cDNA represents indeed the previously purified VHDL receptor. The receptor protein and a second, similar protein also found associated with the fat body membrane show considerable homology to putative basic juvenile hormone suppressible proteins cloned previously from other Noctuid species. Sequence analysis revealed that the receptor is likely a peripheral membrane protein that may mediate the selective uptake of VHDL.

  3. Lower birth weight and increased body fat at school age in children prenatally exposed to modern pesticides: A prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Main, Katharina Maria; Schmidt, Ida Maria;

    2011-01-01

    ) children had significantly larger increase in BMI Z-score (0.55 SD (95% CI: 0.1; 1.0) from birth to school age) and highly exposed children had 15.8% (0.2; 34.6) larger skin folds and higher body fat percentage compared to unexposed. If prenatally exposed to both pesticides and maternal smoking (any amount...... years of age (n=177) the children underwent a clinical examination and blood sampling for analysis of IGF-I, IGFBP3 and thyroid hormones. Body fat percentage at age 6 to11 years was calculated from skin fold measurements. Pesticide related associations were tested by linear multiple regression analysis......), the sum of four skin folds was 46.9% (95% CI: 8.1; 99.5) and body fat percentage 29.1% (95% CI: 3.0; 61.4) higher. There were subtle associations between exposure and TSH Z-score -0.66(-1.287; -0.022) and IGF-I Z-score (girls: -0.62(-1.0; -0.22), boys: 0.38(-0.03; 0.79)), but not IGFBP3. CONCLUSIONS...

  4. Transgenic Rescue of Adipocyte Glucose-dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide Receptor Expression Restores High Fat Diet-induced Body Weight Gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ugleholdt, Randi; Pedersen, Jens; Bassi, Maria Rosaria

    2011-01-01

    that was similar between the groups. In contrast, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide-mediated insulin secretion does not seem to be important for regulation of body weight after high fat feeding. The study supports a role of the adipocyte GIPr in nutrient-dependent regulation of body weight and lean mass...... and the direct effects on adipose tissue, we generated transgenic mice with targeted expression of the human GIPr to white adipose tissue or beta-cells, respectively. These mice were then cross-bred with the GIPr knock-out strain. The central findings of the study are that mice with GIPr expression targeted...

  5. Vascularization of air sinuses and fat bodies in the head of the Bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus: morphological implications on physiology

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    Alex eCostidis

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstractCetaceans have long been considered capable of limiting diving-induced nitrogen absorption and subsequent decompression sickness through a series of behavioral, anatomical, and physiological adaptations. Recent studies however suggest that in some situations these adaptive mechanisms might be overcome, resulting in lethal and sublethal injuries. Perhaps most relevant to this discussion is the finding of intravascular gas and fat emboli in mass-stranded beaked whales. Although the source of the gas emboli has as yet to been ascertained, preliminary findings suggest nitrogen is the primary component. Since nitrogen gas embolus formation in divers is linked to nitrogen saturation, it seems premature to dismiss similar pathogenic mechanisms in breath-hold diving cetaceans. Due to the various anatomical adaptations in cetacean lungs, the pulmonary system is thought of as an unlikely site of significant nitrogen absorption. The accessory sinus system on the ventral head of odontocete cetaceans contains a sizeable volume of air that is exposed to the changing hydrostatic pressures during a dive, and is intimately associated with vasculature potentially capable of absorbing nitrogen through its walls. The source of the fat emboli has also remained elusive. Most mammalian fat deposits are considered poorly-vascularized and therefore unlikely sites of intravascular introduction of lipid, although cetacean blubber may not be as poorly vascularized as previously thought. We present new data on the vasculature of air sinuses and acoustic fat bodies in the head of bottlenose dolphins and compare it to published accounts. We show that the mandibular fat bodies and accessory sinus system are associated with extensive venous plexuses and suggest potential physiological and pathological implications.

  6. Association of Oral Fat Sensitivity with Body Mass Index, Taste Preference, and Eating Habits in Healthy Japanese Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Masanobu; Hong, Guang; Matsuyama, Yusuke; Wang, Weiqi; Izumi, Satoshi; Izumi, Masayuki; Toda, Takashi; Kudo, Tada-Aki

    2016-01-01

    Oral fat sensitivity (OFS, the ability to detect fat) may be related to overeating-induced obesity. However, it is largely unknown whether OFS affects taste preference and eating habits. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate (1) the association between body mass index (BMI) and OFS and (2) the relationship of OFS with four types of taste preference (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter) and eating habits using serial concentrations of oleic acid (OA) homogenized in non-fat milk and a self-reported questionnaire. Participants were 25 healthy Japanese individuals (mean age: 27.0 ± 5.6 years), among whom the OA detection threshold was significantly associated with BMI. Participants were divided into two subgroups based on oral sensitivity to 2.8 mM OA: hypersensitive (able to detect 2.8 mM OA, n = 16) and hyposensitive (unable to detect 2.8 mM OA, n = 9). The degree of sweet taste preference of the hypersensitive group was significantly higher than that of the hyposensitive group. Furthermore, there was significantly higher degree of preference for high-fat sweet foods than low-fat sweet foods in the hypersensitive group. There was also a significant inverse correlation between the OA detection threshold and the degree of both spare eating and postprandial satiety. Thus, OFS is associated not only with BMI, but also with the preference for high-fat sweet foods and eating habits. The present study provides novel insights that measuring OFS may be useful for assessing the risk of obesity associated with overeating in countries, including Japan, where BMI is increasing in the population.

  7. Body composition and body fat distribution in relation to later risk of acute myocardial infarction: a Danish follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegger, J G; Schmidt, E B; Obel, T

    2011-01-01

    distribution.Methods and results:From 1993 to 1997, 27¿148 men and 29¿863 women, aged 50 to 64 year, were recruited into the Danish prospective study Diet, Cancer and Health. During 11.9 years of follow-up we identified 2028 cases of incident MI (1487 men and 541 women). BMI, waist circumference (WC), hip......Introduction:Obesity is a modifiable risk factor for acute myocardial infarction (MI), but lean body mass (LBM) may also be an important factor. Low LBM may increase the risk of MI and LBM may modify the effect of obesity on MI. Thus, the inability of the classical anthropometric measures...... to evaluate LBM may lead to misclassification of MI risk in both lean and obese persons. We investigated the associations between incident MI and bioelectrical impedance analyses (BIA) derived measures of body composition in combination with body mass index (BMI) and anthropometric measures of body fat...

  8. Body composition alterarions, energy expenditure and fat oxidation in elderly males suffering from prostate cancer, pre and post orchiectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Reis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Testosterone is needed for normal male development, muscle strength, bone mineralization, hematopoietic function, and sexual and reproductive functions. The main purpose of androgen deprivation therapy in prostate cancer is to reduce tumor progression, but therapy is often accompanied by significant adverse effects. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the effects of androgen deprivation therapy on body composition and resting metabolic rate in patients with prostate cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective study was performed to evaluate the body composition of 16 elderly males (aged 63-96; median age 71 with prostate cancer scheduled for orchiectomy, one year before and after surgery. Body composition was measured by DEXA, and energy expenditure, fat and carbohydrate oxidation were measured by indirect calorimetry. RESULTS: Body weight (p=0.01, lean mass (p=0.004, and lipid oxidation (p=0.001 decreased significantly. Carbohydrate oxidation (p=0.02, FSH (p=0.0001 and LH (p=0.0001 levels increased significantly. Changes in fat mass (p=0.06 and bone mineral density (p=0.48 were not significant. CONCLUSIONS: After 12 months of androgen deprivation therapy, elderly men with metastatic prostate cancer exhibit a decline in lean body mass and lipid oxidation, together with increased carbohydrate oxidation.

  9. Early life body fatness and risk of colorectal cancer in US women and men – results from two large cohort studies